Sample records for ammonia nitrite nitrate

  1. TOXICITY OF AMMONIA, NITRITE AND NITRATE TO FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia and nitrite are highly toxic to fishes, wig ammonia occurring in urface waters more commonly than nitrite. itrate is a related compound but is not ignificantly toxic to fishes. he acute toxicity of ammonia to aquatic organisms s affected by water pH, dissolved oxygen, tem...

  2. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N.

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome links diet and health. PMID:25803049

  3. Nitrate Reduction to Nitrite, Nitric Oxide and Ammonia by Gut Bacteria under Physiological Conditions.

    PubMed

    Tiso, Mauro; Schechter, Alan N

    2015-01-01

    The biological nitrogen cycle involves step-wise reduction of nitrogen oxides to ammonium salts and oxidation of ammonia back to nitrites and nitrates by plants and bacteria. Neither process has been thought to have relevance to mammalian physiology; however in recent years the salivary bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrite has been recognized as an important metabolic conversion in humans. Several enteric bacteria have also shown the ability of catalytic reduction of nitrate to ammonia via nitrite during dissimilatory respiration; however, the importance of this pathway in bacterial species colonizing the human intestine has been little studied. We measured nitrite, nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia formation in cultures of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium species grown at different sodium nitrate concentrations and oxygen levels. We found that the presence of 5 mM nitrate provided a growth benefit and induced both nitrite and ammonia generation in E.coli and L.plantarum bacteria grown at oxygen concentrations compatible with the content in the gastrointestinal tract. Nitrite and ammonia accumulated in the growth medium when at least 2.5 mM nitrate was present. Time-course curves suggest that nitrate is first converted to nitrite and subsequently to ammonia. Strains of L.rhamnosus, L.acidophilus and B.longum infantis grown with nitrate produced minor changes in nitrite or ammonia levels in the cultures. However, when supplied with exogenous nitrite, NO gas was readily produced independently of added nitrate. Bacterial production of lactic acid causes medium acidification that in turn generates NO by non-enzymatic nitrite reduction. In contrast, nitrite was converted to NO by E.coli cultures even at neutral pH. We suggest that the bacterial nitrate reduction to ammonia, as well as the related NO formation in the gut, could be an important aspect of the overall mammalian nitrate/nitrite/NO metabolism and is yet another way in which the microbiome links diet and health. PMID:25803049

  4. Ammonia Formation By The Reduction Of Nitrite/Nitrate By Fes: Ammonia Formation Under Acidic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Summers, David P.

    2005-08-01

    One issue for the origin of life under a non-reducing atmosphere is the availability of the reduced nitrogen necessary for amino acids, nucleic acids, etc. One possible source of this nitrogen is the formation of ammonia from the reduction of nitrates and nitrites produced by the shock heating of the atmosphere and subsequent chemistry. Ferrous ions will reduce these species to ammonium, but not under acidic conditions. We wish to report results on the reduction of nitrite and nitrate by another source of iron (II), ferrous sulfide, FeS. FeS reduces nitrite to ammonia at lower pHs than the corresponding reduction by aqueous Fe+ 2. The reduction follows a first order decay, in nitrite concentration, with a half-life of about 150 min (room temperature, CO2, pH 6.25). The highest product yield of ammonia measured was 53%. Under CO2, the product yield decreases from pH 5.0 to pH 6.9. The increasing concentration of bicarbonate, at higher pH, interferes with the reaction. Comparing experiments under N2 CO2 shows the interference of bicarbonate. The reaction proceeds well in the presence of such species as chloride, sulfate, and phosphate, though the yield drops significantly with phosphate. FeS also reduces nitrate and, unlike with Fe+ 2, the reduction shows more reproducibility. Again, the product yield decreases with increasing pH, from 7% at pH 4.7 to 0% at pH 6.9. It appears that nitrate is much more sensitive to the presence of added species, perhaps not competing as well for binding sites on the FeS surface. This may be the cause of the lack of reproducibility of nitrate reduction by Fe+ 2 (which also can be sensitive to binding by certain species)

  5. Utilization of urea, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate by crop plants in a Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffaker, R. C.; Rains, D. W.; Qualset, C. O.

    1982-01-01

    The utilization of nitrogen compounds by crop plants is studied. The selection of crop varieties for efficient production using urea, ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, and the assimilation of mixed nitrogen sources by cereal leaves and roots are discussed.

  6. Physiology and interaction of nitrate and nitrite reduction in Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed

    Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1996-04-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus reduces nitrate to ammonia in two steps. (i) Nitrate was taken up and reduced to nitrite, and nitrite was subsequently excreted. (ii) After depletion of nitrate, the accumulated nitrite was imported and reduced to ammonia, which again accumulated in the medium. The localization, energy gain, and induction of the nitrate and nitrite reductases in S. carnosus were characterized. Nitrate reductase seems to be a membrane-bound enzyme involved in respiratory energy conservation, whereas nitrite reductase seems to be a cytosolic enzyme involved in NADH reoxidation. Syntheses of both enzymes are inhibited by oxygen and induced to greater or lesser degrees by nitrate or nitrite, respectively. In whole cells, nitrite reduction is inhibited by nitrate and also by high concentrations of nitrite (> or = 10 mM). Nitrite did not influence nitrate reduction. Two possible mechanisms for the inhibition of nitrite reduction by nitrate that are not mutually exclusive are discussed. (i) Competition for NADH nitrate reductase is expected to oxidize the bulk of the NADH because of its higher specific activity. (ii) The high rate of nitrate reduction could lead to an internal accumulation of nitrite, possibly the result of a less efficient nitrite reduction or export. So far, we have no evidence for the presence of other dissimilatory or assimilatory nitrate or nitrite reductases in S. carnosus. PMID:8606176

  7. Physiology and interaction of nitrate and nitrite reduction in Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed Central

    Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1996-01-01

    Staphylococcus carnosus reduces nitrate to ammonia in two steps. (i) Nitrate was taken up and reduced to nitrite, and nitrite was subsequently excreted. (ii) After depletion of nitrate, the accumulated nitrite was imported and reduced to ammonia, which again accumulated in the medium. The localization, energy gain, and induction of the nitrate and nitrite reductases in S. carnosus were characterized. Nitrate reductase seems to be a membrane-bound enzyme involved in respiratory energy conservation, whereas nitrite reductase seems to be a cytosolic enzyme involved in NADH reoxidation. Syntheses of both enzymes are inhibited by oxygen and induced to greater or lesser degrees by nitrate or nitrite, respectively. In whole cells, nitrite reduction is inhibited by nitrate and also by high concentrations of nitrite (> or = 10 mM). Nitrite did not influence nitrate reduction. Two possible mechanisms for the inhibition of nitrite reduction by nitrate that are not mutually exclusive are discussed. (i) Competition for NADH nitrate reductase is expected to oxidize the bulk of the NADH because of its higher specific activity. (ii) The high rate of nitrate reduction could lead to an internal accumulation of nitrite, possibly the result of a less efficient nitrite reduction or export. So far, we have no evidence for the presence of other dissimilatory or assimilatory nitrate or nitrite reductases in S. carnosus. PMID:8606176

  8. Nitrates, Nitrites, and Health. Bulletin 750.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deeb, Barbara S.; Sloan, Kenneth W.

    This review is intended to assess available literature in order to define the range of nitrate/nitrite effects on animals. Though the literature deals primarily with livestock and experimental animals, much of the contemporary research is concerned with human nitrite intoxication. Thus, the effects on man are discussed where appropriate. Some of…

  9. Sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth and the reaction of nitrite with ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth was conducted. Rates of formation and destruction, and steady state concentrations of both species were determined by steady state kinetics. The importance of the reaction of nitrite with ammonia on the feasibility of ammonia formation from nitrite was evaluated. The analysis considered conditions such as temperature, ferrous iron concentration, and pH. For sinks we considered the reduction of nitrite to ammonia, reaction between nitrite and ammonia, photochemical destruction of both species, and destruction at hydrothermal vents. Under most environmental conditions, the primary sink for nitrite is reduction to ammonia. The reaction between ammonia and nitrite is not an important sink for either nitrite or ammonia. Destruction at hydrothermal vents is important at acidic pH's and at low ferrous iron concentrations. Photochemical destruction, even in a worst case scenario, is unimportant under many conditions except possibly under acidic, low iron concentration, or low temperature conditions. The primary sink for ammonia is photochemical destruction in the atmosphere. Under acidic conditions, more of the ammonia is tied up as ammonium (reducing its vapor pressure and keeping it in solution) and hydrothermal destruction becomes more important.

  10. Sugar-Driven Prebiotic Synthesis of Ammonia from Nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-03-01

    Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and ?-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible ?-hydroxycarbonyl group or an ?-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe+3 catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia’s reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species.

  11. [The nitrate- and nitrite-dependent O2-evolution in N 2 by Ankistrodesmus braunii].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, W R

    1974-06-01

    O2-evolution in N2 by young cells of synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii was measured manometrically in the presence and in the absence of nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate-starved cells produce O2 as a function of nitrate concentration with an optimum at 10 mM nitrate. The optimum rates are strongly dependent upon the pH of the medium culminating at pH 8.0.Nitrite excretion is initially slow and has its optimum at the same nitrate concentration as O2-evolution. It is slower under anaerobic conditions than in the presence of CO2 and slower at pH 5.6 than at pH 8.0. At pH 8.0 in N2 an accumulation of nitrite starts 40 to 100 min after the addition of nitrate to the algae.O2-evolution is faster with nitrite than with nitrate. No optimum curve is observed at pH 8.0 with various concentrations of nitrite in the medium; however, at pH 5.6 a distinct peak is found at 3 mM nitrite. This peak is found for a fast short-time reaction as well as for the following low rates of O2-evolution.The uncoupler carbonylcyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) equally inhibits nitrate- and nitrite-dependent O2-evolution and the incorporation of (32)P into cellular phosphate compounds. There is no indication of uncoupling in vivo of nitrite reduction which is completely independent of ATP in vitro. The inhibition of the nitrate-dependent O2-evolution by high concentrations of nitrate cannot be explained by an accumulation of products such as ammonia or nitrite. PMID:24458126

  12. Nitrate and nitrite in biology, nutrition and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Jon O.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Benjamin, Nigel; Bryan, Nathan S.; Butler, Anthony; Cabrales, Pedro; Fago, Angela; Feelisch, Martin; Ford, Peter C.; Freeman, Bruce A.; Frenneau, Michael; Friedman, Joel; Kelm, Malte; Kevil, Christopher G.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Kozlov, Andrey V.; Lancaster, Jack R.; Lefer, David J.; McColl, Kenneth; McCurry, Kenneth; Patel, Rakesh; Petersson, Joel; Rassaf, Tienush; Reutov, Valentin P.; Richter-Addo, George B.; Schechter, Alan; Shiva, Sruti; Tsuchiya, Koichiro; van Faassen, Ernst E.; Webb, Andrew J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Zweier, Jay L.; Weitzberg, Eddie

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic nitrate and nitrite from endogenous or dietary sources are metabolized in vivo to nitric oxide (NO) and other bioactive nitrogen oxides. The nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway is emerging as an important mediator of blood flow regulation, cell signaling, energetics and tissue responses to hypoxia. The latest advances in our understanding of the biochemistry, physiology and therapeutics of nitrate, nitrite and NO were discussed during a recent two-day meeting at the Nobel Forum, Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm. PMID:19915529

  13. Molecular Components of Nitrate and Nitrite Efflux in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, Elisa; González-Montelongo, Rafaela; Giraldez, Teresa; de la Rosa, Diego Alvarez

    2014-01-01

    Some eukaryotes, such as plant and fungi, are capable of utilizing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Once transported into the cell, nitrate is reduced to ammonium by the consecutive action of nitrate and nitrite reductase. How nitrate assimilation is balanced with nitrate and nitrite efflux is unknown, as are the proteins involved. The nitrate assimilatory yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as a model to dissect these efflux systems. We identified the sulfite transporters Ssu1 and Ssu2 as effective nitrate exporters, Ssu2 being quantitatively more important, and we characterize the Nar1 protein as a nitrate/nitrite exporter. The use of strains lacking either SSU2 or NAR1 along with the nitrate reductase gene YNR1 showed that nitrate reductase activity is not required for net nitrate uptake. Growth test experiments indicated that Ssu2 and Nar1 exporters allow yeast to cope with nitrite toxicity. We also have shown that the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae sulfite efflux permease Ssu1 is also able to excrete nitrite and nitrate. These results characterize for the first time essential components of the nitrate/nitrite efflux system and their impact on net nitrate uptake and its regulation. PMID:24363367

  14. Molecular components of nitrate and nitrite efflux in yeast.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Elisa; González-Montelongo, Rafaela; Giraldez, Teresa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Siverio, José M

    2014-02-01

    Some eukaryotes, such as plant and fungi, are capable of utilizing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Once transported into the cell, nitrate is reduced to ammonium by the consecutive action of nitrate and nitrite reductase. How nitrate assimilation is balanced with nitrate and nitrite efflux is unknown, as are the proteins involved. The nitrate assimilatory yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as a model to dissect these efflux systems. We identified the sulfite transporters Ssu1 and Ssu2 as effective nitrate exporters, Ssu2 being quantitatively more important, and we characterize the Nar1 protein as a nitrate/nitrite exporter. The use of strains lacking either SSU2 or NAR1 along with the nitrate reductase gene YNR1 showed that nitrate reductase activity is not required for net nitrate uptake. Growth test experiments indicated that Ssu2 and Nar1 exporters allow yeast to cope with nitrite toxicity. We also have shown that the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae sulfite efflux permease Ssu1 is also able to excrete nitrite and nitrate. These results characterize for the first time essential components of the nitrate/nitrite efflux system and their impact on net nitrate uptake and its regulation. PMID:24363367

  15. Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva

    SciTech Connect

    Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. (Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey))

    1992-01-01

    The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

  16. ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRITE TO CUTTHROAT TROUT FRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of ammonia and of nitrite was tested on cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) fry (1-3 g) for periods up to a month in eight laboratory flow-through bioassays. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values for ammonia (mg/liter un-ionized NH3) were 0.5-0.8 for 96 hours, and 0.3...

  17. [Assessment of nitrates and nitrites contents in preschool food rations].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Szczepa?ska, Magdalena; Hamu?ka, Jadwiga; Szymczyk, Krystyna

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was evaluation of nitrate/nitrite contents in preschool food rations of children 4 - 6 years old. 30 food rations served in a nursery school in Warsaw within the autumn 2005 - spring 2006 period were taken into account (10 samples per season). The levels of nitrate/nitrite in the food rations were calculated using literature data on nitrate/nitrite content in food products. The amounts of nitrate/nitrite in the examined food rations varied seasonally. The recorded nitrate season means ranged from 93 mg NaNO3 in spring to 131 mg NaNO3 in winter. The values exceeded the nitrate accepted level from 22 to 72%. On the other hand, the recorded nitrite season means ranged from 0.52 mg to 0.72 mg NaNO2 and did not exceed the nitrite accepted level. Vegetables and their products were the main source of nitrates in the evaluated food rations, they contributed about 87% of the total supplied nitrate amount. On the other hand, nitrites were supplied mainly by vegetables, vegetable products (39%), and by meat products (23%). PMID:19143424

  18. Sugar-driven prebiotic synthesis of ammonia from nitrite.

    PubMed

    Weber, Arthur L

    2010-06-01

    Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and alpha-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible alpha-hydroxycarbonyl group or an alpha-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe(+3) catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia's reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species. PMID:20213158

  19. FORMATION OF NITRITE AND NITRATE BY ACTINOMYCETES AND FUNGI

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, P.; Overrein, L.; Alexander, M.

    1961-01-01

    Hirsch, P. (Cornell University, Ithaca, New York), L. Overrein, and M. Alexander. Formation of nitrite and nitrate by actinomycetes and fungi. J. Bacteriol. 82:442–448. 1961.—Nitrite was produced by strains of Mycobacterium, Nocardia, Streptomyces, Micromonospora, and Streptosporangium in media containing ammonium phosphate as the sole nitrogen source. The quantity of nitrite formed was small, and the concentration was affected by pH and by the relative levels of carbon and nitrogen. Aspergillus flavus produced little nitrite from ammonium but formed in excess of 100 parts per million of nitrate-nitrogen. Peroxidase activity and heterotrophic nitrification were reduced in acid conditions, but mycelial development of the fungus was not markedly affected. The inability of A. flavus to form nitrate and nitrite at low pH appears to result from a selective effect of pH upon nitrification rather than being a consequence of the decomposition of nitrogenous intermediates. PMID:13714587

  20. Acute toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to sensitive freshwater insects, mollusks, and a crustacean.

    PubMed

    Soucek, D J; Dickinson, A

    2012-02-01

    Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important. PMID:21877224

  1. Nitrite and nitrate levels in cerebrospinal fluid of normal subjects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Zecca; M. Rosati; R. Renella; M. Galimberti; A. Ambrosini; R. G. Fariello

    1998-01-01

    Summary.   In order to evaluate the involvement of nitric oxide in neurologic disorders it is important to generate controlled values\\u000a of its metabolites nitrite and nitrate in human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Samples of CSF obtained from 14 patients without\\u000a neurologic diseases were analysed for nitrite and nitrate concentration by reverse phase chromatography with ultraviolet (UV)\\u000a detection. For comparison, the levels

  2. Gastrointestinal bacteria generate nitric oxide from nitrate and nitrite.

    PubMed

    Sobko, T; Reinders, C I; Jansson, E; Norin, E; Midtvedt, T; Lundberg, J O

    2005-12-01

    Denitrifying bacteria in soil generate nitric oxide (NO) from nitrite as a part of the nitrogen cycle, but little is known about NO production by commensal bacteria. We used a chemiluminescence assay to explore if human faeces and different representative gut bacteria are able to generate NO. Bacteria were incubated anaerobically in gas-tight bags, with or without nitrate or nitrite in the growth medium. In addition, luminal NO levels were measured in vivo in the intestines in germ-free and conventional rats, and in rats mono-associated with lactobacilli. We show that human faeces can generate NO after nitrate or nitrite supplementation. Lactobacilli and bifidobacteria generated much NO from nitrite, but only a few of the tested strains produced NO from nitrate and at much lower levels. In contrast, Escherichia coli, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, and Clostridium difficile did not produce significant amounts of NO either with nitrate or nitrite. NO generation in the gut lumen was also observed in vivo in conventional rats but not in germ-free rats or in rats mono-associated with lactobacilli. We conclude that NO can be generated by the anaerobic gut flora in the presence of nitrate or nitrite. Future studies will reveal its biological significance in regulation of gastrointestinal integrity. PMID:16183308

  3. Nitrate Effects on Nitrate Reductase Activity and Nitrite Reductase mRNA Levels in Maize Suspension Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Privalle, Laura S.; Lahners, Kristi N.; Mullins, Martha A.; Rothstein, Steven

    1989-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NR) activity and nitrite reductase (NiR) mRNA levels were monitored in Black Mexican Sweet maize (Zea mays L.) suspension cultures after the addition of nitrate. Maximal induction occurred with 20 millimolar nitrate and within 2 hours. Both NR and NiR mRNA were transiently induced with levels decreasing after the 2 hours despite the continued presence of nitrate in the medium. Neither ammonia nor chlorate prevented the induction of NR. Furthermore, removal of nitrate, followed by its readdition 22 to 48 hours later, did not result in reinduction of activity or message. NR was synthesized de novo, since cycloheximide completely blocked its induction. Cycloheximide had no effect on the induction of NiR mRNA or on the transient nature of its induction. These results are similar to those reported previously for maize seedlings. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 PMID:16666905

  4. USING THE BERTHELOT METHOD FOR NITRITE AND NITRATE ANALYSIS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The indophenol-blue or Berthelot method for ammonium analysis can be used indirectly for the determination of nitrite and nitrate after initial reduction of these species with Devarda’s alloy. Since this approach subjects nitrate determination to interferences normally associated with ammonium anal...

  5. Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite destruction/separation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-08-29

    This report describes and evaluates four types of nitrate and nitrite destruction and separation technologies that could be used to treat the aqueous, alkaline, nitrate-bearing mixed waste that is generated by the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The technologies considered in this report include thermal, hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical technologies.

  6. Nitrite reduction in paracoccus halodenitrificans: Evidence for the role of a cd-type cytochrome in ammonia formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochstein, L. I.; Cronin, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    Cell-free extracts prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia in the presence of dithionite and methyl viologen. Enzyme activity was located in the soluble fraction and was associated with a cytochrome whose spectral properties resembled those of a cd-type cytochrome. Unlike the sissimilatory cd-cytochrome nitrate reductase associated with the membrane fraction of P. halodenitrificans, this soluble cd-cytochrome did not reduce nitrite to nitrous oxide.

  7. Nitrate ammonification in mangrove soils: a hidden source of nitrite?

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Melike; Laverman, Anniet M.; Keuskamp, Joost A.; Laanbroek, Hendrikus J.

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate reduction is considered to be a minor microbial pathway in the oxidation of mangrove-derived organic matter due to a limited supply of nitrate in mangrove soils. At a limited availability of this electron acceptor compared to the supply of degradable carbon, nitrate ammonification is thought to be the preferential pathway of nitrate reduction. Mangrove forest mutually differ in their productivity, which may lead to different available carbon to nitrate ratios in their soil. Hence, nitrate ammonification is expected to be of more importance in high- compared to low-productive forests. The hypothesis was tested in flow-through reactors that contain undisturbed mangrove soils from high-productive Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle forests in Florida and low-productive Avicennia marina forests in Saudi Arabia. Nitrate was undetectable in the soils from both regions. It was assumed that a legacy of nitrate ammonification would be reflected by a higher ammonium production from these soils upon the addition of nitrate. Unexpectedly, the soils from the low-productive forests in Saudi Arabia produced considerably more ammonium than the soils from the high-productive forests in Florida. Hence, other environmental factors than productivity must govern the selection of nitrate ammonification or denitrification. A rather intriguing observation was the 1:1 production of nitrite and ammonium during the consumption of nitrate, more or less independent from sampling region, location, sampling depth, mangrove species and from the absence or presence of additional degradable carbon. This 1:1 ratio points to a coupled production of ammonium and nitrite by one group of nitrate-reducing microorganisms. Such a production of nitrite will be hidden by the presence of active nitrite-reducing microorganisms under the nitrate-limited conditions of most mangrove forest soils. PMID:25784903

  8. Nitrates and Nitrites in the Treatment of Ischemic Cardiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nossaman, Vaughn E.; Nossaman, Bobby D.; Kadowitz, Philip J.

    2010-01-01

    The organic nitrite, amyl of nitrite, was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris in 1867, but was replaced over a decade later by the organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (NTG), due to the ease of administration and longer duration of action. The administration of organic nitrate esters, such as NTG, continues to be used in the treatment of angina pectoris and heart failure during the birth of modern pharmacology. The clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in large veins and arteries through an as yet unidentified method of delivering nitric oxide (NO), or a NO-like compound to vascular smooth muscle cells. The major drawback with NTG administration is the rapid development of tolerance; and with amyl of nitrite, the duration and route of administration. Although amyl of nitrite are no longer used in the treatments of hypertension or ischemic heart disease, the nitrite anion has recently been discovered to possess novel pharmacologic actions such as modulating hypoxic vasodilation and providing cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the actions of these two similar chemical classes (nitrites and organic nitrates) have often been considered to be alike, we still do not understand their mechanism of action. However, the recent discovery that the nitrite anion, derived from either sodium nitrite or an intermediate NTG form, may act as a storage form for NO and provides support for investigating the use of these agents in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular states. We review what is presently known about the use of nitrites and nitrates, the potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:20539102

  9. Food sources of nitrates and nitrites: the physiologic context for potential health benefits1-3

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Norman G Hord; Yaoping Tang; Nathan S Bryan

    2009-01-01

    The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food is associated with an increased risk of gastrointestinal cancer and, in infants, methemoglo- binemia. Despite the physiologic roles for nitrate and nitrite in vas- cular and immune function, consideration of food sources of nitrates and nitrites as healthful dietary components has received little atten- tion. Approximately 80% of dietary nitrates are derived

  10. Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2012-01-01

    One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

  11. Ammonia on the prebiotic Earth: Iron(II) reduction of nitrite. [Abstract only

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Chang, Sherwood

    1994-01-01

    Theories for the origin of life require the availability of reduced nitrogen. In the non-reducing atmosphere suggested by geochemical evidence, production in the atmosphere and survival of NH3 against photochemical destruction are problematic. Electric discharges and impact shocks would produce NO rather than HCN or NH3. Conversion of NO to nitrous and nitric acid (by way of HNO) and precipitation in acid rain would provide a source of fixed nitrogen to the early ocean. One solution to the NH3 problem may have been the reduction of nitrite/nitrate in the ocean with aqueous ferrous iron, Fe(2+): 6Fe(+2) + 7 H2O + NO2(-) yields 3Fe2O3 + 11 H(+) + NH3. We have measured the kinetics of this reaction as a function of temperature, pH, and concentrations of salts, Fe(+2), and NO2(-). Cations (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+)) and anions (Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-)) increase the rate by factors of 4 to 8. Although a competing pathway yields N2, the efficiency of the conversion of nitrite to ammonia ranges from 25% to 85%. Nitrate reduction was not consistently reproducible; however, when it was observed, its rate was slower by at least 8X than that of nitrite reduction. If the prebiotic atmosphere contained 0.2 to 10 atmospheres CO2 as suggested by Walker (1985), the Fe(+2) concentration and the rate would have been limited by siderite (FeCO3) solubility.

  12. Nitrate and nitrite content in organically cultivated vegetables.

    PubMed

    Matallana González, M C; Martínez-Tomé, M J; Torija Isasa, M E

    2010-01-01

    The nitrate and nitrite content of leaf vegetables (Swiss chard, sea beet, spinach and cabbage), "inflorescence" vegetables (cauliflower) and fruit vegetables (eggplant and vegetable marrow) grown with organic fertilizers have been determined by a modified cadmium–Griess method. Samples were purchased from organic food stores as well as collected directly from an organic farm in Madrid (Spain). Nitrate levels were much higher in the leaf vegetables (especially Swiss chard species; average over the different samples and species of 2778.6 ± 1474.7 mg kg(-1)) than in inflorescence or fruit products (mean values between 50.2 ± 52.6 and 183.9 ± 233.6 mg kg(-1)). Following Swiss chard species, spinach (1349.8 ± 1045.5 mg kg(-1)) showed the highest nitrate content, and nitrite was found above the limit of detection in some samples only (spinach, 4.6 ± 1.0 mg kg(-1); sea beet, 4.2 ± 0.7 mg kg(-1) and Swiss chard, 1.2 ± 0.4 mg kg(-1)). Some vegetables (spinach, cabbage and eggplant) had lower nitrate content in the samples harvested in summer, showing the influence of climatic conditions on the nitrate levels in a plant. The samples taken directly from the organic farm, with the exception of eggplant, had higher or slightly higher average nitrate values than samples purchased in the organic food stores, ranging from 117 to 1077%. PMID:24785312

  13. Relationships between nitrate level, nitrate reductase activity and anaerobic nitrite production in Pisum sativum leaf tissue

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Škrdleta; Alena Gaudinová; Marie N?mcová

    1979-01-01

    Anaerobic nitrite production (thein vivo NO3-R activity) in an incubation medium lacking exogenous nitrate but containing 0.5%n-propanol and 0.1% Triton X-100 showed higher correlation (y - ax\\u000a b) with the level of endogenous nitrate inPisum sativum L. leaves than thein vitro nitrate reductase activity. Thein vivo NO3-R activity correlated well with thein vitro activity up to the 50 ppm NO3-N

  14. Determination of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Nitrate Oxidizing Bacteria in Wastewater and Bioreactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Francis, Somilez Asya

    2014-01-01

    The process of water purification has many different physical, chemical, and biological processes. One part of the biological process is the task of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). Both play critical roles in the treatment of wastewater by oxidizing toxic compounds. The broad term is nitrification, a naturally occurring process that is carried out by AOB and NOB by using oxidation to convert ammonia to nitrite and nitrite to nitrate. To monitor this biological activity, bacterial staining was performed on wastewater contained in inoculum tanks and biofilm samples from bioreactors. Using microscopy and qPCR, the purpose of this experiment was to determine if the population of AOB and NOB in wastewater and membrane bioreactors changed depending on temperature and hibernation conditions to determine the optimal parameters for AOB/NOB culture to effectively clean wastewater.

  15. [Studies on the contents of nitrates and nitrites in selected fresh and heat processed vegetables].

    PubMed

    Markowska, A; Kotkowska, A; Furmanek, W; Gackowska, L; Siwek, B; Kacprzak-Strza?kowska, E; B?o?ska, A

    1995-01-01

    The levels of nitrates and nitrites were determined in fresh vegetables and the same products subjected to culinary processing such as boiling. Nitrates were reduced on a cadmium column to nitrites, where upon they were determined colorimetrically using sulfanilic acid and N-1-naphthyl-ethylenediamine. Thermal processing of these vegetables reduced the level of nitrates by about 50% and the nitrites loss reached even 100%. PMID:8619116

  16. Ammonification in Bacillus subtilis Utilizing Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Is Dependent on resDE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    TAMARA HOFFMANN; NICOLE FRANKENBERG; MARCO MARINO; DIETER JAHN

    1998-01-01

    During anaerobic nitrate respiration Bacillus subtilis reduces nitrate via nitrite to ammonia. No denitrifi- cation products were observed. B. subtilis wild-type cells and a nitrate reductase mutant grew anaerobically with nitrite as an electron acceptor. Oxygen-sensitive dissimilatory nitrite reductase activity was demonstrated in cell extracts prepared from both strains with benzyl viologen as an electron donor and nitrite as an

  17. Nitrite Reductase Mutants as an Approach to Understanding Nitrate Assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, María Teresa; Guerra, Elena; Fernández, Emilio; Galván, Aurora

    2000-01-01

    We constructed mutant strains lacking the nitrite reductase (NR) gene in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Two types of NR mutants were obtained, which either have or lack the high-affinity nitrate transporter (Nrt2;1, Nrt2;2, and Nar2) genes. None of these mutants overexpressed nitrate assimilation gene transcripts nor NR activity in nitrogen-free medium, in contrast to NR mutants. This finding confirms the previous role proposed for NR on its own regulation (autoregulation) and on the other genes for nitrate assimilation in C. reinhardtii. In addition, the NR mutants were used to study nitrate transporters from nitrite excretion. At high CO2, only strains carrying the above high-affinity nitrate transporter genes excreted stoichiometric amounts of nitrite from 100 ?m nitrate in the medium. A double mutant, deficient in both the high-affinity nitrate transporter genes and NR, excreted nitrite at high CO2 only when nitrate was present at mm concentrations. This suggests that there exists a low-affinity nitrate transporter that might correspond to the nitrate/nitrite transport system III. Moreover, under low CO2 conditions, the double mutant excreted nitrite from nitrate at micromolar concentrations by a transporter with the properties of the nitrate/nitrite transport system IV. PMID:10631272

  18. Guanylate cyclase activation by organic nitrates is not mediated via nitrite.

    PubMed

    Romanin, C; Kukovetz, W R

    1988-05-01

    Nitrovasodilators relax vascular smooth muscle by stimulating guanylate cyclase. Ignarro et al. (1981) proposed a mechanistic scheme according to which organic nitrates release nitrite in the presence of thiols. The corresponding nitrous acid would decay leading to nitric oxide, which then would react with another thiol to nitrosothiol. Dose-response relations with regard to guanylate cyclase stimulation of organic nitrates and sodium nitrite were compared in the presence of cysteine and its closely related methylester. Nitrite formation from ED95 concentrations of organic nitrates was also measured and compared with that present under an equi-effective concentration of sodium nitrite. In addition, the proposed formation of nitrosothiol from nitric oxide was re-examined. In the presence of cysteine, organic nitrates as well as sodium nitrite stimulated guanylate cyclase, but nitrite formation under ED95 concentrations of organic nitrates was 1000-fold smaller than that present under an equi-effective concentration of sodium nitrite. In the presence of cysteinemethylester, liberation of nitrite from organic nitrates was similar but no stimulation of guanylate cyclase was obtained. Sodium nitrite, however, showed a stimulating activity similar to that in the presence of cysteine. These results clearly demonstrate that guanylate cyclase stimulation by organic nitrates is not mediated by nitrite and subsequent formation of nitrosothiol. Since nitrous acid did not decay to nitric oxide in the pH range studied, the formation of nitrosothiol is apparently due to a direct reaction of nitrous acid with thiol. PMID:2905390

  19. Alpaca plant poisonings: nitrate-nitrite and possible cyanide.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Ra; Gordon, An; Burren, Bg; Gibson, Ja; Gardner, Mp

    2009-03-01

    Nitrate-nitrite poisoning killed four adult alpacas and induced the abortion of a full-term fetus after access to oaten hay (Avena sativa) containing 3.2% KNO(3) equivalent in dry matter. Necropsy findings were cyanosis, dark-coloured blood, and pulmonary congestion and oedema. Aqueous humour from two adults contained 25 mg NO(3)/L and that from the fetus contained 10 mg NO(3)/L. Cyanide poisoning possibly killed two adult wether alpacas that ate a garden-cultivated variety of Osteospermum ecklonis (South African daisy, bietou) with a cyanide potential of 6800 mg HCN/kg dry matter. PMID:19245625

  20. Toluene nitration in irradiated nitric acid and nitrite solution

    SciTech Connect

    Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Stephen P. Mezyk; Jim Muller; Leigh R. Martin

    2011-04-01

    The kinetics, mechanisms, and stable products produced for the aryl alkyl mild ortho-para director - toluene, in irradiated nitric acid and neutral nitrite solutions were investigated using ?, and pulse radiolysis. Electron pulse radiolysis was used to determine the bimolecular rate constants for the reaction of toluene with different transient species produced by irradiation. HPLC with UV detection was primarily used to assess the stable reaction products. GC-MS and LC-MS were used to confirm the results from HPLC. Free-radical nitration reaction products were found in irradiated acidic and neutral media. In acidic medium, the ring substitution and side chain substitution and oxidation produced different nitro products. In ring substitution, nitrogen oxide radicals were added mainly to hydroxyl radical-produced cyclohexadienyl radical, and in side chain substitution they were added to the carbon-centered benzyl radical produced by H-atom abstraction. In neutral nitrite toluene solution, radiolytic ring nitration products approached a statistically random distribution, suggesting a free-radical reaction involving addition of the •NO2 radical.

  1. Intracellular appearance of nitrite and nitrate in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hartmut Spiller; Elisabeth Dietsch; Erich Kessler

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of heterotrophic nitrification in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii was confirmed. The levels of nitrate and nitrite were measured over a period of four weeks. The validity of quantitative determinations in the presence of highly active nitrate and nitrite reductases is discussed. Whereas free hydroxylamine as an intermediate could not be detected, increased hydroxylamine oxidase activity was found

  2. Inhibition of nitrate and nitrite reduction by 2,4-dinitrophenol in ankistrodesmus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Ahmad; I. Morris

    1967-01-01

    As Kessler (1955, 1959) has shown, nitrite reduction by the green alga, Ankistrodesmus braunii is completely inhibited by 10-3m 2,4-dinitrophenol. However, although nitrite accumulates in the medium when cultures are supplied with nitrate and dinitrophenol, the reduction of nitrate is not completely insensitive to the inhibitor.

  3. Intake and risk assessment of nitrate and nitrite from New Zealand foods and drinking water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. M. Thomson; C. J. Nokes; P. J. Cressey

    2007-01-01

    Exposure to excess nitrite is a potential health risk for humans. One hundred meat and processed foods and 100 vegetable samples purchased from New Zealand retail outlets were prepared as for consumption and analysed for nitrite and nitrate concentration using a standard, validated methodology. Nitrate concentrations ranged from less than the limit of detection (LOD?=?5?mg?kg) in cheddar cheese and cream

  4. Dietary intake and bio-activation of nitrite and nitrate in newborn infants.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jesica A; Hopper, Andrew O; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2015-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are commonly thought of as inert end products of nitric oxide (NO) oxidation, possibly carcinogenic food additives, or well-water contaminants. However, recent studies have shown that nitrate and nitrite play an important role in cardiovascular and gastrointestinal homeostasis through conversion back into NO via a physiological system involving enterosalivary recirculation, bacterial nitrate reductases, and enzyme-catalyzed or acidic reduction of nitrite to NO. The diet is a key source of nitrate in adults; however, infants ingest significantly less nitrate due to low concentrations in breast milk. In the mouth, bacteria convert nitrate to nitrite, which has gastro-protective effects. However, these nitrate-reducing bacteria are relatively inactive in infants. Swallowed nitrite is reduced to NO by acid in the stomach, affecting gastric blood flow, mucus production, and the gastric microbiota. These effects are likely attenuated in the less acidic neonatal stomach. Systemically, nitrite acts as a reservoir of NO bioactivity that can protect against ischemic injury, yet plasma nitrite concentrations are markedly lower in infants than in adults. The physiological importance of the diminished nitrate?nitrite?NO axis in infants and its implications in the etiology and treatment of newborn diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis and hypoxic/ischemic injury are yet to be determined. PMID:25314582

  5. Effect of blood nitrite and nitrate levels on murine platelet function.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Won; Piknova, Barbora; Huang, Paul L; Noguchi, Constance T; Schechter, Alan N

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play an important role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis by inhibiting platelet function. The discovery of NO generation by reduction of nitrite (NO??) and nitrate (NO??) in mammals has led to increased attention to these anions with respect to potential beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that nitrite anions at 0.1 µM inhibit aggregation and activation of human platelet preparations in vitro in the presence of red blood cells and this effect was enhanced by deoxygenation, an effect likely due to NO generation. In the present study, we hypothesized that nitrite and nitrate derived from the diet could also alter platelet function upon their conversion to NO in vivo. To manipulate the levels of nitrite and nitrate in mouse blood, we used antibiotics, NOS inhibitors, low nitrite/nitrate (NOx) diets, endothelial NOS knock-out mice and also supplementation with high levels of nitrite or nitrate in the drinking water. We found that all of these perturbations affected nitrite and nitrate levels but that the lowest whole blood values were obtained by dietary restriction. Platelet aggregation and ATP release were measured in whole blood and the results show an inverse correlation between nitrite/nitrate levels and platelet activity in aggregation and ATP release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nitrite-supplemented group has a prolonged bleeding time compared with control or low NOx diet group. These results show that diet restriction contributes greatly to blood nitrite and nitrate levels and that platelet reactivity can be significantly affected by these manipulations. Our study suggests that endogenous levels of nitrite and nitrate may be used as a biomarker for predicting platelet function and that dietary manipulation may affect thrombotic processes. PMID:23383344

  6. Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during ...

  7. Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during...

  8. Automated, colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate ions in natural water samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Patton, Charles J.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1996-01-01

    The apparatus and methods used for the automatic, colorimetric determinations of dissolved nutrients (nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate) in natural waters are described. These techniques allow for the determination of nitrate plus nitrite for the concentration range 0.02 to 8 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as N (nitrogen); for nitrite, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as N; for ammonium, the range is 0.006 to 2.0 mg/L as N; and for orthophosphate, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as P (phosphorus). Data are presented that demonstrate the accuracy, precision and quality control of the methods.

  9. Nitrite and Nitrate in Human Breast Milk: Implications for Development

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pamela D. Berens; Nathan S. Bryan

    \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Breast milk is nature’s most perfect food with essential nutrients for the health and development of babies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Breast milk is enriched in both nitrite and nitrate and the ratio of these anions change as the composition of milk changes.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Exposure rates of infants consuming colostrum from breast milk reach nearly 1 mg\\/kg which exceeds the ADI for

  10. Pancreatic Cancer and Drinking Water and Dietary Sources of Nitrate and Nitrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Coss; Kenneth P. Cantor; John S. Reif; Charles F. Lynch; Mary H. Ward

    N-Nitroso compounds, known animal carcinogens, are formed endogenously from drinking water and dietary sources of nitrate and nitrite. The authors conducted a population-based case-control study of pancreatic cancer in Iowa to determine whether increased consumption of nitrate and nitrite from drinking water and dietary sources was associated with risk. They linked detailed water source histories to nitrate measurements for Iowa

  11. Nitrate and nitrite levels in fresh and frozen broccoli. Effect of freezing and cooking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Huarte-Mendicoa; I. Astiasarán; J. Bello

    1997-01-01

    Nitrite and nitrate levels in broccolis coming from different cultures from the south of Navarra (Spain) were analyzed. Fresh products had only traces of nitrites and low levels of nitrates (48–97 ppm KNO3). Industrial freezing gave rise to an increase in the nitrate levels (127–232 ppm KNO3), probably as a consequence of high levels in the processing water. Cooking decreased

  12. Estimation of dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Knight, T M; Forman, D; Al-Dabbagh, S A; Doll, R

    1987-04-01

    A survey was conducted of the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite of 747 people aged 15-74 yr living in four regions in Britain. The mean intakes from food were estimated to be about 95 mg nitrate and 1.4 mg nitrite. Vegetables contributed over 90% of the nitrate intake and cured meats 65% of the nitrite intake. The contribution from drinking-water was estimated to add a further 13.5 mg, about 12% of total intake, but varied greatly depending upon water nitrate concentration. Residents of Oxford and the South-east had a higher intake of dietary nitrate, due to a greater vegetable consumption, whereas those from North Wales and the North-east had a higher nitrite intake due mainly to a greater consumption of bacon. The consumption of relatively low ascorbic acid/high nitrate vegetables was significantly greater in Oxford and the South-east. Smoking appeared to inhibit the uptake of circulating nitrate into the saliva, especially at higher levels of dietary nitrate intake. The efficiency of reduction of nitrate to nitrite in vivo and the effect of differing rates of this conversion on the relative importance of different dietary items as potential sources of nitrite are discussed. PMID:3583155

  13. Competition between nitrate and nitrite reduction in denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Reis, M.A.M. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal). Chemistry Dept.; Carrondo, M.J.T. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal). Chemistry Dept.]|[ITQB/IBET, Oeiras (Portugal)

    1995-06-05

    A pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used as a model system to study the kinetics of denitrification. An exponentially growing culture was harvested and resuspended in an anoxic acetate solution buffered with K/Na phosphate at pH values of 6.6, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.8. The temperature was kept at 28 C in all assays. Nitrate pulses of approximately 0.2 mg N/L caused nitrite to accumulate due to a faster rate of nitrate reduction over nitrite reduction. The rate of nitrate reduction was observed to depend on its concentration as predicted by the Michaelis-Menten equation. At nonlimiting nitrate concentrations, nitrite reduction was described by the same equation. Otherwise, nitrite reduction also depended on nitrate concentration. Consequently, nitrate and nitrite reductions compete with each other for the oxidation of common electron donors. A kinetic model for nitrate competitive inhibition of nitrite reduction is proposed. The model was used to interpret the nitrate and nitrite profiles observed at the four pH values: the optimum pH value was 7.0 in both cases; the affinity for nitrate was constant (K{sub m NO{sub 3}} = 0.04 mg N/L); the affinity for nitrite was also not affected by the medium pH in the range of values 6.6 to 7.4 (K{sub m NO{sub 2}} = 0.06 mg N/L), but it decreased sharply for the pH value of 7.8. Although the ratio between the two maximum reduction rates (V{sub max NO{sub 2}}/V{sub max NO{sub 3}}) is constant, nitrite accumulation depends on the medium pH value. Therefore, the regulation mechanism that shifts the electron flow between the two terminal reductases is readily reversible and does not change their relative maximum reduction rates.

  14. Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level in relation

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level - , Nitrate; NO2, Nitrogen dioxide; O3, Ozone; PM10, Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter 10µm; Q, quartile Abstract This study evaluated the associations between biological markers in the nitrate

  15. Plasma nitrate and nitrite are increased by a high-nitrate supplement but not by high-nitrate foods in older adults.

    PubMed

    Miller, Gary D; Marsh, Anthony P; Dove, Robin W; Beavers, Daniel; Presley, Tennille; Helms, Christine; Bechtold, Erika; King, S Bruce; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel

    2012-03-01

    Little is known about the effect of dietary nitrate on the nitrate/nitrite/nitric oxide cycle in older adults. We examined the effect of a 3-day control diet vs high-nitrate diet, with and without a high-nitrate supplement (beetroot juice), on plasma nitrate and nitrite kinetics and blood pressure using a randomized 4-period crossover controlled design. We hypothesized that the high-nitrate diet would show higher levels of plasma nitrate/nitrite and lower blood pressure compared with the control diet, which would be potentiated by the supplement. Participants were 8 normotensive older men and women (5 female, 3 male, 72.5 ± 4.7 years old) with no overt disease or medications that affect nitric oxide metabolism. Plasma nitrate and nitrite levels and blood pressure were measured before and hourly for 3 hours after each meal. The mean daily changes in plasma nitrate and nitrite were significantly different from baseline for both control diet + supplement (P < .001 and P = .017 for nitrate and nitrite, respectively) and high-nitrate diet + supplement (P = .001 and P = .002), but not for control diet (P = .713 and P = .741) or high-nitrate diet (P = .852 and P = .500). Blood pressure decreased from the morning baseline measure to the three 2-hour postmeal follow-up time points for all treatments, but there was no main effect for treatment. In healthy older adults, a high-nitrate supplement consumed at breakfast elevated plasma nitrate and nitrite levels throughout the day. This observation may have practical utility for the timing of intake of a nitrate supplement with physical activity for older adults with vascular dysfunction. PMID:22464802

  16. Prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its effect on edible bird nest's color.

    PubMed

    Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Wong, Yi Li; Wong, Won Fen; Hamdi, Omer Abdalla Ahmed; Kadir, Noraniza Abd; Looi, Chung Yeng

    2013-12-01

    Edible bird nests (EBNs) are important ethnomedicinal commodity in the Chinese community. Recently, But and others showed that the white EBNs could turn red by vapors from sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in acidic condition or from bird soil, but this color-changing agent remained elusive. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of nitrite and nitrate contents and its affects on EBN's color. EBNs were collected from swiftlet houses or caves in Southeast Asia. White EBNs were exposed to vapor from NaNO2 in 2% HCl, or bird soil. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) in EBNs were determined through ion chromatography analysis. Vapors from NaNO2 in 2% HCl or bird soil stained white bird nests to brown/red colors, which correlated with increase nitrite and nitrate levels. Moreover, naturally formed cave-EBNs (darker in color) also contained higher nitrite and nitrate levels compared to white house-EBNs, suggesting a relationship between nitrite and nitrate with EBN's color. Of note, we detected no presence of hemoglobin in red "blood" nest. Using infrared spectra analysis, we demonstrated that red/brown cave-EBNs contained higher intensities of C-N and N-O bonds compared to white house-EBNs. Together, our study suggested that the color of EBNs was associated with the prevalence of the nitrite and nitrate contents. PMID:24279333

  17. Ingested nitrate and nitrite and stomach cancer risk: an updated review.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Nathan S; Alexander, Dominik D; Coughlin, James R; Milkowski, Andrew L; Boffetta, Paolo

    2012-10-01

    Nitrite and nitrate are naturally occurring molecules in vegetables and also added to cured and processed meats to delay spoilage and pathogenic bacteria growth. Research over the past 15 years has led to a paradigm change in our ideas about health effects of both nitrite and nitrate. Whereas, historically nitrite and nitrate were considered harmful food additives and listed as probable human carcinogens under conditions where endogenous nitrosation could take place, they are now considered by some as indispensible nutrients essential for cardiovascular health by promoting nitric oxide (NO) production. We provide an update to the literature and knowledge base concerning their safety. Most nitrite and nitrate exposure comes from naturally occurring and endogenous sources and part of the cell signaling effects of NO involve nitrosation. Nitrosation must now be considered broadly in terms of both S- and N-nitrosated species, since S-nitrosation is kinetically favored. Protein S-nitrosation is a significant part of the role of NO in cellular signal transduction and is involved in critical aspects of cardiovascular health. A critical review of the animal toxicology literature of nitrite indicates that in the absence of co-administration of a carcinogenic nitrosamine precursor, there is no evidence for carcinogenesis. Newly published prospective epidemiological cohort studies indicate that there is no association between estimated intake of nitrite and nitrate in the diet and stomach cancer. This new and growing body of evidence calls for a reconsideration of nitrite and nitrate safety. PMID:22889895

  18. Intake and risk assessment of nitrate and nitrite from New Zealand foods and drinking water.

    PubMed

    Thomson, B M; Nokes, C J; Cressey, P J

    2007-02-01

    Exposure to excess nitrite is a potential health risk for humans. One hundred meat and processed foods and 100 vegetable samples purchased from New Zealand retail outlets were prepared as for consumption and analysed for nitrite and nitrate concentration using a standard, validated methodology. Nitrate concentrations ranged from less than the limit of detection (LOD = 5 mg kg-1) in cheddar cheese and cream cheese-based dips to 3420 mg kg-1 in lettuce. Nitrite was detected in half the processed foods and meats analysed (levels up to 119 mg kg-1), but detected in only one vegetable sample above the LOD (broccoli at 27 mg kg-1 nitrite). Concentration data were combined with 24 h dietary recall information to generate 4398 individual adult daily exposure scenarios for exogenous nitrite and nitrate including a contribution from water assessed from 1021 drinking water samples. The mean adult daily intake of exogenous nitrate and nitrite from food and water combined was 16 and 13% of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI), respectively, and therefore should not pose a health risk for the average consumer. A maximally exposed New Zealand adult is estimated to have an intake of up to seven times the ADI for nitrate. When the endogenous conversion of nitrate to nitrite is taken into account, approximately 10% of people with an average rate of conversion and half of all people with a high rate of conversion are estimated to exceed the ADI. Either the ADI is inappropriate and needs to be re-evaluated, or those individuals who have a high rate of conversion of nitrate to nitrite are at risk to adverse effects of nitrite exposure. PMID:17364911

  19. Effect of nitrite and nitrate on chlorophyll fluorescence in green algae.

    PubMed

    Kessler, E; Zumft, W G

    1973-03-01

    The influence of nitrite and nitrate on chlorophyll fluorescence, a very sensitive indicator for the redox state of the primary acceptor of photosystem II of photosynthesis, was studied in green algae (several species of Chlorella, and Ankistrodesmus braunii). In phosphate solution under an atmosphere of nitrogen (i.e., in the absence of O2 and CO2, and without nitrite or nitrate), fluorescence shows a pronounced induction and then rises to a high steady-state level. In the presence of nitrite, however, fluorescence decreases after a rather short induction peak to a much lower steady-state. Nitrate, on the other hand, does not have any influence on either induction or steady-state of fluorescence. These results clearly demonstrate that nitrite reduction in the light is very closely coupled to the photosynthetic electron transport system, whereas nitrate is not reduced photosynthetically in vivo. PMID:24469416

  20. Catalyst free, base free microwave irradiated synthesis of aryl nitrites from potassium aryltrifluoroborates and bismuth nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Al-Masum, Mohammad; Welch, Rebecca L.

    2014-01-01

    A mixture of bismuth nitrate pentahydrate and potassium aryltrifluoroborate in toluene under microwave heating at 120 °C for 20 min provides an interesting and mild reaction protocol for the synthesis of aryl nitrite. The conversion to aryl nitrites from aryltrifluoroborates without transition metal catalyst and base in high yields is remarkable. PMID:25242828

  1. Tolerance of ciliated protozoan Paramecium bursaria (Protozoa, Ciliophora) to ammonia and nitrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Henglong; Song, Weibo; Lu, Lu; Alan, Warren

    2005-09-01

    The tolerance to ammonia and nitrites in freshwater ciliate Paramecium bursaria was measured in a conventional open system. The ciliate was exposed to different concentrations of ammonia and nitrites for 2h and 12h in order to determine the lethal concentrations. Linear regression analysis revealed that the 2h-LC50 value for ammonia was 95.94 mg/L and for nitrite 27.35 mg/L using probit scale method (with 95% confidence intervals). There was a linear correlation between the mortality probit scale and logarithmic concentration of ammonia which fit by a regression equation y=7.32 x 9.51 ( R 2=0.98; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of ammonia), by which 2 h-LC50 value for ammonia was found to be 95.50 mg/L. A linear correlation between mortality probit scales and logarithmic concentration of nitrite is also followed the regression equation y=2.86 x+0.89 ( R 2=0.95; y, mortality probit scale; x, logarithmic concentration of nitrite). The regression analysis of toxicity curves showed that the linear correlation between exposed time of ammonia-N LC50 value and ammonia-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=2 862.85 e -0.08 x ( R 2=0.95; y, duration of exposure to LC50 value; x, LC50 value), and that between exposed time of nitrite-N LC50 value and nitrite-N LC50 value followed the regression equation y=127.15 e -0.13 x ( R 2=0.91; y, exposed time of LC50 value; x, LC50 value). The results demonstrate that the tolerance to ammonia in P. bursaria is considerably higher than that of the larvae or juveniles of some metozoa, e.g. cultured prawns and oysters. In addition, ciliates, as bacterial predators, are likely to play a positive role in maintaining and improving water quality in aquatic environments with high-level ammonium, such as sewage treatment systems.

  2. Sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite in pond-breeding amphibians from the Pacific Northwest, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Marco, A.; Quilchano, C.; Blaustein, A.R.

    1999-12-01

    In static experiments, the authors studied the effects of nitrate and nitrate solutions on newly hatched larvae of five species of amphibians, namely Rana pretiosa, Rana aurora, Bufo boreas, Hyla regilla, and Ambystoma gracile. When nitrate or nitrite ions were added to the water, some larvae of some species reduced feeding activity, swam less vigorously, showed disequilibrium and paralysis, suffered abnormalities and edemas, and eventually died. The observed effects increased with both concentration and time, and there were significant differences in sensitivity among species. Ambrystoma gracile displayed the highest acute effect in water with nitrate and nitrite. The three ranid species had acute effects in water with nitrite. In chronic exposures, R. pretiosa was the most sensitive species to nitrates and nitrites. All species showed 15-d LC50s lower than 2 mg N-NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}}/L. For both N ions, B. boreas was the least sensitive amphibian. All species showed a high morality at the US Environmental Protection Agency-recommended limits of nitrite for warm-water fishes and a significant larval mortality at the recommended limits of nitrite concentration for drinking water. The recommended levels of nitrate for warm-water fishes were highly toxic for R. pretiosa and A. gracile larvae.

  3. Transformation of bisphenol A and alkylphenols by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria through nitration.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Chou, Pei-Hsin; Peng, Po-Yi; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2012-04-17

    Transformation of bisphenol A (BPA) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) Nitrosomonas europaea ATCC 19718 was investigated. On the basis of the ultraperformance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance analysis, we found N. europaea could transform BPA into nitro- and dinitro-BPA, suggesting that abiotic nitration between the biogenic nitrite and BPA played a major role in the transformation of BPA in the batch AOB system. Nitrite concentrations, temperature, and pH values were the major factors to influence the reaction rate. Furthermore, the yeast estrogenic screening assay showed that the formed nitro- and dinitro-BPA had much less estrogenic activity as compared with its parent compound BPA. Similar reactions of abiotic nitration were considered for 4-n-nonylphenol (nNP) and 4-n-octylphenol (nOP) since nitro-nNP and nitro-nOP were detected by UPLC-Q-TOF MS. In addition, results from the local wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) showed the occurrence of nitro-BPA and dinitro-BPA during the biological treatment process and in the effluent, indicating that nitration of BPA is also a pathway for removal of BPA. Results of this study provided implication that AOB in the WWTPs might contribute to removal of selected endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) through abiotic nitritation. PMID:22435736

  4. Intracellular appearance of nitrite and nitrate in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    Spiller, H; Dietsch, E; Kessler, E

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of heterotrophic nitrification in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii was confirmed. The levels of nitrate and nitrite were measured over a period of four weeks. The validity of quantitative determinations in the presence of highly active nitrate and nitrite reductases is discussed. Whereas free hydroxylamine as an intermediate could not be detected, increased hydroxylamine oxidase activity was found in nitrogen-starved cultures. Nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine oxidase can be assigned to particles by sucrose density gradient centrifugation. The possible involvement of microbodies, which were found to be present in Ankistrodesmus, in metabolic processes during nitrogen starvation is discussed. PMID:24430910

  5. Quantitative analysis of nitrate and nitrite contents in vegetables commonly consumed in Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onyesom, I; Okoh, P N

    2006-11-01

    Plasma thiocyanate has been reported to be high among cassava-eating populations such as that in Nigeria because of the cyanide content of cassava. Thiocyanate, which is secreted into the stomach contents of animals, has been demonstrated to catalyse the formation of nitrosamines (potent carcinogens) in the stomach from secondary amines and nitrite. The main source of the nitrite precursor in this environment is vegetables, primarily eaten as the chief supplier of proteins. The present study attempts to analyse the levels of nitrate and nitrite in vegetables commonly grown and consumed in Delta State, Nigeria. The nitrate and nitrite contents in green vegetable (Amaranthus spp.), bitter leaf (Vernonia amygdalina), pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis) and water leaf (Talinum triangulare) grown in different localities of the state were determined by standard analytical procedures. The results show that those vegetables grown in the industrialised urban centres of the state had higher nitrate (223 (SD 71) mg/kg dry weight; P<0.05) and nitrite (12.6 (SD 1.7) mg/kg dry weight; P>0.05) levels when compared with the same species (188 (SD 77) mg nitrate/kg dry weight and 10.9 (SD 1.1) mg nitrite/kg dry weight) cultivated in less industrialised suburbs. We conclude that frequent consumption of such vegetables whose nitrate and nitrite contents are high by cassava-eating individuals might put them at risk of developing stomach cancer and other possible results of nitrate and/or nitrite toxicity. In order to avoid an outbreak in our communities, appropriate agencies should monitor and regulate the release of chemicals into the environment. In the meantime, the cultivation and consumption of vegetables grown in industrialised areas of the state should be discouraged. PMID:17092380

  6. Effect of Elevated Temperature on Nitrite and Nitrate Reduction in Leaves and Intact Chloroplasts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. N. Maevskaya; E. A. Egorova; N. G. Bukhov

    2003-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) leaves and intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts were exposed to short-term heating, and the aftereffects of heat treatment on in vitro andin vivo activities of nitrate reductase and noncyclic electron transport associated with nitrite reduction were studied. Heating of leaves at temperatures above 40°C led to a monotonic decrease in nitrate reductase in vitro activity.

  7. Survey of nitrate and nitrite contents of vegetables grown in Korea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Y. Chung; J. S. Kim; M. Kim; M. K. Hong; J. O. Lee; C. M. Kim; I. S. Song

    2003-01-01

    A scientific basis for the evaluation of the risk to public health arising from excessive dietary intake of nitrate in Korea is provided. The nitrate (NO 3) and nitrite (NO 2) contents of various vegetables (Chinese cabbage, radish, lettuce, spinach, soybean sprouts, onion, pumpkin, green onion, cucumber, potato, carrot, garlic, green pepper, cabbage and Allium tuberosum Roth known as Crown

  8. Role of nitrate and nitrite in the induction of nitrite reductase in leaves of barley seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1989-01-01

    The role of NO3- and NO2- in the induction of nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was investigated. Barley leaves contained 6 to 8 micromoles NO2-/gram fresh weight x hour of endogenous NiR activity when grown in N-free solutions. Supply of both NO2- and NO3- induced the enzyme activity above the endogenous levels (5 and 10 times, respectively at 10 millimolar NO2- and NO3- over a 24 hour period). In NO3(-)-supplied leaves, NiR induction occurred at an ambient NO3- concentration of as low as 0.05 millimolar; however, no NiR induction was found in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 millimolar. Nitrate accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NiR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating in NO3(-)-fed leaves. Induction of NiR in NO2(-)-fed leaves was not seen until NO3- was detectable (30 nanomoles/gram fresh weight) in the leaves. The internal concentrations of NO3-, irrespective of N source, were highly correlated with the levels of NiR induced. When the reduction of NO3- to NO2- was inhibited by WO4(2-), the induction of NiR was inhibited only partially. The results indicate that in barley leaves in NiR is induced by NO3- directly, i.e. without being reduced to NO2-, and that absorbed NO2- induces the enzyme activity indirectly after being oxidized to NO3- within the leaf.

  9. Synthesis of nano-structured polypyrrole/copper electrodes for nitrate and nitrite electroreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phuong Thoa Nguyen, Thi; Thinh Nguyen, Viet; Nguyen Bui, Nhat; Do, Duong Kim Bao; Pham, Anh Minh

    2010-09-01

    Nanostructured polypyrrole film was synthesized onto a copper electrode in solutions of oxalic and salicylic acids and their buffers. The electrooxidation of pyrrole to form polypyrrole film and the electroreduction of nitrate and nitrite ions at synthesized Ppy modified copper electrodes (Ppy/Cu) in potassium chloride aqueous solutions were studied using chronoamperometry. The nanoporous structure of the synthesized Ppy films was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nitrate and nitrite reduction were performed by an electrochemical method under potentiostatic conditions. The Ppy/Cu electrodes prepared in the oxalate buffer and salicylic acid solutions perform more stable catalytic activity for nitrate reduction; their service life is about ten times longer than that for the electrodes prepared in oxalic acid solution. After 20?h of electrolysis, the nitrite was reduced completely with 100% efficiency and the nitrate was reduced with 35% efficiency. Report submitted to the 5th International Workshop on Advanced Materials Science and Nanotechnology IWAMSN, Hanoi, 9–12 November 2010.

  10. Corrosion risk associated with microbial souring control using nitrate or nitrite.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Nemati, Mehdi; Jenneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2005-08-01

    Souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in oil reservoirs, can be controlled through nitrate or nitrite addition. To assess the effects of this containment approach on corrosion, metal coupons were installed in up-flow packed-bed bioreactors fed with medium containing 8 mM sulfate and 25 mM lactate. Following inoculation with produced water to establish biogenic H(2)S production, some bioreactors were treated with 17.5 mM nitrate or up to 20 mM nitrite, eliminating souring. Corrosion rates were highest near the outlet of untreated bioreactors (up to 0.4 mm year(-1)). Nitrate (17.5 mM) eliminated sulfide but gave pitting corrosion near the inlet of the bioreactor, whereas a high nitrite dose (20 mM) completely eliminated microbial activity and associated corrosion. More gradual, step-wise addition of nitrite up to 20 mM resulted in the retention of microbial activity and localized pitting corrosion, especially near the bioreactor inlet. We conclude that: (1) SRB control by nitrate or nitrite reduction shifts the corrosion risk from the bioreactor outlet to the inlet (i.e. from production to injection wells) and (2) souring treatment by continuous addition of a high inhibitory nitrite dose is preferable from a corrosion-prevention point of view. PMID:15711941

  11. Two Nitrate/Nitrite Transporters Are Encoded within the Mobilizable Plasmid for Nitrate Respiration of Thermus thermophilus HB8

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez, Sandra; Moreno, Renata; Zafra, Olga; Castán, Pablo; Vallés, Cristina; Berenguer, José

    2000-01-01

    Thermus thermophilus HB8 can grow anaerobically by using a membrane-bound nitrate reductase to catalyze the reduction of nitrate as a final electron acceptor in respiration. In contrast to other denitrifiers, the nitrite produced does not continue the reduction pathway but accumulates in the growth medium after its active extrusion from the cell. We describe the presence of two genes, narK1 and narK2, downstream of the nitrate reductase-encoding gene cluster (nar) that code for two homologues to the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. The sequences of NarK1 and NarK2 are 30% identical to each other, but whereas NarK1 clusters in an average-distance tree with putative nitrate transporters, NarK2 does so with putative nitrite exporters. To analyze whether this differential clustering was actually related to functional differences, we isolated derivatives with mutations of one or both genes. Analysis revealed that single mutations had minor effects on growth by nitrate respiration, whereas a double narK1 narK2 mutation abolished this capability. Further analysis allowed us to confirm that the double mutant is completely unable to excrete nitrite, while single mutants have a limitation in the excretion rates compared with the wild type. These data allow us to propose that both proteins are implicated in the transport of nitrate and nitrite, probably acting as nitrate/nitrite antiporters. The possible differential roles of these proteins in vivo are discussed. PMID:10735860

  12. Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.

    PubMed

    Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

  13. Effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate on botulinal toxin production and nitrosamine formation in wieners.

    PubMed

    Hustad, G O; Cerveny, J G; Trenk, H; Deibel, R H; Kautter, D A; Fazio, T; Johnston, R W; Kolari, O E

    1973-07-01

    Wieners were formulated and processed approximating commercial conditions as closely as possible. Twenty-four batches of product were made with the addition of six levels of sodium nitrite (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 mug/g), four levels of sodium nitrate (0, 50, 150, and 450 mug/g), and two levels of Clostridium botulinum (0 and 620 spores/g). After formulation, processing, and vacuum packaging, portions of each batch were incubated at 27 C or held for 21 days at 7 C followed by incubation at 27 C for 56 days. The latter storage condition approximated distribution of product through commercial channels and potential temperature abuse at the consumer level. Samples were analyzed for botulinal toxin, nitrite, and nitrate levels after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days of incubation. When nitrite was not added, toxic samples were detected after 14 days of incubation at 27 C. At the lowest level of nitrite added (50 mug/g), no toxic samples were observed until 56 days of incubation. Higher levels of nitrite completely inhibited toxin production throughout the incubation period. Nine uninoculated samples, representing various levels and combinations of nitrite and nitrate, were evaluated organoleptically. The flavor quality of wieners made with nitrite was judged significantly higher (P = 0.05) than of wieners made without nitrite. The nine samples were negative for 14 volatile nitrosamines at a sensitivity level of 10 ng/g. The results indicated that nitrite effectively inhibited botulinal toxin formation at commercially employed levels in wieners and that detectable quantities of nitrosamines were not produced during preparation and processing of the product for consumption. PMID:4580194

  14. Acute toxicity and sublethal effects of ammonia and nitrite for juvenile cobia Rachycentron canadum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ricardo V. Rodrigues; Michael H. Schwarz; Brendan C. Delbos

    2007-01-01

    Nitrogenous compounds can be toxic to aquatic animals especially when they are reared at high stocking densities. Cobia (Rachycentron canadum) is a fast growing fish currently reared in cages, but with expanding production in intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to juvenile cobia. Juveniles (1.74±0.11 g

  15. REMOVAL OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE, AMMONIA AND NITRITE IONS FROM WATER SOLUTIONS USING MODIFIED ACTIVE CARBONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. LUPASCU; RAISA NASTAS; M. CIOBANU; TATIANA ARAPU; V. RUSU

    Modified active carbons were used for removal of hydrogen sulfide, ammonia and nitrite ions from water solutions. Obtained\\u000a results demonstrate that active carbon oxidized with H2O2 following impregnation with Co(II) possesses higher adsorption capacity for NH4\\u000a + compared with unimpregnated samples. It was established that active carbon obtained from nut shells has better oxidation\\u000a properties compared with active carbons obtained

  16. [Presence of nitrates and nitrites in baker's products and in certain other flour products].

    PubMed

    Nabrzyski, M; Gajewska, R; Ganowiak, Z

    1990-01-01

    The results of the study demonstrated that the content of nitrates and nitrites in various baker's products varied from 0.96 (in wheat rolls and baguettes) to 44.07 mg KO3/kg in pumpernickel bread. In wholemeal bread, village bread, tourist bread, rye brown bread and Graham bread the content of these compounds was from 1.46 to 27.10 mg KNO3/kg. The mean content of nitrites in these bread sorts was 1.76 mg NaNo2/kg, range 0.10-4.40 mg NaNo2/kg. In white wheat flours (Wroc?aw flour, cake flour and Pozna? flour) the content of nitrates ranged from 1.10 to 19.08 mg KNO3/kg, and in the dishes produced from them in household was from 0.50 to 16.33 mg KNO3/kg. The content of nitrites in these flours was in the range from 0.00 to 4.16 mg NaNo2/kg, and in the products prepared from them it was from 0.00 to 1.60 mg NaNO2/kg. Eleven types were tested also of popular biscuits, wafers, gingerbread and hard cakes in which the content of nitrates was from 3.66 to 17.72 mg/kg, and that of nitrites was from 0.00 to 8.80 mg NaNo2/kg. Considering the average consumption of these products per one person in the seashore region and the mean values of nitrates and nitrites it was calculated that they provided daily about 3.9 mg KNO3 and 0.4 NaNo2, that is about 1.8% of nitrates and 7.7% of nitrites consumed by adults in daily food ration. PMID:2267558

  17. Effect of potential Hanford ferrocyanide waste constituents on the reaction between ferrocyanide and nitrates/nitrites

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    During the 1950s, ferrocyanide- and nitrate-bearing wastes were produced at Hanford. A concern about continued safe storage and future treatment of these wastes has arisen because ferrocyanide and nitrate mixtures can explode when heated. Because of this concern, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed experimental studies to determine the conditions needed to continue storing the wastes safely. In this paper, we present the results of our studies on the effects of other potential ferrocyanide waste constituents on the explosivity of mixtures of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium nitrate and nitrite. In particular, this paper presents the results of investigations on the diluent effects of equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite, sodium nickel ferrocyanide, and sodium aluminate, and the catalyst or initiator effects of nickel sulfide.

  18. Phototransformation of resorcinol induced by excitation of nitrite and nitrate ions. I: Nitrite ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Machado; P. Boule

    1994-01-01

    The excitation of nitrite ions in the presence of resorcinol (I) leads to the formation of 4?nitrosoresorcinol (II) as the major photoproduct. The reaction is inhibited by formate ions, but this inhibition is much more efficient in degassed solution than in air?saturated medium. In the absence of formate ions, the transformation is not affected by the presence of oxygen. From

  19. Antimicrobial effect of acidified nitrite on gut pathogens: importance of dietary nitrate in host defense.

    PubMed Central

    Dykhuizen, R S; Frazer, R; Duncan, C; Smith, C C; Golden, M; Benjamin, N; Leifert, C

    1996-01-01

    Dietary intake of nitrate generates salivary nitrite, which is acidified in the stomach, leading to a number of reactive intermediates of nitrogen, among which are the potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. Acidified nitrite, however, also has antimicrobial activity which coincides with the formation of nitric oxide. The present study examines the antimicrobial effect in vitro of acidified nitrite on Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella sonnei, and Escherichia coli O157. First-order regression plots showed a linear inverse relationship of log-transformed proton and nitrite concentrations with MICs and MBCs after 30 min, 2 h, and 24 h of exposure (P < 0.001 for all antibacterial activities). Susceptibility to the acidified nitrate solutions ranked as follows: Y. enterocolitica > S. enteritidis > S. typhimurium = Shigella sonnei > E. coli O157 (P < 0.05). Addition of SCN-, but not that of CI-, increased the antibacterial activity (paired t testing, P < 0.001). Generation of salivary nitrite from dietary nitrate may provide significant protection against gut pathogens in humans. PMID:8726013

  20. Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Bronchoalveolar Lavage Nitrite\\/Nitrate in Active Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEARBHAILE M. O'DONNELL; JOHN MOYNIHAN; GERALDINE A. FINLAY; VERA M. KEATINGS; CLARE M. O'CONNOR; PAUL M C LOUGHLIN; MUIRIS X. FITZGERALD

    1997-01-01

    Increased exhaled nitric oxide (NO) may reflect respiratory tract inflammation in untreated asthmat- ics. We compared exhaled NO and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) nitrate\\/nitrite (NO 3 2 \\/NO 2 2 ) in 10 patients who had untreated, active pulmonary sarcoidosis with those of normal control subjects. Ex- haled NO concentrations, determined by chemiluminescence, were similar in patients and control subjects (peak

  1. Some microbiological, chemical analysis and nitrate nitrite levels of drinking and well water samples in Afyonkarahisar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Belgin SIRIKEN; Hidayet YAVUZ

    Summary: A total of 100 tap and 100 well water samples were collected from six municipalities and the city center in Afyonkarahisar region from January 2003 to December 2003 and analyzed for some microbiological, chemical parameters and nitrate nitrite levels. While total (TCC) and fecal (thermotolerant) coliforms (FCC), Escherichia coli isolation procedure were determined using multiple-tube fermentation technique, sulphide reducing

  2. Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste by reverse-polarity capillary zone electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asopuru A Okemgbo; Herbert H Hill; Steven G Metcalf; Michael A Bachelor

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the first application of reverse-polarity capillary zone electrophoresis for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using synthetic Hanford waste, followed by the analysis of four real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate electrolyte at

  3. Measurement of Nitrate and Nitrite in Extracellular Fluids: A Window to Systemic Nitric Oxide Metabolism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew B. Grisham; Glenda G. Johnson; Michael D. Gautreaux; Rodney D. Berg

    1995-01-01

    There is a growing body of both clinical and experimental data that demonstrates that activation of the immune system, whether locally or systemically, is associated with an increased production of nitric oxide (NO) as measured by increases in plasma and\\/or urinary levels of nitrate (NO?3) and nitrite (NO?2). Because NO may mediate some of the tissue injury and dysfunction observed

  4. Electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites in alkaline media in the presence of hexavalent chromium

    E-print Network

    Weidner, John W.

    chromium H. A. DUARTE, K. JHA, J. W. WEIDNER* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South in the presence of hexavalent chromate. Even at chromate concentrations as low as 9 mg dmA3 , the chromium eects of the chromium hydroxide ®lm, enabling the electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites

  5. Total Sputum Nitrate plus Nitrite Is Raised during Acute Pulmonary Infection in Cystic Fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SEAMUS J. LINNANE; VERA M. KEATINGS; CHRISTINE M. COSTELLO; JOHN B. MOYNIHAN; CLARE M. O'CONNOR; MUIRIS X. FITZGERALD; PAUL M C LOUGHLIN

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) can be detected in exhaled gas in human subjects. It is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is rapidly metabolized to nitrite and nitrate (NO 2 \\/NO 3 ). Exhaled NO is reported to be elevated in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis, or upper respiratory tract infection. Recent re- ports have shown no increase of exhaled NO

  6. Nitrate and nitrite ingestion and risk of ovarian cancer among postmenopausal women in Iowa.

    PubMed

    Inoue-Choi, Maki; Jones, Rena R; Anderson, Kristin E; Cantor, Kenneth P; Cerhan, James R; Krasner, Stuart; Robien, Kim; Weyer, Peter J; Ward, Mary H

    2014-11-27

    Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds (NOC), potential human carcinogens. We evaluated the association of nitrate and nitrite ingestion with postmenopausal ovarian cancer risk in the Iowa Women's Health Study. Among 28,555 postmenopausal women, we identified 315 incident epithelial ovarian cancers from 1986 to 2010. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intakes were assessed at baseline using food frequency questionnaire data. Drinking water source at home was obtained in a 1989 follow-up survey. Nitrate-nitrogen (NO3 -N) and total trihalomethane (TTHM) levels for Iowa public water utilities were linked to residences and average levels were computed based on each woman's duration at the residence. We computed multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Cox proportional hazards regression. We tested interactions of nitrate with TTHMs and dietary factors known to influence NOC formation. Ovarian cancer risk was 2.03 times higher (CI?=?1.22-3.38, ptrend ?=?0.003) in the highest quartile (?2.98 mg/L) compared with the lowest quartile (?0.47 mg/L; reference) of NO3 -N in public water, regardless of TTHM levels. Risk among private well users was also elevated (HR?=?1.53, CI?=?0.93-2.54) compared with the same reference group. Associations were stronger when vitamin C intake was nitrate was inversely associated with ovarian cancer risk (ptrend ?=?0.02); whereas, dietary nitrite from processed meats was positively associated with the risk (ptrend ?=?0.04). Our findings indicate that high nitrate levels in public drinking water and private well use may increase ovarian cancer risk among postmenopausal women. PMID:25430487

  7. [The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs].

    PubMed

    Nabrzyski, M; Gajewska, R

    1994-01-01

    There are presented the results of the investigation of many popular fresh and frozen vegetables as well as in fresh and frozen fruits, such as different kind of apples, strawberries, currants, raspberries and many other tender fruits mainly from market and few from own allotment-cottages performed in the year 1989-1992. The nitrate and nitrite was determined according to the Griess reaction. High levels of nitrate was encountered in lettuce, frozen spinach, fennel, radishes, parsley. Many of this samples contained more than 1000 mg of KNO3/kg of fresh product, but the highest level, over the 3500 mg/kg was found in lettuce. The remaining vegetables like carrots, celery, leeks and frozen French bean contained from several dozen to more than 800 mg KNO3/kg. The level of nitrite in all samples of the investigated vegetables and fruits was very low from zero to decimal part of milligram per kg. Very low level of nitrate was found in 7 species of investigated apples (from 1.3 to 9.7 mg KNO3/kg). A little higher level of this compound was ascertained in currants, gooseberries, raspberries, cherries (from 0.0 to 36.0 mg KNO3/kg product). The highest levels of nitrate occurred in samples of strawberries (maximum to 322.3 mg KNO3/kg) but mean level amounted 58.7 mg KNO3/kg. The encountered levels of nitrate in frozen vegetables and fruits as well as in jams and stewed fruits was only little less than in fresh products. Very high level (from 355.30 to 584.53 mg KNO3/kg) was ascertained in the fruit-vegetable juice named "Rinberen" and "Malberen" to which red beet extract was used for their production. It should be pointed out that when the containers of these juice was opened and stored at the room temperature (+20 degrees C) during 30 days, no changes was observed in the level of nitrate and nitrite. In the juice prepared from blanched carrot, the rate of the reduction of nitrate to nitrite has not been lowered, when this product was storage of this juice at room temperature, the mean level of nitrite increased significantly (from 0.14 to 82.89 mg NaNO2/kg) and the level of nitrate lowered from 261.0 to 46.4 mg KNO3/kg. It should be strongly recommended for consumption the juices from carrot only fresh prepared. There are also presented the results of investigation of nitrate in fermented cheeses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7777773

  8. Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach and Esophagus and Drinking Water and Dietary Sources of Nitrate and Nitrite

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Mary H.; Heineman, Ellen F.; Markin, Rodney S.; Weisenburger, Dennis D.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a population-based case-control study of adenocarcinoma of the stomach and esophagus in Nebraska, U.S.A. Nitrate concentrations in public drinking water supplies were linked to residential water source histories. Among those using private wells at the time of the interview, we measured nitrate levels in water samples from wells. Dietary nitrate and nitrite were estimated from a food-frequency questionnaire. Among those who primarily used public water supplies (79 distal stomach, 84 esophagus, 321 controls), average nitrate levels were not associated with risk (highest versus lowest quartile: stomach OR=1.2, 95% CI [0.5–2.7]; esophagus OR=1.3, 95% CI [0.6–3.1]). We observed the highest ORs for distal stomach cancer among those with higher water nitrate ingestion and higher intake of processed meat compared with low intakes of both; however, the test for positive interaction was not significant (p=0.213). We did not observe this pattern for esophagus cancer. Increasing intake of nitrate and nitrite from animal sources was associated with elevated ORs for stomach cancer and with a significant positive trend in risk of esophagus cancer (P-trend=0.325 and 0.015, respectively). Larger studies with higher exposures to drinking water sources of nitrate are warranted to further evaluate N-nitroso compound precursors as risk factors for these cancers. PMID:18686719

  9. Comparison of endogenous metabolism during long-term anaerobic starvation of nitrite/nitrate cultivated denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Wang, Hong; Ye, Liu; Qin, Jian; Lin, Ximao

    2015-01-01

    Denitrifying phosphorus removal (DPR) by denitrifying phosphorus-accumulating organisms (DPAOs) is a promising approach for reducing energy and carbon usage. However, influent fluctuations or interruptions frequently expose the DPAOs biomass to starvation conditions, reducing biomass activity and amount, and ultimately degrading the performance of DPR. Therefore, a better understanding of the endogenous metabolism and recovery ability of DPAOs is urgently required. In the present study, anaerobic starvation (12 days) and recovery were investigated in nitrite- and nitrate-cultivated DPAOs at 20 ± 1 °C. The cell decay rates in nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were 0.008 day?ą and 0.007 day?ą, respectively, being 64% and 68% lower than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Nitrite-DPAOs sludges also recovered more rapidly than nitrate-DPAOs sludge after 12 days of starvation. The maintenance energy of nitrite-DPAOs sludges from the end of the anaerobic and aerobic phase were approximately 31% and 34% lower, respectively, than those of nitrate-DPAOs sludges. Glycogen and polyphosphate (poly-P) sequentially served as the main maintenance energy sources in both nitrite-and nitrate-DPAOs sludges. However, the transformation pathway of the intracellular polymers during starvation differed between them. Nitrate-DPAOs sludge used extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) (mainly polysaccharides) as an additional maintenance energy source during the first 3 days of starvation. During this phase, EPS appeared to contribute to 19-27% of the ATP production in nitrate-DPAOs, but considerably less to the cell maintenance of nitrite-DPAOs. The high resistance of nitrite-DPAOs to starvation might be attributable to frequent short-term starvation and exposure to toxic substances such as nitrite/free nitrous acids in the parent nitrite-fed reactor. The strong resistance of nitrite-DPAOs sludge to anaerobic starvation may be exploited in P removal by shortcut denitrification processes. PMID:25462744

  10. The effects of nitrate, nitrite, and N-nitroso compounds on animal health.

    PubMed

    Bruning-Fann, C S; Kaneene, J B

    1993-06-01

    The clinical signs of acute nitrate toxicity vary according to species. In general, ruminant animals develop methemoglobinemia while monogastric animals exhibit severe gastritis. Nitrate ingestion has also been linked to impairment of thyroid function, decreased feed consumption, and interference with vitamin A and E metabolism. Hematologic changes seen with chronic high nitrate exposure include both compensatory increases in red blood cells and anemia, along with increased neutrophils and eosinophils. Unlike nitrate, nitrite is capable of inducing methemoglobinemia in a wide range of species, ie cattle, sheep, swine, dogs, guinea pigs, rats, chickens and turkeys. In rats, chronic nitrite exposure causes pathologic changes in a variety of tissues, alterations in motor activity and brain electrical activity, and alters gastric mucosal absorption. Nitrite affects the metabolism of sulfonamide drugs in animals such as the pig, guinea pig, and rat. The N-nitroso compound dimethylnitrosamine causes toxic hepatosis in cattle, sheep, mink, and fox. Nitrosamines have been reported in cows milk and been found to pass into the milk of goats under experimental conditions. PMID:8351799

  11. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities.

    PubMed

    Gřtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knřchel, Susanne; Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise H; Mřller, Jens K S

    2008-04-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour was followed by L(?)a(?)b measurements and the content of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbFe(II)NO) quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR). MbFe(II)NO was rapidly formed in sausages with added nitrite independent of the presence of nitrite reducing bacteria, whereas the rate of MbFe(II)NO formation in sausages with added nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFe(II)NO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial for ensuring optimal colour formation during initial fermentation stages. PMID:22062470

  12. Nitrogen cycling in oxygen deficient zones : insights from [delta]ą?N and [delta]ą?O of nitrite and nitrate

    E-print Network

    Buchwald, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    The stable isotopes, [delta]ą?N and [delta]ą?O, of nitrite and nitrate can be powerful tools used to interpret nitrogen cycling in the ocean. They are particularly useful in regions of the ocean where there are multiple ...

  13. Nitrite survival and nitrous oxide production of denitrifying phosphorus removal sludges in long-term nitrite/nitrate-fed sequencing batch reactors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yayi; Zhou, Shuai; Ye, Liu; Wang, Hong; Stephenson, Tom; Jiang, Xuxin

    2014-12-15

    Nitrite-based phosphorus (P) removal could be useful for innovative biological P removal systems where energy and carbon savings are a priority. However, using nitrite for denitrification may cause nitrous oxide (N2O) accumulation and emissions. A denitrifying nitrite-fed P removal system [Formula: see text] was successfully set up in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and was run for 210 days. The maximum pulse addition of nitrite to [Formula: see text] was 11 mg NO2(-)-N/L in the bulk, and a total of 34 mg NO2(-)-N/L of nitrite was added over three additions. Fluorescent in situ hybridization results indicated that the P-accumulating organisms (PAOs) abundance was 75 ± 1.1% in [Formula: see text] , approximately 13.6% higher than that in a parallel P removal SBR using nitrate [Formula: see text] . Type II Accumulibacter (PAOII) (unable to use nitrate as an electron acceptor) was the main PAOs species in [Formula: see text] , contributing 72% to total PAOs. Compared with [Formula: see text] , [Formula: see text] biomass had enhanced nitrite/free nitrous acid (FNA) endurance, as demonstrated by its higher nitrite denitrification and P uptake rates. N2O accumulated temporarily in [Formula: see text] after each pulse of nitrite. Peak N2O concentrations in the bulk for [Formula: see text] were generally 6-11 times higher than that in [Formula: see text] ; these accumulations were rapidly denitrified to nitrogen gases. N2O concentration increased rapidly in nitrate-cultivated biomass when 5 or 10 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Whereas, N2O accumulation did not occur in nitrite-cultivated biomass until up to 30 mg NO2(-)-N/L per pulse was added. Long-term acclimation to nitrite and pulse addition of nitrite in [Formula: see text] reduced the risk of nitrite accumulation, and mitigated N2O accumulation and emissions from denitrifying P removal by nitrite. PMID:25261626

  14. Role of light in the synthesis of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase in rice seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Sawhney, S. K.; Naik, M. S.

    1972-01-01

    1. In rice seedlings synthesis of methyl viologen–nitrite reductase was stimulated by light, as was that of NADH–nitrate oxidoreductase (EC 1.6.6.1). A small residual effect of light on the synthesis of the enzymes persisted in the dark for a short time. 2. In etiolated seedlings exposed to light and nitrate, a lag period of 3h was necessary before enzyme synthesis commenced, whereas in green seedlings kept in the dark for 36h, synthesis of both the enzymes started as soon as light and nitrate were provided. 3. Experiments with cycloheximide suggested that fresh protein synthesis in light was necessary for formation of active enzymes. Mere activation by light of inactive enzymes or their precursors, was not involved. 4. In green seedlings synthesis of nitrite reductase was more sensitive to chloramphenicol than that of nitrate reductase. In chloramphenicol-treated etiolated seedlings, however, synthesis of both the enzymes was inhibited to the same extent on subsequent light-treatment. 5. A close correlation was observed between inhibition of the Hill reaction by 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea and simazin [2-chloro-4,6-bis(ethylamino)-s-triazine] (at high concentration) and the inhibition of enzyme synthesis. At lower concentrations, however, simazin stimulated nitrate reductase. 6. In a single leaf synthesis of enzymes was observed only in portions exposed to light, whereas little activity was present in the dark covered part. 7. CO2 deprivation severely inhibited the synthesis of enzymes in the light. Sucrose could not reverse this effect. 8. In excised embryos cultured in synthetic media containing sucrose, light was also essential for enzyme formation. 9. It is suggested that redox changes taking place in the green tissues as a result of the Hill reaction create conditions favourable for the induced synthesis of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase. PMID:4664575

  15. Controlling nitrite level in drinking water by chlorination and chloramination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hongwei Yang; Hefa Cheng

    2007-01-01

    Nitrite in drinking water is a significant health concern. Oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in drinking water chlorination and chloramination was studied by jar tests. Results indicate that chlorination could cause oxidation of nitrite but not ammonia under the typical drinking water treatment conditions (i.e., >0.3mgCl2\\/L residual chlorine and near neutral pH). In chloramination, nitrite oxidation increased with the decreases

  16. The nitrate–nitrite–nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jon O. Lundberg; Eddie Weitzberg; Mark T. Gladwin

    2008-01-01

    The inorganic anions nitrate (NO3?) and nitrite (NO2?) were previously thought to be inert end products of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. However, recent studies show that these supposedly inert anions can be recycled in vivo to form NO, representing an important alternative source of NO to the classical l-arginine–NO-synthase pathway, in particular in hypoxic states. This Review discusses the

  17. Raised serum nitrate and nitrite levels in patients with multiple sclerosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Giovannoni; S. J. R Heales; N. C Silver; J O'Riordan; R. F Miller; J. M Land; J. B Clark; E. J Thompson

    1997-01-01

    Nitric oxide and its highly reactive derivative peroxynitrite have been implicated as non-specific inflammatory mediators of neuronal and oligodendrocyte damage and death in multiple sclerosis. In a cross-sectional study we found levels of the nitric oxide metabolites nitrate and nitrite to be raised in the serum of patients with demyelinating disease (65.6 ?M (SD 32.9)), acquired immune deficiency syndrome (57.9

  18. Carcinogenicity studies of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate in F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Maekawa, A; Ogiu, T; Onodera, H; Furuta, K; Matsuoka, C; Ohno, Y; Odashima, S

    1982-02-01

    The carcinogenicity of sodium and of sodium nitrate was examined in F-344 rats. Sodium nitrite was administered in the drinking-water for 2 yr at levels of 0.125 or 0.25%. Sodium nitrate was given in the diet at levels 2.5 or 5%. A variety of tumours occurred in all groups including the controls. The only significant difference between treated and control groups in the total number of tumours detected in either of the studies was a significant decrease in tumour incidence in the high-dose females given nitrite compared with controls. There was no positive dose-response relationship either in the incidence or in the induction time of tumours in either of the studies. The only significant result was a reduction in the incidence of mononuclear cell leukaemias in the experimental groups in both studies. It is concluded that sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate did not exert a carcinogenic effect that could be detected under the conditions of this study in which the animals showed a high incidence of spontaneous tumours. PMID:7200054

  19. Dynamics of corrosion rates associated with nitrite or nitrate mediated control of souring under biological conditions simulating an oil reservoir

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. L. Rempel; R. W. Evitts; M. Nemati

    2006-01-01

    Representative microbial cultures from an oil reservoir and electrochemical techniques including potentiodynamic scan and linear polarization were used to investigate the time dependent corrosion rate associated with control of biogenic sulphide production through addition of nitrite, nitrate and a combination of nitrate-reducing, sulphide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and nitrate. The addition of nitrate alone did not prevent the biogenic production of sulphide

  20. Inhibition of nitrate uptake by ammonia in a blue-green alga, Anabaena cylindrica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Masayuki Ohmori; Kazuko Ohmori; Heinrich Strotmann

    1977-01-01

    Ammonia at concentrations above 1×10-5 M inhibits uptake of nitrate in the nitrogen-fixing blue-green alga, Anabaena cylindrica. This inhibition takes place both in the light and in the dark. The rate of nitrate uptake is stimulated by light. Addition of relatively high concentrations of nitrate (1–10 mM) reversibly inhibits ammonia uptake. FCCP, an uncoupler of phosphorylation, inhibits both nitrate and

  1. Plasma nitrate/nitrite removal by peritoneal dialysis might predispose infants with low blood pressure to cerebral ischaemia.

    PubMed

    Carlström, Mattias; Wide, Katarina; Lundvall, Mikael; Cananau, Carmen; Svensson, Anders; Lundberg, Jon O; Bárány, Peter; Krmar, Rafael T

    2015-04-01

    The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of neurological complications in infants undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) are poorly understood. We report on four male infants treated with PD who developed symptomatic cerebral ischaemia. Blood pressure (BP) levels were low both before the event and at presentation. In two patients, we observed that the removal of nitrate and nitrite by PD could have impaired the nitrate/nitrite--nitrite oxide (NO) pathway, a system that generates NO independently of NO synthase. Our observation suggests that low BP and reduced NO bioavailability puts infants treated with PD at risk for impaired cerebral blood flow and consequently for brain ischaemia. PMID:25815180

  2. Plasma nitrate/nitrite removal by peritoneal dialysis might predispose infants with low blood pressure to cerebral ischaemia

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Mattias; Wide, Katarina; Lundvall, Mikael; Cananau, Carmen; Svensson, Anders; Lundberg, Jon O.; Bárány, Peter; Krmar, Rafael T.

    2015-01-01

    The underlying pathogenic mechanisms of neurological complications in infants undergoing peritoneal dialysis (PD) are poorly understood. We report on four male infants treated with PD who developed symptomatic cerebral ischaemia. Blood pressure (BP) levels were low both before the event and at presentation. In two patients, we observed that the removal of nitrate and nitrite by PD could have impaired the nitrate/nitrite–-nitrite oxide (NO) pathway, a system that generates NO independently of NO synthase. Our observation suggests that low BP and reduced NO bioavailability puts infants treated with PD at risk for impaired cerebral blood flow and consequently for brain ischaemia.

  3. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate inhibition of SRB that was independent of hNRB or NR-SOB. Examination of corrosion coupons following bioreactor experiments revealed that nitrite inhibition was the only mechanism that prevented both souring and corrosion. Sulfide elimination by hNRB or NR-SOB resulted in increased pitting corrosion in the region of greatest microbial activity. These findings are instructive for designing souring control treatments and improve understanding of oil field microbial communities.

  4. Investigating quality attributes and consumer acceptance of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added commercial hams, bacons, and frankfurters.

    PubMed

    Sindelar, J J; Cordray, J C; Olson, D G; Sebranek, J G; Love, J A

    2007-10-01

    Increasing demands for natural, organic, and/or preservative-free foods have resulted in the consumer availability of uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added processed meat and poultry products. A comprehensive understanding about the quality and sensory attributes of commercially available uncured products is unclear. The objective of this study was to determine if quality and sensory differences exist between uncured and cured meat products. Five different commercial brands (Brands A to E; 4 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added, and 1 nitrite-added) of 3 product types (hams, frankfurters, and bacons) were obtained from retail supermarkets. The samples were evaluated for color, pigment content, pH, lipid oxidation, residual nitrate and nitrite content, and consumer acceptance. All brands from all product types evaluated, except for 1 bacon (Brand B), had cured color, aroma, and flavor attributes similar to the nitrite-added control (Brand E). All product types and brands contained residual nitrate and residual nitrite except for Brands B and D bacons (< 1 ppm nitrite). Lipid oxidation as measured by 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances revealed a large variation in the occurrence of lipid oxidation both between and within product types, with frankfurters reporting the highest levels. Color measurements indicated the majority of the brands within each product type were similar to the control. Consumer sensory ratings for surface/lean color, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall acceptance determined that variation existed. Brand E (nitrite-added control) and 1 uncured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added brand for each product type were not different (P > 0.05) for overall acceptance and received higher scores (P < 0.05) than all other brands within each product type. PMID:17995620

  5. Potential and limitations of ozone for the removal of ammonia, nitrite, and yellow substances in marine recirculating aquaculture systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. P. Schroeder; P. L. Croot; B. Von Dewitz; U. Waller; R. Hanel

    2011-01-01

    The high levels of water-reuse in intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) require an effective water treatment in order to maintain good water quality. In order to reveal the potential and limitations of ozonation for water quality improvement in marine RAS, we tested ozone's ability to remove nitrite, ammonia, yellow substances and total bacterial biomass in seawater, considering aspects such as

  6. TOLERANCE OF JUVENILE BLACK SEA BASS CENTROPRISTIS STRIATA TO ACUTE AMMONIA AND NITRITE EXPOSURE AT VARIOUS SALINITIES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Experiments were conducted to determine the acute tolerance of juvenile (mean weight ± SE, 9.9 ± 0.9 g) black sea bass (Centropristis striata) to environmental un-ionized ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) and nitrite-nitrogen (NO2-N) exposure at various salinities. Specifically, median lethal concentrations...

  7. Autocatalytic Nitration of Prostaglandin Endoperoxide Synthase-2 by Nitrite Inhibits Prostanoid Formation in Rat Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Karreman, Christiaan; Daiber, Andreas; Zhao, Cheng; Hamacher, Jürg; Perlman, David; Jung, Birgit; van der Loo, Bernd; O'Connor, Peter; Leist, Marcel; Ullrich, Volker; Bachschmid, Markus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 synthase (PGHS) is a well-known target for peroxynitrite-mediated nitration. In several experimental macrophage models, however, the relatively late onset of nitration failed to coincide with the early peak of endogenous peroxynitrite formation. In the present work, we aimed to identify an alternative, peroxynitrite-independent mechanism, responsible for the observed nitration and inactivation of PGHS-2 in an inflammatory cell model. Results: In primary rat alveolar macrophages stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), PGHS-2 activity was suppressed after 12?h, although the prostaglandin endoperoxide H2 synthase (PGHS-2) protein was still present. This coincided with a nitration of the enzyme. Coincubation with a nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) inhibitor preserved PGHS-2 nitration and at the same time restored thromboxane A2 (TxA2) synthesis in the cells. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was maximal at 4?h and then returned to baseline levels. Nitrite (NO2?) production occurred later than ROS generation. This rendered generation of peroxynitrite and the nitration of PGHS-2 unlikely. We found that the nitrating agent was formed from NO2?, independent from superoxide (•O2?). Purified PGHS-2 treated with NO2? was selectively nitrated on the active site Tyr371, as identified by mass spectrometry (MS). Exposure to peroxynitrite resulted in the nitration not only of Tyr371, but also of other tyrosines (Tyr). Innovation and Conclusion: The data presented here point to an autocatalytic nitration of PGHS-2 by NO2?, catalyzed by the enzyme's endogenous peroxidase activity and indicate a potential involvement of this mechanism in the termination of prostanoid formation under inflammatory conditions. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 1393–1406. PMID:22578329

  8. Spatial distribution of nitrate and nitrite anions at the liquid/vapor interface of aqueous solutions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Matthew A; Winter, Bernd; Faubel, Manfred; Hemminger, John C

    2009-06-24

    Depth-resolved ion spatial distributions of nitrate and nitrite anions in aqueous solution have been quantitatively measured using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy on a 15 microm aqueous liquid jet containing 3 M NaNO(3), 3 M NaNO(2), or an equimolar mixture of the two. The surface region, which extends to photoelectron kinetic energies of 400-500 eV, is partially depleted in anions relative to the bulk 3 M concentration. The nitrate and nitrite solutions exhibit similar depth-dependent anion profiles. The results presented here are compared with recent molecular dynamics simulations of a NaNO(3) solution and are found to agree at high photoelectron kinetic energies. At shallower probe depths, the experiment measured a surface anion concentration less than that predicted by theory. Possible origins of the discrepancy are discussed in terms of the confined size of the simulation box and uncertainties that remain in regard to the inelastic mean free path of photoelectrons in aqueous media. The importance of our findings is discussed in relation to the observed increase in photochemical activity of nitrate-containing aerosols in the atmosphere. PMID:19530722

  9. The napF and narG Nitrate Reductase Operons in Escherichia coli Are Differentially Expressed in Response to Submicromolar Concentrations of Nitrate but Not Nitrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENIAN WANG; CHING-PING TSENG; ROBERT P. GUNSALUS

    1999-01-01

    Escherichia coli synthesizes two biochemically distinct nitrate reductase enzymes, a membrane-bound enzyme encoded by the narGHJI operon and a periplasmic cytochrome c-linked nitrate reductase encoded by the napFDAGHBC operon. To address why the cell makes these two enzymes, continuous cell culture techniques were used to examine napF and narG gene expression in response to different concentrations of nitrate and\\/or nitrite.

  10. Health Implications of Nitrate and Nitrite in Drinking Water: An Update on Methemoglobinemia Occurrence and Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anna M. Fan; Valerie E. Steinberg

    1996-01-01

    In 1987, an evaluation of the nitrate drinking water standard was performed with a primary focus on the effects of nitrate on methemoglobinemia and reproductive\\/developmental effects (Fanet al.(1987).Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.7, 135–148). The present review presents an updated overview and evaluation of the available information on the same health effects of nitrate and nitrite with an emphasis on data not included

  11. Oxygen isotopic exchange and fractionation during bacterial ammonia oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Casciotti; Matthew McIlvin; Carolyn Buchwaldb

    2010-01-01

    We examined the oxygen isotopic systematics for ammonia oxidation, the first step in the regeneration of nitrate from ammonium. In particular, oxygen isotopic fractionation and exchange with water were evaluated for their roles in determining the d18O of nitrite produced by four species of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). Microbially catalyzed oxygen isotopic exchange between nitrite and water was less than 25%

  12. Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate?nitrite?nitric oxide pathway

    PubMed Central

    Lidder, Satnam; Webb, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery that dietary (inorganic) nitrate has important vascular effects came from the relatively recent realization of the ‘nitrate?nitrite?nitric oxide (NO) pathway’. Dietary nitrate has been demonstrated to have a range of beneficial vascular effects, including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation, preserving or improving endothelial dysfunction, enhancing exercise performance in healthy individuals and patients with peripheral arterial disease. Pre?clinical studies with nitrate or nitrite also show the potential to protect against ischaemia?reperfusion injury and reduce arterial stiffness, inflammation and intimal thickness. However, there is a need for good evidence for hard endpoints beyond epidemiological studies. Whilst these suggest reduction in cardiovascular risk with diets high in nitrate?rich vegetables (such as a Mediterranean diet), others have suggested possible small positive and negative associations with dietary nitrate and cancer, but these remain unproven. Interactions with other nutrients, such as vitamin C, polyphenols and fatty acids may enhance or inhibit these effects. In order to provide simple guidance on nitrate intake from different vegetables, we have developed the Nitrate ‘Veg?Table’ with ‘Nitrate Units’ [each unit being 1?mmol of nitrate (62?mg)] to achieve a nitrate intake that is likely to be sufficient to derive benefit, but also to minimize the risk of potential side effects from excessive ingestion, given the current available evidence. The lack of data concerning the long term effects of dietary nitrate is a limitation, and this will need to be addressed in future trials. PMID:22882425

  13. Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J. Stuehr; M. A. Marletta

    1985-01-01

    Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H\\/He and LPS-resistant C3H\\/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 ..mu..g of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H\\/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H\\/HeJ strain with LPS

  14. Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in Early and Recent Classes of Fish

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

    2008-01-01

    The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

  15. [Changes in the levels of nitrates and nitrites in vegetables and vegetable products and vitamin C in white sauerkraut].

    PubMed

    Nabrzyski, M; Gajewska, R; Bossy, G

    1989-01-01

    The authors demonstrated that during souring nitrates disappear from the white sauerkraut as a mean rate of 42% after 7 days and 23% after 30 days (souring in spring 1987) and by 29% and 77% of the initial level after 7, 30 and 90 days (souring in winter-spring period 1988). After 7 days the level of l-ascorbic acid rose from a mean value of 52 mg/kg to 300 mg/kg, and after 90 days this level fell to one-half of the initial value. No significant changes were noted in the content of nitrites. A decrease of nitrates and increase of nitrite content was found in freshly obtained carrot juice (with a juice extractor). The effect of time and temperature of juice storage on the concent of nitrates and nitrites was studied. PMID:2634298

  16. Nitrite-Responsive Activation of the Nitrate Assimilation Operon in Cyanobacteria Plays an Essential Role in Up-Regulation of Nitrate Assimilation Activities under Nitrate-Limited Growth Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Aichi, Makiko; Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Omata, Tatsuo

    2004-01-01

    NtcB of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942 is a LysR family protein that enhances expression of the nitrate assimilation operon (nirA operon) in response to the presence of nitrite, an intermediate of assimilatory nitrate reduction. Inactivation of ntcB in this cyanobacterium specifically abolishes the nitrite responsiveness of nirA operon expression, but under nitrate-replete conditions (wherein negative feedback by intracellularly generated ammonium prevails over the positive effect of nitrite) activity levels of the nitrate assimilation enzymes are marginally higher in the wild-type cells than in the mutant cells, raising the issue of whether the nitrite-promoted regulation has physiological importance. On the other hand, the strains carrying ntcB expressed much higher nitrate assimilation enzyme activities under nitrate-limited growth conditions than under nitrate-replete conditions whereas the ntcB-deficient strains showed levels of the enzyme activities lower than those seen under the nitrate-replete conditions. Although the ntcB mutant maintained a constant cell population in a nitrate-limited chemostat when grown as a single culture, it was diluted at a rate expected for nondividing cells when mixed with the wild-type cells and subjected to nitrate limitation in the chemostat culture system. These results demonstrated that the nitrite-promoted activation of the nitrate assimilation operon is essential for up-regulation of the nitrate assimilation activities under the conditions of nitrate limitation and for competitive utilization of nitrate. PMID:15126485

  17. Evaluation of total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite levels in layer feed samples of companies producing their own feed in Edincik and Band?rma province of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nurcan De?irmencio?lu; Hüseyin Eseceli; Ergün Demir; Songül ?entürklü

    2012-01-01

    Feed contamination by fungi can lead to nutrient losses and detrimental effects on animal health and production. The presence of nitrates and nitrites in food can be harmful to both people and animals. The aim of this study was to determine total aflatoxin, nitrate and nitrite levels in layer feed samples from companies producing their own feed in Edincik and

  18. Achieving nitritation at low temperatures using free ammonia inhibition on Nitrobacter and real-time control in an SBR treating landfill leachate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongwei; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Ma, Juan

    2015-04-01

    Free ammonia (FA) inhibition on nitrite-oxidized bacteria (NOB) and real-time control are used to achieve nitrogen removal from landfill leachate via nitrite pathway at low temperatures in sequencing batch reactor. The inhibition of FA on NOB activity during the aerobic period was prolonged using real-time control. The degree of nitrite accumulation was monitored along with variations of the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and NOB population using fluorescence in situ hybridization techniques. It is demonstrated that the end-point of ammonia oxidization is detected from the on-line measured dissolved oxygen, oxidization-reduction potential, and pH signals, which could avoid the loss the FA inhibition on NOB caused by excess aeration. At low temperature (13.0-17.6°C), the level of nitrite pathway rapidly increased from 19.8% to 90%, suggesting that nitritation was successfully started up at low temperature by applying syntrophic association of the FA inhibition and real-time control, and then this high level of nitrite pathway was stably maintained for as long as 233days. Mechanism analysis shows that the establishment of nitritation was primarily the result of predominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria developed in the nitrifying bacteria population compared to NOB. This was mainly due to a gradual reduction of nitrite amount that is available to provide energy for the growth of NOB, eventually leading to the elimination of NOB from the bacterial clusters in sequencing batch reactor sludge system. PMID:25872722

  19. Ammonia- and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a Pilot-Scale Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Regan, John M.; Harrington, Gregory W.; Noguera, Daniel R.

    2002-01-01

    Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA [rDNA]) cloning and sequencing. For ammonia oxidizers, 16S rDNA-targeted T-RFLP indicated the presence of Nitrosomonas in each of the distribution systems, with a considerably smaller peak attributable to Nitrosospira-like AOB. Sequences of AOB amplification products aligned within the Nitrosomonas oligotropha cluster and were closely related to N. oligotropha and Nitrosomonas ureae. The nitrite-oxidizing communities were comprised primarily of Nitrospira, although Nitrobacter was detected in some samples. These results suggest a possible selection of AOB related to N. oligotropha and N. ureae in chloraminated systems and demonstrate the presence of NOB, indicating a biological mechanism for nitrite loss that contributes to a reduction in nitrite-associated chloramine decay. PMID:11772611

  20. Effect of Nitrite and Nitrate on Toxin Production by Clostridium botulinum and on Nitrosamine Formation in Perishable Canned Comminuted Cured Meat

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, L. N.; Johnston, R. W.; Kautter, D. A.; Howard, J. W.; Aunan, W. J.

    1973-01-01

    Comminuted ham was formulated with different levels of sodium nitrite and nitrate, inoculated with Clostridium botulinum, and pasteurized to an internal temperature of 68.5 C. When added to the meat, nitrite concentrations decreased, and cooking had little effect on them. Nitrite concentrations decreased more rapidly during storage at 27 than at 7 C; however they remained rather constant at formulated levels throughout the experiment at both incubation temperatures. The level of nitrite added to the meat greatly influenced growth and toxin production of C. botulinum. The concentration of nitrite necessary to effect complete inhibition was dependent on the inoculum level. With 90 C. botulinum spores/g of meat, botulinum toxin developed in samples formulated with 150 but not with 200 ?g of nitrite per g of meat. At a spore level of 5,000/g, toxin was detected in samples with 400 but not with 500 ?g of nitrite per g of the product incubated at 27 C. At lower concentrations of nitrite, growth was retarded at both spore levels. No toxin developed in samples incubated at 7 C. Nitrate showed a statistically significant inhibitory effect at a given nitrite level; however, the effect was insufficient to be of practical value. Analyses for 14 volatile nitrosamines from samples made with varying levels of nitrite and nitrate were negative at a detection level of 0.01 ?g of nitrite or nitrate per g of meat. PMID:4572891

  1. The location of dissimilatory nitrite reductase and the control of dissimilatory nitrate reductase by oxygen in Paracoccus denitrificans.

    PubMed Central

    Alefounder, P R; Ferguson, S J

    1980-01-01

    1. A method is described for preparing spheroplasts from Paracoccus denitrificans that are substantially depleted of dissimilatory nitrate reductase (cytochrome cd) activity. Treatment of cells with lysozyme + EDTA together with a mild osmotic shock, followed by centrifugation, yielded a pellet of spheroplasts and a supernatant that contained d-type cytochrome. The spheroplasts were judged to have retained an intact plasma membrane on the basis that less than 1% of the activity of a cytoplasmic marker protein, malate dehydrogenase, was released from the spheroplasts. In addition to a low activity towards added nitrite, the suspension of spheroplasts accumulated the nitrite that was produced by respiratory chain-linked reduction of nitrate. It is concluded that nitrate reduction occurs at the periplasmic side of the plasma membrane irrespective of whether nitrite is generated by nitrate reduction or is added exogenously. 2. Further evidence for the integrity of the spheroplasts was that nitrate reduction was inhibited by O2, and that chlorate was reduced at a markedly lower rate than nitrate. These data are taken as evidence for an intact plasma membrane because it was shown that cells acquire the capability to reduce nitrate under aerobic conditions after addition of low amounts of Triton X-100 which, with the same titre, also overcame the permeability barrier to chlorate reduction by intact cells. The close relationship between the appearance of chlorate reduction and the loss of the inhibitory effect of O2 on nitrate reduction also suggests that the later feature of nitrate respiration is due to a control on the accessibility of nitrate to its reductase rather than on the flow of electrons to nitrate reductase. PMID:7197918

  2. Health implications of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water: an update on methemoglobinemia occurrence and reproductive and developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Fan, A M; Steinberg, V E

    1996-02-01

    In 1987, an evaluation of the nitrate drinking water standard was performed with a primary focus on the effects of nitrate on methemoglobinemia and reproductive/developmental effects (Fan et al. (1987). Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol. 7, 135-148). The present review presents an updated overview and evaluation of the available information on the same health effects of nitrate and nitrite with an emphasis on data not included in the previous review, which should be used as a compendium to this report. Recent epidemiologic data have suggested an association between developmental effects in offspring and the maternal ingestion of nitrate from drinking water, but a definite conclusion on the cause and effect relationship cannot be drawn. Animal experimental data have shown reproductive toxicity associated with high exposure levels to nitrate or nitrite, which are not likely to be encountered in drinking water. No teratogenic effects were observed in rats, mice, rabbits, and hamsters tested. Several cases of methemoglobinemia have been reported in infants in the United States using water containing nitrate at levels higher than the current maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 45 ppm (mg/liter) nitrate (NO3) or 10 ppm nitrate-nitrogen (nitrate-N), but none at or lower than the MCL. The uncertainties in the data base are discussed, noting that no uncertainty factor was applied in deriving the MCL in order to account for the uncertainties that exist in the data base. PMID:8628918

  3. The Effect of Exogenous IAA and Kinetin on Nitrate Reductase, Nitrite Reductase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase Activities in Excised Pea Roots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Sahulka

    1972-01-01

    Nitrate reductase (NO3R) activity, nitrite reductase (NO2R) activity and NADH2 dependent glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) activity were followed in extracts from excised pea roots incubated under aseptic\\u000a conditions for 9 and 24 h in nitrate containing nutrient medium to which IAA was added in concentrations promoting lateral\\u000a root formation (1 × 10?5; 3 × 10?5; 5 × 10?5 M) and kinetin

  4. Study of Cobalt(III) Corrole as the Neutral Ionophore for Nitrite and Nitrate Detection via Polymeric Membrane Electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Si; Meyerhoff, Mark E.

    2014-01-01

    Cobalt(III) 5, 10, 15-tris(4-tert-butylphenyl) corrole was synthesized and incorporated into plasticized poly(vinyl chloride) membranes and studied as a neutral carrier ionophore via potentiometry. This cobalt(III) complex has binding affinity to nitrite, and the resulting membrane electrode yields reversible and Nernstian response toward nitrite. Enhanced nitrite selectivity is observed over other anions, including lipophilic anions such as thiocyanate and perchlorate when an appropriate amount of lipophilic cationic sites are added to the membrane phase. Detection limit to nitrite is ca. 5 µM. Using tributylphosphate as the plasticizer with the cobalt(III) corrole species yields electrodes with enhanced nitrate selectivity. PMID:25422577

  5. eNOS genotype is without effect on circulating nitrite\\/nitrate level in healthy male population

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrina Nagassaki; Ingrid F. Metzger; Debora C. Souza-Costa; Aline S. Marroni; Juliana A. Uzuelli; Jose E. Tanus-Santos

    2005-01-01

    IntroductionNitric oxide (NO) plays an important role in the regulation of the cardiovascular system. It is produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), which exhibits genetic polymorphisms. Although the clinically relevant polymorphism T+IhI-786C reduces eNOS-promoter activity, it is not clear whether circulating nitrite\\/nitrate (NOx) are affected by this polymorphism.

  6. Transcriptomic analysis of Staphylococcus xylosus in the presence of nitrate and nitrite in meat reveals its response to nitrosative stress

    PubMed Central

    Vermassen, Aurore; de la Foye, Anne; Loux, Valentin; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine

    2014-01-01

    Staphylococcus xylosus is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation because of its crucial role in the reduction of nitrate to nitrite which contributes to color and flavor development. Despite longstanding use of these additives, their impact on the physiology of S. xylosus has not yet been explored. We present the first in situ global gene expression profile of S. xylosus in meat supplemented with nitrate and nitrite at the levels used in the meat industry. More than 600 genes of S. xylosus were differentially expressed at 24 or 72 h of incubation. They represent more than 20% of the total genes and let us to suppose that addition of nitrate and nitrite to meat leads to a global change in gene expression. This profile revealed that S. xylosus is subject to nitrosative stress caused by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated from nitrate and nitrite. To overcome this stress, S. xylosus has developed several oxidative stress resistance mechanisms, such as modulation of the expression of several genes involved in iron homeostasis and in antioxidant defense. Most of which belong to the Fur and PerR regulons, respectively. S. xylosus has also counteracted this stress by developing DNA and protein repair. Furthermore, it has adapted its metabolic response—carbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy production and cell wall biogenesis—to the alterations produced by nitrosative stress. PMID:25566208

  7. Nitrate and Nitrite Control of Respiratory Nitrate Reduction in Denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri by a Two-Component Regulatory System Homologous to NarXL of Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Härtig, Elisabeth; Schiek, Ulrike; Vollack, Kai-Uwe; Zumft, Walter G.

    1999-01-01

    Bacterial denitrification is expressed in response to the concurrent exogenous signals of low-oxygen tension and nitrate or one of its reduction products. The mechanism by which nitrate-dependent gene activation is effected was investigated in the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 14405. We have identified and isolated from this organism the chromosomal region encoding the two-component sensor-regulator pair NarXL and found that it is linked with the narG operon for respiratory nitrate reductase. The same region encodes two putative nitrate or nitrite translocases, NarK and NarC (the latter shows the highest similarity to yeast [Pichia] and plant [Nicotiana] nitrate transporters), and the nitrate-regulated transcription factor, DnrE, of the FNR family. The roles of NarX and NarL in nitrate respiration were studied with deletion mutants. NarL activated the transcription of narG, narK, and dnrE but did not affect the denitrification regulons for the respiratory substrates nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide. The promoters of narG, narK, and dnrE carry sequence motifs, TACYYMT, which correspond to the NarL recognition sequence established for Escherichia coli. The cellular response toward nitrate and nitrite was mediated by the sensor protein NarX, which discriminated weakly between these oxyanions. Our data show that the NarXL two-component regulatory system has been incorporated into the bacterial denitrification process of P. stutzeri for selective regulation of nitrate respiration. PMID:10368138

  8. Development of estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for use with the short willet food frequency questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Griesenbeck, John S; Steck, Michelle D; Huber, John C; Sharkey, Joseph R; Rene, Antonio A; Brender, Jean D

    2009-01-01

    Background Studies have suggested that nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines have an etiologic role in adverse pregnancy outcomes and chronic diseases such as cancer. Although an extensive body of literature exists on estimates of these compounds in foods, the extant data varies in quality, quantified estimates, and relevance. Methods We developed estimates of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines for food items listed in the Short Willet Food Frequency Questionnaire (WFFQ) as adapted for use in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study. Multiple reference databases were searched for published literature reflecting nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamine values in foods. Relevant published literature was reviewed; only publications reporting results for items listed on the WFFQ were selected for inclusion. The references selected were prioritized according to relevance to the U.S. population. Results Based on our estimates, vegetable products contain the highest levels of nitrate, contributing as much as 189 mg/serving. Meat and bean products contain the highest levels of nitrites with values up to 1.84 mg/serving. Alcohol, meat and dairy products contain the highest values of nitrosamines with a maximum value of 0.531 ?g/serving. The estimates of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines generated in this study are based on the published values currently available. Conclusion To our knowledge, these are the only estimates specifically designed for use with the adapted WFFQ and generated to represent food items available to the U.S. population. The estimates provided may be useful in other research studies, specifically in those exploring the relation between exposure to these compounds in foods and adverse health outcomes. PMID:19348679

  9. Comparative induction of nitrate reductase by nitrate and nitrite in barley leaves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Rosichan, J. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1987-01-01

    The comparative induction of nitrate reductase (NR) by ambient NO3- and NO2- as a function of influx, reduction (as NR was induced) and accumulation in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was determined. The dynamic interaction of NO3- influx, reduction and accumulation on NR induction was shown. The activity of NR, as it was induced, influenced its further induction by affecting the internal concentration of NO3-. As the ambient concentration of NO3- increased, the relative influences imposed by influx and reduction on NO3- accumulation changed with influx becoming a more predominant regulant. Significant levels of NO3- accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. When the leaves were supplied cycloheximide or tungstate along with NO2-, about 60% more NO3- accumulated in the leaves than in the absence of the inhibitors. In NO3(-)-supplied leaves NR induction was observed at an ambient concentration of as low as 0.02 mM. No NR induction occurred in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 mM. In fact, NR induction from NO2- solutions was not seen until NO3- was detected in the leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating from NO3(-)-fed leaves. In all cases the internal concentration of NO3-, but not NO2-, was highly correlated with the amount of NR induced. The evidence indicated that NO3- was a more likely inducer of NR than was NO2-.

  10. Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and nitrate reductase coimmobilized bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate.

    PubMed

    Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Balamurugan, Murugesan; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

    2014-02-15

    This work presents a novel bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) ions using copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and nitrate reductase (NaR) coimmobilized on carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified platinum electrode. Morphological changes of the PPy and CNT modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the bienzymatic electrode (NaR-SOD1-CNT-PPy-Pt) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry exhibiting quasi-reversible redox peak at +0.06 V and reversible redox peaks at -0.76 and -0.62V vs. Ag/AgCl, for the immobilized SOD1 and NaR respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of SOD1 towards NO2(-) oxidation observed at +0.8 V was linear from 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 50 nM and sensitivity of 98.5 ± 1.7 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Similarly, the coimmobilized NaR showed its electrocatalytic activity towards NO3(-) reduction at -0.76 V exhibiting linear response from 500 nM to 10mM NO3(-) with a detection limit of 200 nM and sensitivity of 84.5 ± 1.56 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Further, the present bienzymatic biosensor coated with cellulose acetate membrane for the removal of non-specific proteins was used for the sensitive and selective determinations of NO2(-) and NO3(-) present in human plasma, whole blood and saliva samples. PMID:24055935

  11. Low disturbance manure incorporation effects on ammonia and nitrate losses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization represents a major mechanism of nitrogen (N) loss from land-applied manure and is an air quality concern. A field study was conducted to assess ammonia emissions related to manure application method in central Pennsylvania on a Hagerstown soil (Fine, mixed semiactive, mesic Ty...

  12. Hydrogen peroxide-dependent conversion of nitrite to nitrate as a crucial feature of bovine milk catalase.

    PubMed

    Silanikove, Nissim; Shapiro, Fira; Silanikove, Mayan; Merin, Uzi; Leitner, Gabriel

    2009-09-01

    The enzyme catalase is well-known to catalyze the disintegration of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen; however, this study shows that its main function in bovine milk is oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. This process depends on hydrogen peroxide, of which the main source appears to be hydrogen peroxide formation that is coupled to the conversion of purines--xanthine in the present study--to uric acid by milk xanthine oxidase. However, additional secondary sources of hydrogen peroxide appear to be important during the relatively long storage of milk in the gland cistern. This paper demonstrates that the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is necessary to prevent accumulation of free radicals and oxidative products during storage of milk in the gland and during the unavoidable delay between milking and pasteurization in dairy plants. Recommendations for minimizing the deterioration in milk quality during commercial storage are presented. PMID:19722711

  13. Dietary nitrate and nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zhang, Yawei; Park, Yikyung; Holford, Theodore R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ward, Mary H.

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed worldwide. Nitrate inhibits iodide uptake by the thyroid, potentially disrupting thyroid function. An increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with nitrate intake was recently reported in a cohort study of older women in Iowa. We evaluated dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and thyroid cancer risk overall and for subtypes in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 490,194 men and women, ages 50–71 years in 1995–1996. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire. During an average of 7 years of follow-up we identified 370 incident thyroid cancer cases (170 men, 200 women) with complete dietary information. Among men, increasing nitrate intake was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk (relative risk (RR) for the highest quintile versus lowest quintile RR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.29–4.04l; p-trend <0.001); however, we observed no trend with intake among women (p-trend=0.61). Nitrite intake was not associated with risk of thyroid cancer for either men or women. We evaluated risk for the two main types of thyroid cancer. We found positive associations for nitrate intake and both papillary (RR = 2.10; 95%CI: 1.09–4.05; p-trend=0.05) and follicular thyroid cancer (RR= 3.42; 95%CI: 1.03–11.4; p-trend=0.01) among men. Nitrite intake was associated with increased risk of follicular thyroid cancer (RR= 2.74; 95%CI: 0.86–8.77; p-trend=0.04) among men. Our results support a role of nitrate in thyroid cancer risk and suggest that further studies to investigate these exposures are warranted. PMID:20824705

  14. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase does not influence urinary nitrite plus nitrate excretion after renal ischemic injury

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihisa Ogawa; Andreas K. Nussler; Eda Tuzuner; Yoshikazu Mimura; Michio Kaminishi; Hans G. Beger

    2002-01-01

    Background and aims: Whether renal nitric oxide production caused by ischemia\\/reperfusion (I\\/R) influences the urinary excretion of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrite and nitrate) is far from being elucidated. In the present study, we evaluated the role of NO synthase inhibition using NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) in a model of experimental renal I\\/R injury. Methods: Male Wistar rats were used

  15. Catalytic reduction of nitrates and nitrites in water solution on pumice-supported Pd–Cu catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F Deganello; L. F Liotta; A Macaluso; A. M Venezia; G Deganello

    2000-01-01

    Two series of pumice-supported palladium and palladium–copper catalysts, prepared by impregnation with different palladium and copper precursors, were tested for the hydrogenation of aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions. Measurements were performed in a stirred tank reactor, operating in batch conditions, in buffered water solution at atmospheric pressure and at 293K. The activities of the catalysts were calculated in terms of

  16. Acute effect of nitric oxide supplement on blood nitrate/nitrite and hemodynamic variables in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Bloomer, Richard J; Williams, Sara A; Canale, Robert E; Farney, Tyler M; Kabir, Mohammad M

    2010-10-01

    Nitric oxide dietary supplements are extremely popular within the sport and bodybuilding community. Most products contain l-arginine, for which there is no direct evidence that oral L-arginine increases circulating nitric oxide or blood flow. A new molecule (2-[nitrooxy]thyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanoate) is being marketed as a sport supplement for purposes of delivering "real nitric oxide" to the circulation. In the present study, we measured the acute effects of this supplement on blood nitrate/nitrite and hemodynamic variables. Ten resistance trained men (26 ± 4 years old; 8 ± 6 years of resistance exercise training) reported to the laboratory in random order after a 10-hour overnight fast on 2 occasions separated by 1 week and were provided the supplement (2-[nitrooxy]ethyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanoate) or placebo. Heart rate and blood pressure were recorded, and venous blood samples were collected before and at 5, 15, 30, and 60 minutes after complete breakdown of the supplement (5 minutes post intake) or placebo. Blood samples were assayed for plasma nitrate/nitrite. No interaction (p = 0.99), condition (p = 0.18), or time (p = 0.98) effects were noted for plasma nitrate/nitrite, with values remaining nearly identical across time for placebo (?27 ?mol·L(-1)) and increasing a maximum of ?6.7% (from 32.9 to 35.1 ?mol·L(-1)) at the 15-minute collection period for the supplement. In regards to hemodynamic variables, no interaction, condition, or time effects were noted for heart rate, systolic, or diastolic blood pressure (p > 0.05), with values near identical between conditions and virtually unchanged across time. These findings indicate that 2-(nitrooxy)ethyl 2-amino-3-methylbutanoate has a small effect on increasing circulating nitrate/nitrite and does not cause any change in hemodynamic variables within the 1 hour postingestion period in a sample of resistance trained men. PMID:20885188

  17. Formation of Vascular S-Nitrosothiols and Plasma Nitrates/Nitrites Following Inhalation of Diesel Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Knuckles, Travis L.; Buntz, Jennifer G.; Paffett, Michael; Channell, Meghan; Harmon, Molly; Cherng, Tom; Lucas, Selita N.; McDonald, Jacob D.; Kanagy, Nancy L.; Campen, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have associated traffic-related airborne pollution with adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Nitric oxide (NO) is a common component of fresh diesel and gasoline engine emissions that rapidly transforms both in the atmosphere and once inhaled. Because of this rapid transformation, limited information is available in terms of potential human exposures and adverse health effects. Young rats were exposed to whole diesel emissions (DE) adjusted to 300 µg/m3 of particulate matter (containing 3.5 ppm NO) or 0, 3, or 10 ppm NO as a positive control. Animals were also pre-injected (i.p.) with either saline or n-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), a precursor of glutathione. Predictably, pure NO exposures led to a concentration-dependent increase in plasma nitrates compared to controls, which lasted for roughly 4 hr post-exposure. Whole DE exposure for 1 hr also led to a doubling of plasma NOx. NAC injection increased the levels of plasma nitrates and nitrites (NOx) in the DE exposure group. Inhibition of NOS by L-NNA did not block the rise in plasma NOx, demonstrating that the increase was entirely due to exogenous sources. Both DE and pure NO exposures paradoxically led to elevated eNOS expression in aortic tissue. Furthermore, coronary arterioles from NO-exposed animals exhibited greater constriction to endothelin-1 compared to controls, consistent with a derangement of the NOS system. Thus, NO may be an important contributor to traffic-related cardiovascular morbidity although further research is necessary for proper hazard identification. PMID:21598168

  18. Secondary targets of nitrite-derived reactive nitrogen species: nitrosation/nitration pathways, antioxidant defense mechanisms and toxicological implications.

    PubMed

    d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra; Manini, Paola; Panzella, Lucia

    2011-12-19

    Nitrite, the primary metabolite of nitric oxide (NO) and a widely diffused component of human diet, plays distinct and increasingly appreciated roles in human physiology. However, when exposed to acidic environments, typically in the stomach, or under oxidative stress conditions, it may be converted to a range of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which in turn can target a variety of biomolecules. Typical consequences of toxicological relevance include protein modification, DNA base deamination and the formation of N-nitrosamines, among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds for humans. Besides primary biomolecules, nitrite can cause structural modifications to a variety of endogenous and exogenous organic compounds, ranging from polyunsaturated fatty acids to estrogens, tocopherol, catecholamines, furans, retinoids, dietary phenols, and a range of xenobiotics. The study of the interactions between nitrite and key food components, including phenolic antioxidants, has therefore emerged as an area of great promise for delineating innovative strategies in cancer chemoprevention. Depending on substrates and conditions, diverse reaction pathways may compete to determine product features and distribution patterns. These include nitrosation and nitration but also oxidation, via electron transfer to nitrosonium ion or nitrogen dioxide. This contribution aims to provide an overview of the main classes of compounds that can be targeted by nitrite and to discuss at chemical levels the possible reaction mechanisms under conditions that model those occurring in the stomach. The toxicological implications of the nitrite-modified molecules are finally addressed, and a rational chemical approach to the design of potent antinitrosing agents is illustrated. PMID:21923154

  19. Understanding Ion Sensing in Zn(II) Porphyrins: Spectroscopic and Computational Studies of Nitrite/Nitrate Binding

    PubMed Central

    Whittington, Christi L.; Maza, William A.; Woodcock, H. Lee; Larsen, Randy W.

    2015-01-01

    The development of effective sensor elements relies on the ability of a chromophore to bind an analyte selectively and then report the binding through changes in spectroscopic signals. In this report the ability of Zn(II) Tetraphenyl Porphyrin (ZnTPP) to selectively bind nitrite over nitrate ions is examined. The results of Benesi-Hildebrand analysis reveals that ZnTPP binds NO2? and NO3? ions with association constants of 739±70 M?1 and 134±15 M?1, respectively. Interestingly, addition of a pyridine ligand to the fifth coordination site of the Zn(II) center enhances ion binding with the association constants increasing to 71,300±8,000 M?1 and 18,900±3,000 M?1 for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Density functional theory calculations suggest a binding mechanism through which Zn(II)–porphyrin interactions are disrupted by ligand and base coordination to Zn(II), with Zn(II) having more favorable overlap with nitrite orbitals, which are less delocalized than nitrate orbitals. Overall, these provide new insights into the ability to tune the affinity and selectivity of porphyrin based sensors utilizing electronic factors associated with the central Zn(II) ion. PMID:22480312

  20. Expression, and Molecular and Enzymatic Characterization of Cu-Containing Nitrite Reductase from a Marine Ammonia-Oxidizing Gammaproteobacterium, Nitrosococcus oceani

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Keitaro; Yoshimatsu, Katsuhiko; Fujiwara, Taketomo

    2012-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) remove intracellular nitrite to prevent its toxicity by a nitrifier denitrification pathway involving two denitrifying enzymes, nitrite reductase and nitric oxide reductase. Here, a Cu-containing nitrite reductase from Nitrosococcus oceani strain NS58, a gammaproteobacterial marine AOB, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Sequence homology analysis indicated that the nitrite reductase from N. oceani was phylogenetically closer to its counterparts from denitrifying bacteria than that of the betaproteobacterium Nitrosomonas europaea. The recombinant enzyme was a homotrimer of a 32 kDa subunit molecule. The enzyme was green in the oxidized state with absorption peaks at 455 nm and 575 nm. EPR spectroscopy indicated the presence of type 2 Cu. Molecular activities and the affinity constant for the nitrite were determined to be 1.6×103 s?1 and 52 ?M, respectively. PMID:22641151

  1. Effects of simulated microgravity on arterial nitric oxide synthase and nitrate and nitrite content

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jin; Kahwaji, Chadi I.; Ni, Zhenmin; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the alterations in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) content of different arteries from simulated microgravity rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group or simulated microgravity group. For simulating microgravity, animals were subjected to hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 20 days. Different arterial tissues were removed for determination of NOS expression and NOx. Western blotting was used to measure endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein content. Total concentrations of NOx, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined by the chemiluminescence method. Compared with controls, isolated vessels from simulated microgravity rats showed a significant increase in both eNOS and iNOS expression in carotid arteries and thoracic aorta and a significant decrease in eNOS and iNOS expression of mesenteric arteries. The eNOS and iNOS content of cerebral arteries, as well as that of femoral arteries, showed no differences between the two groups. Concerning NOx, vessels from HU rats showed an increase in cerebral arteries, a decrease in mesenteric arteries, and no change in carotid artery, femoral artery and thoracic aorta. These data indicated that there were differential alterations in NOS expression and NOx of different arteries after hindlimb unweighting. We suggest that these changes might represent both localized adaptations to differential body fluid redistribution and other factors independent of hemodynamic shifts during simulated microgravity.

  2. Tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent formation of nitrite and nitrate in murine fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The present study demonstrates that murine dermal fibroblasts produce nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) upon treatment with interferon gamma (IFN-gamma). This formation is dependent on L-arginine and can be inhibited by the L-arginine analogue NG-monomethyl-L-arginine. The effect of IFN-gamma is drastically increased by cotreatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin 1 (IL-1), or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The tested cytokines also induce formation of tetrahydrobiopterin in murine fibroblasts. Inhibition of guanosine triphosphate-cyclohydrolase I, the key enzyme of tetrahydrobiopterin de novo synthesis with 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxy-pyrimidine, leads to decreased formation of NO2- and NO3-. This effect can be reversed by addition of sepiapterin, which provides tetrahydrobiopterin via a salvage pathway. Methotrexate, which inhibits the salvage pathway, blocks the restoration of NO2- and NO3- production by sepiapterin. The cytotoxic effect of combinations of IFN-alpha with TNF-gamma, IL-1, or LPS is attenuated by inhibition of tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis. These results show that intracellular concentrations of tetrahydrobiopterin control the amount of NO2- and NO3- produced in situ and suggest that the role of cytokine-induced tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis is to provide cells with the active cofactor for production of nitrogen oxides. PMID:2124251

  3. The chemistry, waste form development, and properties of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Youngblood, E.L.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-06-01

    A process for the conversion of alkaline, aqueous nitrate wastes to ammonia gas at low temperature, based upon the use of the active metal reductant aluminum, has been developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The process is also well suited for the removal of low-level waste (LLW) radioelements and hazardous metals which report to the solid, alumina-based by-product. ne chemistry of the interaction of aluminum powders with nitrate, and other waste stream metals is presented.

  4. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea and nitrite-oxidizing nitrospiras in the biofilter of a shrimp recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Brown, Monisha N; Briones, Aurelio; Diana, James; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the nitrifier community in the biofilter of a zero discharge, recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for the production of marine shrimp in a low density (low ammonium production) system. The ammonia-oxidizing populations were examined by targeting 16S rRNA and amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). The nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were investigated by targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Archaeal amoA genes were more abundant in all compartments of the RAS than bacterial amoA genes. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal amoA gene sequences revealed that most ammonia oxidizers were related to Nitrosomonas marina and Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The NOB detected were related to Nitrospira marina and Nitrospira moscoviensis, and Nitrospira marina-type NOB were more abundant than N. moscoviensis-type NOB. Water quality and biofilm attachment media played a role in the competitiveness of AOA over AOB and Nitrospira marina-over N. moscoviensis-type NOB. PMID:22775980

  5. Incubation of curing brines for the production of ready-to-eat, uncured, no-nitrite-or-nitrate-added, ground, cooked and sliced ham.

    PubMed

    Krause, B L; Sebranek, J G; Rust, R E; Mendonca, A

    2011-12-01

    Salt concentration, vegetable juice powder (VJP) concentration and temperature were investigated to determine necessary conditions for incubation of curing brines including VJP and a starter culture containing Staphylococcus carnosus prior to production of naturally cured, no-nitrate/nitrite-added meat products. Subsequently, incubated brines were utilized to produce no-nitrate/nitrite-added sliced ham in which quality characteristics and residual nitrite concentrations were measured to determine feasibility of brine incubation for nitrate conversion prior to injection. Two ham treatments (one with VJP and starter culture; one with pre-converted VJP) and a nitrite-added control were used. No differences (P>0.05) were found for color in the VJP treatments. Control sliced ham was redder after 42 days of storage, retaining significantly (P<0.05) greater a* (redness) than either of the VJP treatments. Residual nitrite concentration was greater (P<0.05) in the control hams during the first week of storage. While the nitrite-added control retained greater red color and initially had more residual nitrite than the VJP treatments, the two VJP treatments did not differ from each other. PMID:21664056

  6. Ammonia from iron(II) reduction of nitrite and the Strecker synthesis: do iron(II) and cyanide interfere with each other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D. P.; Lerner, N.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, effect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The reduction of nitrite and the Strecker can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, to yield glycine from a mixture of nitrite, Fe+2, formaldehyde, and cyanide.

  7. NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

  8. Reduction of nitrate and nitrite in vegetable juices prior to lactic acid fermentation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Emig; C. Meisel; G. Wolf; K. Gierschner; W. P. Hammes

    1990-01-01

    The reduction of the nitrate content in vegetable juices has an important effect on the total intake of nitrate by humans. Carrot puree containing 500 mg\\/1 nitrate was treated with immobilized cells of Halomonas spec, at 6°C. The nitrate was reduced within five hours quantitatively to nitrous oxide.Lactic acid fermentation by Leuconostoc mesenteroides performed after completion of the denitrification process

  9. Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Klueglein, Nicole; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Floetenmeyer, Matthias; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Microorganisms have been observed to oxidize Fe(II) at neutral pH under anoxic and microoxic conditions. While most of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become encrusted with Fe(III)-rich minerals, photoautotrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers avoid cell encrustation. The Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms and the reasons for encrustation remain largely unresolved. Here we used cultivation-based methods and electron microscopy to compare two previously described nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers ( Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002) and two heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 and P. denitrificans Pd 1222). All four strains oxidized ?8 mM Fe(II) within 5 days in the presence of 5 mM acetate and accumulated nitrite (maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 1.0 mM) in the culture media. Iron(III) minerals, mainly goethite, formed and precipitated extracellularly in close proximity to the cell surface. Interestingly, mineral formation was also observed within the periplasm and cytoplasm; intracellular mineralization is expected to be physiologically disadvantageous, yet acetate consumption continued to be observed even at an advanced stage of Fe(II) oxidation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were detected by lectin staining with fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the presence of Fe(II), suggesting that EPS production is a response to Fe(II) toxicity or a strategy to decrease encrustation. Based on the data presented here, we propose a nitrite-driven, indirect mechanism of cell encrustation whereby nitrite forms during heterotrophic denitrification and abiotically oxidizes Fe(II). This work adds to the known assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and complicates our ability to delineate microbial Fe(II) oxidation in ancient microbes preserved as fossils in the geological record. PMID:24271182

  10. Nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) are endocrine disruptors to downregulate expression of tyrosine hydroxylase and motor behavior through conversion to nitric oxide in early development of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jannat, Meshkatul; Fatimah, Ratu; Kishida, Mitsuyo

    2014-09-26

    With a view to consider the increasing concern over nitrogen pollution in the aquatic environment, we investigated effects of nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) on the activity of dopaminergic neuron in zebrafish embryos and larvae. Both nitrate and nitrite exposure decreased the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in dopaminergic neurons at 48hpf. Only nitrite decreased the response to tactile stimulation at 72hpf, whereas both nitrate and nitrite decreased the swimming activity at 6dpf. When the embryos were exposed to nitrate or nitrite together with an estrogen receptor blocker (ICI 182,780), the decreases in TH expression and motor behavior caused by nitrate or nitrite alone were reversed suggesting the effects of nitrate and nitrite were mediated through estrogen receptor (ER). The result of co-incubation with an oxidoreductase inhibitor, diphenyleneiodonium, indicated the conversion to nitric oxide (NO) is likely to be responsible for the effects of nitrate and nitrite, which was further supported by the increased staining for NO after exposure. The present study demonstrates that nitrate and nitrite are neurotoxicants acting as an endocrine disruptor possibly through conversion to NO to downregulate the activity of dopaminergic neuron in early development of zebrafish. PMID:25173937

  11. Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanitŕ, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruńa, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

  12. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor.

    PubMed

    Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Luczkiewicz, A; Fitobor, K; Olanczuk-Neyman, K

    2014-06-01

    The biological treatment of ammonia-rich landfill leachates due to an inadequate C to N ratio requires expensive supplementation of carbon from an external carbon source. In an effort to reduce treatment costs, the objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during landfill leachate co-treatment with municipal wastewater. Initially, the laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and fed only raw municipal wastewater (RWW) during a start-up period of 9 weeks. Then, in the co-treatment period, consisting of the next 17 weeks, the system was fed a mixture of RWW and an increasing quantity of landfill leachates (from 1 to 10% by volume). The results indicate that landfill leachate addition of up to 10% (by volume) influenced the effluent quality, except for BOD5. During the experiment, a positive correlation (r(2)?=?0.908) between ammonia load in the influent and nitrite in the effluent was observed, suggesting that the second step of nitrification was partially inhibited. The partial nitrification (PN) was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was observed when the oxygen concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg O2/dm(3) and free ammonia (FA) ranged from 2.01 to 35.86 mg N-NH3/dm(3) in the aerobic phase. Increasing ammonia load in wastewater influent was also correlated with an increasing amount of total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent, which suggested insufficient amounts of assimilable organic carbon to complete denitrification. Because nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway is beneficial for carbon-limited and highly ammonia-loaded mixtures, obtaining PN can lead to a reduction in the external carbon source needed to support denitrification. PMID:24569868

  13. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cady, H.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  14. Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cady, H.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

  15. Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: an efficient adsorbent for the separation and removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi, Ensieh; Sillanpää, Mika

    2015-01-01

    A novel type of magnetic nanosorbent, hydroxyapatite-coated Fe2O3 nanoparticles was synthesized and used for the adsorption and removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from environmental samples. The properties of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. After the adsorption process, the separation of ?-Fe2O3@hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from the aqueous solution was simply achieved by applying an external magnetic field. The effects of different variables on the adsorption efficiency were studied simultaneously using an experimental design. The variables of interest were amount of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, sample volume, pH, stirring rate, adsorption time, and temperature. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption efficiencies of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbents toward NO3(-) and NO2(-) ions (100 mg/L) were in the range of 93-101%. The results revealed that the magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbent could be used as a simple, efficient, and cost-effective material for the removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental water and soil samples. PMID:25376506

  16. Investigation of reduction and tolerance capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi against nitrate and nitrite in fermented sausage condition.

    PubMed

    Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon

    2014-08-01

    Lactobacillus brevis KGR3111, Lactobacillus curvatus KGR 2103, Lactobacillus plantarum KGR 5105, and Lactobacillus sakei KGR 4108 isolated from kimchi were investigated for their potential to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages with the capability to reduce and tolerate nitrate/nitrite. The reduction capability of tested strains for nitrate was not dramatic. All tested strains, however, showed the capability to produce nitrite reductase with the reduction amount of 58.46-75.80 mg/l of NO(2)(-). L. brevis and L. plantarum showed nitrate tolerance with the highest number of 8.71 log cfu/ml and 8.81 log cfu/ml, and L. brevis and L. sakei exhibited nitrite tolerance with the highest number of 8.24 log cfu/ml and 8.25 log cfu/ml, respectively. As a result, L. brevis, L. plantarum, and L. sakei isolated from kimchi showed a tolerance against nitrate or nitrite with a good nitrite reduction capability, indicating the satisfaction of one of the selection criteria to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages. PMID:24821591

  17. Development of a simple method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in groundwater by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brandao, Geovani C; Matos, Geraldo D; Pereira, Raimundo N; Ferreira, Sergio L C

    2014-01-01

    In this work, it was developed a method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in groundwater by high-resolution continuum source electrothermal molecular absorption spectrometry of NO produced by thermal decomposition of nitrate in a graphite furnace. The NO line at 215.360 nm was used for all analytical measurements and the signal obtained by integrated absorbance of three pixels. A volume of 20 ?L of standard solution or groundwater sample was injected into graphite furnace and 5 ?L of a 1% (m/v) Ca solution was co-injected as chemical modifier. The pyrolisis and vaporization temperatures established were of 150 and 1300°C, respectively. Under these conditions, it was observed a difference of thermal stability among the two nitrogen species in the presence of hydrochloric acid co-injected. While that the nitrite signal was totally suppressed, nitrate signal remained nearly stable. This way, nitrogen can be quantified only as nitrate. The addition of hydrogen peroxide provided the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate, which allowed the total quantification of the species and nitrite obtained by difference. A volume of 5 ?L of 0.3% (v/v) hydrochloric acid was co-injected for the elimination of nitrite, whereas that hydrogen peroxide in the concentration of 0.75% (v/v) was added to samples or standards for the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Analytical curve was established using standard solution of nitrate. The method described has limits of detection and quantification of 0.10 and 0.33 ?g mL(-1) of nitrogen, respectively. The precision, estimated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was of 7.5 and 3.8% (n=10) for groundwater samples containing nitrate-N concentrations of 1.9 and 15.2 ?g mL(-1), respectively. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of 10 groundwater samples and the results were compared with those obtained by ion chromatography method. In all samples analyzed, the concentration of nitrite-N was always below of the limit of quantification of both the methods. The concentrations of nitrate-N varied from 0.58 to 15.5 ?g mL(-1). No significant difference it was observed between the results obtained by both methods for nitrate-N, at the 95% confidence level. PMID:24331045

  18. Endogenous superoxide production and the nitrite/nitrate ratio control the concentration of bioavailable free nitric oxide in leaves.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Anatoly F; Svistunenko, Dimitri A; Mikoyan, Vasak D; Serezhenkov, Vladimir A; Fryer, Michael J; Baker, Neil R; Cooper, Chris E

    2004-06-01

    We have quantitatively measured nitric oxide production in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana and Vicia faba by adapting ferrous dithiocarbamate spin tapping methods previously used in animal systems. Hydrophobic diethyldithiocarbamate complexes were used to measure NO interacting with membranes, and hydrophilic N-methyl-d-glucamine dithiocarbamate was used to measure NO released into the external solution. Both complexes were able to trap levels of NO, readily detectable by EPR spectroscopy. Basal rates of NO production (in the order of 1 nmol g(-) (1) h(-1)) agreed with previous studies. However, use of methodologies that corrected for the removal of free NO by endogenously produced superoxide resulted in a significant increase in trapped NO (up to 18 nmol g(-) (1) h(-1)). Basal NO production in leaves is therefore much higher than previously thought, but this is masked by significant superoxide production. The effects of nitrite (increased rate) and nitrate (decreased rate) are consistent with a role for nitrate reductase as the source of this basal NO production. However, rates under physiologically achievable nitrite concentrations never approach that reported following pathogen induction of plant nitric-oxide synthase. In Hibiscus rosa sinensis, the addition of exogenous nitrite generated sufficient NO such that EPR could be used to detect its production using endogenous spin traps (forming paramagnetic dinitrosyl iron complexes). Indeed the levels of this nitrosylated iron pool are sufficiently high that they may represent a method of maintaining bioavailable iron levels under conditions of iron starvation, thus explaining the previously observed role of NO in preventing chlorosis under these conditions. PMID:15056652

  19. Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

    2012-01-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50?mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5?mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10?nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TR? and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

  20. Reversible intercalation of ammonia molecules into a layered double hydroxide structure without exchanging nitrate counter-ions

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajal Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Wypych, Fernando [CEPESQ-Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Parana, P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Castillon Barraza, Felipe; Contreras Lopez, Oscar Edel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

    2010-10-15

    A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 A, typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 A. Thermal treatment at 150 {sup o}C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 A. Intense N-H stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup +} species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia, the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 A basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 A basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 {sup o}C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. - Graphical abstract: LDH-nitrate precipitated with ammonia expands the interlayer space if ammonia is bubbled up to pH 10. The basal distance decreased when the compound was heated at 150 {sup o}C or stirred in acetone. Nitrate ions are not exchanged.

  1. Ammonia from Iron(II) Reduction of Nitrite and the Strecker Synthesis: Do Iron(II) and Cyanide Interfere with Each Other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Lerner, Narcinda; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, affect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The two reactions can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, forming glycine from nitrite, Fe(+2), formaldehyde, and cyanide.

  2. Kinetics of electro-oxidation of ammonia-N, nitrites and COD from a recirculating aquaculture saline water system using BDD anodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Díaz; R. Ibáńez; P. Gómez; A. M. Urtiaga; I. Ortiz

    2011-01-01

    The viability of the electro-oxidation technology provided with boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes for the treatment and reuse of the seawater used in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) was evaluated in this work.The influence of the applied current density (5–50 A m?2) in the removal of Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was analyzed observing that complete TAN

  3. Omeprazole and dietary nitrate independently affect levels of vitamin C and nitrite in gastric juice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Craig Mowat; Andrew Carswell; Angela Wirz; Kenneth E. L. McColl

    1999-01-01

    Background & Aims: Hypochlorhydria is associated with an increased risk of gastric cancer. We have studied the effect of pharmacologically induced hypochlorhydria on the gastric juice ascorbate\\/nitrite ratio, which regulates the synthesis of potentially carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. Methods: Saliva, gastric juice, and serum from 20 healthy volunteers (9 positive for Helicobacter pylori), with a mean age of 30 years (range,

  4. Nitrate and ammonia contaminations in drinking water and the affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xinfeng; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Haiping

    2013-03-01

    Drinking water samples (N = 228) from domestic tube wells (DTWs) and seven samples from public water supply wells (PWSWs) were collected and tested in Hailun, northeast China. The percentage of samples with nitrate and ammonia concentrations above the maximum acceptable concentration of nitrate, 10 mg N/L, and the maximum ensure concentration of ammonia, 1.5 mg/L, for the DTWs were significantly higher than for the PWSWs. Of the DTWs, an important observation was that the occurrence of groundwater nitrate contamination was directly related to well tube material with different joint pathways. Nitrate in seamless-tube wells was lower statistically significantly than those in multiple-section-tube wells (p < .001). Furthermore, well depth and hydrogeological setting might have some impacts on nitrogen contamination and the major sources of inorganic nitrogen contamination may be nitrogenous chemical fertilizer. Therefore, PWSWs built for all families are the best way to ensure the drinking water safety in villages. For DTWs it is necessary to use seamless tubes and to dig deep enough according to the depth of groundwater level. Improving the efficiency of chemical fertilizer use would also reduce the risk of groundwater contamination. PMID:23505772

  5. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) or nitrate to ammonia and glass (NAG) process: Phase 2 report

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1994-12-01

    Continuing benchtop studies using Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants and actual Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) low-level waste (LLW), employing a new denitration process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 and 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted to gaseous ammonia. In this process, aluminum powders can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid. The process may be able to use contaminated aluminum scrap metal from DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nitrate-free ceramic product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics or silica and/or fluxing agents can be added to form a glassy ceramic or a flowable glass product. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 70% were obtained for the waste form produced. Sintered pellets produced from supernate from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) have been leached in accordance with the 16.1 leach test for the radioelements {sup 85}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Despite lengthy counting times, {sup 85}Sr could not be detected in the leachates. {sup 137}Cs was only slightly above background and corresponded to a leach index of 12.2 to 13.7 after 8 months of leaching. Leach testing of unsintered and sintered reactor product spiked with hazardous metals proved that both sintered and unsintered product passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Design of the equipment and flowsheet for a pilot demonstration-scale system to prove the nitrate destruction portion of the NAC process and product formation is under way.

  6. Effects of Waterborne Copper, Cyanide, Ammonia, and Nitrite on Stress Parameters and Changes in Susceptibility to Saprolegniosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, M.; Munoz, M. J.; Cuellar, M.; Tarazona, J. V.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of toxic exposures on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to saprolegniosis were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (0.25 mg/liter), cyanide (0.07 mg/liter), ammonia (0.5 mg/liter), and nitrite (0.24 mg/liter) for 24 h. After exposure, the fish were challenged by Saprolegnia parasitica (3.6 x 10(sup6) zoospores per liter) for 10 min. Cortisol and cholesterol were used to indicate stress response. Similar increases of cortisol were found for the four tested chemicals. All fish with cortisol levels higher than 370 ng/ml developed the disease, while only 24% of the fish with cortisol levels lower than 370 ng/ml were infected. Cholesterol levels remained unchanged after toxic exposure. Increased susceptibilities to the pathogen were observed for ammonia (71%), copper (57%), nitrite (50%), and cyanide (33%). The increases in susceptibility as a result of cyanide and nitrite exposure could be explained by the stress response. For copper and ammonia, the combination of two different effects, the stress response and specific impairments of the defense mechanism of trout against saprolegniosis, should be considered. PMID:16535039

  7. Growth of Campylobacter jejuni Supported by Respiration of Fumarate, Nitrate, Nitrite, Trimethylamine-N-Oxide, or Dimethyl Sulfoxide Requires Oxygen

    PubMed Central

    Sellars, Michael J.; Hall, Stephen J.; Kelly, David J.

    2002-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is a microaerophilic bacterium with a respiratory metabolism. The genome sequence of C. jejuni strain 11168 reveals the presence of genes that encode terminal reductases that are predicted to allow the use of a wide range of alternative electron acceptors to oxygen, including fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, and N- or S-oxides. All of these reductase activities were present in cells of strain 11168, and the molybdoenzyme encoded by Cj0264c was shown by mutagenesis to be responsible for both trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reduction. Nevertheless, growth of C. jejuni under strictly anaerobic conditions (with hydrogen or formate as electron donor) in the presence of any of the electron acceptors tested was insignificant. However, when fumarate, nitrate, nitrite, TMAO, or DMSO was added to microaerobic cultures in which the rate of oxygen transfer was severely restricted, clear increases in both the growth rate and final cell density compared to what was seen with the control were obtained, indicative of electron acceptor-dependent energy conservation. The C. jejuni genome encodes a single class I-type ribonucleotide reductase (RNR) which requires oxygen to generate a tyrosyl radical for catalysis. Electron microscopy of cells that had been incubated under strictly anaerobic conditions with an electron acceptor showed filamentation due to an inhibition of cell division similar to that induced by the RNR inhibitor hydroxyurea. An oxygen requirement for DNA synthesis can thus explain the lack of anaerobic growth of C. jejuni. The results indicate that strict anaerobiosis is a stress condition for C. jejuni but that alternative respiratory pathways can contribute significantly to energy conservation under oxygen-limited conditions, as might be found in vivo. PMID:12107136

  8. 17alpha-ethinylestradiol transformation via abiotic nitration in the presence of ammonia oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Gaulke, Linda S; Strand, Stuart E; Kalhorn, Thomas F; Stensel, H David

    2008-10-15

    Impacts of trace concentrations of estrogens on aquatic ecosystems are a serious environmental concern, with their primary source being wastewater treatment facility effluents. Increased removal of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) has been reported for activated sludge treatment with long enough solids retention time for nitrification. Previous work based on batch tests with Nitrosomonas europaea and nitrifying activated sludge at high EE2 concentrations (>300 000 ng/L) and high NH4-N concentrations (>200 mg/L) has led to the hypothesis that ammonia oxidizing bacteria cometabolically degrade EE2. This work investigated EE2 transformation with N. europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis at environmentally relevant EE2 concentrations and LC-MS-MS to observe transformation products. Degradation of EE2 was not observed in batch tests with no NH4-N addition or with 10 mg/L NH4-N fed daily. At increased NH4-N concentrations (200-500 mg/L) EE2 transformation was observed, but the only detected products were nitrated EE2. Abiotic assays with growth medium confirmed EE2 removal by nitration, which is enhanced at low pH and high NO2-N concentrations. These results suggest that EE2 removal at low concentrations found in municipal treatment activated sludge systems is not due to cometabolic degradation by ammonia oxidizing bacteria, or to abiotic nitration, but most likely due to heterotrophic bacteria. PMID:18983084

  9. Nitrite in organ protection

    PubMed Central

    Rassaf, Tienush; Ferdinandy, Peter; Schulz, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade, the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged to therapeutical importance. Modulation of endogenous nitrate and nitrite levels with the subsequent S-nitros(yl)ation of the downstream signalling cascade open the way for novel cytoprotective strategies. In the following, we summarize the actual literature and give a short overview on the potential of nitrite in organ protection. PMID:23826831

  10. Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts

    SciTech Connect

    Dodds, J.N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[UNOCAL, Brea, CA (United States). Hartley Research Center

    1994-07-01

    Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

  11. Nitrite disrupts multiple physiological functions in aquatic animals.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Frank B

    2003-05-01

    Nitrite is a potential problem in aquatic environments. Freshwater fish actively take up nitrite across the gills, leading to high internal concentrations. Seawater fish are less susceptible but do take up nitrite across intestine and gills. Nitrite has multiple physiological effects. Its uptake is at the expense of chloride, leading to chloride depletion. Nitrite also activates efflux of potassium from skeletal muscle and erythrocytes, disturbing intracellular and extracellular K(+) levels. Nitrite transfer across the erythrocytic membrane leads to oxidation of haemoglobin to methaemoglobin (metHb), compromising blood O(2) transport. Other haem proteins are also oxidised. Hyperventilation is observed, and eventually tissue O(2) shortage becomes reflected in elevated lactate concentrations. Heart rate increases rapidly, before any significant elevations in metHb or extracellular potassium occur. This suggests nitrite-induced vasodilation (possibly via nitric oxide generated from nitrite) that is countered by increased cardiac pumping to re-establish blood pressure. Nitrite can form and/or mimic nitric oxide and thereby interfere with processes regulated by this local hormone. Steroid hormone synthesis may be inhibited, while changes in ammonia and urea levels and excretion rates reflect an influence of nitrite on nitrogen metabolism. Detoxification of nitrite occurs via endogenous oxidation to nitrate, and elimination of nitrite takes place both via gills and urine. The susceptibility to nitrite varies between species and in some cases also within species. Rainbow trout fall into two groups with regard to susceptibility and physiological response. These two groups are not related to sex but show significant different nitrite uptake rates. PMID:12727546

  12. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific...or nitrates are food additives when...contain or constitute a source of secondary or...limited to essential oils, disodium inosinate...such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein), oleoresins...extractives. Such food additives may...

  13. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific...or nitrates are food additives when...contain or constitute a source of secondary or...limited to essential oils, disodium inosinate...such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein), oleoresins...extractives. Such food additives may...

  14. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific...or nitrates are food additives when...contain or constitute a source of secondary or...limited to essential oils, disodium inosinate...such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein), oleoresins...extractives. Such food additives may...

  15. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific...or nitrates are food additives when...contain or constitute a source of secondary or...limited to essential oils, disodium inosinate...such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein), oleoresins...extractives. Such food additives may...

  16. 21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES Specific...or nitrates are food additives when...contain or constitute a source of secondary or...limited to essential oils, disodium inosinate...such as hydrolyzed vegetable protein), oleoresins...extractives. Such food additives may...

  17. Competition between nitrate and nitrite reduction in denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. S. Almeida; M. A. M. Reis; M. J. T. Carrondo

    1995-01-01

    A pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used as a model system to study the kinetics of denitrification. An exponentially growing culture was harvested and resuspended in an anoxic acetate solution buffered with K\\/Na phosphate at pH values of 6.6, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.8. The temperature was kept at 28 C in all assays. Nitrate pulses of approximately 0.2 mg

  18. Influence of bed media characteristics on ammonia and nitrate removal in shallow horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, A; Oliveira, J; Semitela, S; Amaral, L

    2009-12-01

    Two bed media were tested (gravel and Filtralite) in shallow horizontal subsurface flow (HSSF) constructed wetlands in order to evaluate the removal of ammonia and nitrate for different types of wastewater (acetate-based and domestic wastewater) and different COD/N ratios. The use of Filtralite allowed both higher mass removal rates (1.1 g NH(4)-N m(-2) d(-1) and 3 g NO(3)-N m(-2) d(-1)) and removal efficiencies (>62% for ammonia, 90-100% for nitrate), in less than 2 weeks, when compared to the ones observed with gravel. The COD/N ratio seems to have no significant influence on nitrate removal and the removal of both ammonia and nitrate seems to have involved not only the conventional pathways of nitrification-denitrification. The nitrogen loading rate of both ammonia (0.8-2.4 g NH(4)-N m(-2) d(-1)) and nitrate (0.6-3.2 g NO(3)-N m(-2) d(-1)) seem to have influenced the respective removal rates. PMID:19648003

  19. Quantification and modeling of nitrate consumption, and nitrous oxide and nitrite production during push-pull tracer tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boisson, A.; De Anna, P.; Bour, O.; Le Borgne, T.; Aquilina, L.

    2011-12-01

    Field quantitative estimation of reaction kinetics is required to enhance our understanding of biogeochemical reactions in aquifers and to model the different element production/consumption. In this study, we quantify kinetics of nitrate consumption and by-products formation (nitrites and nitrous oxide) during autotrophic denitrification using push-pull tracer tests in a fractured crystalline aquifer (Ploemeur, French Brittany). Previous studies (Tarits et al., 2006) have shown that this very heterogeneous aquifer was characterized by the occurrence of an autotrophic denitrification reaction related to pyrite bearing fractures. Reactivity assessment by push-pull tests consists in injecting a well known solution composed of a reactive (NO3-) and a non reactive tracer (Br-) in a borehole (push phase). After a time lag the solution is pumped (pull phase) from the same borehole to obtain breakthrough curves. Comparison of the breakthrough curves of both tracers provides the consumed mass. Comparison of Br- and NO3- breakthrough curves shows that 10 % of the injected nitrate molar mass was transformed during the 12 hours experiment (2% in NO2-, 1% in N2O and the rest in N2 and NO). This experiment shows that push pull tests are reliable to assess autotrophic denitrification reaction by providing an in situ quantification of nitrate reduction and by-products formation. Similar results with comparable kinetics are obtained from laboratory experiments in reactors. To model the whole denitrification reaction, we extend the simplified analytical solution developed by Haggerty et al. (1998) through a first order reaction chain for push pull experiments analysis allowing the estimation of kinetic parameters for each reaction step. Then we assess the ability of this reaction chain to model biogeochemical reactions by comparing it to our experimental results. Good fit between model and experimental results indicate the possibility to consider the complete denitrification process as a sequence of first order reactions. As expected the estimated constant k1 for nitrates is the main limiting factor. Thus, biogeochemical reactions such as denitrification may be efficiently modeled as a first order reaction chain. Haggerty, R., Schroth, M.H. and Istok, J.D., 1998. Simplified method of "push-pull" test data analysis for determining in situ reaction rate coefficients. Ground Water, 36(2): 314-324. Tarits, C. et al., 2006. Oxido-reduction sequence related to flux variations of groundwater from a fractured basement aquifer (Ploemeur area, France). Applied Geochemistry, 21(1): 29-47

  20. Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste

    SciTech Connect

    Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

    1995-08-01

    As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

  1. A new method for the determination of the nitrogen content of nitrocellulose based on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Alinat, Elodie; Delaunay, Nathalie; Archer, Xavier; Mallet, Jean-Maurice; Gareil, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    A new method was proposed to determine the nitrogen content of nitrocelluloses (NCs). It is based on the finding of a linear relationship between the nitrogen content and the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions released after alkaline hydrolysis. Capillary electrophoresis was used to monitor the concentration of nitrite and nitrate ions. The influences of hydrolysis time and molar mass of NC on the molar ratio of nitrite-to-nitrate ions were investigated, and new insights into the understanding of the alkaline denitration mechanism of NCs, underlying this analytical strategy is provided. The method was then tested successfully with various explosive and non-explosive NC-containing samples such as various daily products and smokeless gunpowders. Inherently to its principle exploiting a concentration ratio, this method shows very good repeatability in the determination of nitrogen content in real samples with relative standard deviation (n=3) inferior to 1.5%, and also provides very significant advantages with respect to sample extraction, analysis time (1h for alkaline hydrolysis, 3min for electrophoretic separation), which was about 5 times shorter than for the classical Devarda's method, currently used in industry, and safety conditions (no need for preliminary drying NC samples, mild hydrolysis conditions with 1M sodium hydroxide for 1h at 60°C). PMID:25562808

  2. Fluidic Automation of Nitrate and Nitrite Bioassays in Whole Blood by Dissolvable-Film Based Centrifugo-Pneumatic Actuation

    PubMed Central

    Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

  3. Circulating Nitrite and Nitrate are Associated with Job-Related Fatigue in Women, but not in Men

    PubMed Central

    Takaki, Jiro

    2013-01-01

    A recent study indicated that serum nitrite and nitrate (NOx) is inversely associated with general fatigue. The purpose of this study was to confirm the negative association between nitric oxide (NO) and fatigue and to examine whether NO can prevent fatigue caused by job strain. The subjects, 570 workers (272 men and 298 women), answered self-administered questionnaires and underwent a medical examination. Job strain was measured using the Job Content Questionnaire. Fatigue was evaluated using the Profile of Mood States. Venous blood samples were collected after overnight fasting. Plasma NOx concentration was determined by the ozone-based chemiluminescence assay. Plasma NOx levels were significantly (p < 0.05) negatively associated with fatigue even after adjustment for job strain and potential confounders in women, but not in men. Significant (p < 0.05) interactions showed that, in women, as the level of the job strain worsened, fatigue was exacerbated, but the plasma NOx seemed to buffer the association, even after adjustment for potential confounders and the interaction between job strain and vegetable intake. In women, NO seemed to be inversely associated with fatigue and to buffer the association between job strain and fatigue, but not in men. PMID:23880723

  4. Fluidic automation of nitrate and nitrite bioassays in whole blood by dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic actuation.

    PubMed

    Nwankire, Charles E; Chan, Di-Sien S; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

  5. Involvement of NarK1 and NarK2 Proteins in Transport of Nitrate and Nitrite in the Denitrifying Bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Vandana; Noriega, Chris E.; Rowe, John J.

    2006-01-01

    Two transmembrane proteins were tentatively classified as NarK1 and NarK2 in the Pseudomonas genome project and hypothesized to play an important physiological role in nitrate/nitrite transport in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The narK1 and narK2 genes are located in a cluster along with the structural genes for the nitrate reductase complex. Our studies indicate that the transcription of all these genes is initiated from a single promoter and that the gene complex narK1K2GHJI constitutes an operon. Utilizing an isogenic narK1 mutant, a narK2 mutant, and a narK1K2 double mutant, we explored their effect on growth under denitrifying conditions. While the ?narK1::Gm mutant was only slightly affected in its ability to grow under denitrification conditions, both the ?narK2::Gm and ?narK1K2::Gm mutants were found to be severely restricted in nitrate-dependent, anaerobic growth. All three strains demonstrated wild-type levels of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate uptake by whole-cell suspensions demonstrated both the ?narK2::Gm and ?narK1K2::Gm mutants to have very low yet different nitrate uptake rates, while the ?narK1::Gm mutant exhibited wild-type levels of nitrate uptake. Finally, Escherichia coli narK rescued both the ?narK2::Gm and ?narK1K2::Gm mutants with respect to anaerobic respiratory growth. Our results indicate that only the NarK2 protein is required as a nitrate/nitrite transporter by Pseudomonas aeruginosa under denitrifying conditions. PMID:16391109

  6. Evaluation of a solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production operating with ammonia/lithium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Rivera, W.; Moreno-Quintanar, G.; Best, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 34, 62580 Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Rivera, C.O.; Martinez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria Campus Coatzacoalcos, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Universidad Km 7.5, 96530 Coatzacoalcos, Ver. (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    A novel solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico is presented. The system operates with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture. The system developed has a nominal capacity of 8 kg of ice/day. It consists of a cylindrical parabolic collector acting as generator-absorber. Evaporator temperatures as low as -11 C were obtained for several hours with solar coefficients of performance up to 0.08. It was found that the coefficient of performance increases with the increment of solar radiation and the solution concentration. A dependency of the coefficient of performance was not founded against the cooling water temperature. Also it was found that the maximum operating pressure increases meanwhile the generation temperature decreases with an increase of the solution concentration. (author)

  7. Low-disturbance manure incorporation effects on ammonia and nitrate loss.

    PubMed

    Dell, Curtis J; Kleinman, Peter J A; Schmidt, John P; Beegle, Douglas B

    2012-01-01

    Low-disturbance manure application methods can provide the benefits of manure incorporation, including reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions, in production systems where tillage is not possible. However, incorporation can exacerbate nitrate (NO3?) leaching. We sought to assess the trade-offs in NH3 and NO3? losses caused by alternative manure application methods. Dairy slurry (2006-2007) and liquid swine manure (2008-2009) were applied to no-till corn by (i) shallow (<10 cm) disk injection, (ii) surface banding with soil aeration, (iii) broadcasting, and (iv) broadcasting with tillage incorporation. Ammonia emissions were monitored for 72 h after application using ventilated chambers and passive diffusion samplers, and NO3? leaching to 80 cm was monitored with buried column lysimeters. The greatest NH3 emissions occurred with broadcasting (35-63 kg NH3-N ha?), and the lowest emissions were from unamended soil (<1 kg NH-N ha?ą). Injection decreased NH-N emissions by 91 to 99% compared with broadcasting and resulted in lower emissions than tillage incorporation 1 h after broadcasting. Ammonia-nitrogen emissions from banding manure with aeration were inconsistent between years, averaging 0 to 71% that of broadcasting. Annual NO3? leaching losses were small (<25 kg NO3-N ha?ą) and similar between treatments, except for the first winter when NO3? leaching was fivefold greater with injection. Because NO3? leaching with injection was substantially lower over subsequent seasons, we hypothesize that the elevated losses during the first winter were through preferential flow paths inadvertently created during lysimeter installation. Overall, shallow disk injection yielded the lowest NH3 emissions without consistently increasing NO3? leaching, whereas manure banding with soil aeration conserved inconsistent amounts of N. PMID:22565274

  8. Marine Ammonia- and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacteria: Serological Diversity Determined by Immunofluorescence in Culture and in the Environment

    PubMed Central

    Ward, B. B.; Carlucci, A. F.

    1985-01-01

    Immunofluorescence assays for marine ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were used to assess the diversity of nitrifying bacteria isolated from marine environments. The antisera show relatively broad specificity, in that each reacts with several strains of the same physiological type as the strain to which the antiserum was prepared. The antisera do not, however, react with any strains of differing physiological type. Seventy percent of the 30 unidentified ammonium-oxidizing isolates tested reacted with one or both of the antisera produced to marine ammonium-oxidizing strains, and 8 of the 9 unidentified nitrite-oxidizing strains tested reacted with 1 or more of the 3 nitrite oxidizer antisera used. Ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were enumerated in samples taken in a depth profile (to 750 m) in the Southern California Bight by immunofluorescence assays for two ammonium oxidizers and two nitrite oxidizers. Average abundances of the two types of nitrifiers were 3.5 × 105 and 2.8 × 105 cells liter?1, respectively. Nitrifiers constitute 0.1 to 0.8% of the total bacterial population in these samples. PMID:16346845

  9. Ammonia Conversion Characteristics in a Closed Recirculating Aquaculture System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guang-Yu Wang; Ji-xian Yang; Fang Ma; Lei Chen; Wei-Guo Li; Jingbo Guo

    2009-01-01

    Nitrification and denitrification were commonly used in the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to decrease the ammonia and nitrate concentration. The variation characteristics of nitrogenous compounds and microbiology in a closed RAS were studied with gradually increasing ammonia-nitrogen (NH4 +-N) concentration. The NH4 +-N was completely converted into nitrite nitrogen (NO2 --N) in 46 days, but the NO2 --N raised slowly

  10. Effect of nitrate and nitrite on sulfide production by two thermophilic, sulfate-reducing enrichments from an oil field in the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Kaster, Krista M; Grigoriyan, Alexander; Jenneman, Gary; Jennneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-05-01

    Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (tSRB) can be major contributors to the production of H(2)S (souring) in oil reservoirs. Two tSRB enrichments from a North Sea oil field, NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, were obtained at 58 degrees C with acetate-propionate-butyrate and with lactate as the electron donor, respectively. Analysis by rDNA sequencing indicated the presence of Thermodesulforhabdus norvegicus in NS-tSRB1 and of Archaeoglobus fulgidus in NS-tSRB2. Nitrate (10 mM) had no effect on H(2)S production by mid-log phase cultures of NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, whereas nitrite (0.25 mM or higher) inhibited sulfate reduction. NS-tSRB1 did not recover from inhibition, whereas sulfate reduction activity of NS-tSRB2 recovered after 500 h. Nitrite was also effective in souring inhibition and H(2)S removal in upflow bioreactors, whereas nitrate was similarly ineffective. Hence, nitrite may be preferable for souring prevention in some high-temperature oil fields because it reacts directly with sulfide and provides long-lasting inhibition of sulfate reduction. PMID:17245576

  11. cis-acting sequences required for NtcB-dependent, nitrite-responsive positive regulation of the nitrate assimilation operon in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942.

    PubMed

    Maeda, S; Kawaguchi, Y; Ohe, T A; Omata, T

    1998-08-01

    There are three binding sites for NtcA (nirI, nirII, and nirIII), the global nitrogen regulator of cyanobacteria, in the DNA region between the two divergently transcribed operons (nirA and nirB operons) involved in nitrate assimilation in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Using the luxAB reporter system, we showed that nirI and nirIII, which are located 23 bp upstream from the -10 promoter element of nirA and nirB, respectively, are required for induction by nitrogen depletion of the nirA and nirB operons, respectively. The induction of nirA operon transcription was a prerequisite for the nitrite-responsive positive regulation of the transcription by NtcB, a LysR-type protein. The NtcA-binding site nirII, located in the middle of the nirA-nirB intergenic region, and a potential binding site for a LysR-type protein (TGCAN5TGCA; designated L1), located between nirI and nirII, were required for the nitrite-responsive, NtcB-dependent enhancement of nirA operon transcription. Although the requirement for the L1 site was consistent with the involvement of the LysR family protein NtcB in transcriptional regulation, NtcB did not bind to the nirA regulatory region in vitro in the presence of nitrite and NtcA, suggesting the involvement of some additional factor(s) in the regulation. An L1-like inverted repeat with the consensus sequence TGCN7GCA was conserved in the nirA promoter region of cyanobacteria, being centered at position -23 with respect to the NtcA-binding site corresponding to nirI, which suggested the common occurrence of nitrite-responsive regulation of the nitrate assimilation operon among cyanobacteria. PMID:9696753

  12. cis-Acting Sequences Required for NtcB-Dependent, Nitrite-Responsive Positive Regulation of the Nitrate Assimilation Operon in the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7942

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Shin-Ichi; Kawaguchi, Yuriko; Ohe, Taka-Aki; Omata, Tatsuo

    1998-01-01

    There are three binding sites for NtcA (nirI, nirII, and nirIII), the global nitrogen regulator of cyanobacteria, in the DNA region between the two divergently transcribed operons (nirA and nirB operons) involved in nitrate assimilation in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942. Using the luxAB reporter system, we showed that nirI and nirIII, which are located 23 bp upstream from the ?10 promoter element of nirA and nirB, respectively, are required for induction by nitrogen depletion of the nirA and nirB operons, respectively. The induction of nirA operon transcription was a prerequisite for the nitrite-responsive positive regulation of the transcription by NtcB, a LysR-type protein. The NtcA-binding site nirII, located in the middle of the nirA-nirB intergenic region, and a potential binding site for a LysR-type protein (TGCAN5TGCA; designated L1), located between nirI and nirII, were required for the nitrite-responsive, NtcB-dependent enhancement of nirA operon transcription. Although the requirement for the L1 site was consistent with the involvement of the LysR family protein NtcB in transcriptional regulation, NtcB did not bind to the nirA regulatory region in vitro in the presence of nitrite and NtcA, suggesting the involvement of some additional factor(s) in the regulation. An L1-like inverted repeat with the consensus sequence TGCN7GCA was conserved in the nirA promoter region of cyanobacteria, being centered at position ?23 with respect to the NtcA-binding site corresponding to nirI, which suggested the common occurrence of nitrite-responsive regulation of the nitrate assimilation operon among cyanobacteria. PMID:9696753

  13. Electroreduction of nitrate ions in concentrated sodium hydroxide solutions at lead, zinc, nickel and phthalocyanine-modified electrodes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H.-L. Li; J. Q. Chambers; D. T. Hobbs

    1988-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrate in strongly alkaline solution has been studied using nickel, lead, zinc and iron cathodes. Intermediate formation of nitrite ion and ammonia product was observed for all electrode materials. Coating a nickel sponge electrode with phthalocyanine renders it less active toward nitrate reduction, while iron electrodes appear to be activated. Electrolysis between a lead cathode and

  14. AMMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the available information on ammonia as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Ammonia is a ubiquitous substance and is known widely as a household cleaning agent and as a fertilizer. It plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle--in the...

  15. A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process

    SciTech Connect

    Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Farr, L.L.; Loghry, S.L.; Pitt, W.W.; Gibson, M.R.

    1994-12-01

    Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new, low-temperature (50 to 60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 to 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid which might function as its own waste form. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nearly nitrate-free ceramic-like product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 55% were obtained for the waste form produced, compared to an expected 35 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical to operate, and data were used to cost a batch, 1,200-kg NO{sub 3}/h plant for working off Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Their total process cost analysis presented in the appendix, indicates that between $2.01 to 2.66 per kilogram of nitrate converted will be required. Additionally, data on the fate of select radioelements present in solution are presented in this report as well as kinetic, operational, and control data for a number of experiments. Additionally, if the ceramic product functions as its own waste form, it too will offer other cost savings associated with having a smaller volume of waste form as well as eliminating other process steps such as grouting.

  16. A shortcut to wide-ranging biological actions of dietary polyphenols: modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in the gut.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Bárbara S; Nunes, Carla; Pereira, Cassilda; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, Joăo

    2014-08-01

    Dietary polyphenols are complex, natural compounds with recognized health benefits. Initially attractive to the biomedical area due to their in vitro antioxidant properties, the biological implications of polyphenols are now known to be far from their acute ability to scavenge free radicals but rather to modulate redox signaling pathways. Actually, it is now recognized that dietary polyphenols are extensively metabolized in vivo and that the chemical, biophysical and biological properties of their metabolites are, in most cases, quite different from the ones of the parent molecules. Hence, the study of the metabolic, absorptive and signaling pathways of both phenolics and derivatives has become a major issue. In this paper we propose a short-cut for the systemic effects of polyphenols in connection with nitric oxide (?NO) biology. This free radical is a ubiquitous signaling molecule with pivotal functions in vivo. It is produced through an enzymatic pathway and also through the reduction of dietary nitrate and nitrite in the human stomach. At acidic gastric pH, dietary polyphenols, in the form they are conveyed in foods and at high concentration, not only promote nitrite reduction to ?NO but also embark in a complex network of chemical reactions to produce higher nitrogen oxides with signaling functions, namely by inducing post-translational modifications. Modified endogenous molecules, such as nitrated proteins and lipids, acquire important physiological functions. Thus, local and systemic effects of ?NO such as modulation of vascular tone, mucus production in the gut and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury are, in this sense, triggered by dietary polyphenols. Evidence to support the signaling and biological effects of polyphenols by modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway will be herein provided and discussed. General actions of polyphenols encompassing absorption and metabolism in the intestine/liver are short-cut via the production of diffusible species in the stomach that have not only a local but also a general impact. PMID:24912104

  17. Kinetics of electro-oxidation of ammonia-N, nitrites and COD from a recirculating aquaculture saline water system using BDD anodes.

    PubMed

    Díaz, V; Ibáńez, R; Gómez, P; Urtiaga, A M; Ortiz, I

    2011-01-01

    The viability of the electro-oxidation technology provided with boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes for the treatment and reuse of the seawater used in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) was evaluated in this work. The influence of the applied current density (5-50 A m(-2)) in the removal of Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was analyzed observing that complete TAN removal together with important reductions of the other considered contaminants could be achieved, thus meeting the requirements for reuse of seawater in RAS systems. TAN removal, mainly due to an indirect oxidation mechanism was described by a second order kinetics while COD and nitrite removal followed zero-th order kinetics. The values of the kinetic constants for the anodic oxidation of each compound were obtained as a function of the applied current density (k(TAN) = 7.86 × 10(-5) · exp(6.30 × 10(-2) J); kNO2 = 3.43 × 10(-2) J; k(COD) = 1.35 × 10(-2) J). The formation of free chlorine and oxidation by-products, i.e., trihalomethanes (THMs) was followed along the electro-oxidation process. Although a maximum concentration of 1.7 mg l(-1) of total trihalomethanes was detected an integrated process combining electrochemical oxidation in order to eliminate TAN, nitrite and COD and adsorption onto activated carbon to remove the residual chlorine and THMs is proposed, as an efficient alternative to treat and reuse the seawater in fish culture systems. Finally, the energy consumption of the treatment has been evaluated. PMID:20832837

  18. Dietary nitrate supplementation: effects on plasma nitrite and pulmonary O2 uptake dynamics during exercise in hypoxia and normoxia.

    PubMed

    Kelly, James; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bailey, Stephen J; Wylie, Lee J; Tucker, Christopher; List, Stephen; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation on the concentration of plasma nitrite ([NO2 (-)]), oxygen uptake (V?o2) kinetics, and exercise tolerance in normoxia (N) and hypoxia (H). In a double-blind, crossover study, 12 healthy subjects completed cycle exercise tests, twice in N (20.9% O2) and twice in H (13.1% O2). Subjects ingested either 140 ml/day of NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice (8.4 mmol NO3; BR) or NO3 (-)-depleted beetroot juice (PL) for 3 days prior to moderate-intensity and severe-intensity exercise tests in H and N. Preexercise plasma [NO2 (-)] was significantly elevated in H-BR and N-BR compared with H-PL (P < 0.01) and N-PL (P < 0.01). The rate of decline in plasma [NO2 (-)] was greater during severe-intensity exercise in H-BR [-30 ± 22 nM/min, 95% confidence interval (CI); -44, -16] compared with H-PL (-7 ± 10 nM/min, 95% CI; -13, -1; P < 0.01) and in N-BR (-26 ± 19 nM/min, 95% CI; -38, -14) compared with N-PL (-1 ± 6 nM/min, 95% CI; -5, 2; P < 0.01). During moderate-intensity exercise, steady-state pulmonary V?o2 was lower in H-BR (1.91 ± 0.28 l/min, 95% CI; 1.77, 2.13) compared with H-PL (2.05 ± 0.25 l/min, 95% CI; 1.93, 2.26; P = 0.02), and V?o2 kinetics was faster in H-BR (?: 24 ± 13 s, 95% CI; 15, 32) compared with H-PL (31 ± 11 s, 95% CI; 23, 38; P = 0.04). NO3 (-) supplementation had no significant effect on V?o2 kinetics during severe-intensity exercise in hypoxia, or during moderate-intensity or severe-intensity exercise in normoxia. Tolerance to severe-intensity exercise was improved by NO3 (-) in hypoxia (H-PL: 197 ± 28; 95% CI; 173, 220 vs. H-BR: 214 ± 43 s, 95% CI; 177, 249; P = 0.04) but not normoxia. The metabolism of NO2 (-) during exercise is altered by NO3 (-) supplementation, exercise, and to a lesser extent, hypoxia. In hypoxia, NO3 (-) supplementation enhances V?o2 kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise and improves severe-intensity exercise tolerance. These findings may have important implications for individuals exercising at altitude. PMID:25009219

  19. Nitrate reduction

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

  20. Effects of reducing reagents and temperature on conversion of nitrite and nitrate to nitric oxide and detection of NO by chemiluminescence.

    PubMed

    Yang, F; Troncy, E; Francoeur, M; Vinet, B; Vinay, P; Czaika, G; Blaise, G

    1997-04-01

    To measure the concentration of nitrites and nitrates by chemiluminescence, we examined the efficiency of five reducing agents [V(III), Mo(VI) + Fe(II), NaI, Ti(III), and Cr(III)] to reduce nitrite (NO2-) and (or) nitrate (NO3-) to nitric oxide (NO). The effect of each reducing agent on the conversion of different amounts of NO2- and (or) NO3- (100-500 pmol, representing concentrations of 0.4 to 2 mu molar) to NO was determined at 20 degrees C for NO2- and at 80 degrees C for NO3-. The effect of temperature from 20 to 90 degrees C on the conversion of a fixed amount of NO2- or NO3- (400 pmol or 1.6 mu molar) to NO was also determined. These five reducing agents are similarly efficient for the conversion of NO2- to NO at 20 degrees C. V(III) and Mo(VI) + Fe(II) can completely reduce NO3- to NO at 80 degrees C. NaI and Cr(III) were unable to convert NO3- to NO. Increased temperature facilitated the conversion of NO3- to NO, rather than that of NO2- to NO. We evaluated the recovery of NO2- and NO3- from plasmas of pig and of dog. Recovery from plasma of both animals was reproducible and near quantitative. PMID:9105269

  1. Subtilisin QK, a fibrinolytic enzyme, inhibits the exogenous nitrite and hydrogen peroxide induced protein nitration, in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ko, Juho; Yan, Junpeng; Zhu, Lei; Qi, Yipeng

    2005-09-30

    Subtilisin QK, which is newly identified as a fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis QK02, has the ability of preventing nitrotyrosine formation in bovine serum albumin induced by nitrite, hydrogen peroxide and hemoglobin in vitro verified by ELISA, Western-blot and spectrophotometer assay. Subtilisin QK also attenuates the fluorescence emission spectra of bovine serum albumin in the course of oxidation caused by nitrite, hydrogen peroxide and hemoglobin. Furthermore, subtilisin QK could suppress the transformation of oxy-hemoglobin to met-hemoglobin caused by sodium nitrite, but not the heat-treated subtilisn QK. Compared with some other fibrinolytic enzymes and inactivated subtilisin QK treated by phenylmethylsulfonylfluoride, the ability of inhibiting met-hemoglobin formation of subtilisin QK reveals that the anti-oxidative ability of subtilisin QK is not concerned with its fibrinolytic function. Additionally, nitrotyrosine formation in proteins from brain, heart, liver, kidney, and muscle of mice that is intramuscular injected the mixture of nitrite, hydrogen peroxide and hemoglobin is attenuated by subtilisin QK. Subtilisin QK can also protect Human umbilical vein endothelial cell (ECV-304) from the damage caused by nitrite and hydrogen peroxide. PMID:16202238

  2. A novel FIA configuration for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite and its use for monitoring an urban waste water treatment plant based on N\\/D criteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D Gabriel; J Baeza; F Valero; J Lafuente

    1998-01-01

    A novel FIA configuration for the simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, and its automation for monitoring an urban waste water treatment plant (WWTP) based on nitrification\\/denitrification criteria, are proposed. The detection range achieved is 0.25–50mgl?1 for nitrate and 0.05–5mgl?1 for nitrite (0.056–11.29mg N–NO?3 l?1 and 0.015–1.52mg N–NO?2 l?1). The maximum sampling frequency is 180 samples\\/day and the Relative Standard

  3. Effects on inorganic nitrogen compounds release of contaminated sediment treatment with in situ calcium nitrate injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tongzhou; Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Huacai; Wang, Hongjie

    2015-01-01

    Notable releases of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia are often observed in contaminated sediment treatment works implementing in situ calcium nitrate injection. In order to provide extended information for making best decision of employing this in situ sediment remediation technology, in this study the releases of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia from the sediment after the calcium nitrate addition operation was investigated in column setups designed to simulate the scenarios of a stagnant water (e.g., a pound or small lake) and a tidal-influenced water (e.g., a river mouth), respectively. Comparison with published aquatic toxicity data or authorized criteria was conducted to assess if there is any toxic effect that might be induced. Along with the vigorous N2 emission due to the denitrification reactions which occurred in the treated sediment, external loaded nitrate, intermediately produced nitrite, and indigenous ammonia in the sediment showed being mobilized and released out. Their promoted release and fast buildup in the overlying water to an excessive level probably cause toxic effects to sensitive freshwater living species. Among them, the potential ecological risk induced by the promoted sediment ammonia release is the greatest, and cautions shall be raised for applying the calcium nitrate injection in ammonia-rich sediments. The caused impacts shall be less violent in a tidal-influenced water body, and comparatively, the continuous and fast accumulation of the released inorganic nitrogen compounds in a stagnant water body might impose severer influences to the ecosystem until being further transferred to less harmful forms. PMID:25135170

  4. Signal-dependent phosphorylation of the membrane-bound NarX two-component sensor-transmitter protein of Escherichia coli: nitrate elicits a superior anion ligand response compared to nitrite.

    PubMed

    Lee, A I; Delgado, A; Gunsalus, R P

    1999-09-01

    The Nar two-component regulatory system, consisting of the dual sensor-transmitters NarX and NarQ and the dual response regulators NarL and NarP, controls the expression of various anaerobic respiratory pathway genes and fermentation pathway genes. Although both NarX and NarQ are known to detect the two environmental signals nitrate and nitrite, little is known regarding the sensitivity and selectivity of ligand for detection or activation of the sensor-transmitters. In this study, we have developed a sensitive anion-specific in vitro assay for NarX autophosphorylation by using Escherichia coli membranes highly enriched in the full-length NarX protein. In this ATP- and magnesium-dependent reaction, nitrate elicited a greater signal output (i.e., NarX autophosphorylation) than did nitrite. Nitrate stimulation occurred at concentrations as low as 5 microM, and the half-maximal level of NarX autophosphorylation occurred at approximately 35 microM nitrate. In contrast, nitrite-dependent stimulation was detected only at 500 microM, while 3.5 mM nitrite was needed to achieve half-maximal NarX autophosphorylation. Maximal nitrate- and nitrite-stimulated levels of NarX phosphorylation were five and two times, respectively, over the basal level of NarX autophosphorylation. The presence of Triton X-100 eliminated the nitrate-stimulated kinase activity and lowered the basal level of activity, suggesting that the membrane environment plays a crucial role in nitrate detection and/or regulation of kinase activity. These results provide in vitro evidence for the differential detection of dual signaling ligands by the NarX sensor-transmitter protein, which modulates the cytoplasmic NarX autokinase activity and phosphotransfer to NarL, the cognate response regulator. PMID:10464202

  5. The combined effect of dissolved oxygen and nitrite on N2O production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria in an enriched nitrifying sludge.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lai; Ni, Bing-Jie; Ye, Liu; Yuan, Zhiguo

    2015-04-15

    Both nitrite [Formula: see text] and dissolved oxygen (DO) play important roles in nitrous oxide (N2O) production by ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB). However, few studies focused on the combined effect of them on N2O production by AOB as well as the corresponding mechanisms. In this study, N2O production by an enriched nitrifying sludge, consisting of both AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), was investigated under various [Formula: see text] and DO concentrations. At each investigated DO level, both the biomass specific N2O production rate and the N2O emission factor (the ratio between N2O nitrogen emitted and the ammonium nitrogen converted) increased as [Formula: see text] concentration increased from 3 mg N/L to 50 mg N/L. However, at each investigated [Formula: see text] level, the maximum biomass specific N2O production rate occurred at DO of 0.85 mg O2/L, while the N2O emission factor decreased as DO increased from 0.35 to 3.5 mg O2/L. The analysis of the process data using a mathematical N2O model incorporating both the AOB denitrification and hydroxylamine (NH2OH) oxidation pathways indicated that the contribution of AOB denitrification pathway increased as [Formula: see text] concentration increased, but decreased as DO concentration increased, accompanied by a corresponding change in the contribution of NH2OH oxidation pathway to N2O production. The AOB denitrification pathway was predominant in most cases, with the NH2OH oxidation pathway making a comparable contribution only at high DO level (e.g. 3.5 mg O2/L). PMID:25644626

  6. Assessment of Nitrification in Distribution Systems of Waters with Elevated Ammonia Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this work is to monitor ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in drinking water from the distribution systems of four drinking water utilities in Illinois. A monthly drinking water distribution system water quality monitoring protocol for each water utility in Illinois h...

  7. Stoichiometry between photosynthetic nitrate reduction and alkalinisation by Ankistrodesmus braunii in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Eisele; W. R. Ullrich

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of nitrate or nitrite in the light, the release of nitrite and ammonia, and the corresponding alkalinisation of the medium were measured in synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii (Naeg.) Brunnth. The increase in the OH- concentration in the medium reflects a stoichiometric ratio between OH- and NO3- of 1.3–1.8 in air, reaching almost 2.0 in CO2-free air or nitrogen. At

  8. The nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase operons and the narT gene of Staphylococcus carnosus are positively controlled by the novel two-component system NreBC.

    PubMed

    Fedtke, I; Kamps, A; Krismer, B; Götz, F

    2002-12-01

    In Staphylococcus carnosus, the nreABC (for nitrogen regulation) genes were identified and shown to link the nitrate reductase operon (narGHJI) and the putative nitrate transporter gene narT. An nreABC deletion mutant, m1, was dramatically affected in nitrate and nitrite reduction and growth. Transcription of narT, narGHJI, and the nitrite reductase (nir) operon was severely reduced even when cells were cultivated anaerobically without nitrate or nitrite. nreABC transcripts were detected when cells were grown aerobically or anaerobically with or without nitrate or nitrite. NreA is a GAF domain-containing protein of unknown function. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that NreC is phosphorylated by NreB and that phospho-NreC specifically binds to a GC-rich palindromic sequence to enhance transcription initiation. This binding motif was found at the narGHJI, nir, and narT promoters but not at the moeB promoter. NreB is a cytosolic protein with four N-terminal cysteine residues. The second cysteine residue was shown to be important for NreB function. In vitro autophosphorylation of NreB was not affected by nitrate, nitrite, or molybdate. The nir promoter activity was iron dependent. The data provide evidence for a global regulatory system important for aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, with NreB and NreC forming a classical two-component system and NreB acting as a sensor protein with oxygen as the effector molecule. PMID:12426351

  9. The Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase Operons and the narT Gene of Staphylococcus carnosus Are Positively Controlled by the Novel Two-Component System NreBC

    PubMed Central

    Fedtke, I.; Kamps, A.; Krismer, B.; Götz, F.

    2002-01-01

    In Staphylococcus carnosus, the nreABC (for nitrogen regulation) genes were identified and shown to link the nitrate reductase operon (narGHJI) and the putative nitrate transporter gene narT. An nreABC deletion mutant, m1, was dramatically affected in nitrate and nitrite reduction and growth. Transcription of narT, narGHJI, and the nitrite reductase (nir) operon was severely reduced even when cells were cultivated anaerobically without nitrate or nitrite. nreABC transcripts were detected when cells were grown aerobically or anaerobically with or without nitrate or nitrite. NreA is a GAF domain-containing protein of unknown function. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that NreC is phosphorylated by NreB and that phospho-NreC specifically binds to a GC-rich palindromic sequence to enhance transcription initiation. This binding motif was found at the narGHJI, nir, and narT promoters but not at the moeB promoter. NreB is a cytosolic protein with four N-terminal cysteine residues. The second cysteine residue was shown to be important for NreB function. In vitro autophosphorylation of NreB was not affected by nitrate, nitrite, or molybdate. The nir promoter activity was iron dependent. The data provide evidence for a global regulatory system important for aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, with NreB and NreC forming a classical two-component system and NreB acting as a sensor protein with oxygen as the effector molecule. PMID:12426351

  10. Effects of repeated application of sulfadiazine-contaminated pig manure on the abundance and diversity of ammonia and nitrite oxidizers in the root-rhizosphere complex of pasture plants under field conditions

    PubMed Central

    Ollivier, Julien; Schacht, Daniela; Kindler, Reimo; Groeneweg, Joost; Engel, Marion; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment, the impact of repeated application of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ)-contaminated pig manure was assessed on functional microbial communities involved in ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the root-rhizosphere complexes (RRCs) of diverse plants composing a pasture. We surveyed the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) as well as Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the diversity of amoA AOA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA amplicons using a cloning-sequencing approach. Whereas the first SDZ-contaminated manure application caused only slight effects on the investigated microbial communities and did not change the diversity and abundance pattern significantly, the second application of SDZ-contaminated manure induced an up to 15-fold increased ratio of AOA:AOB and a reduction of nrxA genes. The diversity of AOA amoA increased after the second application of SDZ-contaminated manure compared to the control treatment whereas a clear reduction of nrxA OTUs was visible in the same samples. The results indicate that the application of SDZ may principally affect nitrite oxidation by NOB and alternative pathways like nitrite reduction might be favored under these conditions. PMID:23420031

  11. GIS-based methodologies for assessing nitrate,nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK basin,the Humber Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(4), 823833 (2004) EGU

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    GIS-based methodologies for assessing nitrate,nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK basin,the Humber 823 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(4), 823833 (2004) © EGU GIS a Geographical Information System (GIS) framework. This basin contains diverse characteristics, from areas

  12. Co-occurrence of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria in two Qinghai-Tibetan saline lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Hou, Weiguo; Sun, Yongjuan; Lai, Zhongping; Dong, Hailiang

    2012-12-01

    Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) bacteria and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are two groups of microorganisms involved in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In order to test whether the n-damo and anammox bacteria co-occur in natural saline environments, the DNA and cDNA samples obtained from the surficial sediments of two saline lakes (with salinity of 32 and 84 g/L, respectively) on the Tibetan Plateau were PCR-amplified with the use of anammox- and n-damo-specific primer sets, followed by clone library construction and phylogenetic analysis. DNA and cDNA-based clones affiliated with n-damo and anammox bacteria were successfully retrieved from the two samples, indicating that these two groups of bacteria can co-occur in natural saline environments with salinity as high as 84 g/L. Our finding has great implications for our understanding of the global carbon and nitrogen cycle in nature.

  13. Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization studies. Final technical progress report, May 1995--May 1996

    SciTech Connect

    NONE

    1996-05-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. Around 1 billion liters of high level waste tank supernatant are present at Hanford, Savannah River Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest quantity of these wastes is in the 149 single shell tanks at Hanford which hold up to 1 million gallons each. These tank waste are typically 4 to 5 molar in nitrate and contain radionuclides, various salts, and heavy metals. INEL high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.7 and 0.6 grams per liter of chromium and mercury, respectively. SRP high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.2 g/L of chromium. Other heavy metals could well be present at lower levels in theses tank wastes. The major components present in these wastes are summarized in Appendix A. These wastes are currently regulated and managed by the DOE. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) DOE is subject to RCRA, which would apply to these tank supernatants. Stabilization of this waste is difficult because nitrates are very mobile. Additionally, vitrification of these wastes produces large quantities of hard-to-manage NO{sub x} emissions. The conversion of sodium nitrate to ammonia is discussed.

  14. Removal of ammonia solutions used in catalytic wet oxidation processes.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chang Mao; Lou, Jie Chung; Lin, Chia Hua

    2003-08-01

    Ammonia (NH(3)) is an important product used in the chemical industry, and is common place in industrial wastewater. Industrial wastewater containing ammonia is generally either toxic or has concentrations or temperatures such that direct biological treatment is unfeasible. This investigation used aqueous solutions containing more of ammonia for catalytic liquid-phase oxidation in a trickle-bed reactor (TBR) based on Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts, prepared by co-precipitation of Cu(NO(3))(2), La(NO(3))(2), and Ce(NO(3))(3) at 7:2:1 molar concentrations. The experimental results indicated that the ammonia conversion of the wet oxidation in the presence of the Cu/La/Ce composite catalysts was determined by the Cu/La/Ce catalyst. Minimal ammonia was removed from the solution by the wet oxidation in the absence of any catalyst, while approximately 91% ammonia removal was achieved by wet oxidation over the Cu/La/Ce catalyst at 230 degrees C with oxygen partial pressure of 2.0 MPa. Furthermore, the effluent streams were conducted at a liquid hourly space velocity of under 9 h(-1) in the wet catalytic processes, and a reaction pathway was found linking the oxidizing ammonia to nitric oxide, nitrogen and water. The solution contained by-products, including nitrates and nitrites. Nitrite selectivity was minimized and ammonia removal maximized when the feed ammonia solution had a pH of around 12.0. PMID:12781232

  15. Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria

    E-print Network

    Konhauser, Kurt

    Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria Nicole Klueglein,a Fabian Zeitvogel,b York-Dieter Stierhof,c Matthias and microoxic conditions. While most of the mix- otrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and compli- cates our ability to delineate microbial Fe

  16. Toxicity of Nitrite to Fish: A Review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William M. Lewis Jr; Donald P. Morris

    1986-01-01

    Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms

  17. Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. LEWIS; DONALD P. MORRIS

    1986-01-01

    Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms

  18. Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    in physicochemically diverse geothermal habitats, including > 40 hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (de la Torre Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea Jeremy A. Dodsworth,1 Bruce A. Hungate2 crenarchaeol, another possible biomarker for AOA, has been recovered from hot springs in the US Great Basin

  19. Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin

    E-print Network

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    in physicochemically diverse geothermal habitats, including > 40 hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (de la Torre Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaeaemi_2508 1..16 Jeremy A. Dodsworth,1 Bruce A crenarchaeol, another possible biomarker for AOA, has been recovered from hot springs in the US Great Basin

  20. Nitrogen Deposition and Nitrate Leaching at Forest Edges Exposed to High Ammonia Emissions in Southern Bavaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrea Spangenberg; Christian Kölling

    2004-01-01

    The atmospheric deposition of air pollutants was studied by means of monitoring canopy throughfall at six forest stands. The investigation was carried out in Norway spruce (Picea abies L. Karst.) forests in Southern Bavaria with high ambient ammonia concentrations due to either adjacent intensive agriculture or poultry housing. Five monitoring plots transected the forest edges and forest interior from the

  1. Isotopic analysis of N and O in nitrite and nitrate by sequential selective bacterial reduction to N2O

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Böhlke, J.K.; Smith, R.L.; Hannon, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nitrite is an important intermediate species in the biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, but its role in natural aquatic systems is poorly understood. Isotopic data can be used to study the sources and transformations of NO 2- in the environment, but methods for independent isotopic analyses of NO2- in the presence of other N species are still new and evolving. This study demonstrates that isotopic analyses of N and O in NO2- can be done by treating whole freshwater or saltwater samples with the denitrifying bacterium Stenotrophomonas nitritireducens, which selectively reduces NO2- to N 2O for isotope ratio mass spectrometry. When calibrated with solutions containing NO2- with known isotopic compositions determined independently, reproducible ??15N and ??18O values were obtained at both natural-abundance levels (??0.2-0.5??? for ??15N and ?? 0.4-1.0%o for ??18O) and moderately enriched 15N tracer levels (??20-50%o for ??15N near 5000???) for 5-20 nmol of NO2- (1-20 ??mol/L in 1-5 mL aliquots). This method is highly selective for NO2- and was used for mixed samples containing both NO2- and NO3- with little or no measurable cross-contamination. In addition, mixed samples that were analyzed with S. nitritireducens were treated subsequently with Pseudomonas aureofaciens to reduce the NO3- in the absence of NO 2-, providing isotopic analyses of NO2- and NO3- separately in the same aliquot. Sequential bacterial reduction methods like this one should be useful for a variety of isotopic studies aimed at understanding nitrogen cycling in aquatic environments. A test of these methods in an agricultural watershed in Indiana provides isotopic evidence for both nitrification and denitrification as sources of NO2- in a small stream.

  2. Analytical properties of some commercially available nitrate reductase enzymes evaluated as replacements for cadmium in automated, semiautomated, and manual colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

    2013-01-01

    A multiyear research effort at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) evaluated several commercially available nitrate reductase (NaR) enzymes as replacements for toxic cadmium in longstanding automated colorimetric air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer (CFA) methods for determining nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) in water. This research culminated in USGS approved standard- and low-level enzymatic reduction, colorimetric automated discrete analyzer NOx methods that have been in routine operation at the NWQL since October 2011. The enzyme used in these methods (AtNaR2) is a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouseear cress) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Because the scope of the validation report for these new automated discrete analyzer methods, published as U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 5–B8, was limited to performance benchmarks and operational details, extensive foundational research with different enzymes—primarily YNaR1, a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Pichia angusta in the yeast Pichia pastoris—remained unpublished until now. This report documents research and development at the NWQL that was foundational to development and validation of the discrete analyzer methods. It includes: (1) details of instrumentation used to acquire kinetics data for several NaR enzymes in the presence and absence of known or suspected inhibitors in relation to reaction temperature and reaction pH; and (2) validation results—method detection limits, precision and bias estimates, spike recoveries, and interference studies—for standard- and low-level automated colorimetric CFA-YNaR1 reduction NOx methods in relation to corresponding USGS approved CFA cadmium-reduction (CdR) NOx methods. The cornerstone of this validation is paired sample statistical and graphical analysis of NOx concentrations from more than 3,800 geographically and seasonally diverse surface-water and groundwater samples that were analyzed in parallel by CFA-CdR and CFA enzyme-reduction methods. Finally, (3) demonstration of a semiautomated batch procedure in which 2-milliliter analyzer cups or disposable spectrophotometer cuvettes serve as reaction vessels for enzymatic reduction of nitrate to nitrite prior to analytical determinations. After the reduction step, analyzer cups are loaded onto CFA, flow injection, or discrete analyzers for simple, rapid, automatic nitrite determinations. In the case of manual determinations, analysts dispense colorimetric reagents into cuvettes containing post-reduction samples, allow time for color to develop, insert cuvettes individually into a spectrophotometer, and record percent transmittance or absorbance in relation to a reagent blank. Data presented here demonstrate equivalent analytical performance of enzymatic reduction NOx methods in these various formats to that of benchmark CFA-CdR NOx methods.

  3. Control of aeration, aerobic SRT and COD input for mainstream nitritation/denitritation.

    PubMed

    Regmi, Pusker; Miller, Mark W; Holgate, Becky; Bunce, Ryder; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

    2014-06-15

    This work describes the development of an intermittently aerated pilot-scale process (V = 0.34 m(3)) operated without oxidized nitrogen recycle and supplemental carbon addition optimized for nitrogen removal via nitritation/denitritation. The aeration pattern was controlled using a novel aeration strategy based on set-points for reactor ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations with the aim of maintaining equal effluent ammonia and nitrate + nitrite (NOx) concentrations. Further, unique operational and process control strategies were developed to facilitate the out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) based on optimizing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) input, imposing transient anoxia, aggressive solids retention time (SRT) operation towards ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) washout and high dissolved oxygen (DO) (>1.5 mg/L). Sustained nitrite accumulation (NO2-N/NOx-N = 0.36 ± 0.27) was observed while AOB activity was greater than NOB activity (AOB: 391 ± 124 mgN/L/d, NOB: 233 ± 151 mgN/L/d, p < 0.001) during the entire study. The reactor demonstrated total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal rate of 151 ± 74 mgN/L/d at an influent COD/ [Formula: see text] -N ratio of 10.4 ± 1.9 at 25 °C. The TIN removal efficiency was 57  ±  25% within the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h and within an SRT of 4-8 days. Therefore, this pilot-scale study demonstrates that application of the proposed online aeration control is able to out-select NOB in mainstream conditions providing relatively high nitrogen removal without supplemental carbon and alkalinity at a low HRT. PMID:24721663

  4. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: the characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods.

    PubMed

    Hammes, Walter P

    2012-04-01

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method in curing processes and requires its reduction to reactive nitrite. Thus, nitrate reduction is the key event that is exclusively performed by microorganisms. Under controlled fermentation conditions starter cultures are used that contain staphylococci and/or Kocuria varians, which in addition to strongly affecting sensory properties exhibit efficient nitrate reductase activity. To obtain clean label products some plant sources of nitrate have been in use. When producing thermally treated sausages (e.g. of emulsion type), starter cultures are used that form nitrite before cooking takes place. Staphylococci reduce nitrite to ammonia after nitrate has been consumed. K. varians is devoid of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrate and nitrite reductases are also present in certain strains of lactobacilli. It was shown that their application as starter cultures warrants efficient activity in sausages made with either nitrate or nitrite. NO is formed from nitrite in numerous chemical reactions among which disproportionation and reaction with reductants either added or endogenous in meat are of practical importance. Numerous nitrosation and nitrosylation reactions take place in the meat matrix among which the formation of nitrosomyoglobin is of major sensory importance. Safety considerations in meat fermentation relate to the safe nature of the starter organisms and to the use of nitrate/nitrite. Staphylococci ("micrococci") in fermented meat have a long tradition in food use but have not received the QPS status from the EFSA. They require, therefore, thorough assessment with regard to toxigenicity and pathogenicity determinants as well as presence of transferable antibiotic resistance. Nitrate and nitrite are still considered basically undesired in food. The main objections are based on their potential to form nitrosamines with carcinogenic potential. In view of new results from intensive research of NO, potential risks are opposed by positive effects on human health. PMID:22202868

  5. Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aulenbach, Brent T.

    2006-01-01

    Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

  6. Direct and indirect effects of ammonia, ammonium and nitrate on phosphatase activity and carbon fluxes from decomposing litter in peatland.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David; Moore, Lucy; Green, Samuel; Leith, Ian D; Sheppard, Lucy J

    2010-10-01

    Here we investigate the response of soils and litter to 5 years of experimental additions of ammonium (NH4), nitrate (NO3), and ammonia (NH3) to an ombrotrophic peatland. We test the importance of direct (via soil) and indirect (via litter) effects on phosphatase activity and efflux of CO2. We also determined how species representing different functional types responded to the nitrogen treatments. Our results demonstrate that additions of NO3, NH4 and NH3 all stimulated phosphatase activity but the effects were dependent on species of litter and mechanism (direct or indirect). Deposition of NH3 had no effect on efflux of CO2 from Calluna vulgaris litter, despite it showing signs of stress in the field, whereas both NO3 and NH4 reduced CO2 fluxes. Our results show that the collective impacts on peatlands of the three principal forms of nitrogen in atmospheric deposition are a result of differential effects and mechanisms on individual components. PMID:20674110

  7. Stoichiometry between photosynthetic nitrate reduction and alkalinisation by Ankistrodesmus braunii in vivo.

    PubMed

    Eisele, R; Ullrich, W R

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of nitrate or nitrite in the light, the release of nitrite and ammonia, and the corresponding alkalinisation of the medium were measured in synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii (Naeg.) Brunnth. The increase in the OH(-) concentration in the medium reflects a stoichiometric ratio between OH(-) and NO3 (-) of 1.3-1.8 in air, reaching almost 2.0 in CO2-free air or nitrogen. At low CO2 concentrations a large proportion of the nitrogen taken up as nitrate is released as ammonia, much less as nitrite. The stoichiometry of alkalinisation and NO3 (-) or NO2 (-) uptake can be quantitatively explained by assuming: 1) a counter-transport, at a ratio of 1:1, of OH(-) against NO3 (-) at the plasmalemma and of OH(-) against NO2 (-) at the chloroplast envelope, and 2) a co-transport of 1:1 of OH(-) and NH4 (+) to the medium through both membranes. The first OH(-) required is formed by proton consumption in nitrite reduction, the second OH(-) by proton consumption in the formation of NH4 (+) ions. Transport of K(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+) is not or only scarcely involved. This proposed transport system could provide charge equilibrium between inside and outside the cells and could enable the cells to avoid nternal pH changes in nitrate and nitrite reduction. PMID:24435078

  8. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves literature survey of technologies to perform the nitrate to hydroxide conversion, selection of the most promising technologies, preparation of a flowsheet and design of a system. The most promising technologies are electrochemical reduction of nitrates and chemical reduction with hydrogen or ammonia. The primary reviewed technologies are listed and they aredescribed in more detail later in the report: (1) Electrochemical destruction; (2) Chemical reduction with agents such as ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen; (3) Hydrothermal reduction process; and (4) Calcination. Only three of the technologies on the list have been demonstrated to generate usable amounts of caustic; electrochemical reduction and chemical reduction with ammonia, hydrazine or hydrogen and hydrothermal reduction. Chemical reduction with an organic reactant such as formic acid generates carbon dioxide which reacts with caustic and is thus counterproductive. Treatment of nitrate with aluminum or other active metals generates a solid product. High temperature calcination has the potential to generate sodium oxide which may be hydrated to sodium hydroxide, but this is unproven. The following criteria were developed to evaluate the most suitable option. The numbers in brackets after the criteria are relative weighting factors to account for importance: (1) Personnel exposure to radiation for installation, routine operation and maintenance; (2) Non-radioactive safety issues; (3) Whether the technology generates caustic and how many moles of caustic are generated per mole of nitrate plus nitrite decomposed; (4) Whether the technology can handle nitrate and nitrite at the concentrations encountered in waste; (5) Maturity of technology; (6) Estimated annual cost of operation (labor, depreciation, materials, utilities); (7) Capital cost; (8) Selectivity to nitrogen as decomposition product (other products are flammable and/or toxic); (9) Impact of introduced species; (10) Selectivity for destruction of nitrate vs. nitrite; and (11) Cost of deactivation and demolition. Each technology was given a score from one

  9. Ammonia, nitrate and sulfate: Concentration measurements in air and rainfall and their contribution to fine particle formation in the lower Fraser Valley of British Columbia

    SciTech Connect

    Belzer, W.; Poon, A.; Evans, C. [Environment Canada, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

    1998-12-31

    Various forms of atmospheric nitrogen compounds, including ammonia and nitrate can contribute to particle formation which can result in atmospheric haze, acid rain and nitrate contamination from groundwater to local aquifers. The concentration of these atmospheric compounds in the agricultural area of the Lower Fraser Valley in British Columbia has not been previously assessed. Concerns about the high levels of nitrate concentrations in groundwater and aquifers in this area prompted an assessment of the atmospheric concentrations and their potential deposition contributions to the aquifers. This report examines the data from a sampling program with respect to temporal and spatial concentrations and depositions. Actual measurements taken during a portion of the growing season at the Abbotsford site showed a maximum deposition of 42.5 kg/ha/year as nitrogen and an average of 8.6 kg/ha/year as nitrogen.

  10. REDUCTION OF NITRATE THROUGH THE USE OF NITRATE REDUCTASE FOR THE SMARTCHEM AUTOANALYZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The standard method for the determination of nitrate in drinking water, USEPA Method 353.2 żDetermination of Nitrate-Nitrite by Automated Colorimetry,ż employs cadmium as the reductant for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then analyzed colorimetrically by way ...

  11. Abiotic nitrogen fixation on terrestrial planets: reduction of NO to ammonia by FeS.

    PubMed

    Summers, David P; Basa, Ranor C B; Khare, Bishun; Rodoni, David

    2012-02-01

    Understanding the abiotic fixation of nitrogen and how such fixation can be a supply of prebiotic nitrogen is critical for understanding both the planetary evolution of, and the potential origin of life on, terrestrial planets. As nitrogen is a biochemically essential element, sources of biochemically accessible nitrogen, especially reduced nitrogen, are critical to prebiotic chemistry and the origin of life. Loss of atmospheric nitrogen can result in loss of the ability to sustain liquid water on a planetary surface, which would impact planetary habitability and hydrological processes that shape the surface. It is known that NO can be photochemically converted through a chain of reactions to form nitrate and nitrite, which can be subsequently reduced to ammonia. Here, we show that NO can also be directly reduced, by FeS, to ammonia. In addition to removing nitrogen from the atmosphere, this reaction is particularly important as a source of reduced nitrogen on an early terrestrial planet. By converting NO directly to ammonia in a single step, ammonia is formed with a higher product yield (~50%) than would be possible through the formation of nitrate/nitrite and subsequent conversion to ammonia. In conjunction with the reduction of NO, there is also a catalytic disproportionation at the mineral surface that converts NO to NO? and N?O. The NO? is then converted to ammonia, while the N?O is released back in the gas phase, which provides an abiotic source of nitrous oxide. PMID:22283408

  12. Measurements of nitrite production in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central California Current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

    2013-11-01

    Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open-ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea as well as assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central California Current in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), precise measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process, with rates of NH3 oxidation to NO2- of up to 31 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- production agreed with production determined from 15N bottle incubations within the PNM, but a modeled net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM was not captured in the incubations. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM ranged from 18 to 470 days at the mesotrophic station and was 40 days at the oligotrophic station. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.

  13. Stable Isotope Probing Analysis of Interactions between Ammonia Oxidizers?

    PubMed Central

    Tourna, Maria; Freitag, Thomas E.; Prosser, James I.

    2010-01-01

    The response of natural microbial communities to environmental change can be assessed by determining DNA- or RNA-targeted changes in relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences by using fingerprinting techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DNA-DGGE and RNA-DGGE, respectively) or by stable isotope probing (SIP) of 16S rRNA genes following incubation with a 13C-labeled substrate (DNA-SIP-DGGE). The sensitivities of these three approaches were compared during batch growth of communities containing two or three Nitrosospira pure or enriched cultures with different tolerances to a high ammonia concentration. Cultures were supplied with low, intermediate, or high initial ammonia concentrations and with 13C-labeled carbon dioxide. DNA-SIP-DGGE provided the most direct evidence for growth and was the most sensitive, with changes in DGGE profiles evident before changes in DNA- and RNA-DGGE profiles and before detectable increases in nitrite and nitrate production. RNA-DGGE provided intermediate sensitivity. In addition, the three molecular methods were used to follow growth of individual strains within communities. In general, changes in relative activities of individual strains within communities could be predicted from monoculture growth characteristics. Ammonia-tolerant Nitrosospira cluster 3b strains dominated mixed communities at all ammonia concentrations, and ammonia-sensitive strains were outcompeted at an intermediate ammonia concentration. However, coexistence of ammonia-tolerant and ammonia-sensitive strains occurred at the lowest ammonia concentration, and, under some conditions, strains inhibited at high ammonia in monoculture were active at high ammonia in mixed cultures, where they coexisted with ammonia-tolerant strains. The results therefore demonstrate the sensitivity of SIP for detection of activity of organisms with relatively low yield and low activity and its ability to follow changes in the structure of interacting microbial communities. PMID:20154116

  14. Microbial Reduction of Chromate in the Presence of Nitrate by Three Nitrate Respiring Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Chovanec, Peter; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Zhang, Ning; Basu, Partha; Stolz, John F.

    2012-01-01

    A major challenge for the bioremediation of toxic metals is the co-occurrence of nitrate, as it can inhibit metal transformation. Geobacter metallireducens, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, and Sulfurospirillum barnesii are three soil bacteria that can reduce chromate [Cr(VI)] and nitrate, and may be beneficial for developing bioremediation strategies. All three organisms respire through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), employing different nitrate reductases but similar nitrite reductase (Nrf). G. metallireducens reduces nitrate to nitrite via the membrane bound nitrate reductase (Nar), while S. barnesii and D. desulfuricans strain 27774 have slightly different forms of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap). We investigated the effect of DNRA growth in the presence of Cr(VI) in these three organisms and the ability of each to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and found that each organisms responded differently. Growth of G. metallireducens on nitrate was completely inhibited by Cr(VI). Cultures of D. desulfuricans on nitrate media was initially delayed (48?h) in the presence of Cr(VI), but ultimately reached comparable cell yields to the non-treated control. This prolonged lag phase accompanied the transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Viable G. metallireducens cells could reduce Cr(VI), whereas Cr(VI) reduction by D. desulfuricans during growth, was mediated by a filterable and heat stable extracellular metabolite. S. barnesii growth on nitrate was not affected by Cr(VI), and Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III). However, Cr(VI) reduction activity in S. barnesii, was detected in both the cell free spent medium and cells, indicating both extracellular and cell associated mechanisms. Taken together, these results have demonstrated that Cr(VI) affects DNRA in the three organisms differently, and that each have a unique mechanism for Cr(VI) reduction. PMID:23251135

  15. Short-term effects of a high nitrate diet on nitrate metabolism in healthy individuals.

    PubMed

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2015-01-01

    Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001) measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake. PMID:25774606

  16. Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases

    PubMed Central

    Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

    2014-01-01

    The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

  17. Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, W.M. Jr.; Morris, D.P.

    1986-03-01

    Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms in 24 h) to the 96-h LC50 has a median value of 2.0 and is fairly uniform across species; toxicity tests of differing duration can therefore be standardized to a common duration. In general, chronic effects are difficult to detect at concentrations below one-fifth of the 96-h LC50. Most fish concentrate nitrite in fresh water; chloride in the external environment offsets the toxicity of nitrite by competing with nitrite for uptake through the chloride cells of the gills. Bicarbonate also reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but it is less than 1% as effective as chloride. Calcium reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but much less than chloride; the effects of other metal cations have not been studied. Hydrogen ion concentration of the medium has not been shown to have a discrete effect on the toxicity of nitrite except at extreme concentrations uncharacteristic of the environments in which fish ordinarily live. Nitrite toxicity is exacerbated by low oxygen concentrations because nitrite reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Very small fish seem less sensitive to nitrite than fish of intermediate or large size. Present evidence suggests that salmonids are among the fishes most sensitive to nitrite. The least-sensitive species tested thus far are the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; the largemouth bass does not concentrate nitrite.

  18. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34 Section 181.34 ...Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior...

  19. 21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. 181.34 Section 181.34 ...Ingredients § 181.34 Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite. Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite are subject to prior...

  20. Liquid and atmospheric ammonia concentrations from a dairy lagoon during an aeration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rumburg, Brian; Neger, Manjit; Mount, George H.; Yonge, David; Filipy, Jenny; Swain, John; Kincaid, Ron; Johnson, Kristen

    Ammonia emissions from agriculture are an environmental and human health concern, and there is increasing pressure to reduce emissions. Animal agriculture is the largest global source of ammonia emissions and on a per cow basis dairy operations are the largest emitters. The storage and disposal of the dairy waste is one area where emissions can be reduced, aerobic biological treatment of wastewater being a common and effective way of reducing ammonia emissions. An aeration experiment in a dairy lagoon with two commercial aerators was performed for 1 month. Liquid concentrations of ammonia, total nitrogen, nitrite and nitrate were monitored before, during and after the experiment and atmospheric ammonia was measured downwind of the lagoon using a short-path differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) instrument with 1 ppbv sensitivity. No changes in either liquid or atmospheric ammonia concentrations were detected throughout the experiment, and neither dissolved oxygen, nitrite nor nitrate could be detected in the lagoon at any time. The average ammonia concentration at 10 sampling sites in the lagoon at a depth of 0.15 m was 650 mg l -1 and at 0.90 m it was 700 mg l -1 NH 3-N. The average atmospheric ammonia concentration 50 m downwind was about 300 ppbv. The 0.90 m depth total nitrogen concentrations and total and volatile solids concentrations decreased during the experiment due to some mixing of the lagoon but the 0.15 m depth concentrations did not decrease indicating that the aerators were not strong enough to mix the sludge off the bottom into the whole water column.

  1. A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

    2015-01-01

    Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

  2. Thermochemical nitrate destruction

    DOEpatents

    Cox, John L. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

  3. Molecular Control of Nitrate Reductase and Other Enzymes Involved in Nitrate Assimilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilbur H. Campbell

    Nitrate acts as both a nutrient and a signal in plants. Nitrate induces gene expression of enzymes for its metabolism into amino acids but also has other effects on plant metabolism and development. Familiar nitrate-induced enzymes are nitrate and nitrite reductases, nitrate transporters, glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, ferredoxin and ferredoxin NADP+ reductase. Microarray analysis of nitrate-stimulated gene expression has identified

  4. Dechlorination process of active carbon-supported, barium nitrate-promoted ruthenium trichloride catalyst for ammonia synthesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hai Sheng Zeng; Koji Inazu; Ken-ichi Aika

    2001-01-01

    The effects of temperature and time of reductive dechlorination of RuCl3 to remove negative-effected chlorine and then form metallic Ru on hydrogen-treated active carbon (HTAC) support on catalytic activity for ammonia synthesis were investigated in detail. The purpose was to try to prepare Ru catalyst by using the low-cost RuCl3 as a precursor to replace other high-priced chlorine-free Ru compounds

  5. Proposed nitrate binding by hemoglobin in Riftia pachyptila blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahlbeck, Edda; Pospesel, Mark A.; Zal, Franck; Childress, James J.; Felbeck, Horst

    2005-10-01

    Riftia pachyptila lives in the unstable environment at hydrothermal vent sites along oceanic spreading zones in the Eastern Pacific. The tubeworm has a symbiosis with intracellular carbon-fixing and sulfide-oxidizing bacteria. Nitrate is the main source of nitrogen available from their habitat. This compound serves as a substrate either for nitrate respiration or for biosynthesis after transformation into ammonia. Very high nitrate (up to 3.2 mM) and nitrite (up to 0.8 mM) concentrations in vascular blood of R. pachyptila indicate a novel uptake mechanism. The dialysis experiments reported here demonstrate the binding and transport of nitrate to the symbionts by high molecular weight components in the blood, most likely hemoglobin. The extent to which nitrate is bound differed markedly between blood from different animals. In addition, a strong inverse correlation was found between the concentrations of sulfide and nitrate in vascular blood, as well as between the sulfur content of trophosome and the nitrate content of vascular blood. Specimens with low sulfur stores showed much lower nitrate levels than those with pale green trophosome due to high levels of elemental sulfur.

  6. Nitrogen-Isotope Effects in the Reduction of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Hydroxylamine to Ammonia. I. In Sodium Hydroxide Solution with Fe (II)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. L. Brown; J. S. Drury

    1967-01-01

    Studies were made of the nitrogen-isotope effects occurring during the alkaline reduction of NO3?, NO2?, and NH2OH with Fe(II). The pertinent reduction reactions were shown to be irreversible and the yields of NH3 quantitative. The reduction of NO3? to NH3 produced a k14\\/k15 value of 1.075±0.004 at 25°C. A k14\\/k15 ratio of 1.034±0.002 at 25°C was obtained for the reduction

  7. The nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process for the denitration and immobilization of low-level radioactive liquid waste (LLW)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muguercia, Ivan

    Hazardous radioactive liquid waste is the legacy of more than 50 years of plutonium production associated with the United States' nuclear weapons program. It is estimated that more than 245,000 tons of nitrate wastes are stored at facilities such as the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site in the state of Washington, and the Melton Valley storage tanks at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee. In order to develop an innovative, new technology for the destruction and immobilization of nitrate-based radioactive liquid waste, the United State Department of Energy (DOE) initiated the research project which resulted in the technology known as the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process. However, inasmuch as the nitrate anion is highly mobile and difficult to immobilize, especially in relatively porous cement-based grout which has been used to date as a method for the immobilization of liquid waste, it presents a major obstacle to environmental clean-up initiatives. Thus, in an effort to contribute to the existing body of knowledge and enhance the efficacy of the NAC process, this research involved the experimental measurement of the rheological and heat transfer behaviors of the NAC product slurry and the determination of the optimal operating parameters for the continuous NAC chemical reaction process. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry exhibits a typical non-Newtonian flow behavior. Correlation equations for the slurry's rheological properties and heat transfer rate in a pipe flow have been developed; these should prove valuable in the design of a full-scale NAC processing plant. The 20-percent slurry exhibited a typical dilatant (shear thickening) behavior and was in the turbulent flow regime due to its lower viscosity. The 40-percent slurry exhibited a typical pseudoplastic (shear thinning) behavior and remained in the laminar flow regime throughout its experimental range. The reactions were found to be more efficient in the lower temperature range investigated. With respect to leachability, the experimental final NAC ceramic waste form is comparable to the final product of vitrification, the technology chosen by DOE to treat these wastes. As the NAC process has the potential of reducing the volume of nitrate-based radioactive liquid waste by as much as 70 percent, it not only promises to enhance environmental remediation efforts but also effect substantial cost savings.

  8. Oxygen and carbon requirements for biological nitrogen removal processes accomplishing nitrification, nitritation, and anammox.

    PubMed

    Daigger, Glen T

    2014-03-01

    The oxygen and carbon savings associated with novel nitrogen removal processes for the treatment of high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter waste streams such as the recycle streams from the dewatering of anaerobically digested sludges are well documented.This understanding may lead some to think that similar oxygen savings are possible if novel processes such as nitritation/ denitritation and partial nitritation-deammonification are incorporated into main liquid stream processes where influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen (nitrite and nitrate). It is demonstrated that the net oxygen required for nitrogen removal is 1.71 mg O2/mg ammonia-nitrogen converted to nitrogen gas as long as influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen. Less oxygen is required to produce oxidized nitrogen with these novel processes, but less biodegradable organic matter is also required for oxidized nitrogen reduction to nitrogen gas, resulting in reduced oxygen savings for the oxidation of biodegradable organic matter. The net oxygen requirement is the same since the net electron transfer for the conversion of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrogen gas is the same. The biodegradable organic matter required to reduce the oxidized nitrogen to nitrogen gas is estimated for these processes based on standard biological process calculations. It is estimated to be in the range of 3.5 to 4.0 mg biodegradable COD/mg ammonia-nitrogen reduced to nitrogen gas for nitrification-denitrification, 2.0 to 2.5 for nitritation-denitritation, and 0.5 for partial nitritation-deammonification. The resulting limiting influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratios are estimated and can be used to guide the appropriate selection of biological nitrogen removal process given knowledge of the biological process influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Energy savings possible for mainstream processes incorporating these novel nitrogen removal processes include reduced process oxygen requirements from reduced biodegradable carbon loadings to the biological process and the potential that plant influent biodegradable carbon can be captured upstream of the biological nitrogen removal process and used to produce energy, for example, by conversion into biogas. PMID:24734468

  9. Nitrite reduction mechanism on a Pd surface.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Jung, Sungyoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-11-01

    Nitrate (NO3-) is one of the most harmful contaminants in the groundwater, and it causes various health problems. Bimetallic catalysts, usually palladium (Pd) coupled with secondary metallic catalyst, are found to properly treat nitrate-containing wastewaters; however, the selectivity toward N2 production over ammonia (NH3) production still requires further improvement. Because the N2 selectivity is determined at the nitrite (NO2-) reduction step on the Pd surface, which occurs after NO3- is decomposed into NO2- on the secondary metallic catalyst, we here performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments to investigate the NO2- reduction pathway on the Pd surface activated by hydrogen. Based on extensive DFT calculations on the relative energetics among ?100 possible intermediates, we found that NO2- is easily reduced to NO* on the Pd surface, followed by either sequential hydrogenation steps to yield NH3 or a decomposition step to N* and O* (an adsorbate on Pd is denoted using an asterisk). Based on the calculated high migration barrier of N*, we further discussed that the direct combination of two N* to yield N2 is kinetically less favorable than the combination of a highly mobile H* with N* to yield NH3. Instead, the reduction of NO2- in the vicinity of the N* can yield N2O* that can be preferentially transformed into N2 via diverse reaction pathways. Our DFT results suggest that enhancing the likelihood of N* encountering NO2- in the solution phase before combination with surface H* is important for maximizing the N2 selectivity. This is further supported by our experiments on NO2- reduction by Pd/TiO2, showing that both a decreased H2 flow rate and an increased NO2- concentration increased the N2 selectivity (78.6-93.6% and 57.8-90.9%, respectively). PMID:25280017

  10. Competition for Ammonia Influences the Structure of Chemotrophic Communities in Geothermal Springs

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, Trinity L.; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R.; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R.; Peters, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii” and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs. PMID:24242238

  11. Competition for ammonia influences the structure of chemotrophic communities in geothermal springs.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii" and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs. PMID:24242238

  12. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  13. Elevated cerebrospinal fluid and serum nitrate and nitrite levels in patients with central nervous system complications of HIV1 infection: a correlation with blood-brain-barrier dysfunction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Giovannoni; R. F Miller; S. J. R Heales; J. M Land; M. J. G Harrison; E. J Thompson

    1998-01-01

    As nitric oxide (?NO) is hypothesised to play a role in the immunopathogenesis of neurological complications associated with inflammation, we compared levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum ?NO metabolites in 24 patients with HIV-1 infection, to those in 58 non-HIV infected patients with neurological disorders. Levels of ?NO metabolites were correlated with blood-brain-barrier dysfunction. CSF and serum nitrate and

  14. Influence of Nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Longevity

    SciTech Connect

    Szecsody, Jim E.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

    2005-07-15

    The purpose of this laboratory study is to determine the influence of nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) barrier longevity. There is a wide spread groundwater plume of 60 mg/L nitrate upgradient of the ISRM barrier with lower nitrate concentrations downgradient, suggestive of nitrate reduction occurring. Batch and 1-D column experiments showed that nitrate is being slowly reduced to nitrite and ammonia. These nitrate reduction reactions are predominantly abiotic, as experiments with and without bactericides present showed no difference in nitrate degradation rates. Nitrogen species transformation rates determined in experiments covered a range of ferrous iron/nitrate ratios such that the data can be used to predict rates in field scale conditions. Field scale reaction rate estimates for 100% reduced sediment (16 C) are: (a) nitrate degradation = 202 {+-} 50 h (half-life), (b) nitrite production = 850 {+-} 300 h, and (c) ammonia production = 650 {+-} 300 h. Calculation of the influence of nitrate reduction on the 100D Area reductive capacity requires consideration of mass balance and reaction rate effects. While dissolved oxygen and chromate reduction rates are rapid and essentially at equilibrium in the aquifer, nitrate transformation reactions are slow (100s of hours). In the limited (20-40 day) residence time in the ISRM barrier, only a portion of the nitrate will be reduced, whereas dissolved oxygen and chromate are reduced to completion. Assuming a groundwater flow rate of 1 ft/day, it is estimated that the ISRM barrier reductive capacity is 160 pore volumes (with no nitrate), and 85 pore volumes if 60 mg/L nitrate is present (i.e., a 47% decrease in the ISRM barrier longevity). Zones with more rapid groundwater flow will be less influenced by nitrate reduction. For example, a zone with a groundwater flow rate of 3 ft/day and 60 mg/L nitrate will have a reductive capacity of 130 pore volumes. Finally, long-term column experiments demonstrated the longevity of the reduced sediment barrier to reduce/immobilize 2 mg/L chromate in the presence of 8.4 mg/L dissolved oxygen (saturation), and 60 mg/L nitrate (maximums observed in the field). Initially the chromate reduction half-life was <0.1 h, 2.4 h by 120 pore volumes, and 17 h by 250 pore volumes. These chromate reduction rates are sufficiently fast relative to the 20-40 day residence time in the field for all chromate to be reduced/immobilized until the sediment is completely oxidized.

  15. Inhibition of Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation by Nitrite? †

    PubMed Central

    Schlag, Steffen; Nerz, Christiane; Birkenstock, Timo A.; Altenberend, Florian; Götz, Friedrich

    2007-01-01

    Several environmental stresses have been demonstrated to increase polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) synthesis and biofilm formation by the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this study we characterized an adaptive response of S. aureus SA113 to nitrite-induced stress and show that it involves concomitant impairment of PIA synthesis and biofilm formation. Transcriptional analysis provided evidence that nitrite, either as the endogenous product of respiratory nitrate reduction or after external addition, causes repression of the icaADBC gene cluster, mediated likely by IcaR. Comparative microarray analysis revealed a global change in gene expression during growth in the presence of 5 mM sodium nitrite and indicated a response to oxidative and nitrosative stress. Many nitrite-induced genes are involved in DNA repair, detoxification of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, and iron homeostasis. Moreover, preformed biofilms could be eradicated by the addition of nitrite, likely the result of the formation of toxic acidified nitrite derivatives. Nitrite-mediated inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation was abrogated by the addition of nitric oxide (NO) scavengers, suggesting that NO is directly or indirectly involved. Nitrite also repressed biofilm formation of S. epidermidis RP62A. PMID:17720780

  16. Factors controlling anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite in marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Tage; Thamdrup, Bo

    2002-08-01

    Factors controlling the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrate and nitrite were explored in a marine sediment from the Skagerrak in the Baltic-North Sea transition. In anoxic incubations with the addition of nitrite, approximately 65% of the nitrogen gas formation was due to anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite, with the remainder being produced by denitrification. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite exhibited a biological temperature response, with a rate optimum at 15 degrees C and a maximum temperature of 37 degrees C. The biological nature of the process and a 1:1 stoichiometry for the reaction between nitrite and ammonium indicated that the transformations might be attributed to the anammox process. Attempts to find other anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing processes in this sediment failed. The apparent K(m) of nitrite consumption was less than 3 microM, and the relative importance of ammonium oxidation with nitrite and denitrification for the production of nitrogen gas was independent of nitrite concentration. Thus, the quantitative importance of ammonium oxidation with nitrite in the jar incubations at elevated nitrite concentrations probably represents the in situ situation. With the addition of nitrate, the production of nitrite from nitrate was four times faster than its consumption and therefore did not limit the rate of ammonium oxidation. Accordingly, the rate of this process was the same whether nitrate or nitrite was added as electron acceptor. The addition of organic matter did not stimulate denitrification, possibly because it was outcompeted by manganese reduction or because transport limitation was removed due to homogenization of the sediment. PMID:12147475

  17. Nitrate ammonification by Nautilia profundicola AmH: experimental evidence consistent with a free hydroxylamine intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Thomas E.; Campbell, Barbara J.; Kalis, Katie M.; Campbell, Mark A.; Klotz, Martin G.

    2013-01-01

    The process of nitrate reduction via nitrite controls the fate and bioavailability of mineral nitrogen within ecosystems; i.e., whether it is retained as ammonium (ammonification) or lost as nitrous oxide or dinitrogen (denitrification). Here, we present experimental evidence for a novel pathway of microbial nitrate reduction, the reverse hydroxylamine:ubiquinone reductase module (reverse-HURM) pathway. Instead of a classical ammonia-forming nitrite reductase that performs a 6 electron-transfer process, the pathway is thought to employ two catalytic redox modules operating in sequence: the reverse-HURM reducing nitrite to hydroxylamine followed by a hydroxylamine reductase that converts hydroxylamine to ammonium. Experiments were performed on Nautilia profundicola strain AmH, whose genome sequence led to the reverse-HURM pathway proposal. N. profundicola produced ammonium from nitrate, which was assimilated into biomass. Furthermore, genes encoding the catalysts of the reverse-HURM pathway were preferentially expressed during growth of N. profundicola on nitrate as an electron acceptor relative to cultures grown on polysulfide as an electron acceptor. Finally, nitrate-grown cells of N. profundicola were able to rapidly and stoichiometrically convert high concentrations of hydroxylamine to ammonium in resting cell assays. These experiments are consistent with the reverse-HURM pathway and a free hydroxylamine intermediate, but could not definitively exclude direct nitrite reduction to ammonium by the reverse-HURM with hydroxylamine as an off-pathway product. N. profundicola and related organisms are models for a new pathway of nitrate ammonification that may have global impact due to the wide distribution of these organisms in hypoxic environments and symbiotic or pathogenic associations with animal hosts. PMID:23847604

  18. Studies on the stabilization and purification of nitrite reductase from Neurospora crassa

    E-print Network

    Bonewitz, Roland Frederick

    1976-01-01

    of organonitro compounds, probably as detoxication mechanisms. Many of the mutants which failed to grow on nitrate or nitrite, although possessing functional nitrate reductase, also lacked DNB-reducing activity and others accumulated the intermediate...

  19. Nitrite reduction to nitrous oxide by propionibacteria: Detoxication mechanism

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Heinrich F. Kaspar

    1982-01-01

    Characteristics of dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Propionibacterium acidi-propionici, P. freudenreichii, P. jensenii, P. shermanii and P. thoenii were studied. All strains reduced nitrate to nitrite and further to N2O. Recovery of added nitrite-N as N2O-N approached 100%, so that no other end product existed in a significant quantity. Specific rates of N2O production were 3 to 6 orders of magnitude

  20. A peroxynitrite complex of copper: formation from a copper–nitrosyl complex, transformation to nitrite and exogenous phenol oxidative coupling or nitration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ga Young; Deepalatha, Subramanian; Puiu, Simona C.; Lee, Dong-Heon; Mondal, Biplab; Sarjeant, Amy A. Narducci; del Rio, Diego; Pau, Monita Y. M.; Solomon, Edward I.; Karlin, Kenneth D.

    2010-01-01

    Reaction of nitrogen monoxide with a copper(I) complex possessing a tridentate alkylamine ligand gives a Cu(I)–(·NO) adduct, which when exposed to dioxygen generates a peroxynitrite (O=NOO?)–Cu(II) species. This undergoes thermal transformation to produce a copper(II) nitrito (NO2?) complex and 0.5 mol equiv O2. In the presence of a substituted phenol, the peroxynitrite complex effects oxidative coupling, whereas addition of chloride ion to dissociate the peroxynitrite moiety instead leads to phenol ortho nitration. Discussions include the structures (including electronic description) of the copper–nitrosyl and copper–peroxynitrite complexes and the formation of the latter, based on density functional theory calculations and accompanying spectroscopic data. PMID:19662443

  1. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

  2. Nitrite reduction by molybdoenzymes: a new class of nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductases.

    PubMed

    Maia, Luisa B; Moura, José J G

    2015-03-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a signalling molecule involved in several physiological processes, in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, and nitrite is being recognised as an NO source particularly relevant to cell signalling and survival under challenging conditions. The "non-respiratory" nitrite reduction to NO is carried out by "non-dedicated" nitrite reductases, making use of metalloproteins present in cells to carry out other functions, such as several molybdoenzymes (a new class of nitric oxide-forming nitrite reductases). This minireview will highlight the physiological relevance of molybdenum-dependent nitrite-derived NO formation in mammalian, plant and bacterial signalling (and other) pathways. The mammalian xanthine oxidase/xanthine dehydrogenase, aldehyde oxidase, mitochondrial amidoxime-reducing component, plant nitrate reductase and bacterial aldehyde oxidoreductase and nitrate reductases will be considered. The nitrite reductase activity of each molybdoenzyme will be described and the review will be oriented to discuss the feasibility of the reactions from a (bio)chemical point of view. In addition, the molecular mechanism proposed for the molybdenum-dependent nitrite reduction will be discussed in detail. PMID:25589250

  3. Nitrite in saliva increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness

    PubMed Central

    Björne, Hĺkan; Petersson, Joel; Phillipson, Mia; Weitzberg, Eddie; Holm, Lena; Lundberg, Jon O.

    2004-01-01

    Salivary nitrate from dietary or endogenous sources is reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria. In the acidic stomach, nitrite is further reduced to NO and related compounds, which have potential biological activity. We used an in vivo rat model as a bioassay to test effects of human saliva on gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness. Gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness were measured after topical administration of human saliva in HCl. The saliva was collected either after fasting (low in nitrite) or after ingestion of sodium nitrate (high in nitrite). In additional experiments, saliva was exchanged for sodium nitrite at different doses. Mucosal blood flow was increased after luminal application of nitrite-rich saliva, whereas fasting saliva had no effects. Also, mucus thickness increased in response to nitrite-rich saliva. The effects of nitrite-rich saliva were similar to those of topically applied sodium nitrite. Nitrite-mediated effects were associated with generation of NO and S-nitrosothiols. In addition, pretreatment with an inhibitor of guanylyl cyclase markedly inhibited nitrite-mediated effects on blood flow. We conclude that nitrite-containing human saliva given luminally increases gastric mucosal blood flow and mucus thickness in the rat. These effects are likely mediated through nonenzymatic generation of NO via activation of guanylyl cyclase. This supports a gastroprotective role of salivary nitrate/nitrite. PMID:14702114

  4. Stability and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria community structure in different high-rate CANON reactors.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Zhuo; Cui, Shaoming; Zhang, Jie

    2014-10-23

    In completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process, the bioactivity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) should be effectively inhibited. In this study, the stability of four high-rate CANON reactors and the effect of free ammonia (FA) and organic material on NOB community structure were investigated using DGGE. Results suggested that with the increasing of FA, the ratio of total nitrogen removal to nitrate production went up gradually, while the biodiversity of Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB both decreased. When the CANON reactor was transformed to simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) reactor by introducing organic material, the denitrifiers and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria would compete nitrite or oxygen with NOB, which then led to the biodiversity decreasing of both Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB. The distribution of Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB were evaluated, and finally effective strategies for suppressing NOB in CANON reactors were proposed. PMID:25459821

  5. Inorganic nitrite supplementation for healthy arterial aging

    PubMed Central

    DeVan, Allison E.; Fleenor, Bradley S.; Seals, Douglas R.

    2014-01-01

    Aging is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This is attributable primarily to adverse changes in arteries, notably, increases in large elastic artery stiffness and endothelial dysfunction mediated by inadequate concentrations of the vascular-protective molecule, nitric oxide (NO), and higher levels of oxidative stress and inflammation. Inorganic nitrite is a promising precursor molecule for augmenting circulating and tissue NO bioavailability because it requires only a one-step reduction to NO. Nitrite also acts as an independent signaling molecule, exerting many of the effects previously attributed to NO. Results of recent studies indicate that nitrite may be effective in the treatment of vascular aging. In old mice, short-term oral sodium nitrite supplementation reduces aortic pulse wave velocity, the gold-standard measure of large elastic artery stiffness, and ameliorates endothelial dysfunction, as indicated by normalization of NO-mediated endothelium-dependent dilation. These improvements in age-related vascular dysfunction with nitrite are mediated by reductions in oxidative stress and inflammation, and may be linked to increases in mitochondrial biogenesis and health. Increasing nitrite levels via dietary intake of nitrate appears to have similarly beneficial effects in many of the same physiological and clinical settings. Several clinical trials are being performed to determine the broad therapeutic potential of increasing nitrite bioavailability on human health and disease, including studies related to vascular aging. In summary, inorganic nitrite, as well as dietary nitrate supplementation, represents a promising therapy for treatment of arterial aging and prevention of age-associated CVD in humans. PMID:24408999

  6. Denitrification by Actinomycetes and Purification of Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase and Azurin from Streptomyces thioluteus

    PubMed Central

    Shoun, Hirofumi; Kano, Mitsuyoshi; Baba, Ikuko; Takaya, Naoki; Matsuo, Masaru

    1998-01-01

    Many actinomycete strains are able to convert nitrate or nitrite to nitrous oxide (N2O). As a representative of actinomycete denitrification systems, the system of Streptomyces thioluteus was investigated in detail. S. thioluteus attained distinct cell growth upon anaerobic incubation with nitrate or nitrite with concomitant and stoichiometric conversion of nitrate or nitrite to N2O, suggesting that the denitrification acts as anaerobic respiration. Furthermore, a copper-containing, dissimilatory nitrite reductase (CuNir) and its physiological electron donor, azurin, were isolated. This is the first report to show that denitrification generally occurs among actinomycetes. PMID:9721277

  7. Denitrification by actinomycetes and purification of dissimilatory nitrite reductase and azurin from Streptomyces thioluteus.

    PubMed

    Shoun, H; Kano, M; Baba, I; Takaya, N; Matsuo, M

    1998-09-01

    Many actinomycete strains are able to convert nitrate or nitrite to nitrous oxide (N2O). As a representative of actinomycete denitrification systems, the system of Streptomyces thioluteus was investigated in detail. S. thioluteus attained distinct cell growth upon anaerobic incubation with nitrate or nitrite with concomitant and stoichiometric conversion of nitrate or nitrite to N2O, suggesting that the denitrification acts as anaerobic respiration. Furthermore, a copper-containing, dissimilatory nitrite reductase (CuNir) and its physiological electron donor, azurin, were isolated. This is the first report to show that denitrification generally occurs among actinomycetes. PMID:9721277

  8. Effect of Glucose and CO(2) on Nitrate Uptake and Coupled OH Flux in Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    Eisele, R; Ullrich, W R

    1977-01-01

    In Ankistrodesmus braunii, in the absence of CO(2), i.e. in CO(2)-free air or N(2), photosynthetic nitrate uptake and nitrate reduction were inhibited, especially at low pH. Under such conditions, glucose stimulated nitrate uptake and reduction to almost the same level in the pH range between 6 and 8.5. CO(2) at 0.03% effected an intermediate pH dependence of nitrate uptake; saturating CO(2) concentration (more than 1%) eliminated the pH dependence, as did glucose, but the rates were enhanced compared with glucose. Glucose and, even more, CO(2), drastically reduced the release of nitrite and ammonia to the medium, the stoichiometry between alkalinization of the medium and nitrate uptake (OH(-)/NO(3) (-)) approached 1.Due to the lack of storage vacuoles in Ankistrodesmus, nitrate uptake and nitrate reduction were closely coupled processes whose experimental separation is difficult. The relieving effect of glucose and CO(2) suggests a carrier-mediated nitrate uptake which is more limiting than nitrate reduction and is sensitive to low pH, but which is stabilized by some intermediate originating from an active carbon metabolism. PMID:16659780

  9. Dietary exposure to benzoates (E210-E213), parabens (E214-E219), nitrites (E249-E250), nitrates (E251-E252), BHA (E320), BHT (E321) and aspartame (E951) in children less than 3 years old in France.

    PubMed

    Mancini, F R; Paul, D; Gauvreau, J; Volatier, J L; Vin, K; Hulin, M

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to estimate the exposure to seven additives (benzoates, parabens, nitrites, nitrates, BHA, BHT and aspartame) in children aged less than 3 years old in France. A conservative approach, combining individual consumption data with maximum permitted levels, was carried out for all the additives. More refined estimates using occurrence data obtained from products' labels (collected by the French Observatory of Food Quality) were conducted for those additives that exceeded the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Information on additives' occurrence was obtained from the food labels. When the ADI was still exceeded, the exposure estimate was further refined using measured concentration data, if available. When using the maximum permitted level (MPL), the ADI was exceeded for benzoates (1.94 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)), nitrites (0.09 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) and BHA (0.39 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1)) in 25%, 54% and 20% of the entire study population respectively. The main food contributors identified with this approach were current foods as these additives are not authorised in specific infant food: vegetable soups and broths for both benzoates and BHA, delicatessen and meat for nitrites. The exposure estimate was significantly reduced when using occurrence data, but in the upper-bound scenario the ADI was still exceeded significantly by the age group 13-36 months for benzoates (2%) and BHA (1%), and by the age group 7-12 months (16%) and 13-36 months (58%) for nitrites. Measured concentration data were available exclusively for nitrites and the results obtained using these data showed that the nitrites' intake was below the ADI for all the population considered in this study. These results suggest that refinement of exposure, based on the assessment of food levels, is needed to estimate the exposure of children to BHA and benzoates for which the risk of exceeding the ADI cannot be excluded when using occurrence data. PMID:25686474

  10. Diversity, Physiology, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, has been suggested to have been a central part of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle since the oxygenation of Earth. The cultivation of several ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as well as the discovery that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amo)-like gene sequences are nearly ubiquitously distributed in the environment and outnumber their bacterial counterparts in many habitats fundamentally revised our understanding of nitrification. Surprising insights into the physiological distinctiveness of AOA are mirrored by the recognition of the phylogenetic uniqueness of these microbes, which fall within a novel archaeal phylum now known as Thaumarchaeota. The relative importance of AOA in nitrification, compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), is still under debate. This minireview provides a synopsis of our current knowledge of the diversity and physiology of AOA, the factors controlling their ecology, and their role in carbon cycling as well as their potential involvement in the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It emphasizes the importance of activity-based analyses in AOA studies and formulates priorities for future research. PMID:22923400

  11. Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area

    SciTech Connect

    Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

    1992-03-01

    The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

  12. Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities in reactors with efficient nitrification at low-dissolved oxygen.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Colin M; Camejo, Pamela; Oshlag, J Zachary; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing microbial communities involved in ammonia oxidation under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions (<0.3 mg/L) were investigated using chemostat reactors. One lab-scale reactor (NS_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) not adapted to low-DO nitrification, while a second reactor (JP_LowDO) was seeded with sludge from a full-scale WWTP already achieving low-DO nitrifiaction. The experimental evidence from quantitative PCR, rDNA tag pyrosequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) suggested that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the Nitrosomonas genus were responsible for low-DO nitrification in the NS_LowDO reactor, whereas in the JP_LowDO reactor nitrification was not associated with any known ammonia-oxidizing prokaryote. Neither reactor had a significant population of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) or anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) organisms. Organisms isolated from JP_LowDO were capable of autotrophic and heterotrophic ammonia utilization, albeit without stoichiometric accumulation of nitrite or nitrate. Based on the experimental evidence we propose that Pseudomonas, Xanthomonadaceae, Rhodococcus, and Sphingomonas are involved in nitrification under low-DO conditions. PMID:25506762

  13. Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite

    SciTech Connect

    Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

    2012-09-25

    This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

  14. Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanier, C. O.; Singh, A.; Adamski, W.; Baek, J.; Caughey, M.; Carmichael, G.; Edgerton, E.; Kenski, D.; Koerber, M.; Oleson, J.; Rohlf, T.; Lee, S. R.; Riemer, N.; Shaw, S.; Sousan, S.; Spak, S. N.

    2012-06-01

    An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium) Winter Nitrate Study (WNS) is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January-March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the Western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI) experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 ?g m-3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes) rather than just correlated with episodes because of similar synoptic meteorology.

  15. Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanier, C.; Singh, A.; Adamski, W.; Baek, J.; Caughey, M.; Carmichael, G.; Edgerton, E.; Kenski, D.; Koerber, M.; Oleson, J.; Rohlf, T.; Lee, S. R.; Riemer, N.; Shaw, S.; Sousan, S.; Spak, S. N.

    2012-11-01

    An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium) Winter Nitrate Study (WNS) is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January-March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI) experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 ?g m-3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes) rather than just correlated with episodes because of similar synoptic meteorology.

  16. Three nitrate reductase activities in Alcaligenes eutrophus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ute Warnecke-Eberz; Bärbel Friedrich

    1993-01-01

    Three nitrate reductase activities were detected in Alcaligenes eutrophus strain H16 by physiological and mutant analysis. The first (NAS) was subject to repression by ammonia and not affected by oxygen indicating a nitrate assimilatory function. The second (NAR) membrane-bound activity was only formed in the absence of oxygen and was insensitive to ammonia repression indicating a nitrate respiratory function. The

  17. Abundance and Diversity of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers in a Coastal Groundwater System ? †

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, Daniel R.; Casciotti, Karen L.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrification, the microbially catalyzed oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, is a key process in the nitrogen cycle. Archaea have been implicated in the first part of the nitrification pathway (oxidation of ammonia to nitrite), but the ecology and physiology of these organisms remain largely unknown. This work describes two different populations of sediment-associated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in a coastal groundwater system in Cape Cod, MA. Sequence analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) shows that one population of putative AOA inhabits the upper meter of the sediment, where they may experience frequent ventilation, with tidally driven overtopping and infiltration of bay water supplying dissolved oxygen, ammonium, and perhaps organic carbon. A genetically distinct population occurs deeper in the sediment, in a mixing zone between a nitrate- and oxygen-rich freshwater zone and a reduced, ammonium-bearing saltwater wedge. Both of these AOA populations are coincident with increases in the abundance of group I crenarchaeota 16S rRNA gene copies. PMID:20971859

  18. Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns

    E-print Network

    Ma, Lena

    Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris March 2009 Accepted 26 March 2009 Keywords: Arsenic Nitrate metabolism Pteris vittata Arsenic

  19. Ubiquity and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in water columns and sediments of the ocean

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Christopher A.; Roberts, Kathryn J.; Beman, J. Michael; Santoro, Alyson E.; Oakley, Brian B.

    2005-01-01

    Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, occurs in a wide variety of environments and plays a central role in the global nitrogen cycle. Catalyzed by the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, the ability to oxidize ammonia was previously thought to be restricted to a few groups within the ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. However, recent metagenomic studies have revealed the existence of unique ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes derived from uncultivated, nonextremophilic Crenarchaeota. Here, we report molecular evidence for the widespread presence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in marine water columns and sediments. Using PCR primers designed to specifically target archaeal amoA, we find AOA to be pervasive in areas of the ocean that are critical for the global nitrogen cycle, including the base of the euphotic zone, suboxic water columns, and estuarine and coastal sediments. Diverse and distinct AOA communities are associated with each of these habitats, with little overlap between water columns and sediments. Within marine sediments, most AOA sequences are unique to individual sampling locations, whereas a small number of sequences are evidently cosmopolitan in distribution. Considering the abundance of nonextremophilic archaea in the ocean, our results suggest that AOA may play a significant, but previously unrecognized, role in the global nitrogen cycle. PMID:16186488

  20. Oil Field Souring Control by Nitrate-Reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. That Outcompete Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria for Organic Electron Donors? †

    PubMed Central

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-01-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

  1. Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.

    PubMed

    Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2007-04-01

    Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

  2. An Ecologic Study of Nitrate in Municipal Drinking Water and Cancer Incidence in Trnava District, Slovakia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gabriel Gulis; Monika Czompolyova; James R. Cerhan

    2002-01-01

    Contamination of drinking water by nitrate is an evolving public health concern since nitrate can undergo endogenous reduction to nitrite, and nitrosation of nitrites can form N-nitroso compounds, which are potent carcinogens. We conducted an ecologic study to determine whether nitrate levels in drinking water were correlated with non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancers of the digestive and urinary tracts in an

  3. Enhanced formation of fine particulate nitrate at a rural site on the North China Plain in summer: The important roles of ammonia and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Liang; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Xinfeng; Caihong Xu; Sui, Xiao; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

    2015-01-01

    Severe PM2.5 pollution was observed frequently on the North China Plain, and nitrate contributed a large fraction of the elevated PM2.5 concentrations. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the formation pathways of these fine particulate nitrate and the key factors that affect these pathways, field measurements of fine particulate nitrate and related air pollutants were made at a rural site on the North China Plain in the summer of 2013. Extremely high concentrations of fine particulate nitrate were frequently observed at night and in the early morning. The maximum hourly concentration of fine particulate nitrate reached 87.2 ?g m-3. This concentration accounted for 29.9% of the PM2.5. The very high NH3 concentration in the early morning significantly accelerated the formation of fine particulate nitrate, as indicated by the concurrent appearance of NH3 and NO3- concentration peaks and a rising neutralization ratio (the equivalent ratio of NH4+ to the sum of SO42- and NO3-). On a number of other episode days, strong photochemical activity during daytime led to high concentrations of O3 at night. The fast secondary formation of fine particulate nitrate was mainly attributed to the hydrolysis of N2O5, which was produced from O3 and NO2. Considering the important roles of NH3 and O3 in fine particulate nitrate formation, we suggest the control of NH3 emissions and photochemical pollution to address the high levels of fine particulate nitrate and the severe PM2.5 pollution on the North China Plain.

  4. Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Cataldo; M. Maroon; L. E. Schrader; V. L. Youngs

    1975-01-01

    An analysis is described for the rapid determination of nitrate?N in plant extracts. The complex formed by nitration of salicylic acid under highly acidic conditions absorbs maximally at 410 nm in basic (pH>12) solutions. Absorbance of the chromophore is directly proportional to the amount of nitrate?N present. Ammonium, nitrite, and chloride ions do not interfere.

  5. Nitrate Utilization by the Diatom Skeletonema costatum

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Juan L.; Llama, Maria J.; Cadenas, Eduardo

    1978-01-01

    Nitrate utilization has been characterized in nitrogen-deficient cells of the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. In order to separate nitrate uptake from nitrate reduction, nitrate reductase activity was suppressed with tungstate. Neither nitrite nor the presence of amino acids in the external medium or darkness affects nitrate uptake kinetics. Ammonium strongly inhibits carrier-mediated nitrate uptake, without affecting diffusion transfer. A model is proposed for the uptake and assimilation of nitrate in S. costatum and their regulation by ammonium ions. PMID:16660653

  6. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steimke

    2011-01-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate\\/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of

  7. Molecular Structure of Ammonia

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-05-02

    Ammonia is a non-ionic colorless gas at ambient temperatures and a hydrogen bonding liquid at 240 Kelvin that has the remarkable ability to dissolve alkali metals. Ammonia is a Lewis base and is readily absorbed by water to form small amounts of ammonium hydroxide (pKb = 4.74). Naturally, ammonia has its sources in the biosphere (the nitrogen cycle) and is a trace gas in air and a source of ammonium ions in rain and atmospheric aerosols. Ammonia is prepared industrially by the Haber-Bosch process in quantities exceeding 120 million metric tons per year. In this process, ammonia gas is formed when hydrogen and nitrogen (3:1) are compressed to pressures of 200 atm and passed over an iron catalyst at 380-450 degrees C. Much of the ammonia produced this way (85%) is used as fertilizers on crops, a significant portion of which leaches from croplands into streams causing nitrate pollution and eutrophication of waterways (e.g., dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico). Other sources of ammonia include combustion (coal and biomass burning) and from bacterial decomposition of animal excreta.

  8. Influence of operating conditions on electrochemical reduction of nitrate in groundwater.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wenli; Li, Miao; Zhang, Baogang; Feng, Chuanping; Lei, Xiaohui; Xu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    The influences of current density, initial pH, cation and anion concentrations, and the coexistence of Ca2+ and HCO3- on the efficiency of electrochemical nitrate reduction by a copper cathode and Ti/IrO2 anode in an undivided cell were studied. In the presence of 5 mM of sodium chloride (NaCl), the nitrate-nitrogen concentration decreased from 3.57 to 0.69 mM in 120 minutes, and no ammonia or nitrite byproducts were detected. The nitrate reduction rate increased as the current density increased. The electrochemical method performed well at an initial pH range of 3.0 to 11.0. The rate of nitrate reduction increased as concentrations of Na+, K+, and Ca2+ increased. The anion of the supporting electrolyte decreased the rate of reduction in the order Cl- > HCO3(2-) = CO3(2-) > SO4(2-) at both 5 mM and 10 mM of anion. The coexistence of Ca2+ and HCO3- ions could inhibit nitrate reduction. The concentration of nitrate-nitrogen in polluted groundwater decreased from 2.80 to 0.31 mM after electrolysis for 120 minutes. PMID:23581237

  9. Nitrite Infusion in Humans and Nonhuman Primates Endocrine Effects, Pharmacokinetics, and Tolerance Formation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    André Dejam; Christian J. Hunter; Carole Tremonti; Ryszard M. Pluta; Yuen Yi Hon; George Grimes; Kristine Partovi; Mildred M. Pelletier; Edward H. Oldfield; Richard O. Cannon III; Alan N. Schechter; Mark T. Gladwin

    Background—The recent discovery that nitrite is an intrinsic vasodilator and signaling molecule at near-physiological concentrations has raised the possibility that nitrite contributes to hypoxic vasodilation and to the bioactivity of nitroglycerin and mediates the cardiovascular protective effects of nitrate in the Mediterranean diet. However, important questions of potency, kinetics, mechanism of action, and possible induction of tolerance remain unanswered. Methods

  10. An evaluation of liquid ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) as a candidate piscicide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, R.; Hedwall, Shaula J.

    2013-01-01

    Eradication of populations of nonnative aquatic species for the purpose of reintroducing native fish is often difficult because very few effective tools are available for removing aquatic organisms. This creates the need to evaluate new chemicals that could be used as management tools for native fish conservation. Ammonia is a natural product of fish metabolism and is naturally present in the environment at low levels, yet is known to be toxic to most aquatic species. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of using liquid ammonia as a fisheries management tool by evaluating its effectiveness at killing undesirable aquatic species and its persistence in a pond environment. A suite of invasive aquatic species commonly found in the southwestern USA were introduced into two experimental outdoor ponds located at the Rocky Mountain Research Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. Each pond was treated with ammonium hydroxide (29%) at 38 ppm. This target concentration was chosen because previous studies using anhydrous ammonia reported incomplete fish kills in ponds at concentrations less than 30 ppm. Water quality was monitored for 49 d to determine how quickly the natural bacteria in the environment converted the ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia levels remained above 8 ppm for 24 and 18 d, respectively, in ponds 1 and 2. Nitrite levels in each pond began to rise approximately 14 d after dosing with ammonia and stayed above 5 ppm for an additional 21 d in pond 1 and 18 d in pond 2. After 49 d all water in both ponds was drained and no fish, crayfish, or tadpoles were found to have survived the treatment, but aquatic turtles remained alive and appeared unaffected. Liquid ammonia appears to be an effective tool for removing many problematic invasive aquatic species and may warrant further investigation as a piscicide.

  11. Temporal and Spatial Stability of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Aquarium Biofilters

    PubMed Central

    Sauder, Laura A.; Mosquera, Mariela; Neufeld, Josh D.; Boon, Nico

    2014-01-01

    Nitrifying biofilters are used in aquaria and aquaculture systems to prevent accumulation of ammonia by promoting rapid conversion to nitrate via nitrite. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), as opposed to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were recently identified as the dominant ammonia oxidizers in most freshwater aquaria. This study investigated biofilms from fixed-bed aquarium biofilters to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of AOA and AOB abundance and diversity. Over a period of four months, ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms from six freshwater and one marine aquarium were investigated at 4–5 time points. Nitrogen balances for three freshwater aquaria showed that active nitrification by aquarium biofilters accounted for ?81–86% of total nitrogen conversion in the aquaria. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacterial and thaumarchaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that AOA were numerically dominant over AOB in all six freshwater aquaria tested, and contributed all detectable amoA genes in three aquarium biofilters. In the marine aquarium, however, AOB outnumbered AOA by three to five orders of magnitude based on amoA gene abundances. A comparison of AOA abundance in three carrier materials (fine sponge, rough sponge and sintered glass or ceramic rings) of two three-media freshwater biofilters revealed preferential growth of AOA on fine sponge. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated that community composition within a given biofilter was stable across media types. In addition, DGGE of all aquarium biofilters revealed low AOA diversity, with few bands, which were stable over time. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes placed freshwater and marine aquaria communities in separate clusters. These results indicate that AOA are the dominant ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in freshwater aquarium biofilters, and that AOA community composition within a given aquarium is stable over time and across biofilter support material types. PMID:25479061

  12. The appearance of nitrate reductase activity in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. J. Syrett; C. R. Hipkin

    1973-01-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was detectable in ammonium-grown cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii after 50 minutes of nitrogen starvation. The rate of formation of nitrate reductase was stimulated by addition of nitrate and inhibited completely by cycloheximide (20 µg\\/ml). Nitrogen-starved cells assimilated added nitrate or nitrite rapidly and no nitrite or nitrate was detectable in either cells or culture medium from cultures

  13. [Diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in Tibetan Zoige plateau wetland ].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Youkun; Wang, Xianbin; Gu, Yunfu; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2014-09-01

    [ OBJECTIVE ] Investigation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nature environments is important to understand the global nitrogen cycling. However, little is known about the AOA community in plateau wetland. Therefore, we studied the composition and diversity of AOA in Zoige plateau wetland swamp soil. [METHODS] Total DNA was extracted from the swamp soil of three typical wetlands including A'xi pastoral area, Maixi pastoral area and Fenqu pastoral area locate in Zoige plateau wetland, and amoA gene was amplified with universally AOA amoA gene primers and then cloned. Then 80 positive clones for each clone library were chosen for further restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, and the typical RFLP types were selected for sequencing and clustered into operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 98% cutoff using the Mothur software. The MEGA 5. 0 software was used for the amoA gene phylogeny analysis. [RESULTS] A total of 240 positive clones for all 3 libraries were used for RFLP analysis, and 15 specific amoA sequences were sequenced and clustered into 7 OTUs at 98% cutoff. Among them, OTU6 was detected in all of the 3 libraries and included 27% of the total specific clones. The phylogeny analysis showed that the 15 amoA sequences were grouped into 3 subgroups consisted of Zoige Wetland Clade 1 (4 OTUs), Zoige Wetland Clade 2 (2 OTUs) and Zoige Wetland Clade 3 (1 OTU). BLAST analysis showed that all OTUs were affiliated with the phylum Crenarchaeota. Correlation analysis showed that the Shannon diversity index (H') was significantly correlated with ammonia, nitrate/nitrite (P <0. 05). [ CONCLUSION] AOA in the Zoige plateau wetland swamp soil are all belonged to the Crenarchaeota, and their diversity is significantly correlated with soil ammonia, nitrate/nitrite content. PMID:25522598

  14. Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Model of NO Metabolome and Methemoglobin Following Long-Term Infusion of Sodium Nitrite in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Vega-Villa, K; Pluta, R; Lonser, R; Woo, S

    2013-01-01

    A long-term sodium nitrite infusion is intended for the treatment of vascular disorders. Phase I data demonstrated a significant nonlinear dose-exposure-toxicity relationship within the therapeutic dosage range. This study aims to develop a quantitative systems pharmacology model characterizing nitric oxide (NO) metabolome and methemoglobin after sodium nitrite infusion. Nitrite, nitrate, and methemoglobin concentration–time profiles in plasma and RBC were used for model development. Following intravenous sodium nitrite administration, nitrite undergoes conversion in RBC and tissue. Nitrite sequestered by RBC interacts more extensively with deoxyhemoglobin, which contributes greatly to methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin is formed less-than-proportionally at higher nitrite doses as characterized with facilitated methemoglobin removal. Nitrate-to-nitrite reduction occurs in tissue and via entero-salivary recirculation. The less-than-proportional increase in nitrite and nitrate exposure at higher nitrite doses is modeled with a dose-dependent increase in clearance. The model provides direct insight into NO metabolome disposition and is valuable for nitrite dosing selection in clinical trials. PMID:23903463

  15. Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens

    SciTech Connect

    Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal); Carrondo, M.J.T. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)]|[Inst. de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica, Oeiras (Portugal)

    1995-05-05

    Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

  16. Diversity and Abundance of Nitrate Reductase Genes (narG and napA), Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirS and nrfA), and Their Transcripts in Estuarine Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cindy J. Smith; David B. Nedwell; Liang F. Dong; A. Mark Osborn

    2007-01-01

    Estuarine systems are the major conduits for the transfer of nitrate from agricultural and other terrestrial- anthropogenic sources into marine ecosystems. Within estuarine sediments some microbially driven processes (denitrification and anammox) result in the net removal of nitrogen from the environment, while others (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) do not. In this study, molecular approaches have been used to investigate

  17. A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2014-01-01

    Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

  18. Protection against oral and gastrointestinal diseases: importance of dietary nitrate intake, oral nitrate reduction and enterosalivary nitrate circulation.

    PubMed

    Duncan, C; Li, H; Dykhuizen, R; Frazer, R; Johnston, P; MacKnight, G; Smith, L; Lamza, K; McKenzie, H; Batt, L; Kelly, D; Golden, M; Benjamin, N; Leifert, C

    1997-12-01

    Over the last 20 years, dietary nitrate has been implicated in the formation of methemoglobin and carcinogenic nitrosamines in humans. This has led to restrictions of nitrate and nitrite levels in food and drinking water. However, there is no epidemiological evidence for an increased risk of gastric and intestinal cancer in population groups with high dietary vegetable or nitrate intake. A reevaluation of our currently very negative perception of dietary nitrates comes from recent research into the metabolism and enterosalivary circulation of nitrate in mammals. These studies showed that nitrate is converted to nitrite in the oral cavity that then "fuels" an important mammalian resistance mechanism against infectious diseases. Moreover, there is now evidence that the conversion of nitrate into oxides of nitrogen prevents the formation carcinogenic nitrosamines. PMID:9505412

  19. Streamlined ammonia removal from wastewater using biological deammonification process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we evaluated biological deammonification process to more economically remove ammonia from livestock wastewater. The process combines partial nitritation (PN) and anammox. The anammox is a biologically mediated reaction that oxidizes ammonia (NH4+) and releases di-nitrogen gas (N2) unde...

  20. Anaerobic benzene biodegradation linked to nitrate reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Burland, S.M. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Edwards, E.A. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Applied Chemistry

    1999-02-01

    Benzene oxidation to carbon dioxide linked to nitrate reduction was observed in enrichment cultures developed from soil and groundwater microcosms. Benzene biodegradation occurred concurrently with nitrate reduction at a constant ratio of 10 mol of nitrate consumed per mol of benzene degraded. Benzene biodegradation linked to nitrate reduction was associated with cell growth; however, the yield, 8.8 g (dry weight) of cells per mol of benzene, was less than 15% of the predicted yield for benzene biodegradation linked to nitrate reduction. In experiments performed with [{sup 14}C]benzene, approximately 92 to 95% of the label was recovered in {sup 14}CO{sub 2}, while the remaining 5 to 8% was incorporated into the nonvolatile fraction (presumably biomass), which is consistent with the low measured yield. In benzene-degrading cultures, nitrite accumulated stoichiometrically as nitrate was reduced and then was slowly reduced to nitrogen gas. When nitrate was depleted and only nitrite remained, the rate of benzene degradation decreased to almost zero. Based on electron balances, benzene biodegradation appears to be coupled more tightly to nitrate reduction to nitrite than to further reduction of nitrite to nitrogen gas.

  1. Nitric oxide preferentially inhibits nitrite oxidizing communities with high affinity for nitrite.

    PubMed

    Courtens, Emilie N P; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Jordaens, Robin; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Boon, Nico

    2015-01-10

    The prerequisite to the development success of the novel mainstream processes partial nitritation/anammox is the out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). A recent study suggested that this could be achieved through NO production by ammonium oxidizing bacteria under cyclic oxic-anoxic conditions. Indeed, it is known that among NOB, Nitrobacter species are reversibly inhibited by NO. However, the effect of NO on the activity of the NOB genus Nitrospira is not studied so far. Such an understanding is needed, since Nitrospira related NOB are mostly prevailing in sewage treatment plants. This study quantified the effect of NO on the nitratation activity of sludge types with different Nitrobacter/Nitrospira ratios. In an oxic bubbling column, a dosage of 4.4 mg NO L(-1) d(-1) (?2 ?g NO-N L(-1) in liquid phase) inhibited the Nitrobacter dominated sludge with 24%. For the Nitrospira dominated sludge types, the inhibition was strongly correlated with the nitrite half saturation constant (K(s)) ranging from 0% to 30-50% and 60-80% inhibition of the nitrite oxidation for K(s) of 0.72, 0.36 and 0.06 mg NO2(-)-N L(-1), respectively. This study showed that nitrifying communities with high affinity for nitrite and low specific nitrite oxidation rates (K-strategists) can be strongly inhibited by NO. The degree of inhibition could be confirmed in a set-up with NO dosage through an artificial alginate-based biofilm, ensuring a more direct contact between NO and the microorganisms. PMID:25475443

  2. Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Leininger; T. Urich; M. Schloter; L. Schwark; J. Qi; G. W. Nicol; J. I. Prosser; S. C. Schuster; C. Schleper

    2006-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification, a key process in the global nitrogen cycle that results in the formation of nitrate through microbial activity. The increase in nitrate availability in soils is important for plant nutrition, but it also has considerable impact on groundwater pollution owing to leaching. Here we show that archaeal ammonia oxidizers are more abundant

  3. Haematological responses of acute nitrite exposure in walleye (Sander vitreus).

    PubMed

    Madison, Barry N; Wang, Yuxiang S

    2006-08-12

    Nitrite (NO2-) is a toxic intermediary of the bacterial oxidation of nitrogenous wastes (e.g. ammonia) in an aquatic environment. It becomes most lethal when oxygen becomes limited due to high fish densities or in the presence of high bacterial activity due to waste build-up-both situations commonly found in intensive aquaculture. To date however, little is known about how this toxin affects the physiology of walleye, an intended culture species, particularly in intensive re-circulating systems. This study aims to define threshold concentrations of nitrite that affect haemoglobin-oxygen affinity and carrying capacity in walleye. During in vivo tests, fish (N=20) were subjected to a medium effective concentration (EC50) of nitrite (0.9 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h while the effects of nitrite accumulation on blood properties were measured. The effects of oxygenation state on red blood cell (RBC) nitrite uptake and metHb formation was further investigated by in vitro tonometry. In vitro nitrite exposure to 3 mmol L(-1) resulted in a significantly higher methaemoglobin formation in 50% air saturated than 100% air saturated RBCs. Both cell water content and haematocrit decreased with time in 50% air saturated treatments, whereas total Hb remained constant, suggesting a reduction in RBC volume. Similar effects were observed during 48 h in vivo and in vitro nitrite exposure tests, indicating the reduction in RBC volume likely was not the result of a catecholamine response. Walleye were found to be tolerant to an accumulation of blood-NO2- levels similar to common carp, a highly Mean Cellular Volume (MCV) tolerant species, before succumbing to methaemoglobinemia. The elevated tolerance to nitrite of walleye is a beneficial characteristic for successful rearing in a culture setting, where reduced oxygen and elevated MCV levels are prevalent. The findings from this study may be used in developing guidelines for species-specific management of nitrogenous wastes in aquaculture. PMID:16806526

  4. Hexaheme nitrite reductase from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, C.; Moura, J.J.G.; Moura, I. (Centro de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica, Oeiras (Portugal) Univ. Nova de Lisboa, Oeiras (Portugal)); Liu, M.Y.; Peck, H.D. Jr.; LeGall, J. (Univ. of Georgia, Athens (United States)); Wang, Yaning; Huynh, B.H. (Emory Univ., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1990-08-25

    Moessbauer and EPR spectroscopy were used to characterize the heme prosthetic groups of the nitrite reductase isolated from Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774), which is a membrane-bound multiheme cytochrome capable of catalyzing the 6-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia. At pH 7.6, the as-isolated enzyme exhibited a complex EPR spectrum consisting of a low-spin ferric heme signal at g = 2.96, 2.28, and 1.50 plus several broad resonances indicative of spin-spin interactions among the heme groups. EPR redox titration studies revealed yet another low-spin ferric heme signal at g = 3.2 and 2.14 (the third g value was undetected) and the presence of a high-spin ferric heme. Moessbauer measurements demonstrated further that this enzyme contained six distinct heme groups: one high-spin (S = 5/2) and five low-spin (S = 1/2) ferric hemes. Characteristic hyperfine parameters for all six hemes were obtained through a detailed analysis of the Moessbauer spectra. D. desulfuricans nitrite reductase can be reduced by chemical reductants, such as dithionite or reduced methyl viologen, or by hydrogenase under hydrogen atmosphere. Addition of nitrite to the fully reduced enzyme reoxidized all five low-spin hemes to their ferric states. The high-spin heme, however, was found to complex NO, suggesting that the high-spin heme could be the substrate binding site and that NO could be an intermediate present in an enzyme-bound form.

  5. Ammonia Assimilation by Rhizobium Cultures and Bacteroids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. M. BROWN; M. J. DILWORTH

    1975-01-01

    SUMMARY The enzymes involved in the assimilation of ammonia by free-living cultures of Rhizobium spp. are glutamine synthetase (EC. 6.3. I. 2), glutamate synthase (L- glutamine : a-oxoglutarate amino transferase) and glutamate dehydrogenase (EC I.4. I.4). Under conditions of ammonia or nitrate limitation in a chemostat the assimilation of ammonia by cultures of R. leguminosarum, R. trifolii and R. japonicum

  6. Effect of nitrate ions on the oxidation of iodide ions during the dissolution of ?-irradiated NaCl in aqueous binary mixture of iodide and nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. D. Kalkar; S. V. Doshi

    1988-01-01

    It is now well established that the oxidation of iodide ions and the reduction of nitrate ions take place when -irradiated sodium chloride is dissolved in aqueous iodide and nitrate solutions, respectively. The yield of iodine decreases and that of nitrite increases with increasing concentration of nitrate in a binary mixture of iodide and nitrate when the irradiated salt is

  7. The appearance of nitrate reductase activity in nitrogen-starved cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    Syrett, P J; Hipkin, C R

    1973-03-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was detectable in ammonium-grown cells of Ankistrodesmus braunii after 50 minutes of nitrogen starvation. The rate of formation of nitrate reductase was stimulated by addition of nitrate and inhibited completely by cycloheximide (20 ?g/ml). Nitrogen-starved cells assimilated added nitrate or nitrite rapidly and no nitrite or nitrate was detectable in either cells or culture medium from cultures subjected to nitrogen starvation. It is concluded that nitrate is not obligatory for the formation of nitrate reductase. PMID:24469418

  8. Role of nitrite in the photochemical formation of radicals in the snow.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Kleffmann, Jörg; Villena, Guillermo; Wiesen, Peter; King, Martin; France, James; Anastasio, Cort; Staebler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical reactions in snow can have an important impact on the composition of the atmosphere over snow-covered areas as well as on the composition of the snow itself. One of the major photochemical processes is the photolysis of nitrate leading to the formation of volatile nitrogen compounds. We report nitrite concentrations determined together with nitrate and hydrogen peroxide in surface snow collected at the coastal site of Barrow, Alaska. The results demonstrate that nitrite likely plays a significant role as a precursor for reactive hydroxyl radicals as well as volatile nitrogen oxides in the snow. Pollution events leading to high concentrations of nitrous acid in the atmosphere contributed to an observed increase in nitrite in the surface snow layer during nighttime. Observed daytime nitrite concentrations are much higher than values predicted from steady-state concentrations based on photolysis of nitrate and nitrite indicating that we do not fully understand the production of nitrite and nitrous acid in snow. The discrepancy between observed and expected nitrite concentrations is probably due to a combination of factors, including an incomplete understanding of the reactive environment and chemical processes in snow, and a lack of consideration of the vertical structure of snow. PMID:24237312

  9. Modulation by copper of the products of nitrite respiration in Pseudomonas perfectomarinus.

    PubMed Central

    Matsubara, T; Frunzke, K; Zumft, W G

    1982-01-01

    A synthetic growth medium was purified with the chelator 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone to study the effects of copper on partial reactions and product formation of nitrite respiration in Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. This organism grew anaerobically in a copper-deficient medium with nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor. Copper-deficient cells had high activity for reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide, but little activity for nitrous oxide reduction. High rates of nitrous oxide reduction were observed only in cells grown on a copper-sufficient (1 micro M) medium. Copper-deficient cells converted nitrate or nitrite initially to nitrous oxide instead of dinitrogen, the normal end product of nitrite respiration in this organism. In agreement with this was the finding that anaerobic growth of P. perfectomarinus with nitrous oxide as the terminal electron acceptor required copper. This requirement was not satisfied by substitution of molybdenum, zinc, nickel, cobalt, or manganese for copper. Reconstitution of nitrous oxide reduction in copper-deficient cells was rapid on addition of a small amount of copper, even though protein synthesis was inhibited. The results indicate an involvement of copper protein(s) in the last step of nitrite respiration in P. perfectomarinus. In addition we found that nitric oxide, a presumed intermediate of nitrite respiration, inhibited nitrous oxide reduction. PMID:7061387

  10. FINAL REPORT. MECHANISM OF PITTING CORROSION PREVENTION BY NITRITE IN CARBON STEEL EXPOSED TO DILUTE SALT SOLUTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during...

  11. Effects of nitrite exposure on acid-base balance, respiratory protein, and ion concentrations of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at low pH.

    PubMed

    Chen, J C; Lee, Y

    1997-10-01

    Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4. 3 and 7.7 pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid-base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3- , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related to ambient nitrite-N concentration and were lower at pH 4.3. However, hemolymph nitrite-N, PO2 and PCO2 levels, and ammonia-N excretion were directly related to ambient nitrite-N, and were higher at pH 4.3. Ambient nitrite-N and pH level interacted to cause changes in hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, PO2, and pH levels. It is concluded that for M. rosenbergii following nitrite exposure, the incorporated nitrite causes a decrease of pH and an increase of PO2 in the hemolymph where it reduces oxyhemocyanin level; disturbs nitrogen excretion, ion regulation, and respiratory gas exchange; and may lead to a decrease of oxygen-carrying capacity, which are affected more at low pH. PMID:9353207

  12. Effects of Nitrite on Development of Embryos and Early Larval Stages of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Alison E.; Karimi, Ida; Talwar, Mayank

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that high nitrate levels in food and water may cause birth defects or spontaneous abortions in humans. Experimental mammalian studies show that high nitrite levels adversely affect reproductive outcomes, but have not shown congenital malformations. Consequently, the teratogenic potential of nitrite is unclear. In this study, the effects of nitrite on development of zebrafish embryos and early larval stages were investigated. Eggs were exposed to ethanol (a known teratogen), nitrite, or nitrate for 24 or 96 hours, and larvae examined at 120 hours. Sublethal exposure to 300?mM ethanol for 24 hours caused severe pericardial and yolk sac edema, craniofacial and axial malformations, and swim bladder noninflation. The 96 hour LC50 for nitrite was 411?mg/L. Less severe edema, craniofacial (but not axial) malformations, swim bladder noninflation, and immobility were observed after sublethal exposure to nitrite between 10 and 300?mg/L for 96 hours. Exposure to nitrite for 24 hours at concentrations as high as 2000?mg/L was not lethal. Only axial malformations and swim bladder noninflation were observed at 1500?mg/L. The results demonstrate that sublethal nitrite concentrations cause developmental defects. The type and magnitude of these defects differed after 24 and 96 hours of exposure. PMID:22823424

  13. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil.

    PubMed

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patrícia Dörr; Camargo, Flavio A O; Triplett, Eric W

    2012-01-01

    Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. Nitrite produced by AOA and further oxidized to nitrate can cause nitrogen loss from soils, surface and groundwater contamination, and water eutrophication. The AOA discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA. PMID:22715335

  14. Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil

    PubMed Central

    Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patrícia Dörr; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Triplett, Eric W.

    2012-01-01

    Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. Nitrite produced by AOA and further oxidized to nitrate can cause nitrogen loss from soils, surface and groundwater contamination, and water eutrophication. The AOA discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA. PMID:22715335

  15. Even and carbon dioxide independent distribution of nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes of healthy humans at rest.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Sutmöller, Karina; Maassen, Mirja; Nacke, Marisa; Böhmer, Anke; Mitschke, Anja; Konrad, Hannelore; Starke, Henning; Hummler, Helmut; Maassen, Norbert

    2013-05-31

    In the literature, the distribution of nitrite and nitrate, the major metabolites of nitric oxide (NO), between plasma and erythrocytes and its dependency on partial CO? pressure (pCO?) in mammalian blood are uncertain. By means of a previously reported fully validated stable-isotope dilution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method, we measured nitrite and nitrate concentrations in heparinized plasma from venous, arterial and arterialized blood donated by five healthy non-exercising volunteers at three different time points (0, 15, 30 min). pCO?, pH and oxygen saturation were measured by standard techniques. The nitrite and nitrate concentrations and the nitrite-to-nitrate ratio in plasma did not correlate with pCO? (r=-0.272, P=0.07). Nitrite was found to be almost evenly distributed between plasma and erythrocytes of another eleven healthy non-exercising subjects. In a rabbit model of ARDS, no differences were found in the plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations comparing normoventilation with hypercapnia. Our studies suggest that the distribution of nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes at rest is largely even and independent of pCO? in blood of healthy humans and rabbits with ARDS. PMID:23511248

  16. AMBIENT AMMONIA AND AMMONIUM AEROSOL ACROSS A REGION OF VARIABLE AMMONIA EMISSION DENSITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents one year of ambient ammonia (NH3), ammonium (NH4+), hydrochloric acid (HCI), chloride (CIŻ), nitric acid (HNO3), nitrate (NO3Ż), nitrous acid (HONO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and sulfate (SO4...

  17. Genetic basis for nitrate resistance in Desulfovibrio strains

    PubMed Central

    Korte, Hannah L.; Fels, Samuel R.; Christensen, Geoff A.; Price, Morgan N.; Kuehl, Jennifer V.; Zane, Grant M.; Deutschbauer, Adam M.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate is an inhibitor of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). In petroleum production sites, amendments of nitrate and nitrite are used to prevent SRB production of sulfide that causes souring of oil wells. A better understanding of nitrate stress responses in the model SRB, Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio alaskensis G20, will strengthen predictions of environmental outcomes of nitrate application. Nitrate inhibition of SRB has historically been considered to result from the generation of small amounts of nitrite, to which SRB are quite sensitive. Here we explored the possibility that nitrate might inhibit SRB by a mechanism other than through nitrite inhibition. We found that nitrate-stressed D. vulgaris cultures grown in lactate-sulfate conditions eventually grew in the presence of high concentrations of nitrate, and their resistance continued through several subcultures. Nitrate consumption was not detected over the course of the experiment, suggesting adaptation to nitrate. With high-throughput genetic approaches employing TnLE-seq for D. vulgaris and a pooled mutant library of D. alaskensis, we determined the fitness of many transposon mutants of both organisms in nitrate stress conditions. We found that several mutants, including homologs present in both strains, had a greatly increased ability to grow in the presence of nitrate but not nitrite. The mutated genes conferring nitrate resistance included the gene encoding the putative Rex transcriptional regulator (DVU0916/Dde_2702), as well as a cluster of genes (DVU0251-DVU0245/Dde_0597-Dde_0605) that is poorly annotated. Follow-up studies with individual D. vulgaris transposon and deletion mutants confirmed high-throughput results. We conclude that, in D. vulgaris and D. alaskensis, nitrate resistance in wild-type cultures is likely conferred by spontaneous mutations. Furthermore, the mechanisms that confer nitrate resistance may be different from those that confer nitrite resistance. PMID:24795702

  18. Nitrite Promotes the Growth and Decreases the Lignin Content of indica Rice Calli: A Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Nitrite-Responsive Genes during In Vitro Culture of Rice

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Gen; Zhao, Qingchuan; Zeng, Qi; Li, Xuemei; Gong, Hanyu; Li, Yangsheng

    2014-01-01

    As both major macronutrients and signal molecules, nitrogen metabolites, such as nitrate and nitrite, play an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, the callus growth of indica rice cv. 9311 was significantly enhanced by nitrite, whereas the soluble protein content remained unchanged. The deep RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) showed that the transcriptional profiles of cv. 9311 calli were significantly changed after adding nitrite to the nitrate-free medium, and these nitrite-responsive genes were involved in a wide range of plant processes, particularly in the secondary metabolite pathways. Interestingly, most of the genes involved in phenylpropanoid-related pathways were coordinately down-regulated by nitrite, such as four cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and these in turn resulted in the decrease of lignin content of indica calli. Furthermore, several candidate genes related to cell growth or stress responses were identified, such as genes coding for expansins, SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) and HSP20s, and these suggested that nitrite could probably serve as a transcriptome signal to enhance the indica calli growth by regulation of various downstream genes expression. This study contributes to a better understanding of the function of nitrite during the process of plant tissue culture and could aid in the application of this technology to improved indica genetic transformation efficiency. PMID:24740395

  19. Validation of a method to directly and specifically measure nitrite in biological matrices.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luis E F; Kamimura, Sayuri; Kenyon, Nicholas; Khaibullina, Alfia; Wang, Li; de Souza Batista, Celia M; Quezado, Zenaide M N

    2015-02-15

    The bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) is influenced by chemical species generated through reactions with proteins, lipids, metals, and its conversion to nitrite and nitrate. A better understanding of the functions played by each of these species could be achieved by developing selective assays able of distinguishing nitrite from other NO species. Nagababu and Rifkind developed a method using acetic and ascorbic acids to measure nitrite-derived NO in plasma. Here, we adapted, optimized, and validated this method to assay nitrite in tissues. The method yielded linear measurements over 1-300 pmol of nitrite and was validated for tissue preserved in a nitrite stabilization solution composed of potassium ferricyanide, N-ethylmaleimide and NP-40. When samples were processed with chloroform, but not with methanol, ethanol, acetic acid or acetonitrile, reliable and reproducible nitrite measurements in up to 20 sample replicates were obtained. The method's accuracy in tissue was ?90% and in plasma 99.9%. In mice, during basal conditions, brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney cortex had similar nitrite levels. In addition, nitrite tissue levels were similar regardless of when organs were processed: immediately upon collection, kept in stabilization solution for later analysis or frozen and later processed. After ip nitrite injections, rapidly changing nitrite concentrations in tissue and plasma could be measured and were shown to change in significantly distinct patterns. This validated method could be valuable for investigations of nitrite biology in conditions such as sickle cell disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, where nitrite is thought to play a role. PMID:25445633

  20. Nitrogen Removal over Nitrite by Aeration Control in Aerobic Granular Sludge Sequencing Batch Reactors

    PubMed Central

    Lochmatter, Samuel; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of aeration control for the achievement of N-removal over nitrite with aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactors. N-removal over nitrite requires less COD, which is particularly interesting if COD is the limiting parameter for nutrient removal. The nutrient removal performances for COD, N and P have been analyzed as well as the concentration of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge. Aeration phase length control combined with intermittent aeration or alternate high-low DO, has proven to be an efficient way to reduce the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria population and hence achieve N-removal over nitrite. N-removal efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved for an influent wastewater with COD:N:P ratios of 20:2.5:1. The total N-removal rate was 0.18 kgN·m?3·d?1. With N-removal over nitrate the N-removal was only 74%. At 20 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased by over 95% in 60 days and it was possible to switch from N-removal over nitrite to N-removal over nitrate and back again. At 15 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased too but less, and nitrite oxidation could not be completely suppressed. However, the combination of aeration phase length control and high-low DO was also at 15 °C successful to maintain the nitrite pathway despite the fact that the maximum growth rate of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at temperatures below 20 °C is in general higher than the one of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:25006970

  1. Elevated plasma nitrate in patients with crush syndrome caused by the Kobe earthquake.

    PubMed

    Adachi, J; Morita, S; Yasuda, H; Miwa, A; Ueno, Y; Asano, M; Tatsuno, Y

    1998-01-30

    We investigated the nitric oxide profile in the plasma of ten healthy controls and 29 patients hurt by the Kobe Earthquake. The levels of nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-) were measured simultaneously by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detection using the Griess reaction after the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Arginine consumed in food or diet-derived nitrite had no effect on the plasma nitrite and nitrate contents of the healthy volunteers. Plasma nitrate was elevated in the crush syndrome patients; whereas neither nitrite nor nitrate was increased in patients with normal renal function. This finding suggests increased nitric oxide synthesis, decreased excretion of nitric oxide in the crush syndrome or both. PMID:9526673

  2. Nitrate contamination of drinking water: Evaluation of genotoxic risk in human populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. S. Kleinjans; H. J. Albering; A. Marx; J. M. S. van Maanen; B. van Agen; F. ten Hoor; G. M. H. Swaen; P. L. J. M. Mertens

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate contamination of drinking water implies a genotoxic risk to man due to endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds from nitrate-derived nitrite. Thus far, epidemiological studies have presented conflicting results on the relation of drinking water nitrate levels with gastric cancer incidence. This uncertainty becomes of relevance in view of the steadily increasing nitrate levels in regular drinking water supplies.

  3. A case study of nitrification and nitrite isotope fractionation in a eutrophic temperate river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacob, Juliane; Dähnke, Kirstin; Sanders, Tina

    2014-05-01

    Stable isotopes of nitrate are often used to assess processing of nitrate in the water column of oceans, estuaries, and rivers. In all these environments, nitrate regeneration via nitrification is an important source of new nitrate. The bulk isotope effect of nitrification is hard to predict: It is a two-step-process by distinct groups of microorganisms oxidizing ammonium to nitrate via nitrite. Both processes have divergent isotope effects, and it is even more difficult to unravel these effects in natural environments, because nitrite usually does not accumulate and isotope analysis is not possible. During our routine sampling scheme at the River Elbe an exceptional flood occurred in June 2013, and nitrite and ammonium accumulated, allowing us to investigate isotope fractionation of nitrification in a natural river system. We measured nutrient concentrations, dual nitrate isotopes, ?15N-NO2, and, where possible, ?15N-NH4. Nitrate leached from catchment area, and ?15N-NO3 and ?18O-NO3 decreased from typical spring bloom values (9.0 o and 3.5 o respectively) to winter nitrate background values (7.4 o and 2.1 o respectively). This indicates that riverine assimilation was minimal during the flood. Ammonium and nitrite concentrations increased to 12.5 ?M and 5.7 ?M, respectively, which likely was due to remineralization and nitrification in the water column. Ammonium ?15N-NH4 values increased up to 12 o and nitrite ?15N-NO2 values ranged from -4.8 o and -14.2 ‰Nitrite oxidation and decreasing concentrations were coupled with a fractionation factor 15? of -8.6 o following normal, and not inverse, isotope fractionation. This deviates from findings in pure cultures of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. We assume that the mechanisms responsible for inverse fractionation apply in natural environment as well, but that the resulting trend in ?15N-NO2 is masked by dilution with fresh nitrite stemming from ammonium oxidation. Our data are a first approximation of the natural bulk isotope effect of nitrite oxidation in natural environments and highlight that pure culture results cannot easily be extrapolated to natural microbial assemblages or water bodies.

  4. Liquid Ammonia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Lagowski

    2007-01-01

    This is a review of the use of liquid ammonia as a solvent for chemical processes. Among the subjects covered are the physical properties of the solvent that defines it as “water like.” The physical and chemical processes associated with the formation of solutions and the properties of those solutions are also convered. Included is a discussion of metal?ammonia solutions,

  5. Ammonia Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... ammonia are relatively common in newborns, where the level may rise and fall without causing detectible symptoms. An increased ... Back to top 2. When my increased ammonia level has returned to normal, can it rise again? It depends on why it was increased ...

  6. Nitrite as regulator of hypoxic signaling in mammalian physiology

    PubMed Central

    van Faassen, Ernst E.; Bahrami, Soheyl; Feelisch, Martin; Hogg, Neil; Kelm, Malte; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Kozlov, Andrey V.; Li, Haitao; Lundberg, Jon O.; Mason, Ron; Nohl, Hans; Rassaf, Tienush; Samouilov, Alexandre; Slama-Schwok, Anny; Shiva, Sruti; Vanin, Anatoly F.; Weitzberg, Eddie; Zweier, Jay; Gladwin, Mark T.

    2009-01-01

    In this review we consider the physiological effects of endogenous and pharmacological levels of nitrite under conditions of hypoxia. In humans, the nitrite anion has long been considered as metastable intermediate in the oxidation of nitric oxide radicals to the stable metabolite nitrate. This oxidation cascade was thought to be irreversible under physiological conditions. However, a growing body of experimental observations attests that the presence of endogenous nitrite regulates a number of signaling events along the physiological and pathophysiological oxygen gradient. Hypoxic signaling events include vasodilation, modulation of mitochondrial respiration, and cytoprotection following ischemic insult. These phenomena are attributed to the reduction of nitrite anions to nitric oxide if local oxygen levels in tissues decrease. Recent research identified a growing list of enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways for this endogenous reduction of nitrite. Additional direct signaling events not involving free nitric oxide are proposed. We here discuss the mechanisms and properties of these various pathways and the role played by the local concentration of free oxygen in the affected tissue. PMID:19219851

  7. Parallel pathways for nitrite reduction during anaerobic growth in Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Laura; Bricio, Carlos; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Berenguer, José

    2014-04-01

    Respiratory reduction of nitrate and nitrite is encoded in Thermus thermophilus by the respective transferable gene clusters. Nitrate is reduced by a heterotetrameric nitrate reductase (Nar) encoded along transporters and regulatory signal transduction systems within the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE). The nitrite respiration cluster (nic) encodes homologues of nitrite reductase (Nir) and nitric oxide reductase (Nor). The expression and role of the nirSJM genes in nitrite respiration were analyzed. The three genes are expressed from two promoters, one (nirSp) producing a tricistronic mRNA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the other (nirJp) producing a bicistronic mRNA only under conditions of anoxia plus a nitrogen oxide. As for its nitrite reductase homologues, NirS is expressed in the periplasm, has a covalently bound heme c, and conserves the heme d1 binding pocket. NirJ is a cytoplasmic protein likely required for heme d1 synthesis and NirS maturation. NirM is a soluble periplasmic homologue of cytochrome c552. Mutants defective in nirS show normal anaerobic growth with nitrite and nitrate, supporting the existence of an alternative Nir in the cells. Gene knockout analysis of different candidate genes did not allow us to identify this alternative Nir protein but revealed the requirement for Nar in NirS-dependent and NirS-independent nitrite reduction. As the likely role for Nar in the process is in electron transport through its additional cytochrome c periplasmic subunit (NarC), we concluded all the Nir activity takes place in the periplasm by parallel pathways. PMID:24443532

  8. The purification and properties of nitrite reductase from higher plants, and its dependence on ferredoxin

    PubMed Central

    Joy, K. W.; Hageman, R. H.

    1966-01-01

    1. NADPH-dependent nitrite reductase from the leaves of higher plants was purified at least 70-fold and separated into two enzyme fractions. The first enzyme, a diaphorase with ferredoxin–NADP-reductase activity, is required only to transfer electrons from NADPH to a suitable electron acceptor, which then donates electrons to nitrite reductase proper. 2. Purified nitrite reductase accepted electrons from ferredoxin (the natural donor) or from reduced dyes. Ferredoxin was reduced by illuminated chloroplasts or dithionite, or by NADPH when diaphorase was present. The purified enzyme did not accept electrons directly from NADPH. 3. Ferredoxins purified from maize, spinach or Clostridium were interchangeable in the nitrite-reductase system. 4. Nitrite reductase had Km 0·15mm for nitrite. The pH optimum varied with plant and method of assay. The preparation had low sulphite-reductase activity. Ammonia was the product of nitrite reduction. 5. For some plants, the assay of crude preparations with NADPH was limited by diaphorase and the addition of diaphorase gave a better estimate of nitrite-reductase activity. A simple method of assay is described that uses dithionite with benzyl viologen as electron donor. PMID:4381617

  9. Antihypertensive effect of oral nitrite uptake in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Beier, S; Classen, H G; Loeffler, K; Schumacher, E; Thöni, H

    1995-03-01

    The lower blood pressure of vegetarians might partly be due to the high dietary load with nitrate which--to a certain extent--is further reduced to nitrite and finally to nitric oxide. To test this hypothesis, spontaneously hypertensive rats received drinking water containing 0, 25, 50 or 100 mmol/l NO2 during 56 days. Food was offered ad libitum or was restricted by 20% (pair-feeding) to simulate the lower energy consumption of vegetarians. Blood pressure, which was monitored at regular intervals, was lowered in a dose-dependent manner by nitrite. This effect was reversible and could not be enhanced by energy restriction. In volunteers plasma nitrate levels increased by a factor of 8 to 32 following the ingestion of a nitrate-rich meal, and mean methemoglobin concentrations increased from 1.2% to 2.4% indicating the endogenous formation of nitrite under these conditions. PMID:7741780

  10. Characterization of Nitrite Degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4+The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2?>NO?>N2O?>N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4+. PMID:24755671

  11. Characterization of nitrite degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4(+). The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2(-)>NO->N2O->N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4(+). PMID:24755671

  12. Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important). Reduction of nitrite ions is believed to be the most important source of ammonia. Whether by radiolytic or thermal routes, nitrite reduction reactions proceed through nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, the nitrosyl anion, and the hyponitrite anion. Nitrite ion is also converted into hydroxylamine, another important intermediate on the pathway to form ammonia. These reaction pathways additionally result in the formation of nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen, whereas hydrogen formation is produced in a separate reaction sequence.

  13. Ammonia (GCMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Ammonia fountain: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In an ammonia fountain, a flask is filled with ammonia gas. A tube from the flask extends into a pan of water that contains phenolphthalein. When a rubber bulb full of water is squeezed, the water squirts into the flask. Water from the pan then is pushed into the flask and the indicator changes color. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

  14. Nitrospina-like bacteria are the main drivers of nitrite oxidation in the seasonal upwelling area of the Eastern South Pacific (Central Chile ?36°S).

    PubMed

    Levipan, Héctor A; Molina, Verónica; Fernandez, Camila

    2014-12-01

    Aerobic nitrite oxidation in marine environments plays a key role in the nitrification process. Marine bacteria involved in this nitrate-producing process have however been seldom studied compared with the ammonia-oxidizing community. Here, we report for the first time the community structure of aerobic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the seasonal upwelling and oxygen-deficient area off Central Chile. Analysis of 16S rRNA by tag pyrosequencing was combined with specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and reverse transcription qPCR in summer and wintertime. Nitrospina-like bacteria were the only known NOB detected by means of pyrosequencing between 30 and 80?m depth, accounting for up to 5% of total bacteria. This guild was represented by 11 and 7 operational taxonomic units (97% cut-off) in winter and summertime respectively. Nitrospina-like bacteria were phylogenetically related to sequences retrieved from coastal upwelling, oxygen minimum zones and deep-sea environments. This group was also detected by qPCR with abundances that increased with depth throughout the water column. Importantly, Nitrospina from surface layers showed low abundances but high 16S rRNA?:?rDNA ratios and mainly in summertime. Overall, our results highlight the seasonal variability between the structure and physiological state of this community and suggest a significant role of Nitrospina in the nitrogen cycle of seasonal upwelling areas. PMID:25756109

  15. Conversion of the refractory ammonia and acetic acid in catalytic wet air oxidation of animal byproducts.

    PubMed

    Fontanier, Virginie; Zalouk, Sofiane; Barbati, Stéphane

    2011-01-01

    Wet air oxidation (WAO) and catalytic wet air oxidation (CWAO) of slaughtered animal byproducts (ABPs) were investigated. Two step experiment was carried out consisting of a non-catalysed WAO run followed by a CWAO run at 170-275 degrees C, 20 MPa, and reaction time 180 min. The WAO (1st step) of sample (5 g/L total organic carbon (TOC)) yielded (82.0 +/- 4)% TOC removal and (78.4 +/- 13.2)% conversion of the initial organic-N into NH4(+)-N. Four metal catalysts (Pd, Pt, Rh, Ru) supported over alumina have been tested in catalytic WAO (2nd step) at elevated pH to enhance ammonia conversion and organic matter removal, particularly acetic acid. It was found that the catalysts Ru, Pt, and Rh had significant effects on the TOC removal (95.1%, 99.5% and 96.7%, respectively) and on the abatement of ammonia (93.4%, 96.7% and 96.3%, respectively) with high nitrogen selectivity. The catalyst Pd was found to have the less activity while Pt had the best performance. The X-Ray diffraction analysis showed that the support of catalyst was not stable under the experimental conditions since it reacted with phosphate present in solution. Nitrite and nitrate ions were monitored during the oxidation reaction and it was concluded that CWAO of ammonia in real waste treatment framework was in good agreement with the results obtained from the literature for ideal solutions of ammonia. PMID:21520823

  16. Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Different Oral Sodium Nitrite Formulations in Diabetes Patients

    PubMed Central

    Predmore, Benjamin L.; Flanagan, Douglas R.; Giordano, Tony; Qiu, Yang; Brandon, Angela; Lefer, David J.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers, although associated with macrovascular disease and neuropathy, have a microvascular disease causing ischemia not amenable to surgical intervention. Nitrite selectively releases nitric oxide in ischemic tissues, and diabetes subjects have low nitrite levels that do not increase with exercise. This study explores the safety and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of sodium nitrite in subjects with diabetic foot ulcers. Subjects and Methods Using a blinded, randomized crossover study design, 12 subjects with diabetes mellitus and active or healed foot ulcers received a single dose of sodium nitrite on two occasions 7–28 days apart, once with an immediate release (IR) formulation and once with an enteric-coated (EC) formulation for delayed release. Serum nitrite, nitrate, methemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, blood pressure, pulse rate, complete blood count, chemistry panel, electrocardiogram, and adverse events were followed for up to 6?h after each dose. The IR and EC nitrite levels were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by pharmacokinetic modeling. Results The IR formulation elevated nitrite levels between 0.25 and 0.75?h (P<0.05). The EC formulation did not elevate nitrite levels significantly, but both formulations gave plasma nitrite levels previously suggested to be therapeutic (approximately 2–5??M). The IR formulation gave an asymptomatic blood pressure drop of 10/6?mm Hg (P<0.003), and two subjects experienced mild flushing. There was no elevation of methemoglobin or other safety concerns. Pharmacokinetic modeling of plama nitrite levels gave r2 values of 0.81 and 0.97 for the fits for IR and EC formulations, respectively. Conclusions Oral sodium nitrite administration is well tolerated in diabetes patients. PMID:22468627

  17. Insights into high-temperature nitrogen cycling from studies of the thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Torre, J. R.

    2010-12-01

    Our understanding of the nitrogen cycle has advanced significantly in recent years with the discovery of new metabolic processes and the recognition that key processes such as aerobic ammonia oxidation are more broadly distributed among extant organisms and habitat ranges. Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, is a key component of the nitrogen cycle and, until recently, was thought to be mediated exclusively by the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The discovery that mesophilic marine archaea, some of the most abundant microorganisms on the planet, are capable of oxidizing ammonia to nitrite fundamentally changed our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are now thought to be significant drivers of nitrification in many marine and terrestrial environments. Most studies, however, have focused on the contribution of AOA to nitrogen cycling in mesophilic environments. Our recent discovery of a thermophilic AOA, Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, has expanded the role and habitat range of AOA to include high temperature environments. Numerous studies have shown that AOA are widely distributed in geothermal habitats with a wide range of temperature and pH. The availability of multiple AOA genome sequences, combined with metagenomic studies from mesophilic and thermophilic environments gives us a better understanding of the physiology, ecology and evolution of these organisms. Recent studies have proposed that the AOA represent the most deeply branching lineage within the Archaea, the Thaumarchaeota. Furthermore, genomic comparisons between AOA and AOB reveal significant differences in the proposed pathways for ammonia oxidation. These genetic differences likely explain fundamental physiological differences such as the resistance of N. yellowstonii and other AOA to the classical nitrification inhibitors allylthiourea and acetylene. Physiological studies suggest that the marine AOA are adapted to oligotrophic environments. Our studies, however, point to a greater metabolic versatility in N. yellowstonii, including the ability to utilize alternative sources of energy. Understanding the biology of N. yellowstonii, the most deeply branching cultivated AOA to date, gives us a better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary significance of these organisms and sheds new light on nitrogen cycling at high temperature.

  18. Nitrate reductase activity of bacteria in saliva of term and preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Kanady, Jesica A; Aruni, A Wilson; Ninnis, Janet R; Hopper, Andrew O; Blood, Jamie D; Byrd, Benjamin L; Holley, Leighton R; Staker, Michael R; Hutson, Shandee; Fletcher, Hansel M; Power, Gordon G; Blood, Arlin B

    2012-12-01

    The salivary glands of adults concentrate nitrate from plasma into saliva where it is converted to nitrite by bacterial nitrate reductases. Nitrite can play a beneficial role in adult gastrointestinal and cardiovascular physiology. When nitrite is swallowed, some of it is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in the stomach and may then exert protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract and throughout the body. It has yet to be determined either when newborn infants acquire oral nitrate reducing bacteria or what the effects of antimicrobial therapy or premature birth may be on the bacterial processing of nitrate to nitrite. We measured nitrate and nitrite levels in the saliva of adults and both preterm and term human infants in the early weeks of life. We also measured oral bacterial reductase activity in the saliva of both infants and adults, and characterized the species of nitrate reducing bacteria present. Oral bacterial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in infants was either undetectable or markedly lower than the conversion rates of adults. No measurable reductase activity was found in infants within the first two weeks of life, despite the presence of oral nitrate reducing bacteria such as Actinomyces odontolyticus, Veillonella atypica, and Rothia mucilaginosa. We conclude that relatively little nitrite reaches the infant gastrointestinal tract due to the lack of oral bacterial nitrate reductase activity. Given the importance of the nitrate-nitrite-NO axis in adults, the lack of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria in infants may be relevant to the vulnerability of newborns to hypoxic stress and gastrointestinal tract pathologies. PMID:22842223

  19. Haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish Channa striata.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2012-08-15

    The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 mM. Effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mM, 1.4mM, and 3.0mM) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. Plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient levels. Extracellular nitrate rose by several mM, indicating that a large proportion of the nitrite taken up was converted to nitrate. Nitrite reacted with erythrocyte haemoglobin (Hb) causing methaemoglobin (metHb) to increase to 30% and nitrosylhaemoglobin (HbNO) to increase to 10% of total Hb. Both metHb and HbNO stabilised after 4 days, and functional Hb levels accordingly never fell below 60% of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism behind the observed changes in regulation. PMID:22516674

  20. Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system.

    PubMed

    Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Playchoom, Cholticha; Powtongsook, Sorawit

    2013-08-01

    A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed. The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area), packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria. An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g. > 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer. The results showed that, among the four substrates tested (soil, sand, pumice stone and vermiculite), pumice was the most preferable material. Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses, methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses. When methanol was applied at the optimal COD:N ratio of 5:1, a nitrate removal rate of 4591 +/- 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved. Finally, nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system. Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD:N ratio of 5:1. The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia. The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 +/- 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 +/- 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day. PMID:24520693

  1. Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Barua, Sumitra [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reed, SB [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Fredrikson, JK [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

    2009-01-01

    In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

  2. Chang, S.-K., Kozenlauskas, R., and Harrington, G. W. (1977). Determination of nitrite ion using differential pulse polarography. Anal. Chem. 49, 2272.

    E-print Network

    Liu, Jie

    ion using differential pulse polarography. Anal. Chem. 49, 2272. Gjerde, D. T., Fritz, J. S conductimetric detection. Anal. Chem. 47, 1801. Stratford, M. R. L. (1999). Measurement of nitrite and nitrate

  3. Satellite Observations of Tropospheric Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shephard, M. W.; Luo, M.; Rinsland, C. P.; Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Beer, R.; Pinder, R. W.; Henze, D.; Payne, V. H.; Clough, S.; Rodgers, C. D.; Osterman, G. B.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, H. M.

    2008-12-01

    Global high-spectral resolution (0.06 cm-1) nadir measurements from TES-Aura enable the simultaneous retrieval of a number of tropospheric pollutants and trace gases in addition to the TES standard operationally retrieved products (e.g. carbon monoxide, ozone). Ammonia (NH3) is one of the additional species that can be retrieved in conjunction with the TES standard products, and is important for local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry studies. Ammonia emissions contribute significantly to several well-known environmental problems, yet the magnitude and seasonal/spatial variability of the emissions are poorly constrained. In the atmosphere, an important fraction of fine particulate matter is composed of ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. These particles are statistically associated with health impacts. When deposited to ecosystems in excess, nitrogen, including ammonia can cause nutrient imbalances, change in ecosystem species composition, eutrophication, algal blooms and hypoxia. Ammonia is also challenging to measure in-situ. Observations of surface concentrations are rare and are particularly sparse in North America. Satellite observations of ammonia are therefore highly desirable. We recently demonstrated that tropospheric ammonia is detectable in the TES spectra and presented some corresponding preliminary retrievals over a very limited range of conditions (Beer et al., 2008). Presented here are results that expand upon these initial TES ammonia retrievals in order to evaluate/validate the retrieval results utilizing in-situ surface observations (e.g. LADCO, CASTNet, EPA /NC State) and chemical models (e.g. GEOS-Chem and CMAQ). We also present retrievals over regions of interest that have the potential to help further understand air quality and the active nitrogen cycle. Beer, R., M. W. Shephard, S. S. Kulawik, S. A. Clough, A. Eldering, K. W. Bowman, S. P. Sander, B. M. Fisher, V. H. Payne, M. Luo, G. B. Osterman, and J. R. Worden, First satellite observations of lower tropospheric ammonia and methanol, Geophysical Res. Letters, 35, L09801, doi:10.1029/2008GL033642, 2008.

  4. Atlantic Ocean Measurements of Low Molecular Weight Alkyl Nitrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, E. E.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2003-12-01

    The surface oceans appear to be a source of low molecular weight alkyl nitrates to the atmosphere. These compounds are converted by photolysis to NOx, and may contribute to ozone production in remote regions. The mechanism(s) of production of oceanic alkyl nitrates in surface seawater are currently unknown. Laboratory studies suggest that the reaction of peroxy radicals with nitric oxide in seawater may provide a near-surface source of these compounds. These precursors originate from the photolysis of dissolved organic matter and nitrite. Depth profiles of alkyl nitrates in the North Atlantic Ocean (Chuck et al. 2002) show elevated concentrations of alkyl nitrates below the photic zone, suggesting that non-photochemical mechanisms are also likely. We have recently completed a series of alkyl nitrate (C1-C3) depth profiles and shipboard incubation experiments in the north Atlantic, on a cruise track from Reykjavik, Iceland to Natal, Brazil (A16N2003; R/V Brown). The northernmost stations (45-50N), exhibited alkyl nitrate maxima in the mixed layer, and a positive correlation between alkyl nitrates and nitrite. In the tropics and subtropics, alkyl nitrate maxima were below the mixed layer, and alkyl nitrates correlated with nitrate. Shipboard deck irradiation studies demonstrated photochemical production of alkyl nitrates in waters that correlated with the initial nitrite concentration. Addition of nitrite stimulated production to extremely high levels, suggesting that NO, rather than peroxy radicals, is the limiting reactant in these waters. Overall, the distribution of alkyl nitrates suggests that both photochemical and microbial sources of alkyl nitrate may occur.

  5. Occurrence of Nitrites in Soils.

    E-print Network

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

    1930-01-01

    hither- to been overlooked. Nitrites may occur in large quantity in cultures used in nitrification experiments, contrary to the general opinion that their amounts are generally small and relatively unimportant, This discovery opens a large field... nitrification work. Nitrites may occur in soil cultures alone and in those which have received ammonium sulphate or other nitrogenous addi- tions. They were found in such important types as Norfolk fine sand and Lake Charles clay loam. Soils which have a low...

  6. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. I. Long term studies with a continuous supply of nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    The synthesis and accumulation of nitrite has been suggested as a causative factor in the inhibition of legume nodules supplied with nitrate. Plants were grown in sand culture with a moderate level of nitrate (2.1 to 6.4 millimolar) supplied continuously from seed germination to 30 to 50 days after planting. In a comparison of nitrate treatments, a highly significant negative correlation between nitrite concentration in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) nodules and nodule fresh weight per shoot dry weight was found even when bacteroids lacked nitrate reductase (NR). However, in a comparison of two Rhizobium japonicum strains, there was only 12% as much nitrite in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ R. japonicum as in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ R. japonicum, and growth and acetylene reduction activity of both types of nodules was about equally inhibited. The very small concentration of nitrite found in P. vulgaris nodules was probably below that required for the inhibition of nitrogenase based on published in vitro experiments, and yet the specific acetylene reduction activity was inhibited 83% by nitrate. The overall results do not support the idea that nitrite plays a role in the inhibition of nodule growth and nitrogenase activity by nitrate.

  7. Nitrite Signaling in Pulmonary Hypertension: Mechanisms of Bioactivation, Signaling, and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Marta; Wang, Jun; Mora, Ana L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and mean pulmonary artery pressure leading to impaired function of the right ventricle, reduced cardiac output, and death. An imbalance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators plays an important role in the pathobiology of PAH. Recent Advances: Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator in the lung, whose bioavailability and signaling pathway are impaired in PAH. It is now appreciated that the oxidative product of NO metabolism, the inorganic anion nitrite (NO2?), functions as an intravascular endocrine reservoir of NO bioactivity that can be reduced back to NO under physiological and pathological hypoxia. Critical Issues: The conversion of nitrite to NO is controlled by coupled electron and proton transfer reactions between heme- and molybdenum-containing proteins, such as hemoglobin and xanthine oxidase, and by simple protonation and disproportionation, and possibly by catalyzed disproportionation. The two major sources of nitrite (and nitrate) are the endogenous l-arginine–NO pathway, by oxidation of NO, and the diet, with conversion of nitrate from diet into nitrite by oral commensal bacteria. In the current article, we review the enzymatic formation of nitrite and the available data regarding its use as a therapy for PAH and other cardiovascular diseases. Future Directions: The successful efficacy demonstrated in several animal models and safety in early clinical trials suggest that nitrite may represent a promising new therapy for PAH. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1797–1809. PMID:22871207

  8. The redox interplay between nitrite and nitric oxide: From the gut to the brain?

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Cassilda; Ferreira, Nuno R.; Rocha, Bárbara S.; Barbosa, Rui M.; Laranjinha, Joăo

    2013-01-01

    The reversible redox conversion of nitrite and nitric oxide (•NO) in a physiological setting is now widely accepted. Nitrite has long been identified as a stable intermediate of •NO oxidation but several lines of evidence support the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide in vivo. In the gut, this notion implies that nitrate from dietary sources fuels the longstanding production of nitrite in the oral cavity followed by univalent reduction to •NO in the stomach. Once formed, •NO boosts a network of reactions, including the production of higher nitrogen oxides that may have a physiological impact via the post-translational modification of proteins and lipids. Dietary compounds, such as polyphenols, and different prandial states (secreting specific gastric mediators) modulate the outcome of these reactions. The gut has unusual characteristics that modulate nitrite and •NO redox interplay: (1) wide range of pH (neutral vs acidic) and oxygen tension (c.a. 70 Torr in the stomach and nearly anoxic in the colon), (2) variable lumen content and (3) highly developed enteric nervous system (sensitive to •NO and dietary compounds, such as glutamate). The redox interplay of nitrite and •NO might also participate in the regulation of brain homeostasis upon neuronal glutamatergic stimulation in a process facilitated by ascorbate and a localized and transient decrease of oxygen tension. In a way reminiscent of that occurring in the stomach, a nitrite/•NO/ascorbate redox interplay in the brain at glutamatergic synapses, contributing to local •NO increase, may impact on •NO-mediated process. We here discuss the implications of the redox conversion of nitrite to •NO in the gut, how nitrite-derived •NO may signal from the digestive to the central nervous system, influencing brain function, as well as a putative ascorbate-driven nitrite/NO pathway occurring in the brain. PMID:24024161

  9. [Influence of silver/silicon dioxide on infrared absorption spectroscopy of sodium nitrate].

    PubMed

    Yang, Shi-Ling; Yue, Li; Jia, Zhi-Jun

    2014-09-01

    Quickly detecting of ocean nutrient was one important task in marine pollution monitoring. We discovered the application of surface-enhanced infrared absorption spectroscopy in the detection of ocean nutrient through researching the evaporation of sodium nitrate solution. The silicon dioxide (SiO2) with highly dispersion was prepared by Stober method, The silver/silica (Ag/SiO2) composite materials were prepared by mixing ammonia solution and silicon dioxide aqueous solution. Three kinds of composite materials with different surface morphology were fabricated through optimizing the experimental parameter and changing the experimental process. The surface morphology, crystal orientation and surface plasmon resonance were investigated by means of the scanning electronic microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Visible absorption spectrum and infrared ab- sorption spectroscopy. The SEM images showed that the sample A was purified SiO2, sample B and sample C were mixture of silver nanoparticle and silicon dioxide, while sample D was completed nanoshell structure. The absorption spectroscopy showed that there was surface plasmon resonance in the UV-visible region, while there was possibility of surface plasmon resonance in the Infrared absorption region. The effect of Ag/SiO2 composite material on the infrared absorption spectra of sodium nitrite solution was investigated through systematically analyzing the infrared absorption spectroscopy of sodium nitrate solution during its evaporation, i. e. the peak integration area of nitrate and the peak integration area of water molecule. The experimental results show that the integration area of nitrate was enhanced greatly during the evaporation process while the integration area of water molecule decreased continuously. The integration area of nitrate comes from the anti-symmetric stretch vibration and the enhancement of the vibration is attributed to the interface effect of Ag/SiO2 which is consistent with Jensen T.R's result. PMID:25532335

  10. Nitrate Protocol

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this resource is to measure the nitrate-nitrogen of water. Students will use a nitrate kit to measure the nitrate-nitrogen in the water at their hydrology site. The exact procedure depends on the instructions in the nitrate kit used.

  11. The purification and properties of a cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase from Paracoccus halodenitrificans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancinelli, R. L.; Cronin, S.; Hochstein, L. I.

    1986-01-01

    Paracoccus halodenitrificans, grown anaerobically in the presence of nitrite, contained membrane and cytoplasmic nitrite reductases. When assayed in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, the membrane-bound enzyme produced nitrous oxide whereas the cytoplasmic enzyme produced nitric oxide. When both enzymes were assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite, the cytoplasmic enzyme produced ammonia. Following solubilization, the membrane-bound enzyme behaved like the cytoplasmic enzyme, producing nitric oxide in the presence of phenazine methosulfate and ascorbate, and ammonia when assayed in the presence of methyl viologen and dithionite. The cytoplasmic and membrane-bound enzymes were purified to essentially the same specific activity. Only a single nitrite-reductase activity was detected on electrophoretic gels and the electrophoretic behavior of both enzymes suggested they were identical. The spectral properties of both enzymes suggested they were cd-type cytochromes. These data suggest that the products of nitrite reduction by the cd-cytochrome nitrite reductase are determined by the location of the enzyme and the redox potential of the electron donor.

  12. Nitrite intensity explains N management effects on N2O emissions in maize

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is typically assumed that the dependence of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions on soil nitrogen (N) availability is best quantified in terms of ammonium (NH4+) and/or nitrate (NO3-) concentrations. In contrast, nitrite (NO2-) is seldom measured separately from NO3- despite its role as a central substr...

  13. Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

    1983-08-01

    Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

  14. Nitrite transport in chloroplast inner envelope vesicles. I. Direct measurement of proton-linked transport

    SciTech Connect

    Shingles, R.; Roh, M.H.; McCarty, R.E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Chloroplast inner envelope membrane vesicles that are loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorophore, pyranine, show rapid internal acidification when nitrite is added. Acidification is dependent upon {Delta}pH, with the inside of vesicles being alkaline with respect to the outside. The rate of vesicle acidification was directly proportional to the concentration of nitrite that was added and the imposed pH difference across the membrane. In contrast, added nitrate had no effect on vesicle acidification. Nitrite also caused acidification of asolectin vesicles that were prepared by extrusion were approximately the same size, allowing them to be compared when the final extent of acidification, measured after the pH gradient had collapsed, was similar. The rate of nitrite-dependent acidification was similar in these two preparations at any single nitrite concentration. These results indicate that nitrite movement occurs by rapid diffusion across membranes as nitrous acid, and this movement is dependent on a proton gradient across the lipid bilayer. Under conditions approximating these in vivo, the rate of diffusion of nitrous acid far exceeds that of nitrite reduction within chloroplasts. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Nitrospira-Like Bacteria Associated with Nitrite Oxidation in Freshwater Aquaria

    PubMed Central

    Hovanec, Timothy A.; Taylor, Lance T.; Blakis, Andrew; Delong, Edward F.

    1998-01-01

    Oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in aquaria is typically attributed to bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrobacter which are members of the ? subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. In order to identify bacteria responsible for nitrite oxidation in aquaria, clone libraries of rRNA genes were developed from biofilms of several freshwater aquaria. Analysis of the rDNA libraries, along with results from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) on frequently sampled biofilms, indicated the presence of putative nitrite-oxidizing bacteria closely related to other members of the genus Nitrospira. Nucleic acid hybridization experiments with rRNA from biofilms of freshwater aquaria demonstrated that Nitrospira-like rRNA comprised nearly 5% of the rRNA extracted from the biofilms during the establishment of nitrification. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria belonging to the ? subdivision of the class Proteobacteria (e.g., Nitrobacter spp.) were not detected in these samples. Aquaria which received a commercial preparation containing Nitrobacter species did not show evidence of Nitrobacter growth and development but did develop substantial populations of Nitrospira-like species. Time series analysis of rDNA phylotypes on aquaria biofilms by DGGE, combined with nitrite and nitrate analysis, showed a correspondence between the appearance of Nitrospira-like bacterial ribosomal DNA and the initiation of nitrite oxidation. In total, the data suggest that Nitrobacter winogradskyi and close relatives were not the dominant nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in freshwater aquaria. Instead, nitrite oxidation in freshwater aquaria appeared to be mediated by bacteria closely related to Nitrospira moscoviensis and Nitrospira marina. PMID:16349486

  16. Studies on the regulation of assimilatory nitrate reductase in Ankistrodesmus braunii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Diez; A. Chaparro; J. M. Vega; A. Relimpio

    1977-01-01

    In the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, all the activities associated with the nitrate reductase complex (i.e., NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase and FMNH2-or MVH-nitrate reductase) are nutritionally repressed by ammonia or methylamine. Besides, ammonia or methylamine promote in vivo the reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase, but not of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase. Subsequent removal of the inactivating agent from the medium

  17. Nitrate inhibition of legume nodule growth and activity. II. Short term studies with high nitrate supply

    SciTech Connect

    Streeter, J.G.

    1985-02-01

    Soybean plants (Glycine max (L.) Merr) were grown in sand culture with 2 millimolar nitrate for 37 days and then supplied with 15 millimolar nitrate for 7 days. Control plants received 2 millimolar nitrate and 13 millimolar chloride and, after the 7-day treatment period, all plants were supplied with nil nitrate. The temporary treatment with high nitrate inhibited nitrogenase (acetylene reduction) activity by 80% whether or not Rhizobium japonicum bacteroids had nitrate reductase (NR) activity. The pattern of nitrite accumulation in nodules formed by NR/sup +/ rhizobia was inversely related to the decrease and recovery of nitrogenase activity. However, nitrite concentration in nodules formed by NR/sup -/ rhizobia appeared to be too low to explain the inhibition of nitrogenase. Nodules on plants treated with 15 millimolar nitrate contained higher concentrations of amino N and, especially, ureide N than control nodules and, after withdrawal of nitrate, reduced N content of treated and control nodules returned to similar levels. The accumulation of N/sub 2/ fixation products in nodules in response to high nitrate treatment was observed with three R. japonicum strains, two NR/sup +/ and one NR/sup -/.

  18. Nitrite toxicity to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii

    SciTech Connect

    Gutzmer, M.P.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute nitrite exposure to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda). Specific objectives of this study included (1) determining the 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h LC-50's of nitrite to crayfish of different weights and genders in freshwater, (2) determining the LC-50's of nitrite to crayfish in water with elevated chloride concentrations, and (3), in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of nitrite toxicity in crayfish, determining hemolymph nitrite concentrations in crayfish exposed to nitrite in freshwater and water with elevated chloride concentrations.

  19. Transcription factors involved in controlling the expression of nitrate reductase genes in higher plants.

    PubMed

    Yanagisawa, Shuichi

    2014-12-01

    Nitrate reductase is a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, and it catalyzes the nitrate-to-nitrite reduction process in plants. A variety of factors, including nitrate, light, metabolites, phytohormones, low temperature, and drought, modulate the expression levels of nitrate reductase genes as well as nitrate reductase activity, which is consistent with its physiological role. Recently, several transcription factors involved in controlling the expression of nitrate reductase genes have been identified in Arabidopsis. NODULE-INCEPTION-like proteins (NLPs) are transcription factors responsible for nitrate-inducible expression of nitrate reductase genes. Since NLPs also control nitrate-inducible expression of genes encoding nitrate transporter, nitrite transporter, and nitrite reductase, the expression levels of nitrate reduction pathway-associated genes are coordinately modulated by NLPs in response to nitrate. LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) transcription factors (LBD37-LBD39) are strong candidates for transcription factors mediating negative feedback regulation in response to increases in the contents of nitrogen-containing metabolites, whereas LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) that promotes photomorphogenesis in light may be a transcription factor involved in light-induced expression of a nitrate reductase gene. Furthermore, unidentified transcription factors likely mediate other signals and regulate the expression of nitrate reductase genes. This review presents a summary of our current knowledge of such transcription factors. PMID:25443843

  20. Kinetics of toluene degradation by a nitrate-reducing bacterium isolated from a groundwater aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Elmen, J.; Pan, W.; Leung, S.Y.; Magyarosy, A.; Keasling, J.D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-07-05

    Groundwater from a xylene-contaminated aquifer was enriched in the laboratory in the presence of toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzene, and benzene. A pure culture that degrades toluene and m-xylene under nitrate-reducing conditions was isolated. Fatty acid analysis, 16S rRNA sequencing, and morphological traits indicate that the isolate was a strain of Azoarcus tolulyticus. The kinetics of toluene degradation under nitrate-reducing conditions by this isolate was determined. Nitrate reduction does not proceed beyond nitrite. Nitrate and toluene are substrate limiting at low concentrations, whereas toluene, nitrate, and nitrite are inhibitory at high concentrations. Several inhibition models were compared to experimental data to represent inhibition by these substrates. A kinetic model for toluene and nitrate degradation as well as for cell growth and nitrite production was developed and compared to experimental data. The results of this work may find important application in the remediation of groundwater aquifers contaminated with aromatic hydrocarbons.

  1. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    PubMed

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO??) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC?? of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish. PMID:21545779

  2. High Abundances of Potentially Active Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Oligotrophic, High-Altitude Lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Curtis J.; Beman, J. Michael

    2014-01-01

    Nitrification plays a central role in the nitrogen cycle by determining the oxidation state of nitrogen and its subsequent bioavailability and cycling. However, relatively little is known about the underlying ecology of the microbial communities that carry out nitrification in freshwater ecosystems—and particularly within high-altitude oligotrophic lakes, where nitrogen is frequently a limiting nutrient. We quantified ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in 9 high-altitude lakes (2289–3160 m) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, in relation to spatial and biogeochemical data. Based on their ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected. AOB were present in 88% of samples and were more abundant than AOA in all samples. Both groups showed >100 fold variation in abundance between different lakes, and were also variable through time within individual lakes. Nutrient concentrations (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate) were generally low but also varied across and within lakes, suggestive of active internal nutrient cycling; AOB abundance was significantly correlated with phosphate (r2?=?0.32, p<0.1), whereas AOA abundance was inversely correlated with lake elevation (r2?=?0.43, p<0.05). We also measured low rates of ammonia oxidation—indicating that AOB, AOA, or both, may be biogeochemically active in these oligotrophic ecosystems. Our data indicate that dynamic populations of AOB and AOA are found in oligotrophic, high-altitude, freshwater lakes. PMID:25402442

  3. Characterization of a Nitrite Reductase Involved in Nitrifier Denitrification*

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Thomas J.; Bowen, Kimberly E.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Arp, Daniel J.; Rosenzweig, Amy C.

    2013-01-01

    Nitrifier denitrification is the conversion of nitrite to nitrous oxide by ammonia-oxidizing organisms. This process, which is distinct from denitrification, is active under aerobic conditions in the model nitrifier Nitrosomonas europaea. The central enzyme of the nitrifier dentrification pathway is a copper nitrite reductase (CuNIR). To understand how a CuNIR, typically inactivated by oxygen, functions in this pathway, the enzyme isolated directly from N. europaea (NeNIR) was biochemically and structurally characterized. NeNIR reduces nitrite at a similar rate to other CuNIRs but appears to be oxygen tolerant. Crystal structures of oxidized and reduced NeNIR reveal a substrate channel to the active site that is much more restricted than channels in typical CuNIRs. In addition, there is a second fully hydrated channel leading to the active site that likely acts a water exit pathway. The structure is minimally affected by changes in pH. Taken together, these findings provide insight into the molecular basis for NeNIR oxygen tolerance. PMID:23857587

  4. Some characteristics of nitrate reductase induction in Lemna minor L

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. O. Orebamjo; G. R. Stewart

    1974-01-01

    Low levels of nitrate reductase can be detected in plants of Lemna minor grown on some organic nitrogen sources. Nitrogen-starvation does not lead to a derepression of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate ions are necessary for the development of maximum enzyme activity and the maintenance of high enzyme levels. Nitrogen-starvation of ammonia-grown plants increases the subsequent rate of nitrate-mediated induction. It

  5. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

  6. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

  7. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

  8. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

  9. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.175 Sodium nitrite. The food additive sodium nitrite may be safely used in or...

  10. Nitrite, a novel method to decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Björnsson, Bergthor; Bojmar, Linda; Olsson, Hans; Sundqvist, Tommy; Sandström, Per

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether nitrite administered prior to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) reduces liver injury. METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 3 groups, including sham operated (n = 8), 45-min segmental ischemia of the left liver lobe (IR, n = 14) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) preceded by the administration of 480 nmol of nitrite (n = 14). Serum transaminases were measured after 4 h of reperfusion. Liver microdialysate (MD) was sampled in 30-min intervals and analyzed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol as well as the total nitrite and nitrate (NOx). The NOx was measured in serum. RESULTS: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at the end of reperfusion was higher in the IR group than in the nitrite group (40 ± 6.8 ?kat/L vs 22 ± 2.6 ?kat/L, P = 0.022). Similarly, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was also higher in the I/R group than in the nitrite group (34 ± 6 ?kat vs 14 ± 1.5 ?kat, P = 0.0045). The NOx in MD was significantly higher in the nitrite group than in the I/R group (10.1 ± 2.9 ?mol/L vs 3.2 ± 0.9 ?mol/L, P = 0.031) after the administration of nitrite. During ischemia, the levels decreased in both groups and then increased again during reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion, there was a tendency towards a higher NOx in the I/R group than in the nitrite group (11.6 ± 0.7 ?mol/L vs 9.2 ± 1.1 ?mol/L, P = 0.067). Lactate in MD was significantly higher in the IR group than in the nitrite group (3.37 ± 0.18 mmol/L vs 2.8 ± 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.01) during ischemia and the first 30 min of reperfusion. During the same period, glycerol was also higher in the IRI group than in the nitrite group (464 ± 38 ?mol/L vs 367 ± 31 ?mol/L, P = 0.049). With respect to histology, there were more signs of tissue damage in the I/R group than in the nitrite group, and 29% of the animals in the I/R group exhibited necrosis compared with none in the nitrite group. Inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription increased between early ischemia (t = 15) and the end of reperfusion in both groups. CONCLUSION: Nitrite administered before liver ischemia in the rat liver reduces anaerobic metabolism and cell necrosis, which could be important in the clinical setting. PMID:25684942

  11. Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the ß Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; ZINAIDA S. NAOUMENKO; PIET J. L. DERIKX; ANDREAS FELSKE; JOHN R. STEPHEN; IRINA A. ARKHIPCHENKO

    1999-01-01

    Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous compound in composting material, and the conversion of this compound to nitrite in the environment by chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing

  12. Radiolytic characteristics of nitrite by gamma irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hyun-Joo Ahn; Jae-Hyun Kim; Cheorun Jo; Hong-Sun Yook; Myung-Woo Byun

    2003-01-01

    The characteristics of nitrite radiolysis by gamma rays were investigated. Sodium nitrite in deionized distilled water was irradiated at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 40 kGy, and the degradation rate constant was calculated. The sodium nitrite was significantly reduced by irradiation in a dose-dependent manner (P<0.05). The degradation rate of sodium nitrite fitted a first-order model; a

  13. 21 CFR 573.700 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium nitrite. 573.700 Section 573.700 Food and...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.700 Sodium nitrite. Sodium nitrite may be safely used in canned pet food...

  14. The NreA protein functions as a nitrate receptor in the staphylococcal nitrate regulation system.

    PubMed

    Niemann, Volker; Koch-Singenstreu, Mareike; Neu, Ancilla; Nilkens, Stephanie; Götz, Friedrich; Unden, Gottfried; Stehle, Thilo

    2014-04-01

    Staphylococci are able to use nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. The regulation of energy metabolism is dependent on the presence of oxygen and nitrate. Under anaerobic conditions, staphylococci employ the nitrate regulatory element (Nre) for transcriptional activation of genes involved in reduction and transport of nitrate and nitrite. Of the three proteins that constitute the Nre system, NreB has been characterized as an oxygen sensor kinase and NreC has been characterized as its cognate response regulator. Here, we present structural and functional data that establish NreA as a new type of nitrate receptor. The structure of NreA with bound nitrate was solved at 2.35Ĺ resolution, revealing a GAF domain fold. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that NreA binds nitrate with low micromolar affinity (KD=22?M). Two crystal forms for NreA were obtained, with either bound nitrate or iodide. While the binding site is hydrophobic, two helix dipoles and polar interactions contribute to specific binding of the ions. The expression of nitrate reductase (NarGHI) was examined using a narG-lip (lipase) reporter gene assay in vivo. Expression was regulated by the presence of NreA and nitrate. Structure-guided mutations of NreA reduced its nitrate binding affinity and also affected the gene expression, thus providing support for the function of NreA as a nitrate receptor. PMID:24389349

  15. Nitrite Control over Dissimilatory Nitrate/Nitrite Reduction Pathways in Shewanella loihica Strain PV-4.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sukhwan; Sanford, Robert A; Löffler, Frank E

    2015-05-15

    Shewanella loihica strain PV-4 harbors both a functional denitrification (NO3 (-)?N2) and a respiratory ammonification (NO3 (-)?NH4 (+)) pathway. Batch and chemostat experiments revealed that NO2 (-) affects pathway selection and the formation of reduced products. Strain PV-4 cells grown with NO2 (-) as the sole electron acceptor produced exclusively NH4 (+). With NO3 (-) as the electron acceptor, denitrification predominated and N2O accounted for ?90% of reduced products in the presence of acetylene. Chemostat experiments demonstrated that the NO2 (-):NO3 (-) ratio affected the distribution of reduced products, and respiratory ammonification dominated at high NO2 (-):NO3 (-) ratios, whereas low NO2 (-):NO3 (-) ratios favored denitrification. The NO2 (-):NO3 (-) ratios affected nirK transcript abundance, a measure of denitrification activity, in the chemostat experiments, and cells grown at a NO2 (-):NO3 (-) ratio of 3 had ?37-fold fewer nirK transcripts per cell than cells grown with NO3 (-) as the sole electron acceptor. In contrast, the transcription of nrfA, implicated in NO2 (-)-to-NH4 (+) reduction, remained statistically unchanged under continuous cultivation conditions at NO2 (-):NO3 (-) ratios below 3. At NO2 (-):NO3 (-) ratios above 3, both nirK and nrfA transcript numbers decreased and the chemostat culture washed out, presumably due to NO2 (-) toxicity. These findings implicate NO2 (-) as a relevant modulator of NO3 (-) fate in S. loihica strain PV-4, and, by extension, suggest that NO2 (-) is a relevant determinant for N retention (i.e., ammonification) versus N loss and greenhouse gas emission (i.e., denitrification). PMID:25769828

  16. Sulfide? and nitrite?dependent nitric oxide production in the intestinal tract

    PubMed Central

    Vermeiren, Joan; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Glynn; Boeckx, Pascal; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the gut ecosystem, nitric oxide (NO) has been described to have damaging effects on the energy metabolism of colonocytes. Described mechanisms of NO production are microbial reduction of nitrate via nitrite to NO and conversion of l?arginine by NO synthase. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary compounds can stimulate the production of NO by representative cultures of the human intestinal microbiota and whether this correlates to other processes in the intestinal tract. We have found that the addition of a reduced sulfur compound, i.e. cysteine, contributed to NO formation. This increase was ascribed to higher sulfide concentrations generated from cysteine that in turn promoted the chemical conversion of nitrite to NO. The NO release from nitrite was of the order of 4‰ at most. Overall, it was shown that two independent biological processes contribute to the chemical formation of NO in the intestinal tract: (i) the production of sulfide by fermentation of sulfur containing amino acids or reduction of sulfate by sulfate reducing bacteria, and (ii) the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Our results indicate that dietary thiol compounds in combination with nitrate may contribute to colonocytes damaging processes by promoting NO formation. PMID:22129449

  17. Die nitrat- und nitritabhängige photosynthetische O 2 -Entwicklung in N 2 bei Ankistrodesmus braunii

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wolfram R. Ullrich

    1974-01-01

    O2-evolution in N2 by young cells of synchronous Ankistrodesmus braunii was measured manometrically in the presence and in the absence of nitrate or nitrite. Nitrate-starved cells produce O2 as a function of nitrate concentration with an optimum at 10 mM nitrate. The optimum rates are strongly dependent upon the pH of the medium culminating at pH 8.0.

  18. Release of ammonia from HAN-type PHA

    SciTech Connect

    Zamecnik, J.R.

    1992-06-10

    A preliminary design basis for ammonia scrubbers in the DWPF has been issued. This design basis is based on a theoretical model of ammonia evolution from the SRAT, SME and RCT. It is desirable to acquire actual process data on ammonia evolution prior to performing detailed design of scrubbers for DWPF. The evolution of ammonia from the SRAT and SME in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was investigated during the HM4 run. In this run, Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA), which was made in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) using the HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process was used, thus resulting in PHA with a high concentration of ammonium ion.

  19. The effect of inorganic carbon on microbial interactions in a biofilm nitritation-anammox process.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yiwei; Sundar, Suneethi; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik

    2015-03-01

    The overarching goal of this study was to determine the role of inorganic carbon (IC) in influencing the microbial ecology, performance and nitrogen turnover by individual microbial communities of a biofilm based combined nitritation-anammox process. IC limitation was transiently imposed by reducing the IC input from 350% to 40% of the stoichiometric requirement for 40 days. The principal impact observed during IC limitation was the overgrowth of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) at the expense of anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AMX). On the other hand, the concentrations of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were relatively stable during the imposition of and recovery from IC limitation. The resulting dominance of NOB, in terms of their concentration and contribution to nitrite consumption over AMX, resulted, in turn, in a decrease in overall nitrogen removal from 78 ± 2.0% before IC limitation to 46 ± 2.9% during IC limitation. Upon recovery back to non-limiting IC input, it took an inordinately long time (about 57*HRT) for the N-removal to recover back to pre-limitation conditions. Even after recovery, NOB were still persistent in the biofilm and could not be washed out to pre-limitation concentrations. The emission of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO), likely from AOB, transiently increased in concert with transient increases in ammonia and hydroxylamine concentrations during the period of IC limitation. Therefore, an unintended consequence of IC limitation in nitritation-anammox systems can be an increase in their greenhouse gas footprint, in addition to compromised process performance. Most emphasis to date on nitritation and anammox studies has been on the nitrogen cycle. The results of this study demonstrate that the differing strategies used by AOB, NOB and AMX to compete for their preferred assimilative carbon source can also significantly influence the microbial ecology, performance and carbon footprint of such processes. PMID:25540838

  20. Outcompeting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in single-stage nitrogen removal in sewage treatment plants: a model-based study.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Julio; Lotti, Tommaso; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2014-12-01

    This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in an autotrophic nitrogen removal process. The operation of a continuous single-stage granular sludge process was simulated for nitrogen removal from pretreated sewage at 10 °C. The effects of the residual ammonium concentration were explicitly analyzed with the model. Competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB was found to be essential for NOB repression even when the suppression of nitrite oxidation is assisted by nitrite reduction by anammox (AMX). The nitrite half-saturation coefficient of NOB and AMX proved non-sensitive for the model output. The maximum specific growth rate of AMX bacteria proved a sensitive process parameter, because higher rates would provide a competitive advantage for AMX. PMID:25216301

  1. Autotrophic ammonia oxidation by soil thaumarchaea

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Offre, Pierre R.; He, Ji-Zheng; Verhamme, Daniel T.; Nicol, Graeme W.; Prosser, James I.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrification plays a central role in the global nitrogen cycle and is responsible for significant losses of nitrogen fertilizer, atmospheric pollution by the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide, and nitrate pollution of groundwaters. Ammonia oxidation, the first step in nitrification, was thought to be performed by autotrophic bacteria until the recent discovery of archaeal ammonia oxidizers. Autotrophic archaeal ammonia oxidizers have been cultivated from marine and thermal spring environments, but the relative importance of bacteria and archaea in soil nitrification is unclear and it is believed that soil archaeal ammonia oxidizers may use organic carbon, rather than growing autotrophically. In this soil microcosm study, stable isotope probing was used to demonstrate incorporation of 13C-enriched carbon dioxide into the genomes of thaumarchaea possessing two functional genes: amoA, encoding a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase that catalyses the first step in ammonia oxidation; and hcd, a key gene in the autotrophic 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle, which has been found so far only in archaea. Nitrification was accompanied by increases in archaeal amoA gene abundance and changes in amoA gene diversity, but no change was observed in bacterial amoA genes. Archaeal, but not bacterial, amoA genes were also detected in 13C-labeled DNA, demonstrating inorganic CO2 fixation by archaeal, but not bacterial, ammonia oxidizers. Autotrophic archaeal ammonia oxidation was further supported by coordinate increases in amoA and hcd gene abundance in 13C-labeled DNA. The results therefore provide direct evidence for a role for archaea in soil ammonia oxidation and demonstrate autotrophic growth of ammonia oxidizing archaea in soil. PMID:20855593

  2. Dietary nitrate ameliorates pulmonary hypertension: cytoprotective role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Baliga, Reshma S; Milsom, Alexandra B; Ghosh, Suborno M; Trinder, Sarah L; MacAllister, Raymond J; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a multi-factorial disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular failure; morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PH and agents that augment pulmonary NO signaling are clinically effective in the disease. Inorganic nitrate (NO3?) and nitrite (NO2?) elicit a reduction in systemic blood pressure in healthy individuals; this effect is underpinned by endogenous and sequential reduction to NO. Herein, we determined whether dietary nitrate and nitrite might be preferentially reduced to NO by the hypoxia associated with PH, and thereby offer a convenient, inexpensive method of supplementing NO functionality to reduce disease severity. Methods & Results Dietary nitrate reduced the right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular re-modeling, in wild-type mice exposed to 3 weeks hypoxia; this beneficial activity was mirrored largely by dietary nitrite. The cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrate were associated with increased plasma & lung concentrations of nitrite and cGMP. The beneficial effects of dietary nitrate and nitrite were reduced in mice lacking endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) or treated with the xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor allopurinol. Conclusions These data demonstrate that dietary nitrate, and to a lesser extent dietary nitrite, elicit pulmonary dilatation, prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling, and reduce the RVH characteristic of PH. This favorable pharmacodynamic profile is dependent on eNOS and XOR -catalyzed reduction of nitrite to NO. Exploitation of this mechanism (i.e. dietary nitrate/nitrite supplementation) represents a viable, orally-active therapy for PH. PMID:22572914

  3. The effects of season and hydrologic and chemical loading on nitrate retention in constructed wetlands: a comparison of low- and high-nutrient riverine systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Douglas J. Spieles; William J. Mitsch

    1999-01-01

    We compared the nitrate removal efficiency of two constructed wetlands receiving ambient river water to one constructed municipal wastewater treatment wetland over the same 2-year period in central Ohio, USA. The wastewater wetland represents a high-nutrient system, with an average nitrate plus nitrite load of 12.3 kg N ha-1day?1 and an average nitrate and nitrite inflow concentration of 12.5 mg

  4. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

  5. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

  6. 40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

  7. Photochemistry of Nitrate Adsorbed on Mineral Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gankanda, A.; Grassian, V. H.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral dust particles in the atmosphere are often associated with adsorbed nitrate from heterogeneous reactions with nitrogen oxides including HNO3 and NO2. Although nitrate ion is a well-studied chromophore in natural waters, the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on mineral dust particles is yet to be fully explored. In this study, wavelength dependence of the photochemistry of adsorbed nitrate on different model components of mineral dust aerosol has been investigated using transmission FTIR spectroscopy. Al2O3, TiO2 and NaY zeolite were used as model systems to represent non-photoactive oxides, photoactive semiconductor oxides and porous materials respectively, present in mineral dust aerosol. In this study, adsorbed nitrate is irradiated with 254 nm, 310 nm and 350 nm narrow band light. In the irradiation with narrow band light, NO2 is the only detectable gas-phase product formed from nitrate adsorbed on Al2O3 and TiO2. The NO2 yield is highest at 310 nm for both Al2O3 and TiO2. Unlike Al2O3 and TiO2, in zeolite, adsorbed nitrate photolysis to nitrite is observed only at 310 nm during narrow band irradiation. Moreover gas phase products were not detected during nitrate photolysis in zeolite at all three wavelengths. The significance of these differences as related to nitrate photochemistry on different mineral dust components will be highlighted.

  8. Stable performance of non?aerated two?stage partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) with minimal process control

    PubMed Central

    Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Roychoudhury, Kunal; Nandy, Tapas

    2012-01-01

    Summary Partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) technologies have rapidly developed over the last decade, but still considerable amounts of energy are required for active aeration. In this study, a non?aerated two?stage PANAM process was investigated. In the first?stage upflow fixed?film bioreactor, nitratation could not be prevented at ammonium loading rates up to 186?mg?N?l?1?d?1 and low influent dissolved oxygen (0.1?mg?O2?l?1). Yet, increasing the loading rate to 416 and 747?mg?N?l?1?d?1 by decreasing the hydraulic retention time to 8 and 5?h, respectively, resulted in partial nitritation with the desired nitrite to ammonium nitrogen ratio for the subsequent anammox stage (0.71–1.05). The second?stage anammox reactor was established with a synthetic feeding based on ammonium and nitrite. After establishing anammox at low biomass content (0.5?g VSS l?1), the anammox influent was switched to partial nitritation effluent at a loading rate of 71?mg?N?l?1?d?1, of which 78% was removed at the stoichiometrically expected nitrite to ammonium consumption ratios (1.19) and nitrate production to ammonium consumption ratio (0.24). The combined PANAM reactors were operated for 3 months at a stable performance. Overall, PANAM appeals economically, saving about 50% of the energy costs, as well as technically, given straightforward operational principles. PMID:22414169

  9. Mechanisms for nitrite loss from the stomach.

    PubMed

    Licht, W R; Schultz, D S; Fox, J G; Tannenbaum, S R; Deen, W M

    1986-10-01

    Nitrite loss from the stomach was studied using dogs equipped with Thomas cannulas for direct access to the stomach lumen. Solutions containing sodium nitrite and non-absorbable volume marker (polyethylene glycol, PEG) were infused into the stomach, and samples were taken over 60 min to determine the concentration of 'total nitrite' (including NO2-, HNO2 and other species in equilibrium with NO2-) and rate of dilution of the stomach contents as a function of time. Changes in stomach volume were also measured. Nitrite loss was found to be very rapid, with total nitrite concentrations declining to less than half the initial levels in 10 min. The decay in total nitrite concentrations was due predominantly to gastric absorption, with small additional contributions from dilution of the stomach contents (inferred from PEG concentrations) and chemical reactions (from in vitro kinetic data). Results for initial nitrite concentrations varying over a range of 0.15-4.5 mM showed absorption to be first order in total nitrite. The permeability-area product for nitrite absorption (PA) was about 0.6 l/h, and was unaffected by the addition of 1 mM SCN- or Cl-. All of these results are consistent with nitrite absorption in the form of NO2- or HNO2. Buffering the infusate with HCO3- to increase luminal pH from approximately 2 to 7 caused a three-fold reduction in the apparent value of PA. When pentagastrin was used to stimulate acid secretion, nitrite absorption was only half as fast as when acid secretion was inhibited with cimetidine, or when no drug was given. This effect could not be explained by variations in luminal pH, and suggests that acid secretion either decreases PA or is accompanied by active secretion of nitrite. Based on these data, a mathematical model was developed to stimulate the physical and chemical factors governing nitrite concentrations in the stomach. PMID:3757171

  10. Nitrate reduction functional genes and nitrate reduction potentials persist in deeper estuarine sediments. Why?

    PubMed

    Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J; Dong, Liang F; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J; Nedwell, David B

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This raises interesting questions as to what the alternative metabolic roles for the various nitrate reductases could be, analogous to the alternative metabolic roles found for nitrite reductases. PMID:24728381

  11. Nitrate Reduction Functional Genes and Nitrate Reduction Potentials Persist in Deeper Estuarine Sediments. Why?

    PubMed Central

    Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J.; Dong, Liang F.; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nedwell, David B.

    2014-01-01

    Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This raises interesting questions as to what the alternative metabolic roles for the various nitrate reductases could be, analogous to the alternative metabolic roles found for nitrite reductases. PMID:24728381

  12. Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral bacteria in blood pressure control

    PubMed Central

    Kapil, Vikas; Haydar, Syed M.A.; Pearl, Vanessa; Lundberg, Jon O.; Weitzberg, Eddie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2013-01-01

    Circulating nitrate (NO3?), derived from dietary sources or endogenous nitric oxide production, is extracted from blood by the salivary glands, accumulates in saliva, and is then reduced to nitrite (NO2?) by the oral microflora. This process has historically been viewed as harmful, because nitrite can promote formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent research, however, suggests that nitrite can also serve as a precursor for systemic generation of vasodilatory nitric oxide, and exogenous administration of nitrate reduces blood pressure in humans. However, whether oral nitrate-reducing bacteria participate in “setting” blood pressure is unknown. We investigated whether suppression of the oral microflora affects systemic nitrite levels and hence blood pressure in healthy individuals. We measured blood pressure (clinic, home, and 24-h ambulatory) in 19 healthy volunteers during an initial 7-day control period followed by a 7-day treatment period with a chlorhexidine-based antiseptic mouthwash. Oral nitrate-reducing capacity and nitrite levels were measured after each study period. Antiseptic mouthwash treatment reduced oral nitrite production by 90% (p < 0.001) and plasma nitrite levels by 25% (p = 0.001) compared to the control period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2–3 .5 mm Hg, increases correlated to a decrease in circulating nitrite concentrations (r2 = 0.56, p = 0.002). The blood pressure effect appeared within 1 day of disruption of the oral microflora and was sustained during the 7-day mouthwash intervention. These results suggest that the recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria plays an important role in determination of plasma nitrite levels and thereby in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:23183324

  13. Metagenomic Analysis of Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in the Oral Cavity: Implications for Nitric Oxide Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hyde, Embriette R.; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Bryan, Nathan S.

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria. PMID:24670812

  14. Metagenomic analysis of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the oral cavity: implications for nitric oxide homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Hyde, Embriette R; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K; Torregrossa, Ashley C; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B; Petrosino, Joseph F; Bryan, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria. PMID:24670812

  15. Nitrite produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages in physiologic oxygen impacts bacterial ATP consumption and gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham-Bussel, Amy; Zhang, Tuo; Nathan, Carl F.

    2013-01-01

    In high enough concentrations, such as produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Lesional macrophages in macaques and humans with tuberculosis express iNOS, and mice need iNOS to avoid succumbing rapidly to tuberculosis. However, Mtb’s own ability to produce RNS is rarely considered, perhaps because nitrate reduction to nitrite is only prominent in axenic Mtb cultures at oxygen tensions ?1%. Here we found that cultures of Mtb-infected human macrophages cultured at physiologic oxygen tensions produced copious nitrite. Surprisingly, the nitrite arose from the Mtb, not the macrophages. Mtb responded to nitrite by ceasing growth; elevating levels of ATP through reduced consumption; and altering the expression of 120 genes associated with adaptation to acid, hypoxia, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and iron deprivation. The transcriptomic effect of endogenous nitrite was distinct from that of nitric oxide. Thus, whether or not Mtb is hypoxic, the host expresses iNOS, or hypoxia impairs the action of iNOS, Mtb in vivo is likely to encounter RNS by producing nitrite. Endogenous nitrite may slow Mtb’s growth and prepare it to resist host stresses while the pathogen waits for immunopathology to promote its transmission. PMID:24145454

  16. Genome Sequence of an Ammonia-Oxidizing Soil Archaeon, “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis” MY1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byung Kwon; Jung, Man-Young; Yu, Dong Su; Park, Soo-Je; Oh, Tae Kwang; Rhee, Sung-Keun; Kim, Jihyun F.

    2011-01-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing archaea are ubiquitous microorganisms which play important roles in global nitrogen and carbon cycle on earth. Here we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of an ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, “Candidatus Nitrosopumilus koreensis” MY1, that dominated an enrichment culture of a soil sample from the rhizosphere. Its genome contains genes for survival in the rhizosphere environment as well as those for carbon fixation and ammonium oxidation to nitrite. PMID:21914867

  17. Nitrate in Drinking Water in the West German WineGrowing Areas of Baden and Württemberg

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Darimont; R. Schwabe; M. Sonneborn; G. Schulze

    1983-01-01

    Nitrate is regarded as a substance whose presence in drinking water is not considered as desirable. If reduced to nitrite it may cause methemoglobinemia in infants. Onward reaction with amines capable of coupling will result in the formation of nitrosamines. Excessive use of fertilizers in agriculture is the most frequent cause of elevated nitrate contents of drinking water. To quantify

  18. Metabolism of nitrate in fermented meats: The characteristic feature of a specific group of fermented foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter P. Hammes

    Within the universe of food fermentation processes the multi-purpose use of nitrate and\\/or nitrite is a unique characteristic of meat fermentations. These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The use of nitrate is the traditional method

  19. Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

    2014-01-01

    Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously in pigs and screening of fodder with DPB test prior offering to animals is strongly recommended to contain the nitrate/nitrite toxicity risk. PMID:25253929

  20. Therapeutic Potential of the Nitrite-Generated NO Pathway in Vascular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, Michael; Zuckerbraun, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) generated through L-arginine metabolism by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is an important regulator of the vessel wall. Dysregulation of this system has been implicated in various pathological vascular conditions, including atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, neointimal hyperplasia, and pulmonary hypertension. The pathophysiology involves a decreased bioavailability of NO within the vessel wall by competitive utilization of L-arginine by arginase and “eNOS uncoupling.” Generation of NO through reduction of nitrate and nitrite represents an alternative pathway that may be utilized to increase the bioavailability of NO within the vessel wall. We review the therapeutic potential of the nitrate/nitrite/NO pathway in vascular dysfunction. PMID:23847616

  1. Myeloperoxidase produces nitrating oxidants in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Gaut, Joseph P.; Byun, Jaeman; Tran, Hung D.; Lauber, Wendy M.; Carroll, James A.; Hotchkiss, Richard S.; Belaaouaj, Abderrazzaq; Heinecke, Jay W.

    2002-01-01

    Despite intense interest in pathways that generate reactive nitrogen species, the physiologically relevant mechanisms for inflammatory tissue injury remain poorly understood. One possible mediator is myeloperoxidase, a major constituent of neutrophils, monocytes, and some populations of macrophages. The enzyme uses hydrogen peroxide and nitrite to generate 3-nitrotyrosine in vitro. To determine whether myeloperoxidase produces nitrating intermediates in vivo, we used isotope dilution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry to quantify 3-nitrotyrosine in two models of peritoneal inflammation: mice infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae and mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture. Both models developed an intense neutrophil inflammatory response, and the inflammatory fluid contained markedly elevated levels of 3-chlorotyrosine, a marker of myeloperoxidase action. In striking contrast, 3-nitrotyrosine levels rose only in the mice infected with K. pneumoniae. Levels of total nitrite and nitrate were 20-fold higher in mice injected with K. pneumoniae than in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine failed to increase in mice infected with K. pneumoniae that lacked functional myeloperoxidase. Our observations provide strong evidence that myeloperoxidase generates reactive nitrogen species in vivo and that it operates in this fashion only when nitrite and nitrate become available. PMID:12021246

  2. Treatment of ammonia contaminated water by ozone and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, F.; Hill, D.O.; Kuo, C.H. [Mississippi State Univ., MS (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The present research concerns kinetics of oxidation of ammonia by ozone and ozone-hydrogen peroxide mixtures in alkaline solutions. Experiments were carried out at 15 to 35{degrees}C in solutions with pH values varying from 8 to 10 utilizing a stopped-flow spectrophotometer system. Fractions of free ammonia present in acidic and neutral solutions are negligible, and the reaction is very slow. This confirms that only free ammonia can react with ozone in the aqueous phase. The reaction proceeds at moderate rates in the alkaline solutions requiring four moles of ozone to react with each mole of ammonia. The free ammonia is oxidized and converted completely to nitrate in the solutions. The overall reaction between ammonia and ozone is second order with first order in each reactant. The reaction rate constant increases with temperature and pH value of the solution. The average activation energy is 59 Kcal/gmol for all systems investigated at different pH values. The results of the kinetic experiments suggest that the reaction is predominated by the direct oxidation between ammonia and ozone molecules, and that the hydroxyl radical reactions play insignificant roles in the ozonation process. The oxidation rate of ammonia is enhanced considerably in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ozone mixtures. The formation of hydroxyl radical from interactions between ozone and hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent free radical reactions of ammonia seem important in controlling the destruction rate of free ammonia, as suggested by the results of this study.

  3. Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus Hauck

    2010-01-01

    Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect

  4. Genome sequence of the chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb255

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loren John Hauser; Miriam L Land; Frank W Larimer; D J Arp; W J Hickey; Stephanie A. Malfatti; Martin G. Klotz; Peter J. Bottomley

    2006-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi (ATCC 25391) is a gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy from the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a single circular chromosome of 3,402,093 bp encoding 3,143 predicted proteins. There were extensive similarities to genes in two alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 (1,300 genes) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 CG (815

  5. Supporting palladium metal on gold nanoparticles improves its catalysis for nitrite reduction.

    PubMed

    Qian, Huifeng; Zhao, Zhun; Velazquez, Juan C; Pretzer, Lori A; Heck, Kimberly N; Wong, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) anions are often found in groundwater and surface water as contaminants globally, especially in agricultural areas due to nitrate-rich fertilizer use. One popular approach to studying the removal of nitrite/nitrate from water has been their degradation to dinitrogen via Pd-based reduction catalysis. However, little progress has been made towards understanding how the catalyst structure can improve activity. Focusing on the catalytic reduction of nitrite in this study, we report that Au NPs supporting Pd metal ("Pd-on-Au NPs") show catalytic activity that varies with volcano-shape dependence on Pd surface coverage. At room temperature, in CO2-buffered water, and under H2 headspace, the NPs were maximally active at a Pd surface coverage of 80%, with a first-order rate constant (k(cat) = 576 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)) that was 15x and 7.5x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (~4 nm; 40 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)) and Pd/Al2O3 (1 wt% Pd; 76 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)), respectively. Accounting only for surface Pd atoms, these NPs (576 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)) were 3.6x and 1.6x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (160 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)) and Pd/Al2O3 (361 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)). These NPs retained ~98% of catalytic activity at a chloride concentration of 1 mM, whereas Pd/Al2O3 lost ~50%. The Pd-on-Au nanostructure is a promising approach to improve the catalytic reduction process for nitrite and, with further development, also for nitrate anions. PMID:24195966

  6. Elevation of nitrate levels in pregnant ewes and their fetuses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daseng Yang; Uwe Lang; Suzanne G. Greenberg; Leslie Myatt; Kenneth E. Clark

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Nitric oxide is a potent vasodilator released by endothelial cells that may play an important role in modulating maternal and fetal vascular tone in normal pregnancy. The current study was designed to evaluate whether plasma or urine nitrite and nitrate (the metabolites of nitric oxide) concentrations are elevated in pregnant compared with those of nonpregnant sheep and whether the

  7. California's ammonia emissions have been drastically underestimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-08-01

    In California, Los Angeles and the Central Valley often have atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's health guidelines. In the air, chemical reactions between ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides can create inorganic aerosols like ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. With their small particle sizes, these compounds can be dangerous to breathe, particularly for those with respiratory problems.

  8. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have more important role than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in ammonia oxidation of strongly acidic soils.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shen, Ju-Pei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2012-05-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrated the involvement of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global nitrogen cycle, but the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to ammonia oxidation are still in debate. Previous studies suggest that AOA would be more adapted to ammonia-limited oligotrophic conditions, which seems to be favored by protonation of ammonia, turning into ammonium in low-pH environments. Here, we investigated the autotrophic nitrification activity of AOA and AOB in five strongly acidic soils (pH<4.50) during microcosm incubation for 30 days. Significantly positive correlations between nitrate concentration and amoA gene abundance of AOA, but not of AOB, were observed during the active nitrification. (13)CO(2)-DNA-stable isotope probing results showed significant assimilation of (13)C-labeled carbon source into the amoA gene of AOA, but not of AOB, in one of the selected soil samples. High levels of thaumarchaeal amoA gene abundance were observed during the active nitrification, coupled with increasing intensity of two denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for specific thaumarchaeal community. Addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) completely inhibited the nitrification activity and CO(2) fixation by AOA, accompanied by decreasing thaumarchaeal amoA gene abundance. Bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased in all microcosms irrespective of DCD addition, and mostly showed no correlation with nitrate concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of thaumarchaeal amoA gene and 16S rRNA gene revealed active (13)CO(2)-labeled AOA belonged to groups 1.1a-associated and 1.1b. Taken together, these results provided strong evidence that AOA have a more important role than AOB in autotrophic ammonia oxidation in strongly acidic soils. PMID:22134644

  9. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have more important role than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in ammonia oxidation of strongly acidic soils

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Li-Mei; Hu, Hang-Wei; Shen, Ju-Pei; He, Ji-Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrated the involvement of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global nitrogen cycle, but the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to ammonia oxidation are still in debate. Previous studies suggest that AOA would be more adapted to ammonia-limited oligotrophic conditions, which seems to be favored by protonation of ammonia, turning into ammonium in low-pH environments. Here, we investigated the autotrophic nitrification activity of AOA and AOB in five strongly acidic soils (pH<4.50) during microcosm incubation for 30 days. Significantly positive correlations between nitrate concentration and amoA gene abundance of AOA, but not of AOB, were observed during the active nitrification. 13CO2-DNA-stable isotope probing results showed significant assimilation of 13C-labeled carbon source into the amoA gene of AOA, but not of AOB, in one of the selected soil samples. High levels of thaumarchaeal amoA gene abundance were observed during the active nitrification, coupled with increasing intensity of two denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis bands for specific thaumarchaeal community. Addition of the nitrification inhibitor dicyandiamide (DCD) completely inhibited the nitrification activity and CO2 fixation by AOA, accompanied by decreasing thaumarchaeal amoA gene abundance. Bacterial amoA gene abundance decreased in all microcosms irrespective of DCD addition, and mostly showed no correlation with nitrate concentrations. Phylogenetic analysis of thaumarchaeal amoA gene and 16S rRNA gene revealed active 13CO2-labeled AOA belonged to groups 1.1a-associated and 1.1b. Taken together, these results provided strong evidence that AOA have a more important role than AOB in autotrophic ammonia oxidation in strongly acidic soils. PMID:22134644

  10. NxrB encoding the beta subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase as functional and phylogenetic marker for nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira.

    PubMed

    Pester, Michael; Maixner, Frank; Berry, David; Rattei, Thomas; Koch, Hanna; Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Richter, Andreas; Spieck, Eva; Lebedeva, Elena; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

    2014-10-01

    Nitrospira are the most widespread and diverse known nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and key nitrifiers in natural and engineered ecosystems. Nevertheless, their ecophysiology and environmental distribution are understudied because of the recalcitrance of Nitrospira to cultivation and the lack of a molecular functional marker, which would allow the detection of Nitrospira in the environment. Here we introduce nxrB, the gene encoding subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase, as a functional and phylogenetic marker for Nitrospira. Phylogenetic trees based on nxrB of Nitrospira were largely congruent to 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogenies. By using new nxrB-selective polymerase chain reaction primers, we obtained almost full-length nxrB sequences from Nitrospira cultures, two activated sludge samples, and several geographically and climatically distinct soils. Amplicon pyrosequencing of nxrB fragments from 16 soils revealed a previously unrecognized diversity of terrestrial Nitrospira with 1801 detected species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (using an inferred species threshold of 95% nxrB identity). Richness estimates ranged from 10 to 946 coexisting Nitrospira species per soil. Comparison with an archaeal amoA dataset obtained from the same soils [Environ. Microbiol. 14: 525-539 (2012)] uncovered that ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira communities were highly correlated across the soil samples, possibly indicating shared habitat preferences or specific biological interactions among members of these nitrifier groups. PMID:24118804

  11. Microbiology of a Nitrite-Oxidizing Bioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    PAUL C. BURRELL; JURG KELLER; LINDA L. BLACKALL

    1998-01-01

    The microbiology of the biomass from a nitrite-oxidizing sequencing batch reactor (NOSBR) fed with an inorganic salts solution and nitrite as the sole energy source that had been operating for 6 months was investigated by microscopy, by culture-dependent methods, and by molecular biological methods, and the seed sludge that was used to inoculate the NOSBR was investigated by molecular biological

  12. Sodium nitrite therapy attenuates hypertensive effects of HBOC-201 via nitrite reduction

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Cilina; Vitturi, Dario A.; He, Jin; Vandromme, Marianne; Brandon, Angela; Hutchings, Anne; Rue, Loring W.; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Patel, Rakesh P.

    2009-01-01

    Synopsis Hypertension secondary to scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) remains a limitation in the use hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). Recent studies suggest that nitrite reduction to NO by deoxyhemoglobin supports NO-signaling. Herein, we tested whether nitrite would attenuate HBOC-mediated hypertension using HBOC-201 (Biopure), a bovine cross-linked, low oxygen affinity hemoglobin. Similar to unmodified hemoglobin, deoxygenated HBOC-201 reduced nitrite to NO with rates directly proportional to the extent of deoxygenation. The functional importance of HBOC-201 dependent nitrite reduction was demonstrated using isolated aortic rings and a murine model of trauma, hemorrhage and resuscitation. In the former, HBOC-201 inhibited NO-donor and nitrite-dependent vasodilation when oxygenated. However, deoxygenated HBOC-201 failed to affect nitrite dependent vasodilation but still inhibited NO-donor dependent vasodilation consistent with a model in which nitrite-reduction by deoxyHBOC-201 counters NO-scavenging. Finally, resuscitation using HBOC-201 after trauma and hemorrhage, resulted in mild hypertension (~5-10mmHg). Administration of a single bolus nitrite (30-100nmol) at the onset of HBOC-201 resuscitation prevented hypertension. Nitrite had no effect on mean arterial pressure during resuscitation with lactated Ringers suggesting a role for nitrite-HBOC reactions in attenuating HBOC-mediated hypertension. Taken together these data support the concept that nitrite can be used as an adjunct therapy to prevent HBOC-dependent hypertension. PMID:19555351

  13. Bioreduction of nitrate in groundwater using a pilot-scale hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youneng Tang; Michal Ziv-El; Chen Zhou; Jung Hun Shin; Chang Hoon Ahn; Kerry Meyer; Daniel Candelaria; David Friese; Ryan Overstreet; Rick Scott; Bruce E. Rittmann

    2010-01-01

    A long-term pilot-scale H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) was tested for removal of nitrate from actual groundwater. A key feature of this second-generation\\u000a pilot MBfR is that it employed lower cost polyester hollow fibers and still achieved high loading rate. The steady-state maximum\\u000a nitrate surface loading at which the effluent nitrate and nitrite concentrations were below the Maximum Contaminant Level

  14. Nitric oxide formation from nitrite in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Frank B

    2007-10-01

    Nitrite is a potential nitric oxide (NO) donor and may have important biological functions at low concentrations. The present study tests the hypothesis that nitrite accumulation across the gills in fish will cause a massive NO production from nitrite. Zebrafish were exposed to three different nitrite levels for variable time periods, and changes in blood nitrosylhemoglobin (HbNO), methemoglobin (metHb), oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb) and deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxyHb) were evaluated by spectral deconvolution. Blood HbNO (a biomarker of internal NO production) was low in controls, increased to a stable level around 3.7% of total Hb in fish exposed to 0.6 mmol l(-1) nitrite, and to 12.1% (at day 2) in fish exposed to 2 mmol l(-1) nitrite. The very high HbNO levels testify to an extensive conversion of nitrite to NO. With deoxyHb-mediated reduction of nitrite being a major NO-producing mechanism, the data reveal the significance of this mechanism, when hemoglobin cycles between full and intermediate oxygen saturations in the arterial-venous circulation. Fish exposed to 0.6 mmol l(-1) nitrite for up to 5 days could be divided into responding (with elevated metHb) and non-responding individuals. Exposure to 2 mmol l(-1) nitrite caused a time-dependent increase in metHb to 59% of total Hb within 2 days. Taking HbNO into account, the functional (potential O2 carrying) Hb was reduced to 29% at this stage. Total blood [Hb] was also significantly decreased. In spite of the reduced blood O2 capacitance, and the possibility that excess NO may inhibit mitochondrial respiration, whole animal routine oxygen consumption was not depressed. PMID:17872992

  15. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (US)

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

  16. Nitrate contamination of drinking water: evaluation of genotoxic risk in human populations.

    PubMed

    Kleinjans, J C; Albering, H J; Marx, A; van Maanen, J M; van Agen, B; ten Hoor, F; Swaen, G M; Mertens, P L

    1991-08-01

    Nitrate contamination of drinking water implies a genotoxic risk to man due to the endogenous formation of carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds from nitrate-derived nitrite. Thus far, epidemiological studies have presented conflicting results on the relation of drinking water nitrate levels with gastric cancer incidence. This uncertainty becomes of relevance in view of the steadily increasing nitrate levels in regular drinking water supplies. In an attempt to apply genetic biomarker analysis to improve the basis for risk assessment with respect to drinking water nitrate contamination, this study evaluates peripheral lymphocyte chromosomal damage in human populations exposed to low, medium, and high drinking water nitrate levels, the latter being present in private water wells. It is shown that nitrate contamination of drinking water causes dose-dependent increases in nitrate body load as monitored by 24-hr urinary nitrate excretion in female volunteers, but this appears not to be associated with peripheral lymphocyte sister chromatid exchange frequencies. PMID:1954930

  17. Inhibition of hypochlorous acid-induced cellular toxicity by nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteman, Matthew; Hooper, D. Craig; Scott, Gwen S.; Koprowski, Hilary; Halliwell, Barry

    2002-09-01

    Chronic inflammation results in increased nitrogen monoxide (NO) formation and the accumulation of nitrite (NO). Neutrophils stimulated by various inflammatory mediators release myeloperoxidase to produce the cytotoxic agent hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Exposure of chondrocytic SW1353 cells to HOCl resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent loss in viability, ATP, and glutathione levels. Treatment of cells with NO but not nitrate (NO) substantially decreased HOCl-dependent cellular toxicity even when NO was added at low (?M) concentrations. In contrast, NO alone (even at 1 mM concentrations) did not affect cell viability or ATP and glutathione levels. These data suggest that NO accumulation at chronic inflammatory sites, where both HOCl and NO are overproduced, may be cytoprotective against damage caused by HOCl. We propose that this is because HOCl is removed by reacting with NO to give nitryl chloride (NO2Cl), which is less damaging in our cell system. inflammation | cell toxicity | nitryl chloride | nitric oxide | arthritis

  18. Electrochemical nitrate biosensor based on poly(pyrrole-viologen) film-nitrate reductase-clay composite.

    PubMed

    Cosnier, S; Da Silva, S; Shan, D; Gorgy, K

    2008-11-01

    The immobilization of nitrate reductase (NR) was performed by entrapment in a laponite clay gel and cross-linking by glutaraldehyde. In presence of nitrate and methyl viologen, a catalytic current appeared at -0.60 V illustrating the enzymatic reduction of nitrate into nitrite via the reduced form of the freely diffusing methyl viologen. The electropolymerization of a water-soluble pyrrole viologen derivative within the interlamellar spaces and channels of the host clay matrix successfully carried out the electrical wiring of the entrapped NR. Rotating disk measurements led to the determination of kinetic constants, namely k(2)=10.7 s(-1) and K(M)=7 microM. These parameters reflect the efficiency of the electro-enzymatic reduction of nitrate and the substrate affinity for the immobilized enzyme. PMID:18501683

  19. GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols-Nitrates (12:13 min)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-08-03

    This video provides a step-by-step guide to determining nitrate and nitrite concentrations in a water sample, using a nitrate testing kit. It describes what chemical reactions are taking place throughout the testing process. The resource includes a video and a written transcript, and is supported by the Nitrate Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in the 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

  20. The kinetic differences between sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and nitroglycerin oxidation of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Tarburton, J P; Metcalf, W K

    1986-07-01

    The effect of sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate) on the hemoglobin of adult erythrocytes was examined in vitro. Both amyl nitrite and nitroglycerin reacted immediately with oxyhemoglobin to effect oxidation into methemoglobin while sodium nitrite required an inductionary period (lag phase) prior to the reaction. Kinetic studies of the biomolecular rate law for each of the preceding reaction's reactionary periods (log phases) allowed rate constant calculations to be made. The values are 1.14 x 10(4) M-1 min-1, 7.45 x 10(4) M-1 min-1, and 3.50 x 10(1) M-1 min-1 for sodium nitrite, amyl nitrite and nitroglycerin, respectively. A comparison of the amyl nitrite and nitroglycerin rate constants reveals that amyl nitrite is approximately 2000-fold more toxic to oxyhemoglobin than nitroglycerin. These oxidant's effect on in vitro hemoglobin solutions are comparable since both reactions approximate to rectangular hyperbolae. Sodium nitrite reacts about 300-fold faster with oxyhemoglobin than does nitroglycerin. However, the sodium nitrite reaction proceeds in a sigmoidal fashion which makes a strict comparison between these compounds relative toxicities less clear cut. PMID:2980115

  1. Genome Sequence of the Chemolithoautotrophic Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255

    PubMed Central

    Starkenburg, Shawn R.; Chain, Patrick S. G.; Sayavedra-Soto, Luis A.; Hauser, Loren; Land, Miriam L.; Larimer, Frank W.; Malfatti, Stephanie A.; Klotz, Martin G.; Bottomley, Peter J.; Arp, Daniel J.; Hickey, William J.

    2006-01-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi (ATCC 25391) is a gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy from the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a single circular chromosome of 3,402,093 bp encoding 3,143 predicted proteins. There were extensive similarities to genes in two alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 (1,300 genes) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 CG (815 genes). Genes encoding pathways for known modes of chemolithotrophic and chemoorganotrophic growth were identified. Genes encoding multiple enzymes involved in anapleurotic reactions centered on C2 to C4 metabolism, including a glyoxylate bypass, were annotated. The inability of N. winogradskyi to grow on C6 molecules is consistent with the genome sequence, which lacks genes for complete Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways, and active uptake of sugars. Two gene copies of the nitrite oxidoreductase, type I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and gene homologs encoding an aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase were present. Similarity of nitrite oxidoreductases to respiratory nitrate reductases was confirmed. Approximately 10% of the N. winogradskyi genome codes for genes involved in transport and secretion, including the presence of transporters for various organic-nitrogen molecules. The N. winogradskyi genome provides new insight into the phylogenetic identity and physiological capabilities of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The genome will serve as a model to study the cellular and molecular processes that control nitrite oxidation and its interaction with other nitrogen-cycling processes. PMID:16517654

  2. Genome sequence of the chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Arp, D J [Oregon State University; Hickey, W J [University of Wisconsin, Madison

    2006-03-01

    The alphaproteobacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi (ATCC 25391) is a gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy from the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a single circular chromosome of 3,402,093 bp encoding 3,143 predicted proteins. There were extensive similarities to genes in two alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 (1,300 genes) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 CG (815 genes). Genes encoding pathways for known modes of chemolithotrophic and chemoorganotrophic growth were identified. Genes encoding multiple enzymes involved in anapleurotic reactions centered on C2 to C4 metabolism, including a glyoxylate bypass, were annotated. The inability of N. winogradskyi to grow on C6 molecules is consistent with the genome sequence, which lacks genes for complete Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways, and active uptake of sugars. Two gene copies of the nitrite oxidoreductase, type I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and gene homologs encoding an aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase were present. Similarity of nitrite oxidoreductases to respiratory nitrate reductases was confirmed. Approximately 10% of the N. winogradskyi genome codes for genes involved in transport and secretion, including the presence of transporters for various organic-nitrogen molecules. The N. winogradskyi genome provides new insight into the phylogenetic identity and physiological capabilities of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The genome will serve as a model to study the cellular and molecular processes that control nitrite oxidation and its interaction with other nitrogen-cycling processes.

  3. The Genome of Nitrospina gracilis Illuminates the Metabolism and Evolution of the Major Marine Nitrite Oxidizer.

    PubMed

    Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Rattei, Thomas; Spieck, Eva; Daims, Holger

    2013-01-01

    In marine systems, nitrate is the major reservoir of inorganic fixed nitrogen. The only known biological nitrate-forming reaction is nitrite oxidation, but despite its importance, our knowledge of the organisms catalyzing this key process in the marine N-cycle is very limited. The most frequently encountered marine NOB are related to Nitrospina gracilis, an aerobic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium isolated from ocean surface waters. To date, limited physiological and genomic data for this organism were available and its phylogenetic affiliation was uncertain. In this study, the draft genome sequence of N. gracilis strain 3/211 was obtained. Unexpectedly for an aerobic organism, N. gracilis lacks classical reactive oxygen defense mechanisms and uses the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for carbon fixation. These features indicate microaerophilic ancestry and are consistent with the presence of Nitrospina in marine oxygen minimum zones. Fixed carbon is stored intracellularly as glycogen, but genes for utilizing external organic carbon sources were not identified. N. gracilis also contains a full gene set for oxidative phosphorylation with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor and for reverse electron transport from nitrite to NADH. A novel variation of complex I may catalyze the required reverse electron flow to low-potential ferredoxin. Interestingly, comparative genomics indicated a strong evolutionary link between Nitrospina, the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira, and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, apparently including the horizontal transfer of a periplasmically oriented nitrite oxidoreductase and other key genes for nitrite oxidation at an early evolutionary stage. Further, detailed phylogenetic analyses using concatenated marker genes provided evidence that Nitrospina forms a novel bacterial phylum, for which we propose the name Nitrospinae. PMID:23439773

  4. The Genome of Nitrospina gracilis Illuminates the Metabolism and Evolution of the Major Marine Nitrite Oxidizer

    PubMed Central

    Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Rattei, Thomas; Spieck, Eva; Daims, Holger

    2012-01-01

    In marine systems, nitrate is the major reservoir of inorganic fixed nitrogen. The only known biological nitrate-forming reaction is nitrite oxidation, but despite its importance, our knowledge of the organisms catalyzing this key process in the marine N-cycle is very limited. The most frequently encountered marine NOB are related to Nitrospina gracilis, an aerobic chemolithoautotrophic bacterium isolated from ocean surface waters. To date, limited physiological and genomic data for this organism were available and its phylogenetic affiliation was uncertain. In this study, the draft genome sequence of N. gracilis strain 3/211 was obtained. Unexpectedly for an aerobic organism, N. gracilis lacks classical reactive oxygen defense mechanisms and uses the reductive tricarboxylic acid cycle for carbon fixation. These features indicate microaerophilic ancestry and are consistent with the presence of Nitrospina in marine oxygen minimum zones. Fixed carbon is stored intracellularly as glycogen, but genes for utilizing external organic carbon sources were not identified. N. gracilis also contains a full gene set for oxidative phosphorylation with oxygen as terminal electron acceptor and for reverse electron transport from nitrite to NADH. A novel variation of complex I may catalyze the required reverse electron flow to low-potential ferredoxin. Interestingly, comparative genomics indicated a strong evolutionary link between Nitrospina, the nitrite-oxidizing genus Nitrospira, and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers, apparently including the horizontal transfer of a periplasmically oriented nitrite oxidoreductase and other key genes for nitrite oxidation at an early evolutionary stage. Further, detailed phylogenetic analyses using concatenated marker genes provided evidence that Nitrospina forms a novel bacterial phylum, for which we propose the name Nitrospinae. PMID:23439773

  5. Partial nitritation ANAMMOX in submerged attached growth bioreactors with smart aeration at 20 °C.

    PubMed

    Shannon, James M; Hauser, Lee W; Liu, Xikun; Parkin, Gene F; Mattes, Timothy E; Just, Craig L

    2015-01-01

    Submerged attached growth bioreactors (SAGBs) were operated at 20 °C for 30 weeks in smart-aerated, partial nitritation ANAMMOX mode and in a timer-controlled, cyclic aeration mode. The smart-aerated SAGBs removed 48-53% of total nitrogen (TN) compared to 45% for SAGBs with timed aeration. Low dissolved oxygen concentrations and cyclic pH patterns in the smart-aerated SAGBs suggested conditions favorable to partial nitritation ANAMMOX and stoichiometrically-derived and numerically modeled estimations attributed 63-68% and 14-44% of TN removal to partial nitritation ANAMMOX in these bioreactors, respectively. Ammonia removals of 36-67% in the smart-aerated SAGBs, with measured oxygen and organic carbon limitations, further suggest partial nitritation ANAMMOX. The smart-aerated SAGBs required substantially less aeration to achieve TN removals similar to SAGBs with timer-controlled aeration. Genomic DNA testing confirmed that the dominant ANAMMOX seed bacteria, received from a treatment plant utilizing the DEMON® sidestream deammonification process, was a Candidatus Brocadia sp. (of the Planctomycetales order). The DNA from these bacteria was also present in the SAGBs at the conclusion of the study providing evidence for attached growth and limited biomass washout. PMID:25406684

  6. Ammonia loading rate: an effective variable to control partial nitrification and generate the anaerobic ammonium oxidation influent.

    PubMed

    Daalkhaijav, Uranbileg; Nemati, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is an innovative process for the treatment of ammonia-contaminated waters. ANNAMOX is usually preceded by a nitrifying step in which ammonia is partially oxidized to nitrite. The effectiveness of the overall process depends on control of the nitrification and creation of a suitable influent for ANAMMOX. In this work, impacts of ammonia concentration and loading rate on partial nitrification and composition of the resulting effluent were investigated in continuous stirred tank (CSTR) and biofilm reactors fed with various ammonia concentrations (17.6-61.5 mM; 299-1045 ppm). Regardless of ammonia concentration, loading rates from 3.1 to 5.4mM/h in the CSTR and 6.4-12.1 mM/h in the biofilm reactor generated effluents with nitrite to ammonia ratios of 1.2 +/- 0.3 (suitable ANAMMOX influent). Under these conditions, the highest ammonia loading and nitrite production rates in the CSTR and biofilm reactors were 5.4 and 2.5 mM/h (HRT: 3.7 h) and 12.1 and 6.5 mM/h (HRT: 1.6 h), respectively. Results reveal that ammonia loading rate can be used effectively to achieve suitable ANAMMOX influent without the need for precise control of dissolved oxygen (DO). Considering the difficulty in regulating DO in large-scale systems and the need for the nitrifying process to be flexible with respect to various ammonia concentrations, the loading rate appears to be a practical option to control partial nitrification. Verifying the range of ammonia loading rates that generate ANAMMOX influent allows operation of the nitrifying step with any level of ammonia in the feed, with the proper loading rate achieved through adjustment of hydraulic residence time. PMID:24645430

  7. Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important).

  8. Prebiotic Nitrogen Fixation by FeS Reduction of Nitrite Under Acidic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Mead, Susan C. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Theories for the origin of life require the availability of reduced nitrogen for the formation of such species as amino acid and nucleic acids. In a strongly reducing atmosphere, compounds essential to the chemical evolution of life, such as amino acids, can form by reactions between HCN, NH3, and carbonyl compounds produced in spark discharges. However, under non-reducing atmospheres, electric discharges produced NO rather than HCN or NH3. This raises the questions of; how ammonia can be formed under a neutral atmosphere, and what conditions are needed such formation to occur? On possibility is the conversion of NO into nitric and nitrous acids (through HNO) and rained into the oceans. The reduction of nitrite by aqueous Fe(II) (6 Fe(+2) + 7 H(+) + NO2(-) yields 6 Fe(III) + 2 H2O + NH3) such as was present on the early Earth could then have produced ammonia. However, this reaction does not proceed at pHs less than 7.3. An alternative is reduction by other forms of Fe(II), such as FeS. We will present results that show that FeS can reduce nitrite to ammonia at pHs as low as pH 5 under a variety of conditions.

  9. Fluorometric determination of nitrite with 4-hydroxycoumarin

    SciTech Connect

    Ohta, T.; Arai, Y.; Takitani, S.

    1986-12-01

    A simple, sensitive, and reproducible fluorometric method for determination of nitrite has been developed. This method is based on the nitrosation of 4-hydroxycoumarin in acidic medium and subsequent reduction to 3-amino-4-hydroxy-coumarin, which is fluorescent in alkaline medium. The fluorescence intensity is proportional to the nitrite concentration in the range of 3 ng/mL to 1 ..mu..g/mL in the sample solution, with a relative standard deviation of 0.5% (50 ng/mL). The method has been applied to the determination of nitrite in saliva.

  10. Comparison of biological removal via nitrite with real-time control using aerobic granular sludge and flocculent activated sludge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dawen Gao; Xiangjuan Yuan; Hong Liang; Wei-Min Wu

    2011-01-01

    The process of nitrification–denitrification via nitrite for nitrogen removal under real-time control mode was tested in two\\u000a laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) with flocculent activated sludge (R1) and aerobic granular sludge (R2) to\\u000a compare operational performance and real-time control strategies. The results showed that the average ammonia nitrogen, total\\u000a inorganic nitrogen (TIN), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal during aeration

  11. New composite nitrite-free and low-nitrite meat-curing systems using natural colorants.

    PubMed

    Eskandari, Mohammad H; Hosseinpour, Sara; Mesbahi, Gholamreza; Shekarforoush, Shahram

    2013-09-01

    Nitrite-free and low-nitrite meat-curing systems were developed to eliminate or reduce nitrite in frankfurter-type sausages. Different composite meat-curing mixtures were formulated using cochineal and paprika as natural colorants, sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as antimicrobial agent, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as antioxidant and sodium nitrite. The treatment, which contained 0.015% cochineal, most closely resembled the 120 ppm NaNO2 in its ability to create cured-meat color. BHA was found to be a strong antioxidant at the 30 ppm level in cooked sausages during refrigerated storage for 5 weeks. All treatments containing 40 ppm sodium nitrite were successful in replicating sensory attributes of frankfurter samples. Our findings support the use of SHP as possible antibotulinal agent in nitrite-free meat-curing systems. PMID:24804046

  12. New composite nitrite-free and low-nitrite meat-curing systems using natural colorants

    PubMed Central

    Eskandari, Mohammad H; Hosseinpour, Sara; Mesbahi, GholamReza; Shekarforoush, Shahram

    2013-01-01

    Nitrite-free and low-nitrite meat-curing systems were developed to eliminate or reduce nitrite in frankfurter-type sausages. Different composite meat-curing mixtures were formulated using cochineal and paprika as natural colorants, sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as antimicrobial agent, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as antioxidant and sodium nitrite. The treatment, which contained 0.015% cochineal, most closely resembled the 120 ppm NaNO2 in its ability to create cured-meat color. BHA was found to be a strong antioxidant at the 30 ppm level in cooked sausages during refrigerated storage for 5 weeks. All treatments containing 40 ppm sodium nitrite were successful in replicating sensory attributes of frankfurter samples. Our findings support the use of SHP as possible antibotulinal agent in nitrite-free meat-curing systems. PMID:24804046

  13. Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. (Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (United States))

    1992-10-07

    The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F[sup [minus

  14. A Nitrite Biosensor Based on Co-immobilization of Nitrite Reductase and Viologen-modified Chitosan on a Glassy Carbon Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Quan, De; Shin, Woonsup

    2010-01-01

    An electrochemical nitrite biosensor based on co-immobilization of copper- containing nitrite reductase (Cu-NiR, from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides forma sp. denitrificans) and viologen-modified chitosan (CHIT-V) on a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) is presented. Electron transfer (ET) between a conventional GCE and immobilized Cu-NiR was mediated by the co-immobilized CHIT-V. Redox-active viologen was covalently linked to a chitosan backbone, and the thus produced CHIT-V was co-immobilized with Cu-NiR on the GCE surface by drop-coating of hydrophilic polyurethane (HPU). The electrode responded to nitrite with a limit of detection (LOD) of 40 nM (S/N = 3). The sensitivity, linear response range, and response time (t90%) were 14.9 nA/?M, 0.04?11 ?M (r2 = 0.999) and 15 s, respectively. The corresponding Lineweaver-Burk plot showed that the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (KMapp) was 65 ?M. Storage stability of the biosensor (retaining 80% of initial activity) was 65 days under ambient air and room temperature storage conditions. Reproducibility of the sensor showed a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.8% (n = 5) for detection of 1 ?M of nitrite. An interference study showed that anions commonlyfound in water samples such as chlorate, chloride, sulfate and sulfite did not interfere with the nitrite detection. However, nitrate interfered with a relative sensitivity of 64% and this interference effect was due to the intrinsic character of the NiR employed in this study. PMID:22219710

  15. LOW SOIL-WATER LEVEL BOOSTS AMMONIA VOLATILIZATION FROM FERTILIZERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia volatilization is an important mechanism of nitrogen (N) loss from soils applied with ammonium or urea forms of N. This research was conducted with Biscayne Marl Soil and Krome Gravelly Loam from Florida, and Quincy Fine Sand and Warden Silt Loam from Washington. Potassium nitrate, ammonium ...

  16. Nitrate Reduction in an Unconfined Sandy Aquifer: Water Chemistry, Reduction Processes, and Geochemical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postma, Dieke; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning; Larsen, Flemming

    1991-08-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Ground water chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate-contaminated groundwater emanate from the agricultural areas and spread through the aquifer. The aquifer can be subdivided into an upper 10- to 15-m thick oxic zone that contains O2 and NO3-, and a lower anoxic zone characterized by Fe2+-rich waters. The redox boundary is very sharp, which suggests that reduction processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content of total dissolved ions in the NO3--free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors in the reduced zone of the aquifer are organic matter, present as reworked brown coal fragments from the underlying Miocene, and small amounts of pyrite at an average concentration of 3.6 mmol/kg. Electron balances across the redoxcline, based on concentrations of O2, NO3-, SO42- and total inorganic carbon (TIC), indicate that pyrite is by far the dominant electron donor even though organic matter is much more abundant. Groundwater transport and chemical reactions were modeled using the code PHREEQM, which combines a chemical equilibrium model with a one-dimensional mixing cell transport model. Only the vertical component of the water transport was modeled since, in contrast to rates along flow lines, the vertical rates are close to constant as required by the one-dimensional model. Average vertical transport rates of water in the saturated zone were obtained by tritium dating. The modeling process is a two-step procedure. First the sediment column is initialized with natural water containing only oxygen as electron acceptor, and subsequently agricultural waters containing both oxygen and nitrate are fed into the column. The nitrate concentration of agricultural waters entering the saturated zone varies with time, and an input function was therefore constructed by linear mixing of natural waters and agricultural waters. This input function was fed into the column initialized with natural water, and the model run forward in time to the year 1988 where field data are available. Comparison with field data shows that the variation in groundwater chemistry is well described by the model when reduction of oxygen and reduction of nitrate by pyrite oxidation are the only redox reactions occurring. Finally, predictions are made for the distribution of water chemistry in the year 2003. Downward progression of the redoxcline is accelerated by a factor of five due to nitrate pollution of the aquifer, but absolute rates remain small, of the order of a few centimeters per year. The controlling factor for nitrate migration through the aquifer, once it has reached the anoxic zone, is the concentration and distribution of pyrite in the sediments.

  17. Vertical Distribution of Ammonia-Oxidizing Crenarchaeota and Methanogens in the Epipelagic Waters of Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo)? †

    PubMed Central

    Llirós, Marc; Gich, Frederic; Plasencia, Anna; Auguet, Jean-Christophe; Darchambeau, François; Casamayor, Emilio O.; Descy, Jean-Pierre; Borrego, Carles

    2010-01-01

    Four stratified basins in Lake Kivu (Rwanda-Democratic Republic of the Congo) were sampled in March 2007 to investigate the abundance, distribution, and potential biogeochemical role of planktonic archaea. We used fluorescence in situ hybridization with catalyzed-reported deposition microscopic counts (CARD-FISH), denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprinting, and quantitative PCR (qPCR) of signature genes for ammonia-oxidizing archaea (16S rRNA for marine Crenarchaeota group 1.1a [MCG1] and ammonia monooxygenase subunit A [amoA]). Abundance of archaea ranged from 1 to 4.5% of total DAPI (4?,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) counts with maximal concentrations at the oxic-anoxic transition zone (?50-m depth). Phylogenetic analysis of the archaeal planktonic community revealed a higher level of richness of crenarchaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences (21 of the 28 operational taxonomic units [OTUs] identified [75%]) over euryarchaeotal ones (7 OTUs). Sequences affiliated with the kingdom Euryarchaeota were mainly recovered from the anoxic water compartment and mostly grouped into methanogenic lineages (Methanosarcinales and Methanocellales). In turn, crenarchaeal phylotypes were recovered throughout the sampled epipelagic waters (0- to 100-m depth), with clear phylogenetic segregation along the transition from oxic to anoxic water masses. Thus, whereas in the anoxic hypolimnion crenarchaeotal OTUs were mainly assigned to the miscellaneous crenarchaeotic group, the OTUs from the oxic-anoxic transition and above belonged to Crenarchaeota groups 1.1a and 1.1b, two lineages containing most of the ammonia-oxidizing representatives known so far. The concomitant vertical distribution of both nitrite and nitrate maxima and the copy numbers of both MCG1 16S rRNA and amoA genes suggest the potential implication of Crenarchaeota in nitrification processes occurring in the epilimnetic waters of the lake. PMID:20802065

  18. Combustion of transition-metal ethylenediamine nitrates

    SciTech Connect

    Gorbunov, V.V.; Shidlovskii, A.A.; Shmagin, L.F.

    1983-09-01

    This article examines the burning of the coordinated nitrates of Cu, Cr, Co, Ni and Zn, in which ethylenediamine is the burning part of the molecule. The burning rates of these compounds are determined at pressures up to 10 MPa produced by compressed nitrogen. Results from thermochemical calculations, the combustion rates, and the temperatures corresponding to the ignition delays are given. The burning rates of the ethylenediamine compounds are compared with those of ammonia compounds. It is determined that the ammonia compounds of Cu, Co, and Ni at 10 MPa burn 1.4-1.8 times more rapidly than the corresponding ethylenediamine compounds.

  19. Temperature and moisture effects on ammonia oxidizer communities in cryoturbated Arctic soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiglsdorfer, Stefanie; Alves, Ricardo J. E.; Bárta, Ji?í; Kohoutová, Iva; Bošková, Hana; Diáková, Katerina; ?apek, Petr; Schnecker, Jörg; Wild, Birgit; Mooshammer, Maria; Urich, Tim; Gentsch, Norman; Gittel, Antje; Guggenberger, Georg; Mikutta, Robert; Lashchinskiy, Nikolay; Richter, Andreas; Šantr??ková, Hana; Shibistova, Olga; Schleper, Christa

    2014-05-01

    Arctic permafrost-affected soils contain large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC) and are expected to experience drastic changes in environmental conditions, such as moisture and temperature, due to the high surface temperature increase predicted for these regions. Although the SOC decomposition processes driven by the microbiota are considered to be nitrogen (N) limited, little information about the microbial groups involved in N cycle is currently available, including their reactions to environmental changes. Here, we investigate the presence of ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in distinct soil horizons from the Taymyr peninsula (Siberia, Russia), and investigate their activities under changing temperature and moisture regimes. These two groups of organisms perform the first step in nitrification, an important and rate limiting process in the global N cycle, which involves the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite. The soil samples were separated into different horizons: organic topsoil (O) and subducted organic topsoil (Ajj). The samples were incubated for 18 weeks at 4, 12 and 20° C and 50, 80 and 100 % water holding capacity (WHC). AOA and AOB abundances were quantified by quantitative PCR targeting genes of the key metabolic enzyme, ammonia monooxygenase. AOA diversity was analyzed in-depth by high-throughput amplicon sequencing of the same gene. Additionally, gross and net nitrification and mineralization rates were determined in order to investigate potential relationships between AOA and AOB populations and these processes, in response to the incubation treatments. We found higher abundances of AOA than AOB in the organic topsoil, whereas AOB dominated in the subducted organic topsoil. Increased temperature resulted in higher numbers of both groups at low WHC %, with AOB showing a more pronounced response. However, these effects were not observed under anaerobic conditions (100 % WHC). Deep sequencing of AOA amoA genes revealed the presence of functionally heterogeneous AOA populations and complex changes in the population composition in response to all treatments. Interestingly, the effect of different temperatures and moisture on net nitrification throughout the incubation did not always correspond to the effect observed on AOA and AOB abundance. This study provides insights into the dynamics of nitrifier populations in Arctic soils, and suggests that they hold an important role in the response of the N cycle in Arctic soils to environmental changes.

  20. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way. PMID:25345876

  1. Controlling the nitrite:ammonium ratio in a SHARON reactor in view of its coupling with an Anammox process.

    PubMed

    Volcke, E I P; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Vanrolleghem, P A

    2006-01-01

    The combined SHARON-Anammox process for treating wastewater streams with high ammonia load is the focus of this paper. In particular, partial nitritation in the SHARON reactor should be performed to such an extent that a nitrite:ammonium ratio is generated which is optimal for full conversion in an Anammox process. In the simulation studies performed in this contribution, the nitrite:ammonium ratio produced in a SHARON process with fixed volume, as well as its effect on the subsequent Anammox process, is examined for realistic influent conditions and considering both direct and indirect pH effects on the SHARON process. Several possible operating modes for the SHARON reactor, differing in control strategies for O2, pH and the produced nitrite:ammonium ratio and based on regulating the air flow rate and/or acid/base addition, are systematically evaluated. The results are quantified through an operating cost index. Best results are obtained by means of cascade feedback control of the SHARON effluent nitrite:ammonium ratio through setting an O2 set-point that is tracked by adjusting the air flow rate, combined with single loop pH control through acid/base addition. PMID:16722054

  2. Evidence for mutagenesis by nitric oxide during nitrate metabolism in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Bernard

    2006-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, nitrosative mutagenesis may occur during nitrate or nitrite respiration. The endogenous nitrosating agent N2O3 (dinitrogen trioxide, nitrous anhydride) may be formed either by the condensation of nitrous acid or by the autooxidation of nitric oxide, both of which are metabolic by-products. The purpose of this study was to determine which of these two agents is more responsible for endogenous nitrosative mutagenesis. An nfi (endonuclease V) mutant was grown anaerobically with nitrate or nitrite, conditions under which it has a high frequency of A:T-to-G:C transition mutations because of a defect in the repair of hypoxanthine (nitrosatively deaminated adenine) in DNA. These mutations could be greatly reduced by two means: (i) introduction of an nirB mutation, which affects the inducible cytoplasmic nitrite reductase, the major source of nitric oxide during nitrate or nitrite metabolism, or (ii) flushing the anaerobic culture with argon (which should purge it of nitric oxide) before it was exposed to air. The results suggest that nitrosative mutagenesis occurs during a shift from nitrate/nitrite-dependent respiration under hypoxic conditions to aerobic respiration, when accumulated nitric oxide reacts with oxygen to form endogenous nitrosating agents such as N2O3. In contrast, mutagenesis of nongrowing cells by nitrous acid was unaffected by an nirB mutation, suggesting that this mutagenesis is mediated by N2O3 that is formed directly by the condensation of nitrous acid. PMID:16428385

  3. Down under the tunic: bacterial biodiversity hotspots and widespread ammonia-oxidizing archaea in coral reef ascidians.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Patrick M; Pineda, Mari Carmen; Webster, Nicole; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna

    2014-03-01

    Ascidians are ecologically important components of marine ecosystems yet the ascidian microbiota remains largely unexplored beyond a few model species. We used 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive characterization of microbial symbionts in the tunic of 42 Great Barrier Reef ascidian samples representing 25 species. Results revealed high bacterial biodiversity (3?217 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU0.03) from 19 described and 14 candidate phyla) and the widespread occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in coral reef ascidians (24 of 25 host species). The ascidian microbiota was clearly differentiated from seawater microbial communities and included symbiont lineages shared with other invertebrate hosts as well as unique, ascidian-specific phylotypes. Several rare seawater microbes were markedly enriched (200-700 fold) in the ascidian tunic, suggesting that the rare biosphere of seawater may act as a conduit for horizontal symbiont transfer. However, most OTUs (71%) were rare and specific to single hosts and a significant correlation between host relatedness and symbiont community similarity was detected, indicating a high degree of host-specificity and potential role of vertical transmission in structuring these communities. We hypothesize that the complex ascidian microbiota revealed herein is maintained by the dynamic microenvironments within the ascidian tunic, offering optimal conditions for different metabolic pathways such as ample chemical substrate (ammonia-rich host waste) and physical habitat (high oxygen, low irradiance) for nitrification. Thus, ascidian hosts provide unique and fertile niches for diverse microorganisms and may represent an important and previously unrecognized habitat for nitrite/nitrate regeneration in coral reef ecosystems. PMID:24152714

  4. Ammonia in simulated Hanford double-shell tank wastes: Solubility and effects on surface tension

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Norton; L. R. Pederson

    1994-01-01

    Radioactive and wastes left from defense materials production activities are temporarily stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State (Tank Waste Science Panel 1991). Some of these wastes are in the form of a thick slurry (``double-shell slurry``) containing sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, organic complexants and buffering agents,

  5. Improving ammonia emissions in air quality modelling for France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamaoui-Laguel, Lynda; Meleux, Frédérik; Beekmann, Matthias; Bessagnet, Bertrand; Génermont, Sophie; Cellier, Pierre; Létinois, Laurent

    2014-08-01

    We have implemented a new module to improve the representation of ammonia emissions from agricultural activities in France with the objective to evaluate the impact of such emissions on the formation of particulate matter modelled with the air quality model CHIMERE. A novel method has been set up for the part of ammonia emissions originating from mineral fertilizer spreading. They are calculated using the one dimensional 1D mechanistic model “VOLT'AIR” which has been coupled with data on agricultural practices, meteorology and soil properties obtained at high spatial resolution (cantonal level). These emissions display high spatiotemporal variations depending on soil pH, rates and dates of fertilization and meteorological variables, especially soil temperature. The emissions from other agricultural sources (animal housing, manure storage and organic manure spreading) are calculated using the national spatialised inventory (INS) recently developed in France. The comparison of the total ammonia emissions estimated with the new approach VOLT'AIR_INS with the standard emissions provided by EMEP (European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme) used currently in the CHIMERE model shows significant differences in the spatiotemporal distributions. The implementation of new ammonia emissions in the CHIMERE model has a limited impact on ammonium nitrate aerosol concentrations which only increase at most by 10% on the average for the considered spring period but this impact can be more significant for specific pollution episodes. The comparison of modelled PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 ?m) and ammonium nitrate aerosol with observations shows that the use of the new ammonia emission method slightly improves the spatiotemporal correlation in certain regions and reduces the negative bias on average by 1 ?g m-3. The formation of ammonium nitrate aerosol depends not only on ammonia concentrations but also on nitric acid availability, which is often a limiting factor in rural regions in France, and on meteorological conditions. The presented approach of ammonia emission calculation seems suitable for use in chemistry-transport models.

  6. Nitrite in rain and dew in Santiago city, Chile. Its possible impact on the early morning start of the photochemical smog

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maria Angelica Rubio; Eduardo Lissi; Guillermo Villena

    2002-01-01

    Cations (pH, potassium, sodium, calcium, magnesium, and ammonium) and anions (sulfate, nitrate, nitrite, and chloride) concentrations were measured in Santiago city rain and dew waters collected during the 1995 to 1999. Concentrations measured in dews are considerably higher than those measured in rains. The high ionic concentration present in dew waters could contribute to their corrosion potential. Natural dust makes

  7. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 ...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

  8. 21 CFR 181.33 - Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. 181.33 Section 181.33 ...Ingredients § 181.33 Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate. Sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate are subject to prior sanctions...

  9. Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide

    DOEpatents

    Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

    2002-01-01

    The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

  10. Control of H2S emission from swine manure using Na-nitrite and Na-molybdate.

    PubMed

    Predicala, Bernardo; Nemati, Mehdi; Stade, Sarah; Laguë, Claude

    2008-06-15

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) in oil reservoirs (souring) has been shown to be controlled effectively using nitrite and molybdate salts. In the present work the effects of addition of nitrite and molybdate on reducing the emission of H2S from swine manure slurry was investigated in the laboratory and semi-pilot scale systems. Addition of 80 mM nitrite or 2 mM molybdate (final concentration in the manure slurry) to fresh manure in the laboratory scale closed systems (125 mL and 4 L) reduced the concentration of H2S in the headspace gas from 1500 microL L(-1) to 10 microL L(-1) which maintained during the remaining period of trials (40-60 days). With aged manure, similar results were achieved with a lower level of nitrite (10 mM). Simultaneous or sequential additions of nitrite and molybdate to fresh manure had similar effects. Contrary to the systems simulating biological conditions in oil reservoirs in which simultaneous addition of nitrite and molybdate has been reported to have a synergistic effect, no synergism was observed when nitrite and molybdate were added to the manure simultaneously. Experiments with fresh manure slurry in the semi-pilot scale systems (200 L) confirmed the effectiveness of this approach in which addition of 80 mM nitrite or 2 mM molybdate or a combination of 80 mM nitrite and 2 mM molybdate decreased the concentration of the H2S in the headspace gas from an initial value of 500 microL L(-1) to a low level in the range 2-25 microL L(-1) and maintained these low levels during the remaining period of trials (16 days). The concentration of ammonia (NH3) in the headspace gas of the treated systems was similar to that observed in the control system (untreated), indicating that the treatment did not have an effect on the level of present NH3. Although the addition of nitrite or molybdate reduced emissions of H2S from swine manure and the associated health and safety concerns, it had little impact on the intensity of odour in the headspace gas samples from the semi-pilot scale system. PMID:18023529

  11. Effect of Nitrate on Biogenic Sulfide Production

    PubMed Central

    Jenneman, Gary E.; McInerney, M. J.; Knapp, Roy M.

    1986-01-01

    The addition of 59 mM nitrate inhibited biogenic sulfide production in dilute sewage sludge (10% [vol/vol]) amended with 20 mM sulfate and either acetate, glucose, or hydrogen as electron donors. Similar results were found when pond sediment or oil field brines served as the inoculum. Sulfide production was inhibited for periods of at least 6 months and was accompanied by the oxidation of resazurin from its colorless reduced state to its pink oxidized state. Lower amounts of nitrate (6 or 20 mM) and increased amounts of sewage sludge resulted in only transient inhibition of sulfide production. The addition of 156 mM sulfate to bottles with 59 mM nitrate and 10% (vol/vol) sewage sludge or pond sediment resulted in sulfide production. Nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were detected during periods where sulfide production was inhibited, whereas nitrate, nitrite, and nitrous oxide were below detectable levels at the time sulfide production began. The oxidation of resazurin was attributed to an increase in nitrous oxide which persisted in concentration of about 1.0 mM for up to 5 months. The numbers of sulfate-reducing organisms decreased from 106 CFU ml?1 sludge to less than detectable levels after prolonged incubation of oxidized bottles. The addition of 10 mM glucose to oxidized bottles after 14.5 weeks of incubation resulted in rereduction of the resazurin and subsequent sulfide production. The prolonged inhibition of sulfide production was attributed to an increase in oxidation-reduction potential due to biogenic production of nitrous oxide, which appeared to have a cytotoxic effect on sulfate-reducing populations. PMID:16347078

  12. Impact of ammonia concentration on Spirulina platensis growth in an airlift photobioreactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xin Yuan; Amit Kumar; Ashish K. Sahu; Sarina J. Ergas

    2011-01-01

    Spirulina platensis was cultivated in a bench-scale airlift photobioreactor using synthetic wastewater (total nitrogen 412mgL?1, total phosphorous 90mgL?1, pH 9–10) with varying ammonia\\/total nitrogen ratios (50–100% ammonia with balance nitrate) and hydraulic residence times (15–25d). High average biomass density (3500–3800mgL?1) and productivity (5.1gm?2d?1) were achieved when ammonia was maintained at 50% of the total nitrogen. Both high ammonia concentrations and

  13. [Inhibition of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in produced water from oil reservoir by nitrate].

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Yu; Zhang, Ying; Shi, Rong-Jiu; Han, Si-Qin; Li, Guang-Zhe; Li, Guo-Qiao; Zhao, Jin-Yi

    2014-01-01

    Growth and metabolic activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) can result in souring of oil reservoirs, leading to various problems in aspects of environmental pollution and corrosion. Nitrate addition and management of nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) offer potential solutions to controlling souring in oil reservoirs. In this paper, a facultive chemolithotrophic NRB, designated as DNB-8, was isolated from the produced fluid of a water-flooded oil reservoir at Daqing oilfield. Then the efficacies and mechanisms of various concentrations of nitrate in combination with DNB-8 in the inhibition of the activity of SRB enriched culture were compared. Results showed that 1.0 mmol x L(-1) of nitrate or 0.45 mmol x L(-1) of nitrite inhibited the sulfate-reducing activity of SRB enrichments; the competitive reduction of nitrate by DNB-8 and the nitrite produced were responsible for the suppression. Besides, the SRB enrichment cultures showed a metabolic pathway of dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) via nitrite. The SRB cultures could possibly alleviate the nitrite inhibition by DNRA when they were subjected to high-strength nitrate. PMID:24720222

  14. Relative chlorinating, nitrating, and oxidizing capabilities of neutrophils determined with phagocytosable probes.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Q; Hurst, J K

    1997-12-26

    The capabilities of stimulated neutrophils to initiate intraphagosomal and extracellular chlorination, nitration, and other oxidative reactions has been evaluated using a fluorescent particle and soluble phenolic compounds as target molecules. Neutrophils activated by the soluble stimulus, phorbol myristate acetate, both chlorinated fluorescein that was covalently attached to polyacrylamide microspheres and initiated tyrosine dimerization. When nitrite ion was present at millimolar concentration levels in the medium, nitration of the phenolic rings also occurred; the relative extent of nitration increased as the nitrite concentration was increased. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) also catalyzed nitration and chlorination of fluorescein and the fluorescein-conjugated particles in cell-free solutions; the relative nitration yields increased with increasing [NO2-]/[Cl-] ratios. Nitration did not involve intermediary formation of nitrating agents derived from reaction between MPO-generated HOCl and NO2- because this reaction also occurred in chloride-free media and direct addition of HOCl to solutions containing NO2- and fluorescein gave only chlorinated products. In marked contrast to these extracellular reactions, intraphagosomal nitration of the fluorescein-conjugated particles could not be detected (even at [NO2-] as high as 0.1 M), whereas chlorination of the probe was extensive. These data indicate that intraphagosomal aromatic nitration in neutrophils is negligible, although extracellular nitration of phenolic compounds by secreted MPO could occur at physiological concentration levels of NO2-. PMID:9407050

  15. Nitrate removal, communities of denitrifiers and adverse effects in different carbon substrates for use in denitrification beds.

    PubMed

    Warneke, Sören; Schipper, Louis A; Matiasek, Michael G; Scow, Kate M; Cameron, Stewart; Bruesewitz, Denise A; McDonald, Ian R

    2011-11-01

    Denitrification beds are containers filled with wood by-products that serve as a carbon and energy source to denitrifiers, which reduce nitrate (NO(3)(-)) from point source discharges into non-reactive dinitrogen (N(2)) gas. This study investigates a range of alternative carbon sources and determines rates, mechanisms and factors controlling NO(3)(-) removal, denitrifying bacterial community, and the adverse effects of these substrates. Experimental barrels (0.2 m(3)) filled with either maize cobs, wheat straw, green waste, sawdust, pine woodchips or eucalyptus woodchips were incubated at 16.8 °C or 27.1 °C (outlet temperature), and received NO(3)(-) enriched water (14.38 mg N L(-1) and 17.15 mg N L(-1)). After 2.5 years of incubation measurements were made of NO(3)(-)-N removal rates, in vitro denitrification rates (DR), factors limiting denitrification (carbon and nitrate availability, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and concentrations of NO(3)(-), nitrite and ammonia), copy number of nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) genes, and greenhouse gas production (dissolved nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and methane), and carbon (TOC) loss. Microbial denitrification was the main mechanism for NO(3)(-)-N removal. Nitrate-N removal rates ranged from 1.3 (pine woodchips) to 6.2 g N m(-3) d(-1) (maize cobs), and were predominantly limited by C availability and temperature (Q(10) = 1.2) when NO(3)(-)-N outlet concentrations remained above 1 mg L(-1). The NO(3)(-)-N removal rate did not depend directly on substrate type, but on the quantity of microbially available carbon, which differed between carbon sources. The abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) was similar in replicate barrels under cold incubation, but varied substantially under warm incubation, and between substrates. Warm incubation enhanced growth of nirS containing bacteria and bacteria that lacked the nosZ gene, potentially explaining the greater N(2)O emission in warmer environments. Maize cob substrate had the highest NO(3)(-)-N removal rate, but adverse effects include TOC release, dissolved N(2)O release and substantial carbon consumption by non-denitrifiers. Woodchips removed less than half of NO(3)(-) removed by maize cobs, but provided ideal conditions for denitrifying bacteria, and adverse effects were not observed. Therefore we recommend the combination of maize cobs and woodchips to enhance NO(3)(-) removal while minimizing adverse effects in denitrification beds. PMID:21880343

  16. Nitrate removal, communities of denitrifiers and adverse effects in different carbon substrates for use in denitrification beds

    PubMed Central

    Warneke, Sören; Schipper, Louis A.; Matiasek, Michael G.; Scow, Kate M.; Cameron, Stewart; Bruesewitz, Denise A.; McDonald, Ian R.

    2012-01-01

    Denitrification beds are containers filled with wood by-products that serve as a carbon and energy source to denitrifiers, which reduce nitrate ( NO3?) from point source discharges into non-reactive dinitrogen (N2) gas. This study investigates a range of alternative carbon sources and determines rates, mechanisms and factors controlling NO3? removal, denitrifying bacterial community, and the adverse effects of these substrates. Experimental barrels (0.2 m3) filled with either maize cobs, wheat straw, green waste, sawdust, pine woodchips or eucalyptus woodchips were incubated at 16.8 °C or 27.1 °C (outlet temperature), and received NO3? enriched water (14.38 mg N L?1 and 17.15 mg N L?1). After 2.5 years of incubation measurements were made of NO3??N removal rates, in vitro denitrification rates (DR), factors limiting denitrification (carbon and nitrate availability, dissolved oxygen, temperature, pH, and concentrations of NO3?, nitrite and ammonia), copy number of nitrite reductase (nirS and nirK ) and nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ ) genes, and greenhouse gas production (dissolved nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane), and carbon (TOC) loss. Microbial denitrification was the main mechanism for NO3??N removal. Nitrate–N removal rates ranged from 1.3 (pine woodchips) to 6.2 g N m?3 d?1 (maize cobs), and were predominantly limited by C availability and temperature (Q10 = 1.2) when NO3??N outlet concentrations remained above 1 mg L?1. The NO3??N removal rate did not depend directly on substrate type, but on the quantity of microbially available carbon, which differed between carbon sources. The abundance of denitrifying genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ ) was similar in replicate barrels under cold incubation, but varied substantially under warm incubation, and between substrates. Warm incubation enhanced growth of nirS containing bacteria and bacteria that lacked the nosZ gene, potentially explaining the greater N2O emission in warmer environments. Maize cob substrate had the highest NO3??N removal rate, but adverse effects include TOC release, dissolved N2O release and substantial carbon consumption by non-denitrifiers. Wood-chips removed less than half of NO3? removed by maize cobs, but provided ideal conditions for denitrifying bacteria, and adverse effects were not observed. Therefore we recommend the combination of maize cobs and woodchips to enhance NO3? removal while minimizing adverse effects in denitrification beds. PMID:21880343

  17. Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca strains with improved efficiency in removal of high nitrate loads

    SciTech Connect

    Pinar, G.; Ramos, J.L. [Estacion Experimental del Zaidin--Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Granada (Spain). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular and Cellular Biology of Plants

    1998-12-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 removes high nitrate loads from industrial wastewaters without accumulation of nitrite under optimal culture conditions; however, under nonoptimal conditions nitrite accumulates. This situation reflects an in vivo-limited functioning of nitrite reductase in this strain. As a way to overcome this limitation, an increase in the nitrite reductase gene dose in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 was considered. To achieve this, the authors cloned and transferred into this strain the Klebsiella pneumoniae nasB gene, which encodes assimilatory nitrite reductase. The delivery vector was either the wide-host-range plasmid pUPE2, in which the nasB gene is expressed from the Escherichia coli P{sub lac} promoter, or a mini-Tn5-Km vector, which upon random insertion in the host chromosome allowed expression of the nasB gene from an unidentified chromosomal host promoter. The effect of the increase in the dose of the nasB gene in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 on the accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium was tested in two recombinant strains. The results obtained showed that K. oxytoca CECT 4460 bearing pUPE2 accumulated 88% less nitrite than the wild-type strain, while the recombinant strain bearing the K. pneumoniae nasB gene in the host chromosome showed a 25% lower level of nitrite accumulation in the culture medium than that of the wild type.

  18. Recombinant Klebsiella oxytoca Strains with Improved Efficiency in Removal of High Nitrate Loads

    PubMed Central

    Pińar, Guadalupe; Ramos, Juan L.

    1998-01-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca CECT 4460 removes high nitrate loads from industrial wastewaters without accumulation of nitrite under optimal culture conditions; however, under nonoptimal conditions nitrite accumulates. This situation reflects an in vivo-limited functioning of nitrite reductase in this strain. As a way to overcome this limitation, an increase in the nitrite reductase gene dose in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 was considered. To achieve this, we cloned and transferred into this strain the Klebsiella pneumoniae nasB gene, which encodes assimilatory nitrite reductase (Lin et al., J. Bacteriol. 176:2551–2559, 1994). The delivery vector was either the wide-host-range plasmid pUPE2, in which the nasB gene is expressed from the Escherichia coli Plac promoter, or a mini-Tn5-Km vector, which upon random insertion in the host chromosome allowed expression of the nasB gene from an unidentified chromosomal host promoter. The effect of the increase in the dose of the nasB gene in K. oxytoca CECT 4460 on the accumulation of nitrite in the culture medium was tested in two recombinant strains. The results obtained showed that K. oxytoca CECT 4460 bearing pUPE2 accumulated 88% less nitrite than the wild-type strain, while the recombinant strain bearing the K. pneumoniae nasB gene in the host chromosome showed a 25% lower level of nitrite accumulation in the culture medium than that of the wild type. PMID:9835599

  19. Biological nitrate removal processes from drinking water supply-a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews both heterotrophic and autotrophic processes for the removal of nitrate from water supplies. The most commonly used carbon sources in heterotrophic denitrification are methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Process performance for each feed stock is compared with particular reference nitrate and nitrite residual and to toxicity potential. Autotrophic nitrate removal has the advantages of not requiring an organic carbon source; however the slow growth rate of autotrophic bacteria and low nitrate removal rate have contributed to the fact that relatively few full scale plants are in operation at the present time. PMID:24355262

  20. Biological nitrate removal processes from drinking water supply-a review.

    PubMed

    Mohseni-Bandpi, Anoushiravan; Elliott, David Jack; Zazouli, Mohammad Ali

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews both heterotrophic and autotrophic processes for the removal of nitrate from water supplies. The most commonly used carbon sources in heterotrophic denitrification are methanol, ethanol and acetic acid. Process performance for each feed stock is compared with particular reference nitrate and nitrite residual and to toxicity potential. Autotrophic nitrate removal has the advantages of not requiring an organic carbon source; however the slow growth rate of autotrophic bacteria and low nitrate removal rate have contributed to the fact that relatively few full scale plants are in operation at the present time. PMID:24355262

  1. Assessing Ammonia Treatment Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second of three articles to help water system operators understand ammonia and how to monitor and control its effects at the plant and in the distribution system. The first article (Opflow, April 2012) provided an overview of ammonia's chemistry, origins, and water sy...

  2. Characterization and expression analysis of a gene cluster for nitrate assimilation from the yeast Arxula adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Böer, Erik; Schröter, Anja; Bode, Rüdiger; Piontek, Michael; Kunze, Gotthard

    2009-02-01

    In Arxula adeninivorans nitrate assimilation is mediated by the combined actions of a nitrate transporter, a nitrate reductase and a nitrite reductase. Single-copy genes for these activities (AYNT1, AYNR1, AYNI1, respectively) form a 9103 bp gene cluster localized on chromosome 2. The 3210 bp AYNI1 ORF codes for a protein of 1070 amino acids, which exhibits a high degree of identity to nitrite reductases from the yeasts Pichia anomala (58%), Hansenula polymorpha (58%) and Dekkera bruxellensis (54%). The second ORF (AYNR1, 2535 bp) encodes a nitrate reductase of 845 residues that shows significant (51%) identity to nitrate reductases of P. anomala and H. polymorpha. The third ORF in the cluster (AYNT1, 1518 bp) specifies a nitrate transporter with 506 amino acids, which is 46% identical to that of H. polymorpha. The three genes are independently expressed upon induction with NaNO(3). We quantitatively analysed the promoter activities by qRT-PCR and after fusing individual promoter fragments to the phytase (phyK) gene from Klebsiella sp. ASR1. The AYNI1 promoter was found to exhibit the highest activity, followed by the AYNT1 and AYNR1 elements. Direct measurements of nitrate and nitrite reductase activities performed after induction with NaNO(3) are compatible with these results. Both enzymes show optimal activity at around 42 degrees C and near-neutral pH, and require FAD as a co-factor and NADPH as electron donor. PMID:19191338

  3. Nitrogen oxyanion-dependent dissociation of a two-component complex that regulates bacterial nitrate assimilation.

    PubMed

    Luque-Almagro, Victor M; Lyall, Verity J; Ferguson, Stuart J; Roldán, M Dolores; Richardson, David J; Gates, Andrew J

    2013-10-11

    Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for growth and is readily available to microbes in many environments in the form of ammonium and nitrate. Both ions are of environmental significance due to sustained use of inorganic fertilizers on agricultural soils. Diverse species of bacteria that have an assimilatory nitrate/nitrite reductase system (NAS) can use nitrate or nitrite as the sole nitrogen source for growth when ammonium is limited. In Paracoccus denitrificans, the pathway-specific two-component regulator for NAS expression is encoded by the nasT and nasS genes. Here, we show that the putative RNA-binding protein NasT is a positive regulator essential for expression of the nas gene cluster (i.e. nasABGHC). By contrast, a nitrogen oxyanion-binding sensor (NasS) is required for nitrate/nitrite-responsive control of nas gene expression. The NasS and NasT proteins co-purify as a stable heterotetrameric regulatory complex, NasS-NasT. This protein-protein interaction is sensitive to nitrate and nitrite, which cause dissociation of the NasS-NasT complex into monomeric NasS and an oligomeric form of NasT. NasT has been shown to bind the leader RNA for nasA. Thus, upon liberation from the complex, the positive regulator NasT is free to up-regulate nas gene expression. PMID:24005668

  4. Identification and characterization of the Staphylococcus carnosus nitrate reductase operon.

    PubMed

    Pantel, I; Lindgren, P E; Neubauer, H; Götz, F

    1998-07-01

    Physiological and genetic characterization of Staphylococcus carnosus nitrate reductase-negative mutants led to the identification of the nitrate reductase operon, narGHJI. Transcription from the nar promoter was stimulated by anaerobiosis, nitrate, and nitrite. This is in accordance with the nitrate reductase activities determined with benzyl viologen as electron donor. However, in the presence of oxygen and nitrate, high transcriptional initiation but low nitrate reductase activity was observed. Since the alphabeta complex of the nitrate reductase formed during anaerobic growth was insensitive to oxygen, other oxygen-sensitive steps (e.g., post-transcriptional mechanisms, molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis) must be involved. The nitrate-reducing system in S. carnosus displays similarities to the dissimilatory nitrate reductases of Escherichia coli. However, in the S. carnosus nar promoter, no obvious Fnr and integration host factor recognition sites are present; only one site that is related to the E. coli NarL consensus sequence was found. Studies to determine whether the E. coli proteins NarL and Fnr are functional at the S. carnosus narGHJI promoter indicated that the promoter is not functional in E. coli. PMID:9738886

  5. Hypochlorous Acid-Induced DNA Base Modification: Potentiation by Nitrite: Biomarkers of DNA Damage by Reactive Oxygen Species

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Whiteman; Jeremy P. E. Spencer; Andrew Jenner; Barry Halliwell

    1999-01-01

    Chronic inflammation results in increased nitric oxide formation and nitrite (NO?2) accumulation. Activated phagocytes release myeloperoxidase generating the cytotoxic agent hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Reaction of HOCl with NO?2results in the formation of nitryl chloride (NO2Cl), a potent oxidising, nitrating and chlorinating species. Exposure of DNA to NO?2alone (up to 250 ?M) at pH 7.4 did not induce oxidative DNA base

  6. Nitrate Absorption by Barley

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. Prasad; Rains, D. William

    1976-01-01

    The influence of protein synthesis and nitrate reductase activity on nitrate absorption by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated. Cycloheximide decreased nitrate absorption. Pretreatment studies showed that cycloheximide affects either energy transfer or nitrate reductase activity or both. Illumination increased plant capacity for nitrate absorption, possibly through increased energy supply and/or increased nitrate reductase activity. There was a positive correlation between nitrate reductase activity and light. Inhibiting the development of nitrate reductase activity by tungstate decreased nitrate absorption. At least two nitrate transport systems are thus proposed in barley: one operating in the dark, with little nitrate reductase activity detectable; and one closely correlated with nitrate reductase activity. Total absorption is the sum of dark absorption and absorption facilitated by nitrate reductase. PMID:16659426

  7. Mechanisms of nitrite addition for simultaneous sludge fermentation/nitrite removal (SFNR).

    PubMed

    Wu, Chengcheng; Peng, Yongzhen; Wang, Shuying; Li, Baikun; Zhang, Liang; Cao, Shenbin; Du, Rui

    2014-11-01

    Simultaneous sludge fermentation and nitrite removal (SFNR) was investigated as a novel sludge/wastewater treatment process with high nitrogen concentrations. The results showed that introducing nitrite improved the primary sludge (PS) fermentation system by improving the chemical oxygen demand (COD) yields and the volatile suspend solid (VSS) reduction. At a nitrite dosage of 0.2 g g SS(-1), the COD production was 1.02 g g VSS(-1) and the VSS reduction was 63.4% within 7-day fermentation, while the COD production was only 0.17 g g VSS(-1) and the VSS reduction was only 4.9% in the blank test. Nitrite contained in wastewater was removed through denitrification process in the SFNR system. The solubility of carbohydrate and protein was substantially enhanced, and their contents reached the peak once nitrite was consumed. In addition, the nutrient release and methane generation were inhibited in the SFNR system, which alleviated the environmental pollution. Unlike traditional fermentation systems, neither alkaline condition nor high free nitrite acid (FNA) concentration affected the PS fermentation in the SFNR system. Molecular weight distribution (MWD) and Live/Dead cell analysis indicated that the sludge disruption by nitrite and the consumption of soluble organic substances in sludge might play important roles in SFNR. PMID:25025177

  8. Protection from nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcers by dietary nitrate.

    PubMed

    Jansson, Emmelie A; Petersson, Joel; Reinders, Claudia; Sobko, Tanja; Björne, Hĺkan; Phillipson, Mia; Weitzberg, Eddie; Holm, Lena; Lundberg, Jon O

    2007-02-15

    Nitrate is abundant in our diet with particularly high levels in many vegetables. Ingested nitrate is concentrated in saliva and reduced to nitrite by bacteria in the oral cavity. We recently reported that application of nitrite-containing saliva to the gastric mucosa increases superficial blood flow and mucus generation via acid-catalyzed formation of bioactive nitrogen oxides including nitric oxide. Here we studied if dietary supplementation with nitrate would protect against gastric damage caused by a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Rats received sodium nitrate in the drinking water for 1 week in daily doses of 0.1 or 1 mmol kg(-1). Control rats received 1 mmol kg(-1) sodium chloride. Diclofenac (30 mg kg(-1)) was then given orally and the animals were examined 4 h later. In separate experiments we studied the effects of dietary nitrate on intragastric NO levels and mucus formation. Luminal levels of NO gas were greatly increased in nitrate-fed animals. The thickness of the mucus layer increased after nitrate supplementation and gene expression of MUC6 was upregulated in the gastric mucosa. Nitrate pretreatment dose dependently and potently reduced diclofenac-induced gastric lesions. Inflammatory activity was reduced in the rats receiving nitrate as indicated by lower mucosal myeloperoxidase activity and expression of inducible NO synthase. We conclude that dietary nitrate protects against diclofenac-induced gastric ulcers likely via enhanced nitrite-dependent intragastric NO formation and concomitant stimulation of mucus formation. Future studies will reveal if a diet rich in nitrate can offer an additional nutritional approach to preventing and treating peptic ulcer disease. PMID:17275683

  9. Structure of octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens in a complex with phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Trofimov, A. A.; Polyakov, K. M., E-mail: kostya@eimb.relarn.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Engelhardt Institute of Molecular Biology (Russian Federation); Boiko, K. M.; Filimonenkov, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Dorovatovskii, P. V. [Kurchatov Center for Synchrotron Radiation and Nanotechnology (Russian Federation); Tikhonova, T. V.; Popov, V. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Bach Institute of Biochemistry (Russian Federation); Koval'chuk, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2010-01-15

    Octaheme cytochrome c nitrite reductase from Thioalkalivibrio nitratireducens (TvNiR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrite and hydroxylamine to ammonia. The structures of the free enzyme and of the enzyme in complexes with the substrate (nitrite ion) and the inhibitor (azide ion) have been solved previously. In this study we report the structures of the oxidized complex of TvNiR with phosphate and of this complex reduced by europium(II) chloride (1.8- and 2.0-A resolution, the R factors are 15.9 and 16.7%, respectively) and the structure of the enzyme in the complex with cyanide (1.76-A resolution, the R factor is 16.5%), which was prepared by soaking a crystal of the oxidized phosphate complex of TvNiR. In the active site of the enzyme, the phosphate ion binds to the iron ion of the catalytic heme and to the side chains of the catalytic residues Arg131, Tyr303, and His361. The cyanide ion is coordinated to the heme-iron ion and is hydrogen bonded to the residue His361. In the structure of reduced TvNiR, the phosphate ion is bound in the same manner as in the structure of oxidized TvNiR, and the nine{sub c}oordinated europium ion is located on the surface of one of the crystallographically independent monomers of the enzyme.

  10. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  11. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: SYNTHETIC AMMONIA PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of air emissions from the production of synthetic ammonia. In 1976, 90 synthetic ammonia plants in 30 states produced 15.2 million metric tons of anhydrous ammonia. Ammonia is synthesized by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen. Most plants produce h...

  12. High Nitrate Content in Drinking Water: Cytogenetic Effects in Exposed Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aspasia Tsezou; S. Kitsiou-Tzeli; A. Calla; D. Gourgiotis; J. Papageorgiou; S. Mitrou; P. A. Molybdas; C. Sinaniotis

    1996-01-01

    The potential genotoxicity of nitrates and nitrites—contaminants of drinking water that have been implicated in carcinogenesis—was investigated in this study. Sister chromatid exchanges and frequency of chromatid\\/hromosome aberrations were studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes of 70 children who were 12–15 y of age. These children were permanent residents in geographical areas of Greece, where elevated concentrations of nitrates (i.e., 55.70–87.98

  13. Cloning, sequencing, and characterization of a gene (narT) encoding a transport protein involved in dissimilatory nitrate reduction in Staphylococcus carnosus.

    PubMed

    Fast, B; Lindgren, P; Götz, F

    1996-12-01

    A Tn917 mutant of Staphylococcus carnosus TM300, nrIII, was isolated and characterized. Mutant nrIII did not take up nitrate or accumulate nitrite when grown in B-medium supplemented with up to 10 mM nitrate under anoxic conditions; however, it displayed wild-type levels of benzyl Delta viologen-linked nitrate reductase activity. Cultivated in B-medium with nitrate under oxic conditions, mutant nrIII accumulated fivefold less nitrite than the wild-type. The mutation in S. carnosus nrIII could be complemented with a 2-kb chromosomal EcoRI-HpaI fragment from the wild-type. The gene affected by transposon insertion in mutant nrIII was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence revealed that this gene, designated narT, encodes a highly hydrophobic 42-kDa transmembrane protein of 388 amino acids and shows similarities to transport proteins that play a role in nitrate import or nitrite export. The inability of nrIII to take up nitrate under anoxic conditions and its ability to take up and accumulate nitrite in the presence of benzyl viologen, a nitrate ionophore, under the same conditions suggest that NarT represents a transport protein required for nitrate uptake under anoxic conditions in S. carnosus. PMID:9082911

  14. Mechanism of nitrite inhibition of cellular respiration in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsanyen Yang

    1985-01-01

    One of the principal mechanisms of nitrite inhibition of cellular respiration has been considered to be the interference with the action of iron-containing enzymes. In procaryotic systems, the effect of nitrite on cellular metabolism remains unclear. This study provides evidence which shows a direct inhibition by a low concentration of nitrite on a highly purified oxidase inPseudomonas aeruginosa. The inhibition

  15. Studies on the regulation of assimilatory nitrate reductase in Ankistrodesmus braunii.

    PubMed

    Diez, J; Chaparro, A; Vega, J M; Relimpio, A

    1977-01-01

    In the green alga Ankistrodesmus braunii, all the activities associated with the nitrate reductase complex (i.e., NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase, NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase and FMNH2-or MVH-nitrate reductase) are nutritionally repressed by ammonia or methylamine. Besides, ammonia or methylamine promote in vivo the reversible inactivation of nitrate reductase, but not of NAD(P)H-cytochrome c reductase. Subsequent removal of the inactivating agent from the medium causes reactivation of the inactive enzyme. Menadione has a striking stimulation on the in vivo reactivation of the inactive enzyme. The nitrate reductase activities, but not the diaphorase activity, can be inactivated in vitro by preincubating a partially purified enzyme preparation with NADH or NADPH. ADP, in the presence of Mg(2+), presents a cooperative effect with NADH in the in vitro inactivation of nitrate reductase. This effect appears to be maximum at a concentration of ADP equimolecular with that of NADH. PMID:24420658

  16. Role of oral nitrate in the nitrosation of ( UC)proline by conventional microflora and germ-free rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mallett, A.K.; Rowland, I.R.; Walters, D.G.; Gangolli, S.D.; Cottrell, R.C.; Massey, R.C.

    1985-11-01

    The urinary excretion of N-nitroso-L-(U- UC)proline by conventional microflora and germ free rats was used to assess the role of the gut bacteria and oral nitrate in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds. The formation of nitrosoproline was qualitatively similar in conventional and germfree rats suggesting no involvement of the intestinal flora in this reaction. Furthermore, nitrosamino acid production was similar following the administration of nitrate and (U- UC)proline or (U- UC)proline alone, demonstrating no involvement of exogenous nitrate under the conditions of the experiment. Dietary contamination with nitrate/nitrite was negligible. The results are consistent with the suggestion that nitrate/nitrite reserves in the body are important in the formation of nitrosoproline in vivo.

  17. Effect of nitrate on anaerobic azo dye reduction.

    PubMed

    Cirik, Kevser; Kiti?, Mehmet; Çinar, Özer

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of nitrate on anaerobic color removal efficiencies. For this aim, anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with a simulated textile effluent including Remazol Brilliant Violet 5R azo dye was operated with a total cycle time of 12 h, including anaerobic (6 h) and aerobic cycles (6 h). Microorganism grown under anaerobic phase of the reactor was exposed to different amounts of competitive electron acceptor (nitrate) and performance of the system was determined by monitoring color removal efficiency, nitrate removal, nitrite formation and removal, oxidation reduction potential, color removal rate, chemical oxygen demand (COD), specific anaerobic enzyme (azo reductase) and aerobic enzyme (catechol 1,2 dioxygenase), and formation and removal of aromatic amines. Variations of population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were identified by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). It was found that nitrate has adverse effect on anaerobic color removal efficiency and color removal was achieved after denitrification process was completed. It was found that nitrate stimulates the COD removal efficiency and accelerates the COD removal in the first hour of anaerobic phase. About 90 % total COD removal efficiencies were achieved in which microorganism exposed to increasing amount of nitrate. Population dynamics of microorganisms exposed to various amount of nitrate were changed and diversity was increased. PMID:22836282

  18. Nitrite Dismutase Reaction Mechanism: Kinetic and Spectroscopic Investigation of the Interaction between Nitrophorin and Nitrite.

    PubMed

    He, Chunmao; Howes, Barry D; Smulevich, Giulietta; Rumpel, Sigrun; Reijerse, Edward J; Lubitz, Wolfgang; Cox, Nicholas; Knipp, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Nitrite is an important metabolite in the physiological pathways of NO and other nitrogen oxides in both enzymatic and nonenzymatic reactions. The ferric heme b protein nitrophorin 4 (NP4) is capable of catalyzing nitrite disproportionation at neutral pH, producing NO. Here we attempt to resolve its disproportionation mechanism. Isothermal titration calorimetry of a gallium(III) derivative of NP4 demonstrates that the heme iron coordinates the first substrate nitrite. Contrary to previous low-temperature EPR measurements, which assigned the NP4-nitrite complex electronic configuration solely to a low-spin (S = 1/2) species, electronic absorption and resonance Raman spectroscopy presented here demonstrate that the NP4-NO2(-) cofactor exists in a high-spin/low-spin equilibrium of 7:3 which is in fast exchange in solution. Spin-state interchange is taken as evidence for dynamic NO2(-) coordination, with the high-spin configuration (S = 5/2) representing the reactive species. Subsequent kinetic measurements reveal that the dismutation reaction proceeds in two discrete steps and identify an {FeNO}(7) intermediate species. The first reaction step, generating the {FeNO}(7) intermediate, represents an oxygen atom transfer from the iron bound nitrite to a second nitrite molecule in the protein pocket. In the second step this intermediate reduces a third nitrite substrate yielding two NO molecules. A nearby aspartic acid residue side-chain transiently stores protons required for the reaction, which is crucial for NPs' function as nitrite dismutase. PMID:25751738

  19. Ammonia Release on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Crew: Approximately 53% metabolic load Product of protein metabolism Limit production of ammonia by external regulation NOT possbile Payloads Potential source Scientific experiments Thorough safety review ensures sufficient levels of containment

  20. Reexamining the Risks of Drinking-Water Nitrates on Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Alyce M.; Diaz, James H.; Kaye, Alan David

    2014-01-01

    Background Nitrates in drinking water are generally considered the sole source of nitrite poisoning with methemoglobinemia in infantile methomoglobinemia (IM). However, IM, which occurs during the first 4 months of life, is actually a constellation of cyanosis and hypoxia associated with methemoglobinemia that can result from several other causes. Methods This review reexamines the role of nitrate levels in drinking water as a cause of IM and identifies other sources of nitrates that can affect public health and cause chronic diseases. Results Causes of IM include nitrites in foods, environmental chemical exposures, commonly prescribed pharmaceuticals, and the endogenous generation of oxides of nitrogen. Infants with congenital enzyme deficiencies in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and methemoglobin reductase are at greater risk of nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia from nitrates in water and food and from exposures to hemoglobin oxidizers. Conclusion Early epidemiological studies demonstrated significant associations between high groundwater nitrate levels and elevated methemoglobin levels in infants fed drinking water–diluted formulas. However, more recent epidemiological investigations suggest other sources of nitrogenous substance exposures in infants, including protein-based formulas and foods and the production of nitrate precursors (nitric acid) by bacterial action in the infant gut in response to inflammation and infection. PMID:25249806

  1. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  2. Nitrogen and Oxygen Isotopic Detection of Nitrate in Seawater by Chemical Conversion of Nitrate to Nitrous Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIlvin, M.; Altabet, M.

    2003-12-01

    A fast, easy, and reliable method for nitrogen and oxygen isotopic detection of nitrate would be beneficial to many in the biogeochemical society. Here we present a novel method capable of natural isotopic detection in the nM range. In addition to a fast analysis time (batch preparation in less than one hour for nitrogen isotopes), this method is capable of very low blanks (less than 1 nanomole) with sample precision of 0.2 permil for nitrogen and 0.5 permil for oxygen. The first step of the method is reduction of nitrate to nitrite by use of either spongy cadmium or UV light. UV light reduction has the advantage of a short reaction time (13 minutes), but is not capable of oxygen isotope analysis due to exchange with water. Reduction using spongy cadmium retains the oxygen isotopic signature, but requires up to 3 hours to react. Both reactions are non-fractionating with respect to nitrogen. The next step is the reduction of nitrite to nitrous oxide using either hydroxylamine or azide. The hydroxylamine has the advantage of being nontoxic, but the reaction time is 2 hours and oxygen is exchanged with water. The azide-nitrite reaction is complete in only 3 minutes and retains both nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of nitrate. The produced nitrous oxide is then purged and trapped in liquid nitrogen, then released into a capillary GC column connected to an isotope ratio mass spectrometer.

  3. Metabolism and pathways for denitration of organic nitrates in the human liver.

    PubMed

    Govoni, Mirco; Tocchetti, Paola; Lundberg, Jon O

    2013-07-01

    Liver first-pass metabolism differs considerably among organic nitrates, but little information exists on the mechanism of denitration of these compounds in hepatic tissue. The metabolism of nitrooxybutyl-esters of flurbiprofen and ferulic-acid, a class of organic nitrates with potential therapeutic implication in variety of different conditions, was investigated in comparison with glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) in human liver by a multiple approach, using a spontaneous metabolism-independent nitric oxide (NO) donor [3-(aminopropyl)-1-hydroxy-3-isopropyl-2-oxo-1-triazene (NOC-5)] as a reference tool. Nitrooxybutyl-esters were rapidly and quantitatively metabolized to their respective parent compounds and the organic nitrate moiety nitrooxybutyl-alcohol (NOBA). Differently from GTN, which was rapidly and completely metabolized to nitrite, NOBA was slowly metabolized to nitrate. In contrast to the spontaneous NO donor NOC-5, NOBA and GTN did not generate detectable NO and failed to suppress the activity of cytochrome P450, an enzyme known to be inhibited by NO. The direct identification of NOBA after liver metabolism targets this compound as the functional organic nitrate metabolite of nitrooxybutyl-esters. Moreover, the investigation of the pathways for denitration of NOBA and GTN suggests that organic nitrates are not primarily metabolized to NO in the liver but to different extents of nitrite or nitrate depending in their different chemical structure. Therefore, cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism of concomitant drugs is not likely to be affected by oral coadministration of organic nitrates. However, the first pass may differently affect the pharmacological profile of organic nitrates in connection with the different extent of denitration and the distinct bioactive species generated and exported from the liver (nitrate or nitrite). PMID:23596058

  4. ACUTE TOXICITY OF NITRITE TO RAINBOW TROUT (SALMO GAIRDNERI): EFFECTS OF PH, NITRITE SPECIES, AND ANION SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of nitrite to rainbow trout is pH-dependent within the range considered acceptable to most freshwater aquatic life (pH 6.5-9.0). Both of the nitrite species, NO2(-) and HNO2, are toxic. It is recommended that nitrite criteria to protect freshwater aquatic life be bas...

  5. Inoculum effects on community composition and nitritation performance of autotrophic nitrifying biofilm reactors with counter-diffusion geometry.

    PubMed

    Terada, Akihiko; Lackner, Susanne; Kristensen, Ken; Smets, Barth F

    2010-10-01

    The link between nitritation success in a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) and the composition of the initial ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial (AOB and NOB) population was investigated. Four identically operated flat-sheet type MABRs were initiated with two different inocula: from an autotrophic nitrifying bioreactor (Inoculum A) or from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (Inoculum B). Higher nitritation efficiencies (NO(2)(-)-N/NH(4)(+)-N) were obtained in the Inoculum B- (55.2-56.4%) versus the Inoculum A- (20.2-22.1%) initiated reactors. The biofilms had similar oxygen penetration depths (100-150 µm), but the AOB profiles [based on 16S rRNA gene targeted real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR)] revealed different peak densities at or distant from the membrane surface in the Inoculum B- versus A-initiated reactors, respectively. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) revealed that the predominant AOB in the Inoculum A- and B-initiated reactors were Nitrosospira spp. (48.9-61.2%) versus halophilic and halotolerant Nitrosomonas spp. (54.8-63.7%), respectively. The latter biofilm displayed a higher specific AOB activity than the former biofilm (1.65 fmol cell(-1) h(-1) versus 0.79 fmol cell(-1) h(-1) ). These observations suggest that the AOB and NOB population compositions of the inoculum may determine dominant AOB in the MABR biofilm, which in turn affects the degree of attainable nitritation in an MABR. PMID:20545751

  6. Structural and Biochemical Characterization of a Quinol Binding Site of Escherichia coli Nitrate Reductase A*

    E-print Network

    Strynadka, Natalie

    with characteristic redox prosthetic groups: NarG (140 kDa), the catalytic subunit with a molybdo. NarG and NarH form a soluble cytoplasmically localized catalytic domain an- chored to the membrane) to the molybdo-bis(molybdopterin guanine dinucleotide cofactor in NarG, where nitrate is reduced to nitrite. Nar

  7. Prolonged decreases in plasma nitrate levels at early postoperative phase after hepato-pancreato-biliary surgery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Satoi; Y. Kamiyama; H. Kitade; A. H. Kwon; H. Yoshida; N. Nakamura; S. Takai; S. Uetsuji; K. Okuda; K. Hara; H. Takahashi

    1998-01-01

    Nitric oxide (·NO) is known to influence circulatory, neural, immunologic, and metabolic alterations. To evaluate the clinical significance of ·NO production under surgical stress, serial measurements of plasma nitrite plus nitrate levels were performed in 45 surgical patients. Group A included 19 patients who underwent major surgery with uneventful postoperative courses. Group B included 18 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

  8. Nitrite toxicity to fathead minnows: effect of fish weight

    SciTech Connect

    Palachek, R.M.; Tomasso, J.R.

    1984-02-01

    Nitrite is an intermediate product of nitrification that sometimes reaches toxic levels in aquatic ecosystems and aquaculture environments. Toxic levels of nitrite to several species of fishes have been reported. Some investigators have suggested that smaller fish and sac fry are more tolerant to nitrite than larger fish of the same species. Recent observations of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) in our laboratory suggested that smaller fathead minnows were more tolerant to nitrite than larger fish. The purpose of this study was to determine if nitrite toxicity is related to fish weight in the fathead minnow.

  9. On-line determination of nitrite in wastewater treatment by use of a biosensor.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, M; Revsbech, N P; Larsen, L H; Lynggaard-Jensen, A

    2002-01-01

    A newly developed biosensor for nitrite having a 90% response time of about 1 min was used to monitor nitrite concentration in activated sludge exposed to oxic/anoxic cycles. The NO2- biosensor contains bacteria that reduce NO2-, but not NO3-, to N2O that is subsequently monitored by a built-in electrochemical sensor. Nitrite plus nitrate (NOx-) was simultaneously monitored by a NOx- biosensor. The maximum operational lifetime of the NO2- biosensor was 6 weeks, but much longer lifetimes can be expected as malfunctioning by the 3 sensors used for longer periods was due to either mechanical damage or ineffective internal sterilization during the construction. Insufficiently sterilized sensors became sensitive also to NO3- after some time due to development of NO3(-)-reducing bacterial populations within the sensor. The fraction of NO2- as compared to NO3- in the activated sludge was very dependent on prehistory, actual loading, and aeration. During balanced operation with NH4+ being exhausted during the later parts of the aerobic cycle, NO2- increased in concentration up to about 50 microM during the early part of the aeration cycle until NH4+ became limiting. At that time the NO2- concentration decreased to low levels. Under some operating conditions a peak of NO2- also appeared in the beginning of the anoxic period. NO2- and NO3- were depleted simultaneously during the anoxic period. PMID:11936677

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of the Marine, Chemolithoautotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosococcus oceani ATCC 19707

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martin G. Klots; Daniel J. Arp; Patrick S. G. Chain; Amal F. El-Sheikh; Loren John Hauser; Norman G. Hommes; Frank W. Larimer; Stephanie A. Malfatti; Jeanette M. Norton; Amisha T. Poret-Peterson; Lisa M. Vergez; Bess B. Ward

    2006-01-01

    The gammaproteobacterium Nitrosococcus oceani (ATCC 19707) is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy and reducing power from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Sequencing and annotation of the genome revealed a single circular chromosome (3,481,691 bp; G+C content of 50.4%) and a plasmid (40,420 bp) that contain 3,052 and 41 candidate protein-encoding genes, respectively. The genes encoding proteins

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of the Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium and Obligate Chemolithoautotroph Nitrosomonas europaea

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Chain; Jane Lamerdin; Frank Larimer; Warren Regala; Victoria Lao; Miriam Land; Loren Hauser; Alan Hooper; Martin Klotz; Jeanette Norton; Luis Sayavedra-Soto; Dave Arciero; Norman Hommes; Mark Whittaker; Daniel Arp

    2003-01-01

    Nitrosomonas europaea (ATCC 19718) is a gram-negative obligate chemolithoautotroph that can derive all its energy and reductant for growth from the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. Nitrosomonas europaea participates in the biogeochemical N cycle in the process of nitrification. Its genome consists of a single circular chromo- some of 2,812,094 bp. The GC skew analysis indicates that the genome is

  12. Gut reactions of radioactive nitrite after intratracheal administration in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, J.R.; Chasko, J.H.; Swartz, L.A.; Parks, N.J.

    1982-07-09

    Intratracheal administration to mice of radioactive nitrite labeled with (/sup 13/NO/sub 2/-) (half-life, 9.96 minutes) in dosages that do not cause pharmacological perturbation reveals that oxidative and reductive reactions occur in different organs. Oxidation of /sup 13/NO/sub 2/- to radioactive nitrate (/sup 13/NO/sub 3/-) predominates in the blood and liver. Reduction of /sup 13/NO/sub 2/- occurs in those mice that harbor intestinal microflora; this reduction does not occur in germ-free mice. The intestinal reduction products include ammonium, glutamate, glutamine, and urea. With a detection limit of about 0.01 percent of the instilled /sup 13/N, no labeled nitrosamines were detected within 30 minutes. Reduced /sup 13/N is transported out of the intensive into the circulatory system and appears in the urine along with /sup 13/NO/sub 3/-. The biological half-period for /sup 13/NO/sub 2/- destruction is about 7 minutes, and both oxidation and reduction products are formed.

  13. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan™ bags.