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Nitrogen Metabolism of Aquatic Organisms. II. The Assimilation of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonia by 'Biddulphia aurita'.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Biddulphia aurita, a centric diatom, can grow on either nitrate, nitrite, or ammonia as its sole nitrogen source. Cells remove ammonium nitrogen from the medium 2.3 - 2.4 times faster than either nitrate or nitrite nitrogen and, when grown for 24 hr in th...

N. S. T. Lui O. A. Roels



Effect of substrates and free ammonia on kinetic characteristics of nitritation and nitratation by entrapped nitrifiers.  


In the present study, nitrifying bacteria entrapped in waterborne polyurethane gel was used to investigate the kinetic characteristics of nitritation and nitratation in relation to achieve shortcut nitrification. The nitrite accumulation rate was over 80% during the acclimation period. The following kinetic parameters were experimentally obtained: maximum nitrification rate (v(max)), half-saturation coefficient (K(s) and K(o)), and inhibition coefficient (K(IH)). The bacterial populations were also determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. 73.5% proportion of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) resulted in a significantly higher ammonia oxidizing rate than nitrite oxidizing rate, which is in agreement with higher V(max) of nitritation (608.5 mgNl(-1)-pellet h(-1)) over nitratation (66.3 mgN l(-1)-pellet h(-1)). PMID:25004764

Li, Zhirong; Zhang, Zhi; Zhang, Zhenjia



Simultaneous automated determination of chloride, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia in water and wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

An automated system capable of simultaneous determination of chloride, nitrite, nitrate, and ammonia in about 2 ml of fresh water or wastewater is described. The four compounds are determined using modifications of established colorimetric procedures. Results can be reported at a true rate of five samples per hour with a relative standard deviation at optimum concentrations of less than 2%.

Edmondo Canelli



Utilization of urea, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate by crop plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The utilization of nitrogen compounds by crop plants is studied. The selection of crop varieties for efficient production using urea, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, and the assimilation of mixed nitrogen sources by cereal leaves and roots are discussed.

Huffaker, R. C.; Rains, D. W.; Qualset, C. O.



Ammonia Formation by the Reduction of Nitrite/Nitrate by FeS: Ammonia Formation Under Acidic Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FeS reduces nitrite to, ammonia at pHs lower than the corresponding reduction by aqueous Fe+2. The reduction follows a reasonable first order decay, in nitrite concentration, with a half life of about 150 min (room temperature, CO2, pH 6.25). The highest ammonia product yield measured was 53%. Under CO2, the product yield decreases from pH 5.0 to pH 6.9. The increasing concentration of bicarbonate at higher pH interferes with the reaction. Bicarbonate interference is shown by comparing runs under N2 and CO2. The reaction proceeds well in the presence of such species as chloride, sulfate, and phosphate though the yield drops significantly with phosphate. FeS also reduces nitrate and, unlike with Fe+2, the reduction shows more reproducibility. Again, the product yield decreases with increasing pH, from 7% at pH 4.7 to 0% at pH 6.9. It appears as if nitrate is much more sensitive to the presence of added species, perhaps not competing as well for binding sites on the FeS surface. This may be the cause of the lack of reproducibility of nitrate reduction by Fe+2 (which also can be sensitive to binding by certain species).

Summers, David P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)



Nitrite and Nitrate Pharmacokinetics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Elimination kinetics of nitrite and nitrate in the canine, ovine, and equine were determined. The elimination half-life of nitrite was found to be 30.0, 28.5 and 33.9 minutes in the canine, ovine and equine, respectively; that of nitrate was 44.68, 4.23 a...

N. R. Schneider R. A. Yeary



Nitrite and Nitrate in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Studies in animal models established the feasibility of sodium nitrite contributing to gastric carcinogenesis primarily via\\u000a conversion to nitrosamines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Most animal studies did not corroborate this assumption.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Exposure of humans to nitrates is primarily from vegetables.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Since a fraction of nitrate is reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, the largest source of nitrite exposure is also

David M. Klurfeld


Dietary exposure models for nitrates and nitrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Models to assess dietary exposure of population groups to nitrates and nitrites should be based on the major sources of these substances in foods. Most models require the use of food consumption information and will, therefore, be flawed by the problems that exist with current dietary intake assessment methods. The Total Diet Study model would probably not provide representative coverage

Jean A. T. Pennington



Regulatory Impact Statement: Nitrate and Nitrite.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The economic impacts of a proposed label rule change to allow the sale of nitrate and nitrite-free processed meat products by their familiar product names in traditional cured meat product markets were assessed. Three options were evaluated to determine t...

R. J. Lenahan C. R. Burbee



Reactions of nitrate salts with ammonia in supercritical water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reactions involving nitrate salts and ammonia were investigated in supercritical water at temperatures from 450 to 530 C and pressures near 300 bar. Reaction products included nitrite, nitrogen gas, and nitrous oxide. Observed reaction rates and product distributions provided evidence for a free-radical reaction mechanism with NOâ, NO, and NHâ· as the primary reactive species at supercritical conditions. In the

Philip C. Dell'Orco; Earnest F. Gloyna; Steven J. Buelow



Oxidation of carbon by nitrites and nitrates  

SciTech Connect

This article examines the burning of stoichiometric mixtures of alkaline, alkaline-earth, and ammonium nitrites with carbon. The results are compared with data for analogous mixtures containing nitrates. The effects of the specimen density on the mass combustion rate is investigated in order to establish the combustion mechanism. Mixtures in which the charcoal was replaced by wood flour were examined in order to establish the catalytic role of the charcoal in the combustion. The role of catalysts is considered when they are introduced into the mixture in the form of nitrites, which act simultaneously as oxidants, and when they are added to stoichiometric mixtures. The relation between thermochemical characteristics, combustion rate, and the catalyst mechanism is also considered. The derivative recording of the decomposition of nitrites and mixtures based on them were performed in order to establish a correlation between thermal decomposition and combustion. It is determined that the addition of charcoal and sulfur accelerated thermal decomposition and combustion.

Glazkova, A.P.; Kazarova,; Savel'ev, A.V.



Dietary nitrate and nitrite modulate blood and organ nitrite and the cellular ischemic stress response  

PubMed Central

Dietary nitrate, found in abundance in green vegetables, can be converted to the cytoprotective molecule nitrite by oral bacteria, suggesting that nitrate and nitrite may represent active cardioprotective constituents of the Mediterranean diet. We therefore tested the hypothesis that dietary nitrate and nitrite levels modulate tissue damage and ischemic gene expression in a mouse liver ischemia-reperfusion model. We found that stomach content, plasma, heart and liver nitrite levels were significantly reduced after dietary nitrate and nitrite depletion, and could be restored to normal levels with nitrite supplementation in water. Remarkably, we confirmed that basal nitrite levels significantly reduced liver injury after ischemia-reperfusion. Consistent with an effect of nitrite on the post-translational modification of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the severity of liver infarction was inversely proportional to complex I activity after nitrite repletion in the diet. The transcriptional response of dietary nitrite after ischemia was more robust than after normoxia, suggesting a hypoxic potentiation of nitrite-dependent transcriptional signaling. Our studies indicate that normal dietary nitrate and nitrite levels modulate ischemic stress responses and hypoxic gene expression programs, supporting the hypothesis that dietary nitrate and nitrite are cytoprotective components of the diet.

Raat, Nicolaas J.H.; Noguchi, Audrey C.; Liu, Virginia B.; Raghavachari, Nalini; Liu, Delong; Xu, Xiuli; Shiva, Sruti; Munson, Peter J.; Gladwin, Mark T.



Dietary nitrate and nitrite modulate blood and organ nitrite and the cellular ischemic stress response.  


Dietary nitrate, found in abundance in green vegetables, can be converted to the cytoprotective molecule nitrite by oral bacteria, suggesting that nitrate and nitrite may represent active cardioprotective constituents of the Mediterranean diet. We therefore tested the hypothesis that dietary nitrate and nitrite levels modulate tissue damage and ischemic gene expression in a mouse liver ischemia-reperfusion model. We found that stomach content, plasma, heart, and liver nitrite levels were significantly reduced after dietary nitrate and nitrite depletion and could be restored to normal levels with nitrite supplementation in water. Remarkably, we confirmed that basal nitrite levels significantly reduced liver injury after ischemia-reperfusion. Consistent with an effect of nitrite on the posttranslational modification of complex I of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, the severity of liver infarction was inversely proportional to complex I activity after nitrite repletion in the diet. The transcriptional response of dietary nitrite after ischemia was more robust than after normoxia, suggesting a hypoxic potentiation of nitrite-dependent transcriptional signaling. Our studies indicate that normal dietary nitrate and nitrite levels modulate ischemic stress responses and hypoxic gene expression programs, supporting the hypothesis that dietary nitrate and nitrite are cytoprotective components of the diet. PMID:19464364

Raat, Nicolaas J H; Noguchi, Audrey C; Liu, Virginia B; Raghavachari, Nalini; Liu, Delong; Xu, Xiuli; Shiva, Sruti; Munson, Peter J; Gladwin, Mark T



Silver Electrode Potentials in Alkali Nitrate and Nitrite Melts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The correlation of the nitrate and nitrite systems through the use of a silver electrode is described. Consideration is also given to the use of a nitrate-nitrite solvent mixture and to the effect of changing the cation in the nitrate.

L. G. Boxall K. E. Johnson



Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia. The latest advances in our understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics of nitrate, nitrite and NO were discussed during a recent two-day meeting at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm.

Lundberg, Jon O.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Benjamin, Nigel; Bryan, Nathan S.; Butler, Anthony; Cabrales, Pedro; Fago, Angela; Feelisch, Martin; Ford, Peter C.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Frenneau, Michael; Friedman, Joel; Kelm, Malte; Kevil, Christopher G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Kozlov, Andrey V.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Lefer, David J.; McColl, Kenneth; McCurry, Kenneth; Patel, Rakesh; Petersson, Joel; Rassaf, Tienush; Reutov, Valentin P.; Richter-Addo, George B.; Schechter, Alan; Shiva, Sruti; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; van Faassen, Ernst E.; Webb, Andrew J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Zweier, Jay L.; Weitzberg, Eddie



Molecular components of nitrate and nitrite efflux in yeast.  


Some eukaryotes, such as plant and fungi, are capable of utilizing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Once transported into the cell, nitrate is reduced to ammonium by the consecutive action of nitrate and nitrite reductase. How nitrate assimilation is balanced with nitrate and nitrite efflux is unknown, as are the proteins involved. The nitrate assimilatory yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as a model to dissect these efflux systems. We identified the sulfite transporters Ssu1 and Ssu2 as effective nitrate exporters, Ssu2 being quantitatively more important, and we characterize the Nar1 protein as a nitrate/nitrite exporter. The use of strains lacking either SSU2 or NAR1 along with the nitrate reductase gene YNR1 showed that nitrate reductase activity is not required for net nitrate uptake. Growth test experiments indicated that Ssu2 and Nar1 exporters allow yeast to cope with nitrite toxicity. We also have shown that the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae sulfite efflux permease Ssu1 is also able to excrete nitrite and nitrate. These results characterize for the first time essential components of the nitrate/nitrite efflux system and their impact on net nitrate uptake and its regulation. PMID:24363367

Cabrera, Elisa; González-Montelongo, Rafaela; Giraldez, Teresa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Siverio, José M



Enzymology of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite by bacteria.  


The enzymes which catalyze the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite by autotrophic bacteria are reviewed. A comparison is made with enzymes which catalyze the same reactions in methylotrophs and organotrophic heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:9049018

Hooper, A B; Vannelli, T; Bergmann, D J; Arciero, D M



Nitrite and Nitrate Analyses: A Clinical Biochemistry Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To review the assays available for measurement of nitrite and nitrate ions in body fluids and their clinical applications.Design and Methods: Literature searches were done of Medline and Current Contents to November 1997.Results: The influence of dietary nitrite and nitrate on the concentrations of these ions in various body fluids is reviewed. An overview is presented of the metabolism

Graham Ellis; Ian Adatia; Mehrdad Yazdanpanah; Sinikka K. Makela



Selection of denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms in IFAS systems: Comparison of nitrite with nitrate as an electron acceptor.  


Nitrite and nitrate were compared as electron acceptors to select for denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms (DPAO) in two integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS 1 and IFAS 2) systems operated as sequencing batch reactors. The bench-scale experiment lasted one year and synthetic wastewater was used as feed. During anoxic conditions 20mgNO3(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-1 and 20mgNO2(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-2. Long term phosphorous and ammonia removal via nitritation were achieved in both systems and both attached and suspended biomass contributed to phosphorous and ammonia removal. DPAO showed no specific adaptation to the electron acceptor as evidenced by short term switch of feeding with nitrate or nitrite. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate was significantly higher with nitrite than with nitrate. Results showed that DPAO activity with nitrite could be integrated into attached and suspended biomass of IFAS systems in long term operation. PMID:24873702

Jabari, Pouria; Munz, Giulio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A



Crystal Structure of a Nitrate/Nitrite Exchanger  

PubMed Central

Summary Mineral nitrogen in nature is often found in the form of nitrate (NO3-). Numerous microorganisms evolved to assimilate nitrate and use it as a major source of mineral nitrogen uptake1. Nitrate, which is central in nitrogen metabolism, is first reduced to nitrite (NO2-) through a two-electron reduction reaction2,3. The accumulation of cellular nitrite can be harmful because nitrite can be reduced to the cytotoxic nitric oxide. Instead, nitrite is rapidly removed from the cell by channels and transporters, or reduced to ammonium or dinitrogen through the action of assimilatory enzymes3. Despite decades of effort no structure is currently available for any nitrate transport protein and the mechanism by which nitrate is transported remains largely obscure. Here we report the structure of a bacterial nitrate/nitrite transport protein, NarK, from Escherichia coli, with and without substrate. The structures reveal a positively charged substrate-translocation pathway lacking protonatable residues, suggesting that NarK functions as a nitrate/nitrite exchanger and that H+s are unlikely to be co-transported. Conserved arginine residues form the substrate-binding pocket, which is formed by association of helices from the two halves of NarK. Key residues that are important for substrate recognition and transport are identified and related to extensive mutagenesis and functional studies. We propose that NarK exchanges nitrate for nitrite by a rocker-switch mechanism facilitated by inter-domain H-bond networks.

Zheng, Hongjin; Wisedchaisri, Goragot; Gonen, Tamir



Temperature tolerance of Penaeus setiferus postlarvae exposed to ammonia and nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical thermal maximum (CTM) method was used to determine the acute effect of ammonia, nitrite and the combined effect of both toxicants on the thermal tolerance of white shrimp (Penaeus setiferus) postlarvae. Ammonia did not affect the temperature response of shrimp. Nitrite exposure significantly decreased the temperature tolerance of postlarvae. Coexposure to ammonia and nitrite mixtures modified the CTM;

G. Alcaraz; X. Chiappa-Carrara; C. Vanegas



Nitrate and Nitrite Content of Human, Formula, Bovine, and Soy Milks: Implications for Dietary Nitrite and Nitrate Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Estimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations of milk sources may provide insight into potential health risks and benefits of these food sources for infants, children, and adults. The World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive consumption of human milk for the first 6 months of life. Human milk is known to confer significant nutritional and immunological benefits for the infant. Consumption of formula, cow's, and soy milk may be used as alternatives to human milk for infants. Methods We sought to estimate potential exposure to nitrate and nitrite in human, formula, bovine, and soy milk to inform total dietary exposure estimates and recommendations. Using sensitive quantitative methodologies, nitrite and nitrate were analyzed in different samples of milk. Results Human milk concentrations of colostrum (expressed days 1–3 postpartum; n?=?12), transition milk (expressed days 3–7 postpartum; n?=?17), and mature milk (expressed >7 days postpartum; n?=?50) were 0.08?mg/100?mL nitrite and 0.19?mg/100?mL nitrate, 0.001?mg/100?mL nitrite and 0.52?mg/100?mL nitrate, and 0.001?mg/100?mL nitrite and 0.3?mg/100?mL nitrate, respectively, revealing that the absolute amounts of these anions change as the composition of milk changes. When expressed as a percentage of the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake limits, Silk® Soy Vanilla (WhiteWave Foods, Broomfield, CO) intake could result in high nitrate intakes (104% of this standard), while intake of Bright Beginnings Soy Pediatric® formula (PBM Nutritionals, Georgia, VT) could result in the highest nitrite intakes (383% of this standard). Conclusions The temporal relationship between the provision of nitrite in human milk and the development of commensal microbiota capable of reducing dietary nitrate to nitrite supports a hypothesis that humans are adapted to provide nitrite to the gastrointestinal tract from birth. These data support the hypothesis that the high concentrations of breastmilk nitrite and nitrate are evidence for a physiologic requirement to support gastrointestinal and immune homeostasis in the neonate.

Hord, Norman G.; Ghannam, Janine S.; Garg, Harsha K.; Berens, Pamela D.



Nitrates and Nitrites in the Treatment of Ischemic Cardiac Disease  

PubMed Central

The organic nitrite, amyl of nitrite, was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris in 1867, but was replaced over a decade later by the organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (NTG), due to the ease of administration and longer duration of action. The administration of organic nitrate esters, such as NTG, continues to be used in the treatment of angina pectoris and heart failure during the birth of modern pharmacology. The clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in large veins and arteries through an as yet unidentified method of delivering nitric oxide (NO), or a NO-like compound to vascular smooth muscle cells. The major drawback with NTG administration is the rapid development of tolerance; and with amyl of nitrite, the duration and route of administration. Although amyl of nitrite are no longer used in the treatments of hypertension or ischemic heart disease, the nitrite anion has recently been discovered to possess novel pharmacologic actions such as modulating hypoxic vasodilation and providing cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the actions of these two similar chemical classes (nitrites and organic nitrates) have often been considered to be alike, we still do not understand their mechanism of action. However, the recent discovery that the nitrite anion, derived from either sodium nitrite or an intermediate NTG form, may act as a storage form for NO and provides support for investigating the use of these agents in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular states. We review what is presently known about the use of nitrites and nitrates, the potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action.

Nossaman, Vaughn E.; Nossaman, Bobby D.; Kadowitz, Philip J.



Nitrate, Nitrite, and nitroso compounds in foods  

SciTech Connect

The concern that human foods might contain nitroso compounds stems from the discovery in the early 1960s that domestic animals fed fish meal preserved with high levels of sodium nitrite were dying of liver failure. It has been known for many years that nitrite can combine with amines to form N-nitrosamines. N-nitrosodimethylamine was determined to be the cause of the liver failure. The nitrosamine resulted from the reaction between dimethylamine contained in the fish and the added nitrite. Because nitrite is an important and widely used human food additive, particularly in the curing of meats, poultry, and fish, research was undertaken by several groups around the world to investigate the occurrence of these compounds in human foods.

Hotchkiss, J.H.; Cassens, R.G.



Reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions  

SciTech Connect

The feasibility of reducing nitrate/nitrite salts under hydrothermal conditions for the treatment of aqueous mixed wastes stored in the underground tanks at the Department of Energy site at Hanford, Washington was studied. The reduction of nitrate and nitrite salts by reaction with EDTA using a tank waste simulant was examined at temperatures between 623K and 800K and pressures between 0.6 and 1.2 kbar. Continuous flow reactors were used to determine kinetics and products of reactions. All reactions were studied under pressures high enough to produce single phase conditions. The reactions are rapid, go to completion in less than a minute, and produce simple products, such as carbonate, nitrogen, and nitrous oxide gases. The experimental results demonstrate the ability of chemical reactions under hydrothermal conditions to reduce the nitrate and nitrite salts and destroy organic compounds in the waste mixtures.

Foy, B.R.; Dell`Orco, P.C.; Wilmanns, E.; McInroy, R.; Ely, J.; Robinson, J.M.; Buelow, S.J.



Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.  


Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies. PMID:23350350

Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid



Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high nitrate supplement, but not by high nitrate foods in older adults  

PubMed Central

Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/NO (nitric oxide) cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs. high nitrate diet, with and without a high nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics, and blood pressure using a randomized four period cross-over controlled design. We hypothesized that the high nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and blood pressure compared to the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were eight normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5±4.7 yrs) with no overt disease or medications that affect NO metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured prior to and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet+supplement (p<0.001 and =0.017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high nitrate diet+supplement (p=0.001 and 0.002), but not for control diet (p=0.713 and 0.741) or high nitrate diet (p=0.852 and 0.500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2 hr post-meal follow-up time-points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction.

Miller, Gary D.; Marsh, Anthony P.; Dove, Robin W.; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S. Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel



Prebiotic ammonia from reduction of nitrite by iron (II) on the early Earth.  


Theories for the origin of life require the availability of reduced (or 'fixed') nitrogen-containing compounds, in particular ammonia. In reducing atmospheres, such compounds are readily formed by electrical discharges, but geochemical evidence suggests that the early Earth had a non-reducing atmosphere, in which discharges would have instead produced NO. This would have been converted into nitric and nitrous acids and delivered to the early oceans as acid rain. It is known, however, that Fe(II) was present in the early oceans at much higher concentrations than are found today, and thus the oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) provides a possible means for reducing nitrites and nitrates to ammonia. Here we explore this possibility in a series of experiments which mimic a broad range of prebiotic seawater conditions (the actual conditions on the early Earth remain poorly constrained). We find that the reduction by Fe(II) of nitrites and nitrates to ammonia could have been a significant source of reduced nitrogen on the early Earth, provided that the ocean pH exceeded 7.3 and is favoured for temperatures greater than about 25 degrees C. PMID:11540245

Summers, D P; Chang, S



Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.



21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... true Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170.60 Section 170...170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are food additives when combined in curing premixes with spices...



21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170.60 Section 170...170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are food additives when combined in curing premixes with spices...



Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate using phosphomolybdenum blue complex.  


A method for spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate is described. This method is based on the reduction of phosphomolybdic acid to phosphomolybdenum blue complex by sodium sulfide. The obtained phosphomolybdenum blue complex is oxidized by the addition of nitrite and this causes a reduction in intensity of the blue color. The absolute decrease in the absorbance of the blue color or the rate of its decrease is found to be directly proportional to the amount of nitrite added. The absorbance of the phosphomolybdenum blue complex is monitored spectrophotometrically at 814 nm and related to the concentration of nitrite present. The effect of different factors such as acidity, stability of the complex, time, temperature, phosphate concentration, molybdenum concentration, sodium sulfide concentration and the tolerance amount of other ions have been reported. Maximum absorbance is at 814 nm. The range of linearity using the conventional method is 0.5-2.0 ppm with molar absorptivity of 1.1 x 10(4) l mol(-1) cm(-1). and a relative standard deviation of 2.6% for five measurements. The range of linearity using the reaction rate method is 0.2-3.6 ppm with a relative standard deviation of 2.4% for five measurements. The method is applied for determination of nitrite and nitrate in water, meat products and vegetables. PMID:18967772

Zatar, N A; Abu-Eid, M A; Eid, A F



Evolutionary relationships among ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed Central

Comparative 16S rRNA sequencing was used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships among selected strains of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. All characterized strains were shown to be affiliated with the proteobacteria. The study extended recent 16S rRNA-based studies of phylogenetic diversity among nitrifiers by the comparison of eight strains of the genus Nitrobacter and representatives of the genera Nitrospira and Nitrospina. The later genera were shown to be affiliated with the delta subdivision of the proteobacteria but did not share a specific relationship to each other or to other members of the delta subdivision. All characterized Nitrobacter strains constituted a closely related assemblage within the alpha subdivision of the proteobacteria. As previously observed, all ammonia-oxidizing genera except Nitrosococcus oceanus constitute a monophyletic assemblage within the beta subdivision of the proteobacteria. Errors in the 16S rRNA sequences for two strains previously deposited in the databases by other investigators (Nitrosolobus multiformis C-71 and Nitrospira briensis C-128) were corrected. Consideration of physiology and phylogenetic distribution suggested that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the alpha and gamma subdivisions are derived from immediate photosynthetic ancestry. Each nitrifier retains the general structural features of the specific ancestor's photosynthetic membrane complex. Thus, the nitrifiers, as a group, apparently are not derived from an ancestral nitrifying phenotype.

Teske, A; Alm, E; Regan, J M; Toze, S; Rittmann, B E; Stahl, D A



Effects of nitrite on ammonia-oxidizing activity and gene regulation in three ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.  


Nitrite is the highly toxic end product of ammonia oxidation that accumulates in the absence of a nitrite-consuming process and is inhibitory to nitrifying and other bacteria. The effects of nitrite on ammonia oxidation rates and regulation of a common gene set were compared in three ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to determine whether responses to this toxic metabolite were uniform. Mid-exponential-phase cells of Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718, Nitrosospira multiformis ATCC 25196, and Nitrosomonas eutropha C-91 were incubated for 6 h in mineral medium supplemented with 0, 10, or 20 mM NaNO(2) . The rates of ammonia oxidation (nitrite production) decreased significantly only in NaNO(2) -supplemented incubations of N. eutropha; no significant effect on the rates was observed for N. europaea or N. multiformis. The levels of norB (nitric oxide reductases), cytL (cytochrome P460), and cytS (cytochrome c'-?) mRNA were unaffected by nitrite in all strains. The levels of nirK (nitrite reductase) mRNA increased only in N. europaea in response to nitrite (10 and 20 mM). Nitrite (20 mM) significantly reduced the mRNA levels of amoA (ammonia monooxygenase) in N. multiformis and norS (nitric oxide reductase) in the two Nitrosomonas spp. Differences in response to nitrite indicated nonuniform adaptive and regulatory strategies of AOB, even between closely related species. PMID:21470297

Cua, Lynnie S; Stein, Lisa Y



Changes in nitrate and nitrite concentrations over 24h for sweet basil and scallions.  


Nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined for sweet basil and scallions over 24h to determine if time of sampling or harvest impacts concentrations in raw vegetables. Also, nitrate and nitrite concentrations were determined separately for various edible parts of these plants. Basil had significant changes in nitrate and nitrite concentrations over a 24h period. Nitrate was correlated to changes in light intensity with a 3h lag time. The highest nitrate concentrations in basil (2777 ppm) occurred around 3h after the light intensity peaked and had low values (165-574 ppm) during the dark period. The scallion nitrate and nitrite concentrations were always low but nitrate showed a peak a few hours before sunrise. Nitrate and nitrite concentrations in some raw vegetables may be reduced by harvesting at the best time of day for each type of plant. Nitrate concentrations were different in the edible plant parts tested. PMID:23122149

Chang, Audrey Chingzu; Yang, Tsz Yi; Riskowski, Gerald L



The nasB operon and nasA gene are required for nitrate/nitrite assimilation in Bacillus subtilis.  

PubMed Central

Bacillus subtilis can use either nitrate or nitrite as a sole source of nitrogen. The isolation of the nasABCDEF genes of B. subtilis, which are required for nitrate/nitrite assimilation, is reported. The probable gene products include subunits of nitrate/nitrite reductases and an enzyme involved in the synthesis of siroheme, a cofactor for nitrite reductase.

Ogawa, K; Akagawa, E; Yamane, K; Sun, Z W; LaCelle, M; Zuber, P; Nakano, M M



Blue Light, a Positive Switch Signal for Nitrate and Nitrite Uptake by the Green Alga Monoraphidium braunii1  

PubMed Central

Blue light was shown to regulate the utilization of oxidized nitrogen sources by green algae, both by activating nitrate reductase and promoting nitrite reductase biosysnthesis (MA Quiñones, PJ Aparicio [1990] Inorganic Nitrogen in Plants and Microorganisms, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp 171-177; MA Quiñones, PJ Aparicio [1990] Photochem Photobiol 51: 681-692). The data reported herein show that, when cells of Monoraphidium braunii at pH 8, containing both active nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, were sparged with CO2-free air and irradiated with strong background red light, they took up oxidized nitrogen sources only when PAR comprised blue light. The activation of the transport system(s) of either both nitrate and nitrite was very quick and elicited by low irradiance blue light. In fact, blue light appears to act as a switch signal from the environment, since the uptake of these anions immediately ceased when this radiation was turned off. The requirement of blue light for nitrate uptake was independent of the availability of CO2 to cells. However, cells under high CO2 tensions, although they showed an absolute blue light requirement to initially establish the uptake of nitrite, as they gained carbon skeletons to allocate ammonia, gradually increased their nitrite uptake rates in the subsequent red light intervals. Under CO2-free atmosphere, cells irradiated with strong background red light of 660 nanometers only evolved oxygen when they were additionally irradiated with low irradiance blue light and either nitrate or nitrite was present in the media to provide electron acceptors for the photosynthetic reaction.

Aparicio, Pedro J.; Quinones, Miguel A.



Solubilities of Sodium Nitrate, Sodium Nitrite, and Sodium Aluminate in Simulated Nuclear Waste.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate...

D. A. Reynolds D. L. Herting



Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution  

SciTech Connect

The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin



Anaerobic Nitrite Production by Plant Cells and Tissues: Evidence for Two Nitrate Pools 1  

PubMed Central

Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) XD cells containing nitrate and nitrate reductase stopped producing nitrite after approximately 1 hour when incubated under anaerobic conditions. The cessation of nitrite production was not due to an inactivation of the nitrate reducing system. This was shown by the ability of the cells to resume anaerobic nitrite production at a rate similar to the initial rate of nitrite production upon exposure to nitrate, monohydroxy alcohols or pyrazole. Cessation of nitrite production also could not be attributed to leakage of nitrate from the cells. Although some nitrate did leak from the cells, most of the nitrate was still in the cells by the time anaerobic nitrite production ceased. We infer the existence of a small metabolic pool and a large storage pool of nitrate, such that nitrite production ceases when the metabolic pool is depleted of nitrate. The metabolic pool of nitrate in tobacco cells decreased 170-fold as the culture aged from 3 to 5 days. However, total cellular nitrate during this period remained relatively constant. Anaerobic nitrite production by barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone layers and corn (Zea mays) leaf sections also ceased after only a small fraction of endogenous nitrate was reduced and resumed again upon addition of exogenous nitrate. In contrast to that found with tobacco cells, the metabolic pool of nitrate in corn leaf sections remained constant with age, while total endogenous nitrate increased. These results were interpreted to mean that higher plants in general contain metabolic and storage pools of nitrate, the properties of which vary with species and physiological variables.

Ferrari, Thomas E.; Yoder, Olin C.; Filner, Philip



Vegetable-borne nitrate and nitrite and the risk of methaemoglobinaemia.  


High levels of nitrate in vegetables are frequently reported. The potential hazard of vegetable-borne nitrate is from its conversion to methaemoglobin-producing nitrite before and/or after ingestion. Methaemoglobin cannot bind oxygen and produces a leftward shift in oxygen-dissociation curve, causing hypoxaemia. Infants under 3 months old are particularly susceptible to methaemoglobinaemia. Older infants and children are also at risk. Adults are not thought to be at risk of vegetable-borne nitrate or nitrite induced methaemoglobinaemia. This view should now change if the high nitrate levels in some vegetables and the effects of storage and food processing on its conversion to nitrite are taken into consideration. In fresh, undamaged vegetables, the nitrite concentrations are usually very low. Under adverse post-harvest storage conditions, nitrite concentrations in vegetables increase as a result of bacterial contamination and endogenous nitrate reductase action. Nitrite accumulation in vegetables is inhibited under frozen storage because endogenous nitrate reductase is inactivated. Pureeing releases endogenous nitrate reductase, increasing nitrite concentrations in vegetables. Oral reduction of nitrate is the most important source of nitrite. In order to maximise the health benefits from eating vegetables, measures should be taken to reduce the nitrate and nitrite exposures while maintaining the recommended vegetable intake. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers should be avoided so as to reduce nitrate build up in soil or vegetables. Vegetables must be stored and processed properly to prevent bacteria contamination. Removal of stem and midrib results in a decrease of nitrate content in lettuce and spinach. Peeling of potatoes and beetroot decreases the nitrate content. Nitrate levels in some vegetables can decrease after cooking in water or blanching. Home prepared infant food containing vegetables should be avoided until the infant is 3 months or older. PMID:21075182

Chan, Thomas Y K



Inhibition of nitrate and nitrite reduction by 2,4-dinitrophenol in ankistrodesmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

As Kessler (1955, 1959) has shown, nitrite reduction by the green alga, Ankistrodesmus braunii is completely inhibited by 10-3m 2,4-dinitrophenol. However, although nitrite accumulates in the medium when cultures are supplied with nitrate and dinitrophenol, the reduction of nitrate is not completely insensitive to the inhibitor.

J. Ahmad; I. Morris



Analysis of Free Ammonia Inhibition of Nitrite Oxidizing Bacteria Using a Dissolved Oxygen Respirometer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Free ammonia (NH3-N) inhibition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) has been widely studied for partial nitrification (or nitrite accumulation) and denitrification via nitrite (NO2 - -N) as a low-cost treatment of ammonium containing wastewater. The literature on NH3-N inhibition of NOB, however, shows disagreement about the threshold NH3-N concentration and its degree of inhibition. In order to clarify the confusion, a

Dong-Jin Kim; Dong-Ig Lee; Gi-Cheol Cha; Jürg Keller



Nitrification with high nitrite accumulation for the treatment of wastewater with high ammonia concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to determine the best conditions for partial nitrification with nitrite accumulation of simulated industrial wastewater with high ammonia concentration, lowering the total oxygen needed in the nitrification step, which may mean great saving in aeration. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH were selected as operational parameters to study the possibility of nitrite accumulation not

G Ruiz; D Jeison; R Chamy



Alkalinity and dissolved oxygen as controlling parameters for ammonia removal through partial nitritation and ANAMMOX in a single-stage bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The oxidation of ammonia to dinitrogen through partial nitritation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) in a single-stage\\u000a bioreactor is based on suppressing the nitratation process. The single-stage process operated on a laboratory-scale fixed\\u000a film bioreactor achieved ammonia removal of 0.7 kg NH4-N\\/(m3 day) at 4 h hydraulic retention time (HRT) by controlling the nitratation process through a ‘three-way control mechanism’\\u000a comprising control of

Samik Bagchi; Rima Biswas; Tapas Nandy



Characterization of nitrate and nitrite utilization system in Rhodococcus jostii RHA1.  


A polychlorinated-biphenyl degrader, Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, has the potential to be used in soil for the remediation of environmental contamination. It has been found that RHA1 genes, ro06365 (narK) and ro06366, encoding a nitrate/nitrite transporter and nitrite reductase, respectively, were highly upregulated during the growth in sterile soil. In this study, these genes and ro00862, a paralog of ro06366 were characterized to reveal the nitrate and nitrite utilization systems of RHA1. The transcriptional induction of ro06366 (nirB1) and ro00862 (nirB2) by either nitrate or nitrite was revealed by qRT-PCR. Deletion mutants for each gene exhibited retarded growth on either nitrate or nitrite as a sole nitrogen source. Furthermore, their double mutant, Dnit, grew on and consumed neither nitrate nor nitrite as a sole nitrogen source, suggesting that both nirB1 and nirB2 are involved in the utilization of nitrite and nitrate. A narK mutant, DnarK, exhibited no growth on nitrate and retarded growth on nitrite as the sole nitrogen source. DnarK showed no consumption of nitrate and reduced consumption of nitrite, suggesting that narK is essential for nitrate uptake and is partially involved in nitrite uptake. The induced transcription of nirB1, nirB2, and narK was repressed in the presence of 3 mM ammonium or more. The upregulation of nirB1 and narK in sterilized soil containing ammonium and nitrate suggests that the ammonium concentration of the sterilized soil is equivalent to less than 3 mM. The unique nitrogen metabolism system of RHA1 and its importance for the growth in soil are discussed. PMID:23294576

Iino, Toju; Miyauchi, Keisuke; Kasai, Daisuke; Masai, Eiji; Fukuda, Masao



Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Breast Milk: Implications for Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Breast milk is nature’s most perfect food with essential nutrients for the health and development of babies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Breast milk is enriched in both nitrite and nitrate and the ratio of these anions change as the composition of milk changes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Exposure rates of infants consuming colostrum from breast milk reach nearly 1 mg\\/kg which exceeds the ADI for

Pamela D. Berens; Nathan S. Bryan


Low serum total nitrite and nitrate levels in severe leptospirosis  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between inducible nitric oxide synthatase activity and disease severity in leptospirosis is unclear. Nitric oxide is converted to nitrites and nitrates, thus nitrite and nitrate levels (NOx) in serum are considered surrogate markers for nitric oxide. NOx are excreted through the kidneys, and elimination is diminished in renal impairment. We assessed the correlation of NOx with disease severity in patients with leptospirosis, compared with healthy controls and non-leptospirosis fever patients. Methods All patients admitted over a two-month period to the National Hospital, Colombo, Sri Lanka with a clinical picture suggestive of leptospirosis were included. Leptospirosis was confirmed by the microscopic agglutination test (titre?400). Severe leptospirosis was defined by the presence of two or more of the following criteria: jaundice (bilirubin> 51.3 ?mol/l), oliguria (urine output < 400 ml/day), serum creatinine> 133 ?mol/l or blood urea > 25.5 mmol/l, or the presence of organ dysfunction. Non-leptospirosis fever patients and healthy volunteers were used as control groups. NOx levels were measured using a modified Griess reaction. Results Forty patients were confirmed as having leptospirosis and 26 of them had severe disease. NOx levels were significantly higher in confirmed leptospirosis patients compared to healthy controls, MAT equivocal patients and non-leptospirosis fever patients (p<0.001). NOx concentrations were also significantly higher in patients with severe compared to mild leptospirosis (p<0.001). Once NOx levels were corrected for renal function, by using the ratio NOx/creatinine, NOx levels were actually significantly lower in patients with severe disease compared to other patients, and values were similar to those of healthy controls. Conclusions We postulate that high NOx levels may be protective against severe leptospirosis, and that finding low NOx levels (when corrected for renal function) in patients with leptospirosis may predict the development of severe disease and organ dysfunction.



Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate () and nitrite () contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40?mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19?mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89?mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41?mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced.

Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J



Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during ...


Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during...


Dietary Nitrate and Nitrite Intake and Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Survival  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the formation of N-nitroso compounds. We recently found a 40% increased risk of NHL with higher dietary nitrite intake and significant increases in risk for follicular and T-cell lymphoma. It is possible that these compounds also affect NHL prognosis by enhancing cancer progression in addition to development by further impairing immune system function. To test the hypothesis that nitrate and nitrite intake affects NHL survival, we evaluated the association in study participants that have been followed post-disease diagnosis in a population-based case-control study among women in Connecticut. We did not observe a significant increasing trend of mortality for NHL overall or by subtype for nitrate or nitrite intake for deaths from NHL or death from any cause, although a borderline significant protective trend was observed for follicular lymphoma with increasing nitrate intake. We did not identify a difference in overall survival for nitrate (P = 0.39) or for nitrite (P = 0.66) or for NHL specific survival for nitrate (P = 0.96) or nitrite (P = 0.17). Thus, our null findings do not confer support for the possibility that dietary nitrate and nitrite intake impacts NHL survival by promoting immune unresponsiveness.

Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Ward, Mary H.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Holford, Theodore R.; Boyle, Peter; Leaderer, Brian; Zhang, Yawei



Nitrate and nitrite levels of potable water supply in Warri, Nigeria: a public health concern.  


In this study, the authors investigated the nitrate and nitrite in different water sources (surface water, shallow well water, and borehole water) in the market and industrialized areas of Warri in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. The authors' goal was to find the comparative levels of nitrates and nitrites from these two parts of the community. They selected five sampling sites from industrialized areas and another five from market areas. Nitrate and nitrites were determined using a DR/4000 UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The appreciable quantities of nitrates and nitrites found in these investigations have some public health implications. This study suggests that indiscriminate disposal of waste and poor sanitation may be additional contributing factors in the nitrate pollution of the water supply in the Niger Delta area of Nigeria. PMID:20104831

Nduka, John Kanayochukwu; Orisakwe, Orish Ebere; Ezenweke, Linus Obi



Nitrate and nitrite in vegetables on the Danish market: content and intake.  


The contents of nitrate and nitrite in lettuce, leek, potato, beetroot, Chinese cabbage and white cabbage on the Danish market were determined for 3 years in the period 1993-1997 as part of the Danish food monitoring programme. These vegetables are supposed to provide the major contribution to the intake of nitrate from the diet. Results for nitrate and nitrite in fresh and frozen spinach are also shown. The highest content of nitrate was found in lettuce followed by beetroot, Chinese cabbage, fresh spinach, leek, frozen spinach, white cabbage and potatoes. For all the products a great variation in the content of nitrate was found. For lettuce a characteristic variation throughout the year is clearly seen with the highest content in the winter period the lowest content in the summer period. Generally, the content of nitrite was low but in spinach high contents were found, probably due to improper storage conditions during transportation. The intake of nitrate and nitrite from these vegetables is calculated on the basis of two different consumption surveys. For both surveys the average intake of nitrate from the vegetables included in the monitoring programme is estimated to be approximately 40 mg day-1, whereas for nitrite the average intake is approximately 0.09 mg day-1. The total intake of nitrate and nitrite is estimated to be respectively 61 mg day-1 and 0.5 mg day-1. PMID:10656054

Petersen, A; Stoltze, S



Roles of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium ion in phytochrome regulation of nitrate reductase gene expression in maize  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abbreviations: 5HT, 5-hydroxytryptamine; NR, nitrate reductase; NiR, nitrite reductase; PER phospho enol pyruvate; Pfr, phytochrome; PI, phosphoinositude(s); PKC, protein ldnase C; PMA, phorbol myristate acetate SUMMARY The influence of nitrate and its metabolites on the nitrate reductase (NR) gene expression and its relationship with phytochrome (Pfr) regulation of NR in etiolated maize leaves is examined. Nitrate inSuction and Pfr stimulation

Nandula Raghuram I; Sudhir K. Sopory



Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.



Reduction of nitrate to ammonia by zero-valent iron  

Microsoft Academic Search

The reduction of nitrate to ammonia occurs with nearly complete conversion at room temperature and pressure under aerobic conditions in the presence of iron and either HCl or a pH buffer. A 50.0 mL solution of 12.5 millimolar nitrate is rapidly reduced to ammonia when exposed to 4.00 g of 325 mesh iron at pH 5.0, 0.05 M sodium acetate\\/acetic

I. Francis Cheng; Rosy Muftikian; Quintus Fernando; Nic Korte



Prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its effect on edible bird nest's color.  


Edible bird nests (EBNs) are important ethnomedicinal commodity in the Chinese community. Recently, But and others showed that the white EBNs could turn red by vapors from sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in acidic condition or from bird soil, but this color-changing agent remained elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its affects on EBN's color. EBNs were collected from swiftlet houses or caves in Southeast Asia. White EBNs were exposed to vapor from NaNO2 in 2% HCl, or bird soil. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in EBNs were determined through ion chromatography analysis. Vapors from NaNO2 in 2% HCl or bird soil stained white bird nests to brown/red colors, which correlated with increase nitrite and nitrate levels. Moreover, naturally formed cave-EBNs (darker in color) also contained higher nitrite and nitrate levels compared to white house-EBNs, suggesting a relationship between nitrite and nitrate with EBN's color. Of note, we detected no presence of hemoglobin in red "blood" nest. Using infrared spectra analysis, we demonstrated that red/brown cave-EBNs contained higher intensities of C-N and N-O bonds compared to white house-EBNs. Together, our study suggested that the color of EBNs was associated with the prevalence of the nitrite and nitrate contents. PMID:24279333

Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Hamdi, Omer Abdalla Ahmed; Kadir, Noraniza Abd; Looi, Chung Yeng



Statistical analysis of estuarine profiles: III. Application to nitrate, nitrite and ammonium in the Tamar estuary  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Estuarine profiles of nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentration taken over a period of six years were analysed by a statistical procedure. While nitrate profiles indicate conservative mixing, those of nitrite and ammonium exhibit maxima indicative of an estuarine input. Calculations using an advective analogue suggest that production of nitrite by oxidation throughout the water column would require unduly high populations of nitrifying bacteria (>10 6 cells l -1). Sedimentary production rates required to sustain the observed nitrite maxima are compatible with combined nitrification and denitrification rates observed elsewhere (1-2?mol m -2 d -1). The relative displacement of the nitrite and ammonium maxima and the frequent presence of a turbidity maximum in the Tamar estuary suggest that nitrite production in the sediment is probably augmented by water column nitrification in the region of the freshwater/brackish water interface. Simulations on the advective analogue provide circumstantial support for this suggestion.

Knox, S.; Whitfield, M.; Turner, D. R.; Liddicoat, M. I.



Niche differentiation of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers in rice paddy soil.  


The dynamics of populations and activities of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms were investigated in rice microcosms treated with two levels of nitrogen. Different soil compartments (surface, bulk, rhizospheric soil) and roots (young and old roots) were collected at three time points (the panicle initiation, heading and maturity periods) of the season. The population dynamics of bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) ammonia oxidizers was assayed by determining the abundance (using qPCR) and composition (using T-RFLP and cloning/sequencing) of their amoA genes (coding for a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase), that of nitrite oxidizers (NOB) by quantifying the nxrA gene (coding for a subunit of nitrite oxidase of Nitrobacter spp.) and the 16S rRNA gene of Nitrospira spp. The activity of the nitrifiers was determined by measuring the rates of potential ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation and by quantifying the copy numbers of amoA and nxrA transcripts. Potential nitrite oxidation activity was much higher than potential ammonia oxidation activity and was not directly affected by nitrogen amendment demonstrating the importance of ammonia oxidizers as pace makers for nitrite oxidizer populations. Marked differences in the distribution of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers, and of Nitrobacter-like and Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizers were found in the different compartments of planted paddy soil indicating niche differentiation. In bulk soil, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas) were at low abundance and displayed no activity, but in surface soil their activity and abundance was high. Nitrite oxidation in surface soil was dominated by Nitrospira spp. By contrast, ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and Nitrobacter spp. seemed to dominate nitrification in rhizospheric soil and on rice roots. In contrast to soil compartment, the level of N fertilization and the time point of sampling had only little effect on the abundance, composition and activity of the nitrifying communities. The results of our study show that in rice fields population dynamics and activity of nitrifiers is mainly differentiated by the soil compartments rather than by nitrogen amendment or season. PMID:23437806

Ke, Xiubin; Angel, Roey; Lu, Yahai; Conrad, Ralf



Nitrite formation in the radiolysis of aerated aqueous solutions of ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma irradiation of aerated aqueous solutions of ammonia leads to the formation of nitrite as a radiolytic product. Its yield increases with increasing concentration of NH3 as well as O2. OH radicals react with NH3 to give NH2 radicals, which in the presence of O2 form NH2O2 radicals. These radicals finally lead to the formation of nitrite. G(NO2?) decreases with

P. Dwibedy; K. Kishore; G. R. Dey; P. N. Moorthy



Nitrite formation in the radiolysis of aerated aqueous solutions of ammonia  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gamma irradiation of aerated aqueous solutions of ammonia leads to the formation of nitrite as a radiolytic product. Its yield increases with increasing concentration of NH3 as well as O2. OH radicals react with NH3 to give NH2 radicals, which in the presence of O2 form NH2O2 radicals. These radicals finally lead to the formation of nitrite. G(NO-2) decreases with

P. Dwibedy; K. Kishore; G. R. Dey; P. N. Moorthy



Synthesis and Accumulation of Nitrite in Soybean Nodules Supplied with Nitrate 1  

PubMed Central

Nodulated soybean plants (Glycine max [L.] Merr) were grown in sand culture without combined N or with a continuous supply of nitrate in nutrient solution. Moderate nitrate concentration (30 milligrams N per liter) had little effect on nodule weight/plant while high nitrate concentration (100 milligrams N per liter) depressed nodule weight/plant by 70 to 80% with harvests 30 to 60 days after planting and initiation of nitrate treatments. The effect of nitrate supply on ammonium, amino, and ureide nitrogen concentrations in nodules was small and inconsistent. In contrast, nitrate and nitrite concentrations in nodules were directly proportional to nitrate supply and inversely proportional to nodule weight/plant. Correlations between nitrate or nitrite concentration in nodules and nodule weight/plant were highly significant. Cytosol from soybean nodules was found to contain NADH-dependent nitrate reductase activity (typical activity was 0.1 micromole per milligram protein × hour). A Rhizobium japonicum mutant (derived from strain 61A76) lacking nitrate reductase was employed to show that the cytosol enzyme activity is of host origin. Growth of nodules formed by the mutant lacking nitrate reductase was inhibited by nitrate. These nodules did contain nitrite although concentrations of nitrite (about 0.3 microgram N per gram fresh weight) were low relative to nitrite concentrations (about 1.5 microgram N per gram fresh weight) in nodules formed by R. japonicum strain 61A76. The overall results support the idea that the depression of legume nodule growth by nitrate is directly related to the metabolism of nitrate in nodules.

Streeter, John G.



Dietary intakes of nitrate, nitrite and NDMA in the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about potential health hazards of nitrate, nitrite and N?nitroso compounds necessitates calculations of exposures to these compounds and their distribution in normal populations. This study describes dietary intake of nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2) and N?nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) among 5304 adult men and 4750 women, who participated in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey in 1967–72. Food consumption

Jan Dich; Ritva Järvinen; Paul Knekt



Regulation of Nitrate and Nitrite Respiration in ?-Proteobacteria: A Comparative Genomics Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate and nitrite are the most preferable electron acceptors in the absence of molecular oxygen. In the ?-proteobacterium\\u000a Escherichia coli, nitrate and nitrite respiration is regulated by two homologous transcription factors, NarL and NarP. Although this regulatory\\u000a system was a subject of intensive research for more than 20 years, many key issues, including the structure of the NarL-binding\\u000a site, are

D. A. Ravcheev; A. B. Rakhmaninova; A. A. Mironov; M. S. Gelfand



Dietary nitrite and nitrate: a review of potential mechanisms of cardiovascular benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In the last decade, a growing scientific and medical interest has emerged toward cardiovascular effects of dietary nitrite\\u000a and nitrate; however, many questions concerning their mode of action(s) remain unanswered. In this review, we focus on multiple\\u000a mechanisms that might account for potential cardiovascular beneficial effects of dietary nitrite and nitrate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Beneficial changes to cardiovascular health from dietary nitrite and

Ajay MachhaAlan; Alan N. Schechter



Dietary intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite and gastric cancer risk in Mexico City  

PubMed Central

N-Nitroso compounds (NOC) are potent animal carcinogens and potential human carcinogens. The primary source of exposure for most individuals may be endogenous formation, a process that can be inhibited by dietary polyphenols. To estimate the risk of gastric cancer (GC) in relation to the individual and combined consumption of polyphenols and NOC precursors (nitrate and nitrite), a population-based case–control study was carried out in Mexico City from 2004 to 2005 including 257 histologically confirmed GC cases and 478 controls. Intake of polyphenols, nitrate and nitrite were estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. High intakes of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol were associated with an ~50% reduction in GC risk. A high intake of total nitrite as well as nitrate and nitrite from animal sources doubled the GC risk. Odds ratios around 2-fold were observed among individuals with both low intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol or coumestrol and high intake of animal-derived nitrate or nitrite, compared to high intake of the polyphenols and low animal nitrate or nitrite intake, respectively. Results were similar for both the intestinal and diffuse types of GC. Our results show, for the first time, a protective effect for GC because of higher intake of cinnamic acids, secoisolariciresinol and coumestrol, and suggest that these polyphenols reduce GC risk through inhibition of endogenous nitrosation. The main sources of these polyphenols were pears, mangos and beans for cinnamic acids; beans, carrots and squash for secoisolariciresinol and legumes for coumestrol.

Hernandez-Ramirez, Raul U.; Galvan-Portillo, Marcia V.; Ward, Mary H.; Agudo, Antonio; Gonzalez, Carlos A.; Onate-Ocana, Luis F.; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Palma-Coca, Oswaldo; Lopez-Carrillo, Lizbeth



Isolated and combined exposure to ammonia and nitrite in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on electrolyte status, blood respiratory properties and brain glutamine\\/glutamate concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed for up to 4 days to 100, 300 and 500 ?M ammonia and 0, 300 and 600 ?M nitrite. Each ammonia concentration was combined with each nitrite concentration, giving a total of nine exposure groups. High mortality was observed in trout exposed to 500 ?M ammonia in combination with 600 ?M nitrite. Other exposure

Niels E Vedel; Bodil Korsgaard; Frank B Jensen



Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria

Casey R. J. Hubert



Chemoselective Nitration of Phenols with tert-Butyl Nitrite in Solution and on Solid Support  

PubMed Central

tert-Butyl nitrite was identified as a safe and chemoselective nitrating agent that provides preferentially mononitro derivatives of phenolic substrates in the presence of potentially competitive functional groups. On the basis of our control experiments, we propose that the reaction proceeds through the formation of O-nitrosyl intermediates prior to C-nitration via homolysis and oxidation. The reported nitration method is compatible with tyrosine-containing peptides on solid support in the synthesis of fluorogenic substrates for characterization of proteases.

Koley, Dipankar; Colon, Olvia C.; Savinov, Sergey N



Reevaluation of Anaerobic Nitrite Production as an Index for the Measurement of Metabolic Pool of Nitrate 1  

PubMed Central

The use of anaerobic nitrite production as an index for the measurement of metabolic pool of nitrate was reevaluated using primary leaves of 7-day-old barley and 10-day-old soybean seedlings. The seedlings were grown in nutrient solutions containing 5 to 15 millimolar nitrate. The nitrate-free in vivo assay system of nitrate reductase was used for measuring the production of nitrite. Both the duration and extent of nitrite production were dependent on the level of endogenous nitrate in the tissue. At cessation of nitrite production, 30 to 50% of the endogenous nitrate was reduced to nitrite. Nitrate from the tissue leaked continuously into the surrounding medium so that, at cessation of nitrite production, nitrate supply from the tissue was exhausted. The cessation of nitrite production, therefore, may have been caused by the depletion of endogenous nitrate from the tissue. It is concluded that anaerobic nitrite production is not a valid index for the measurement of the size of the metabolic pool of nitrate.

Aslam, Muhammad



Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid (‘cyanosulphenic acid’) and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing FeIV in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains FeV at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6×103 M?1·s?1. Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide.

van Dalen, Christine J.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.



Simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in human plasma by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.  


We devised a sensitive and simple method for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite in human plasma, using extractive alkylation. These inorganic anions were alkylated with pentafluorobenzyl bromide, using tetradecyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride as the phase-transfer catalyst, with 1,3,5-tribromobenzene as an internal standard. The derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, using the negative-ion chemical ionization mode with isobutane as the reagent gas. Calibration curves for nitrate and nitrite were linear over the concentration range of 0.01 to 1.0 micromol/mL in plasma, and the lower limit of detection for both compounds was 0.005 micromol/mL. The accuracy and precision of this method were evaluated and coefficients of variation were lower than 10.4%. Blood nitrate and nitrite concentrations of six victims who committed suicide by inhaling automobile exhaust gas could be determined using our method. PMID:12220012

Kage, Shigetoshi; Kudo, Keiko; Ikeda, Noriaki



Effect of potential Hanford ferrocyanide waste constituents on the reaction between ferrocyanide and nitrates/nitrites  

SciTech Connect

During the 1950s, ferrocyanide- and nitrate-bearing wastes were produced at Hanford. A concern about continued safe storage and future treatment of these wastes has arisen because ferrocyanide and nitrate mixtures can explode when heated. Because of this concern, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed experimental studies to determine the conditions needed to continue storing the wastes safely. In this paper, we present the results of our studies on the effects of other potential ferrocyanide waste constituents on the explosivity of mixtures of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium nitrate and nitrite. In particular, this paper presents the results of investigations on the diluent effects of equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite, sodium nickel ferrocyanide, and sodium aluminate, and the catalyst or initiator effects of nickel sulfide.

Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.



Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. have reported that certain well studied transition metal cyclic amine complexes, namely Co(III)-cyclam and Ni(II)-cyclam where cyclam is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, efficiently electrocatalyze the reduction of nitrate and nitrite to hydroxylamine at mercury electrodes. Here the authors report that the metal cyclam catalyst can be incorporated into a Nafion film electrode, and that the reduction of nitrate and nitrite proceeds efficiently at these electrodes in concentrated NaOH solution. Nafion is a perfluoroalkanesulfonated cation exchange material that has been widely used to immobilize redox couples at electrode surfaces, including electrocatalysis species.

Li, H. [Lanzhou Univ., Ganzu (China). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.



Changes in hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, acid-base balance, and electrolytes in Marsupenaeus japonicus under combined ammonia and nitrite stress.  


Ammonia and nitrite are the most common toxic nitrogenous compounds in aquaculture ponds. We evaluated the effects of a combined treatment with these two compounds on the hemolymph acid-base balance, electrolytes and oxyhemocyanin content in kuruma shrimp, (Marsupenaeus japonicus). The shrimp (6.37±1.29 g) were individually exposed to 9 different ammonia and nitrite regimes {ammonia at 0 (control), 0.39, and 1.49 mM combined with nitrite at 0 (control), 0.38, and 1.49 mM} in a 30‰ saline solution at 22°C. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin (OxyHc), protein content, acid-base balance, osmolality, and electrolyte levels were measured in treated shrimp after 48 h of treatment. Hemolymph OxyHc, protein content, the OxyHc/protein ratio, pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), TCO2, OH(-)/H(+), osmolality, and Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) levels were inversely related to the dose of ammonia and nitrite. However, hemolymph pO2 levels directly increased with the ammonia and nitrite concentrations. Following exposure to 1.49 mM ammonia+1.49 mM nitrite, the hemolymph pO2 increased by 89.5%, whereas the hemolymph OxyHc, protein content, OxyHc/protein ratio, pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), TCO2, OH(-)/H(+), osmolality, Cl(-), and Na(+) decreased by 51.2, 28.2, 34.9, 2.9, 51.1, 71.5, 70.8, 42.8, 4.9, 32.1, and 38.6%, respectively, compared with control shrimp. Combined ammonia and nitrite stress may therefore exert a synergistic effect on shrimp relative to the stress induced by ammonia or nitrite alone. PMID:23399445

Cheng, Sha-Yen; Shieh, Li-Wei; Chen, Jiann-Chu



Effects of phosphoroamides on ammonia volatilization and nitrite accumulation in soils treated with urea  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the effects of N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT), N-(diaminophosphinyl)-cyclohexylamine (DPCA), phenylphosphorodiamidate (PPD), and hydroquinone on transformations of urea N in soils. The ability of these urease inhibitors to retard urea hydrolysis, ammonia volatilization, and nitrite accumulation in soils treated with urea-decreased in the order NBPT > DPCA » PPD > HQ. When five soils were incubated at 30°C for

J. M. Bremner; H. S. Chai



Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of ammonia and nitrite for juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogenous compounds can be toxic to aquatic animals especially when they are reared at high stocking densities. Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a fast growing fish currently reared in cages, but with expanding production in intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to juvenile cobia. Juveniles (1.74±0.11 g

Ricardo V. Rodrigues; Michael H. Schwarz; Brendan C. Delbos



Modification of nitrifying biofilm into nitritating one by combination of increased free ammonia concentrations, lowered HRT and dissolved oxygen concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrifying biomass on ring-shaped carriers was modified to nitritating one in a relatively short period of time (37 days) by limiting the air supply, changing the aeration regime, shortening the hydraulic retention time and increasing free ammonia (FA) concentration in the moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most efficient strategy for the development and maintenance of nitritating biofilm was found to

Ivar Zekker; Ergo Rikmann; Toomas Tenno; Anne Menert; Vallo Lemmiksoo; Alar Saluste; Taavo Tenno; Martin Tomingas



Shewanella oneidensis Cytochrome c Nitrite Reductase (ccNiR) Does Not Disproportionate Hydroxylamine to Ammonia and Nitrite, Despite a Strongly Favorable Driving Force.  


Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) from Shewanella oneidensis, which catalyzes the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia in vivo, was shown to oxidize hydroxylamine in the presence of large quantities of this substrate, yielding nitrite as the sole free nitrogenous product. UV-visible stopped-flow and rapid-freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance data, along with product analysis, showed that the equilibrium between hydroxylamine and nitrite is fairly rapidly established in the presence of high initial concentrations of hydroxylamine, despite said equilibrium lying far to the left. By contrast, reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia did not occur, even though disproportionation of hydroxylamine to yield both nitrite and ammonia is strongly thermodynamically favored. This suggests a kinetic barrier to the ccNiR-catalyzed reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia. A mechanism for hydroxylamine reduction is proposed in which the hydroxide group is first protonated and released as water, leaving what is formally an NH2(+) moiety bound at the heme active site. This species could be a metastable intermediate or a transition state but in either case would exist only if it were stabilized by the donation of electrons from the ccNiR heme pool into the empty nitrogen p orbital. In this scenario, ccNiR does not catalyze disproportionation because the electron-donating hydroxylamine does not poise the enzyme at a sufficiently low potential to stabilize the putative dehydrated hydroxylamine; presumably, a stronger reductant is required for this. PMID:24645742

Youngblut, Matthew; Pauly, Daniel J; Stein, Natalia; Walters, Daniel; Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R; Bennett, Brian; Pacheco, A Andrew



A Crp-Dependent Two-Component System Regulates Nitrate and Nitrite Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis  

PubMed Central

We have previously illustrated the nitrate/nitrite respiratory pathway of Shewanella oneidensis, which is renowned for its remarkable versatility in respiration. Here we investigated the systems regulating the pathway with a reliable approach which enables characterization of mutants impaired in nitrate/nitrite respiration by guaranteeing biomass. The S. oneidensis genome encodes an Escherichia coli NarQ/NarX homolog SO3981 and two E. coli NarP/NarL homologs SO1860 and SO3982. Results of physiological characterization and mutational analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis possesses a single two-component system (TCS) for regulation of nitrate/nitrite respiration, consisting of the sensor kinase SO3981(NarQ) and the response regulator SO3982(NarP). The TCS directly controls the transcription of nap and nrfA (genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases, respectively) but regulates the former less tightly than the latter. Additionally, phosphorylation at residue 57 of SO3982 is essential for its DNA-binding capacity. At the global control level, Crp is found to regulate expression of narQP as well as nap and nrfA. In contrast to NarP-NarQ, Crp is more essential for nap rather than nrfA.

Dong, Yangyang; Wang, Jixuan; Fu, Huihui; Zhou, Guangqi; Shi, Miaomiao; Gao, Haichun



Investigating the control of Listeria monocytogenes on uncured, no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the increased growth in natural and organic processed meats, suppliers have begun to offer “ clean label ” solutions to improve the safety of minimally processed foods. This study investigated the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on uncured, no – nitrate – or– nitrite– added Emulsified Frankfurter Style Cooked Sausages (EFSC) with or without natural or “ clean label ”

Kohl Danielle Schrader



Reduction of nitrate and nitrite in a cyclically operated continuous biological reactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biological reduction of nitrate and nitrite was studied with a continuously operated cyclic reactor. The medium was fed to the reactor during the first phase of the cycle, and the effluent was drawn from the reactor during the third phase of the cycle; reaction occurred throughout the cycle. The process was described mathematically based on kinetic expressions revealed in an

J.-H. Wang; B. C. Baltzis; G. A. Lewandowski



Colorimetric determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water by enzymatic reduction, automated discrete analyzer methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In addition to operational details and performance benchmarks for these new DA-AtNaR2 nitrate + nitrite assays, this report also provides results of interference studies for common inorganic and organic matrix constituents at 1, 10, and 100 times their median concentrations in surface-water and groundwater samples submitted annually to the NWQL for nitrate + nitrite analyses. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank statistical analyses of results determined by CFA-CdR methods and DA-AtNaR2 methods indicate that nitrate concentration differences between population means or sign ranks were either statistically equivalent to zero at the 95 percent confidence level (p ? 0.05) or analytically equivalent to zero-that is, when p < 0.05, concentration differences between population means or medians were less than MDLs.

Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.



Macrophage synthesis of nitrite, nitrate, and N-nitrosamines: precursors and role of the respiratory burst  

SciTech Connect

The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when activated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and interferon-..gamma.. synthesized nitrite (NO/sub 2//sup -/) and nitrate (NO/sub 3//sup -/). Medium change after the activation showed that L-arginine was the only amino acid essential for this synthesis. D-Arginine would not substitute for L-arginine. Other analogues that could replace L-arginine were L-homoarginine, L-arginine methyl ester, L-arginamide, and the peptide L-arginyl-L-aspartate. L-Argininic acid, L-agmatine, L-ornithine, urea, L-citrulline, and ammonia were among the nonprecursors, while L-canavanine inhibited this L-arginine-derived NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis. When morpholine was added to the culture medium of the activated RAW 264.7 macrophages, N-nitrosation took place, generating N-nitrosomorpholine. GC/MS experiments using L-(guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/)arginine established that the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ and the nitrosyl group of N-nitrosomorpholine were derived exclusively from one or both of the terminal guanido nitrogens of arginine. Chromatographic analysis showed that the other product of the L-arginine synthesis of NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ was L-citrulline. The role of the respiratory burst in NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis was examined using the macrophage cell lines J774.16 and J774 C3C. Both cell lines synthesized similar amounts of NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/. However, J774 C3C cells do not produce superoxide and hence do not exhibit the respiratory burst. Additional experiments also ruled out the involvement of the respiratory burst in NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis.

Iyengar, R.; Stuehr, D.J.; Marletta, M.A.



Dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study.  


Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOC), known animal carcinogens. Nitrosation reactions forming NOCs can be inhibited by vitamin C and other antioxidants. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a cohort of 73,118 women ages 40-70 residing in Shanghai. We evaluated effect modification by factors that affect endogenous formation of NOCs: vitamin C (at or above/below median) and red meat intake (at or above/below median). Nitrate, nitrite and other dietary intakes were estimated from a 77-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Over a mean of 11 years of follow-up, we identified 619 colorectal cancer cases (n?=?383, colon; n?=?236, rectum). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Overall, nitrate intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR?=?1.08; 95% CI: 0.73-1.59). However, among women with vitamin C intake below the median (83.9 mg day(-1) ) and hence higher potential exposure to NOCs, risk of colorectal cancer increased with increasing quintiles of nitrate intake (highest vs. lowest quintile HR?=?2.45; 95% CI: 1.15-5.18; p trend?=?0.02). There was no association among women with higher vitamin C intake. We found no association between nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall or by intake level of vitamin C. Our findings suggest that high dietary nitrate intake among subgroups expected to have higher exposure to endogenously formed NOCs increases risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:24242755

Dellavalle, Curt T; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Zheng, Wei; Lan Li, Hong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ward, Mary H



[The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs].  


There are presented the results of the investigation of many popular fresh and frozen vegetables as well as in fresh and frozen fruits, such as different kind of apples, strawberries, currants, raspberries and many other tender fruits mainly from market and few from own allotment-cottages performed in the year 1989-1992. The nitrate and nitrite was determined according to the Griess reaction. High levels of nitrate was encountered in lettuce, frozen spinach, fennel, radishes, parsley. Many of this samples contained more than 1000 mg of KNO3/kg of fresh product, but the highest level, over the 3500 mg/kg was found in lettuce. The remaining vegetables like carrots, celery, leeks and frozen French bean contained from several dozen to more than 800 mg KNO3/kg. The level of nitrite in all samples of the investigated vegetables and fruits was very low from zero to decimal part of milligram per kg. Very low level of nitrate was found in 7 species of investigated apples (from 1.3 to 9.7 mg KNO3/kg). A little higher level of this compound was ascertained in currants, gooseberries, raspberries, cherries (from 0.0 to 36.0 mg KNO3/kg product). The highest levels of nitrate occurred in samples of strawberries (maximum to 322.3 mg KNO3/kg) but mean level amounted 58.7 mg KNO3/kg. The encountered levels of nitrate in frozen vegetables and fruits as well as in jams and stewed fruits was only little less than in fresh products. Very high level (from 355.30 to 584.53 mg KNO3/kg) was ascertained in the fruit-vegetable juice named "Rinberen" and "Malberen" to which red beet extract was used for their production. It should be pointed out that when the containers of these juice was opened and stored at the room temperature (+20 degrees C) during 30 days, no changes was observed in the level of nitrate and nitrite. In the juice prepared from blanched carrot, the rate of the reduction of nitrate to nitrite has not been lowered, when this product was storage of this juice at room temperature, the mean level of nitrite increased significantly (from 0.14 to 82.89 mg NaNO2/kg) and the level of nitrate lowered from 261.0 to 46.4 mg KNO3/kg. It should be strongly recommended for consumption the juices from carrot only fresh prepared. There are also presented the results of investigation of nitrate in fermented cheeses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7777773

Nabrzyski, M; Gajewska, R



Industrial Use of Molten Nitrate/Nitrite Salts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Nitrate salts have been used for years as a high-temperature heat transfer medium in the chemical and metal industries. This experience is often cited as an argument for the use of these salts in large-scale solar energy systems. However, this industrial ...

R. W. Carling R. W. Mar



Modeling pitting corrosion of iron exposed to alkaline solutions containing nitrate and nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pitting corrosion could be extremely serious for dilute high-level radioactive waste stored or processed in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site. In these solutions, nitrate is an aggressive ion with respect to pitting of carbon steel while nitrite can be used as an inhibitor. Excessive additions of nitrite increase the risk of generating unstable nitrogen compounds during waste processing, and insufficient additions of nitrite could increase the risk of corrosion-induced failure. Thus there are strong incentives to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in pitting corrosion prevention with these solution chemistries. In this dissertation, both a 1-D and a 2-D model are used to study the pitting mechanism as a function of nitrite/nitrate ratios. The 1-D model used BAND(J) to test a reaction mechanism for the passivation behavior by comparing the predicted Open Circuit Potential (OCP) with OCP data from experiments at different NO2-/NO3- ratio. The model predictions are compared with Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) experiments. A 2-D model was developed for the propagation of a pit in iron by writing subroutines for finite element software of GAMBIT and FIDAP. Geometrically distributed anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed. The results show three partial explanations describing the inhibition influence of nitrite to iron corrosion: the competing reduction reaction of nitrate to nitrite, the formation of Fe(OH)+, and the function of the porous film. The current distributions and the effect of porosity of the film on pH are also explained. The calculation results also show that rate of pit growth decreases as the pit diameter increases until it reaches a constant value. The profile of the local current density on the pit wall is parabolic for small pits and it changes to a linear distribution for large pits. The model predicts that addition of nitrite will decrease the production of ferrous ions and those can prevent iron from dissolving. Also nitrate ion will accumulate in the pit if not enough inhibitor is added to the solution, and this will accelerate pit growth.

Chen, Lifeng



Coaction of light, nitrate and a plastidic factor in controlling nitrite-reductase gene expression in tobacco  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite reductase (NIR; EC — a key enzyme of nitrate reduction — is known to be induced by nitrate and light. In the present study with tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) seedlings the dependency of NIR gene expression on nitrate, light and a plastidic factor was investigated to establish the nature of the coaction between these controlling factors. A cDNA

A. Neininger; J. Kronenberger; H. Mohr



Nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway: implications for anesthesiology and intensive care.  


The gaseous radical nitric oxide is involved in numerous physiologic and pathophysiological events important in anesthesiology and intensive care. Nitric oxide is endogenously generated from the amino acid l-arginine and molecular oxygen in reactions catalyzed by complex nitric oxide synthases. Recently, an alternative pathway for nitric oxide generation was discovered, wherein the inorganic anions nitrate (NO3) and nitrite (NO2), most often considered inert end products from nitric oxide generation, can be reduced back to nitric oxide and other bioactive nitrogen oxide species. This nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is regulated differently than the classic l-arginine-nitric oxide synthase nitric oxide pathway, and it is greatly enhanced during hypoxia and acidosis. Several lines of research now indicate that the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway is involved in regulation of blood flow, cell metabolism, and signaling, as well as in tissue protection during hypoxia. The fact that nitrate is abundant in our diet gives rise to interesting nutritional aspects in health and disease. In this article, we present an overview of this field of research with emphasis on relevance in anesthesiology and intensive care. PMID:21045638

Weitzberg, Eddie; Hezel, Michael; Lundberg, Jon O



Nitrite Quantum Yields from Photolysis of Nitrate in/on Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical reactions in snow are important to both the chemical composition of snow and the overlying atmospheric boundary layer. The photochemistry of nitrate in snowpacks is of particular interest due to production of reactive nitrogen species that include NOx, nitrite, and products of secondary chemistry. The photolysis of nitrate has three channels: (1) NO2 + OH, (2) NO2- + O(3P), and, at least at lower illumination wavelengths (< 300 nm), (3)ONOO-. The first photochemical pathway, to form NO2, has received the most attention in ice but there are limited kinetic observations of the remaining two pathways. In this work, we slowly freeze laboratory ice with known concentrations of nitrate, illuminate at 313 nm, and measure NO2- concentrations using a liquid waveguide capillary cell. Based on the rate of nitrite formation, and an independent measure of the photon flux, we determine the nitrite quantum yield. We will discuss these quantum yields as a function of temperature (-30C to 25C), nitrate concentration (10uM - 10 mM), and the presence of organic scavengers.

Benedict, K. B.; Anastasio, C.



Widespread metabolic potential for nitrite and nitrate assimilation among Prochlorococcus ecotypes  

PubMed Central

The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the most abundant photosynthetic organism in oligotrophic regions of the oceans. The inability to assimilate nitrate is considered an important factor underlying the distribution of Prochlorococcus, and thought to explain, in part, low abundance of Prochlorococcus in coastal, temperate, and upwelling zones. Here, we describe the widespread occurrence of a genomic island containing nitrite and nitrate assimilation genes in uncultured Prochlorococcus cells from marine surface waters. These genes are characterized by low GC content, form a separate phylogenetic clade most closely related to marine Synechococcus, and are located in a different genomic region compared with an orthologous cluster found in marine Synechococcus strains. This sequence distinction suggests that these genes were not transferred recently from Synechococcus. We demonstrate that the nitrogen assimilation genes encode functional proteins and are expressed in the ocean. Also, we find that their relative occurrence is higher in the Caribbean Sea and Indian Ocean compared with the Sargasso Sea and Eastern Pacific Ocean, which may be related to the nitrogen availability in each region. Our data suggest that the ability to assimilate nitrite and nitrate is associated with microdiverse lineages within high- and low-light (LL) adapted Prochlorococcus ecotypes. It challenges 2 long-held assumptions that (i) Prochlorococcus cannot assimilate nitrate, and (ii) only LL adapted ecotypes can use nitrite. The potential for previously unrecognized productivity by Prochlorococcus in the presence of oxidized nitrogen species has implications for understanding the biogeography of Prochlorococcus and its role in the oceanic carbon and nitrogen cycles.

Martiny, Adam C.; Kathuria, Satish; Berube, Paul M.



Origin of nitrite and nitrate in nasal and exhaled breath condensate and relation to nitric oxide formation  

PubMed Central

Background: Raised concentrations of nitrate and nitrite have been found in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) in airway disease, and it has been postulated that this reflects increased nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. However, the chemical and anatomical origin of nitrate and nitrite in the airways has not yet been sufficiently studied. Methods: The fraction of exhaled NO at an exhalation flow rate of 50 ml/s (FENO) and nitrite and nitrate in EBC, nasal condensate, and saliva were measured in 17 tracheostomised and 15 non-tracheostomised subjects, all of whom were non-smokers without respiratory disease. Tracheal and oral samples were taken from the tracheostomised subjects and nasal (during velum closure) and oral samples from the non-tracheostomised subjects. Measurements were performed before and after sodium nitrate ingestion (10 mg/kg) and use of antibacterial mouthwash (chlorhexidine 0.2%). Results: In tracheostomised subjects oral FENO increased by 90% (p<0.01) while tracheal FENO was not affected 60 minutes after nitrate ingestion. Oral EBC nitrite levels were increased 23-fold at 60 minutes (p<0.001) whereas the nitrite levels in tracheal EBC showed only a minor increase (fourfold, p<0.05). Nitrate was increased the same amount in oral and tracheal EBC at 60 minutes (2.5-fold, p<0.05). In non-tracheostomised subjects oral FENO and EBC nitrite increased after nitrate ingestion and after chlorhexidine mouthwash they approached baseline levels again (p<0.001). Nasal NO, nitrate, and nitrite were not affected by nitrate intake or mouthwash. At baseline, mouthwash with deionised water did not affect nitrite in oral EBC or saliva, whereas significant reductions were seen after antibacterial mouthwash (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively). Conclusions: Besides the salivary glands, plasma nitrate is taken up by the lower airways but not the nasal airways. Nitrate levels in EBC are thus influenced by dietary intake. Nitrate is reduced to nitrite by bacterial activity which takes place primarily in the oropharyngeal tract of healthy subjects. Only oropharyngeal nitrite seems to contribute to exhaled NO in non-inflamed airways, and there is also a substantial contribution of nitrite from the oropharyngeal tract during standard collection of EBC.

Marteus, H; Tornberg, D; Weitzberg, E; Schedin, U; Alving, K



Autotrophic denitrification of nitrate and nitrite using thiosulfate as an electron donor.  


This study was carried out to determine the possibility of autotrophic denitritation using thiosulfate as an electron donor, compare the kinetics of autotrophic denitrification and denitritation, and to study the effects of pH and sulfur/nitrogen (S/N) ratio on the denitrification rate of nitrite. Both nitrate and nitrite were removed by autotrophic denitrification using thiosulfate as an electron donor at concentrations up to 800 mg-N/L. Denitrification required a S/N ratio of 5.1 for complete denitrification, but denitritation was complete at a S/N ratio of 2.5, which indicated an electron donor cost savings of 50%. Also, pH during denitrification decreased but increased with nitrite, implying additional alkalinity savings. Finally, the highest specific substrate utilization rate of nitrite was slightly higher than that of nitrate reduction, and biomass yield for denitrification was relatively higher than that of denitritation, showing less sludge production and resulting in lower sludge handling costs. PMID:24755301

Chung, Jinwook; Amin, Khurram; Kim, Seungjin; Yoon, Seungjoon; Kwon, Kiwook; Bae, Wookeun



Automated methods for ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite in 2 M KCl?phenylmercuric acetate extracts of soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Automated methods for determining ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite in a single soil extract containing 2 M KCl and 5 mg\\/L phenylmercuric acetate are presented. The ammonium method is also suitable for Kjeldahl, soil and plant digests. Amino acid interferences with the ammonium method are reported. Ammonium is determined by a salicylate?isocyanurate method, while nitrite is determined by the colorimetric reaction

F. J. Adamsen; D. S. Bigelow; G. R. Scott



Industrial use of molten nitrate/nitrite salts  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate salts have been used for years as a high-temperature heat transfer medium in the chemical and metal industries. This experience is often cited as an argument for the use of these salts in large-scale solar energy systems. However, this industrial experience has not been well documented and a study was carried out to provide such information to the solar community and to determine the applicability of this data base. Seven different industrial plants were visited and the plant operators were interviewed with regard to operating history and experience. In all cases the molten salt systems operate without problems. However, it is not possible to apply the base of industrial experience directly to solar thermal energy applications because of differences in operating temperature, salt composition, alloys used, and thermal/mechanical conditions.

Carling, R.W.; Mar, R.W.



Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes using natural antimicrobials in no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added ham.  


Consumer demand for foods manufactured without the direct addition of chemical preservatives, such as sodium nitrite and organic acid salts, has resulted in a unique class of "naturally" cured meat products. Formulation with a natural nitrate source and nitrate-reducing bacteria results in naturally cured processed meats that possess traits similar to conventionally cured meats. However, previous research has shown that the naturally cured products are more susceptible to pathogen growth. This study evaluated Listeria monocytogenes growth on ham manufactured with natural curing methods and with commercially available clean-label antimicrobials (cultured sugar and vinegar blend; lemon, cherry, and vinegar powder blend) and assessed impacts on physicochemical characteristics of the product. Hams made with either of the antimicrobials supported L. monocytogenes growth similar to that in the traditionally cured control (P > 0.05). Hams made with prefermented celery juice powder had the lowest residual nitrite concentrations (P < 0.05), and when no antimicrobial was added, L. monocytogenes growth was similar to that of the uncured control (P > 0.05). Aside from residual nitrite and nitrate concentrations, few physicochemical differences were identified. These findings show that ham can be produced with natural curing methods and antimicrobials to provide similar L. monocytogenes inhibition and physicochemical traits as in traditionally cured ham. PMID:22691474

Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Niebuhr, Steven E; Xi, Yuan; Schrader, Kohl D; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S



Reduction of nitrate and nitrite in a cyclically operated continuous biological reactor  

SciTech Connect

Biological reduction of nitrate and nitrite was studied with a continuously operated cyclic reactor. The medium was fed to the reactor during the first phase of the cycle, and the effluent was drawn from the reactor during the third phase of the cycle; reaction occurred throughout the cycle. The process was described mathematically based on kinetic expressions revealed in an independent study. The model equations were subjected to detailed analysis with numerical codes based on the bifurcation theory for forced systems. The analysis has shown that in the operating parameter space there are extensive regions where the system can reach up to three different periodic states. The results of this analysis are shown in the form of two-dimensional operating diagrams. Numerical results have also shown that under certain operating conditions nitrate can be completely eliminated, while nitrite remains practically untreated. An experimental unit was designed, constructed, and used in experiments with a strain of Pseudomonas denitrificans under different operating conditions. The experimental results confirmed the theoretical predictions both qualitatively and quantitatively. Conditions under which complete reduction of both nitrate and nitrite is achieved, were found and experimentally verified. The results of this study suggest a methodology for analysis and design of cyclically operated bioreactors employed in denitrification of wastewaters.

Wang, J.H.; Baltzis, B.C.; Lewandowski, G.A. [New Jersey Inst. of Tech., Newark, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Chemistry, and Environmental Science



Inhibition of nitrate uptake by ammonia in a blue-green alga, Anabaena cylindrica  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia at concentrations above 1×10-5 M inhibits uptake of nitrate in the nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga, Anabaena cylindrica. This inhibition takes place both in the light and in the dark. The rate of nitrate uptake is stimulated by light. Addition of relatively high concentrations of nitrate (1–10 mM) reversibly inhibits ammonia uptake. FCCP, an uncoupler of phosphorylation, inhibits both nitrate and

Masayuki Ohmori; Kazuko Ohmori; Heinrich Strotmann



Hypothesis: the effect of oral nitrite on blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Does dietary nitrate mitigate hypertension after conversion to nitrite?  


Increasing doses of nitrite (3.7-14.8 mg/kg BW) were administered via intragastric intubation to 64 spontaneously hypertensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Systemic blood pressure, measured in conscious animals with the tail cuff method, significantly decreased in a dose-related manner 16 and 32 minutes later, and pulse rate slightly increased. Since orally ingested nitrate may be partially converted to nitrite, it seems worthwhile to study correlations between dietary nitrate and blood pressure in experimental animals and man. PMID:2258537

Classen, H G; Stein-Hammer, C; Thöni, H



Influence of free ammonia on completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process.  


Free ammonia (FA) plays a significant role in the stable, long-term, completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) system operation. The influence of FA on the CANON process in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor was explored. Under controlled FA concentrations of 5.0 mg L(-1) to 10.0 mg L(-1), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was inhibited and achieved partial nitrification, which was important for a successful and quick start-up of the CANON process from activated sludge. However, NOB was acclimated to the condition after the process start-up. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) activities were unaffected when FA concentration was increased from 10 mg L(-1) to 17 mg L(-1), but NOB was completely inhibited only for a short time. The AOB and AnAOB activities were inhibited and the CANON system was deteriorated when FA concentration reached 30 mg L(-1) to 32.5 mg L(-1) at pH 8.5, whereas NOB activity was unaffected. Correlation analysis showed that FA concentration higher than 20 mg L(-1) resulted in the deterioration of the system. PMID:22588737

Li, Shan; Chen, You-Peng; Li, Chun; Guo, Jin-Song; Fang, Fang; Gao, Xu



Phenol nitration upon oxidation of nitrite by Mn(III,IV) (hydr)oxides.  


An interesting aspect of the chemistry of nitrite is the possibility for this compound to interact with other environmental factors and many oxidising species, which results in the oxidation of nitrite to nitrogen dioxide. This is a potentially interesting process that can lead to the formation of nitroaromatic compounds in the environment. In previous papers we have shown that nitrite can interact with dissolved Fe(III) and nitrate under irradiation, Fenton and heterogeneous photo-Fenton reagents, and semiconductor oxides such as TiO2, alpha-Fe2O3, and beta-FeOOH under irradiation. This paper reports on the interaction between nitrite/nitrous acid and the Mn(III,IV) (hydr)oxides beta-MnO2 and gamma-MnOOH, both in neutral solution under irradiation and in acidic conditions in the dark. beta-MnO2 and gamma-MnOOH originate from the oxidation of Mn(II) and play a key role in the redox cycling of manganese in the environment. These Mn(III,IV) (hydr)oxides show some photocatalytic activity, and they can act as thermal oxidants at acidic pH. The photoinduced oxidation of nitrite and the thermal oxidation of nitrous acid by Mn(III,IV) (hydr)oxides yield nitrogen dioxide and lead to the formation of nitrophenols in the presence of phenol. These processes can take place at the water-sediment or water-colloid interface in natural waters and on the surface of atmospheric particulate. Furthermore, the phenol/gamma-MnOOH/HNO2 system in dark acidic solution is an interesting model due to the formation of phenoxyl radical upon phenol monoelectronic oxidation by gamma-MnOOH. The kinetics of nitrophenol generation under such conditions indicates that phenol nitration is unlikely to take place upon reaction between phenoxyl and *NO2 and suggests a solution to a literature debate on the subject. PMID:15051364

Vione, Davide; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Pelizzetti, Ezio



Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate inhibition of SRB that was independent of hNRB or NR-SOB. Examination of corrosion coupons following bioreactor experiments revealed that nitrite inhibition was the only mechanism that prevented both souring and corrosion. Sulfide elimination by hNRB or NR-SOB resulted in increased pitting corrosion in the region of greatest microbial activity. These findings are instructive for designing souring control treatments and improve understanding of oil field microbial communities.

Hubert, Casey R. J.


Containment of biogenic sulfide production in continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors with nitrate or nitrite.  


Produced water from the Coleville oil field in Saskatchewan, Canada was used to inoculate continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors. When 7.8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate were present in the in-flowing medium, H(2)S production (souring) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) was prevented by addition of 17.5 mM nitrate or 20 mM nitrite. Changing the sulfate or lactate concentration of the in-flowing medium indicated that the concentrations of nitrate or nitrite required for containment of souring decreased proportionally with a lowered concentration of the electron donor lactate, while the sulfate concentration of the medium had no effect. Microbial communities were dominated by SRB. Nitrate addition did not give rise to changes in community composition, indicating that lactate oxidation and H(2)S removal were caused by the combined action of SRB and nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB). Apparently the nitrite concentrations formed by these NR-SOB did not inhibit the SRB sufficiently to cause community shifts. In contrast, significant community shifts were observed upon direct addition of high concentrations (20 mM) of nitrite. Strains NO3A and NO2B, two newly isolated, nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) emerged as major community members. These were found to belong to the epsilon-division of the Proteobacteria, to be most closely related to Campylobacter lari, and to oxidize lactate with nitrate or nitrite as the electron acceptor. Thus the mechanism of microbial H(2)S removal in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors depended on whether nitrate (SRB/NR-SOB) or nitrite (SRB/NR-SOB as well as NRB) was used. However, the amount of nitrate or nitrite needed to completely remove H(2)S was dictated by the electron donor (lactate) concentration, irrespective of mechanism. PMID:12675569

Hubert, Casey; Nemati, Mehdi; Jenneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit



Investigating quality attributes and consumer acceptance of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added commercial hams, bacons, and frankfurters.  


Increasing demands for natural, organic, and/or preservative-free foods have resulted in the consumer availability of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added processed meat and poultry products. A comprehensive understanding about the quality and sensory attributes of commercially available uncured products is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if quality and sensory differences exist between uncured and cured meat products. Five different commercial brands (Brands A to E; 4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added, and 1 nitrite-added) of 3 product types (hams, frankfurters, and bacons) were obtained from retail supermarkets. The samples were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite content, and consumer acceptance. All brands from all product types evaluated, except for 1 bacon (Brand B), had cured color, aroma, and flavor attributes similar to the nitrite-added control (Brand E). All product types and brands contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (< 1 ppm nitrite). Lipid oxidation as measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances revealed a large variation in the occurrence of lipid oxidation both between and within product types, with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of the brands within each product type were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings for surface/lean color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptance determined that variation existed. Brand E (nitrite-added control) and 1 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added brand for each product type were not different (P > 0.05) for overall acceptance and received higher scores (P < 0.05) than all other brands within each product type. PMID:17995620

Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Olson, D G; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A



Characterisation and expression analysis of a nitrate transporter and nitrite reductase genes, two members of a gene cluster for nitrate assimilation from the symbiotic basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Symbiotic ectomycorrhizal fungi contribute to the nitrogen nutrition of their host-plants but little information is available on the molecular control of their nitrogen metabolism. We cloned and characterised genes encoding a nitrite reductase and a nitrate transporter in the ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete Hebeloma cylindrosporum. These two genes are divergently transcribed and linked to a previously cloned nitrate reductase gene, thus demonstrating

Patricia Jargeat; David Rekangalt; Marie-Christine Verner; Gilles Gay; Jean-Claude Debaud; Roland Marmeisse; Laurence Fraissinet-Tachet



Fine structure characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for decontamination of nitrites and nitrates in wastewater and groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the chemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite species by zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVIN) in aqueous solution and related reaction kinetics or mechanisms using fine structure characterization. This work also exemplifies the utilization of field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to reveal the speciation and possible reaction pathway in a very complex adsorption and redox reaction process. Experimentally, ZVIN of this study was prepared by sodium borohydride reduction method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The morphology of as-synthesized ZVIN shows that the nearly ball and ultrafine particles ranged of 20-50 nm were observed with FE-SEM or TEM analysis. The kinetic model of nitrites or nitrates reductive reaction by ZVIN is proposed as a pseudo first-order kinetic equation. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies using ZVIN were found 65-83% and 51-68%, respectively, based on three different initial concentrations. Based on the XRD pattern analyses, it is found that the quantitative relationship between nitrite and Fe(III) or Fe(II) is similar to the one between nitrate and Fe(III) in the ZVIN study. The possible reason is due to the faster nitrite reduction by ZVIN. In fact, the occurrence of the relative faster nitrite reductive reaction suggested that the passivation of the ZVIN have a significant contribution to iron corrosion. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show that the nitrites or nitrates reduce to N2 or NH3 while oxidizing the ZVIN to Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 electrochemically. It is also very clear that decontamination of nitrate or nitrite species in groundwater via the in-situ remediation with a ZVIN permeable reactive barrier would be environmentally attractive.

Lin, Kuen-Song; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chuang, Tien-Deng



Chemical reactivity of nitrates and nitrites towards TBP and potassium nickel ferrocyanide between 30 and 300 deg  

SciTech Connect

Since the late sixties, bitumen has been widely used by the nuclear industry as a matrix for the immobilization of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste originating mainly from the nuclear activities: precipitation or evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, incinerator ashes, and filter materials. Depending on bitumen and operating conditions, bituminization of radioactive waste can be operated between 130 and 180 deg. C, so chemical reaction can be induced with nitrate or nitrite towards elements contained in waste (TPB, potassium nickel ferrocyanide and cobalt compound) and bitumen. These reactions are mainly exothermic this is the reason why the enthalpy reaction and their temperature of initiation have to be determined independently of their concentration in waste. In this work, we have studied by Calvet Calorimetry at 0.1 deg. C/min heating rates, the behaviour of chemical elements especially oxido-reduction couples that can react at a temperature range 100- 300 deg. C (Nitrate/PPFeNi, Nitrite/PPFeNi, Nitrate/TBP, Nitrite/TBP, Nitrate/bitumen and Nitrite/bitumen). The initial temperature reaction of nitrates or nitrites towards potassium nickel ferrocyanide (PPFeNi) has been studied and is equal respectively to 225 deg. C and 175 deg. C. Because of the large scale temperature reaction of nitrate and PPFeNi, enthalpy reaction can not be calculated, although enthalpy reaction of nitrite and PPFeNi is equal to 270 kJ/mol of nitrite. Sodium Nitrate and TBP behaviour has been investigated, and an exothermic reaction at 135 deg. C until 250 deg. C is evidenced. The exothermic energy reaction is a function of TBP concentration and the enthalpy reaction has been determined. (authors)

Lambertin, D.; Chartier, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C. [CEA Valrho, DTCD/SPDE/L2ED, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)



Nitrite and Nitrate Levels of Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva in Subjects with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives Nitrosative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The aim of this study is to analyze the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva nitrite and nitrate levels in periodontally healthy and diseased sites. Material and Methods A total of 60 individuals including, 20 chronic periodontitis and 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontally healthy controls participated in the present study. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival index and plaque index were assessed, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva samples were obtained from the subjects, including 480 GCF samples and 60 unstimulated whole saliva samples. Nitrite and nitrate were analyzed by Griess reagent. Results Total GCF nitrite levels were higher in gingivitis and periodontitis groups (1.07 [SD 0.62] nmol and 1.08 [SD 0.59] nmol) than the control group (0.83 [SD 0.31] nmol) (P < 0.05) but did not differ significantly between gingivitis and periodontitis groups (P > 0.05). The difference in GCF nitrate level was not significant among the control, gingivitis and periodontitis groups (7.7 [SD 2.71] nmol, 7.51 [SD 4.16] nmol and 7.38 [SD 1.91] nmol). Saliva nitrite and nitrate levels did not differ significantly among three study groups. Saliva nitrate/nitrite ratios were higher in periodontitis and gingivitis groups than the control group. A gradual decrease in nitrate/nitrite ratio in GCF was detected with the presence of inflammation. Conclusions It may be suggested that nitrite in gingival crevicular fluid is a better periodontal disease marker than nitrate and may be used as an early detection marker of periodontal inflammation, and that local nitrosative stress markers don’t show significant difference between the initial and advanced stages of periodontal disease.

Topcu Ali, Orkun; Alev, Akalin Ferda; Sahbazoglu, Kemal Burak; Yamalik, Nermin; Kilinc, Kamer; Karabulut, Erdem



A high-throughput assay format for determination of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a microplate-based high-throughput procedure for rapid assay of the enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, using extremely small volumes of reagents. The new procedure offers the advantages of rapidity, small sample size-nanoliter volumes, low cost, and a dramatic increase in the throughput sample number that can be analyzed simultaneously. Additional advantages can be accessed by using microplate reader application software packages that permit assigning a group type to the wells, recording of the data on exportable data files and exercising the option of using the kinetic or endpoint reading modes. The assay can also be used independently for detecting nitrite residues/contamination in environmental/food samples. 10 refs., 2 figs.

McNally, N.; Liu, Xiang Yang; Choudary, P.V. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)



Nitrite oxidation in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone  

PubMed Central

Nitrite oxidation is the second step of nitrification. It is the primary source of oceanic nitrate, the predominant form of bioavailable nitrogen in the ocean. Despite its obvious importance, nitrite oxidation has rarely been investigated in marine settings. We determined nitrite oxidation rates directly in 15N-incubation experiments and compared the rates with those of nitrate reduction to nitrite, ammonia oxidation, anammox, denitrification, as well as dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Nitrite oxidation (?372?nM NO2??d?1) was detected throughout the OMZ even when in situ oxygen concentrations were low to non-detectable. Nitrite oxidation rates often exceeded ammonia oxidation rates, whereas nitrate reduction served as an alternative and significant source of nitrite. Nitrite oxidation and anammox co-occurred in these oxygen-deficient waters, suggesting that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) likely compete with anammox bacteria for nitrite when substrate availability became low. Among all of the known NOB genera targeted via catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, only Nitrospina and Nitrococcus were detectable in the Namibian OMZ samples investigated. These NOB were abundant throughout the OMZ and contributed up to ?9% of total microbial community. Our combined results reveal that a considerable fraction of the recently recycled nitrogen or reduced NO3? was re-oxidized back to NO3? via nitrite oxidation, instead of being lost from the system through the anammox or denitrification pathways.

Fussel, Jessika; Lam, Phyllis; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Holtappels, Moritz; Gunter, Marcel; Kuypers, Marcel MM



Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H\\/He and LPS-resistant C3H\\/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H\\/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H\\/HeJ strain with LPS

D. J. Stuehr; M. A. Marletta



Dynamics of corrosion rates associated with nitrite or nitrate mediated control of souring under biological conditions simulating an oil reservoir.  


Representative microbial cultures from an oil reservoir and electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic scan and linear polarization were used to investigate the time dependent corrosion rate associated with control of biogenic sulphide production through addition of nitrite, nitrate and a combination of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and nitrate. The addition of nitrate alone did not prevent the biogenic production of sulphide but the produced sulphide was eventually oxidized and removed from the system. The addition of nitrate and NR-SOB had a similar effect on oxidation and removal of sulphide present in the system. However, as the addition of nitrate and NR-SOB was performed towards the end of sulphide production phase, the assessment of immediate impact was not possible. The addition of nitrite inhibited the biogenic production of sulphide immediately and led to removal of sulphide through nitrite mediated chemical oxidation of sulphide. The real time corrosion rate measurement revealed that in all three cases an acceleration in the corrosion rate occurred during the oxidation and removal of sulphide. Amendments of nitrate and NR-SOB or nitrate alone both gave rise to localized corrosion in the form of pits, with the maximum observed corrosion rates of 0.72 and 1.4 mm year(-1), respectively. The addition of nitrite also accelerated the corrosion rate but the maximum corrosion rate observed following nitrite addition was 0.3 mm year(-1). Furthermore, in the presence of nitrite the extent of pitting was not as high as those observed with other control methods. PMID:16758172

Rempel, C L; Evitts, R W; Nemati, M



Natural abundance-level measurement of the nitrogen isotopic composition of oceanic nitrate: an adaptation of the ammonia diffusion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have adapted the “ammonia diffusion” method of nitrate extraction for natural-abundance level nitrogen isotopic measurement of oceanic nitrate. The method involves: (1) sample concentration (by boiling or evaporation); (2) conversion of nitrate to ammonia using Devarda's alloy; and (3) the gas-phase diffusion of ammonia onto an acidified glass fiber disk which is sandwiched between two porous Teflon membranes. We

D. M. Sigman; M. A. Altabet; R. Michener; D. C. McCorkle; B. Fry; R. M. Holmes



The study of abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite in Boom Clay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Compatibility studies at the SCK•CEN aim at investigating a perturbation of the capacity of Boom Clay to retard the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, after disposal of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in the clay ( Valcke et al., 2009; Aertsens et al., 2009; Bleyen et al., 2010). One of the geo-chemical perturbations is the possible oxidation of Boom Clay by the large amounts of nitrate that will be released by Eurobitum. A more oxidised Boom Clay could have a lower reducing capacity towards redox sensitive radionuclides, possibly enhancing their migration. As the conditions in the Boom Clay formation around a disposal gallery for Eurobitum are far from optimal for the growth of prokaryotes (limited space in the far-field, high pH in the near-field, gamma radiation by the waste during the first ?300 years (effect limited to the primary and secondary waste package)), the impact of microbially mediated reduction of nitrate and nitrite is unclear. Therefore, batch tests are performed at the SCK•CEN to study whether nitrate and nitrite can directly oxidise the main redoxactive components of Boom Clay (dissolved organic matter, kerogen, pyrite) without the mediation of prokaryotes. In a first series of batch tests, which are reported in this paper, the activity of denitrifying and nitrate reducing prokaryotes was inhibited by the addition of NaN 3. NaN 3 revealed to be an efficient inhibitor for these prokaryotes without affecting considerably the geochemistry of Boom Clay and/or Boom Clay pore water. Neither in batch tests with the Boom Clay slurries (with NaNO 3 (0.1 and 1 M) or NaNO 2 (0.1 M)) and with Boom Clay water (with 0.05 and 0.2 M NaNO 3) a pure chemical nitrate or nitrite reduction was observed after respectively 3, 7 and 17 weeks and 1 year (Boom Clay slurries) and about 2 years (Boom Clay water). Furthermore, batch tests in which bacterial activity was allowed, demonstrated that the Boom Clay natural organic matter is a poor carbon source for (denitrifying and nitrate reducing) prokaryotes.

Mariën, A.; Bleyen, N.; Aerts, S.; Valcke, E.


Macrophage Synthesis of Nitrite, Nitrate, and N-nitrosamines: Precursors and Role of the Respiratory Burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when activated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma synthesized nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-). Medium change after the activation showed that L-arginine was the only amino acid essential for this synthesis. D-Arginine would not substitute for L-arginine. Other analogues that could replace L-arginine were L-homoarginine, L-arginine methyl ester, L-arginamide, and the peptide L-arginyl-L-aspartate. L-Argininic

Radha Iyengar; Dennis J. Stuehr; Michael A. Marletta



Effect of sodium nitrite, sodium chloride , and sodium nitrate on germination and outgrowth of anaerobic spores.  


The effects of meat-curing agents on germination and outgrowth of putrefactive anaerobe 3679h (PA 3679h) spores were studied in microcultures. Nitrite concentrations up to 0.06% at pH 6.0 or between 0.8 and 1% at pH 7.0 allowed emergence and elongation of vegetative cells but blocked cell division. The newly emerged cells then lysed. With more than 0.06% nitrite at pH 6.0 or more than 0.8 to 1% at pH 7.0, the spores lost refractility and swelled, but vegetative cells did not emerge. Even as much as 4% nitrite failed to prevent germination (complete loss of refractility) and swelling of the spores. Sodium chloride concentrations above 6% prevented complete germination (i.e., the spores retained a refractile core). In the presence of 3 to 6% sodium chloride, most of the spores germinated and produced vegetative cells, but cell division was often blocked. Sodium nitrate had no apparent effect on germination and outgrowth at concentrations up to 2%. PMID:5645423

Duncan, C L; Foster, E M



Effects of pH and catalyst concentration on photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous ammonia and nitrite in titanium dioxide suspensions.  


Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) concentration and pH on the initial rates of photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous ammonium/ ammonia (NH4+/NH3) and nitrite (NO2-) in UV-illuminated TiO2 suspensions. While no simple kinetic model could fit the data at lower TiO2 concentrations, at TiO2 concentrations > or = 1 g/L, the experimental data were consistent with a model assuming consecutive first-order transformation of NH4+/NH3 to NO2- and NO2- to nitrate (NO3-). For TiO2 concentrations > or = 1 g/L, the rate constants for NO2 photocatalytic oxidation to NO3 were far more dependent on TiO2 concentration than were those for NH4+/NH3 oxidation to NO2-, suggesting that, without sufficient TiO2, complete oxidation of NH4+/NH3 to NO3- will not occur. Initial NH4+/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation rates were proportional to the initial concentrations of neutral NH3 and not total NH3(i.e., [NH4+] + [NH3]). Thus, the pH-dependent equilibrium between NH4+ and NH3, and not the pH-dependent electrostatic attraction between NH4+ and the TiO2 surface, is responsible for the increase in rates of NH4+/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation with increasing pH. Electrostatic adsorption, however, can partly explain the pH dependence of the initial rates of NO2- photocatalytic oxidation. Initial rates of NO2- photocatalytic oxidation were 1 order of magnitude higher for NO2- versus NH4+/NH3, indicating thatthe rate of NH4+/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation to NO3- was limited by NH4+/NH3 oxidation to NO2- under our experimental conditions. PMID:15952386

Zhu, Xingdong; Castleberry, Sunny R; Nanny, Mark A; Butler, Elizabeth C



Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste(HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE)method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%.

Metcalf, S.G.



Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrate in control of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum outgrowth and toxigenesis in vacuum-packed cold-smoked rainbow trout  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of sodium nitrite (NaNO2) and potassium nitrate (KNO3) on the outgrowth and toxigenesis of nonproteolytic Clostridium botulinum in vacuum-packed cold-smoked rainbow trout stored for six weeks was studied in two inoculation studies at slightly abusive storage temperatures of 4 °C and 8 °C. The depletion rate of nitrite and the reduction rate of nitrate to nitrite as well

Eija Hyytiä; Susanna Eerola; Sebastian Hielm; Hannu Korkeala



Development of a cost-effective method for nitrate and nitrite determination in leafy plants and nitrate and nitrite contents of some green leafy vegetables grown in the Aegean region of Turkey.  


An accurate, fast, easily applicable, and cost-effective method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite was developed. This method was much more reliable than the cadmium column reduction method, which is a tedious and time-consuming procedure and not easily applicable. The principle of the method was reduction of nitrate to nitrite with cadmium acetate solution and zinc powder and then treatment with Griess reagent. Recovery of the method changed from 92.9 to 102.8%, and detection limit was found as 31.4 mg/kg. Coefficient of variation was 3.16% for intraday precision. Nitrate and nitrite contents of 10 types of leafy vegetables native to the Aegean region of Turkey were determined. Wild radish, chicory, fennel, blessed thistle, blue mallow, and chard were analyzed for the first time. Nitrate contents were found between 354.8 mg/kg for iceberg lettuce and 4653 mg/kg for wild radish. Tested vegetables contained <26.33 mg/kg nitrite. PMID:20384339

Ozdestan, Ozgül; Uren, Ali



The Effect of Exogenous IAA and Kinetin on Nitrate Reductase, Nitrite Reductase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activities in Excised Pea Roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate reductase (NO3R) activity, nitrite reductase (NO2R) activity and NADH2 dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity were followed in extracts from excised pea roots incubated under aseptic\\u000a conditions for 9 and 24 h in nitrate containing nutrient medium to which IAA was added in concentrations promoting lateral\\u000a root formation (1 × 10?5; 3 × 10?5; 5 × 10?5 M) and kinetin

J. Sahulka



Ammonia and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a Pilot-Scale Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite- oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA (rDNA))

John M. Regan; Gregory W. Harrington; Daniel R. Noguera



Synthesis of a nitro complex of Ru(III)(salen): Unexpected aromatic ring nitration by a nitrite salt.  


Reaction of silver nitrite with Ru(salen)(PPh(3))(Cl) (salen(2-)=N,N'-ethylenebis(salicylideneiminato dianion) using [NEt(4)]OH as a phase transfer agent led to the formation of a stable, N-coordinated nitrite ion complex (Ru(III)-NO(2)) that was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. This reaction also resulted in nitration of the two phenolic rings of the salen ligand, which was unexpected given the basic conditions. With sodium nitrite, the Ru(III)-nitro complex was formed, but no ring nitration was observed. Thus, in a non-acidic medium, the combination of nitrite with redox active metal centers may provide a route to the nitration of phenolic derivatives. Possible mechanisms of this unusual reaction having potential relevance to aromatic nitrations in biological systems are discussed. This is also the first report of the crystal structure of a Ru(III)-nitro complex, a species that has been suggested to be unstable and prone to rapid disproportionation. PMID:19042023

Birkmann, Birgit; Owens, Bridget T; Bandyopadhyay, Susmita; Wu, Guang; Ford, Peter C



Growth of Campylobacter jejuni Supported by Respiration of Fumarate, Nitrate, Nitrite, Trimethylamine-N-Oxide, or Dimethyl Sulfoxide Requires Oxygen  

Microsoft Academic Search

The human gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic bacterium with a respiratory metabolism. The genome sequence of C. jejuni strain 11168 reveals the presence of genes that encode terminal reductases that are predicted to allow the use of a wide range of alternative electron acceptors to oxygen, including fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, and N -o rS-oxides. All of these reductase

Michael J. Sellars; Stephen J. Hall; David J. Kelly



Evaluation of sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification and denitritation for biological removal of nitrate and nitrite from contaminated waters.  


Sulfur-based autotrophic denitrification and denitritation were investigated using an oil reservoir culture. In batch system nitrate up to 20 mM was reduced with concomitant sulfate production. With 20 mM nitrate, reduction of produced nitrite did not occur which was contrary to that under heterotrophic conditions. Reduction of nitrite as the sole substrate occurred even at 50 mM. When both sulfur and acetate were present, only acetate was used as the electron donor. In the continuous biofilm reactor maximum nitrate and nitrite removal rates of 17.3 and 13.2 mM/h, much higher than literature values, were achieved at residence times of 0.4 and 0.6 h, respectively. Bicarbonate functioned effectively as carbon source and alkaline, and eliminated the problems associated with lime addition. Based on these and our earlier findings the highest nitrate and nitrite removal rates are achieved under heterotrophic conditions with acetate, followed by autotrophic rates with sulfide, and then elemental sulfur. PMID:22497708

Sun, Yimin; Nemati, Mehdi



Kinetics of aerobic growth of a denitrifying bacterium, Pseudomonas denitrificans, in the presence of nitrates and\\/or nitrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments have been employed to develop a mathematical model for the aerobic growth of a known denitrifier, Pseudomonas denitrificans, in the presence or absence of nitrate and\\/or nitrite. Specially designed batch experiments were used in order to evaluate the model's kinetic parameters. The aerobic growth kinetics, could be very well described by using double Monod expressions for the limiting

M. Kornaros; G. Lyberatos



Nitrogen-13-labeled nitrite and nitrate: distribution and metabolism after intratracheal administration  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive nitrogen-13 from nitrite (NO/sub 2//sup -/) or nitrate (NO/sub 3//sup -/) administered intratracheally or intravenously without added carrier to mice or rabbits was distributed evenly throughout most organs and tissues regardless of the entry route or the anion administered. Nitrogen-13 from both anions was distributed uniformly between plasma and blood cells. Rapid in vivo oxidation of NO/sub 2//sup -/ to NO/sub 3//sup -/ at concentrations of 2 to 3 nanomoles per liter in blood was found. No reduction of /sup 13/NO/sub 3//sup -/ to /sup 13/NO/sub 2//sup -/ was observed. A mechanistic hypothesis invoking oxidation of /sup 13/NO/sub 2//sup -/ by a catalase-hydrogen peroxide complex accounts for the results.

Parks, N.J.; Krohn, K.A.; Mathis, C.A.; Chasko, J.H.; Geiger, K.R.; Gregor, M.E.; Peek, N.F.




Microsoft Academic Search

New nitrate and nitrite complexes of metalloporphyrins have been\\u000a synthesized and crystallographically characterized, and their\\u000a photochemistry has been examined. Irradiation of Mn(TPP)(NO3) and\\u000a Mn(TPP)(NO2) (where TPP = 5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinate(2-))\\u000a produces the high-valent metal-oxo species O = Mn(IV)(TPP)\\u000a quantitatively, with quantum yields of 1.58 x 10(-4) and 5.30 x 10(-4),\\u000a respectively. This metal-oxo species is capable of oxidizing\\u000a substrates, as demonstrated in

Kenneth S. Suslick; Randall A. Watson



Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire  

PubMed Central

Background Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. Methods We developed estimates of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for food items listed in the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire (WFFQ) as adapted for use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Multiple reference databases were searched for published literature reflecting nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in foods. Relevant published literature was reviewed; only publications reporting results for items listed on the WFFQ were selected for inclusion. The references selected were prioritized according to relevance to the U.S. population. Results Based on our estimates, vegetable products contain the highest levels of nitrate, contributing as much as 189 mg/serving. Meat and bean products contain the highest levels of nitrites with values up to 1.84 mg/serving. Alcohol, meat and dairy products contain the highest values of nitrosamines with a maximum value of 0.531 ?g/serving. The estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines generated in this study are based on the published values currently available. Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the only estimates specifically designed for use with the adapted WFFQ and generated to represent food items available to the U.S. population. The estimates provided may be useful in other research studies, specifically in those exploring the relation between exposure to these compounds in foods and adverse health outcomes.

Griesenbeck, John S; Steck, Michelle D; Huber, John C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Rene, Antonio A; Brender, Jean D



Plasma nitrate+nitrite levels are regulated by ovarian steroids but do not correlate with trabecular bone mineral density in rats.  


Nitric oxide (NO) is a mediator of bone metabolism and its production is under the control of gender hormones in several cell types or tissues. Changes in endogenous NO production, measured as plasma nitrate+nitrite levels, may therefore contribute to ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss. We studied plasma nitrate+nitrite levels and trabecular bone mineral density (TBMD) 4 weeks after sham-operation or OVX in rats receiving various hormonal treatments. OVX decreased plasma nitrate+nitrite levels significantly and this was accompanied by a significant decrease in TBMD. Treatment with oral ethinyl oestradiol (EE) and subcutaneous 17beta-oestradiol dose-dependently prevented the decrease in plasma nitrate+nitrite levels after OVX, but treatment with oral 17beta-oestradiol did not. Oestrogen treatment, 17beta-oestradiol (s. c. or orally) or EE (orally), prevented the OVX-induced decrease in TBMD. Treatment of sham-operated rats with the anti-oestrogen ICI164, 384 induced a significant decrease in TBMD that corresponded to 54% of the decrease observed after OVX, but did not affect plasma nitrate+nitrite levels. Treatment of ovariectomized rats with Org 2058, a pure progestagen, did not prevent bone loss, but prevented the decrease in plasma nitrate+nitrite levels dose-dependently. Treatment with tibolone, a synthetic steroid with combined weak oestrogenic, progestagenic, and androgenic properties, or with progestagen in combination with EE completely prevented bone loss after OVX. These treatments, however, only partly prevented the OVX-induced decrease in plasma nitrate+nitrite levels. In conclusion, OVX decreased both TBMD and plasma nitrate+nitrite levels. Although plasma nitrate+nitrite levels were under the control of both oestrogen and progesterone, TBMD was affected by oestrogen only. Decreased systemic production of NO is, therefore, not involved in OVX-induced bone loss in rats. PMID:9795338

van Bezooijen, R L; Que, I; Ederveen, A G; Kloosterboer, H J; Papapoulos, S E; Löwik, C W



An automatic gas-phase molecular absorption spectrometric system using a UV-LED photodiode based detector for determination of nitrite and total nitrate.  


An automatic gas-phase molecular absorption spectrometric (GPMAS) system was developed and applied to determine nitrite and total nitrate in water samples. The GPMAS system was coupled with a UV-light emitting diode photodiode (UV-LED-PD) based photometric detector, including a 255 nm UV-LED as the light source, a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tube of 14 cm as the gas flow cell, and an integrated photodiode amplifier to measure the transmitted light intensity. The UV-LED-PD detector was compact, robust, simple and of low heat production, comparing with detectors used in other GPMAS works. For nitrite measurement, citric acid was used to acidify the sample, and ethanol to catalyze the quantitative formation of NO(2). The produced NO(2) was purged with air flow into the UV-LED-PD detector, and the gaseous absorbance value was measured. The total nitrate could be determined after being reduced to nitrite with a cadmium column. Limits of detection for nitrite and nitrate were 7 ?mol/L and 12 ?mol/L, respectively; and linear ranges of 0.021-5 mmol/L for nitrite and 0.036-4 mmol/L for nitrate were obtained. Related standard deviations were 1.81% and 1.08% for nitrite and nitrate, respectively, both at 2 mmol/L. The proposed method has been applied to determine nitrite and total nitrate in some environmental water samples. PMID:21376971

Zhang, Min; Zhang, Zhen; Yuan, Dongxing; Feng, Sichao; Liu, Baomin



Determination of nitrite, nitrate, and glucose-6-phosphate in muscle tissues and cured meat by IC/MS.  


The endogenous nitrate concentration in fresh meat and the residual nitrate and nitrite contents after curing are related to food quality and safety. Most ion chromatography (IC) methods suffer from interferences, especially in fresh meat samples, in which the endogenous nitrate content is low, and in cured meat products, in which other nitrogenous compounds can interfere with the separation of inorganic anions. One of the major classes of interfering compounds in fresh meat are sugar phosphates, which originate from glycolysis during the conversion of muscle glycogen to lactic acid. Nitrate can be separated from interfering compounds with a high-capacity anion-exchange column that was manufactured for use with hydroxide eluents (i.e., hydroxide-selective). This column has a different selectivity than traditional IC columns that use carbonate eluents and facilitates the determination of nitrate in both fresh and cured meats. Nitrate was detected by both suppressed conductivity measurement and mass spectrometry (MS). The identifications of nitrate and glucose-6-phosphate were confirmed by MS detection. The described IC/MS method is robust, sensitive to nitrate concentrations as low as 0.10 mg/kg, and can determine sugar phosphates that are useful for monitoring meat freshness. We successfully used this method to determine nitrate in nearly 100 muscle tissues and cured meat samples. PMID:16792070

Saccani, Giovanna; Tanzi, Enrica; Cavalli, Silvano; Rohrer, Jeff



An example of interaction between environmental pollutants: modification of thiram toxicity to freshwater organisms by nitrites or nitrates in relation to nitrosamine synthesis.  


Thiram, a dithiocarbamate fungicide, is known to evolve to dimethylnitrosamine (DMNA) when associated with nitrites. Conditions of appearance of that carcinogenic compound have been studied in short-term experiments by association of the fungicide, nitrates or nitrites, and species representative of freshwater biota. DMNA has been estimated by GLC equipped with a specific detector. Chlorella vulgaris can rapidly produce nitrites from nitrates and DMNA is obtained in presence of thiram. Daphnia magna can also synthesize DMNA but nitrites have to be added to the medium. Increased toxicity of thiram is observed. The same results are obtained on Cyprinus carpio and for a part on Brachydanio rerio. When the species are associated in a 15-day experimental food chain, and intoxicated algae feed the two other levels, no significant transfer is observed. Nevertheless, some DMNA hazard may exist for particular species exposed to thiram associated with nitrites or even nitrates if algae are present. PMID:4006832

Jouany, J M; Truhaut, R; Vasseur, P; Klein, D; Ferard, J F; Deschamps, P



Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. Methods For this population-based case–control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (> 30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. Results While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] <1.12). Similar results were found for OCs and LDs with the exception of animal nitrites and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (aORs and CIs for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 =1.24; CI=1.05-1.48), animal nitrites and cleft lip (4th quartile aOR=1.32; CI=1.01-1.72), and total nitrite and intercalary LD (4th quartile aOR=4.70; CI=1.23-17.93). Conclusions Overall, odds of NTDs, OCs or LDs did not appear to be significantly associated with estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines.



Influence of Nitrate and Ammonia on Photosynthetic Characteristics and Leaf Anatomy of Moricandia arvensis1  

PubMed Central

The leaf anatomy and certain photosynthetic properties of nitrate- and ammonia-grown plants of Moricandia arvensis (L.) DC., a species previously reported to be a C3-C4 intermediate, were investigated. Nitrate-grown plants had a high level of malate in the leaves while ammonia-grown plants had low levels of malate. In young leaves of nitrate-grown plants, there was a diurnal fluctuation of malate content, increasing during the day and decreasing during the night. Titratable acidity remained low in leaves of both nitrate- and ammonia-grown plants. In nitrate-grown plants, the activity of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) carboxylase was about 2-fold higher than in ammonia-grown plants, the latter having activity typical of C3 species. Also, in nitrate-grown plants, the ratio of activities of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/PEP carboxylase was lower than in ammonia-grown plants. Nitrate reductase activities were higher in nitrate- than in ammonia-grown plants and the greatest activity was found in younger leaves. With nitrate-grown plants, during a pulse-chase experiment the label in malate, as a percentage of the total labeled products, increased from about 7% after a 10-second pulse with 14CO2 up to 17% during a 5-minute chase with 12CO2. The pattern of 14C labeling in various metabolites suggests the primary carboxylation is through RuBP carboxylase with a secondary carboxylation through PEP carboxylase. In similar experiments, with ammonia-grown plants, the percentage label in malate was only 0% to 4% with no increase in malate labeling during the chase period. The CO2 compensation point was lower in nitrate-grown than ammonia-grown plants. There was no evidence of Kranz-like anatomy in either the nitrate or ammonia-grown plants. Mitochondria of bundle-sheath cells were strikingly positioned along the inner tangential wall. This might allow the chloroplasts of these cells to fix the mitochondrial photorespired CO2 more effectively and contribute to the low CO2 compensation point in the species. Chloroplasts of bundle-sheath cells and contiguous mesophyll cells were similar in size and structure in plants grown on different media, although chloroplast thylakoids and stromata of the ammonia-grown plants stained more intensely than those of nitrate-grown plants. In addition, irregular clusters of phytoferritin particles occurred in the chloroplasts of the ammonia-grown plants. The results indicate that the substantial activity of PEP carboxylase, incorporation of CO2 into malate, the high malate content, and in part the relatively low CO2 compensation point in Moricandia arvensis may be accounted for by metabolism of nitrate rather than by a state of C3-C4 intermediacy. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7

Winter, Klaus; Usuda, Hideaki; Tsuzuki, Mikio; Schmitt, Mark; Edwards, Gerald E.; Thomas, Richard J.; Evert, Ray F.



Ammonium, Nitrate and Nitrite Nitrogen and Nitrate Reductase Enzyme Activity in Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) Fields After Diazinon, Imidacloprid and Lindane Treatments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Impacts of diazinon (O,O-diethyl O-2-isopropyl-6-methylpyrimidin-4-yl phosphorothioate), imidacloprid [1-(6-chloro-3-pyridylmethyl)-N-nitroimidazolidin-2-ylideneamine] and lindane (1,2,3,4,5.6-hexachlorocyclohexane) treatments on ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite nitrogen and nitrate reductase enzyme activities were determined in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) field for three consecutive years (1997 to 1999). Diazinon was applied for both seed- and soil-treatments but imidacloprid and lindane were used for seed treatments only at recommended rates. Diazinon




Transcription and activities of NOx reductases in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: the influence of nitrate, nitrite and oxygen availability.  


The ability of Agrobacetrium tumefaciens to perform balanced transitions from aerobic to anaerobic respiration was studied by monitoring oxygen depletion, transcription of nirK and norB, and the concentrations of nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide in stirred batch cultures with different initial oxygen, nitrate or nitrite concentrations. Nitrate concentrations (0.2-2 mM) did not affect oxygen depletion, nor the oxygen concentration at which denitrification was initiated (1-2 microM). Nitrite (0.2-2 mM), on the other hand, retarded the oxygen depletion as it reached approximately 20 microM, and caused initiation of active denitrification as oxygen concentrations reached 10-17 microM. Unbalanced transitions occurred in treatments with high cell densities (i.e. with rapid transition from oxic to anoxic conditions), seen as NO accumulation to muM concentrations and impeded nitrous oxide production. This phenomenon was most severe in nitrite treatments, and reduced the cells' ability to respire oxygen during subsequent oxic conditions. Transcripts of norB were only detectable during the period with active denitrification. In contrast, nirK transcripts were detected at low levels both before and after this period. The results demonstrate that the transition from aerobic to anaerobic metabolism is a regulatory challenge, with implications for survival and emission of trace gases from denitrifying bacteria. PMID:18312398

Bergaust, Linda; Shapleigh, James; Frostegård, Asa; Bakken, Lars



Formation of vascular S-nitrosothiols and plasma nitrates/nitrites following inhalation of diesel emissions.  


Epidemiological studies have associated traffic-related airborne pollution with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Nitric oxide (NO) is a common component of fresh diesel and gasoline engine emissions that rapidly transforms both in the atmosphere and once inhaled. Because of this rapid transformation, limited information is available in terms of potential human exposures and adverse health effects. Young rats were exposed to whole diesel emissions (DE) adjusted to 300 ?g/m(3) of particulate matter (containing 3.5 ppm NO) or 0, 3, or 10 ppm NO as a positive control. Animals were also pre-injected (ip) with either saline or N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione. Predictably, pure NO exposures led to a concentration-dependent increase in plasma nitrates compared to controls, which lasted for roughly 4 h postexposure. Whole DE exposure for 1 h also led to a doubling of plasma NOx. NAC injection increased the levels of plasma nitrates and nitrites (NOx) in the DE exposure group. Inhibition of nitric oxide symthase (NOS) by N(G)-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA) did not block the rise in plasma NOx, demonstrating that the increase was entirely due to exogenous sources. Both DE and pure NO exposures paradoxically led to elevated eNOS expression in aortic tissue. Furthermore, coronary arterioles from NO-exposed animals exhibited greater constriction to endothelin-1 compared to controls, consistent with a derangement of the NOS system. Thus, NO may be an important contributor to traffic-related cardiovascular morbidity, although further research is necessary for proper hazard identification. PMID:21598168

Knuckles, Travis L; Buntz, Jennifer G; Paffett, Michael; Channell, Meghan; Harmon, Molly; Cherng, Tom; Lucas, Selita N; McDonald, Jacob D; Kanagy, Nancy L; Campen, Matthew J



Intracellular Conversion of Environmental Nitrate and Nitrite to Nitric Oxide with Resulting Developmental Toxicity to the Crustacean Daphnia magna  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundNitrate and nitrite (jointly referred to herein as NOx) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which aquatic organisms are at particularly high risk of exposure. We tested the hypothesis that NOx undergo intracellular conversion to the potent signaling molecule nitric oxide resulting in the disruption of endocrine-regulated processes.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsThese experiments were performed with insect cells (Drosophila S2) and whole organisms Daphnia

Bethany R. Hannas; Parikshit C. Das; Hong Li; Gerald A. LeBlanc



Catalytic reduction of nitrates and nitrites in water solution on pumice-supported Pd–Cu catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two series of pumice-supported palladium and palladium–copper catalysts, prepared by impregnation with different palladium and copper precursors, were tested for the hydrogenation of aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions. Measurements were performed in a stirred tank reactor, operating in batch conditions, in buffered water solution at atmospheric pressure and at 293K. The activities of the catalysts were calculated in terms of

F Deganello; L. F Liotta; A Macaluso; A. M Venezia; G Deganello



Selective hydrogenation of nitrate to nitrite in water over Cu-Pd bimetallic clusters supported on active carbon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydrogenation of nitrate (200ppm) in water with H2 over Cu-Pd clusters supported on active carbon (AC) was investigated at 333K using a gas–liquid co-current flow system. Two types of Cu-Pd bimetallic clusters, stabilized with either poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) or sodium citrate (SC), revealed that the catalysts possessed similar activity (per unit weight of Pd) and high selectivity toward nitrite when pH

Yoshinori Sakamoto; Yuichi Kamiya; Toshio Okuhara



Fine structure characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for decontamination of nitrites and nitrates in wastewater and groundwater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the chemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite species by zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVIN) in aqueous solution and related reaction kinetics or mechanisms using fine structure characterization. This work also exemplifies the utilization of field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to reveal the speciation

Kuen-Song Lin; Ni-Bin Chang; Tien-Deng Chuang



Effects of simulated microgravity on arterial nitric oxide synthase and nitrate and nitrite content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the present work was to investigate the alterations in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) content of different arteries from simulated microgravity rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group or simulated microgravity group. For simulating microgravity, animals were subjected to hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 20 days. Different arterial tissues were removed for determination of NOS expression and NOx. Western blotting was used to measure endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein content. Total concentrations of NOx, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined by the chemiluminescence method. Compared with controls, isolated vessels from simulated microgravity rats showed a significant increase in both eNOS and iNOS expression in carotid arteries and thoracic aorta and a significant decrease in eNOS and iNOS expression of mesenteric arteries. The eNOS and iNOS content of cerebral arteries, as well as that of femoral arteries, showed no differences between the two groups. Concerning NOx, vessels from HU rats showed an increase in cerebral arteries, a decrease in mesenteric arteries, and no change in carotid artery, femoral artery and thoracic aorta. These data indicated that there were differential alterations in NOS expression and NOx of different arteries after hindlimb unweighting. We suggest that these changes might represent both localized adaptations to differential body fluid redistribution and other factors independent of hemodynamic shifts during simulated microgravity.

Ma, Jin; Kahwaji, Chadi I.; Ni, Zhenmin; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Purdy, Ralph E.



Simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate anions in plasma, urine and cell culture supernatants by high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column reactions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate anions derived from nitric oxide in biological fluids is presented. After separation on a strong anion-exchange column (Spherisorb SAX, 250×4.6 mm I.D., 5 ?m), two on-line post-column reactions occur. The first involves nitrate reduction to nitrite on a copper-plated cadmium-filled column. In the second, the diazotization-coupling reaction between

Marcelo Nicolás Muscará; Gilberto de Nucci



Diverse effects of formate on the dissimilatory metabolism of nitrate in Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867: Growth, nitrite accumulation in culture, cellular activities of nitrate and nitrite reductases  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growth of Pseudomonas denitrificans ATCC 13867 under denitrifying conditions was significantly stimulated by adding an appropriate amount of formate (2.5 mM or above) to the growth medium. The accumulation of nitrite in the culture was markedly depressed so long as formate remained in the culture above a certain level. Cellular activities of enzymes participating in denitrification also changed. The

Yushi Nishimura; Teijiro Kamihara; Saburo Fukui



Synthese du Nitrate d'Ammonium a Partir d'Ammoniac et d'Acide Nitrique avec Recuperation et Recyclage de l'Azote Mineral (Recovery and Recycling of Ammonia Contained in Gases from Ammonium Nitrate Production).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The company performs ammonium nitrate synthesis accompanied by recovery and recycling of the ammonia contained in the vapor. The synthesis of ammonium nitrate is carried out in both techniques through a nitric acid reaction on the ammonia. When the reacti...



TOXICIDADE AGUDA DA AMÔNIA NÃO IONIZADA E DO NITRIT O EM ALEVINOS DE Cichlasoma facetum (JENYNS, 1842) Acute toxicity of un ionized ammonia and nitrite in Cichlasoma facetum (Jenyns, 1842) fingerlings  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrogen is derivates in water presence indicates active biological processes influenced by organic pollution, being able, in high concentrations, to cause physiological damages, even mortality in aquatic organisms. In order to determine the lethal effect of the un- ionized ammonia and of the nitrite, fingerlings of cará (Cichlasoma facetum) have been exposed, during 96 hours, to diverse concentrations of

Sérgio Renato; Noguez Piedras; José Luis Ruas Oliveira; Paulo Roberto; Rocha Moraes; Alex Bager


Expression, and Molecular and Enzymatic Characterization of Cu-Containing Nitrite Reductase from a Marine Ammonia-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani  

PubMed Central

Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) remove intracellular nitrite to prevent its toxicity by a nitrifier denitrification pathway involving two denitrifying enzymes, nitrite reductase and nitric oxide reductase. Here, a Cu-containing nitrite reductase from Nitrosococcus oceani strain NS58, a gammaproteobacterial marine AOB, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Sequence homology analysis indicated that the nitrite reductase from N. oceani was phylogenetically closer to its counterparts from denitrifying bacteria than that of the betaproteobacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. The recombinant enzyme was a homotrimer of a 32 kDa subunit molecule. The enzyme was green in the oxidized state with absorption peaks at 455 nm and 575 nm. EPR spectroscopy indicated the presence of type 2 Cu. Molecular activities and the affinity constant for the nitrite were determined to be 1.6×103 s?1 and 52 ?M, respectively.

Kondo, Keitaro; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo



Modeling of an intermittent solar absorption refrigeration system operating with ammonia–lithium nitrate mixture  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theoretical performance of an intermittent absorption refrigeration system operating with ammonia–lithium nitrate mixture is presented. The analysis was done for representative days of each season of 2001. Meteorological data were taken from a local meteorological station installed in the Energy Research Centre of the National University of Mexico in Temixco, Morelos, Mexico. The system consists of a generator-absorber, a

C. O Rivera; W Rivera



In situ field measurements of ammonia volatilization from urea and calcium ammonium nitrate applied to grassland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization from urea and calcium ammonium nitrate (CAN) broadcast to permanent grassland on a clay soil was measured in-situ, using a system of wind-tunnels. When CAN was applied virtually no NH3 volatilized. More than half of the 1

G. L. Velthof; O. Oenema; J. Postmus; W. H. Prins



Detection ofBacterial Nitrite Production fromNitrate bya Nitrate-Starch-I odide AgarMedium  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mediumconsisting ofnitrate agar (Difco), modified bytheaddition of1% starch and1%KI,was usedtodetect theproduction ofnitrite bya numberof different bacterial species. Thecommonly usednitrite detection method isaGriess reaction (3). Thisprocedure involves theuseofa-naphthylamine, acompound which hasbeenclassified bytheOccupational Safety andHealth Administration oftheU.S.Depart- mentofLabor(1)asahumanbladder carcino- gen.A less hazardous methodofdetermining nitrite production bymicroorganisms hasbeen devised based onthereaction between acidified nitrite andiodide ions andtheconcomitant pro- duction offree iodine (2).




Extraction of palladium(II) with 1-{[2-(2,4-Dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]-methyl}-1 H -1,2,4-triazole from nitrate-nitrite solutions modeling the composition of raffinates formed in the PUREX process  

Microsoft Academic Search

Extraction of palladium(II) with 1-{[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-propyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]-methyl}-1H-1,2,4-triazole in toluene from nitrate-nitrite solutions modeling in a number of components the composition of raffinates\\u000a formed in the PUREX process was studied. Conditions of a tenfold concentration of palladium(II) into an ammonia extract were\\u000a found.

G. R. Anpilogova; R. A. Khisamutdinov; Yu. I. Murinov



Precursor/product studies of macrophage synthesis of nitrite, nitrate and N-nitrosamines  

SciTech Connect

Previous experiments showed that nitrite, nitrate and N-nitrosamine synthesis was carried out by both stimulated macrophages (M phi) and a number of M phi cell lines. Here the authors report the precursor to NO/sub 2//sup -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and the source of the nitrosating agent. Previous kinetic studies established a time lag for NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis during which protein synthesis required for product formation occurred. Medium change after the protein synthesis phase showed that L-arginine was the only amino acid essential for the synthesis. Other precursors were homoarginine, arginine methyl ester, arginine infinity-hydroxamate, argininamide and the peptide arginine-aspartate. Glutamine, citrulline, ornithine, hydroxylamine and D-arginine were among some of the non-precursors. Canavanine though not a precursor inhibited arginine-derived NO/sub 2/-/NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesis while D-arginine had no effect. When /sup 15/N-arginine (guanido-/sup 15/N/sub 2/, 95%) was used, GC/MS results showed that all the NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesized was derived exclusively from these two guanido nitrogens. Similar labeling experiments carried out in the presence of morpholine showed that the isotopic enrichment of N-nitrosomorpholine was the same as that of NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ synthesized, suggesting that the nitrosating agent is a common intermediate. In conclusion, NO/sub 2//sup -//NO/sub 3//sup -/ and N-nitrosomorpholine synthesis by stimulated macrophages is derived specifically from the two guanido nitrogens of arginine.

Iyengar, R.; Marletta, M.A.



Nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable-based products and their intakes by the Estonian population.  


The content of nitrates were determined in 1,349 samples of vegetables and ready-made food in 2003-2004 as a part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The results of manufacturers' analyses carried out for internal monitoring were included in the study. The highest mean values of nitrates were detected in dill, spinach, lettuce and beet root. The mean concentrations were 2,936, 2,508, 2,167 and 1,446 mg kg(-1), respectively. The content of nitrites in samples was lower than 5 mg kg(-1). In total, the mean intake of nitrates by the Estonian population was 58 mg day(-1). The mean content of nitrates in vegetable-based infant foods of Estonian origin was 88 mg kg(-1). The average daily intake of nitrates by children in the age group of 4-6 years was 30 mg. The infants' average daily intake of nitrates from consumption of vegetable-based foods was 7.8 mg. PMID:16546882

Tamme, T; Reinik, M; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Tenno, T; Kiis, A



Structures of genes nasA and nasB, encoding assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases in Klebsiella pneumoniae M5al.  

PubMed Central

Klebsiella pneumoniae can use nitrate and nitrite as sole nitrogen sources during aerobic growth. Assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductases convert nitrate through nitrite to ammonium. We report here the molecular cloning of the nasA and nasB genes, which encode assimilatory nitrate and nitrite reductase, respectively. These genes are tightly linked and probably form a nasBA operon. In vivo protein expression and DNA sequence analysis revealed that the nasA and nasB genes encode 92- and 104-kDa proteins, respectively. The NASA polypeptide is homologous to other prokaryotic molybdoenzymes, and the NASB polypeptide is homologous to eukaryotic and prokaryotic NADH-nitrite reductases. The narL gene product positively regulates expression of the structural genes for respiratory nitrate reductase, narGHJI. Surprisingly, we found that the nasBA operon is tightly linked to the narL-narGHJI region in K. pneumoniae, even though the nitrate assimilatory and respiratory enzymes serve different physiological functions. Images

Lin, J T; Goldman, B S; Stewart, V



Percentile Distributions of Median Nitrite Plus Nitrate as Nitrogen, Total Nitrogen, and Total Phosphorus Concentrations in Oklahoma Streams, 1973-2001  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nutrients are one of the primary causes of water-quality impairments in streams, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries in the United States. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has developed regional-based nutrient criteria using ecoregions to protect streams in the United States from impairment. However, nutrient criteria were based on nutrient concentrations measured in large aggregated nutrient ecoregions with little relevance to local environmental conditions in states. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is using a dichotomous process known as Use Support Assessment Protocols to define nutrient criteria in Oklahoma streams. The Oklahoma Water Resources Board is modifying the Use Support Assessment Protocols to reflect nutrient informa-tion and environmental characteristics relevant to Oklahoma streams, while considering nutrient information grouped by geographic regions based on level III ecoregions and state boundaries. Percentile distributions of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorous concentrations were calculated from 563 sites in Oklahoma and 4 sites in Arkansas near the Oklahoma and Arkansas border to facilitate development of nutrient criteria for Oklahoma streams. Sites were grouped into four geographic regions and were categorized into eight stream categories by stream slope and stream order. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations were greater in the Ozark Highland ecoregion and were less in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion when compared to other geographic areas used to group sites. The 50th percentiles of median concentrations of nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus were least in first, second, and third order streams. The 50th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland and Ouachita Mountains ecoregions were least in first, second, and third order streams with streams slopes greater than 17 feet per mile. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total nitrogen criteria determined by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Ozark Highland ecoregion were less than the 25th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, total nitrogen, and total phosphorus concentrations in the Ozark Highland ecoregion calculated for this report. Nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total nitrogen criteria developed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion were similar to the 25th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total nitrogen concentrations in the Ouachita Mountains ecoregion calculated for this report. Nitrate as nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations currently (2002) used in the Use Support Assessment Protocols for Oklahoma were greater than the 75th percentiles of median nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations calculated for this report.

Haggard, Brian E.; Masoner, Jason R.; Becker, Carol J.



Nitrite and nitrate formation on model NOx storage materials: on the influence of particle size and composition.  


A well-defined model-catalyst approach has been utilized to study the formation and decomposition of nitrite and nitrate species on a model NO(x) storage material. The model system comprises BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles of different size and stoichiometry, prepared under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions on Al(2)O(3)/NiAl(110). Adsorption and reaction of NO(2) has been investigated by molecular beam (MB) methods and time-resolved IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (TR-IRAS) in combination with structural characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The growth behavior and chemical composition of the BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles has been investigated previously. In this work we focus on the effect of particle size and stoichiometry on the reaction with NO(2). Particles of different size and of different Ba(2+) : Al(3+) surface ion ratio are prepared by varying the preparation conditions. It is shown that at 300 K the reaction mechanism is independent of particle size and composition, involving initial nitrite formation and subsequent transformation of nitrites into surface nitrates. The coordination geometry of the surface nitrates, however, changes characteristically with particle size. For small BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles high temperature (800 K) oxygen treatment gives rise to particle ripening, which has a minor effect on the NO(2) uptake behavior, however. STM shows that the morphology of the particle system is largely conserved during NO(2) exposure at 300 K. The reaction is limited to the formation of surface nitrites and nitrates, which are characterized by low thermal stability and completely decompose below 500 K. As no further sintering occurs before decomposition, NO(2) uptake and release is a fully reversible process. For large BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles, aggregates with different Ba(2+) : Al(3+) surface ion ratio were prepared. It was shown that the stoichiometry has a major effect on the kinetics of NO(2) uptake. For barium-aluminate-like particles with high Al(3+) concentration, the formation of nitrites and nitrates on the BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles at 300 K is slow, and kinetically restricted to the formation of surface species. Only at elevated temperature (500 K) are surface nitrates converted into well-defined bulk Ba(NO(3))(2). This bulk Ba(NO(3))(2) exhibits substantially higher thermal stability and undergoes restructuring and sintering before it decomposes at 700 K. For Ba(2+)-rich BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles, on the other hand, nitrate formation occurs at a much higher rate than for the barium-aluminate-like particles. Furthermore, nitrate formation is not limited to the surface, but NO(2) exposure gives rise to the formation of amorphous bulk Ba(NO(3))(2) particles even at 300 K. PMID:19325986

Desikusumastuti, A; Qin, Z; Happel, M; Staudt, T; Lykhach, Y; Laurin, M; Rohr, F; Shaikhutdinov, S; Libuda, J



[Characterization of labor conditions and state of health among ammonia nitrate producing workers].  


A complicated inquiry of worker's working conditions at enterprises that are producing ammonia nitrate has been conducted. It was determined that during the production process hazardous chemical compounds were used. It was found that labor conditions of studied industry are in unfavorable state. The most important problem is air pollution with toxic gazes. The atmosphere at the enterprises producing ammonia nitrate is significantly polluted by ammonia, nitrous acid and nitrogenous gazes. Concentration of toxic substances depends on the character of the technological process. High air temperature has bad effects on health during warm periods of the year. Noise factor and general industrial vibration exceed acceptable level in the majority of working area. The figures for sickness rate of workers with temporary loss of ability for work during three years have been analyzed. It has been stated that general rate of morbidity is not high, but this index in basic group 3.6-5.1 times exceeds the analogous figure in the control group. In the structure of morbidity diseases of respiratory, musculoskeletal, cardiovascular, neural, kidney and digestive systems are frequent and they amount to 76% of the whole cases. The clinical examination of the workers with basic professions of the production of ammonia nitrate shows the frequent cases of chronic bronchitis and radiculoneuropathy. The results of function study show the damage of airways and the myocardiodystrophy. This confirms the major role of occupational- professional factors in the etiology of these pathological conditions. PMID:16148388

Tsimakuridze, M P



Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction in Anaerobic Sediments Leading to River Nitrite Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Recent studies on Northern Ireland rivers have shown that summer nitrite (NO(inf2)(sup-)) concentrations greatly exceed the European Union guideline of 3 (mu)g of N liter(sup-1) for rivers supporting salmonid fisheries. In fast-flowing aerobic small streams, NO(inf2)(sup-) is thought to originate from nitrification, due to the retardation of Nitrobacter strains by the presence of free ammonia. Multiple regression analyses of NO(inf2)(sup-) concentrations against water quality variables of the six major rivers of the Lough Neagh catchment in Northern Ireland, however, suggested that the high NO(inf2)(sup-) concentrations found in the summer under warm, slow-flow conditions may result from the reduction of NO(inf3)(sup-). This hypothesis was supported by field observations of weekly changes in N species. Here, reduction of NO(inf3)(sup-) was observed to occur simultaneously with elevation of NO(inf2)(sup-) levels and subsequently NH(inf4)(sup+) levels, indicating that dissimilatory NO(inf3)(sup-) reduction to NH(inf4)(sup+) (DNRA) performed by fermentative bacteria (e.g., Aeromonas and Vibrio spp.) is responsible for NO(inf2)(sup-) accumulation in these large rivers. Mechanistic studies in which (sup15)N-labelled NO(inf3)(sup-) in sediment extracts was used provided further support for this hypothesis. Maximal concentrations of NO(inf2)(sup-) accumulation (up to 1.4 mg of N liter(sup-1)) were found in sediments deeper than 6 cm associated with a high concentration of metabolizable carbon and anaerobic conditions. The (sup15)N enrichment of the NO(inf2)(sup-) was comparable to that of the NO(inf3)(sup-) pool, indicating that the NO(inf2)(sup-) was predominantly NO(inf3)(sup-) derived. There is evidence which suggests that the high NO(inf2)(sup-) concentrations observed arose from the inhibition of the DNRA NO(inf2)(sup-) reductase system by NO(inf3)(sup-).

Kelso, B.; Smith, R. V.; Laughlin, R. J.; Lennox, S. D.



Incubation of curing brines for the production of ready-to-eat, uncured, no-nitrite-or-nitrate-added, ground, cooked and sliced ham.  


Salt concentration, vegetable juice powder (VJP) concentration and temperature were investigated to determine necessary conditions for incubation of curing brines including VJP and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus prior to production of naturally cured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products. Subsequently, incubated brines were utilized to produce no-nitrate/nitrite-added sliced ham in which quality characteristics and residual nitrite concentrations were measured to determine feasibility of brine incubation for nitrate conversion prior to injection. Two ham treatments (one with VJP and starter culture; one with pre-converted VJP) and a nitrite-added control were used. No differences (P>0.05) were found for color in the VJP treatments. Control sliced ham was redder after 42 days of storage, retaining significantly (P<0.05) greater a* (redness) than either of the VJP treatments. Residual nitrite concentration was greater (P<0.05) in the control hams during the first week of storage. While the nitrite-added control retained greater red color and initially had more residual nitrite than the VJP treatments, the two VJP treatments did not differ from each other. PMID:21664056

Krause, B L; Sebranek, J G; Rust, R E; Mendonca, A



Potential role of nitrite for abiotic Fe(II) oxidation and cell encrustation during nitrate reduction by denitrifying bacteria.  


Microorganisms have been observed to oxidize Fe(II) at neutral pH under anoxic and microoxic conditions. While most of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become encrusted with Fe(III)-rich minerals, photoautotrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers avoid cell encrustation. The Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms and the reasons for encrustation remain largely unresolved. Here we used cultivation-based methods and electron microscopy to compare two previously described nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers ( Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002) and two heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 and P. denitrificans Pd 1222). All four strains oxidized ?8 mM Fe(II) within 5 days in the presence of 5 mM acetate and accumulated nitrite (maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 1.0 mM) in the culture media. Iron(III) minerals, mainly goethite, formed and precipitated extracellularly in close proximity to the cell surface. Interestingly, mineral formation was also observed within the periplasm and cytoplasm; intracellular mineralization is expected to be physiologically disadvantageous, yet acetate consumption continued to be observed even at an advanced stage of Fe(II) oxidation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were detected by lectin staining with fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the presence of Fe(II), suggesting that EPS production is a response to Fe(II) toxicity or a strategy to decrease encrustation. Based on the data presented here, we propose a nitrite-driven, indirect mechanism of cell encrustation whereby nitrite forms during heterotrophic denitrification and abiotically oxidizes Fe(II). This work adds to the known assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and complicates our ability to delineate microbial Fe(II) oxidation in ancient microbes preserved as fossils in the geological record. PMID:24271182

Klueglein, Nicole; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Floetenmeyer, Matthias; Konhauser, Kurt O; Kappler, Andreas; Obst, Martin



Ammonia from iron(II) reduction of nitrite and the Strecker synthesis: do iron(II) and cyanide interfere with each other?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, effect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The reduction of nitrite and the Strecker can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, to yield glycine from a mixture of nitrite, Fe+2, formaldehyde, and cyanide.

Summers, D. P.; Lerner, N.



Nitrate reduction by organotrophic Anammox bacteria in a nitritation/anammox granular sludge and a moving bed biofilm reactor.  


The effects of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in nitritation/anammox process were compared within a granular sludge reactor and a moving bed biofilm reactor. Nitrate productions in both systems were lower by 40-68% in comparison with expected nitrate production. Expected sludge production on VFAs was estimated to be 67-77% higher if heterotrophs were the main acetate degraders suggesting that Anammox bacteria used its organotrophic capability and successfully competed with general heterotrophs for organic carbon, which led to a reduced sludge production. FISH measurements showed a population consisting of mainly Anammox and AOB in both reactors and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests also confirmed that flocculent biomass consisted of a minor proportion of heterotrophs with a large proportion of AOBs. The dominant Anammox bacterium was Candidatus "Brocadia fulgida" with a minor fraction of Candidatus "Anammoxoglobus propionicus", both known to be capable of oxidizing VFAs. PMID:22520220

Winkler, Mari K H; Yang, Jingjing; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Plaza, Elzbieta; Trela, Jozef; Hultman, Bengt; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M



The effect of acute poisoning with potassium nitrate and sodium nitrite on the processes of intestinal absorption of D-xylose in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intestinal transport of D-xylose was studied during the acute poisoning of male Wistar rats with orally administered potassium nitrate and sodium nitrite. At the peak of xylose absorption, the metabolic parameters of Na+\\/K+-ATPase, alkaline phosphatase, oxygen uptake, and lactic acid level were determined in the small intestine mucosa. Nitrite in a dose of 80 mg NaNO2\\/kg b.w. increased the

Ireneusz Grudzifiski; Antoni Szyma?ski



Effect of Sodium Nitrite, Sodium Chloride, and Sodium Nitrate on Germination and Outgrowth of Anaerobic Spores1  

PubMed Central

The effects of meat-curing agents on germination and outgrowth of putrefactive anaerobe 3679h (PA 3679h) spores were studied in microcultures. Nitrite concentrations up to 0.06% at pH 6.0 or between 0.8 and 1% at pH 7.0 allowed emergence and elongation of vegetative cells but blocked cell division. The newly emerged cells then lysed. With more than 0.06% nitrite at pH 6.0 or more than 0.8 to 1% at pH 7.0, the spores lost refractility and swelled, but vegetative cells did not emerge. Even as much as 4% nitrite failed to prevent germination (complete loss of refractility) and swelling of the spores. Sodium chloride concentrations above 6% prevented complete germination (i.e., the spores retained a refractile core). In the presence of 3 to 6% sodium chloride, most of the spores germinated and produced vegetative cells, but cell division was often blocked. Sodium nitrate had no apparent effect on germination and outgrowth at concentrations up to 2%. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3

Duncan, Charles L.; Foster, E. M.



Inhaled NO therapy increases blood nitrite, nitrate and S-nitrosohemoglobin concentrations in infants with pulmonary hypertension  

PubMed Central

Objective To measure the circulating concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) adducts with NO bioactivity following inhaled NO therapy in infants with pulmonary hypertension. Study design In this single center study five sequential blood samples were collected from infants with pulmonary hypertension before, during and after therapy with iNO (n=17). Samples were collected from a control group of hospitalized infants without pulmonary hypertension (n=16) and from healthy adults for comparison (n=12). Results After beginning iNO (20 ppm) whole blood nitrite increased about two-fold within two hours (P<0.01). Whole blood nitrate increased to four-fold higher than baseline during treatment with 20ppm iNO (P<0.01). S-nitrosohemoglobin (SNO-Hb) increased measurably after beginning iNO (P<0.01) whereas iron nitrosyl hemoglobin and total Hb-bound NO-species compounds did not change. Conclusion Treatment of pulmonary hypertensive infants with iNO results in increases in nitrite, nitrate, and SNO-Hb in circulating blood. We speculate that these compounds may be carriers of NO bioactivity throughout the body and account for peripheral effects of iNO in the brain, heart and other organs.

Ibrahim, Yomna I.; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Deming, Douglas D.; Zhang, Amy X.; Herring, Jason L.; Sowers, Lawrence C.; McMahon, Timothy J.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.



Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

Scheele, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cady, H.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)



Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

Scheele, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cady, H.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))



Investigation of reduction and tolerance capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi against nitrate and nitrite in fermented sausage condition.  


Lactobacillus brevis KGR3111, Lactobacillus curvatus KGR 2103, Lactobacillus plantarum KGR 5105, and Lactobacillus sakei KGR 4108 isolated from kimchi were investigated for their potential to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages with the capability to reduce and tolerate nitrate/nitrite. The reduction capability of tested strains for nitrate was not dramatic. All tested strains, however, showed the capability to produce nitrite reductase with the reduction amount of 58.46-75.80mg/l of NO2(-). L. brevis and L. plantarum showed nitrate tolerance with the highest number of 8.71logcfu/ml and 8.81logcfu/ml, and L. brevis and L. sakei exhibited nitrite tolerance with the highest number of 8.24logcfu/ml and 8.25logcfu/ml, respectively. As a result, L. brevis, L. plantarum, and L. sakei isolated from kimchi showed a tolerance against nitrate or nitrite with a good nitrite reduction capability, indicating the satisfaction of one of the selection criteria to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages. PMID:24821591

Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon



Development of a simple method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in groundwater by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry.  


In this work, it was developed a method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in groundwater by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry of NO produced by thermal decomposition of nitrate in a graphite furnace. The NO line at 215.360 nm was used for all analytical measurements and the signal obtained by integrated absorbance of three pixels. A volume of 20 ?L of standard solution or groundwater sample was injected into graphite furnace and 5 ?L of a 1% (m/v) Ca solution was co-injected as chemical modifier. The pyrolisis and vaporization temperatures established were of 150 and 1300°C, respectively. Under these conditions, it was observed a difference of thermal stability among the two nitrogen species in the presence of hydrochloric acid co-injected. While that the nitrite signal was totally suppressed, nitrate signal remained nearly stable. This way, nitrogen can be quantified only as nitrate. The addition of hydrogen peroxide provided the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, which allowed the total quantification of the species and nitrite obtained by difference. A volume of 5 ?L of 0.3% (v/v) hydrochloric acid was co-injected for the elimination of nitrite, whereas that hydrogen peroxide in the concentration of 0.75% (v/v) was added to samples or standards for the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Analytical curve was established using standard solution of nitrate. The method described has limits of detection and quantification of 0.10 and 0.33 ?g mL(-1) of nitrogen, respectively. The precision, estimated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was of 7.5 and 3.8% (n=10) for groundwater samples containing nitrate-N concentrations of 1.9 and 15.2 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 10 groundwater samples and the results were compared with those obtained by ion chromatography method. In all samples analyzed, the concentration of nitrite-N was always below of the limit of quantification of both the methods. The concentrations of nitrate-N varied from 0.58 to 15.5 ?g mL(-1). No significant difference it was observed between the results obtained by both methods for nitrate-N, at the 95% confidence level. PMID:24331045

Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Pereira, Raimundo N; Ferreira, Sergio L C



Reversible intercalation of ammonia molecules into a layered double hydroxide structure without exchanging nitrate counter-ions  

SciTech Connect

A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 A, typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 A. Thermal treatment at 150 {sup o}C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 A. Intense N-H stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup +} species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia, the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 A basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 A basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 {sup o}C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. - Graphical abstract: LDH-nitrate precipitated with ammonia expands the interlayer space if ammonia is bubbled up to pH 10. The basal distance decreased when the compound was heated at 150 {sup o}C or stirred in acetone. Nitrate ions are not exchanged.

Carbajal Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Wypych, Fernando [CEPESQ-Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Parana, P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Castillon Barraza, Felipe; Contreras Lopez, Oscar Edel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)



Nitrate-to-nitrite-to-nitric oxide conversion modulated by nitrate-containing {Fe(NO)2}9 dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC).  


Nitrosylation of high-spin [Fe(?(2)-O(2)NO)(4)](2-) (1) yields {Fe(NO)}(7) mononitrosyl iron complex (MNIC) [(?(2)-O(2)NO)(?(1)-ONO(2))(3)Fe(NO)](2-) (2) displaying an S = 3/2 axial electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum (g(?) = 3.988 and g(?) = 2.000). The thermally unstable nitrate-containing {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC) [(?(1)-ONO(2))(2)Fe(NO)(2)](-) (3) was exclusively obtained from reaction of HNO(3) and [(OAc)(2)Fe(NO)(2)](-) and was characterized by IR, UV-vis, EPR, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). In contrast to {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) DNIC [(ONO)(2)Fe(NO)(2)](-) constructed by two monodentate O-bound nitrito ligands, the weak interaction between Fe(1) and the distal oxygens O(5)/O(7) of nitrato-coordinated ligands (Fe(1)···O(5) and Fe(1)···O(7) distances of 2.582(2) and 2.583(2) Å, respectively) may play important roles in stabilizing DNIC 3. Transformation of nitrate-containing DNIC 3 into N-bound nitro {Fe(NO)}(6) [(NO)(?(1)-NO(2))Fe(S(2)CNEt(2))(2)] (7) triggered by bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide ((S(2)CNEt(2))(2)) implicates that nitrate-to-nitrite conversion may occur via the intramolecular association of the coordinated nitrate and the adjacent polarized NO-coordinate ligand (nitrosonium) of the proposed {Fe(NO)(2)}(7) intermediate [(NO)(2)(?(1)-ONO(2))Fe(S(2)CNEt(2))(2)] (A) yielding {Fe(NO)}(7) [(NO)Fe(S(2)CNEt(2))(2)] (6) along with the release of N(2)O(4) (·NO(2)) and the subsequent binding of ·NO(2) to complex 6. The N-bound nitro {Fe(NO)}(6) complex 7 undergoes Me(2)S-promoted O-atom transfer facilitated by imidazole to give {Fe(NO)}(7) complex 6 accompanied by release of nitric oxide. This result demonstrates that nitrate-containing DNIC 3 acts as an active center to modulate nitrate-to-nitrite-to-nitric oxide conversion. PMID:23237534

Tsai, Fu-Te; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Liaw, Wen-Feng



A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) or nitrate to ammonia and glass (NAG) process: Phase 2 report  

SciTech Connect

Continuing benchtop studies using Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants and actual Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) low-level waste (LLW), employing a new denitration process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 and 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted to gaseous ammonia. In this process, aluminum powders can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid. The process may be able to use contaminated aluminum scrap metal from DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nitrate-free ceramic product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics or silica and/or fluxing agents can be added to form a glassy ceramic or a flowable glass product. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 70% were obtained for the waste form produced. Sintered pellets produced from supernate from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) have been leached in accordance with the 16.1 leach test for the radioelements {sup 85}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Despite lengthy counting times, {sup 85}Sr could not be detected in the leachates. {sup 137}Cs was only slightly above background and corresponded to a leach index of 12.2 to 13.7 after 8 months of leaching. Leach testing of unsintered and sintered reactor product spiked with hazardous metals proved that both sintered and unsintered product passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Design of the equipment and flowsheet for a pilot demonstration-scale system to prove the nitrate destruction portion of the NAC process and product formation is under way.

Mattus, A.J.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Tiegs, T.N.



Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor.  


The biological treatment of ammonia-rich landfill leachates due to an inadequate C to N ratio requires expensive supplementation of carbon from an external carbon source. In an effort to reduce treatment costs, the objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during landfill leachate co-treatment with municipal wastewater. Initially, the laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and fed only raw municipal wastewater (RWW) during a start-up period of 9 weeks. Then, in the co-treatment period, consisting of the next 17 weeks, the system was fed a mixture of RWW and an increasing quantity of landfill leachates (from 1 to 10 % by volume). The results indicate that landfill leachate addition of up to 10 % (by volume) influenced the effluent quality, except for BOD5. During the experiment, a positive correlation (r (2)?=?0.908) between ammonia load in the influent and nitrite in the effluent was observed, suggesting that the second step of nitrification was partially inhibited. The partial nitrification (PN) was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was observed when the oxygen concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg O2/dm(3) and free ammonia (FA) ranged from 2.01 to 35.86 mg N-NH3/dm(3) in the aerobic phase. Increasing ammonia load in wastewater influent was also correlated with an increasing amount of total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent, which suggested insufficient amounts of assimilable organic carbon to complete denitrification. Because nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway is beneficial for carbon-limited and highly ammonia-loaded mixtures, obtaining PN can lead to a reduction in the external carbon source needed to support denitrification. PMID:24569868

Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Luczkiewicz, A; Fitobor, K; Olanczuk-Neyman, K



Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50?mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5?mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10?nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TR? and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action.

Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.



Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue.  


Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50?mg/L nitrate (NO(3)-N) and 0.5 and 5?mg/L nitrite (NO(2)-N) in the absence and presence of 10?nM T(3). Thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TR? and RLKI transcripts to T(3). Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M; Guillette, Louis J; Helbing, Caren C



Measurement of Nitrite and Nitrate in Biological Fluids by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry and by the Griess Assay: Problems with the Griess Assay—Solutions by Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Assay methods based on the Griess reaction are frequently used to measure nitrite and nitrate in urine, plasma, and other biological fluids. With minor exceptions, careful attention has not been paid in extending the Griess assay from aqueous solutions to biological fluids. In the present study, parallel measurements of nitrite and nitrate were performed in urine, plasma, and aqueous solutions

Dimitrios Tsikas; Frank-Mathias Gutzki; Stefan Rossa; Heinke Bauer; Christine Neumann; Katja Dockendorff; Jörg Sandmann; Jürgen C. Frölich



Completely autotrophic nitrogen-removal over nitrite in lab-scale constructed wetlands: Evidence from a mass balance study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A mass-balance study was carried out to investigate the transformation of nitrogenous pollutants in vertical flow wetlands. Landfill leachate containing low BOD, but a high concentration of ammonia, was treated in four wetland columns under predominately aerobic conditions. Influent total nitrogen in the leachate consisted mainly of ammonia with less than 1% nitrate and nitrite, and negligible organic nitrogen. There

Guangzhi Sun; David Austin



Shipboard automated determination of trace concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in oligotrophic water by gas-segmented continuous flow analysis with a liquid waveguide capillary flow cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Incorporation of a liquid waveguide capillary flow cell in a gas-segmented continuous flow auto-analyzer significantly enhances the sensitivity of automated colorimetric analysis. Nanomolar concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in oligotrophic surface seawater can be accurately determined. The advantages of this technique are low detection limit, high precision, and automation for rapid analysis of a large number of samples. This technique

Jia-Zhong Zhang



High-precision quadruple isotope dilution method for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater by GCMS after derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate.  


Quadruple isotope dilution mass spectrometry (ID(4)MS) has been applied for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater. ID(4)MS allows high-precision measurements and entails the use of isotopic internal standards ((18)O-nitrite and (15)N-nitrate). We include a tutorial on ID(4)MS outlining optimal experimental design which generates results with low uncertainties and obviates the need for direct (separate) evaluation of the procedural blank. Nitrite and nitrate detection was achieved using a headspace GCMS procedure based on single-step aqueous derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate at room temperature. In this paper the sample preparation was revised and fundamental aspects of this chemistry are presented. The proposed method has detection limits in the low parts-per-billion for both analytes, is reliable, precise, and has been validated using a seawater certified reference material (MOOS-2). Simplicity of the experimental design, low detection limits, and the use of quadruple isotope dilution makes the present method superior to the state-of-the-art for determination of nitrite and nitrate, and an ideal candidate for reference measurements of these analytes in seawater. PMID:24759746

Pagliano, Enea; Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltán



Nitrate- and nitrite-sensing protein NarX of Escherichia coli K-12: mutational analysis of the amino-terminal tail and first transmembrane segment.  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite control of anaerobic respiratory gene expression is mediated by dual two-component regulatory systems. The sensors NarX and NarQ each communicate nitrate and nitrite availability to the response regulators NarL and NarP. In the presence of nitrate, the NarX protein acts as a positive regulator ("kinase") of both NarL and NarP activity. In the presence of nitrite, the NarX protein acts primarily as a negative regulator ("phosphatase") of NarL activity but remains a positive regulator of NarP activity. In other topologically similar sensory proteins, such as the methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins, the transmembrane regions are important for signal transduction. We therefore used localized mutagenesis of the amino-terminal coding region to isolate mutations in narX that confer an altered signaling phenotype. Five of the mutations studied alter residues in the amino-terminal cytoplasmic tail, and five alter residues in the first transmembrane segment. Based on patterns of target operon expression in various regulatory mutant strain backgrounds, most of the mutant NarX proteins appear to have alterations in negative control function. One mutant, with a change of residue Leu-11 to Pro in the cytoplasmic tail, exhibits strikingly altered patterns of NarL- and NarP-dependent gene expression. We conclude that the amino terminus of the NarX protein is important for the differential response to nitrate and nitrite.

Williams, S B; Stewart, V



Selection of crop varieties for efficient production using urea, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in cells  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of NO2(-) in the external solution increased the overall efficiency of the mixed N sources by cereal leaves. The NH4(+) in the substrate solution decreased the efficiency of NO3(-) reduction, while NO3(-) in the substrate solution increased the efficiency of NH4(+) assimilation.

Huffaker, R. C.



Effects of Waterborne Copper, Cyanide, Ammonia, and Nitrite on Stress Parameters and Changes in Susceptibility to Saprolegniosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

PubMed Central

The effects of toxic exposures on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to saprolegniosis were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (0.25 mg/liter), cyanide (0.07 mg/liter), ammonia (0.5 mg/liter), and nitrite (0.24 mg/liter) for 24 h. After exposure, the fish were challenged by Saprolegnia parasitica (3.6 x 10(sup6) zoospores per liter) for 10 min. Cortisol and cholesterol were used to indicate stress response. Similar increases of cortisol were found for the four tested chemicals. All fish with cortisol levels higher than 370 ng/ml developed the disease, while only 24% of the fish with cortisol levels lower than 370 ng/ml were infected. Cholesterol levels remained unchanged after toxic exposure. Increased susceptibilities to the pathogen were observed for ammonia (71%), copper (57%), nitrite (50%), and cyanide (33%). The increases in susceptibility as a result of cyanide and nitrite exposure could be explained by the stress response. For copper and ammonia, the combination of two different effects, the stress response and specific impairments of the defense mechanism of trout against saprolegniosis, should be considered.

Carballo, M.; Munoz, M. J.; Cuellar, M.; Tarazona, J. V.



Growth of Campylobacter jejuni supported by respiration of fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, trimethylamine-N-oxide, or dimethyl sulfoxide requires oxygen.  


The human gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic bacterium with a respiratory metabolism. The genome sequence of C. jejuni strain 11168 reveals the presence of genes that encode terminal reductases that are predicted to allow the use of a wide range of alternative electron acceptors to oxygen, including fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, and N- or S-oxides. All of these reductase activities were present in cells of strain 11168, and the molybdoenzyme encoded by Cj0264c was shown by mutagenesis to be responsible for both trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reduction. Nevertheless, growth of C. jejuni under strictly anaerobic conditions (with hydrogen or formate as electron donor) in the presence of any of the electron acceptors tested was insignificant. However, when fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, TMAO, or DMSO was added to microaerobic cultures in which the rate of oxygen transfer was severely restricted, clear increases in both the growth rate and final cell density compared to what was seen with the control were obtained, indicative of electron acceptor-dependent energy conservation. The C. jejuni genome encodes a single class I-type ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) which requires oxygen to generate a tyrosyl radical for catalysis. Electron microscopy of cells that had been incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions with an electron acceptor showed filamentation due to an inhibition of cell division similar to that induced by the RNR inhibitor hydroxyurea. An oxygen requirement for DNA synthesis can thus explain the lack of anaerobic growth of C. jejuni. The results indicate that strict anaerobiosis is a stress condition for C. jejuni but that alternative respiratory pathways can contribute significantly to energy conservation under oxygen-limited conditions, as might be found in vivo. PMID:12107136

Sellars, Michael J; Hall, Stephen J; Kelly, David J



Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)



Airborne observations of ammonia and ammonium nitrate formation over Houston, Texas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Anthropogenic emissions of NOx (nitric oxide (NO) + nitrogen dioxide (NO2)), which in sunlight can be oxidized to form nitric acid (HNO3), can react with ammonia (NH3) to form ammonium nitrate particles. Ammonium nitrate formation was observed from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft over Houston during the 2006 Texas Air Quality Study with fast-response measurements of NH3, HNO3, particle composition, and particle size distribution. Typically, NH3 mixing ratios over the urban area ranged from 0.2 to 3 ppbv and were predominantly from area sources. No NH3 enhancements were observed in emission plumes from power plants. The few plumes with high NH3 levels from point source emissions that were sampled are analyzed in detail. While the paucity of NH3 data in emission inventories made point source identification difficult, one plume was traced to NH3 release from an industrial accident. NH3 mixing ratios in these plumes ranged from 5 to 80 ppbv. In these plumes, the NH3 enhancement correlated with a decrease in HNO3 mixing ratio and an increase in particulate NO3- concentration indicating ammonium nitrate formation. The ammonium nitrate aerosol mass budget in the plumes was analyzed to assess the quantitative agreement between the gas and aerosol phase measurements. The thermodynamic equilibrium between the gas and aerosol phase was examined for one flight by comparing the modeled dissociation constant for ammonium nitrate with NH3 and HNO3 measurements. The high levels of NH3 in these plumes shifted the equilibrium toward favorable thermodynamic conditions for the condensation of ammonium nitrate onto particles.

Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Bahreini, R.; Brock, C. A.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Wollny, A. G.; Holloway, J. S.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.



Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

Dodds, J.N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[UNOCAL, Brea, CA (United States). Hartley Research Center



Metabolic profiles and aprE expression in anaerobic cultures of Bacillus subtilis using nitrate as terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor were conducted in Schaeffer's medium to evaluate the growth performance and metabolic profiles of Bacillus subtilis, and its potential to express the aprE (subtilisin) gene under anoxic conditions. Nitrate was converted to ammonia through nitrite reduction; and different product profiles were observed during the growth phase when nitrate was added at various

J. Espinosa-de-los-Monteros; A. Martinez; F. Valle



Disruption of narG, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of respiratory nitrate reductase, also affects nitrite respiration in Pseudomonas fluorescens YT101.  


The Pseudomonas fluorescens YT101 gene narG, which encodes the catalytic alpha subunit of the respiratory nitrate reductase, was disrupted by insertion of a gentamicin resistance cassette. In the Nar(-) mutants, nitrate reductase activity was not detectable under all the conditions tested, suggesting that P. fluorescens YT101 contains only one membrane-bound nitrate reductase and no periplasmic nitrate reductase. Whereas N(2)O respiration was not affected, anaerobic growth with NO(2) as the sole electron acceptor was delayed for all of the Nar(-) mutants following a transfer from oxic to anoxic conditions. These results provide the first demonstration of a regulatory link between nitrate and nitrite respiration in the denitrifying pathway. PMID:10438786

Ghiglione, J F; Philippot, L; Normand, P; Lensi, R; Potier, P



Purification and characterization of assimilatory nitrite reductase from Candida utilis.  

PubMed Central

Nitrate assimilation in many plants, algae, yeasts and bacteria is mediated by two enzymes, nitrate reductase (EC and nitrite reductase (EC They catalyse the stepwise reduction of nitrate to nitrite and nitrite to ammonia respectively. The nitrite reductase from an industrially important yeast, Candida utilis, has been purified to homogeneity. Purified nitrite reductase is a heterodimer and the molecular masses of the two subunits are 58 and 66 kDa. The native enzyme exhibits a molecular mass of 126 kDa as analysed by gel filtration. The identify of the two subunits of nitrite reductase was confirmed by immunoblotting using antibody for Cucurbita pepo leaf nitrite reductase. The presence of two different sized transcripts coding for the two subunits was confirmed by (a) in vitro translation of mRNA from nitrate-induced C. utilis followed by immunoprecipitation of the in vitro translated products with heterologous nitrite reductase antibody and (b) Northern-blot analysis. The 66 kDa subunit is acidic in nature which is probably due to its phosphorylated status. The enzyme is stable over a range of temperatures. Both subunits can catalyse nitrite reduction, and the reconstituted enzyme, at a higher protein concentration, shows an activity similar to that of the purified enzyme. Each of these subunits has been shown to contain a few unique peptides in addition to a large number of common peptides. Reduced Methyl Viologen has been found to be as effective an electron donor as NADPH in the catalytic process, a phenomenon not commonly seen for nitrite reductases from other systems.

Sengupta, S; Shaila, M S; Rao, G R




Microsoft Academic Search

The solubilities of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate and anhydrous uranyl ; sulfate were measured in NaNOâ NaNO, and NaNOâKNOâ eutectic ; mixtures at temperatures ranging from 200 to 330 deg C. It seems that, even at ; the lowest temperature, both compounds decompose to UOâ (or a sodium ; uranate) the solubility of which is negligible (probably less than 0.02% U).

J. R. Findlay; J. N. Gregory



Effect of nitrite concentration on the distribution and competition of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in nitratation reactor systems and their kinetic characteristics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genus Nitrospira and Nitrobacter species are the key nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in nitrifying wastewater treatment plants. It has been hypothesized that genus Nitrospira are K-strategists and can exploit low amounts of nitrite more efficiently than Nitrobacter. In contrast, Nitrobacter species are r-strategists that can grow faster than Nitrospira. To elucidate the K\\/r hypothesis and to analyze the effect of substrate

Dong-Jin Kim; Sun-Hee Kim



Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste  

SciTech Connect

As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.



The spoilage flora of vacuum-packaged, sodium nitrite or potassium nitrate treated, cold-smoked rainbow trout stored at 4°C or 8°C  

Microsoft Academic Search

The spoilage flora of vacuum-packaged, salted, cold-smoked rainbow trout fillets, with or without the addition of nitrate or nitrite, stored at 4°C and 8°C, was studied. Of 620 isolates, lactic acid bacteria were the major fraction (76%), predominating in all samples of spoiled product. However, the phenotypical tests used were insufficient to identify the lactic acid bacteria to the species

Ulrike Lyhs; Johanna Björkroth; Eija Hyytiä; Hannu Korkeala



Negative chemical ionization GC\\/MS determination of nitrite and nitrate in seawater using exact matching double spike isotope dilution and derivatization with triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The alkylation of nitrite and nitrate by triethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate allows determination of their ethyl esters by headspace gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS). In the present study, significant improvement in analytical performance is achieved using negative chemical ionization providing detection limits of 150 ng\\/L for NO 2 - and 600 ng\\/L for NO 3 -, an order of magnitude better than those

E. a b Pagliano; J. b Meija; R. E. b Sturgeon; Z.b Mester; A. c Dulivo



Light-regulated expression of the nitrate-reductase and nitrite-reductase genes in tomato and in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytochrome-deficientaurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) was used to investigate if phytochrome plays a role in the regulation of nitrate-reductase (NR, EC and nitrite-reductase (NiR, EC gene expression. We show that the expression of the tomato NR and NiR genes is stimulated by light and that this light response is mediated by the photoreceptor phytochrome.

Thomas W. Becker; Christine Foyer; Michel Caboche



Light-regulated expression of the nitrate-reductase and nitrite-reductase genes in tomato and in the phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phytochrome-deficient aurea mutant of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill) was used to investigate if phytochrome plays a role in the regulation of nitrate-reductase (NR, EC and nitrite-reductase (NiR, EC gene expression. We show that the expression of the tomato NR and NiR genes is stimulated by light and that this light response is mediated by the photoreceptor

Thomas W. Becker; Christine Foyer; Michel Caboche



Tumor necrosis factor-? and nitrite\\/nitrate responses during acute mastitis induced by Escherichia coli infection and endotoxin in dairy cows  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and of NOx (sum of nitrite and nitrate as indicators of endogenous nitric oxide production) in milk and blood plasma were measured in three mastitis models in dairy cows in early lactation. Escherichia coli P4:037 bacteria or endotoxin 0111:B4 were administered into both left quarters of 12 and 6 cows, respectively. Six of the

J. W Blum; H Dosogne; D Hoeben; F Vangroenweghe; H. M Hammon; R. M Bruckmaier; C Burvenich



The influence of formula modifications and additives on ammonia loses from surface-applied urea-ammonium nitrate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution fertilizers are subject to N loss through ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This loss may be reduced by manipulation of the proportion of urea and by use of additives to reduce urea hydrolysis or increase fertilizer solution acidity. This research was design to study the effect of urea proportion in UAN solutions, added ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), and aquechem

T. AL-Kanani; A. F. Mackenzie; H. Blenkhorn



Serum nitric oxide metabolite as a biomarker of visceral fat accumulation: Clinical significance of measurement for nitrate/nitrite  

PubMed Central

Summary Background A visceral fat area of more than 100 cm2 as measured by computed tomography (CT) at the umbilical level has been included as a criterion for obesity in all the proposed criteria for metabolic syndrome. However, CT cannot be used frequently because of radiation exposure. We evaluated the usefulness of measurement of the serum levels of nitric oxide (NO), instead of CT and the waist circumference, as a marker of abdominal visceral fat accumulation. Material/Methods The study was carried out in 80 subjects. The serum levels of NO metabolites (nitrate/nitrite) were measured using the Griess reagent. Results Simple and multiple regression analysis revealed that the serum levels of NO metabolites showed the greatest degree of correlation with the visceral fat area (r=0.743, p<0.0001), and corresponded to a visceral fat area of 100 cm2, as determined using the ROC curve, was 21.0 ?mol/ml (sensitivity 88%, specificity 82%); this method was more sensitive than the waist circumference for evaluation of the visceral fat accumulation. Conclusions Measurement of the serum levels of NO metabolites may be a simple, safe, convenient and reliable method for the evaluation of visceral fat accumulation in clinical diagnostic screening.

Fujita, Koji; Wada, Koichiro; Nozaki, Yuichi; Yoneda, Masato; Endo, Hiroki; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Kirikoshi, Hiroyuki; Inamori, Masahiko; Kobayashi, Noritoshi; Kubota, Kensuke; Saito, Satoru; Nakajima, Atsushi



Circulating Nitrite and Nitrate are Associated with Job-Related Fatigue in Women, but not in Men  

PubMed Central

A recent study indicated that serum nitrite and nitrate (NOx) is inversely associated with general fatigue. The purpose of this study was to confirm the negative association between nitric oxide (NO) and fatigue and to examine whether NO can prevent fatigue caused by job strain. The subjects, 570 workers (272 men and 298 women), answered self-administered questionnaires and underwent a medical examination. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Fatigue was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Plasma NOx concentration was determined by the ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. Plasma NOx levels were significantly (p < 0.05) negatively associated with fatigue even after adjustment for job strain and potential confounders in women, but not in men. Significant (p < 0.05) interactions showed that, in women, as the level of the job strain worsened, fatigue was exacerbated, but the plasma NOx seemed to buffer the association, even after adjustment for potential confounders and the interaction between job strain and vegetable intake. In women, NO seemed to be inversely associated with fatigue and to buffer the association between job strain and fatigue, but not in men.

Takaki, Jiro



Involvement of NarK1 and NarK2 proteins in transport of nitrate and nitrite in the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.  


Two transmembrane proteins were tentatively classified as NarK1 and NarK2 in the Pseudomonas genome project and hypothesized to play an important physiological role in nitrate/nitrite transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The narK1 and narK2 genes are located in a cluster along with the structural genes for the nitrate reductase complex. Our studies indicate that the transcription of all these genes is initiated from a single promoter and that the gene complex narK1K2GHJI constitutes an operon. Utilizing an isogenic narK1 mutant, a narK2 mutant, and a narK1K2 double mutant, we explored their effect on growth under denitrifying conditions. While the DeltanarK1::Gm mutant was only slightly affected in its ability to grow under denitrification conditions, both the DeltanarK2::Gm and DeltanarK1K2::Gm mutants were found to be severely restricted in nitrate-dependent, anaerobic growth. All three strains demonstrated wild-type levels of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate uptake by whole-cell suspensions demonstrated both the DeltanarK2::Gm and DeltanarK1K2::Gm mutants to have very low yet different nitrate uptake rates, while the DeltanarK1::Gm mutant exhibited wild-type levels of nitrate uptake. Finally, Escherichia coli narK rescued both the DeltanarK2::Gm and DeltanarK1K2::Gm mutants with respect to anaerobic respiratory growth. Our results indicate that only the NarK2 protein is required as a nitrate/nitrite transporter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under denitrifying conditions. PMID:16391109

Sharma, Vandana; Noriega, Chris E; Rowe, John J



Involvement of NarK1 and NarK2 Proteins in Transport of Nitrate and Nitrite in the Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1  

PubMed Central

Two transmembrane proteins were tentatively classified as NarK1 and NarK2 in the Pseudomonas genome project and hypothesized to play an important physiological role in nitrate/nitrite transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The narK1 and narK2 genes are located in a cluster along with the structural genes for the nitrate reductase complex. Our studies indicate that the transcription of all these genes is initiated from a single promoter and that the gene complex narK1K2GHJI constitutes an operon. Utilizing an isogenic narK1 mutant, a narK2 mutant, and a narK1K2 double mutant, we explored their effect on growth under denitrifying conditions. While the ?narK1::Gm mutant was only slightly affected in its ability to grow under denitrification conditions, both the ?narK2::Gm and ?narK1K2::Gm mutants were found to be severely restricted in nitrate-dependent, anaerobic growth. All three strains demonstrated wild-type levels of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate uptake by whole-cell suspensions demonstrated both the ?narK2::Gm and ?narK1K2::Gm mutants to have very low yet different nitrate uptake rates, while the ?narK1::Gm mutant exhibited wild-type levels of nitrate uptake. Finally, Escherichia coli narK rescued both the ?narK2::Gm and ?narK1K2::Gm mutants with respect to anaerobic respiratory growth. Our results indicate that only the NarK2 protein is required as a nitrate/nitrite transporter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under denitrifying conditions.

Sharma, Vandana; Noriega, Chris E.; Rowe, John J.



Evaluation of a solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production operating with ammonia/lithium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

A novel solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico is presented. The system operates with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture. The system developed has a nominal capacity of 8 kg of ice/day. It consists of a cylindrical parabolic collector acting as generator-absorber. Evaporator temperatures as low as -11 C were obtained for several hours with solar coefficients of performance up to 0.08. It was found that the coefficient of performance increases with the increment of solar radiation and the solution concentration. A dependency of the coefficient of performance was not founded against the cooling water temperature. Also it was found that the maximum operating pressure increases meanwhile the generation temperature decreases with an increase of the solution concentration. (author)

Rivera, W.; Moreno-Quintanar, G.; Best, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 34, 62580 Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Rivera, C.O.; Martinez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria Campus Coatzacoalcos, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Universidad Km 7.5, 96530 Coatzacoalcos, Ver. (Mexico)



Kinetics of Inhibition of Methane Oxidation by Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium in a Humisol  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of inhibition of CH(inf4) oxidation by NH(inf4)(sup+), NO(inf2)(sup-), and NO(inf3)(sup-) in a humisol was investigated. Soil slurries exhibited nearly standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics, with half-saturation constant [K(infm(app))] values for CH(inf4) of 50 to 200 parts per million of volume (ppmv) and V(infmax) values of 1.1 to 2.5 nmol of CH(inf4) g of dry soil(sup-1) h(sup-1). With one soil sample, NH(inf4)(sup+) acted as a simple competitive inhibitor, with an estimated K(infi) of 8 (mu)M NH(inf4)(sup+) (18 nM NH(inf3)). With another soil sample, the response to NH(inf4)(sup+) addition was more complex and the inhibitory effect of NH(inf4)(sup+) was greater than predicted by a simple competitive model at low CH(inf4) concentrations (<50 ppmv). This was probably due to NO(inf2)(sup-) produced through NH(inf4)(sup+) oxidation. Added NO(inf2)(sup-) was inherently more inhibitory of CH(inf4) oxidation at low CH(inf4) concentrations, and more NO(inf2)(sup-) was produced as the CH(inf4)-to-NH(inf4)(sup+) ratio decreased and the competitive balance shifted. NaNO(inf3) was a noncompetitive inhibitor of CH(inf4) oxidation, but inhibition was evident only at >10 mM concentrations, which also altered soil pHs. Similar concentrations of NaCl were also inhibitory of CH(inf4) oxidation, so there may be no special inhibitory mechanism of nitrate per se.

Dunfield, P.; Knowles, R.



Determination of nitrite plus nitrate and malondialdehyde in human plasma: analytical performance and the effect of smoking and exercise.  


The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance and clinical usefulness of spectrophotometric assays for the measurement of the plasma levels of nitrite plus nitrate (NOx), and malondialdehyde (MDA), as an index of nitric oxide release and lipid peroxidation, respectively. We studied 30 healthy sedentary volunteers, 12 endurance athletes and 12 regular heavy smokers. The lower limit of quantification for plasma NOx concentration was 1 micromol/l, and linearity was observed from 1 to 40 micromol/l of NOx concentration. Variation in replicate samples within or between days was always below 5%. NOx levels were significantly higher in athletes compared to both control subjects and smokers (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively), as well as in healthy subjects compared to smokers (p<0.05). The analytical limit of quantification for plasma MDA concentration was 0.03 micromol/l, and linearity was observed from 0.03 to 20 micromol/l of MDA concentration. Variation in replicate samples within or between runs was <5%. Mean MDA concentration was significantly higher in smokers compared to control subjects and athletes (p<0.001). A significant inverse relationship (p<0.001) was observed when comparing NOx with MDA (r=-0.49) or LDL levels (r=-0.30) in the total population. The assays evaluated in this study proved to be sensitive, specific and practicable, and therefore suitable for routine application in clinical chemistry laboratories and/or physiopathological studies involving human blood samples. PMID:12392309

Vassalle, Cristina; Lubrano, Valter; L'Abbate, Antonio; Clerico, Aldo



A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new, low-temperature (50 to 60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 to 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid which might function as its own waste form. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nearly nitrate-free ceramic-like product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 55% were obtained for the waste form produced, compared to an expected 35 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical to operate, and data were used to cost a batch, 1,200-kg NO{sub 3}/h plant for working off Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Their total process cost analysis presented in the appendix, indicates that between $2.01 to 2.66 per kilogram of nitrate converted will be required. Additionally, data on the fate of select radioelements present in solution are presented in this report as well as kinetic, operational, and control data for a number of experiments. Additionally, if the ceramic product functions as its own waste form, it too will offer other cost savings associated with having a smaller volume of waste form as well as eliminating other process steps such as grouting.

Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Farr, L.L.; Loghry, S.L.; Pitt, W.W.; Gibson, M.R.



Determination of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 nitrate samples by conversion to benzamide  

SciTech Connect

A method is described for determining the /sup 15/N//sup 14/N ratio in a soil sample by converting the nitrate to the solid derivative benzamide for mass spectrometry. The nitrate is reduced to ammonia which is reacted with benzoyl chloride to yield the solid benzamide. This method is much more convenient than converting the nitrate to a gas for mass spectrometry. The method may also be used unchanged for the determination of nitrite and with minor modifications for ammonium salts and ammonium salts with nitrates and nitrites.

Bunce, N.J. (Univ. of Guelph, Ontario); LaMarre, J.; Merrick, R.L.; Corke, C.T.



Ammonia volatilization from ammonium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, and urea surface applied to winter wheat on a calcareous soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia (NH3) volatilization losses from surface?applied ammonium sulphate (AS), ammonium nitrate (AN), and urea to winter wheat and the effects of the NBPT [N?(n?butyl) thiophosphoric triamide], PG (Phospho?gypsum), and PR (byproduct?Pyrite) were determined in a field experiment. Effects on grain yield and protein content of the grain were also measured. Total NH3 losses from AS, AN, and urea varied from

Sait Gezgin; Fethi Bayrakll



Nitrogen and oxygen regulation of Bacillus subtilis nasDEF encoding NADH-dependent nitrite reductase by TnrA and ResDE.  


The nitrate and nitrite reductases of Bacillus subtilis have two different physiological functions. Under conditions of nitrogen limitation, these enzymes catalyze the reduction of nitrate via nitrite to ammonia for the anabolic incorporation of nitrogen into biomolecules. They also function catabolically in anaerobic respiration, which involves the use of nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptors. Two distinct nitrate reductases, encoded by narGHI and nasBC, function in anabolic and catabolic nitrogen metabolism, respectively. However, as reported herein, a single NADH-dependent, soluble nitrite reductase encoded by the nasDE genes is required for both catabolic and anabolic processes. The nasDE genes, together with nasBC (encoding assimilatory nitrate reductase) and nasF (required for nitrite reductase siroheme cofactor formation), constitute the nas operon. Data presented show that transcription of nasDEF is driven not only by the previously characterized nas operon promoter but also from an internal promoter residing between the nasC and nasD genes. Transcription from both promoters is activated by nitrogen limitation during aerobic growth by the nitrogen regulator, TnrA. However, under conditions of oxygen limitation, nasDEF expression and nitrite reductase activity were significantly induced. Anaerobic induction of nasDEF required the ResDE two-component regulatory system and the presence of nitrite, indicating partial coregulation of NasDEF with the respiratory nitrate reductase NarGHI during nitrate respiration. PMID:9765565

Nakano, M M; Hoffmann, T; Zhu, Y; Jahn, D




EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the available information on ammonia as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Ammonia is a ubiquitous substance and is known widely as a household cleaning agent and as a fertilizer. It plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle--in the...


Nitrate reduction  


Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)



Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.  


Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H




EPA Science Inventory

The poster presents an assessment, using the CMAQ air quality model, showing the inorganic gas ratio (the ratio of free ammonia to total nitrate) can function as a screening indicator of the winter replacement of sulfate by nitrate when sulfate is reduced. It also presents an as...


Survey of residual nitrite and nitrate in conventional and organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured meats available at retail in the United States.  


A survey of residual nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) in cured meats available at retail was conducted to verify concentrations in conventional (C) products and establish a baseline for organic/natural/uncured/indirectly cured (ONC) products. In this study, 470 cured meat products representing six major categories were taken from retail outlets in five major metropolitan cities across the United States. Random samples representing both C and ONC type products were analyzed for NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) content (ppm) using an ENO-20 high-performance liquid chromatography system equipped with a reverse phase column. Generally, there were no differences in NO(2)(-) concentrations between C and ONC meat categories, but a few ONC products surveyed in certain cities were lower in NO(3)(-) content. Pairwise comparisons between cities indicated that NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) contents of all C type products were not appreciably different, and the same was true for most ONC products. Numerical NO(2)(-) values were less variable than NO(3)(-) concentrations within each meat product category. NO(2)(-) concentrations were similar to those previously reported by Cassens ( Cassens , R. G. Residual nitrite in cured meat . Food Technol. 1997a , 51 , 53 - 55 ) in 1997. Residual NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) values in this study were numerically lower than those reported by NAS ( National Academy of Sciences . The Health Effects of Nitrate, Nitrite, and N-Nitroso Compounds ; National Academy Press : Washington, DC , 1981 ) in 1981. Data from this survey provide a benchmark of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-) concentrations for ONC products available at retail. PMID:22414374

Nuñez De González, Maryuri T; Osburn, Wesley N; Hardin, Margaret D; Longnecker, Michael; Garg, Harsha K; Bryan, Nathan S; Keeton, Jimmy T



Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.  

PubMed Central

The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed.

Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J



tert-Butyl Nitrite Mediated Regiospecific Nitration of (E)-Azoarenes through Palladium-Catalyzed Directed C?H Activation.  


An efficient protocol for the Pd-catalyzed regiospecific ortho-nitration of (E)-azoarenes has been achieved for the first time using tBuONO as a nitrating agent under atmospheric oxygen. A series of both symmetrical and unsymmetrical azoarenes were nitrated efficiently by this procedure providing excellent chemo- and regioselectivity and compatibility with a broad array of functional groups. PMID:25043150

Majhi, Biju; Kundu, Debasish; Ahammed, Sabir; Ranu, Brindaban C



Post-anoxic denitrification via nitrite driven by PHB in feast-famine sequencing batch reactor.  


Recently, it was found that excess phosphorus removal could be induced by aerobic/extended-idle regime. In this study, an anoxic period was introduced after the aeration to realize simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The results demonstrated that stable partial nitrification could be achieved by controlling the aeration duration at 2.5h because it could not only obtain a desirable ammonia oxidation to nitrite but also avoid the extensive aeration converting nitrite to nitrate, and moreover, the accumulated poly-3-hydroxybutyrate still remain in a relative sufficient concentration (1.5mmolCg(-1) VSS), which could subsequently served as internal carbon source for post-anoxic denitrification. The nitrite accumulation ratio was observed to have relatively high correlation with biological nutrient removal. Over stages with stable high-level nitrite accumulation, the process achieved desirable and stable nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies averaging 95% and 99% respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the faster growth rate of the ammonia oxidizing bacteria than the nitrite oxidizing bacteria was the main reason for achieving nitrite accumulation. In addition, the secondary phosphorus release was negligible and the process maintained excellent nutrient removal under low influent ammonia nitrogen. PMID:23769322

Chen, Hong-Bo; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yan; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guang-Ming



Diversity and Abundance of Nitrate Reductase Genes (narG and napA), Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirS and nrfA), and Their Transcripts in Estuarine Sediments?  

PubMed Central

Estuarine systems are the major conduits for the transfer of nitrate from agricultural and other terrestrial-anthropogenic sources into marine ecosystems. Within estuarine sediments some microbially driven processes (denitrification and anammox) result in the net removal of nitrogen from the environment, while others (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) do not. In this study, molecular approaches have been used to investigate the diversity, abundance, and activity of the nitrate-reducing communities in sediments from the hypernutrified Colne estuary, United Kingdom, via analysis of nitrate and nitrite reductase genes and transcripts. Sequence analysis of cloned PCR-amplified narG, napA, and nrfA gene sequences showed the indigenous nitrate-reducing communities to be both phylogenetically diverse and also divergent from previously characterized nitrate reduction sequences in soils and offshore marine sediments and from cultured nitrate reducers. In both the narG and nrfA libraries, the majority of clones (48% and 50%, respectively) were related to corresponding sequences from delta-proteobacteria. A suite of quantitative PCR primers and TaqMan probes was then developed to quantify phylotype-specific nitrate (narG and napA) and nitrite reductase (nirS and nrfA) gene and transcript numbers in sediments from three sites along the estuarine nitrate gradient. In general, both nitrate and nitrite reductase gene copy numbers were found to decline significantly (P < 0.05) from the estuary head towards the estuary mouth. The development and application, for the first time, of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays to quantify mRNA sequences in sediments revealed that transcript numbers for three of the five phylotypes quantified were greatest at the estuary head.

Smith, Cindy J.; Nedwell, David B.; Dong, Liang F.; Osborn, A. Mark



Presence of Two Different Active nirS Nitrite Reductase Genes in a Denitrifying Thauera sp. from a High-Nitrate-Removal-Rate Reactor  

PubMed Central

The nirS nitrite reductase genes were studied in two strains (strains 27 and 28) isolated from two denitrifying reactors and characterized as Thauera according to their 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain 28 contains a single nirS sequence, which is related to the nirS of Thauera mechernichensis, and strain 27 contains two nirS sequences; one is similar to the nirS sequence from Thauera mechernichensis (gene 2), but the second one (gene 8) is from a separate clade with nirS from Pseudomonas stutzeri, Azoarcus species, Alcaligenes faecalis, and other Thauera species. Both genes were expressed, but gene 8 was constitutively expressed while gene 2 was positively regulated by nitrate.

Etchebehere, Claudia; Tiedje, James



N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite from domestic wastewater: main sources and control method.  


Nitrite has been commonly recognized as an important factor causing N(2)O production, which weakened the advantages of nitrogen removal via nitrite. To reduce and control N(2)O production from wastewater treatment plants, both long-term and batch tests were carried out to investigate main sources and pathways of N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite from real domestic wastewater. The obtained results showed that N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite was 1.5 times as much as that during nitrogen removal via nitrate. It was further demonstrated that ammonia oxidization were main source of N(2)O production during nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater; whereas, almost no N(2)O was produced during nitrite oxidization and anoxic denitrification. N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite decreased about 50% by applying the step-feed SBR, due to the effective control of nitrite and ammonia, the precursors of N(2)O production. Therefore, the step-feed system is recommended as an effective method to reduce N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite from domestic wastewater. PMID:20000535

Yang, Qing; Liu, Xiuhong; Peng, Chengyao; Wang, Shuying; Sun, Hongwei; Peng, Yongzhen



Quercetin-dependent inhibition of nitration induced by peroxidase/H2O2/nitrite systems in human saliva and characterization of an oxidation product of quercetin formed during the inhibition.  


Local pH in the oral cavity can decrease to below 7 at the site where acid-producing bacteria are proliferating. Effects of pH on nitration of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid were studied using dialyzed human saliva. Dialyzed saliva nitrated 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetic acid in the presence of nitrite and H(2)O(2). The rate of the nitration was dependent on pH, and the maximal rate was observed between pH 5.5 and 7.2. The optimum pH seemed to reflect rates of formation of nitrogen dioxide and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid radicals. Quercetin inhibited the nitration. The quercetin-dependent inhibition might be due to scavenging of nitrogen dioxide and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid radicals, which were formed by salivary peroxidase-dependent oxidation of nitrite and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, respectively, and competition with nitrite and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid for peroxidase in saliva. An oxidation product of quercetin was formed during inhibition of the nitration by quercetin. The oxidation product was identified as 2-(3,4-dihydroxybenzoyl)-2,4,6-trihydroxy-3(2H)-benzofuranone. This component could also be oxidized by salivary peroxidase and nitrogen dioxide radicals. The oxidation products were 2,4,6-trihydroxyphenylglyoxylic and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acids. On the basis of the results, the significance of quercetin for inhibition of nitrogen dioxide formation and for scavenging of nitrogen dioxide radicals in the oral cavity is discussed. PMID:15853358

Hirota, Sachiko; Takahama, Umeo; Ly, Tram Ngoc; Yamauchi, Ryo



Anhydrous ammonia vs. ammonium nitrate as sources of nitrogen for rye cover crops on the potato soils of long Island1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a [1] \\u000a \\u000a Losses of ammonia from application of anhydrous ammonia were negligible when applied at a rate of 100 pounds N per acre and\\u000a injected 4 inches or more below the surface.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a [2] \\u000a \\u000a Anhydrous ammonia was not as effective as ammonium nitrate as a source of nitrogen for rye cover crop. This was probably due\\u000a to the fact that it

S. L. Dallyn; R. L. Sawyer



Manual of Methods for the Continuous Flow Determination of Ammonia, Nitrate-Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate in Seawater.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The purpose of the manual is to provide a basic source of information in addition to the manufacturers instrument manuals which should enable someone who has had two weeks training with the auto-analyzer on dry land to successfully run the system at sea. ...

D. J. Hydes



Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.  


Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0. PMID:12781232

Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua



Nitrite reduction and cardiovascular protection.  


Inorganic nitrite, a metabolite of endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) from NO synthases (NOS), provides the largest endocrine source of directly bioavailable NO. The conversion of nitrite to NO occurs mainly through enzymatic reduction, mediated by a range of proteins, including haem-globins, molybdo-flavoproteins, mitochondrial proteins, cytochrome P450 enzymes, and NOS. Such nitrite reduction is particularly favoured under hypoxia, when endogenous formation of NO from NOS is impaired. Under normoxic conditions, the majority of these nitrite reductases also scavenge NO, or diminish its bioavailability via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, suggesting an intricate balance. Moreover, nitrite, whether produced endogenously, or derived from exogenous nitrite or nitrate administration (including dietary sources via the Nitrate-Nitrite-NO pathway) beneficially modulates many key cardiovascular pathological processes. In this review, we highlight the landmark studies which revealed nitrite's function in biological systems, and inspect its evolving role in cardiovascular protection. Whilst these effects have mainly been ascribed to the activity of one or more nitrite reductases, we also discuss newly-identified mechanisms, including nitrite anhydration, the involvement of s-nitrosothiols, nitro-fatty acids, and direct nitrite normoxic signalling, involving modification of mitochondrial structure and function, and ROS production. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Redox Signalling in the Cardiovascular System". PMID:24486197

Omar, Sami A; Webb, Andrew James



Approach to the atmospheric chemistry of methyl nitrate and methylperoxy nitrite. Chemical mechanisms of their formation and decomposition reactions in the gas phase.  


Potential energy surfaces, minimum energy reaction paths, minima, transition states, reaction barriers, and conical intersections for the most important atmospheric reactions of methyl nitrate (CH(3)ONO(2)) and methylperoxy nitrite (C(3)HOONO) on the electronic ground state have been studied (i) with the second-order multiconfigurational perturbation theory (CASPT2) by computation of numerical energy gradients for stationary points and (ii) with the density functional theory (DFT). The proposed mechanism explains the conversion of unreactive alkyl peroxy radicals into alkoxy radicals: CH(3)O(2) + NO <=> CH(3)OONO <=> CH(3)O + NO(2) left arrow over right arrow CH(3)ONO(2). Additionally, several discrepancies found in the comparison of the results obtained from the two employed approaches are analyzed. CASPT2 predicts that all dissociation reactions into radicals occur without an extra exit energy barrier. In contrast, DFT finds transition states for the dissociations of cis- and trans-methylperoxy nitrite into CH(3)O + NO(2). Furthermore, multiconfigurational methods [CASPT2 and complete active space SCF (CAS-SCF)] predict the isomerization of CH3ONO2 to CH3OONO to occur in a two-step mechanism: (i) CH(3)ONO(2) --> CH(3)O + NO(2); and (ii) CH(3)O + NO(2) --> CH(3)OONO. The reason for this has to do with the coupling of the ground electronic state with the first excited state. Therefore, it is demonstrated that DFT methods based on single determinantal wave functions give an incorrect picture of the aforementioned reaction mechanisms. PMID:18085754

Arenas, Juan F; Avila, Francisco J; Otero, Juan C; Pelaez, Daniel; Soto, Juan



Denitrification of simulated nitrate-rich wastewater using sulfamic acid and zinc scrap  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enhanced chemical denitrification process was studied as an alternative treatment of nitrate-rich wastewater which cannot\\u000a be easily treated using conventional biological methods. To accelerate denitrification and to reduce the conversion to ammonia,\\u000a nitrite reductants were added. In a batch test with the initial nitrate concentration of 500 mg NO3? -N per L, sulfamic acid and zinc were found to

Jung-Hwa Jang; Ankur Gaur; Ho-Jun Song



Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate\\/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We compared Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine (GlycoCarn®) and three different pre-workout nutritional supplements on measures of skeletal muscle oxygen saturation (StO2), blood nitrate\\/nitrite (NOx), lactate (HLa), malondialdehyde (MDA), and exercise performance in men. METHODS: Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 19 resistance trained men performed tests of muscular power (bench press throws) and endurance (10 sets of bench press to muscular

Richard J Bloomer; Tyler M Farney; John F Trepanowski; Cameron G McCarthy; Robert E Canale; Brian K Schilling



Isotopic analysis of N and O in nitrite and nitrate by sequential selective bacterial reduction to N2O  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Nitrite is an important intermediate species in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, but its role in natural aquatic systems is poorly understood. Isotopic data can be used to study the sources and transformations of NO 2- in the environment, but methods for independent isotopic analyses of NO2- in the presence of other N species are still new and evolving. This study demonstrates that isotopic analyses of N and O in NO2- can be done by treating whole freshwater or saltwater samples with the denitrifying bacterium Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, which selectively reduces NO2- to N 2O for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. When calibrated with solutions containing NO2- with known isotopic compositions determined independently, reproducible ??15N and ??18O values were obtained at both natural-abundance levels (??0.2-0.5??? for ??15N and ?? 0.4-1.0%o for ??18O) and moderately enriched 15N tracer levels (??20-50%o for ??15N near 5000???) for 5-20 nmol of NO2- (1-20 ??mol/L in 1-5 mL aliquots). This method is highly selective for NO2- and was used for mixed samples containing both NO2- and NO3- with little or no measurable cross-contamination. In addition, mixed samples that were analyzed with S. nitritireducens were treated subsequently with Pseudomonas aureofaciens to reduce the NO3- in the absence of NO 2-, providing isotopic analyses of NO2- and NO3- separately in the same aliquot. Sequential bacterial reduction methods like this one should be useful for a variety of isotopic studies aimed at understanding nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments. A test of these methods in an agricultural watershed in Indiana provides isotopic evidence for both nitrification and denitrification as sources of NO2- in a small stream.

Bohlke, J. K.; Smith, R. L.; Hannon, J. E.



Effect of nitrite and nitrate on biogenic sulfide production in sewer biofilms determined by the use of microelectrodes.  


The effects of O2 and NO3- concentrations on in situ sulfate reduction and sulfide reoxidation in microaerophilic wastewater biofilms grown on rotating disk reactors were investigated by the use of microelectrodes for O2, S2-, NO3-, NO2-, and pH. Microelectrode measurements showed the vertical microzonation of O2 respiration, NO3- respiration, H2S oxidation and SO4(2-) reduction in the biofilms. The microelectrode measurements indicate that sulfate reducing activity was largely restricted to a narrow anaerobic zone located about 500 microm below the biofilm surface. An addition of nitrate forced the sulfate reduction zone deeper in the biofilm and reduced the specific sulfate reduction rate as well. The sulfate reduction zone was consequently separated from the O2 and NO3- respiration zones. Anaerobic H2S oxidation with NO3- was also induced by addition of nitrate to the medium. Measurements of the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (FeS, FeS2 and S0), total-Mn and total-Fe in the biofilm indicated that the produced H2S became immediately oxidized with O2, NO3- and other oxidants, mainly ferric/ferrous hydrates. On the basis of the present results, it was estimated that of all sulfide produced, 13% of the sulfide was precipitated by metal ions as FeS and S0 just above the sulfate reduction zone, 65% was anaerobically oxidized to SO4(2-) with NO3- as an electron acceptor and 22% was aerobically oxidized within the biofilm incubated in 70 micromol l(-1) of DO and 280 micromol l(-1) of NO3-. PMID:12906301

Okabe, S; Ito, T; Satoh, H; Watanabe, Y



Analytical properties of some commercially available nitrate reductase enzymes evaluated as replacements for cadmium in automated, semiautomated, and manual colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multiyear research effort at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) evaluated several commercially available nitrate reductase (NaR) enzymes as replacements for toxic cadmium in longstanding automated colorimetric air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer (CFA) methods for determining nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) in water. This research culminated in USGS approved standard- and low-level enzymatic reduction, colorimetric automated discrete analyzer NOx methods that have been in routine operation at the NWQL since October 2011. The enzyme used in these methods (AtNaR2) is a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouseear cress) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Because the scope of the validation report for these new automated discrete analyzer methods, published as U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 5–B8, was limited to performance benchmarks and operational details, extensive foundational research with different enzymes—primarily YNaR1, a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Pichia angusta in the yeast Pichia pastoris—remained unpublished until now. This report documents research and development at the NWQL that was foundational to development and validation of the discrete analyzer methods. It includes: (1) details of instrumentation used to acquire kinetics data for several NaR enzymes in the presence and absence of known or suspected inhibitors in relation to reaction temperature and reaction pH; and (2) validation results—method detection limits, precision and bias estimates, spike recoveries, and interference studies—for standard- and low-level automated colorimetric CFA-YNaR1 reduction NOx methods in relation to corresponding USGS approved CFA cadmium-reduction (CdR) NOx methods. The cornerstone of this validation is paired sample statistical and graphical analysis of NOx concentrations from more than 3,800 geographically and seasonally diverse surface-water and groundwater samples that were analyzed in parallel by CFA-CdR and CFA enzyme-reduction methods. Finally, (3) demonstration of a semiautomated batch procedure in which 2-milliliter analyzer cups or disposable spectrophotometer cuvettes serve as reaction vessels for enzymatic reduction of nitrate to nitrite prior to analytical determinations. After the reduction step, analyzer cups are loaded onto CFA, flow injection, or discrete analyzers for simple, rapid, automatic nitrite determinations. In the case of manual determinations, analysts dispense colorimetric reagents into cuvettes containing post-reduction samples, allow time for color to develop, insert cuvettes individually into a spectrophotometer, and record percent transmittance or absorbance in relation to a reagent blank. Data presented here demonstrate equivalent analytical performance of enzymatic reduction NOx methods in these various formats to that of benchmark CFA-CdR NOx methods.

Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.



Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

Aulenbach, Brent T.



Competition for Ammonia Influences the Structure of Chemotrophic Communities in Geothermal Springs  

PubMed Central

Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii” and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs.

Hamilton, Trinity L.; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R.; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, Jose R.; Peters, John W.



Dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium, and nitrate to alpine tundra at Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70ngNm-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200ngNm-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to have been at or below about 20ngNm-3. Large deposition velocities (>2cms-1) were determined for nitrate and ammonium and may result from reactions with surface-derived aerosols. Copyright (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70 ng N m-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200 ng N m-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to have been at or below about 20 ng N m-3. Large deposition velocities (>2 cm s-1) were determined for nitrate and ammonium and may result from reactions with surface-derived aerosols.

Rattray, G.; Sievering, H.



Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.  


Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with regard to toxigenicity and pathogenicity determinants as well as presence of transferable antibiotic resistance. Nitrate and nitrite are still considered basically undesired in food. The main objections are based on their potential to form nitrosamines with carcinogenic potential. In view of new results from intensive research of NO, potential risks are opposed by positive effects on human health. PMID:22202868

Hammes, Walter P



Control of aeration, aerobic SRT and COD input for mainstream nitritation/denitritation.  


This work describes the development of an intermittently aerated pilot-scale process (V = 0.34 m(3)) operated without oxidized nitrogen recycle and supplemental carbon addition optimized for nitrogen removal via nitritation/denitritation. The aeration pattern was controlled using a novel aeration strategy based on set-points for reactor ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations with the aim of maintaining equal effluent ammonia and nitrate + nitrite (NOx) concentrations. Further, unique operational and process control strategies were developed to facilitate the out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) based on optimizing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) input, imposing transient anoxia, aggressive solids retention time (SRT) operation towards ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) washout and high dissolved oxygen (DO) (>1.5 mg/L). Sustained nitrite accumulation (NO2-N/NOx-N = 0.36 ± 0.27) was observed while AOB activity was greater than NOB activity (AOB: 391 ± 124 mgN/L/d, NOB: 233 ± 151 mgN/L/d, p < 0.001) during the entire study. The reactor demonstrated total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal rate of 151 ± 74 mgN/L/d at an influent COD/ [Formula: see text] -N ratio of 10.4 ± 1.9 at 25 °C. The TIN removal efficiency was 57  ±  25% within the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h and within an SRT of 4-8 days. Therefore, this pilot-scale study demonstrates that application of the proposed online aeration control is able to out-select NOB in mainstream conditions providing relatively high nitrogen removal without supplemental carbon and alkalinity at a low HRT. PMID:24721663

Regmi, Pusker; Miller, Mark W; Holgate, Becky; Bunce, Ryder; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B




SciTech Connect

This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

Steimke, J.



Nitrate, bacteria and human health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate is generally considered a water pollutant and an undesirable fertilizer residue in the food chain. Research in the 1970s indicated that, by reducing nitrate to nitrite, commensal bacteria might be involved in the pathogenesis of gastric cancers and other malignancies, as nitrite can enhance the generation of carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent studies indicate that the bacterial metabolism of nitrate

Eddie Weitzberg; Jeff A. Cole; Nigel Benjamin; Jon O. Lundberg



Determination of nitric oxide metabolites, nitrate and nitrite, in Anopheles culicifacies mosquito midgut and haemolymph by anion exchange high-performance liquid chromatography: plausible mechanism of refractoriness  

PubMed Central

Background The diverse physiological and pathological role of nitric oxide in innate immune defenses against many intra and extracellular pathogens, have led to the development of various methods for determining nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. NO metabolites, nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) are produced by the action of an inducible Anopheles culicifacies NO synthase (AcNOS) in mosquito mid-guts and may be central to anti-parasitic arsenal of these mosquitoes. Method While exploring a plausible mechanism of refractoriness based on nitric oxide synthase physiology among the sibling species of An. culicifacies, a sensitive, specific and cost effective high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed, which is not influenced by the presence of biogenic amines, for the determination of NO2- and NO3- from mosquito mid-guts and haemolymph. Results This method is based on extraction, efficiency, assay reproducibility and contaminant minimization. It entails de-proteinization by centrifugal ultra filtration through ultracel 3 K filter and analysis by high performance anion exchange liquid chromatography (Sphereclone, 5 ? SAX column) with UV detection at 214 nm. The lower detection limit of the assay procedure is 50 pmoles in all midgut and haemolymph samples. Retention times for NO2- and NO3- in standards and in mid-gut samples were 3.42 and 4.53 min. respectively. Assay linearity for standards ranged between 50 nM and 1 mM. Recoveries of NO2- and NO3- from spiked samples (1–100 ?M) and from the extracted standards (1–100 ?M) were calculated to be 100%. Intra-assay and inter assay variations and relative standard deviations (RSDs) for NO2- and NO3- in spiked and un-spiked midgut samples were 5.7% or less. Increased levels NO2- and NO3- in midguts and haemolymph of An. culicifacies sibling species B in comparison to species A reflect towards a mechanism of refractoriness based on AcNOS physiology. Conclusion HPLC is a sensitive and accurate technique for identification and quantifying pmole levels of NO metabolites in mosquito midguts and haemolymph samples that can be useful for clinical investigations of NO biochemistry, physiology and pharmacology in various biological samples.

Sharma, Arun; Raghavendra, Kamaraju; Adak, Tridibesh; Dash, Aditya P




EPA Science Inventory

The standard method for the determination of nitrate in drinking water, USEPA Method 353.2 ¿Determination of Nitrate-Nitrite by Automated Colorimetry,¿ employs cadmium as the reductant for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then analyzed colorimetrically by way ...


Airborne Measurements of Ammonia and Implications for Ammonium Nitrate Formation in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3) is the dominant gas-phase base in the troposphere. As a consequence, NH3 abundance influences aerosol formation and composition. Ammonium nitrate aerosol is formed from the reaction of gas phase NH3 and nitric acid (HNO3). Anthropogenic emissions of NH3 and NOx (NO + NO2), which in sunlight can be oxidized to form HNO3, can react to form ammonium nitrate aerosol. Agricultural activity (i.e., dairy farms), and urban centers (i.e., Fresno, Los Angeles) are sources of ammonium nitrate gas-phase precursors in both the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin. Airborne measurements of NH3, HNO3, particle composition, and particle size distribution were made aboard the NOAA WP-3D research aircraft during May and June 2010 in the Central Valley and the South Coast Air Basin of California, as part of CalNex 2010 (California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change). The highest mixing ratios of NH3, well over 100 parts-per-billion by volume (ppbv), were measured downwind of dairy farms. The high NH3 mixing ratios were highly anti-correlated with HNO3 mixing ratios on fast time scales (~1 s) that correspond to short flight distances (~100 m). During these periods particulate nitrate (NO3-) concentrations increased, indicating ammonium nitrate formation. The meteorological and chemical environments during these periods will be studied to determine the factors driving or limiting ammonium nitrate formation and the resulting regional differences. Finally, the relationship between the NH3 observations and NH3 sources will be examined to assess the emissions and their contribution to ammonium nitrate abundance.

Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Brock, C. A.; Frost, G. J.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Peischl, J.; Pollack, I. B.; Roberts, J. M.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.; Parrish, D. D.



Nitrite in hamburgers in Arak, Iran.  


Nitrite and nitrate are used as additives in meat products to provide colour, taste and protection against micro-organisms, but excessive use of these substances can be toxic and can cause carcinogenesis in man. Natural and organic foods are not permitted to use chemical preservatives, the traditional curing agents used for cured meats, and so nitrate and/or nitrite cannot be added to hamburgers. This study aimed to measure nitrite in hamburgers sold in Arak city, in the centre of Iran, in 2011. For this purpose, 105 samples were randomly selected and analysed according to Official AOAC Method 973. The residual nitrite in the samples was 30-100 mg/kg (p < 0.001). In 85.7% of the samples, presence of nitrite was demonstrated, which suggests unfavourable production conditions and poor sodium nitrite standards at hamburger factories. PMID:24779939

Rezaei, Mohammad; Shariatifar, Nabi; Jahed Khaniki, Gholamreza; Javadzadeh, Morteza



Abiotic nitrogen fixation on terrestrial planets: reduction of NO to ammonia by FeS.  


Understanding the abiotic fixation of nitrogen and how such fixation can be a supply of prebiotic nitrogen is critical for understanding both the planetary evolution of, and the potential origin of life on, terrestrial planets. As nitrogen is a biochemically essential element, sources of biochemically accessible nitrogen, especially reduced nitrogen, are critical to prebiotic chemistry and the origin of life. Loss of atmospheric nitrogen can result in loss of the ability to sustain liquid water on a planetary surface, which would impact planetary habitability and hydrological processes that shape the surface. It is known that NO can be photochemically converted through a chain of reactions to form nitrate and nitrite, which can be subsequently reduced to ammonia. Here, we show that NO can also be directly reduced, by FeS, to ammonia. In addition to removing nitrogen from the atmosphere, this reaction is particularly important as a source of reduced nitrogen on an early terrestrial planet. By converting NO directly to ammonia in a single step, ammonia is formed with a higher product yield (~50%) than would be possible through the formation of nitrate/nitrite and subsequent conversion to ammonia. In conjunction with the reduction of NO, there is also a catalytic disproportionation at the mineral surface that converts NO to NO? and N?O. The NO? is then converted to ammonia, while the N?O is released back in the gas phase, which provides an abiotic source of nitrous oxide. PMID:22283408

Summers, David P; Basa, Ranor C B; Khare, Bishun; Rodoni, David



The history of aerobic ammonia oxidizers: from the first discoveries to today.  


Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, has long been considered a central biological process in the global nitrogen cycle, with its first description dated 133 years ago. Until 2005, bacteria were considered the only organisms capable of nitrification. However, the recent discovery of a chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, Nitrosopumilusmaritimus, changed our concept of the range of organisms involved in nitrification, highlighting the importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as potential players in global biogeochemical nitrogen transformations. The uniqueness of these archaea justified the creation of a novel archaeal phylum, Thaumarchaeota. These recent discoveries increased the global scientific interest within the microbial ecology society and have triggered an analysis of the importance of bacterial vs archaeal ammonia oxidation in a wide range of natural ecosystems. In thismini review we provide a chronological perspective of the current knowledge on the ammonia oxidation pathway of nitrification, based on the main physiological, ecological and genomic discoveries. PMID:24972807

Monteiro, Maria; Séneca, Joana; Magalhães, Catarina



Effects of Free Ammonia on Partial Nitrification under Different Conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial nitrification to nitrite is technically feasible and economically favourable, especially when wastewaters contain high ammonium concentrations. Partial nitrification can be obtained in situations of free ammonia inhibition the nitrite oxidizer but not the ammonia oxidizer. The effects of free ammonia on partial nitrification for treating old landfill leachate were investigated with different DO concentrations, pH values and temperature and

Lv Bin; Yang Kai; Wang Hong-yu



Simultaneous nitritation and p-nitrophenol removal using aerobic granular biomass in a continuous airlift reactor.  


The chemical and petrochemical industries produce wastewaters containing ammonium and phenolic compounds. Biological treatment of these wastewaters could be problematic due to the possible inhibitory effects exerted by phenolic compounds. The feasibility of performing simultaneous nitritation and p-nitrophenol (PNP) biodegradation using a continuous aerobic granular reactor was evaluated. A nitrifying granular sludge was bioaugmented with a PNP-degrading floccular sludge, while PNP was progressively added to the feed containing a high ammonium concentration. Nitritation was sustained throughout the operational period with ca. 85% of ammonium oxidation and less than 0.3% of nitrate in the effluent. PNP biodegradation was unstable and the oxygen limiting condition was found to be the main explanation for this unsteadiness. An increase in dissolved oxygen concentration from 2.0 to 4.5 mg O2 L(-1) significantly enhanced PNP removal, achieving total elimination. Acinetobacter genus and ammonia-oxidising bacteria were the predominant bacteria species in the granular biomass. PMID:24177164

Jemaat, Zulkifly; Suárez-Ojeda, María Eugenia; Pérez, Julio; Carrera, Julián



The presence of ammonium facilitates nitrite reduction under PHB driven simultaneous nitrification and denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

For economic and efficient nitrogen removal from wastewater treatment plants via simultaneous nitrification and denitrification the nitrification process should stop at the level of nitrite such that nitrite rather than nitrate becomes the substrate for denitrification. This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the conditions that are necessary to improve nitrite reduction over nitrite oxidation. Laboratory sequencing batch

B. M. Gibbs; L. R Shephard; K. A. Third; R. Cord-Ruwisch



Thermochemical nitrate destruction  


A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about C. to about C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

Cox, John L. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)



In Situ Batch Denitrification of Nitrate-Rich Groundwater Using Sawdust as a Carbon Source—Marydale, South Africa  

Microsoft Academic Search

Batch experiments were performed to denitrify groundwater using sawdust as a carbon source at Marydale, South Africa. Alkalinity,\\u000a pH, electrical conductivity, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, SO42?, heterotrophic plate count (HPC), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), potassium and chloride were monitored. Two soil depths,\\u000a 75 to 100 and 165 to 200 cm, respectively, from the Marydale area were used as matrix material during denitrification

S. Israel; P. Engelbrecht; G. Tredoux; M. V. Fey



Liquid and atmospheric ammonia concentrations from a dairy lagoon during an aeration experiment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions from agriculture are an environmental and human health concern, and there is increasing pressure to reduce emissions. Animal agriculture is the largest global source of ammonia emissions and on a per cow basis dairy operations are the largest emitters. The storage and disposal of the dairy waste is one area where emissions can be reduced, aerobic biological treatment of wastewater being a common and effective way of reducing ammonia emissions. An aeration experiment in a dairy lagoon with two commercial aerators was performed for 1 month. Liquid concentrations of ammonia, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were monitored before, during and after the experiment and atmospheric ammonia was measured downwind of the lagoon using a short-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument with 1 ppbv sensitivity. No changes in either liquid or atmospheric ammonia concentrations were detected throughout the experiment, and neither dissolved oxygen, nitrite nor nitrate could be detected in the lagoon at any time. The average ammonia concentration at 10 sampling sites in the lagoon at a depth of 0.15 m was 650 mg l -1 and at 0.90 m it was 700 mg l -1 NH 3-N. The average atmospheric ammonia concentration 50 m downwind was about 300 ppbv. The 0.90 m depth total nitrogen concentrations and total and volatile solids concentrations decreased during the experiment due to some mixing of the lagoon but the 0.15 m depth concentrations did not decrease indicating that the aerators were not strong enough to mix the sludge off the bottom into the whole water column.

Rumburg, Brian; Neger, Manjit; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Filipy, Jenny; Swain, John; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen


Direct wet and dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium and nitrate to the Tampa Bay Estuary, FL, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average total (wet plus dry) nitrogen deposition to the Tampa Bay Estuary was 7.3 (±1.3)kg-Nha?1yr?1 or 760 (±140)metric tons-Nyr?1 for August 1996–July 1999, estimated as a direct deposition rate to the 104,000-ha water surface. This nitrogen flux estimate accounted for ammonia exchange at the air–sea interface. The uncertainty estimate was based on measurement error. Wet deposition was 56% of

Noreen Poor; Ray Pribble; Holly Greening



A mutation leading to the total lack of nitrite reductase activity in Escherichia coli K 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mutants of E. coli, completely devoid of nitrite reductase activity with glucose or formate as donor were studied. Biochemical analysis indicates that they are simultaneously affected in nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, fumarate reductase and hydrogenase activities as well as in cytochrome c552 biosynthesis. The use of an antiserum specific for nitrate reductase shows that the nitrate reductase protein is probably

M. Chippaux; D. Giudici; A. Abou-Jaoudé; F. Casse; M. C. Pascal



The impact of influent total ammonium nitrogen concentration on nitrite-oxidizing bacteria inhibition in moving bed biofilm reactor.  


The application of nitrification-denitrification over nitrite (nitritation-denitritation) with municipal (i.e. diluted and cold (or low-temperature)) wastewater can substantially improve the energy balance of municipal wastewater treatment plants. For the accumulation of nitrite, it is crucial to inhibit nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) with simultaneous proliferation of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The present study describes the effect of the influent total ammonium nitrogen (TAN) concentration on AOB and NOB activity in two moving bed biofilm reactors operated as sequencing batch reactors (SBR) at 15 °C (SBR I) and 21 °C (SBR II). The reactors were fed with diluted reject water containing 600, 300, 150 and 75 mg TAN L(-1). The only factor limiting NOB activity in these reactors was the high concentrations of free ammonia and/or free nitrous acid (FNA) during the SBR cycles. Nitrite accumulation was observed with influents containing 600, 300 and 150 mg TAN L(-1) in SBR I and 600 and 300 in SBR II. Once nitrate production established in the reactors, the increase of influent TAN concentration up to the original 600 mg TAN L(-1) did not limit NOB activity. This was due to the massive development of NOB clusters throughout the biofilm that were able to cope with faster formation of FNA. The results of the fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis preliminarily showed the stratification of bacteria in the biofilm. PMID:24647188

Kouba, Vojtech; Catrysse, Michael; Stryjova, Hana; Jonatova, Ivana; Volcke, Eveline I P; Svehla, Pavel; Bartacek, Jan



Soil bacteria, nitrite and the skin  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the composition of the skin microbiome and its potential significance for health and disease in the\\u000a context of the ‘hygiene hypothesis’. We here propose that mammals evolved with a dermal microflora that contributed to the\\u000a regulation of body physiology by providing nitrite from commensal ammonia-oxidising bacteria in response to ammonia released\\u000a during sweating. We further hypothesise

David R. Whitlock; Martin Feelisch


Competition for ammonia influences the structure of chemotrophic communities in geothermal springs.  


Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii" and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs. PMID:24242238

Hamilton, Trinity L; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S



Oxygen and carbon requirements for biological nitrogen removal processes accomplishing nitrification, nitritation, and anammox.  


The oxygen and carbon savings associated with novel nitrogen removal processes for the treatment of high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter waste streams such as the recycle streams from the dewatering of anaerobically digested sludges are well documented.This understanding may lead some to think that similar oxygen savings are possible if novel processes such as nitritation/ denitritation and partial nitritation-deammonification are incorporated into main liquid stream processes where influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen (nitrite and nitrate). It is demonstrated that the net oxygen required for nitrogen removal is 1.71 mg O2/mg ammonia-nitrogen converted to nitrogen gas as long as influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen. Less oxygen is required to produce oxidized nitrogen with these novel processes, but less biodegradable organic matter is also required for oxidized nitrogen reduction to nitrogen gas, resulting in reduced oxygen savings for the oxidation of biodegradable organic matter. The net oxygen requirement is the same since the net electron transfer for the conversion of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrogen gas is the same. The biodegradable organic matter required to reduce the oxidized nitrogen to nitrogen gas is estimated for these processes based on standard biological process calculations. It is estimated to be in the range of 3.5 to 4.0 mg biodegradable COD/mg ammonia-nitrogen reduced to nitrogen gas for nitrification-denitrification, 2.0 to 2.5 for nitritation-denitritation, and 0.5 for partial nitritation-deammonification. The resulting limiting influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratios are estimated and can be used to guide the appropriate selection of biological nitrogen removal process given knowledge of the biological process influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Energy savings possible for mainstream processes incorporating these novel nitrogen removal processes include reduced process oxygen requirements from reduced biodegradable carbon loadings to the biological process and the potential that plant influent biodegradable carbon can be captured upstream of the biological nitrogen removal process and used to produce energy, for example, by conversion into biogas. PMID:24734468

Daigger, Glen T



Nitrated and oxidized products of a single tryptophan residue in human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase treated with either peroxynitrite-carbon dioxide or myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-nitrite.  


We reported previously that a single tryptophan residue, Trp32, in human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase is specifically modified by peroxynitrite-CO2 [Yamakura et al. (2001) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1548, 38-46]. In this study, we modified Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by using a combination of myeloperoxidase, hydrogen peroxide, and nitrite. The modified enzyme showed no loss of copper and zinc, and 15% less enzymatic activity. Trp32 was the only significant amino acid lost. After trypsin digestion of the modified SOD with peroxynitrite-CO2 and the myeloperoxidase system, six newly appearing peptides containing tryptophan derivatives were observed on microLC-ESI-Q-TOF mass analyses and HPLC with a photodiode-array detector. The derivatives of the tryptophan residue exhibiting mass increases of 4, 16 (2 peaks), 32, 45 (major), and 45 Da (minor) were identified as kynurenine, oxindole-3-alanine and its derivatives, dihydroxytryptophan, 6-nitrotryptophan and 5-nitrotryptophan, respectively. We further identified 6-nitrotryptophan from the 1H-NMR spectrum for the pronase-digested product and calculated the yield of 6-nitrotryptophan as being about 30% for each of the modification methods. The tryptophan residue in the modified human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase gave the same spectra for the products including 6-nitrotryptophan as the major nitrated product with the two different modification systems. PMID:16046449

Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Matsumoto, Takashi; Ikeda, Keiichi; Taka, Hikari; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Murayama, Kimie; Watanabe, Eiji; Tamaki, Makoto; Imai, Takeo; Takamori, Kenji



Effects of the different rates of urease and nitrification inhibitors on gaseous emissions of ammonia and nitrous oxide, nitrate leaching and pasture production from urine patches in an intensive grazed pasture system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Minimizing nitrogen (N) losses via ammonia (NH3) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions into the atmosphere and nitrate (NO3?) leaching into surface and ground waters from intensively grazed pastures is essential for environmental protection worldwide. Applying urease inhibitor such as N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (nBPT) or (Agrotain) and nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) to grazed pastures has the potential to mitigate such N

M. Zaman; J. D. Blennerhassett



A peroxynitrite complex of copper: formation from a copper-nitrosyl complex, transformation to nitrite and exogenous phenol oxidative coupling or nitration  

PubMed Central

Reaction of nitrogen monoxide with a copper(I) complex possessing a tridentate alkylamine ligand gives a Cu(I)–(·NO) adduct, which when exposed to dioxygen generates a peroxynitrite (O=NOO?)–Cu(II) species. This undergoes thermal transformation to produce a copper(II) nitrito (NO2?) complex and 0.5 mol equiv O2. In the presence of a substituted phenol, the peroxynitrite complex effects oxidative coupling, whereas addition of chloride ion to dissociate the peroxynitrite moiety instead leads to phenol ortho nitration. Discussions include the structures (including electronic description) of the copper–nitrosyl and copper–peroxynitrite complexes and the formation of the latter, based on density functional theory calculations and accompanying spectroscopic data.

Park, Ga Young; Deepalatha, Subramanian; Puiu, Simona C.; Lee, Dong-Heon; Mondal, Biplab; Sarjeant, Amy A. Narducci; del Rio, Diego; Pau, Monita Y. M.; Solomon, Edward I.; Karlin, Kenneth D.



Nitrite reactivity with magnetite.  


Under Fe(3+)-reducing conditions, soil Fe(2+) oxidation has been shown to be coupled with nitrate (NO3(-)) reduction. One possible secondary reaction is the involvement of NO3(-) and nitrite (NO2(-)) with magnetite, a mixed valence Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) mineral found in many natural environments. Currently, little information exists on NO3(-) and NO2(-) reactivity with magnetite. This study investigates NO3(-) and NO2(-) reactivity with magnetite under anoxic conditions using batch kinetic experiments across a range of pH values (5.5-7.5) and in the presence of added dissolved Fe(2+). Solid phase products were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nitrate removal by magnetite was much slower when compared with NO2(-). There was a pH-dependence in the reduction of NO2(-) by magnetite; the initial rate of NO2(-) removal was two times faster at pH 5.5 than at pH 7.5. The influence of pH was explained by the binding of NO2(-) to positively charged sites on magnetite (? S-OH2(+)) and to neutral sites (? S-OH(0)). As NO2(-) was removed from solution, nitric oxide (NO) and nitrous oxide (N2O) were identified as products confirming that nitrite was reduced. Structural Fe(2+) in magnetite was determined to be the reductant of NO2(-) based on the lack of measurable dissolved Fe(2+) release to solution coupled with Mössbauer spectra and XRD analysis of solid phase products. Addition of dissolved Fe(2+) to magnetite slurries resulted in adsorption and an acceleration in the rate of nitrite reduction at a given pH value. In summary, findings reported in this study demonstrate that if magnetite is present in Fe(3+)-reducing soil and NO2(-) is available, it can remove NO2(-) from solution and reduce a portion of it abiotically to NO and subsequently to N2O by a heterogeneous electron transfer process. PMID:23662623

Dhakal, P; Matocha, C J; Huggins, F E; Vandiviere, M M



Estuarine nitrite maxima and nitrifying bacteria (Ems-Dollard estuary)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrifying bacteria were isolated from the Ems-Dollard estuary and cultured in batch as well as in continuous cultures. It was shown that the ammonia oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrosomonas are able to adapt to the whole estuarine salinity range, though they react to salinity changes initially with an increased lag phase. At the culture conditions (25°C, salinity 15) the ammonia as well as the nitrite oxidizer ( Nitrobacter) had specific maxium growth rates (? m) and half saturation values ( Ks) that are similar to those reported for non-marine conditions. For Nitrosomonas from the Dollard ? m and Ks at 25°C are 0.036 h -1 and 55.4 ?mol · 1 -1 ammonia for Nitrobacter 0.064 h -1 and 267.2 ?mol · 1 -1 nitrite respectively. From a mixed continuous culture of both organisms it is concluded that below 95 ?mol · 1 -1 O 2 oxidation of nitrite and below 32.5 ?mol · 1 -1 O 2 also the oxidation of ammonia is inhibited. It is argued that oxygen limitation in the top sediments of the Dollard is responsible for development of a nitrite maximum in sediment pore water and for a relative high ratio of ammonia oxidizers to nitrite oxidizers. By resuspension of bacteria associated with suspended particles their anomalous ratio is contributing to nitrite development in the water phase also.

Helder, W.; De Vries, R. T. P.


Ceruloplasmin is a NO oxidase and nitrite synthase that determines endocrine NO homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite represents a bioactive reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) that may modulate vasodilation, respiration and cytoprotection after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although nitrite formation is thought to occur via reaction of NO with oxygen, this third-order reaction cannot compete kinetically with the reaction of NO with hemoglobin to form nitrate. Indeed, the formation of nitrite from NO in the blood is limited

Sruti Shiva; Xunde Wang; Lorna A Ringwood; Xueying Xu; Susan Yuditskaya; Vidhya Annavajjhala; Hiroaki Miyajima; Neil Hogg; Zena Leah Harris; Mark T Gladwin



Inorganic nitrite supplementation for healthy arterial aging.  


Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This is attributable primarily to adverse changes in arteries, notably, increases in large elastic artery stiffness and endothelial dysfunction mediated by inadequate concentrations of the vascular-protective molecule, nitric oxide (NO), and higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Inorganic nitrite is a promising precursor molecule for augmenting circulating and tissue NO bioavailability because it requires only a one-step reduction to NO. Nitrite also acts as an independent signaling molecule, exerting many of the effects previously attributed to NO. Results of recent studies indicate that nitrite may be effective in the treatment of vascular aging. In old mice, short-term oral sodium nitrite supplementation reduces aortic pulse wave velocity, the gold-standard measure of large elastic artery stiffness, and ameliorates endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by normalization of NO-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation. These improvements in age-related vascular dysfunction with nitrite are mediated by reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation, and may be linked to increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and health. Increasing nitrite levels via dietary intake of nitrate appears to have similarly beneficial effects in many of the same physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being performed to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing nitrite bioavailability on human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In summary, inorganic nitrite, as well as dietary nitrate supplementation, represents a promising therapy for treatment of arterial aging and prevention of age-associated CVD in humans. PMID:24408999

Sindler, Amy L; Devan, Allison E; Fleenor, Bradley S; Seals, Douglas R



Denitrification by Actinomycetes and Purification of Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase and Azurin from Streptomyces thioluteus  

PubMed Central

Many actinomycete strains are able to convert nitrate or nitrite to nitrous oxide (N2O). As a representative of actinomycete denitrification systems, the system of Streptomyces thioluteus was investigated in detail. S. thioluteus attained distinct cell growth upon anaerobic incubation with nitrate or nitrite with concomitant and stoichiometric conversion of nitrate or nitrite to N2O, suggesting that the denitrification acts as anaerobic respiration. Furthermore, a copper-containing, dissimilatory nitrite reductase (CuNir) and its physiological electron donor, azurin, were isolated. This is the first report to show that denitrification generally occurs among actinomycetes.

Shoun, Hirofumi; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Baba, Ikuko; Takaya, Naoki; Matsuo, Masaru



Abiotic Immobilization of Nitrate in Forest Soils: a Double Label Approach  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mechanisms of soil nitrogen (N) retention remain a key uncertainty in the terrestrial N cycle. During recent work at the Harvard Forest Chronic N Experiment, 15N added to soils as ammonia nitrate was observed to be rapidly immobilized after addition to soil on a time scale of minutes. In published results it was hypothesized that the rapid time of immobilization could be explained by abiotic immobilization of both ammonia and nitrate. The possibility of abiotic immobilization of nitrate has been studied since the first half of the 20th century, mainly using ideal compounds and soil sterilization techniques. However, critics of these studies have argued that while in vitro studies may indicate the possibility of an abiotic reaction, they cannot demonstrate its plausibility in soils. Soil sterilization methods have been criticized, because they are not effective enough to eliminate biotic interactions within an experimental treatment. Isotopic tracer studies have also been used but also have problems differentiating biotic and abiotic reactions. This study is an attempt to demonstrate abiotic immobilization of nitrate in soil samples through the use of double labeled nitrate (15N18O3- ). The resolution of this method depends on the biochemistry of microbial immobilization of nitrate; reduction of nitrate to nitrite, then ammonia and glutamine before incorporation into microbial biomass. Reduction of 15N18O3- before microbial utilization of the 15N implies that retention of both heavy isotopes in the soil can only occur through abiotic reaction of 15N18Ox species. In biotic immobilization the 18O is lost to the system in water. While nitrate has proven unreactive in soils, its reduced product, nitrite, is known to be readily reactive with various soil compounds. Nitrite can be introduced into the soil environment naturally by both 'leakiness' in nitrification and denitrification and may possibly be generated abiotically through methods such as the proposed Ferrous Wheel hypothesis. Samples of the O-horizon of Harvard Forest red pine soils were incubated at several short intervals (15 m, 1 h, 4 h), based on previous observations made at Harvard Forest, under both anoxic and oxygenated conditions. Following incubation, KCl extraction of available N, and freeze drying, isotopic enrichment was determined by EA/TCEA Mass Spectroscopy. Preliminary results showed a significant enrichment in 15N and a small but significant enrichment in 18O. The full results of the experiment will be available by the Fall meeting.

Maclean, R. W.; Ollinger, S. V.; Hobbie, E. A.; Frey, S. D.; Dail, D. B.



Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium) Winter Nitrate Study (WNS) is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January-March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI) experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 ?g m-3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes) rather than just correlated with episodes because of similar synoptic meteorology.

Stanier, C.; Singh, A.; Adamski, W.; Baek, J.; Caughey, M.; Carmichael, G.; Edgerton, E.; Kenski, D.; Koerber, M.; Oleson, J.; Rohlf, T.; Lee, S. R.; Riemer, N.; Shaw, S.; Sousan, S.; Spak, S. N.



Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium) Winter Nitrate Study (WNS) is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January-March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the Western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI) experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 ?g m-3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes) rather than just correlated with episodes because of similar synoptic meteorology.

Stanier, C. O.; Singh, A.; Adamski, W.; Baek, J.; Caughey, M.; Carmichael, G.; Edgerton, E.; Kenski, D.; Koerber, M.; Oleson, J.; Rohlf, T.; Lee, S. R.; Riemer, N.; Shaw, S.; Sousan, S.; Spak, S. N.



Health Hazards of Nitrite Inhalants,  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Contents: Nitrite inhalants: historical perspective; Fate and toxicity of butyl nitrites; Acute toxicity of nitrite inhalants; Indications from animal and chemical experiments of a carcinogenic role for isobutyl nitrite; Toxicity of inhaled isobutyl nitri...

H. W. Haverkos J. A. Dougherty



Pepsin is nitrated in the rat stomach, acquiring antiulcerogenic activity: a novel interaction between dietary nitrate and gut proteins.  


Dietary nitrate is reduced to nitrite and nitric oxide ((•)NO) in the gut, producing reactive species able to nitrate proteins and lipids. We investigated intragastric production of (•)NO and nitrating agents in vivo by examining selective nitration of pepsinogen and pepsin. We further addressed the functional impact of nitration on peptic activity by evaluating the progression of secretagogue-induced ulcers. Pepsinogen nitration was assessed in healthy and diclofenac-induced ulcerated rat stomachs. Both groups were fed nitrite or water by oral gavage. Protein nitration was studied by immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation. In parallel experiments, pentagastrin was administered to rats and nitrite was then instilled intragastrically. (•)NO levels were measured before and after nitrite administration by chemiluminescence. Macroscopic damage was assessed and nitrated pepsin was examined in the margin of ulcers. Protein nitration was detected physiologically in the stomach of healthy animals. Nitrite had a dual effect on intragastric nitration: overall nitration was decreased under physiological conditions but enhanced by acute inflammation. Pepsin and pepsinogen were also nitrated via a nitrite-dependent pathway. Nitration of both pepsin and its zymogen led to decreased peptic activity in response to classical substrates (e.g., collagen). Under conditions of acute ulceration, nitrite-dependent pepsin nitration prevented the development of gastric ulcers. Dietary nitrite generates nitrating agents in the stomach in vivo, markedly decreasing peptic activity. Under inflammatory and ulcerogenic conditions pepsin nitration attenuates the progression of gastric ulceration. These results suggest that dietary nitrite-dependent nitration of pepsin may have a novel antiulcerogenic effect in vivo. PMID:23277149

Rocha, Bárbara S; Gago, Bruno; Barbosa, Rui M; Lundberg, Jon O; Mann, Giovanni E; Radi, Rafael; Laranjinha, João



Photoinactivation of Ammonia Oxidation in Nitrosomonas  

PubMed Central

Photoinactivation of ammonia oxidation in cells of Nitrosomonas was shown to follow first-order kinetics with a rate constant proportional to incident light intensity. The action spectrum for photoinactivation consisted of a broad peak in the ultraviolet range, where both hydroxylamine and ammonia oxidation were affected, and a shoulder at approximately 410 nm where only ammonia oxidation was affected. In photoinactivated cells, hydroxylamine but not ammonia was oxidized to nitrite and hydroxylamine but not ammonia caused reduction of cytochromes in vivo. The amount per cell of the following constituents was not measurably altered by photoinactivation: cytochromes b, c, a, and P460; ubiquinone; phospholipid; free amino acids; hydroxylamine-dependent nitrite synthetase; nitrite reductase; p-phenylenediamine oxidase; and cytochrome c oxidase. Malonaldehyde or lipid peroxides were not detected in photoinactivated cells. Photoinactivation was prevented (i) under anaerobic conditions, (ii) in the presence of methanol, allylthiourea, thiosemicarbazide, hydroxylamine, ethylxanthate, or CO at concentrations wich caused 100% inhibition of ammonia oxidation, and (iii) at concentrations of ammonia or hydroxylamine which gave a rapid rate of nitrite production. Recovery of ammonia oxidation activity in 90% inactivated cells took place in 6 h, required an energy and/or nitrogen source, and was inhibited by 400 ?g of chloramphenicol per ml.

Hooper, Alan B.; Terry, Kathleen R.



Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.



Nitrite impacts the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in response to isoniazid and hydrogen peroxide  

PubMed Central

When access to molecular oxygen is restricted, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can respire an alternative electron acceptor, nitrate. We found that Mtb within infected primary human macrophages in vitro at physiologic tissue oxygen tensions respired nitrate, generating copious nitrite. A strain of Mtb lacking a functioning nitrate reductase was more susceptible than wild-type Mtb to treatment with isoniazid during infection of macrophages. Likewise, nitrate reductase-deficient Mtb was more susceptible to isoniazid than wild-type Mtb in axenic culture, and more resistant to hydrogen peroxide. These phenotypes were reversed by the addition of exogenous nitrite. Further investigation suggested that nitrite might inhibit the bacterial catalase. To the extent that Mtb itself is the most relevant source of nitrite acting within Mtb, these findings suggest that inhibitors of Mtb's nitrate transporter or nitrate reductase could enhance the efficacy of isoniazid.

Cunningham-Bussel, Amy; Bange, Franz C; Nathan, Carl F



Role of nitrogen oxides in the metabolism of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.  


Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) can use oxygen and nitrite as electron acceptors. Nitrite reduction by Nitrosomonas is observed under three conditions: (i) hydrogen-dependent denitrification, (ii) anoxic ammonia oxidation with nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)) and (iii) NO(x)-induced aerobic ammonia oxidation. NO(x) molecules play an important role in the conversion of ammonia and nitrite by AOB. Absence of nitric oxide (NO), which is generally detectable during ammonia oxidation, severely impairs ammonia oxidation by AOB. The lag phase of recovery of aerobic ammonia oxidation was significantly reduced by NO(2) addition. Acetylene inhibition tests showed that NO(2)-dependent and oxygen-dependent ammonia oxidation can be distinguished. Addition of NO(x) increased specific activity of ammonia oxidation, growth rate and denitrification capacity. Together, these findings resulted in a hypothetical model on the role of NO(x) in ammonia oxidation: the NO(x) cycle. PMID:16417515

Kampschreur, M J; Tan, N C G; Picioreanu, C; Jetten, M S M; Schmidt, I; van Loosdrecht, M C M



Electronic structures of acyl nitrites and nitrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gas phase electronic structures of CM3C(O)ONO and CM3C(O)ONO2 (M=H, Cl, F) are studied by photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) combined with the outer valence Green's function (OVGF) calculations at 6-311+G(d, p) basis sets. The highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) for each compound is the carbonyl oxygen lone pair (nO), the ionizations of these orbitals are associated with the vibrational frequency about

Xiaoqing Zeng; Li Yao; Weigang Wang; Fengyi Liu; Qiao Sun; Maofa Ge; Zheng Sun; Jianping Zhang; Dianxun Wang



[Achieve single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process by controlling the concentration of free ammonia].  


Through controlling the concentration of free ammonia in the sequencing batch reactor (SBR), the single-stage autotrophic biological nitrogen removal process was achieved, including partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The experiment was completed via two steps, the enrichment of nitrite bacteria and the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass. The operating temperature in the SBR was (31 +/- 2) degrees C. During the step of the enrichment of nitrite bacteria, pH was about 7.8. Changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N(56-446 mg x L(-1)), in order to inhibit and eliminate the nitrate bacteria. The activity tests of the sludge, 55d after enrichment, showed strong activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.91 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and low activity of nitrite oxidation [0.03 kg x(kg x d)(-1)]. During the inoculation of the mixture of anammox biomass, changes of FA concentration were achieved by controlling the concentration of influent NH4(+) -N and pH. As the inoculation of anammox biomass, abundant of bacteria and nutrient content were into the reactor and there kept high activity of aerobic ammonium oxidation [2.83 kg x (kg x d)(-1)] and a certain activity of nitrite oxidation, at the same time, the activity of anammox and heterotrophic denitrification reached 0.65 kg x (kg x d)(-1) and 0.11 kg x (kg x d)(-1), respectively. PMID:21404687

Ji, Li-Li; Yang, Zhao-Hui; Xu, Zheng-Yong; Li, Xiao-Jiang; Tang, Zhi-Gang; Deng, Jiu-Hu



A novel route to organonitrites by Pd-catalyzed cross-coupling of sodium nitrite and potassium organotrifluoroborates  

PubMed Central

Microwave irradiated palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of potassium styryltrifluoroborates and sodium nitrite gives the corresponding styryl nitrites in high yields. Potassium aryltrifluoroborates also furnish aryl nitrites under same reaction condition. This unprecedented cross-coupling is an interesting development and has the potential to lead to new nitration protocols.

Al-Masum, Mohammad; Saleh, Nabil; Islam, Tasfia



Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors? †  

PubMed Central

Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB.

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit



Adaptation of E. coli cell method for micro-scale nitrate measurement with the Griess reaction in culture media  

Microsoft Academic Search

The E. coli cell method for nitrate measurement consists of two-steps: nitrate reduction by the E. coli cell usually under anaerobic conditions and subsequently nitrite measurement with the Griess reaction. It was found that the E. coli DSM 498k wildtype cell can reduce nitrate to nitrite under aerobic conditions. Therefore, the E. coli method for nitrate measurement was adapted to

Jianlin Xu; Xia Xu; Willy Verstraete



Achieving nitritation and anammox enrichment in a single moving-bed biofilm reactor treating reject water  

Microsoft Academic Search

A biofilm with high nitrifying efficiency was converted into a nitritating and thereafter a nitritating–anammox biofilm in a moving-bed biofilm reactor at 26.5 (±0.5)°C by means of a combination of intermittent aeration, low dissolved oxygen concentration, low hydraulic retention time, free ammonia and furthermore, also by elevated HCO concentration. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were more effectively suppressed by an enhanced HCO

I. Zekker; E. Rikmann; T. Tenno; A. Saluste; M. Tomingas; A. Menert; L. Loorits; Vallo Lemmiksoo



Swimming performance of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after nitrite exposure  

SciTech Connect

Tests of prolonged swimming are generally considered most useful in sublethal stress assessment, as they draw on both major biochemical energy sources. No research to date has quantified either the swimming performance of I. punctatus or effects of nitrite exposure on swimming of any species. Our purpose was to determine if nitrite exposure affects the prolonged swimming performance of channel catfish, and to delineate the extent that methemoglobinemia resulting from nitrate exposure correlates with performance.

Watenpaugh, D.E.; Beitinger, T.L.



Spectrophotometric determination of nitrite using salbutamol sulfate as a reagent  

SciTech Connect

A simple spectrophotometric method for the trace determination of nitrite (NO/sub 2//sup /minus//) is described. Nitrite is reacted with Salbutamol sulfate in acidic medium which gives a yellow color in alkaline medium (less than or equal to pH 7) and can be determined in the presence of several cations and anions. Beer's law is obeyed in the range of 1.8 to 27.6 ppm of nitrite with the molar absorptivity 1.8 /times/ 10/sup 3/ 1 /times/ mole /sup /minus/1/ /times/ cm/sup /minus/1/ at 410 nm. The proposed method can also be utilized for the determination of nitrate (NO/sub 3//sup /minus//) after its reduction to nitrite. The method has been applied for the determination of various samples containing traces of nitrite.

Agrawal, Y.K.; Bhatt, P.N.




EPA Science Inventory

This presentation discusses the role of ammonia as an atmospheric pollutant. Ammonia is emitted primarily from agricultural sources, although vehicles are the largest sources in urban centers. When combined with nitrate and sulfate, ammonia forms particulate matter which has be...


Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is described for the rapid determination of nitrate?N in plant extracts. The complex formed by nitration of salicylic acid under highly acidic conditions absorbs maximally at 410 nm in basic (pH>12) solutions. Absorbance of the chromophore is directly proportional to the amount of nitrate?N present. Ammonium, nitrite, and chloride ions do not interfere.

D. A. Cataldo; M. Maroon; L. E. Schrader; V. L. Youngs



Disruption of redox homeostasis and brain damage caused in vivo by methylmalonic acid and ammonia in cerebral cortex and striatum of developing rats.  


Abstract Hyperammonemia is a common finding in children with methylmalonic acidemia and propionic acidemia, but its contribution to the development of the neurological symptoms in the affected patients is poorly known. Considering that methylmalonic acid (MMA) and propionic acid (PA) predominantly accumulate in these disorders, we investigated the effects of hyperammonemia induced by urease treatment in 30-day-old rats receiving an intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of MMA or PA on important parameters of redox homeostasis in cerebral cortex and striatum. We evaluated glutathione (GSH) concentrations, sulfhydryl content, nitrate and nitrite concentrations, 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. MMA decreased GSH concentrations and sulfhydryl content and increased nitrate and nitrite concentrations in cerebral cortex and striatum from hyperammonemic rats, whereas MMA or ammonia per se did not alter these parameters. MMA plus hyperammonemia also decreased glutathione reductase activity in rat cerebral cortex, but did not affect catalase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, neither DCFH oxidation. Furthermore, ICV PA administration alone or combined with hyperammonemia did not alter any of the evaluated parameters. We also found that pre-treatment with antioxidants prevented GSH reduction and sulfhydryl oxidation, whereas N(?)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) prevented the increased nitrate and nitrite concentrations provoked by MMA plus ammonia treatments. Histological alterations, including vacuolization, ischemic neurons, and pericellular edema, were observed in brain of hyperammonemic rats injected with MMA. The data indicate a synergistic effect of MMA and ammonia disturbing redox homeostasis and causing morphological brain abnormalities in rat brain. PMID:24580146

Viegas, C M; Zanatta, A; Grings, M; Hickmann, F H; Monteiro, W O; Soares, L E; Sitta, A; Leipnitz, G; de Oliveira, F H; Wajner, M



Cross effect of temperature, pH and free ammonia on autotrophic denitrification process with sulphide as electron donor.  


Autotrophic denitrification is a suitable technology to simultaneously remove oxidised nitrogen compounds and reduced sulphur compounds yielding nitrogen gas, sulphur and sulphate as the main products. In this work, several batch tests were conducted to investigate the cross effect of temperature, pH and free ammonia on the autotrophic denitrification. Denitrification efficiencies above 95% were achieved at 35°C and pH 7.5-8.0 with maximum specific autotrophic denitrifying activities up to 188mgN2g(-1)VSSd(-1). Free ammonia did not show any effect on denitrification at concentrations up to 53mg NH3-NL(-1). Different sulphide concentrations were also tested with stoichiometric nitrite and nitrate concentrations. Sulphide inhibited denitrification at concentrations higher than 200mgS(2-)L(-1). A 50% inhibition was also found at nitrite concentrations above 48mg NO2(-)-NL(-1). The maximum specific activity decreased until a value of 25mgN2g(-1) VSSd(-1) at 232mg NO2(-)-NL(-1). The Haldane model was used to describe denitrification inhibition caused by nitrite. Kinetic parameters determined from the fitting of experimental data were rmax=176mgN2g(-1)VSSd(-1), Ks=10.7mg NO2(-)-NL(-1) and Ki=34.7mg NO2(-)-NL(-1). The obtained model allowed optimising an autotrophic denitrification process by avoiding situations of inhibition and thus obtaining higher denitrification efficiencies. PMID:24216266

Fajardo, Carmen; Mora, Mabel; Fernández, Isaac; Mosquera-Corral, Anuska; Campos, José Luis; Méndez, Ramón



Population dynamics of nitrifying bacteria for nitritation achieved in Johannesburg (JHB) process treating municipal wastewater.  


Population dynamic of nitrifying bacteria was investigated for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. Nitritation was established with nitrite accumulation ratios above 85%. Quantitative PCR indicated that Nitrospira was dominant nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and Nitrobacter was few. During nitritation achieving, Nitrobacter was firstly eliminated, along with inhibition of Nitrospira bioactivities, then Nitrospira percentage declined and was finally washed out. Nitritation establishment depended on inhibiting and eliminating of NOB rather than ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) enriching. This is the first study where population dynamics of Nitrobacter and Nitrospira were investigated to reveal mechanism of nitritation in a continuous-flow process. Phylogenetic analysis of AOB indicated that Nitrosomonas-like cluster and Nitrosomonas oligotropha were dominant AOB, accounting for 81.6% of amoA gene clone library. Community structure of AOB was similar to that of complete nitrification system with long hydraulic retention time, but different from that of nitritation reactor with low DO concentration. PMID:24736209

Zeng, Wei; Bai, Xinlong; Zhang, Limin; Wang, Anqi; Peng, Yongzhen



depth measurement temperature measurement pressure measurement conductivity measurement (Salinity measurement TDS measurement) Oxygen Concentration measurement (Oxygen saturation measurement) pH-value measurement Red-ox-potential ORP measurement turbidity measurement (TSS measurement) measurement ion selective electrode (nitrate chloride ammonium potassium calcium sodium fluoride gas ammonia) fluorescence measurements (chlorophyll a cyanobacteria rhodamine ) optical oxygen measurements.  

EPA Pesticide Factsheets

Did you mean: depth measurement temperature measurement pressure measurement conductivity measurement (Salinity measurement TDS measurement) Oxygen Concentration measurement (Oxygen saturation measurement) pH-value measurement Red-ox-potential ORP measurement turbidity measurement (TSS measurement) measurement ion selective electrode (nitrate chloride ammonium potassium calcium sodium fluoride gas ammonia) fluorescence measurements (chlorophyll a cyanobacteria rhodamine ) optical oxygen measurements. ?


Molecular Structure of Ammonia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ammonia is a non-ionic colorless gas at ambient temperatures and a hydrogen bonding liquid at 240 Kelvin that has the remarkable ability to dissolve alkali metals. Ammonia is a Lewis base and is readily absorbed by water to form small amounts of ammonium hydroxide (pKb = 4.74). Naturally, ammonia has its sources in the biosphere (the nitrogen cycle) and is a trace gas in air and a source of ammonium ions in rain and atmospheric aerosols. Ammonia is prepared industrially by the Haber-Bosch process in quantities exceeding 120 million metric tons per year. In this process, ammonia gas is formed when hydrogen and nitrogen (3:1) are compressed to pressures of 200 atm and passed over an iron catalyst at 380-450 degrees C. Much of the ammonia produced this way (85%) is used as fertilizers on crops, a significant portion of which leaches from croplands into streams causing nitrate pollution and eutrophication of waterways (e.g., dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico). Other sources of ammonia include combustion (coal and biomass burning) and from bacterial decomposition of animal excreta.



A model for nitrate distributions in oceanic oxygen minimum zones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vertical distributions of nitrate and nitrate deficit (nitrate consumed during denitrification) in oxygen minimum zones are modeled using a recycling mechanism incorporating bacterially mediated reaction and diffusion. At the core of the oxygen minimum zone bacteria reduce nitrate to nitrite and part of the nitrte to molecular nitrogen (denitrification). The remaining nitrite diffuses out of the layer, is oxidized to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, and diffuses back into the layer to complete the cycle. The peak nitrite and nitrate deficit concentrations and the amount of recycling depend on two parameters: ?, the ratio of the sum of the nitrate and nitrate reduction rates to the diffusion coefficient, and ?, the ratio of the nitrate reduction rate to the sum of the nitrate and nitrite reduction rates. We estimate from peak concentrations that for oxygen minimum zones in the Arabian Sea, the eastern tropical North Pacific, and the coastal waters of Peru that the nitrogen production rate is between 39 and 60% of the nitrate reduction rate, with the difference in rates equaling the recycling rate between the denitrifying and nitrifying layers. A dependency of ? and ? on organic substrates available to denitrifying bacteria is suggested from independent chemostat studies and the primary productivity overlying the oxygen minimum zones. The peak concentrations of nitrite and nitrate deficit are near the mid-depth of the denitrifying layer, and from this characteristic we estimate the thickness of the denitrifying layers to be between 30 and 70% of the thickness of the oxygen minimum zones.

Anderson, James Jay; Okubo, Akira; Robbins, Alan S.; Richards, Francis A.



On-line determination of nitrite in wastewater treatment by use of a biosensor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A newly developed biosensor for nitrite having a 90% response time of about 1 min was used to monitor nitrite concentration in activated sludge exposed to oxic\\/anoxic cycles. The NO2- biosensor contains bacteria that reduce NO2-, but not NO3-, to N2O that is subsequently monitored by a built-in electrochemical sensor. Nitrite plus nitrate (NOx-) was simultaneously monitored by a NOx-

M. Nielsen; N. P. Revsbech; L. H. Larsen; A. Lynggaard-Jensen


An evaluation of liquid ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) as a candidate piscicide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eradication of populations of nonnative aquatic species for the purpose of reintroducing native fish is often difficult because very few effective tools are available for removing aquatic organisms. This creates the need to evaluate new chemicals that could be used as management tools for native fish conservation. Ammonia is a natural product of fish metabolism and is naturally present in the environment at low levels, yet is known to be toxic to most aquatic species. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of using liquid ammonia as a fisheries management tool by evaluating its effectiveness at killing undesirable aquatic species and its persistence in a pond environment. A suite of invasive aquatic species commonly found in the southwestern USA were introduced into two experimental outdoor ponds located at the Rocky Mountain Research Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. Each pond was treated with ammonium hydroxide (29%) at 38 ppm. This target concentration was chosen because previous studies using anhydrous ammonia reported incomplete fish kills in ponds at concentrations less than 30 ppm. Water quality was monitored for 49 d to determine how quickly the natural bacteria in the environment converted the ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia levels remained above 8 ppm for 24 and 18 d, respectively, in ponds 1 and 2. Nitrite levels in each pond began to rise approximately 14 d after dosing with ammonia and stayed above 5 ppm for an additional 21 d in pond 1 and 18 d in pond 2. After 49 d all water in both ponds was drained and no fish, crayfish, or tadpoles were found to have survived the treatment, but aquatic turtles remained alive and appeared unaffected. Liquid ammonia appears to be an effective tool for removing many problematic invasive aquatic species and may warrant further investigation as a piscicide.

Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, R.; Hedwall, Shaula J.



Nebulization of the acidified sodium nitrite formulation attenuates acute hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction  

PubMed Central

Background Generalized hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) occurring during exposure to hypoxia is a detrimental process resulting in an increase in lung vascular resistance. Nebulization of sodium nitrite has been shown to inhibit HPV. The aim of this project was to investigate and compare the effects of nebulization of nitrite and different formulations of acidified sodium nitrite on acute HPV. Methods Ex vivo isolated rabbit lungs perfused with erythrocytes in Krebs-Henseleit buffer (adjusted to 10% hematocrit) and in vivo anesthetized catheterized rabbits were challenged with periods of hypoxic ventilation alternating with periods of normoxic ventilation. After baseline hypoxic challenges, vehicle, sodium nitrite or acidified sodium nitrite was delivered via nebulization. In the ex vivo model, pulmonary arterial pressure and nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas were monitored. Nitrite and nitrite/nitrate were measured in samples of perfusion buffer. Pulmonary arterial pressure, systemic arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were monitored in the in vivo model. Results In the ex vivo model, nitrite nebulization attenuated HPV and increased nitric oxide concentrations in exhaled gas and nitrite concentrations in the perfusate. The acidified forms of sodium nitrite induced higher levels of nitric oxide in exhaled gas and had longer vasodilating effects compared to nitrite alone. All nitrite formulations increased concentrations of circulating nitrite to the same degree. In the in vivo model, inhaled nitrite inhibited HPV, while pulmonary arterial pressure, cardiac output and blood gases were not affected. All nitrite formulations had similar potency to inhibit HPV. The tested concentration of appeared tolerable. Conclusion Nitrite alone and in acidified forms effectively and similarly attenuates HPV. However, acidified nitrite formulations induce a more pronounced increase in nitric oxide exhalation.



The Effects of 2Acetylaminofluorene and Nitrite on Free Radicals and Carcinogenesis in Rat Liver1  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The intensity of the abnormal electron spin resonance signal previously observed in the livers of rats which were fed various chemical carcinogens is found to depend on the intake of the carcinogen, protein, and nitrate or nitrite. Nitrite enhances the intensity of the abnormal electron spin resonance signal and inhibits the carcinogenicity of 2-acetyl- aminofluorene. The appearance of the

Barry Commoner; John C. Woolum; Ben H. Senturia; Jessie L. Ternberg


Nitrate as an oxidant in the cathode chamber of a microbial fuel cell for both power generation and nutrient removal purposes.  


Nitrate ions were used as the oxidant in the cathode chamber of a microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity from organic compounds with simultaneous nitrate removal. The MFC using nitrate as oxidant could generate a voltage of 111 mV (1,000 ?) with a plain carbon cathode. The maximum power density achieved was 7.2 mW m(-2) with a 470 ? resistor. Nitrate was reduced from an initial concentration of 49 to 25 mg (NO (3) (-) -N) L(-1) during 42-day operation. The daily removal rate was 0.57 mg (NO (3) (-) -N) L(-1) day(-1) with a voltage generation of 96 mV. In the presence of Pt catalyst dispersed on cathode, the cell voltage was significantly increased up to 450 mV and the power density was 117.7 mW m(-2), which was 16 times higher than the value without Pt catalyst. Significant nitrate removal was also observed with a daily removal rate of 2 mg (NO (3) (-) -N) L(-1) day(-1), which was 3.5 times higher compared with the operation without catalyst. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite and ammonia in the liquid phase at a ratio of 0.6% and 51.8% of the total nitrate amount. These results suggest that nitrate can be successfully used as an oxidant for power generation without aeration and also nitrate removal from water in MFC. However, control of the process would be needed to reduce nitrate to only nitrogen gas, and avoid further reduction to ammonia. PMID:21188547

Fang, Cheng; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini



In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH`s higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell.

O`Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.



In-situ nitrite analysis in high level waste tanks  

SciTech Connect

The Savannah River Site produces special nuclear materials used in the defense of the United States. Most of the processes at SRS are primarily chemical separations and purifications. In-situ chemical analyses help improve the safety, efficiency and quality of these operations. One area where in situ fiberoptic spectroscopy can have a great impact is the management of high level radioactive waste. High level radioactive waste at SRS is stored in more than 50 large waste tanks. The waste exists as a slurry of nitrate salts and metal hydroxides at pH's higher than 10. Sodium Nitrite is added to the tanks as a corrosion inhibitor. In-situ fiberoptic probes are being developed to measure the nitrate, nitrite and hydroxide concentrations in both liquid and solid fractions. Nitrite levels can be measured between 0.01M and 1M in a 1mm pathlength optical cell.

O'Rourke, P.E.; Prather, W.S.; Livingston, R.R.



Nitrate reductase in Peru current phytoplankton  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate reductase (NR) activity was assayed by measuring the NADH-dependent formation of nitrite in phytoplankton extracts. NR specific activity increased with the nitrate concentration of the water in upwelling areas of the Peru Current. The temperature optimum for NR for natural phytoplankton was 15° to 20°C. NR activity showed diel periodicity, with maximum activity about noon and minimum activity near

R. W. Eppley; T. T. Packard; J. J. MacIsaac



Methemoglobinemia attributable to nitrite contamination of potable water through boiler fluid additives--New Jersey, 1992 and 1996.  


Nitrite and nitrate ions are naturally occurring forms of nitrogen that can be present in ground and surface water and can be used as a food preservative because they inhibit the growth of Clostridium botulinum. Exposure to excessive levels of nitrite or nitrate may result in the acute syndrome of methemoglobinemia (MetHb), in which nitrite binds to hemoglobin. This report summarizes the findings of investigations of two incidents in which unintentional exposure to high doses of nitrite occurred through drinking potable water contaminated with additives to boiler conditioning fluids. PMID:9072681



Zeolite Ammonia Removal from Catfish Pond Waters.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The problem of fish production can also be resolved by increasing fish density in existing ponds. Unfortunately, increasing fish density would also produce toxic buildup of ammonia and nitrate. The problem, however, can be alleviated by employing an ammon...

W. R. Reynolds C. W. Williford



A novel nitrite reductase gene from the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum.  

PubMed Central

The gene (nirA) for nitrite reductase was cloned from the nonheterocystous, filamentous cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum. The predicted protein consists of 654 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 72,135. The deduced amino acid sequence from positions 1 to 511 is strongly similar to the entire sequence of the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductases from other phototrophs, while the remainder of the protein is unique to the Plectonema nitrite reductase. The C-terminal portion of the protein (amino acids 584 to 654) is 30 to 35% identical to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins from higher plants and cyanobacteria, with all of the four Cys residues involved in binding of the [2Fe-2S] cluster in the ferredoxins being conserved. Immunoblotting analysis of the extracts of P. boryanum cells showed that the NirA polypeptide has an apparent molecular mass of 75 kDa. An insertional mutant of nirA lacked the 75-kDa polypeptide, had no nitrite reductase activity, and failed to grow on nitrate and nitrite, indicating that the novel nirA is the sole nitrite reductase gene in P. boryanum and that the NirA polypeptide with the ferredoxin-like domain is the apoprotein of the functional nitrite reductase. As in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942, nirA is the first gene of a large transcription unit (> 7 kb in size) and is repressed by ammonium and derepressed simply by deprivation of ammonium from the medium. The development of nitrite reductase activity was, however, found to require the presence of nitrate in the medium.

Suzuki, I; Kikuchi, H; Nakanishi, S; Fujita, Y; Sugiyama, T; Omata, T



Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein: lipid peroxidation by myeloperoxidase in the presence of nitrite.  


Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is a pivotal process in early atherogenesis and can be brought about by myeloperoxidase (MPO), which is capable of reacting with nitrite, a NO metabolite. We studied MPO-mediated formation of conjugated dienes in isolated human LDL in dependence on the concentrations of nitrite and chloride. This reaction was strongly stimulated by low concentrations (5-50 microM) of nitrite which corresponds to the reported concentration in the arterial vessel wall. Under these conditions no protein tyrosine nitration occurred; this reaction required much higher nitrite concentrations (100 microM-1 mM). Chloride neither supported lipid peroxidation alone nor was its presence mandatory for the effect of nitrite. We propose a prominent role of lipid peroxidation for the proatherogenic action of the MPO/nitrite system, whereas peroxynitrite may be competent for protein tyrosine nitration of LDL. Monomeric and oligomeric flavan-3-ols present in cocoa products effectively counteracted, at micromolar concentrations, the MPO/nitrite-mediated lipid peroxidation of LDL. Flavan-3-ols also suppressed protein tyrosine nitration induced by MPO/nitrite or peroxynitrite as well as Cu2+-mediated lipid peroxidation of LDL. This multi-site protection by (-)-epicatechin or other flavan-3-ols against proatherogenic modification of LDL may contribute to the purported beneficial effects of dietary flavan-3-ols for the cardiovascular system. PMID:15493876

Kraemer, Tilo; Prakosay, Inthanongsack; Date, Rahul A; Sies, Helmut; Schewe, Tankred



Disappearance of nitrite from the rat stomach: contribution of emptying and other factors.  


To help understand how intragastric nitrosation forms N-nitroso compounds, nitriet disappearance from the rat stomach was measured after food containing nitrite was given. In preliminary experiments, nitrite disappearance from buffered aqueous solutions became more rapid as the pH was lowered from 5 to 1 and, at a given pH, was more rapid in a slurry of commercial rat food. The disappearance of nitrite from buffer was little affected by the addition of pepsin, mucin, albumin, or rat gastric contents. When starved rats were given 5 g food with 1.82 mg nANO3/g, nitrate was not reduced to nitrite in the stomach. Five g food containing 154 mug NaNO2/g was administered similarly, and the total stomach (T) and glandular and nonglandular parts (G and NG) were analyzed after 1.5 hours. Weight and nitrite concentration of the stomach contents dropped linearly and the amount of nitrite dropped exponentially (with a half-life of 1.4 hr). Mean nitrite concentration in G was less than half that in NG. From similar experiments with phenol red, emptying accounted for 60% of nitrite loss from T. In G, nitrite concentration was reduced about 3 times due to dilution and 3 times due to other causes. Conditions in G, e.g., nitrite concentration, pH, and empyting time, were discussed in relation to carcinogenesis experiments with nitrite plus amines and amides. PMID:236394

Mirvish, S S; Patil, K; Ghadirian, P; Kommineni, V R



Achieving nitrogen removal via nitrite in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant.  


Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is beneficial for carbon-limited biological wastewater treatment plants. However, partial nitrification to nitrite has proven difficult in continuous processes treating domestic wastewater. The nitrite pathway is achieved in this study in a pilot-scale continuous pre-denitrification plant (V=300 L) treating domestic wastewater by controlling the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration at 0.4-0.7 mg/L. It is demonstrated that the nitrite pathway could be repeatedly and reliably achieved, with over 95% of the oxidized nitrogen compounds at the end of the aerobic zone being nitrite. The nitrite pathway improved the total nitrogen (TN) removal by about 20% in comparison to the nitrate pathway, and also reduced aeration costs by 24%. FISH analysis showed that the nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) population gradually reduced at low DO levels, and reached negligible levels when stable nitrite pathway was established. It is hypothesized that NOB was washed out due to its relatively lower affinity with oxygen. A lag phase was observed in the establishment of the nitrite pathway. Several sludge ages were required for the onset of the nitrite pathway after the application of low DO levels. However, nitrite accumulation increased rapidly after that. A similar lag phase was observed for the upset of the nitrite pathway when a DO concentration of 2-3 mg/L was applied. The nitrite pathway negatively impacted on the sludge settleability. A strong correlation between the sludge volume index and the degree of nitrite accumulation was observed. PMID:19136135

Ma, Yong; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Yuan, Zhiguo; Wang, Xiaolian



Niche differentiation between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the studies presented in this thesis was the search for niche differentiation between the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in aquatic environments. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria are chemolitho-autotrophic microorganisms responsible for the first, mostly rate-limiting step of the nitrification process, i.e. the conversion of ammonia into nitrite. The recent development of molecular techniques had overcome the difficulties inherent to the classic cultivation-based

M. Coci



Ammonia Assimilation by Rhizobium Cultures and Bacteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The enzymes involved in the assimilation of ammonia by free-living cultures of Rhizobium spp. are glutamine synthetase (EC. 6.3. I. 2), glutamate synthase (L- glutamine : a-oxoglutarate amino transferase) and glutamate dehydrogenase (EC I.4. I.4). Under conditions of ammonia or nitrate limitation in a chemostat the assimilation of ammonia by cultures of R. leguminosarum, R. trifolii and R. japonicum




Metabolism of inorganic N compounds by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.  


Ammonia oxidizing bacteria extract energy for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Ammonia monooxygenase, which initiates ammonia oxidation, remains enigmatic given the lack of purified preparations. Genetic and biochemical studies support a model for the enzyme consisting of three subunits and metal centers of copper and iron. Knowledge of hydroxylamine oxidoreductase, which oxidizes hydroxylamine formed by ammonia monooxygenase to nitrite, is informed by a crystal structure and detailed spectroscopic and catalytic studies. Other inorganic nitrogen compounds, including NO, N2O, NO2, and N2 can be consumed and/or produced by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria. NO and N2O can be produced as byproducts of hydroxylamine oxidation or through nitrite reduction. NO2 can serve as an alternative oxidant in place of O2 in some ammonia-oxidizing strains. Our knowledge of the diversity of inorganic N metabolism by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria continues to grow. Nonetheless, many questions remain regarding the enzymes and genes involved in these processes and the role of these pathways in ammonia oxidizers. PMID:14695127

Arp, Daniel J; Stein, Lisa Y



Genetic basis for nitrate resistance in Desulfovibrio strains  

PubMed Central

Nitrate is an inhibitor of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In petroleum production sites, amendments of nitrate and nitrite are used to prevent SRB production of sulfide that causes souring of oil wells. A better understanding of nitrate stress responses in the model SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20, will strengthen predictions of environmental outcomes of nitrate application. Nitrate inhibition of SRB has historically been considered to result from the generation of small amounts of nitrite, to which SRB are quite sensitive. Here we explored the possibility that nitrate might inhibit SRB by a mechanism other than through nitrite inhibition. We found that nitrate-stressed D. vulgaris cultures grown in lactate-sulfate conditions eventually grew in the presence of high concentrations of nitrate, and their resistance continued through several subcultures. Nitrate consumption was not detected over the course of the experiment, suggesting adaptation to nitrate. With high-throughput genetic approaches employing TnLE-seq for D. vulgaris and a pooled mutant library of D. alaskensis, we determined the fitness of many transposon mutants of both organisms in nitrate stress conditions. We found that several mutants, including homologs present in both strains, had a greatly increased ability to grow in the presence of nitrate but not nitrite. The mutated genes conferring nitrate resistance included the gene encoding the putative Rex transcriptional regulator (DVU0916/Dde_2702), as well as a cluster of genes (DVU0251-DVU0245/Dde_0597-Dde_0605) that is poorly annotated. Follow-up studies with individual D. vulgaris transposon and deletion mutants confirmed high-throughput results. We conclude that, in D. vulgaris and D. alaskensis, nitrate resistance in wild-type cultures is likely conferred by spontaneous mutations. Furthermore, the mechanisms that confer nitrate resistance may be different from those that confer nitrite resistance.

Korte, Hannah L.; Fels, Samuel R.; Christensen, Geoff A.; Price, Morgan N.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Zane, Grant M.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.




EPA Science Inventory

The paper presents one year of ambient ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), hydrochloric acid (HCI), chloride (CI¯), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3¯), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4...


Vascular xanthine oxidoreductase contributes to the antihypertensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-NAME hypertension.  


Nitrate and nitrite have emerged as an important novel source of nitric oxide (NO). We have previously demonstrated that sodium nitrite is an antihypertensive compound that exerts antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension. These unpredicted antioxidant effects of nitrite raised the question whether the beneficial effects found were caused by its conversion to NO or simply due to reversal of endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of its antioxidant effects. Here, we evaluated the antihypertensive effects of a daily dose of sodium nitrite for 4 weeks in L-NAME-induced hypertension in rats. We studied the effects of nitrite on markers of NO bioavailability, vascular oxidative stress, and expression of xanthine oxidoreductase. Moreover, we tested if xanthine oxidoreductase inhibition could attenuate the acute hypotensive effects of sodium nitrite in L-NAME hypertensive rats. We found that a single pharmacological dose of sodium nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME-induced hypertension. While the beneficial antihypertensive properties of nitrite were associated with increased levels of NO metabolites, hypertension increased vascular xanthine oxidoreductase expression by approximately 40%, with minor increases in vascular superoxide production. The inhibition of xanthine oxidoreductase by oxypurinol attenuated the acute hypotensive effects of nitrite. Taken together, our results show that nitrite exerts antihypertensive effects in L-NAME hypertensive rats and provide evidence that xanthine oxidoreductase plays an important role in this antihypertensive effect. PMID:24658348

Montenegro, Marcelo F; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Ferreira, Graziele C; Portella, Rafael L; Tanus-Santos, Jose E



Nitrate in Ground Waters of the United States: Contrasting Scales and Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate is one of the most ubiquitous compounds in ground water. Studies conducted during 1992 - 1995 by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program detected nitrate in 71% of shallow ground water samples, more than 13 times as often as organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, and orthophosphate (based on a common detection threshold of 0.2 mg/L). Nitrate commonly occurs in mixtures with other contaminants. Mixtures of "anthropogenic" nitrate (>3 mg/L as N), atrazine, and deethylatrazine were among the most frequently occurring mixtures in ground water samples from 1,497 domestic and public supply wells. The samples were analyzed for nitrate, 83 pesticides, and 60 volatile organic compounds. Elevated nitrate concentration in ground water has been associated with adverse health effects. Interpretive studies conducted at contrasting spatial scales reveal different processes influencing nitrate behavior in ground water. At the national scale, an empirical model indicates that leaching and water-table position influence nitrate concentration in shallow ground water (typically <5 m deep). The probability of nitrate contamination is greater in areas with high nitrogen loading and well-drained soils overlying unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits. Median nitrate concentration for wells grouped by mapped probability region increases from 0.24 to 8.3 mg/L as the predicted probability of nitrate exceeding 4 mg/L increases from 0.17 or less to >0.83. With these shallow ground-water data, nitrate contamination risk increases with increasing depth to ground water because of reduced denitrification potential. Denitrification commonly occurs under anoxic conditions in areas with very shallow depth to ground water (i.e., high water-table position). A regional study indicates that nitrate reduction and calcite dissolution processes influence nitrate concentration in ground waters of the southeastern United States. Water and sediment of the North Carolina-Virginia Coastal Plain contain sufficient organic carbon (4.2 mg/L) for bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas, and median nitrate concentration in the area is <0.05 mg/L. Median depth to water in the area is about 2 m. In contrast, nitrate concentration is high (median = 4.6 mg/L) in ground water samples from the Great Valley Carbonate area of the Potomac River Basin. Acidic water creates solution channels in carbonate rocks that readily convey nitrate and other contaminants to ground water. Nitrate concentration is related to land use and point estimates of ground-water recharge in a subregional scale study conducted in a North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer in southern New Jersey. The recharge estimates are based on pedotransfer functions that relate water-retention parameters to measured soil texture and bulk density. Ranked nitrate concentration was grouped by low (29.1 cm/yr or less) and high (>29.1 cm/yr) recharge categories in a two-way analysis of variance that compensated for land use. Nitrate concentration is significantly lower in the high recharge category (p = 0.024), suggesting possible dilution by infiltrating water or by bulk flow within the aquifer. This is in contrast to the leaching process indicated by the national-scale model. Although median depth to ground water in the area is only about 1 m, median nitrate concentration is 5.5 mg/L in the low recharge category and 2.4 mg/L in the high recharge category, irrespective of land use. The high nitrate concentration relative to ground waters of the North Carolina-Virginia Coastal Plain indicates that denitrification is not a mitigating factor in the southern New Jersey study area.

Nolan, B. T.



Assessment of N2O emission from a photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate.  


This study investigated the interactions between naturally occurring bacteria and the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris within a lab scale photobioreactor treating ammonia-rich swine wastewater digestate effluent. Nitrification and denitrification were assessed by targeting ammonia monoxygenases (amoA), nitrate (narG), nitrite (nirS), nitric oxide (norB) and nitrous oxide (nosZ) reductases genes. Oxygen produced from microalgae photosynthesis stimulated nitrification. Under limiting carbon availability (i.e., <1.44 for mg TOC/mg NO2-N and 1.72 for mg TOC/mg NO3-N), incomplete denitrification led to accumulation of NO2 and NO3. Significant N2O emission (up to 118 ?g N2O-N) was linked to NO2 metabolism in Chlorella. The addition of acetate as external carbon source recovered heterotrophic denitrification activity suppressing N2O emission. Effluent methane concentrations trapped within photobioreactor was removed concomitantly with ammonia. Overall, closed photobioreactors can be built to effectively remove nitrogen and mitigate simultaneously greenhouse gases emissions that would occur otherwise in open microalgae-based wastewater treatment systems. PMID:24128394

Mezzari, Melissa P; da Silva, Márcio L B; Nicoloso, Rodrigo S; Ibelli, Adriana M G; Bortoli, Marcelo; Viancelli, Aline; Soares, Hugo M




EPA Science Inventory

The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during...


Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopic investigation of the inhibition of the phosphoroclastic system of Clostridium sporogenes by nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The proposal that nitrite exerts its inhibitory effect on anaerobic bacteria by direct interaction with the iron- sulphur proteins of the phosphoroclastic system was investigated. The effects of nitrate, nitrite with or without ascorbate, and nitric oxide on the growth of Clostridium sprogenes in liquid cultures at pH 7.4, on the rates of hydrogen production, and on the activities of

M. J. Payne; LEONARD F. J. WOODS; PAUL GIBBS; R. Cammack



Aerobic radical multifunctionalization of alkenes using tert-butyl nitrite and water  

PubMed Central

Summary Water induces a change in the product of radical multifunctionalization reactions of aliphatic alkenes involving an sp3 C–H functionalization by an 1,5-hydrogen shift using tert-butyl nitrite and molecular oxygen. The reaction without water, reported previously, gives nitrated ?-lactols, whereas the reaction in the presence of water produces 4-hydroxy-5-nitropentyl nitrate or 4-hydroxy-3-nitropentyl nitrate derivatives.

Hirose, Daisuke



Comment on Egami's concept of the evolution of nitrate respiration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results suggest that the presence of common nitrogen salts (sodium nitrite and nitrate) in the irradiation medium can markedly protect filamentous blue-green algae from potentially lethal ultraviolet irradiation. The present results as well as general biological arguments of Egami support and extend Egami's original view that anaerobic respiratory pathways using nitrite and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors evolved prior to oxygen requiring aerobic respiratory pathways.

Rambler, M.; Margulis, L.



Effects of Nitrite on Development of Embryos and Early Larval Stages of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that high nitrate levels in food and water may cause birth defects or spontaneous abortions in humans. Experimental mammalian studies show that high nitrite levels adversely affect reproductive outcomes, but have not shown congenital malformations. Consequently, the teratogenic potential of nitrite is unclear. In this study, the effects of nitrite on development of zebrafish embryos and early larval stages were investigated. Eggs were exposed to ethanol (a known teratogen), nitrite, or nitrate for 24 or 96 hours, and larvae examined at 120 hours. Sublethal exposure to 300?mM ethanol for 24 hours caused severe pericardial and yolk sac edema, craniofacial and axial malformations, and swim bladder noninflation. The 96 hour LC50 for nitrite was 411?mg/L. Less severe edema, craniofacial (but not axial) malformations, swim bladder noninflation, and immobility were observed after sublethal exposure to nitrite between 10 and 300?mg/L for 96 hours. Exposure to nitrite for 24 hours at concentrations as high as 2000?mg/L was not lethal. Only axial malformations and swim bladder noninflation were observed at 1500?mg/L. The results demonstrate that sublethal nitrite concentrations cause developmental defects. The type and magnitude of these defects differed after 24 and 96 hours of exposure.

Simmons, Alison E.; Karimi, Ida; Talwar, Mayank



Nitrogen Removal over Nitrite by Aeration Control in Aerobic Granular Sludge Sequencing Batch Reactors  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the potential of aeration control for the achievement of N-removal over nitrite with aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactors. N-removal over nitrite requires less COD, which is particularly interesting if COD is the limiting parameter for nutrient removal. The nutrient removal performances for COD, N and P have been analyzed as well as the concentration of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge. Aeration phase length control combined with intermittent aeration or alternate high-low DO, has proven to be an efficient way to reduce the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria population and hence achieve N-removal over nitrite. N-removal efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved for an influent wastewater with COD:N:P ratios of 20:2.5:1. The total N-removal rate was 0.18 kgN·m?3·d?1. With N-removal over nitrate the N-removal was only 74%. At 20 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased by over 95% in 60 days and it was possible to switch from N-removal over nitrite to N-removal over nitrate and back again. At 15 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased too but less, and nitrite oxidation could not be completely suppressed. However, the combination of aeration phase length control and high-low DO was also at 15 °C successful to maintain the nitrite pathway despite the fact that the maximum growth rate of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at temperatures below 20 °C is in general higher than the one of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria.

Lochmatter, Samuel; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof



Anaerobic ammonia oxidation with nitrogen dioxide by Nitrosomonas eutropha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrosomonas eutropha, an obligately lithoautotrophic bacterium, was able to nitrify and denitrify simultaneously under anoxic conditions when\\u000a gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was supplemented to the atmosphere. In the presence of gaseous NO2, ammonia was oxidized, nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) were formed, and hydroxylamine occurred as an intermediate. Between\\u000a 40 and 60% of the produced nitrite was denitrified to dinitrogen

Ingo Schmidt; E. Bock



Evaluation of the nitrate drinking water standard with reference to infant methemoglobinemia and potential reproductive toxicity.  


In view of published results of epidemiologic studies which suggested an association between nitrate in drinking water and human malformations, an assessment of the toxicology of nitrates and nitrites in relation to possible adverse effects on reproduction and development was performed. The current water standard for nitrate is based on protection from methemoglobinemia. A review of the animal data failed to provide evidence for teratogenic effects attributable to nitrate or nitrite ingestion. Adverse reproductive effects reported occurred at doses that were about one thousand times and higher than the estimated human intake. Neither nitrate nor nitrite in experimental animals concentrated in the mammary gland or milk. The present assessment concludes that the maximum contaminant level of 45 ppm nitrate ion, or 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen, adequately protects the very young from nitrate-induced toxicity, both pre- and postnatally. PMID:3303167

Fan, A M; Willhite, C C; Book, S A



A case study of nitrification and nitrite isotope fractionation in a eutrophic temperate river system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stable isotopes of nitrate are often used to assess processing of nitrate in the water column of oceans, estuaries, and rivers. In all these environments, nitrate regeneration via nitrification is an important source of new nitrate. The bulk isotope effect of nitrification is hard to predict: It is a two-step-process by distinct groups of microorganisms oxidizing ammonium to nitrate via nitrite. Both processes have divergent isotope effects, and it is even more difficult to unravel these effects in natural environments, because nitrite usually does not accumulate and isotope analysis is not possible. During our routine sampling scheme at the River Elbe an exceptional flood occurred in June 2013, and nitrite and ammonium accumulated, allowing us to investigate isotope fractionation of nitrification in a natural river system. We measured nutrient concentrations, dual nitrate isotopes, ?15N-NO2, and, where possible, ?15N-NH4. Nitrate leached from catchment area, and ?15N-NO3 and ?18O-NO3 decreased from typical spring bloom values (9.0 o and 3.5 o respectively) to winter nitrate background values (7.4 o and 2.1 o respectively). This indicates that riverine assimilation was minimal during the flood. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations increased to 12.5 ?M and 5.7 ?M, respectively, which likely was due to remineralization and nitrification in the water column. Ammonium ?15N-NH4 values increased up to 12 o and nitrite ?15N-NO2 values ranged from -4.8 o and -14.2 ‰Nitrite oxidation and decreasing concentrations were coupled with a fractionation factor 15? of -8.6 o following normal, and not inverse, isotope fractionation. This deviates from findings in pure cultures of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. We assume that the mechanisms responsible for inverse fractionation apply in natural environment as well, but that the resulting trend in ?15N-NO2 is masked by dilution with fresh nitrite stemming from ammonium oxidation. Our data are a first approximation of the natural bulk isotope effect of nitrite oxidation in natural environments and highlight that pure culture results cannot easily be extrapolated to natural microbial assemblages or water bodies.

Jacob, Juliane; Dähnke, Kirstin; Sanders, Tina



Completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite in one single reactor.  


The microbiology and the feasibility of a new, single-stage, reactor for completely autotrophic ammonia removal were investigated. The reactor was started anoxically after inoculation with biomass from a reactor performing anaerobic ammonia oxidation (Anammox). Subsequently, oxygen was supplied to the reactor and a nitrifying population developed. Oxygen was kept as the limiting factor. The development of a nitrifying population was monitored by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization and off-line activity measurements. These methods also showed that during steady state, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria remained present and active. In the reactor, no aerobic nitrite-oxidizers were detected. The denitrifying potential of the biomass was below the detection limit. Ammonia was mainly converted to N2 (85%) and the remainder (15%) was recovered as NO3-. N2O production was negligible (less than 0.1%). Addition of an external carbon source was not needed to realize the autotrophic denitrification to N2. PMID:12153013

Sliekers, A Olav; Derwort, N; Gomez, J L Campos; Strous, M; Kuenen, J G; Jetten, M S M



Corn leaf nitrate reductase--a nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis.  


Development, characterization, and operational details of an enzymatic, air-segmented continuous-flow analytical method for colorimetric determination of nitrate + nitrite in natural-water samples is described. This method is similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 353.2 and U.S. Geological Survey method 1-2545-90 except that nitrate is reduced to nitrite by soluble nitrate reductase (NaR, EC purified from corn leaves rather than a packed-bed cadmium reactor. A three-channel, air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer-configured for simultaneous determination of nitrite (0.020-1.000 mg-N/L) and nitrate + nitrite (0.05-5.00 mg-N/L) by the nitrate reductase and cadmium reduction methods-was used to characterize analytical performance of the enzymatic reduction method. At a sampling rate of 90 h(-1), sample interaction was less than 1% for all three methods. Method detection limits were 0.001 mg of NO2- -N/L for nitrite, 0.003 mg of NO3-+ NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the cadmium-reduction method, and 0.006 mg of NO3- + NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite bythe enzymatic-reduction method. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by both methods was greater than 95% complete overthe entire calibration range. The difference between the means of nitrate + nitrite concentrations in 124 natural-water samples determined simultaneously bythe two methods was not significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level. PMID:11878390

Patton, Charles J; Fischer, Anne E; Campbell, Wilbur H; Campbell, Ellen R



Corn leaf nitrate reductase - A nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development, characterization, and operational details of an enzymatic, air-segmented continuous-flow analytical method for colorimetric determination of nitrate + nitrite in natural-water samples is described. This method is similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 353.2 and U.S. Geological Survey method 1-2545-90 except that nitrate is reduced to nitrite by soluble nitrate reductase (NaR, EC purified from corn leaves rather than a packed-bed cadmium reactor. A three-channel, air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer-configured for simultaneous determination of nitrite (0.020-1.000 mg-N/L) and nitrate + nitrite (0.05-5.00 mg-N/L) by the nitrate reductase and cadmium reduction methods-was used to characterize analytical performance of the enzymatic reduction method. At a sampling rate of 90 h-1, sample interaction was less than 1% for all three methods. Method detection limits were 0.001 mg of NO2- -N/L for nitrite, 0.003 mg of NO3-+ NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the cadmium-reduction method, and 0.006 mg of NO3- + NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the enzymatic-reduction method. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by both methods was greater than 95% complete over the entire calibration range. The difference between the means of nitrate + nitrite concentrations in 124 natural-water samples determined simultaneously by the two methods was not significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level.

Patton, C. J.; Fischer, A. E.; Campbell, W. H.; Campbell, E. R.



Relationships between nitrite reductase activity and genotype-dependent callus growth in rice cell cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrite ion content and activity of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were examined in scutellum-derived calluses\\u000a of rice varieties using a modified R2 medium (medium A) and a medium derived from the modified R2 medium (medium B). In medium\\u000a A, marked differences were observed in callus growth between the varieties. The calluses of the poor-growth varieties accumulated\\u000a significantly more

T. Ogawa; H. Fukuoka; H. Yano; Y. Ohkawa



Ammonia (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ammonia fountain: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In an ammonia fountain, a flask is filled with ammonia gas. A tube from the flask extends into a pan of water that contains phenolphthalein. When a rubber bulb full of water is squeezed, the water squirts into the flask. Water from the pan then is pushed into the flask and the indicator changes color. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.


Nitrite as regulator of hypoxic signaling in mammalian physiology  

PubMed Central

In this review we consider the physiological effects of endogenous and pharmacological levels of nitrite under conditions of hypoxia. In humans, the nitrite anion has long been considered as metastable intermediate in the oxidation of nitric oxide radicals to the stable metabolite nitrate. This oxidation cascade was thought to be irreversible under physiological conditions. However, a growing body of experimental observations attests that the presence of endogenous nitrite regulates a number of signaling events along the physiological and pathophysiological oxygen gradient. Hypoxic signaling events include vasodilation, modulation of mitochondrial respiration, and cytoprotection following ischemic insult. These phenomena are attributed to the reduction of nitrite anions to nitric oxide if local oxygen levels in tissues decrease. Recent research identified a growing list of enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways for this endogenous reduction of nitrite. Additional direct signaling events not involving free nitric oxide are proposed. We here discuss the mechanisms and properties of these various pathways and the role played by the local concentration of free oxygen in the affected tissue.

van Faassen, Ernst E.; Bahrami, Soheyl; Feelisch, Martin; Hogg, Neil; Kelm, Malte; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Kozlov, Andrey V.; Li, Haitao; Lundberg, Jon O.; Mason, Ron; Nohl, Hans; Rassaf, Tienush; Samouilov, Alexandre; Slama-Schwok, Anny; Shiva, Sruti; Vanin, Anatoly F.; Weitzberg, Eddie; Zweier, Jay; Gladwin, Mark T.



Molecular Cloning of Complementary DNA Encoding Maize Nitrite Reductase  

PubMed Central

Complementary DNA has been isolated that codes for maize nitrite reductase (NiR) by using the corresponding spinach gene (E Back et al. 1988 Mol Gen Genet 212:20-26) as a heterologous probe. The sequences of the complementary DNAs from the two species are 66% homologous while the deduced amino acid sequences are 86% similar when analogous amino acids are included. A high percentage of the differences in the DNA sequences is due to the extremely strong bias in the corn gene to have a G/C base in the third codon position with 559/569 codons ending in a G or C. Using a hydroponic system, maize seedlings grown in the absence of an exogenous nitrogen source were induced with nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate stimulated a rapid induction of the NiR mRNA in both roots and leaves. There is also a considerable induction of this gene in roots upon the addition of nitrite, although under the conditions used the final mRNA level was not as high as when nitrate was the inducer. There is a small but detectable level of NiR mRNA in leaves prior to induction, but no constitutive NiR mRNA can be seen in the roots. Analysis of genomic DNA supports the notion that there are at least two NiR genes in maize. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5

Lahners, Kristine; Kramer, Vance; Back, Eduard; Privalle, Laura; Rothstein, Steven



Effect of nitrite on endothelial function in isolated lung.  


Nitrated tyrosine, implicated in protein dysfunction, is increased in various tissues in association with diverse pathological processes. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is a luminal vascular endothelial enzyme whose dysfunction is an early sign of endothelial injury. ACE contains a tyrosine critical for its enzymatic activity. Others have shown that nitrite exacerbates the ACE dysfunction of cultured endothelial cells in contact with activated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN). We hypothesized that exogenous nitrite would enhance endothelial ACE dysfunction associated with PMN activation in the isolated lung. Rats received lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 2 h prior to isolated lung perfusion with Ficoll containing buffer. Either formyl-Met-Leu-Phe (fMLP, 10(-7) M) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA, 10(-7) M) was used to activate PMN in lungs treated or not treated with 300-microM nitrite. A first pass indicator dilution method and first order reaction kinetics were used to determine ACE activity, while lung Ficoll content served as an index of vascular permeability. Both fMLP and PMA decreased endothelial ACE activity and increased pulmonary artery pressure, edema and vascular permeability. Exogenous nitrate did not potentiate the decrease in ACE activity, the lung injury or nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity of lung homogenates. In contrast to observations in cultured endothelial cells, our findings in the whole lung are compatible with the speculation of others that the rat lung has an unidentified factor, which minimizes accumulation of nitrated proteins. PMID:11483289

Ehrhart, I C; Zou, L; Theodorakis, M J; Parkerson, J B; Gu, X; Caldwell, R B; Catravas, J D



Antihypertensive effect of oral nitrite uptake in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.  


The lower blood pressure of vegetarians might partly be due to the high dietary load with nitrate which--to a certain extent--is further reduced to nitrite and finally to nitric oxide. To test this hypothesis, spontaneously hypertensive rats received drinking water containing 0, 25, 50 or 100 mmol/l NO2 during 56 days. Food was offered ad libitum or was restricted by 20% (pair-feeding) to simulate the lower energy consumption of vegetarians. Blood pressure, which was monitored at regular intervals, was lowered in a dose-dependent manner by nitrite. This effect was reversible and could not be enhanced by energy restriction. In volunteers plasma nitrate levels increased by a factor of 8 to 32 following the ingestion of a nitrate-rich meal, and mean methemoglobin concentrations increased from 1.2% to 2.4% indicating the endogenous formation of nitrite under these conditions. PMID:7741780

Beier, S; Classen, H G; Loeffler, K; Schumacher, E; Thöni, H



Characterization of Nitrite Degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013.  


Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4+The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2->NO->N2O->N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4+. PMID:24755671

Liu, Dong-Mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Xu, Xi-Lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li



Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella  

SciTech Connect

In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Barua, Sumitra [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reed, SB [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Fredrikson, JK [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma



Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important). Reduction of nitrite ions is believed to be the most important source of ammonia. Whether by radiolytic or thermal routes, nitrite reduction reactions proceed through nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, the nitrosyl anion, and the hyponitrite anion. Nitrite ion is also converted into hydroxylamine, another important intermediate on the pathway to form ammonia. These reaction pathways additionally result in the formation of nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen, whereas hydrogen formation is produced in a separate reaction sequence.

Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.



Nitrate reductase activity of bacteria in saliva of term and preterm infants  

PubMed Central

The salivary glands of adults concentrate nitrate from the plasma into saliva where it is converted to nitrite by bacterial nitrate reductases. Nitrite can play a beneficial role in adult gastrointestinal and cardiovascular physiology. When nitrite is swallowed, some of it is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in the stomach and may then exert protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract and throughout the body. It has yet to be determined either when newborn infants acquire oral nitrate reducing bacteria or what the effects of antimicrobial therapy or premature birth may be on the bacterial processing of nitrate to nitrite. We measured nitrate and nitrite levels in the saliva of adults and both preterm and term human infants in the early weeks of life. We also measured oral bacterial reductase activity in the saliva of both infants and adults, and characterized the species of nitrate reducing bacteria present. Oral bacterial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in infants was either undetectable or markedly lower than the conversion rates of adults. No measurable reductase activity was found in infants within the first two weeks of life, despite the presence of oral nitrate reducing bacteria such as Actinomyces odontolyticus, and Veillonella atypica, and Rothia mucilaginosa. We conclude that relatively little nitrite reaches the infant gastrointestinal tract due to the lack of oral bacterial nitrate reductase activity. Given the importance of the nitrate-nitrite-NO axis in adults, the lack of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria in infants may be relevant to the vulnerability of newborns to hypoxic stress and gastrointestinal tract pathologies.

Kanady, Jesica A.; Aruni, A. Wilson; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Blood, Jamie D.; Byrd, Benjamin L.; Holley, Leighton R.; Staker, Michael R.; Hutson, Shandee; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.



Nitrate Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the nitrate-nitrogen of water. Students will use a nitrate kit to measure the nitrate-nitrogen in the water at their hydrology site. The exact procedure depends on the instructions in the nitrate kit used.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)



Vacuoles as storage compartments for nitrate in barley leaves  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate, the principal nitrogen source of most plants, can accumulate in large quantities in certain crop plants, notably members of the Chenopodiaceae (spinach and beet), Gramineae, Cruciferae (radish and kale) and Compositae (lettuce). Concentrations may exceed 2% fresh weight (17-24% dry weight) in extreme physiological conditions1. This is alarming because nitrate is readily reduced in organisms to the toxic nitrite,

Enrico Martinoia; Urs Heck; Andres Wiemken



Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system.  


A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed. The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area), packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria. An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g. > 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer. The results showed that, among the four substrates tested (soil, sand, pumice stone and vermiculite), pumice was the most preferable material. Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses, methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses. When methanol was applied at the optimal COD:N ratio of 5:1, a nitrate removal rate of 4591 +/- 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved. Finally, nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system. Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD:N ratio of 5:1. The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia. The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 +/- 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 +/- 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day. PMID:24520693

Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Playchoom, Cholticha; Powtongsook, Sorawit



Syntrophy of aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidisers.  


Deammonification is known as an efficient and resource saving sidestream process option to remove the nitrogen load from sludge liquors. The transfer of the intermediate product nitrite between both syntrophic groups of organisms - aerobic and anaerobic ammonia oxidizers (AOB) - appears very sensitive to process conditions such as temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO) and operating nitrite level. Growth kinetics for aerobic and anaerobic AOBs differ by one order of magnitude and require an adequate selection of sludge retention time. This paper provides measurement- and model-based results on how selected sludge wasting impacts population dynamics in a suspended growth deammonification system. Anammox enrichment up to a doubled portion in mixed liquor solids can substantially improve process stability in difficult conditions. A case-study on low temperature operations outlines two possible strategies to balance syntrophic consumption of ammonium and nitrite. PMID:20388987

Wett, B; Hell, M; Nyhuis, G; Puempel, T; Takacs, I; Murthy, S



High-rate partial nitritation using porous poly(vinyl alcohol) sponge.  


Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been utilized as a support material for the immobilization of nitrifying bacteria without the comprehensive survey of partial nitritation. In the present study, the activities of nitrifiers and the maximum nitrogen conversion rate of partial nitritation with PVA sponge-cubes were specified according to different conditions. The selective enrichment of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) on PVA sponge-cubes was achieved by the competition between AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria for dissolved oxygen. The efficiency of ammonia oxidation was proportional to the concentration of HCO3 (-) with the molar ratio of HCO3 (-)-C/NH4 (+)-N = 1.91 and a half of the ratio was applied to the further experiments to ensure stable partial nitritation. The maximum nitrogen conversion rate of partial nitritation was dependent on the volume, not the size of sponge-cubes. The partial nitritation showed the superior rate performance of 3.09 kg N/m(3) day with the packing ratio of 32 % of 5 × 5 × 5 mm(3) PVA sponge-cubes. PMID:24297159

Bae, Hyokwan; Yang, Heejeong; Chung, Yun-Chul; Yoo, Young Je; Lee, Seockheon



Atlantic Ocean Measurements of Low Molecular Weight Alkyl Nitrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The surface oceans appear to be a source of low molecular weight alkyl nitrates to the atmosphere. These compounds are converted by photolysis to NOx, and may contribute to ozone production in remote regions. The mechanism(s) of production of oceanic alkyl nitrates in surface seawater are currently unknown. Laboratory studies suggest that the reaction of peroxy radicals with nitric oxide in seawater may provide a near-surface source of these compounds. These precursors originate from the photolysis of dissolved organic matter and nitrite. Depth profiles of alkyl nitrates in the North Atlantic Ocean (Chuck et al. 2002) show elevated concentrations of alkyl nitrates below the photic zone, suggesting that non-photochemical mechanisms are also likely. We have recently completed a series of alkyl nitrate (C1-C3) depth profiles and shipboard incubation experiments in the north Atlantic, on a cruise track from Reykjavik, Iceland to Natal, Brazil (A16N2003; R/V Brown). The northernmost stations (45-50N), exhibited alkyl nitrate maxima in the mixed layer, and a positive correlation between alkyl nitrates and nitrite. In the tropics and subtropics, alkyl nitrate maxima were below the mixed layer, and alkyl nitrates correlated with nitrate. Shipboard deck irradiation studies demonstrated photochemical production of alkyl nitrates in waters that correlated with the initial nitrite concentration. Addition of nitrite stimulated production to extremely high levels, suggesting that NO, rather than peroxy radicals, is the limiting reactant in these waters. Overall, the distribution of alkyl nitrates suggests that both photochemical and microbial sources of alkyl nitrate may occur.

Dahl, E. E.; Saltzman, E. S.



Insights into high-temperature nitrogen cycling from studies of the thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the nitrogen cycle has advanced significantly in recent years with the discovery of new metabolic processes and the recognition that key processes such as aerobic ammonia oxidation are more broadly distributed among extant organisms and habitat ranges. Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, is a key component of the nitrogen cycle and, until recently, was thought to be mediated exclusively by the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The discovery that mesophilic marine archaea, some of the most abundant microorganisms on the planet, are capable of oxidizing ammonia to nitrite fundamentally changed our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are now thought to be significant drivers of nitrification in many marine and terrestrial environments. Most studies, however, have focused on the contribution of AOA to nitrogen cycling in mesophilic environments. Our recent discovery of a thermophilic AOA, Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, has expanded the role and habitat range of AOA to include high temperature environments. Numerous studies have shown that AOA are widely distributed in geothermal habitats with a wide range of temperature and pH. The availability of multiple AOA genome sequences, combined with metagenomic studies from mesophilic and thermophilic environments gives us a better understanding of the physiology, ecology and evolution of these organisms. Recent studies have proposed that the AOA represent the most deeply branching lineage within the Archaea, the Thaumarchaeota. Furthermore, genomic comparisons between AOA and AOB reveal significant differences in the proposed pathways for ammonia oxidation. These genetic differences likely explain fundamental physiological differences such as the resistance of N. yellowstonii and other AOA to the classical nitrification inhibitors allylthiourea and acetylene. Physiological studies suggest that the marine AOA are adapted to oligotrophic environments. Our studies, however, point to a greater metabolic versatility in N. yellowstonii, including the ability to utilize alternative sources of energy. Understanding the biology of N. yellowstonii, the most deeply branching cultivated AOA to date, gives us a better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary significance of these organisms and sheds new light on nitrogen cycling at high temperature.

de la Torre, J. R.



Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee



Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. I. Long term studies with a continuous supply of nitrate  

SciTech Connect

The synthesis and accumulation of nitrite has been suggested as a causative factor in the inhibition of legume nodules supplied with nitrate. Plants were grown in sand culture with a moderate level of nitrate (2.1 to 6.4 millimolar) supplied continuously from seed germination to 30 to 50 days after planting. In a comparison of nitrate treatments, a highly significant negative correlation between nitrite concentration in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) nodules and nodule fresh weight per shoot dry weight was found even when bacteroids lacked nitrate reductase (NR). However, in a comparison of two Rhizobium japonicum strains, there was only 12% as much nitrite in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ R. japonicum as in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ R. japonicum, and growth and acetylene reduction activity of both types of nodules was about equally inhibited. The very small concentration of nitrite found in P. vulgaris nodules was probably below that required for the inhibition of nitrogenase based on published in vitro experiments, and yet the specific acetylene reduction activity was inhibited 83% by nitrate. The overall results do not support the idea that nitrite plays a role in the inhibition of nodule growth and nitrogenase activity by nitrate.

Streeter, J.G.



Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Global high-spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) nadir measurements from TES-Aura enable the simultaneous retrieval of a number of tropospheric pollutants and trace gases in addition to the TES standard operationally retrieved products (e.g. carbon monoxide, ozone). Ammonia (NH3) is one of the additional species that can be retrieved in conjunction with the TES standard products, and is important for local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry studies. Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions are poorly constrained. In the atmosphere, an important fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, nitrogen, including ammonia can cause nutrient imbalances, change in ecosystem species composition, eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Ammonia is also challenging to measure in-situ. Observations of surface concentrations are rare and are particularly sparse in North America. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. We recently demonstrated that tropospheric ammonia is detectable in the TES spectra and presented some corresponding preliminary retrievals over a very limited range of conditions (Beer et al., 2008). Presented here are results that expand upon these initial TES ammonia retrievals in order to evaluate/validate the retrieval results utilizing in-situ surface observations (e.g. LADCO, CASTNet, EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ). We also present retrievals over regions of interest that have the potential to help further understand air quality and the active nitrogen cycle. Beer, R., M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering, K. W. Bowman, S. P. Sander, B. M. Fisher, V. H. Payne, M. Luo, G. B. Osterman, and J. R. Worden, First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol, Geophysical Res. Letters, 35, L09801, doi:10.1029/2008GL033642, 2008.

Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Rinsland, C. P.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Beer, R.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D.; Payne, V. H.; Clough, S.; Rodgers, C. D.; Osterman, G. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.



Interaction of Nitrate and Folate on the Risk of Breast Cancer Among Postmenopausal Women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ingested nitrate can be endogenously reduced to nitrite, which may form N-nitroso compounds, known potent carcinogens. However, some studies have reported no or inverse associations between dietary nitrate intake and cancer risk. These associations may be confounded by a protective effect of folate, which plays a vital role in DNA repair. We evaluated the interaction of dietary and water nitrate

Maki Inoue-Choi; Mary H. Ward; James R. Cerhan; Peter J. Weyer; Kristin E. Anderson; Kim Robien



Effect of Sodium Nitrate and Nitrate Reducing Bacteria on In vitro Methane Production and Fermentation with Buffalo Rumen Liquor  

PubMed Central

Nitrate can serve as a terminal electron acceptor in place of carbon dioxide and inhibit methane emission in the rumen and nitrate reducing bacteria might help enhance the reduction of nitrate/nitrite, which depends on the type of feed offered to animals. In this study the effects of three levels of sodium nitrate (0, 5, 10 mM) on fermentation of three diets varying in their wheat straw to concentrate ratio (700:300, low concentrate, LC; 500:500, medium concentrate, MC and 300:700, high concentrate, HC diet) were investigated in vitro using buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum. Nitrate reducing bacteria, isolated from the rumen of buffalo were tested as a probiotic to study if it could help in enhancing methane inhibition in vitro. Inclusion of sodium nitrate at 5 or 10 mM reduced (p<0.01) methane production (9.56, 7.93 vs. 21.76 ml/g DM; 12.20, 10.42 vs. 25.76 ml/g DM; 15.49, 12.33 vs. 26.86 ml/g DM) in LC, MC and HC diets, respectively. Inclusion of nitrate at both 5 and 10 mM also reduced (p<0.01) gas production in all the diets, but in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of feed reduced (p<0.05) only in LC and MC diets. In the medium at 10 mM sodium nitrate level, there was 0.76 to 1.18 mM of residual nitrate and nitrite (p<0.01) also accumulated. In an attempt to eliminate residual nitrate and nitrite in the medium, the nitrate reducing bacteria were isolated from buffalo adapted to nitrate feeding and introduced individually (3 ml containing 1.2 to 2.3×106 cfu/ml) into in vitro incubations containing the MC diet with 10 mM sodium nitrate. Addition of live culture of NRBB 57 resulted in complete removal of nitrate and nitrite from the medium with a further reduction in methane and no effect on IVTD compared to the control treatments containing nitrate with autoclaved cultures or nitrate without any culture. The data revealed that nitrate reducing bacteria can be used as probiotic to prevent the accumulation of nitrite when sodium nitrate is used to reduce in vitro methane emissions.

Sakthivel, Pillanatham Civalingam; Kamra, Devki Nandan; Agarwal, Neeta; Chaudhary, Lal Chandra



Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.



Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. II. Short term studies with high nitrate supply  

SciTech Connect

Soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr) were grown in sand culture with 2 millimolar nitrate for 37 days and then supplied with 15 millimolar nitrate for 7 days. Control plants received 2 millimolar nitrate and 13 millimolar chloride and, after the 7-day treatment period, all plants were supplied with nil nitrate. The temporary treatment with high nitrate inhibited nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity by 80% whether or not Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids had nitrate reductase (NR) activity. The pattern of nitrite accumulation in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ rhizobia was inversely related to the decrease and recovery of nitrogenase activity. However, nitrite concentration in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ rhizobia appeared to be too low to explain the inhibition of nitrogenase. Nodules on plants treated with 15 millimolar nitrate contained higher concentrations of amino N and, especially, ureide N than control nodules and, after withdrawal of nitrate, reduced N content of treated and control nodules returned to similar levels. The accumulation of N/sub 2/ fixation products in nodules in response to high nitrate treatment was observed with three R. japonicum strains, two NR/sup +/ and one NR/sup -/.

Streeter, J.G.



Defense Waste Processing Facility Nitrite-Destruction Precipitate Hydrolysis Process  

SciTech Connect

Removing aromatic carbon from an aqueous slurry of cesium/sup 137/ and other alkali tetraphenylborate precipitates will be an important step in preparing high level waste for vitrification in the Savannah River Plant's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The tetraphenylborates will be hydrolyzed with formic acid and copper (II) catalyst to form primarily benzene and boric acid. The precipitate slurry will contain nitrite ion at concentrations ranging from about 0.05/endash/0.2 M. High-boiling side products (diphenylamine, terphenyl), which reduce the removal of aromatic carbon, are formed during hydrolysis at these levels of nitrate. To achieve aromatic carbon removals of over 90%, a two-stage process was developed. Nitrite in the precipitate feed will be converted to nitrous oxide (N20) with hydroxylamine nitrate (HAN) as the precipitate slurry is fed into the reactor. After the feed to the reactor is complete, the reactor contents will be heated to boiling (/approximately/101/degree/C) for five hours to complete the hydrolysis reactions. Engineering data and hazards prevention are presented for the DWPF Nitrite-Destruction Precipitate Hydrolysis Process. 5 refs., 4 figs.

Marek, J.C.; Eibling, R.E.; Jacobs, R.A.; Randall, C.T.



Nitrite Signaling in Pulmonary Hypertension: Mechanisms of Bioactivation, Signaling, and Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and mean pulmonary artery pressure leading to impaired function of the right ventricle, reduced cardiac output, and death. An imbalance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators plays an important role in the pathobiology of PAH. Recent Advances: Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator in the lung, whose bioavailability and signaling pathway are impaired in PAH. It is now appreciated that the oxidative product of NO metabolism, the inorganic anion nitrite (NO2?), functions as an intravascular endocrine reservoir of NO bioactivity that can be reduced back to NO under physiological and pathological hypoxia. Critical Issues: The conversion of nitrite to NO is controlled by coupled electron and proton transfer reactions between heme- and molybdenum-containing proteins, such as hemoglobin and xanthine oxidase, and by simple protonation and disproportionation, and possibly by catalyzed disproportionation. The two major sources of nitrite (and nitrate) are the endogenous l-arginine–NO pathway, by oxidation of NO, and the diet, with conversion of nitrate from diet into nitrite by oral commensal bacteria. In the current article, we review the enzymatic formation of nitrite and the available data regarding its use as a therapy for PAH and other cardiovascular diseases. Future Directions: The successful efficacy demonstrated in several animal models and safety in early clinical trials suggest that nitrite may represent a promising new therapy for PAH. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1797–1809.

Bueno, Marta; Wang, Jun; Mora, Ana L.



TES Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the knowledge of the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions is severely limited. In the atmosphere, a substantial fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, reactive nitrogen, including ammonia, can cause nutrient imbalances, changes in ecosystem species composition, algal blooms and hypoxia. The greatest uncertainty in atmospheric transport of reactive nitrogen is in the rates of ammonia emission from all sources, at all scales. In-situ ammonia measurements are challenging and not available in many regions. Limiting factors in improving the emission inventory are infrequent and sparse in-situ observations and the reliance of previous inversion methods using a limited number of available condensed-phase measurements. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. Presented are validations of Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals utilizing long term in-situ surface observations (e.g. EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ) over a much broader range of conditions. We also discuss the estimated impact of TES retrievals on quantifying emission sources through inverse modeling.

Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D. K.; Walker, J. T.; Rinsland, C. P.; Beer, R.; Payne, V.



Simplified nitrate-reductase-based nitrate detection by a hybrid thin-layer controlled potential coulometry/spectroscopy technique.  


A novel method for the detection of nitrate was developed using simplified nitrate reductase (SNaR) that was produced by genetic recombination techniques. The SNaR consists of the fragments of the Mo-molybdopterin (MO-MPT) binding site and nitrate reduction active site and has high activity for nitrate reduction. The method is based on a unique combination of the enzyme-catalyzed reduction of nitrate to nitrite by thin-layer coulometry followed by spectroscopic measurement of the colored product generated from the reaction of nitrite with Griess reagents. Coulometric reduction of nitrate to nitrite used methyl viologen (MV(2+)) as the electron transfer mediator for SNaR and controlled potential coulometry in an indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-layer electrochemical cell. Absorbance at 540 nm was proportional to the concentration of nitrate in the sample with a linear range of 1-160 ?M and a sensitivity of 8000 AU M(-1). The method required less than 60 ?L of sample. Detection of nitrate could also be performed by measuring the charge associated with coulometry. However, the spectroscopic procedure gave superior performance because of interference from the large background charge associated with coulometry. Results for the determination of nitrate concentration in several natural water samples using this device with spectroscopic detection are in good agreement with analysis done with a standard method. PMID:23998511

Wang, Tingting; Schlueter, Kevin T; Riehl, Bill L; Johnson, Jay M; Heineman, William R



Kinetics of toluene degradation by a nitrate-reducing bacterium isolated from a groundwater aquifer.  


Groundwater from a xylene-contaminated acquifer was enriched in the laboratory in the presence of toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and benzene. A pure culture that degrades toluene and m-xylene under nitrate-reducing conditions was isolated. Fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA sequencing, and morphological traits indicate that the isolate was a strain of Azoarcus tolulyticus. The kinetics of toluene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions by this isolate was determined. Nitrate reduction does not proceed beyond nitrite. Nitrate and toluene are substrate limiting at low concentrations, whereas toluene, nitrate, and nitrite are inhibitory at high concentrations. Several inhibition models were compared to experimental data to represent inhibition by these substrates. A kinetic model for toluene and nitrate degradation as well as for cell growth and nitrite production was developed and compared to experimental data. The results of this work may find important application in the remediation of groundwater aquifers contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons. PMID:18636447

Elmén, J; Pan, W; Leung, S Y; Magyarosy, A; Keasling, J D



Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream.

Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)



Assimilation of Nitrogen from Nitrite and Trinitrotoluene in Pseudomonas putida JLR11  

PubMed Central

Pseudomonas putida JLR11 releases nitrogen from the 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) ring as nitrite or ammonium. These processes can occur simultaneously, as shown by the observation that a nasB mutant impaired in the reduction of nitrite to ammonium grew at a slower rate than the parental strain. Nitrogen from TNT is assimilated via the glutamine syntethase-glutamate synthase (GS-GOGAT) pathway, as evidenced by the inability of GOGAT mutants to use TNT. This pathway is also used to assimilate ammonium from reduced nitrate and nitrite. Three mutants that had insertions in ntrC, nasT, and cnmA, which encode regulatory proteins, failed to grow on nitrite but grew on TNT, although slower than the wild type.

Caballero, Antonio; Esteve-Nunez, Abraham; Zylstra, Gerben J.; Ramos, Juan L.



The purification and properties of a cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase from Paracoccus halodenitrificans  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Paracoccus halodenitrificans, grown anaerobically in the presence of nitrite, contained membrane and cytoplasmic nitrite reductases. When assayed in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, the membrane-bound enzyme produced nitrous oxide whereas the cytoplasmic enzyme produced nitric oxide. When both enzymes were assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite, the cytoplasmic enzyme produced ammonia. Following solubilization, the membrane-bound enzyme behaved like the cytoplasmic enzyme, producing nitric oxide in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, and ammonia when assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite. The cytoplasmic and membrane-bound enzymes were purified to essentially the same specific activity. Only a single nitrite-reductase activity was detected on electrophoretic gels and the electrophoretic behavior of both enzymes suggested they were identical. The spectral properties of both enzymes suggested they were cd-type cytochromes. These data suggest that the products of nitrite reduction by the cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase are determined by the location of the enzyme and the redox potential of the electron donor.

Mancinelli, R. L.; Cronin, S.; Hochstein, L. I.



New processes in the environmental chemistry of nitrite. 2. The role of hydrogen peroxide.  


The oxidation of nitrite and nitrous acid to *NO2 upon irradiation of dissolved Fe(III), ferric (hydr)oxides, and nitrate has previously been shown to enhance phenol nitration. This allowed the proposal of a new role for nitrite and nitrous acid in natural waters and atmospheric aerosols. This paper deals with the interaction between hydrogen peroxide, a key environmental factor in atmospheric oxidative chemistry, and nitrite/nitrous acid. The reaction between nitrous acid and hydrogen peroxide yields peroxynitrous acid, a powerful nitrating agent and an important intermediate in atmospheric chemistry. The kinetics of this reaction is compatible with a rate-determining step involving either H3O2+ and HNO2 or H2O2 and protonated nitrous acid. In the former case the rate constant between the two species would be 179.6 +/- 1.4 M(-1) s(-1), in the latter case it would be as high as (1.68 +/- 0.01) x 10(10) M(-1) s(-1) (diffusion-controlled reaction). Due to the more reasonable value of the rate constant, the reaction between H3O2+ and HNO2 seems more likely. In the presence of HNO2 + H2O2 the nitration of phenol is strongly enhanced when compared with HNO2 alone. The nitration rate of phenol in the presence of peroxynitrous acid decreases as pH increases, thus HOONO is a potential source of atmospheric nitroaromatic compounds in acidic water droplets. The mixture Fe(II) + H2O2 (Fenton reagent) can oxidize nitrite and nitrous acid to nitrogen dioxide, which results in phenol nitration. The nitration in the presence of Fe(II) + H2O2 + NO2-/HNO2 occurs more rapidly than the one with H2O2 + NO2-/HNO2 at pH 5, where little HNO2 is available to directly react with hydrogen peroxide. Both systems, however, are more effective than NO2-/HNO2 alone in producing nitrophenols from phenol. Another process leading to the oxidation of nitrite to nitrogen dioxide is the photo-Fenton one. It can be relevant at pH > or = 6, as nitrite does not react with H2O2 at room temperature. Under such conditions the source of Fe(II) is the photolysis of ferric (hydr)oxides (heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction). In the presence of nitrite this reaction induces very effective nitrophenol formation from phenol. PMID:14594372

Vione, Davide; Maurino, Valter; Minero, Claudio; Borghesi, Daniele; Lucchiari, Mirco; Pelizzetti, Ezio



Nitrite transport in chloroplast inner envelope vesicles. I. Direct measurement of proton-linked transport  

SciTech Connect

Chloroplast inner envelope membrane vesicles that are loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorophore, pyranine, show rapid internal acidification when nitrite is added. Acidification is dependent upon {Delta}pH, with the inside of vesicles being alkaline with respect to the outside. The rate of vesicle acidification was directly proportional to the concentration of nitrite that was added and the imposed pH difference across the membrane. In contrast, added nitrate had no effect on vesicle acidification. Nitrite also caused acidification of asolectin vesicles that were prepared by extrusion were approximately the same size, allowing them to be compared when the final extent of acidification, measured after the pH gradient had collapsed, was similar. The rate of nitrite-dependent acidification was similar in these two preparations at any single nitrite concentration. These results indicate that nitrite movement occurs by rapid diffusion across membranes as nitrous acid, and this movement is dependent on a proton gradient across the lipid bilayer. Under conditions approximating these in vivo, the rate of diffusion of nitrous acid far exceeds that of nitrite reduction within chloroplasts. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Shingles, R.; Roh, M.H.; McCarty, R.E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)



A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water.  


Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species. PMID:23515432

Haaijer, Suzanne C M; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S M; Damsté, Jaap S Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J M



Further studies on the effect of nitrogen dioxide on mast cells: The effect of the metabolite, nitrite  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the relationship between atmospheric nitrogen dioxide exposure and the development of allergic diseases, the effects of nitrite as a chemical product of inhaled nitrogen dioxide on mast cell functions were investigated. We have studied nitride-induced histamine release from two functionally distinct mast cell populations, namely peritoneal mast cells (PMC) and intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMC) of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats. High concentrations of nitrite alone (10, 20, and 50 mM) induced histamine release from IMMC, but not from PMC. Moreover, histamine release from PMC and IMMC stimulated with sensitizing antigen was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with 50 mM nitrite or nitrate. No differences in histamine release from nitrite-treated and control PMC were seen below 1 mM. To investigate the effect of nitrite on tumor cell cytotoxic activity, PMC were incubated with various concentrations of nitrite. Pretreatment with 5 and 50 mM nitrite markedly depressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha]-dependent natural cytotoxicity of PMC for the tumor target WEHI-164. Thus, high concentrations of nitrite enhanced mast cell histamine release, but depressed TNF-[alpha]-dependent cytotoxicity. However, low concentrations of nitrite (<1 mM) that would normally be produced by short-term atmospheric exposure to nitrogen dioxide may have no significant effects on mast cell functions. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fujimaki, Hidekazu (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa (Japan)); Ozawa, Masashi (The Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Bissonnette, E.; Befus, A.D. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))



A new obligately chemolithoautotrophic, nitrite-oxidizing bacterium, Nitrospira moscoviensis sp. nov. and its phylogenetic relationship.  


A gram-negative, non-motile, non-marine, nitrite-oxidizing bacterium was isolated from an enrichment culture initiated with a sample from a partially corroded area of an iron pipe of a heating system in Moscow, Russia. The cells were 0.9-2.2 microns x 0.2-0.4 microns in size. They were helical- to vibroid-shaped and often formed spirals with up to three turns 0.8-1.0 micron in width. The organism possessed an enlarged periplasmic space and lacked intracytoplasmic membranes and carboxysomes. The cells tended to excrete extracellular polymers, forming aggregates. The bacterium grew optimally at 39 degrees C and pH 7.6-8.0 in a mineral medium with nitrite as sole energy source and carbon dioxide as sole carbon source. The optimal nitrite concentration was 0.35 mM. Nitrite was oxidized to nitrate stoichiometrically. The doubling time was 12 h in a mineral medium with 7.5 mM nitrite. The cell yield was low; only 0.9 mg protein/l was formed during oxidation of 7.5 mM nitrite. Under anoxic conditions, hydrogen was used as electron donor with nitrate as electron acceptor. Organic matter (yeast extract, meat extract, peptone) supported neither mixotrophic nor heterotrophic growth. At concentrations as low as 0.75 g organic matter/l or higher, growth of nitrite-oxidizing cells was inhibited. The cells contained cytochromes of the b- and c-type. The G+C content of DNA was 56.9 +/- 0.4 mol%. The chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizer differed from the terrestrial members of the genus Nitrobacter with regard to morphology and substrate range and equaled Nitrospira marina in both characteristics. The isolated bacterium is designated as a new species of the genus Nitrospira.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7646315

Ehrich, S; Behrens, D; Lebedeva, E; Ludwig, W; Bock, E



Determination of N in lignin together with nitrite or nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods were used to determine N in lignin, both directly and in buffered aqueous solutions (pH 7.0 and 5.5) containing lignin and NO2\\\\tor lignin and NO3·t. The percentage recovery of N was highly variable, being dependent on the analytical method and on pH. There appeared to be a reaction between lignin and NO2·tor NO3·tduring the analytical procedure. The Kjeldahl

J. Vandenabeele; K. Verhaegen; Y. Avnimelech; Sudradjat; O. Cleemput; W. Verstraete



Nitric oxide metabolites (nitrite and nitrate) in several clinical condition.  


We determined the concentration of nitric oxide metabolites (NO2-+NO3-), expressed as NOx, in several clinical conditions. Regarding this, we have examined 25 subjects with arterial hypertension, 41 subjects with chronic kidney disease in conservative treatment, 106 subjects with metabolic syndrome subdivided according to the presence (n = 43) or not (n = 63) of diabetes mellitus, 48 subjects with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), 14 women with systemic sclerosis complicated with Raynaud's phenomenon, 42 dialyzed subjects and 105 young subjects with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). In subjects with arterial hypertension, chronic kidney disease, metabolic syndrome, systemic sclerosis, as well as, in dialyzed and AMI subjects, we found at baseline a NOx increase. In dyalized subjects after a standard dialysis session, we observed a decrease in NOx. The increase in NOx in juvenile AMI was significantly influenced by cigarette smoking and less by cardiovascular risk factors and the extent of coronary lesions; at 3 and 12 months later than the initial event, we observed a decrease of NOx that remains significantly higher than the control group. In subjects with OSAS no difference in NOx was noted in comparison with normal controls, although their subdivision according to the apnea/hypopnea index operates a clear distinction regarding NOx concentration. PMID:24004551

Caimi, G; Hopps, E; Montana, M; Carollo, C; Calandrino, V; Incalcaterra, E; Canino, B; Lo Presti, R



Relationship between Nitrite Reduction and Active Phosphate Uptake in the Phosphate-Accumulating Denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. Strain JR 12  

Microsoft Academic Search

Phosphate uptake by the phosphate-accumulating denitrifier Pseudomonas sp. JR12 was examined with dif- ferent combinations of electron and carbon donors and electron acceptors. Phosphate uptake in acetate-sup- plemented cells took place with either oxygen or nitrate but did not take place when nitrite served as the final electron acceptor. Furthermore, nitrite reduction rates by this denitrifier were shown to be




Short-term effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on activity of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.  


A continuously aerated SHARON (single reactor high activity ammonia removal over nitrite) system has been operated to achieve partial nitritation. Two sets of batch experiments were carried out to study the effect of ammonia concentration and salinity on the activity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Activity of AOB raised as free ammonia concentration was increased reaching its maximum value at 4.5 mg NH3-N l(-1). The half saturation constant for free ammonia was determined (K(NH3)=0.32 mg NH3-N l(-1)). Activity decreased at TAN (total ammonium-nitrogen) concentration over 2,000 mg NH4-N l(-1). No free ammonia inhibition was detected. The effect of salinity was studied by adding different concentrations of different salts to the biomass. No significant differences were observed between the experiments carried out with a salt containing or not containing NH4. These results support that AOB are inhibited by salinity, not by free ammonia. A mathematical expression to represent this inhibition is proposed. To compare substrate affinity and salinity inhibitory effect on different AOB populations, similar experiments were carried out with biomass from a biological nutrient removal pilot plant. The AOB activity reached its maximum value at 0.008 mg NH3-N l(-1) and decreased at TAN concentration over 400 mg NH4-N l(-1). These differences can be explained by the different AOB predominating species: Nitrosomonas europaea and N. eutropha in the SHARON biomass and Nitrosomonas oligotropha in the pilot plant. PMID:20555196

Claros, J; Jiménez, E; Borrás, L; Aguado, D; Seco, A; Ferrer, J; Serralta, J



Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants  

PubMed Central

In fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in NO3- assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. In Aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors NirA and AreA act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. In all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (NR) activity express nitrate-metabolizing enzymes constitutively without the addition of inducer molecules. Based on their work in A. nidulans, Cove and Pateman proposed an “autoregulation control” model for the synthesis of nitrate metabolizing enzymes in which the functional nitrate reductase molecule would act as co-repressor in the absence and as co-inducer in the presence of nitrate. However, NR mutants could simply show “pseudo-constitutivity” due to induction by nitrate which accumulates over time in NR-deficient strains. Here we examined this possibility using strains which lack flavohemoglobins (fhbs), and are thus unable to generate nitrate internally, in combination with nitrate transporter mutations (nrtA, nrtB) and a GFP-labeled NirA protein. Using different combinations of genotypes we demonstrate that nitrate transporters are functional also in NR null mutants and show that the constitutive phenotype of NR mutants is not due to nitrate accumulation from intracellular sources but depends on the activity of nitrate transporters. However, these transporters are not required for nitrate signaling because addition of external nitrate (10 mM) leads to standard induction of nitrate assimilatory genes in the nitrate transporter double mutants. We finally show that NR does not regulate NirA localization and activity, and thus the autoregulation model, in which NR would act as a co-repressor of NirA in the absence of nitrate, is unlikely to be correct. Results from this study instead suggest that transporter-mediated NO3- accumulation in NR deficient mutants, originating from traces of nitrate in the media, is responsible for the constitutive expression of NirA-regulated genes, and the associated phenotype is thus termed “pseudo-constitutive”.

Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph



Pseudoazurin-nitrite reductase interactions.  


The nitrite reductase-binding site on pseudoazurin has been determined by using NMR chemical-shift perturbations. It comprises residues in the hydrophobic patch surrounding the exposed copper ligand His81 as well as several positively charged residues. The binding site is similar for both redox states of pseudoazurin, despite differences in the binding mode. The results suggest that pseudoazurin binds in a well-defined orientation. Docking simulations provide a putative structure of the complex with a binding site on nitrite reductase that has several hydrophobic and polar residues as well as a ridge of negatively charged side chains and a copper-to-copper distance of 14 A. PMID:16138306

Impagliazzo, Antonietta; Krippahl, Ludwig; Ubbink, Marcellus



Nitrate reductase alters 3-nitrotyrosine accumulation and cell cycle progression in LPS + IFN-gamma-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells.  


Nitrite (NO2-), an end product of nitrogen radical metabolism, has recently been shown to increase tyrosine nitration by activated leukocytes indicating that nitrite modulates the immune response. We investigated the hypothesis that nitrite may increase nitration of molecular targets within activated cells leading to altered cell cycle progression. Intracellular nitrite was increased by transfection of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells with the nitrate reductase gene obtained from barley. Nitrate reductase facilitates the conversion of nitrate to nitrite; thus when extracellular nitrate is present, intracellular nitrite will be increased. Results show that addition of KNO3 increases NO2- production and intracellular nitrotyrosine accumulation in the transfectant but not the parent. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthesis with L-NAME during activation with IFN-gamma + LPS reduced NO2- production to the same extent in both cell lines; however, cellular accumulation of nitrotyrosine was reduced by only 25% in the transfectant (P = 0.21) and 49% in the parent cell line (P = 0.007), suggesting that intracellular nitrite increased nitrotyrosine accumulation through a pathway not requiring NO synthesis, i.e., myeloperoxidase system. Approximately 15% of the transfected cells had 4n DNA content 24 h postactivation compared to < 1% of the parent cells. Increased DNA copy number was correlated to nitrotyrosine accumulation. These findings show that intracellular nitrite can increase accumulation of nitrotyrosine and that nitration is linked to cell cycle perturbation. PMID:10100492

Kalns, J; Parker, J; Bruno, J; Holwitt, E; Piepmeier, E; Kiel, J



Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats  

PubMed Central

Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p < 0.01). Saliva nitrite reached a maximum immediately after the jump and was maintained 1 h later. To study the biological functions of salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p < 0.05). Recovery was observed in the BPSDL rats upon nitrate administration. The WIRS-induced UI was significantly higher in the BPSDL animals compared to controls, and nitrate administration rescued the WIRS-induced gastric injury in BPSDL rats. In conclusion, this study suggests that stress promotes salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation, which may play important roles in gastric protection against stress-induced injury via the nitrate-dependent NO pathway.

Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin



Background Information on Ammonia.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Information on the synthesis, production, and use of ammonia (7664417) is reviewed. The importance of a catalyst in the process of uniting hydrogen and nitrogen to form ammonia, producers of ammonia between 1961 and 1974, their annual production capacity,...

R. Hartle



21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet and meat byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure...



21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet and meat byproducts so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 20 parts per million. (b) To assure...



Photochemistry of Nitrate Adsorbed on Mineral Dust  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mineral dust particles in the atmosphere are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides including HNO3 and NO2. Although nitrate ion is a well-studied chromophore in natural waters, the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on mineral dust particles is yet to be fully explored. In this study, wavelength dependence of the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on different model components of mineral dust aerosol has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Al2O3, TiO2 and NaY zeolite were used as model systems to represent non-photoactive oxides, photoactive semiconductor oxides and porous materials respectively, present in mineral dust aerosol. In this study, adsorbed nitrate is irradiated with 254 nm, 310 nm and 350 nm narrow band light. In the irradiation with narrow band light, NO2 is the only detectable gas-phase product formed from nitrate adsorbed on Al2O3 and TiO2. The NO2 yield is highest at 310 nm for both Al2O3 and TiO2. Unlike Al2O3 and TiO2, in zeolite, adsorbed nitrate photolysis to nitrite is observed only at 310 nm during narrow band irradiation. Moreover gas phase products were not detected during nitrate photolysis in zeolite at all three wavelengths. The significance of these differences as related to nitrate photochemistry on different mineral dust components will be highlighted.

Gankanda, A.; Grassian, V. H.



Mutational Analysis of the Respiratory Nitrate Transporter NarK2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces nitrate reductase activity in response to decreasing oxygen levels. This is due to regulation of both the transcription and the activity of the nitrate transporter NarK2. A model of NarK2 structure is proposed containing 12 membrane spanning regions consistent with other members of the major facilitator superfamily. The role of the proton gradient was determined by exposing M. tuberculosis to uncouplers. Nitrite production decreased indicating that the importation of nitrate involved an H+/nitrate symporter. The addition of nitrite before nitrate had no effect, suggesting no role for a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. In addition the NarK2 knockout mutant showed no defect in nitrite export. NarK2 is proposed to be a Type I H+/nitrate symporter. Site directed mutagenesis was performed changing 23 amino acids of NarK2. This allowed the identification of important regions and amino acids of this transporter. Five of these mutants were inactive for nitrate transport, seven produced reduced activity and eleven mutants retained wild type activity. NarK2 is inactivated in the presence of oxygen by an unknown mechanism. However none of the mutants, including those with mutated cysteines, were altered in their response to oxygen levels. The assimilatory nitrate transporter NasA of Bacillus subtilis was expressed in the M. tuberculosis NarK2 mutant. It remained active during aerobic incubation showing that the point of oxygen control is NarK2.

Giffin, Michelle M.; Raab, Ronald W.; Morganstern, Melissa; Sohaskey, Charles D.



Effect of luminal or circulating nitrite on colonic ion movement in the rat  

SciTech Connect

The disposition of intravenously or luminally administered nitrite across the colonic mucosa and its effect on ion movement into or from the colon was assessed in anesthetized Porton rats using the isolated colon instilled either with sodium chloride or sodium chloride with sodium butyrate. Ionic changes in the colon after intravenous injection of 10 {mu}mol NaNO{sub 2} were compared with those occurring after injection of 10 {mu}mol NaCl. After intravenous administration of nitrite, both nitrite and nitrate appeared in the colonic instillate in a ratio of 1:1. Nitrite increased chloride absorption (110%) and bicarbonate production (20%) when 40 mM butyrate was included in the instillate. Net sodium absorption, measured in the whole colon, was unchanged. Intravenous nitrite had no effect on ionic movement in the absence of butyrate. When NaNO{sub 2} was included luminally with the sodium chloride-butyrate instillate, bicarbonate production rate increased, but sodium and chloride absorption were unaffected. Nitrite concentration in the instillate decreased during the 40-min experimental period at a rate of 0.275 nmol{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}cm{sup {minus}2} and nitrate appeared at a rate of 0.037 nmol{center dot}min{sup {minus}1}{center dot}cm{sup {minus}2}. The authors conclude that nitrite stimulates bicarbonate production in the colon, probably by stimulating the oxidation by butyrate, the main source of CO{sub 2} generation by the colonic mucosa.

Radcliffe, B.C.; Nance, S.H.; Deakin, E.J.; Roediger, W.E.W. (Univ. of Adelaide, Woodville (Australia))



Nitrate Reduction Functional Genes and Nitrate Reduction Potentials Persist in Deeper Estuarine Sediments. Why?  

PubMed Central

Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This raises interesting questions as to what the alternative metabolic roles for the various nitrate reductases could be, analogous to the alternative metabolic roles found for nitrite reductases.

Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J.; Dong, Liang F.; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nedwell, David B.



Nitrate reduction functional genes and nitrate reduction potentials persist in deeper estuarine sediments. Why?  


Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This raises interesting questions as to what the alternative metabolic roles for the various nitrate reductases could be, analogous to the alternative metabolic roles found for nitrite reductases. PMID:24728381

Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J; Dong, Liang F; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J; Nedwell, David B



The effects of season and hydrologic and chemical loading on nitrate retention in constructed wetlands: a comparison of low- and high-nutrient riverine systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compared the nitrate removal efficiency of two constructed wetlands receiving ambient river water to one constructed municipal wastewater treatment wetland over the same 2-year period in central Ohio, USA. The wastewater wetland represents a high-nutrient system, with an average nitrate plus nitrite load of 12.3 kg N ha-1day?1 and an average nitrate and nitrite inflow concentration of 12.5 mg

Douglas J. Spieles; William J. Mitsch



Nitrite augments glucose uptake in adipocytes through the protein kinase A-dependent stimulation of mitochondrial fusion.  


Though it is well accepted that adipose tissue is central in the regulation of glycemic homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms governing adipocyte glucose uptake remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion) regulate lipid accumulation and differentiation in adipocytes. However, the role of mitochondrial dynamics in glucose homeostasis has not been explored. The nitric oxide oxidation products nitrite and nitrate are endogenous signaling molecules and dietary constituents that have recently been shown to modulate glucose metabolism, prevent weight gain, and reverse the development of metabolic syndrome in mice. Although the mechanism of this protection is unclear, the mitochondrion is a known subcellular target for nitrite signaling. Thus, we hypothesize that nitrite modulates mitochondrial dynamics and function to regulate glucose uptake in adipocytes. Herein, we demonstrate that nitrite significantly increases glucose uptake in differentiated murine adipocytes through a mechanism dependent on mitochondrial fusion. Specifically, nitrite promotes mitochondrial fusion by increasing the profusion protein mitofusin 1 while concomitantly activating protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates and inhibits the profission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Functionally, this signaling augments cellular respiration, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial oxidant production, and glucose uptake. Importantly, inhibition of PKA or Drp1 significantly attenuates nitrite-induced mitochondrial respiration and glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that mitochondria play an essential metabolic role in adipocytes, show a novel role for both nitrite and mitochondrial fusion in regulating adipocyte glucose homeostasis, and have implications for the potential therapeutic use of nitrite and mitochondrial modulators in glycemic regulation. PMID:24556414

Khoo, Nicholas K H; Mo, Li; Zharikov, Sergey; Kamga-Pride, Christelle; Quesnelle, Kelly; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Li, Lihua; Wang, Yinna; Shiva, Sruti



Influence of Light and Ambient Carbon Dioxide Concentration on Nitrate Assimilation by Intact Barley Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The influence of light, dark, and ambient CO2 on nitrate assimilation in 8- to 9-day-old barley seedlings was studied. To develop the photosynthetic apparatus fully, the seedlings were grown in nitrogen-free Hoagland solution for 5 days in darkness followed by 3 days in continuous light. The seedlings reduced nitrate and nitrite in both light and dark, although more slowly in darkness. The slower nitrate reduction in darkness was not due to decreased uptake, since the steady-state internal concentration of nitrate was doubled. The faster nitrate reduction in light was attributed to recent products of photosynthetic CO2 fixation supplying reducing energy, possibly by shuttle reactions between chloroplasts and cytoplasm. In carbohydrate-deficient tissue, it appeared that recently fixed photosynthate could supply all of the energy required for nitrate reduction. When sufficient metabolites were present in the green tissue, light was not obligatory for the reduction of nitrate and nitrite.

Aslam, Muhammad; Huffaker, Ray C.; Rains, D. William; Rao, K. Prasad



The nitrite/elastin reaction: implications for in vivo degenerative effects.  


Nitrite ion is a by-product of nitrogen oxides (nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide) from cigarette smoke and is used as a preservative for curing meats. Therefore, study of the reaction of nitrite with elastin in vitro was undertaken. By colorimetric assay, reactivity of nitrite with insoluble elastin at neutral pH, 37 degrees C, and physiologic concentration was confirmed. In histochemical studies on in situ human aortic elastin, nitrite-treated sections displayed marked structural disruptions. Determinations of fluorescence and absorbance on nitrite-treated soluble bovine elastin revealed marked alterations of fluorescence, and increased UV and visible absorbance. Amino acid analysis confirmed that it reacted with tyrosine. The findings indicate that non-enzymatic nitration by nitrite may have deleterious effects on elastin in vivo and may provide insights into the pathogenesis of chronic elastin degenerative processes, including aortic aneurysms, pulmonary emphysema, and premature skin wrinkling, all of which have been well known to have associations with cigarette smoking. PMID:9512892

Paik, D C; Ramey, W G; Dillon, J; Tilson, M D



Photolysis of alkaline-earth nitrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxynitrite and nitrite ions are the diamagnetic products of photolysis (with light at a wavelength of 253.7 nm) of alkaline-earth nitrates; the paramagnetic products and hydrogen peroxide were not found. The structural water in alkaline-earth nitrate crystals did not affect the qualitative composition of the photodecomposition products. The quantum yield of nitrite ions was 0.0012, 0.0038, 0.0078, and 0.0091 quanta-1 and that of peroxynitrite ions was 0.0070, 0.0107, 0.0286, and 0.0407 quanta-1 for Sr(NO3)2, Ba(NO3)2, Ca(NO3)2 · 4H2O, and Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O, respectively.

Kriger, L. D.; Miklin, M. B.; Dyagileva, E. P.; Anan'ev, V. A.