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1

Toxicity of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate to fishes. Book chapter  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia and nitrite are highly toxic to fishes, with ammonia occurring in surface waters more commonly than nitrite. Nitrate is a related compound but is not significantly toxic to fishes. The acute toxicity of ammonia to aquatic organisms is affected by water pH, dissolved oxygen, temperature, concentration fluctuations, degree of salinity, presence of other chemicals, and prior acclimation. The acute

R. C. Russo; R. V. Thurston

1991-01-01

2

Toxicity of Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate to Fishes.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ammonia and nitrite are highly toxic to fishes, with ammonia occurring in surface waters more commonly than nitrite. Nitrate is a related compound but is not significantly toxic to fishes. The acute toxicity of ammonia to aquatic organisms is affected by ...

R. C. Russo, R. V. Thurston

1991-01-01

3

Ammonia Formation by the Reduction of Nitrite/Nitrate by FeS: Ammonia Formation Under Acidic Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FeS reduces nitrite to, ammonia at pHs lower than the corresponding reduction by aqueous Fe+2. The reduction follows a reasonable first order decay, in nitrite concentration, with a half life of about 150 min (room temperature, CO2, pH 6.25). The highest ammonia product yield measured was 53%. Under CO2, the product yield decreases from pH 5.0 to pH 6.9. The increasing concentration of bicarbonate at higher pH interferes with the reaction. Bicarbonate interference is shown by comparing runs under N2 and CO2. The reaction proceeds well in the presence of such species as chloride, sulfate, and phosphate though the yield drops significantly with phosphate. FeS also reduces nitrate and, unlike with Fe+2, the reduction shows more reproducibility. Again, the product yield decreases with increasing pH, from 7% at pH 4.7 to 0% at pH 6.9. It appears as if nitrate is much more sensitive to the presence of added species, perhaps not competing as well for binding sites on the FeS surface. This may be the cause of the lack of reproducibility of nitrate reduction by Fe+2 (which also can be sensitive to binding by certain species).

Summers, David P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

4

Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction by Wolffia arrhiza.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase was not found to be present in or associated with partially purified, intact chloroplasts aqueously isolated from Wolffia arrhiza. Such chloroplasts are capable of using nitrite but not nitrate as an electron acceptor during light-stimulated electron transport in the absence of additional cytoplasmic components. When nitrite acts as an electron acceptor under these conditions, on the average 1.5 moles of oxygen are evolved per mole of nitrite reduced by the chloroplasts, indicating a probable reduction of nitrite to ammonia. Chloroplasts ruptured by osmotic shock fail to reduce nitrite in the absence of additional components. PMID:16657592

Swader, J A; Stocking, C R

1971-02-01

5

Nitrate and Nitrite Reduction by Wolffia arrhiza1  

PubMed Central

Nitrate reductase was not found to be present in or associated with partially purified, intact chloroplasts aqueously isolated from Wolffia arrhiza. Such chloroplasts are capable of using nitrite but not nitrate as an electron acceptor during light-stimulated electron transport in the absence of additional cytoplasmic components. When nitrite acts as an electron acceptor under these conditions, on the average 1.5 moles of oxygen are evolved per mole of nitrite reduced by the chloroplasts, indicating a probable reduction of nitrite to ammonia. Chloroplasts ruptured by osmotic shock fail to reduce nitrite in the absence of additional components. PMID:16657592

Swader, J. A.; Stocking, C. R.

1971-01-01

6

Nitrite and Nitrate in Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Studies in animal models established the feasibility of sodium nitrite contributing to gastric carcinogenesis primarily via\\u000a conversion to nitrosamines.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Most animal studies did not corroborate this assumption.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Exposure of humans to nitrates is primarily from vegetables.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Since a fraction of nitrate is reduced to nitrite by oral bacteria, the largest source of nitrite exposure is also

David M. Klurfeld

7

The abiotic fixation of nitrogen on mars and other terrestrial planets: conversion of nitrogen, through NO, into nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and nitrous oxide.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The abiotic fixation of nitrogen is critical to understanding habitability, planetary evolution and the potential origin of life on terrestrial planets such as Mars. A non-biological source of biochemically accessible nitrogen is necessary for the origin and early evolution of life. The Martian surface has become uninhabitable, in part due to loss of atmospheric gases, such as nitrogen, resulting in an incapacity to sustain liquid surface water. Chemical sequestration in the crust is one possible mechanism for such loss. The products of nitrogen fixation also impact the climate and geochemistry of the planet. Shock heating of a non-reducing atmosphere will produce NO. This process has been well studied. We have been experimentally studying the pathways possible from NO to more stable forms in the atmosphere and crust. Our work has observed that there are multiple pathways for the fixation. One pathway observed is consistent with the theoretically predicted route via photochemical formation of HNO. Inter-estingly, this pathway is coupled to the formation of formaldehyde from CO. With liquid water, this pathway leads to nitrate and nitrite. In the presence of just water vapor, HNO appears to mostly dimerize to form N2 O. A second pathway involves the formation of NO2 from CO2 and NO. This pathway becomes more dominant without water, but the reaction of NO2 with any form of water, even just adsorbed water, can lead to nitric acid. Finally, with FeS suspended in liquid water, the direct reduction of NO to ammonia is observed. This last pathway represents the most efficient way to reduced nitrogen, with product yields in excess of 50 % in a single step. In conjunction with the reduction of NO, there is also a catalytic disproportionation at the mineral surface, converting NO to NO2 and N2 O, providing an abiotic source of nitrous oxide. This chemistry has implications for a number epochs in Martian history. For example, chemistry in the presence of water is relevant to early Mars while chemistry in the absence of liquid water would be important on a later, drier, Mars. We can better understand the chemical processes that worked to remove nitrogen from the atmosphere and when they were operative.

Summers, David; Basa, Ranor; Khare, Bishun; Rodoni, David

8

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

...2014-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2014-01-01

9

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2013-01-01

10

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2010-01-01

11

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2012-01-01

12

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2011-01-01

13

Sugar-Driven Prebiotic Synthesis of Ammonia from Nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and ?-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible ?-hydroxycarbonyl group or an ?-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe+3 catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia’s reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species.

Weber, Arthur L.

2010-03-01

14

21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170.60 Section...Decisions § 170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are food additives when...

2013-04-01

15

21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.  

...2014-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170.60 Section...Decisions § 170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are food additives when...

2014-04-01

16

21 CFR 170.60 - Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. 170.60 Section...Decisions § 170.60 Nitrites and/or nitrates in curing premixes. (a) Nitrites and/or nitrates are food additives when...

2012-04-01

17

Influence of dietary nitrate on nitrite level of human saliva  

SciTech Connect

The amount of nitrite in saliva depends directly on the amount of nitrate and nitrite ingested. Ingested nitrate and nitrite are absorbed by the upper gastrointestinal tract, concentrated from the plasma and excreted into the saliva by salivary glands. The presence of nitrate-reducing bacteria in the mouth caused nitrite to be formed, resulting in higher nitrite concentration. In recent years it has been shown that the measurement of some drugs and agents in mixed saliva might be a reliable guide to blood or body levels of those agents. In this present study the level of nitrite in mixed and parotid saliva in Eskisehir (Western part of middle Anatolia) and the correction between sex, smoking and age was determined. The effects of drinking water and meat products on nitrite levels were determined.

Cingi, M.I.; Cingi, C.; Cingi, E. (Anadolu Univ., Eskisehir (Turkey))

1992-01-01

18

Selection of denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms in IFAS systems: comparison of nitrite with nitrate as an electron acceptor.  

PubMed

Nitrite and nitrate were compared as electron acceptors to select for denitrifying phosphorous accumulating organisms (DPAO) in two integrated fixed film activated sludge (IFAS 1 and IFAS 2) systems operated as sequencing batch reactors. The bench-scale experiment lasted one year and synthetic wastewater was used as feed. During anoxic conditions 20mgNO3(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-1 and 20mgNO2(-)-NL(-1) were dosed into IFAS-2. Long term phosphorous and ammonia removal via nitritation were achieved in both systems and both attached and suspended biomass contributed to phosphorous and ammonia removal. DPAO showed no specific adaptation to the electron acceptor as evidenced by short term switch of feeding with nitrate or nitrite. Anoxic phosphorus uptake rate was significantly higher with nitrite than with nitrate. Results showed that DPAO activity with nitrite could be integrated into attached and suspended biomass of IFAS systems in long term operation. PMID:24873702

Jabari, Pouria; Munz, Giulio; Oleszkiewicz, Jan A

2014-08-01

19

Reduction of nitrite and nitrate to ammonium on pyrite.  

PubMed

An important constraint on the formation of the building blocks of life in the Hadean is the availability of small, activated compounds such as ammonia (NH(3)) relative to its inert dinitrogen source. Iron-sulfur particles and/or mineral surfaces have been implicated to provide the catalytic active sites for the reduction of dinitrogen. Here we provide a combined kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational modeling study for an alternative source of ammonia from water soluble nitrogen oxide ions. The adsorption of aqueous nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and nitrate (NO(3)(-)) on pyrite (FeS(2)) and subsequent reduction chemistry to ammonia was investigated at 22°C, 70°C, and 120°C. Batch geochemical and in situ Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy experiments were used to determine the reduction kinetics to NH(3) and to elucidate the identity of the surface complexes, respectively, during the reaction chemistry of NO(2)(-) and NO(3)(-). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations aided the interpretation of the vibrational data for a representative set of surface species. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we detected the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO) intermediate on the pyrite surface. NH(3) production from NO(2)(-) occurred at 70 and 120°C and from NO(3)(-) occurred only at 120°C. PMID:22562476

Singireddy, Soujanya; Gordon, Alexander D; Smirnov, Alexander; Vance, Michael A; Schoonen, Martin A A; Szilagyi, Robert K; Strongin, Daniel R

2012-08-01

20

Reduction of Nitrite and Nitrate to Ammonium on Pyrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An important constraint on the formation of the building blocks of life in the Hadean is the availability of small, activated compounds such as ammonia (NH3) relative to its inert dinitrogen source. Iron-sulfur particles and/or mineral surfaces have been implicated to provide the catalytic active sites for the reduction of dinitrogen. Here we provide a combined kinetic, spectroscopic, and computational modeling study for an alternative source of ammonia from water soluble nitrogen oxide ions. The adsorption of aqueous nitrite (NO{2/-}) and nitrate (NO{3/-}) on pyrite (FeS2) and subsequent reduction chemistry to ammonia was investigated at 22°C, 70°C, and 120°C. Batch geochemical and in situ Attenuated Total Reflection - Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy experiments were used to determine the reduction kinetics to NH3 and to elucidate the identity of the surface complexes, respectively, during the reaction chemistry of NO{2/-} and NO{3/-}. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations aided the interpretation of the vibrational data for a representative set of surface species. Under the experimental conditions used in this study, we detected the adsorption of nitric oxide (NO) intermediate on the pyrite surface. NH3 production from NO{2/-} occurred at 70 and 120°C and from NO{3/-} occurred only at 120°C.

Singireddy, Soujanya; Gordon, Alexander D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Vance, Michael A.; Schoonen, Martin A. A.; Szilagyi, Robert K.; Strongin, Daniel R.

2012-08-01

21

Sugar-driven prebiotic synthesis of ammonia from nitrite.  

PubMed

Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and alpha-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible alpha-hydroxycarbonyl group or an alpha-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe(+3) catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia's reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species. PMID:20213158

Weber, Arthur L

2010-06-01

22

Nitrate, nitrite, and volatile nitrosamines in pickled fish prepared with addition of nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zusammenfassung Marinierter Hering, hergestellt mit Nitrat als Zusatzstoff, wurde auf Gehalt von Nitrat, Nitrit und flüchtige Nitrosamine untersucht. Der Gehalt von Nitrat war entweder ungefähr 10 mg\\/kg oder variierte von 35 bis 565 mg\\/kg. Der Gehalt von Nitrit war nicht meßbar oder niedrig (2 mg\\/kg). Mehrere Proben enthielten N-Nitrosodimethylamin bis 2.2 µg\\/ kg.

Erling Pedersen; Inge Meyland

1981-01-01

23

Improved method for determination of ammonia and nitrite oxidation activities in mixed bacterial cultures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and reliable method to measure the activity of ammonia and nitrite oxidisers in mixed bacterial cultures was developed. The developed method differentiates between the ammonia and nitrite oxidisers by consecutive injection of NO 2 - and NH 4 +. The main advantage of this method is that it avoids the use of metabolic inhibitors for ammonia or nitrite

M. S. Moussa; H. J. Lubberding; C. M. Hooijmans; M. C. M. van Loosdrecht; H. J. Gijzen

2003-01-01

24

Acute toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to sensitive freshwater insects, mollusks, and a crustacean.  

PubMed

Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important. PMID:21877224

Soucek, D J; Dickinson, A

2012-02-01

25

Nitrates, nitrites and gastric cancer in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate and nitrite were measured in the saliva of two populations who differed in their risk of developing gastric cancer. Surprisingly, the levels of both ions were significantly higher in the low-risk group.

David Forman; Samim Al-Dabbagh; Richard Doll

1985-01-01

26

Nitrite reduction in paracoccus halodenitrificans: Evidence for the role of a cd-type cytochrome in ammonia formation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cell-free extracts prepared from Paracoccus halodenitrificans catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia in the presence of dithionite and methyl viologen. Enzyme activity was located in the soluble fraction and was associated with a cytochrome whose spectral properties resembled those of a cd-type cytochrome. Unlike the sissimilatory cd-cytochrome nitrate reductase associated with the membrane fraction of P. halodenitrificans, this soluble cd-cytochrome did not reduce nitrite to nitrous oxide.

Hochstein, L. I.; Cronin, S. E.

1984-01-01

27

Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite destruction/separation technologies  

SciTech Connect

This report describes and evaluates four types of nitrate and nitrite destruction and separation technologies that could be used to treat the aqueous, alkaline, nitrate-bearing mixed waste that is generated by the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The technologies considered in this report include thermal, hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical technologies.

Hobbs, D.T.

1997-08-29

28

Microbiological aspects and technological need: Technological needs for nitrates and nitrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate and nitrite are used in meat and fish curing, and in the manufacture of certain cheeses. Nitrate itself has little antimicrobial effect and in most applications could be replaced by lower concentrations of nitrite. Further, improved hygiene diminishes the need for nitrite. The antimicrobial activity and technological needs for nitrate and nitrite are reviewed. It is concluded that the

Niels Skovgaard

1992-01-01

29

Nitrates and nitrites in the treatment of ischemic cardiac disease.  

PubMed

The organic nitrite, amyl of nitrite, was initially used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of angina pectoris, but was replaced over a decade later by the organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (NTG), due to the ease of administration and longer duration of action. The administration of organic nitrate esters, such as NTG, continues to be used in the treatment of angina pectoris and heart failure since the birth of modern pharmacology. Their clinical effectiveness is due to vasodilator activity in large veins and arteries through an as yet unidentified method of delivering nitric oxide (NO), or a NO-like compound. The major drawback is the development of tolerance with NTG, and the duration and route of administration with amyl of nitrite. Although the nitrites are no longer used in the treatment of hypertension or ischemic heart disease, the nitrite anion has recently been discovered to possess novel pharmacologic actions, such as modulating hypoxic vasodilation, and providing cytoprotection in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although the actions of these 2 similar chemical classes (nitrites and organic nitrates) have often been considered to be alike, we still do not understand their mechanism of action. Finally, the nitrite anion, either from sodium nitrite or an intermediate NTG form, may act as a storage form for NO and provide support for investigating the use of these agents in the treatment of ischemic cardiovascular states. We review what is presently known about the use of nitrates and nitrites including the historical, current, and potential uses of these agents, and their mechanisms of action. PMID:20539102

Nossaman, Vaughn E; Nossaman, Bobby D; Kadowitz, Philip J

2010-01-01

30

Aerobic nitrate respiration in a nitrite-oxidising bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The ability of heterotrophic bacteria in a nitrite-oxidising bioreactor to respire with nitrate as an electron acceptor was examined. Approximately 70% of 1000 heterotrophic isolates were able to express a nitrate reductase. A detailed survey of 15 isolates showed that five expressed the azide-insensitive nitrate reductase encoded by the napA gene. A two-round PCR amplification of the napA gene using

Christopher McDevitt; Paul Burrell; Linda L. Blackall; Alastair G. McEwan

2000-01-01

31

Acute toxicity of ammonia and nitrite to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 96-h median-lethal concentration (96-h LC50) of total ammonia nitrogen (ammonia-N) to fingerling shortnose sturgeon Acipenser brevirostrum was 149.8 ?? 55.20 mg/L (mean ?? SD, 17.9 ?? 0.62??C, pH = 6.8-7.3). Calculated 96-h LC50 for un-ionized ammonia-N was 0.58 ?? 0.213 mg/L. The 96-h LC50 of nitrite nitrogen to shortnose sturgeon fingerlings was 11.3 ?? 8.17 mg/L (17.9 ?? 0.31??C, <1.0 mg chloride/L, <1.0 mg magnesium/L, 1.8 mg calcium/L, 7.7 mg sodium/L).

Fontenot, Q.C.; Isely, J.J.; Tomasso, J.R.

1998-01-01

32

Ultraviolet irradiation effects incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter  

USGS Publications Warehouse

One of the concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of ultraviolet radiation for treatment of drinking water and wastewater is the fate of nitrate, particularly its photolysis to nitrite. In this study, 15N NMR was used to establish for the first time that UV irradiation effects the incorporation of nitrate and nitrite nitrogen into aquatic natural organic matter (NOM). Irradiation of 15N-labeled nitrate in aqueous solution with an unfiltered medium pressure mercury lamp resulted in the incorporation of nitrogen into Suwannee River NOM (SRNOM) via nitrosation and other reactions over a range of pH from approximately 3.2 to 8.0, both in the presence and absence of bicarbonate, confirming photonitrosation of the NOM. The major forms of the incorporated label include nitrosophenol, oxime/nitro, pyridine, nitrile, and amide nitrogens. Natural organic matter also catalyzed the reduction of nitrate to ammonia on irradiation. The nitrosophenol and oxime/nitro nitrogens were found to be susceptible to photodegradation on further irradiation when nitrate was removed from the system. At pH 7.5, unfiltered irradiation resulted in the incorporation of 15N-labeled nitrite into SRNOM in the form of amide, nitrile, and pyridine nitrogen. In the presence of bicarbonate at pH 7.4, Pyrex filtered (cutoff below 290–300 nm) irradiation also effected incorporation of nitrite into SRNOM as amide nitrogen. We speculate that nitrosation of NOM from the UV irradiation of nitrate also leads to production of nitrogen gas and nitrous oxide, a process that may be termed photo-chemodenitrification. Irradiation of SRNOM alone resulted in transformation or loss of naturally abundant heterocyclic nitrogens.

Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

2012-01-01

33

Ammonia on the prebiotic Earth: Iron(II) reduction of nitrite. [Abstract only  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theories for the origin of life require the availability of reduced nitrogen. In the non-reducing atmosphere suggested by geochemical evidence, production in the atmosphere and survival of NH3 against photochemical destruction are problematic. Electric discharges and impact shocks would produce NO rather than HCN or NH3. Conversion of NO to nitrous and nitric acid (by way of HNO) and precipitation in acid rain would provide a source of fixed nitrogen to the early ocean. One solution to the NH3 problem may have been the reduction of nitrite/nitrate in the ocean with aqueous ferrous iron, Fe(2+): 6Fe(+2) + 7 H2O + NO2(-) yields 3Fe2O3 + 11 H(+) + NH3. We have measured the kinetics of this reaction as a function of temperature, pH, and concentrations of salts, Fe(+2), and NO2(-). Cations (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+)) and anions (Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-)) increase the rate by factors of 4 to 8. Although a competing pathway yields N2, the efficiency of the conversion of nitrite to ammonia ranges from 25% to 85%. Nitrate reduction was not consistently reproducible; however, when it was observed, its rate was slower by at least 8X than that of nitrite reduction. If the prebiotic atmosphere contained 0.2 to 10 atmospheres CO2 as suggested by Walker (1985), the Fe(+2) concentration and the rate would have been limited by siderite (FeCO3) solubility.

Summers, David P.; Chang, Sherwood

1994-01-01

34

Accumulations of Nitrite and Nitrate in the Tissues of Penaeus monodon Exposed to a Combined Environment of Elevated Nitrite and Nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penaeus monodon (11.86 ± 0.63 g) exposed individually to six different nitrite and nitrate regimes [nitrite at 0.002 (control), 0.360, and\\u000a 1.455 mM combined with nitrate at 0.005 (control) and 7.275 mM] in 25 ppt sea water were examined for the nitrite and nitrate\\u000a concentrations in tissues and nitrite uptake and nitrate uptake after 24 h in 25.3°C. In P.

S.-Y. Cheng; J.-C. Chen

2002-01-01

35

Uptake, elimination and effects of nitrite and nitrate in freshwater crayfish ( Astacus astacus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elevated concentrations of nitrite and\\/or nitrate are a potential problem in aquatic ecosystems. Freshwater crayfish, Astacus astacus, were exposed to 1 mM nitrite or 1 mM nitrate in order to study uptake and physiological effects of these ions. Additionally, recovery from nitrite intoxication was investigated. Crayfish exposed to 1 mM ambient nitrite accumulated nitrite in the haemolymph to a concentration

Frank B. Jensen

1996-01-01

36

Determination of Nitrate and Nitrite in Milk and Dry Milk Products1  

Microsoft Academic Search

A modified spectrophotometric method based on the selective diazotization- coupling reaction has been developed ca- pable of detecting 1 ppm nitrite in dry milk products. Nitrate can be deter- mined by the same reaction following quantitative reduction to nitrite with a cadmium column. Zinc hydroxide satis- factorily precipitated the milk fat and protein. Nitrate and nitrite levels have been determined

P. B. Manning; S. T. Coulter; R. Jenness

1968-01-01

37

Nitrate and Nitrite Pollution in the Jiantan River in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area  

Microsoft Academic Search

EC value, pH value, pE value, nitrate nitrogen and nitrite nitrogen of surface water and groundwater in the Jiantan River in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area were measured and analyzed to depict the spatial distribution of nitrate and nitrite pollution in the study basin. The results show the nitrate nitrogen level of the groundwater in the study basin is holistically

Liu Xiangchao; Zu Bo

2010-01-01

38

The Nitrate–Nitrite–Nitric Oxide Pathway in Mammals  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Accumulating evidence suggests that the molecules nitrite and nitrate can be metabolized in vivo to form NO and other bioactive\\u000a nitrogen oxides.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Commensal bacteria play a central role in the bioactivation of nitrate in an entero-salivary bioactivation pathway.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a A number of nitrite reductase enzymes reduce nitrite to bioactive NO along a physiological oxygen and pH gradient.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • 

Jon O. Lundberg; Eddie Weitzberg; Sruti Shiva; Mark T. Gladwin

39

Can dissolved aquatic humic substances reduce the toxicity of ammonia and nitrite in recirculating aquaculture systems?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recirculating rearing systems of aquatic food organisms, humic substances (HSs) accumulate along with toxic nitrogen species (nitrite, unionized ammonia). The aim of the present study was to find out whether or not HSs have the capability to modify the acute toxicity of nitrite and unionized ammonia; and whether different HS qualities cause similar effects in fish. 144-h-Embryo-Larval-Test (ELT) was

Thomas Meinelt; Hana Kroupova; Angelika Stüber; Bernhard Rennert; Andreas Wienke; Christian E. W. Steinberg

2010-01-01

40

Inheritance of nitrite reductase and regulation of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and glutamine synthetase isozymes.  

PubMed

Banding patterns of nitrate reductase (NR), nitrite reductase (NiR), and glutamine synthetase (GS) from leaves of diploid barley (Hordeum vulgare), tetraploid wheat (Triticum durum), hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum), and tetraploid wild oats (Avena barbata) were compared following starch gel electrophoresis. Two NR isozymes, which appeared to be under different regulatory control, were observed in each of the three species. The activity of the more slowly migrating nitrate reductase isozyme (NR1) was induced by NO3- in green seedlings and cycloheximide inhibited induction. However, the activity of the faster NR isozyme (NR2) was unaffected by addition of KNO3, and it was not affected by treatments of cycloheximide or chloramphenicol. Only a single isozyme of nitrite reductase was detected in surveys of three tetraploid and 18 hexaploid wheat, and 48 barley accessions; however, three isozymes associated with different ecotypes were detected in the wild oats. Inheritance patterns showed that two of the wild oat isozymes were governed by a single Mendelian locus with two codominant alleles; however, no variation was detected for the third isozyme. Treatment of excised barely and wild oat seedlings with cycloheximide and chloramphenicol showed that induction of NiR activity was greatly inhibited by cycloheximide, but only slightly by chloramphenicol. Only a single GS isozyme was detected in extracts of green leaves of wheat, barley, and wild oat seedlings. No electrophoretic variation was observed within or among any of these three species. Thus, this enzyme appears to be the most structurally conserved of the three enzymes. PMID:11541965

Heath-Pagliuso, S; Huffaker, R C; Allard, R W

1984-10-01

41

Effect of Blood Nitrite and Nitrate Levels on Murine Platelet Function  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play an important role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis by inhibiting platelet function. The discovery of NO generation by reduction of nitrite (NO2?) and nitrate (NO3?) in mammals has led to increased attention to these anions with respect to potential beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that nitrite anions at 0.1 µM inhibit aggregation and activation of human platelet preparations in vitro in the presence of red blood cells and this effect was enhanced by deoxygenation, an effect likely due to NO generation. In the present study, we hypothesized that nitrite and nitrate derived from the diet could also alter platelet function upon their conversion to NO in vivo. To manipulate the levels of nitrite and nitrate in mouse blood, we used antibiotics, NOS inhibitors, low nitrite/nitrate (NOx) diets, endothelial NOS knock-out mice and also supplementation with high levels of nitrite or nitrate in the drinking water. We found that all of these perturbations affected nitrite and nitrate levels but that the lowest whole blood values were obtained by dietary restriction. Platelet aggregation and ATP release were measured in whole blood and the results show an inverse correlation between nitrite/nitrate levels and platelet activity in aggregation and ATP release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nitrite-supplemented group has a prolonged bleeding time compared with control or low NOx diet group. These results show that diet restriction contributes greatly to blood nitrite and nitrate levels and that platelet reactivity can be significantly affected by these manipulations. Our study suggests that endogenous levels of nitrite and nitrate may be used as a biomarker for predicting platelet function and that dietary manipulation may affect thrombotic processes. PMID:23383344

Park, Ji Won; Piknova, Barbora; Huang, Paul L.; Noguchi, Constance T.; Schechter, Alan N.

2013-01-01

42

Feedback Regulation of Nitrate Influx in Barley Roots by Nitrate, Nitrite, and Ammonium.  

PubMed Central

The short-lived radiotracer 13N was used to study feedback regulation of nitrate influx through the inducible high-affinity transport system of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Steptoe) roots. Both wild-type plants and the mutant line Az12:Az70 (genotype nar1a;nar7w), which is deficient in the NADH-specific and NAD(P)H-bispecific nitrate reductases (R.L. Warner, R.C. Huffaker [1989] Plant Physiol 91: 947-953) showed strong feedback inhibition of nitrate influx within approximately 5 d of exposure to 100 fmu]M nitrate. The result with the mutant, in which the flux of nitrogen into reduced products is greatly reduced, indicated that nitrate itself was capable of exercising feedback regulation upon its own influx. This conclusion was supported by the observation that feedback in wild-type plants occurred in both the presence and absence of L-methionine sulfoximine, an inhibitor of ammonium assimilation. Nitrite and ammonium were also found to be capable of exerting feedback inhibition upon nitrate influx, although it was not determined whether these ions themselves or subsequent metabolites were responsible for the effect. It is suggested that feed-back regulation of nitrate influx is potentially mediated through several nitrogen pools, including that of nitrate itself. PMID:12231904

King, B. J.; Siddiqi, M. Y.; Ruth, T. J.; Warner, R. L.; Glass, ADM.

1993-01-01

43

[Development of methodical approaches to determination of nitrates and nitrites in multicomponent salting mixtures used in meat product industry].  

PubMed

A unified photometric method for determination of nitrates and nitrites in multicomponent salting mixtures containing sodium nitrate and nitrite, chlorides, phosphates, polyphosphates, ascorbic acid, or ascorbates, antioxidants, organic acids, vegetative and animal proteins, carbohydrates is proposed. With use of the developed method, content of nitrates and nitrites in a number of salting mixtures meat production was estimated. PMID:10509455

Zhukova, G F; Torskaia, M S; Liubchenko, V I; Rodin, V I; Khotimchenko, S A

1999-01-01

44

Automated, colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate ions in natural water samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The apparatus and methods used for the automatic, colorimetric determinations of dissolved nutrients (nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate) in natural waters are described. These techniques allow for the determination of nitrate plus nitrite for the concentration range 0.02 to 8 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as N (nitrogen); for nitrite, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as N; for ammonium, the range is 0.006 to 2.0 mg/L as N; and for orthophosphate, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as P (phosphorus). Data are presented that demonstrate the accuracy, precision and quality control of the methods.

Antweiler, Ronald C.; Patton, Charles J.; Taylor, Howard E.

1996-01-01

45

Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate () and nitrite () contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40?mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19?mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89?mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41?mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

2013-01-01

46

Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during...

47

Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during ...

48

Electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in simulated liquid nuclear wastes.  

PubMed

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in simulated low-level nuclear wastes containing 1.8 M NaNO(3)+0.55 M NaNO(2)+1.16 M NaOH was studied under galvanostatic polarization on tin and bismuth cathodes. The rate of the reduction of nitrate was about the same on both metals. The selectivity (%S) to ammonia was similar on the two metals (12% at 450 mA/cm(2)) and that to nitrogen 82% on Sn and 72% on Bi. On the other hand, the %S to nitrous oxide was lower on Sn (8%) than that on Bi (18%) under the same conditions. The current efficiency (%CE) on both metals was 80% when the 99% of the initial nitrogen was removed. The %CE gradually decreases as the concentration of the nitrogen containing species in the solution decreases during the electrolysis. The energy consumption for the removal of 1g of N was 100 Wh at 450 mA/cm(2) but it can be significantly reduced by a better design of the electrolysis cell.The presence of chromate in the electrolyte, which is a known inhibitor of the cathodic reduction of nitrate, has no influence on the rate of the reduction and the distribution of the products. PMID:19559523

Katsounaros, I; Dortsiou, M; Kyriacou, G

2009-11-15

49

Nitrogen isotope fractionation during archaeal ammonia oxidation: Coupled estimates from isotopic measurements of ammonium and nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous in marine and terrestrial environments and knowledge about the nitrogen (N) isotope effect associated with their ammonia oxidation activity will allow a better understanding of natural abundance isotope ratios, and therefore N transformation processes, in the environment. Here we examine the kinetic isotope effect for ammonia oxidation in a pure soil AOA culture (Ca. Nitrososphaera viennensis) and a marine AOA enrichment culture. We estimated the isotope effect from both isotopic signatures of ammonium and nitrite over the course of ammonia oxidation. Estimates of the isotope effect based on the change in the isotopic signature of ammonium give valuable insight, because these estimates are not subject to the same concerns (e.g., accumulation of an intermediate) as estimates based on isotopic measurements of nitrite. Our results show that both the pure soil AOA culture and a marine AOA enrichment culture have similar but substantial isotope effect during ammonia consumption (31-34 per mill; based on ammonium) and nitrite production (43-45 per mill; based on nitrite). The 15N fractionation factors of both cultures tested fell in the upper range of the reported isotope effects for archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation (10-41 per mill) or were even higher than those. The isotope fractionation for nitrite production was significantly larger than for ammonium consumption, indicating that (1) some intermediate (e.g., hydroxylamine) of ammonia oxidation accumulates, allowing for a second 15N fractionation step to be expressed, (2) a fraction of ammonia oxidized is lost via gaseous N forms (e.g., NO or N2O), which is 15N-enriched or (3) a fraction of ammonium is assimilated into AOA biomass, biomass becoming 15N-enriched. The significance of these mechanisms will be explored in more detail for the soil AOA culture, based on isotope modeling and isotopic measurements of biomass and N2O.

Mooshammer, Maria; Stieglmeier, Michaela; Bayer, Barbara; Jochum, Lara; Melcher, Michael; Wanek, Wolfgang

2014-05-01

50

Nitrite and nitrate levels in ileostomy effluent: effect of dietary change.  

PubMed

1. Nitrite and nitrate levels were measured in samples from ileostomy bags or stomal samples of thirty-one ileostomists (twenty-two ulcerative colitis, nine Crohn's disease), 14-16 h after ingestion of a conventional meal or a meal containing a high content of nitrite and nitrate. 2. Ileostomy samples were decolourized with barium chloride, sodium sulphate and charcoal. Nitrite was determined spectrophotometrically by the Griess reaction and nitrate determined as nitrite after reduction with nitrate reductase (EC 1.7.99.4) in the presence of sodium formate. The mean percentage recovery from twenty-six spiked samples was 101.9 (SE 3.5)% for nitrite and 82.9 (SE 3.3)% for nitrate. 3. Ileostomy bag samples were obtained in twenty-nine cases of which ten had measurable nitrite (median 0, range 0-20.7 nmol/g) on a conventional meal compared with twenty-three cases (median 7.2, range 0-31.1 nmol/g) on the test meal (P less than 0.01). Nitrate levels were measurable in sixteen (median 6.7, range 0-48.2 nmol/g) after a conventional meal compared with twenty-one (median 20.5, range 0-53.2 nmol/g) after the test meal (P less than 0.01). 4. Stomal fresh-catch samples were obtained in twenty-four cases: combined nitrate and nitrite was higher in eighteen, lower in four and unchanged in two subjects after the test meal (P less than 0.05). 5. The type of foodstuff ingested can significantly alter measurable levels of nitrite-nitrate in the distal ileum and is one factor determining nitrite-nitrate input into the proximal colon. PMID:2706231

Radcliffe, B C; Hall, C; Roediger, W E

1989-03-01

51

Competition between nitrate and nitrite reduction in denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

A pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used as a model system to study the kinetics of denitrification. An exponentially growing culture was harvested and resuspended in an anoxic acetate solution buffered with K/Na phosphate at pH values of 6.6, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.8. The temperature was kept at 28 C in all assays. Nitrate pulses of approximately 0.2 mg N/L caused nitrite to accumulate due to a faster rate of nitrate reduction over nitrite reduction. The rate of nitrate reduction was observed to depend on its concentration as predicted by the Michaelis-Menten equation. At nonlimiting nitrate concentrations, nitrite reduction was described by the same equation. Otherwise, nitrite reduction also depended on nitrate concentration. Consequently, nitrate and nitrite reductions compete with each other for the oxidation of common electron donors. A kinetic model for nitrate competitive inhibition of nitrite reduction is proposed. The model was used to interpret the nitrate and nitrite profiles observed at the four pH values: the optimum pH value was 7.0 in both cases; the affinity for nitrate was constant (K{sub m NO{sub 3}} = 0.04 mg N/L); the affinity for nitrite was also not affected by the medium pH in the range of values 6.6 to 7.4 (K{sub m NO{sub 2}} = 0.06 mg N/L), but it decreased sharply for the pH value of 7.8. Although the ratio between the two maximum reduction rates (V{sub max NO{sub 2}}/V{sub max NO{sub 3}}) is constant, nitrite accumulation depends on the medium pH value. Therefore, the regulation mechanism that shifts the electron flow between the two terminal reductases is readily reversible and does not change their relative maximum reduction rates.

Almeida, J.S.; Reis, M.A.M. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal). Chemistry Dept.; Carrondo, M.J.T. [Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal). Chemistry Dept.]|[ITQB/IBET, Oeiras (Portugal)

1995-06-05

52

Anisole Nitration During Gamma-Irradiation of Aqueous Nitrite and Nitrate Solutions: Free Radical Versus Ionic Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The nitration of aromatic compounds in the condensed phase is of interest to nuclear waste treatment applications. This chapter discusses our investigation of radiolytic aromatic nitration mechanisms in the condensed phase toward understanding the nitration products created during nuclear fuel reprocessing. The nitration reactions of anisole, a model aromatic compound, were studied in ?-irradiated acidic nitrate, neutral nitrate, and neutral nitrite solutions. The nitrated anisole product distributions were the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed with radiation. In the irradiated acidic condensed phase, radiation-enhanced nitrous acid-catalyzed nitrosonium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by oxidation reactions dominated over radical addition reactions. Neutral nitrate anisole solutions were dominated by mixed nitrosonium/nitronium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, but with lower product yields. Irradiation of neutral nitrite anisole solution resulted in a statistical substitution pattern for nitroanisole products, suggesting non-electrophilic free radical reactions involving the •NO2 radical.

Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk; Thomas D. Cullen

2010-04-01

53

Niche differentiation of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers in rice paddy soil.  

PubMed

The dynamics of populations and activities of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms were investigated in rice microcosms treated with two levels of nitrogen. Different soil compartments (surface, bulk, rhizospheric soil) and roots (young and old roots) were collected at three time points (the panicle initiation, heading and maturity periods) of the season. The population dynamics of bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) ammonia oxidizers was assayed by determining the abundance (using qPCR) and composition (using T-RFLP and cloning/sequencing) of their amoA genes (coding for a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase), that of nitrite oxidizers (NOB) by quantifying the nxrA gene (coding for a subunit of nitrite oxidase of Nitrobacter spp.) and the 16S rRNA gene of Nitrospira spp. The activity of the nitrifiers was determined by measuring the rates of potential ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation and by quantifying the copy numbers of amoA and nxrA transcripts. Potential nitrite oxidation activity was much higher than potential ammonia oxidation activity and was not directly affected by nitrogen amendment demonstrating the importance of ammonia oxidizers as pace makers for nitrite oxidizer populations. Marked differences in the distribution of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers, and of Nitrobacter-like and Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizers were found in the different compartments of planted paddy soil indicating niche differentiation. In bulk soil, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas) were at low abundance and displayed no activity, but in surface soil their activity and abundance was high. Nitrite oxidation in surface soil was dominated by Nitrospira spp. By contrast, ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and Nitrobacter spp. seemed to dominate nitrification in rhizospheric soil and on rice roots. In contrast to soil compartment, the level of N fertilization and the time point of sampling had only little effect on the abundance, composition and activity of the nitrifying communities. The results of our study show that in rice fields population dynamics and activity of nitrifiers is mainly differentiated by the soil compartments rather than by nitrogen amendment or season. PMID:23437806

Ke, Xiubin; Angel, Roey; Lu, Yahai; Conrad, Ralf

2013-08-01

54

Anisole nitration during gamma-irradiation of aqueous nitrite and nitrate solutions: Free radical versus ionic mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Radiolytic aromatic nitration mechanisms in the condensed phase are ubiquitous, and especially of interest in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, water treatment by advanced oxidation technologies, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. Here, the radiolytically-induced nitration reactions of anisole, the simplest aryl alkyl ether, were investigated in ?-irradiated acidic nitrate solution, and in neutral nitrate and nitrite solutions. The nitrated anisole product distribution was the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed as a result of irradiation. This suggests that the mechanism of nitration in acidic solution is nitronium ion- induced electrophilic aromatic substitution. The rate of production of nitrated products in neutral nitrate solution was much lower, although the distribution of isomers was similar to that expected for nitronium ion electrophilic nitration. In contrast, the product distribution in neutral nitrite solution approached a statistically random substitution pattern, suggesting a non-electrophilic free radical reaction involving •NO2 radical. When hydroxyl radical (•OH) was scavenged by varying the initial nitrite concentration, the concentration of nitrated products increased with increasing nitrite, indicating that the reaction was probably one of direct •NO2 radical addition. However, this latter mechanism will not be important in acidic solutions, such as those often encountered in atmospheric aerosols or ?-irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing solutions, due to low amounts of produced •NO2 radical and the low reaction rate constants for the •NO2 radical with aromatic compounds.

Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk; Thomas Cullen

2010-04-01

55

Solubilities of sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in simulated nuclear waste  

SciTech Connect

Solubilities were determined for sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate in synthetic nuclear waste liquor. Solubilities were determined as a function of temperature and solution composition (concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, and sodium aluminate). Temperature had the greatest effect on the solubilities of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite and a somewhat lesser effect on sodium aluminate solubility. Hydroxide had a great effect on the solubilities of all three salts. Other solution components had minor effects. 2 references, 8 figures, 11 tables.

Reynolds, D.A.; Herting, D.L.

1984-09-01

56

Sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite in pond-breeding amphibians from the Pacific Northwest, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

In static experiments, the authors studied the effects of nitrate and nitrate solutions on newly hatched larvae of five species of amphibians, namely Rana pretiosa, Rana aurora, Bufo boreas, Hyla regilla, and Ambystoma gracile. When nitrate or nitrite ions were added to the water, some larvae of some species reduced feeding activity, swam less vigorously, showed disequilibrium and paralysis, suffered

A. Marco; C. Quilchano; A. R. Blaustein

1999-01-01

57

Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level in relation  

E-print Network

1 Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level - , Nitrate; NO2, Nitrogen dioxide; O3, Ozone; PM10, Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter 10µm; Q, quartile Abstract This study evaluated the associations between biological markers in the nitrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

Oxidation efficiencies of nitrite to nitrate by freezing of field rain samples  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite is known to be oxidized to nitrate by freezing much more rapidly than in solution. Furthermore, the oxidation efficiency of nitrite to nitrate by freezing is varied by pH or kinds and concentration of coexistences. We report here the oxidation efficiencies of nitrite to nitrate by freezing of field rain samples. The field rain samples were collected at Mt. Ikoma, which is located at about 20 km east of Osaka city, and Osaka Prefecture University. Concentration of nitrite was usually sub to a few {mu}mol/L order in rain and {mu}mol/L order in fog and less than 1 {mu}mol/L in snow. The highest value of nitrite concentration was 43 {mu}mol/L in rain and 620 {mu}mol/L in fog. Nitrite was oxidized immediately to nitrate by freezing at pH lower than 5.2, even when the sample droplet (about 1 mm diameter) was frozen very quickly in liquid nitrogen (77K). The oxidation efficiency was higher at lower pH. However, the efficiency varied from sample to sample. This is probably due to that kinds and concentration of coexistences were difference between samples. The effect of solutes will be also reported. Freezing of rain droplets are observed in freezing of super cooled droplets, growing of graupel and hail, growing of cumulonimbus, and so on. Ratio of nitrate to nitrite was higher in snow than that in rain or fog.

Takenaka, Norimichi; Daimon, Tohru; Sato, Keiichi [Osaka Prefecture Univ. (Japan)

1996-12-31

59

Dietary intakes of nitrate, nitrite and NDMA in the Finnish mobile clinic health examination survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Concern about potential health hazards of nitrate, nitrite and N?nitroso compounds necessitates calculations of exposures to these compounds and their distribution in normal populations. This study describes dietary intake of nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2) and N?nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) among 5304 adult men and 4750 women, who participated in the Finnish Mobile Clinic Health Examination Survey in 1967–72. Food consumption

Jan Dich; Ritva Järvinen; Paul Knekt

1996-01-01

60

Determination of Nitrites, Nitrates, and Their Mixtures Using Flow Injection Analysis with Spectrophotometric Detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new flow injection analysis (FIA) method has been developed for determination of nitrites, nitrates, and their mixtures, based on the reaction of nitrites with rivanol (2-ethoxy-6,9-diaminoacridinium lactate) in HCl medium; the concentration of the diazonium salt formed is evaluated spectrophotometrically (? = 520 nm). Flow-through determination of nitrates can be carried out by using the same reaction following prior reduction in a

M. Brabcová; P. Rychlovský; I. N?mcová

2003-01-01

61

A Rapid, Simple Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Detection of Nitrate and Nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous methods are available for measurement of nitrate (NO?3). However, these assays can either be time consuming or require specialized equipment (e.g., nitrate reductase, chemiluminescent detector). We have developed a method for simultaneous evaluation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in a microtiter plate format. The principle of this assay is reduction of nitrate by vanadium(III) combined with detection by the

Katrina M. Miranda; Michael G. Espey; David A. Wink

2001-01-01

62

Dietary nitrite and nitrate: a review of potential mechanisms of cardiovascular benefits  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  In the last decade, a growing scientific and medical interest has emerged toward cardiovascular effects of dietary nitrite\\u000a and nitrate; however, many questions concerning their mode of action(s) remain unanswered. In this review, we focus on multiple\\u000a mechanisms that might account for potential cardiovascular beneficial effects of dietary nitrite and nitrate.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Beneficial changes to cardiovascular health from dietary nitrite and

Ajay MachhaAlan; Alan N. Schechter

2011-01-01

63

Microfluidic paper-based analytical device for the determination of nitrite and nitrate.  

PubMed

A low-cost disposable colorimetric microfluidic paper-based analytical device (?PAD) was developed for the determination of nitrite and nitrate. Nitrite is determined directly by the Griess reaction while nitrate is first reduced to nitrite in a hydrophilic channel of the ?PAD with immobilized zinc microparticles. This ?PAD is fabricated by a simple and inexpensive inkjet printing method. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection and quantification for nitrite are 1.0 and 7.8 ?M, respectively, while the corresponding values for nitrate are 19 and 48 ?M, respectively. The repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), is less than 2.9% and 5.6% (n ? 8) for the determination of nitrite and nitrate, respectively. This ?PAD was successfully applied to the determination of nitrate and nitrite in both synthetic and natural water samples. It is user and environmentally friendly and suitable for on-site measurement of the analytes mentioned above in environmental and drinking waters. PMID:25001619

Jayawardane, B Manori; Wei, Shen; McKelvie, Ian D; Kolev, Spas D

2014-08-01

64

Progress report on the evaluation of porous cathode for the electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites in liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental and modeling work performed to evaluate porous cathodes for the electrochemical reduction of nitrites in liquid wastes. The experiments were done using the MP{dagger} cell with two different porous cathodes: nickel foam and TySAR{trademark}SB{double_dagger}. The experimental results are compared with each other and to those obtained with a planar nickel cathode. The results show that the ammonia production reaction is the dominant cathodic reaction ({approximately}80% efficiency) for all three electrodes. The temperature range used in this study was 29-37 {circ}C while the catholyte feed was either 0.6M NaNO{sub 2} or 1.9M NaNO{sub 3}, both supported by a 1.33 M NaOH solution. All experiments used a constant current density of 0.25 A/cm{sup 2}. The experimental results suggest that the porous nickel electrode at lower temperatures ({approximately}31{circ}C) is the most efficient of the three electrodes for the reduction of nitrates and nitrites. The porous nickel electrode exhibited the highest conversion of nitrates and nitrites, and the lowest overpotential for a given current density. The partial current fractions at known catholyte concentrations were used to extract the exchange-current densities for the five cathodic reactions. Using these kinetic parameters, dynamic simulations of the four hour experiments were performed. Agreement was found between the model and experimental results for changes in the moles of the nitrate and nitrite and the cell overpotential with time. Future work will determine the effects of temperature and current densities on the exchange-current densities and reaction product distributions. The performance of other porous cathode materials (TySAR{trademark}EP{section}, TySAR{trademark}IM) will also be evaluated.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jha, K.; Weidner, J.W.; White, R.E. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-27

65

Inorganic nitrate supplementation lowers blood pressure in humans: role for nitrite-derived NO.  

PubMed

Ingestion of dietary (inorganic) nitrate elevates circulating and tissue levels of nitrite via bioconversion in the entero-salivary circulation. In addition, nitrite is a potent vasodilator in humans, an effect thought to underlie the blood pressure-lowering effects of dietary nitrate (in the form of beetroot juice) ingestion. Whether inorganic nitrate underlies these effects and whether the effects of either naturally occurring dietary nitrate or inorganic nitrate supplementation are dose dependent remain uncertain. Using a randomized crossover study design, we show that nitrate supplementation (KNO(3) capsules: 4 versus 12 mmol [n=6] or 24 mmol of KNO(3) (1488 mg of nitrate) versus 24 mmol of KCl [n=20]) or vegetable intake (250 mL of beetroot juice [5.5 mmol nitrate] versus 250 mL of water [n=9]) causes dose-dependent elevation in plasma nitrite concentration and elevation of cGMP concentration with a consequent decrease in blood pressure in healthy volunteers. In addition, post hoc analysis demonstrates a sex difference in sensitivity to nitrate supplementation dependent on resting baseline blood pressure and plasma nitrite concentration, whereby blood pressure is decreased in male volunteers, with higher baseline blood pressure and lower plasma nitrite concentration but not in female volunteers. Our findings demonstrate dose-dependent decreases in blood pressure and vasoprotection after inorganic nitrate ingestion in the form of either supplementation or by dietary elevation. In addition, our post hoc analyses intimate sex differences in nitrate processing involving the entero-salivary circulation that are likely to be major contributing factors to the lower blood pressures and the vasoprotective phenotype of premenopausal women. PMID:20585108

Kapil, Vikas; Milsom, Alexandra B; Okorie, Michael; Maleki-Toyserkani, Sheiva; Akram, Farihah; Rehman, Farkhanda; Arghandawi, Shah; Pearl, Vanessa; Benjamin, Nigel; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros; Macallister, Raymond; Hobbs, Adrian J; Webb, Andrew J; Ahluwalia, Amrita

2010-08-01

66

Survey of nitrate and nitrite contents of vegetables grown in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

A scientific basis for the evaluation of the risk to public health arising from excessive dietary intake of nitrate in Korea is provided. The nitrate (NO 3) and nitrite (NO 2) contents of various vegetables (Chinese cabbage, radish, lettuce, spinach, soybean sprouts, onion, pumpkin, green onion, cucumber, potato, carrot, garlic, green pepper, cabbage and Allium tuberosum Roth known as Crown

S. Y. Chung; J. S. Kim; M. Kim; M. K. Hong; J. O. Lee; C. M. Kim; I. S. Song

2003-01-01

67

Xanthine oxidoreductase catalyses the reduction of nitrates and nitrite to nitric oxide under hypoxic conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) catalyses the reduction of the therapeutic organic nitrate, nitroglycerin (glyceryl trinitrate, GTN), as well as inorganic nitrate and nitrite, to nitric oxide (NO) under hypoxic conditions in the presence of NADH. Generation of nitric oxide is not detectable under normoxic conditions and is inhibited by the molybdenum site-specific inhibitors, oxypurinol and (?)BOF 4272. These enzymic reactions provide

Timothy M Millar; Cliff R Stevens; Nigel Benjamin; Robert Eisenthal; Roger Harrison; David R Blake

1998-01-01

68

Nitrate to Ammonia Ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization study  

SciTech Connect

Department of Energy (DOE) sites such as the Hanford site, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Savannah River site, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. At INEL alone there are 800,000 gallons. The largest quantity of these wastes is the 149 single shell tanks (SSTs) tanks at Hanford which can hold 1 million gallons each. The nitrate to ammonia ceramic (NAC) process has been developed to remove a majority of the nitrate content from the wastes.

Caime, W.J.; Hoeffner, S.L.

1995-12-31

69

Role of nitrate and nitrite in the induction of nitrite reductase in leaves of barley seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The role of NO3- and NO2- in the induction of nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was investigated. Barley leaves contained 6 to 8 micromoles NO2-/gram fresh weight x hour of endogenous NiR activity when grown in N-free solutions. Supply of both NO2- and NO3- induced the enzyme activity above the endogenous levels (5 and 10 times, respectively at 10 millimolar NO2- and NO3- over a 24 hour period). In NO3(-)-supplied leaves, NiR induction occurred at an ambient NO3- concentration of as low as 0.05 millimolar; however, no NiR induction was found in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 millimolar. Nitrate accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NiR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating in NO3(-)-fed leaves. Induction of NiR in NO2(-)-fed leaves was not seen until NO3- was detectable (30 nanomoles/gram fresh weight) in the leaves. The internal concentrations of NO3-, irrespective of N source, were highly correlated with the levels of NiR induced. When the reduction of NO3- to NO2- was inhibited by WO4(2-), the induction of NiR was inhibited only partially. The results indicate that in barley leaves in NiR is induced by NO3- directly, i.e. without being reduced to NO2-, and that absorbed NO2- induces the enzyme activity indirectly after being oxidized to NO3- within the leaf.

Aslam, M.; Huffaker, R. C.

1989-01-01

70

Two nitrate/nitrite transporters are encoded within the mobilizable plasmid for nitrate respiration of Thermus thermophilus HB8.  

PubMed

Thermus thermophilus HB8 can grow anaerobically by using a membrane-bound nitrate reductase to catalyze the reduction of nitrate as a final electron acceptor in respiration. In contrast to other denitrifiers, the nitrite produced does not continue the reduction pathway but accumulates in the growth medium after its active extrusion from the cell. We describe the presence of two genes, narK1 and narK2, downstream of the nitrate reductase-encoding gene cluster (nar) that code for two homologues to the major facilitator superfamily of transporters. The sequences of NarK1 and NarK2 are 30% identical to each other, but whereas NarK1 clusters in an average-distance tree with putative nitrate transporters, NarK2 does so with putative nitrite exporters. To analyze whether this differential clustering was actually related to functional differences, we isolated derivatives with mutations of one or both genes. Analysis revealed that single mutations had minor effects on growth by nitrate respiration, whereas a double narK1 narK2 mutation abolished this capability. Further analysis allowed us to confirm that the double mutant is completely unable to excrete nitrite, while single mutants have a limitation in the excretion rates compared with the wild type. These data allow us to propose that both proteins are implicated in the transport of nitrate and nitrite, probably acting as nitrate/nitrite antiporters. The possible differential roles of these proteins in vivo are discussed. PMID:10735860

Ramírez, S; Moreno, R; Zafra, O; Castán, P; Vallés, C; Berenguer, J

2000-04-01

71

Thyroid cancer risk and dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in the Shanghai Women's Health Study  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are precursors in the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds and nitrate can disrupt thyroid homeostasis by inhibiting iodide uptake. We evaluated nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the Shanghai Women’s Health Study that included 73,317 women, aged 40–70 years enrolled in 1996–2000. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a food frequency questionnaire. During approximately 11 years of follow-up, 164 incident thyroid cancer cases with complete dietary information were identified. We used Cox proportional hazards regression to estimate relatives risks (RRs). We determined the nitrate and nitrite contents of foods using values from the published literature and focusing on regional values for Chinese foods. Nitrate intake was not associated with thyroid cancer risk (RRQ4 = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.42–2.07; p for trend = 0.40). Compared with the lowest quartile, women with the highest dietary nitrite intake had about a two-fold risk of thyroid cancer (RRQ4 = 2.05; 95%CI: 1.20–3.51;) but there was not a monotonic trend with increasing intake (p for trend= 0.36). The trend with increasing nitrite intake from animal sources was significant (p for trend = 0.02) and was stronger for nitrite from processed meats (RRQ4 = 1.96; 95%CI: 1.28–2.99; p for trend <0.01). Although we did not observe an association for nitrate as hypothesized, our results suggest that women consuming higher levels of nitrite from animal sources, particularly from processed meat, may have an increased risk of thyroid cancer. PMID:22674227

Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Yang, Gong; Li, Hong Lan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zheng, Wei; Ward, Mary H.

2012-01-01

72

Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis analysis of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in natural water samples. Using hexamethonium bromide (HMB) as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate buffer at pH 9.2, the resolution of nitrate and nitrite was accomplished in less than 3 minutes. RPCE was compared with ion chromatographic (IC) and cadmium reduction flow injection analysis (Cd-FIA) methods which are the two most commonly used standard methods for the analysis of natural water samples for nitrate and nitrite. When compared with the ion chromatographic method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite, RPCE reduced analysis time, decreased detection limits by a factor of 10, cut laboratory wastes by more than two orders of magnitude, and eliminated interferences commonly associated with IC. When compared with the cadmium reduction method, RPCE had the advantage of simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite, could be used in the presence of various metallic ions that normally interfere in cadmium reduction, and decreased detection limits by a factor of 10.

Metcalf, S.G.

1998-06-11

73

Mechanism of nitrite oxidation by eosinophil peroxidase: implications for oxidant production and nitration by eosinophils  

PubMed Central

Eosinophil peroxidase is a haem enzyme of eosinophils that is implicated in oxidative tissue injury in asthma. It uses hydrogen peroxide to oxidize thiocyanate and bromide to their respective hypohalous acids. Nitrite is also a substrate for eosinophil peroxidase. We have investigated the mechanisms by which the enzyme oxidizes nitrite. Nitrite was very effective at inhibiting hypothiocyanous acid (‘cyanosulphenic acid’) and hypobromous acid production. Spectral studies showed that nitrite reduced the enzyme to its compound II form, which is a redox intermediate containing FeIV in the haem active site. Compound II does not oxidize thiocyanate or bromide. These results demonstrate that nitrite is readily oxidized by compound I, which contains FeV at the active site. However, it reacts more slowly with compound II. The observed rate constant for reduction of compound II by nitrite was determined to be 5.6×103 M?1·s?1. Eosinophils were at least 4-fold more effective at promoting nitration of a heptapeptide than neutrophils. This result is explained by our finding that nitrite reacts 10-fold faster with compound II of eosinophil peroxidase than with the analogous redox intermediate of myeloperoxidase. Nitration by eosinophils was increased 3-fold by superoxide dismutase, which indicates that superoxide interferes with nitration. We propose that at sites of eosinophilic inflammation, low concentrations of nitrite will retard oxidant production by eosinophil peroxidase, whereas at higher concentrations nitrogen dioxide will be a major oxidant formed by these cells. The efficiency of protein nitration will be decreased by the diffusion-controlled reaction of superoxide with nitrogen dioxide. PMID:16336215

van Dalen, Christine J.; Winterbourn, Christine C.; Kettle, Anthony J.

2005-01-01

74

Investigating the microbiological safety of uncured no nitrate or nitrite added processed meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of preservative-free foods among consumers has stimulated rapid growth of processed meats manufactured without nitrite. The objective of the first phase of this study was to quantify the potential for Clostridium perfringens growth in commercial processed meats manufactured without the direct addition of nitrite\\/nitrate. These results indicate that commercial natural\\/organic cured meats have more potential for pathogen growth

Armitra Lavette Jackson

2010-01-01

75

Simultaneous spectrophotometric determination of nitrite and nitrate by flow injection analysis.  

PubMed

A new catalytic spectrophotometric method is reported for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate by flow injection analysis, based on the catalytic effect of nitrite on the redox reaction between pyrogallolsulfonephthalein and potassium bromate in acidic media. Nitrate can also be on-line reduced to nitrite with a modified copper-coated cadmium reduction column. The reaction was monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decrease in the absorbance of pyrogallolsulfonephthalein at 465 nm. Various analytical parameters such as effects of acidity, reagent concentrations, flow rates, sample sizes, lengths of the reaction coil and temperatures were studied and were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graph was linear for 2.4 to 160 ng ml(-1) of nitrite and 4.0 to 100 ng ml(-1) of nitrate. The influences of potential interfering cations and anions for nitrite and nitrate determination were studied. The method is successfully applied for food and water samples. Up to ten samples can be analyzed per hour. PMID:15636530

Ensafi, Ali Asghar; Rezaei, Behzad; Nouroozi, Siyavah

2004-12-01

76

The reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide towards nitrate and nitrite salts  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in late 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began an experimental program at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to investigate the effects of temperature on the oxidation reaction between synthetic nickel cesium ferrocyanide (FeCN) and nitrates and nitrites representative of materials present in some of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). After completing a preliminary series of experiments in 1988, the program was expanded to include five tasks to evaluate the effect of selected compositional and operational parameters on the reaction and explosion temperatures of FeCN and nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures. 10 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

1991-09-01

77

[Influence of thermal processing and storage on the content of nitrates and nitrites in chosen vegetables from the Podlasie province].  

PubMed

The dangerous for health nitrate and nitrite can penetrate with food human organism for this reason in study the influence of thermal processing and storage on the level of these compounds in the vegetables was determined. The content of nitrates and nitrites was determined in such vegetables as carrot, parsley-root, celery and potatoes growing by farmers in the Podlasie province. Nitrates and nitrites were assessed in fresh and boiled vegetables as well as in the stock and in carrot juice. These compounds were also determined after storage of vegetables at +4 degrees C for 2 weeks and at -15 degrees C for 1 and 3 months. Nitrates and nitrites concentrations were assayed colorimetrically by the Griess method modified to food investigation. Boiling reduced nitrate content in the vegetables. Considerable part (about 50%) of these compounds passed into stock during boiling. Storage of these vegetables at +4 degrees C resulted in slight lowering of nitrate content in carrot and parsley-root and marked elevation in celery. Cold storage of vegetables through 1 and 3 months had no important influence on nitrate content. Boiling decreased the content of nitrites similarly as nitrates. Storage of the vegetables at +4 degrees C through 2 weeks led to an increase in nitrite content in carrot and parsley-root while in celery the content of nitrites was reduced. Storage of vegetables at -15 degrees C resulted in lowering content of nitrite. The study revealed that the vegetable-roots (carrot, parsley and celery) and potatoes cultivated in the Podlasie province as well as in the other provinces were excessively contaminated by nitrates and nitrites. Moreover, it has been shown that thermal processing such as boiling considerably reduced the content of nitrates and nitrites in these vegetables while freezing changed mainly nitrite content. PMID:11957780

Roszczenko, A; Rogalska, J; Potapczuk, L; Kleczy?ska, A

2001-01-01

78

Shewanella oneidensis cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) does not disproportionate hydroxylamine to ammonia and nitrite, despite a strongly favorable driving force.  

PubMed

Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) from Shewanella oneidensis, which catalyzes the six-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia in vivo, was shown to oxidize hydroxylamine in the presence of large quantities of this substrate, yielding nitrite as the sole free nitrogenous product. UV-visible stopped-flow and rapid-freeze-quench electron paramagnetic resonance data, along with product analysis, showed that the equilibrium between hydroxylamine and nitrite is fairly rapidly established in the presence of high initial concentrations of hydroxylamine, despite said equilibrium lying far to the left. By contrast, reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia did not occur, even though disproportionation of hydroxylamine to yield both nitrite and ammonia is strongly thermodynamically favored. This suggests a kinetic barrier to the ccNiR-catalyzed reduction of hydroxylamine to ammonia. A mechanism for hydroxylamine reduction is proposed in which the hydroxide group is first protonated and released as water, leaving what is formally an NH2(+) moiety bound at the heme active site. This species could be a metastable intermediate or a transition state but in either case would exist only if it were stabilized by the donation of electrons from the ccNiR heme pool into the empty nitrogen p orbital. In this scenario, ccNiR does not catalyze disproportionation because the electron-donating hydroxylamine does not poise the enzyme at a sufficiently low potential to stabilize the putative dehydrated hydroxylamine; presumably, a stronger reductant is required for this. PMID:24645742

Youngblut, Matthew; Pauly, Daniel J; Stein, Natalia; Walters, Daniel; Conrad, John A; Moran, Graham R; Bennett, Brian; Pacheco, A Andrew

2014-04-01

79

Effect of potential Hanford ferrocyanide waste constituents on the reaction between ferrocyanide and nitrates/nitrites  

SciTech Connect

During the 1950s, ferrocyanide- and nitrate-bearing wastes were produced at Hanford. A concern about continued safe storage and future treatment of these wastes has arisen because ferrocyanide and nitrate mixtures can explode when heated. Because of this concern, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory has performed experimental studies to determine the conditions needed to continue storing the wastes safely. In this paper, we present the results of our studies on the effects of other potential ferrocyanide waste constituents on the explosivity of mixtures of sodium nickel ferrocyanide and sodium nitrate and nitrite. In particular, this paper presents the results of investigations on the diluent effects of equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite, sodium nickel ferrocyanide, and sodium aluminate, and the catalyst or initiator effects of nickel sulfide.

Scheele, R.D.; Burger, L.L.; Sell, R.L.

1993-02-01

80

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

SciTech Connect

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. have reported that certain well studied transition metal cyclic amine complexes, namely Co(III)-cyclam and Ni(II)-cyclam where cyclam is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, efficiently electrocatalyze the reduction of nitrate and nitrite to hydroxylamine at mercury electrodes. Here the authors report that the metal cyclam catalyst can be incorporated into a Nafion film electrode, and that the reduction of nitrate and nitrite proceeds efficiently at these electrodes in concentrated NaOH solution. Nafion is a perfluoroalkanesulfonated cation exchange material that has been widely used to immobilize redox couples at electrode surfaces, including electrocatalysis species.

Li, H. [Lanzhou Univ., Ganzu (China). Dept. of Chemistry]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [E.I. DuPont de Nemours and Co., Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River Lab.

1988-12-31

81

Promotion ofSeedGermination byNitrate, Nitrite, Hydroxylamine, andAmmoniumSalts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actionanduptakeofazides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxyla- mines,andammoniumsalts weremeasured ongermination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleumpratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B.verna, andSetaria glauca seeds. Nitrate andnitrite reductase activities weremeasured invivoforeachofthese kindsofseeds. Activities weremeasured invitroforcatalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, andpyridine nucleotide quinone reductase onextracts ofA.albus andL.sativa seeds before and aftergermination. Theenzymicactivities measuredandthe responsiveness ofthehaemproteins toinhibition bytheseveral compoundsindicate thatnitrites, azides, andhydroxylamines promoteseedgermination byinhibition ofH202decomposition bycatalase. Ammnonium salts showedpronounced

S. B. HENDRICKS; R. B. TAYLORSON

82

[Nitrite and nitrate content of foods sampled during national food quality monitoring].  

PubMed

The aim of the french national inquiry of food quality is to ascertain the presence in food of many contaminants, in particular nitrates and nitrites. Because of variability of contamination in samples, a great number of determinations were carried out for each food kind (2296 determinations in 62 foods kinds). Nitrate amounts are in fact very high in beet roots, white beets, celery salads, radishes and green salads. PMID:7258921

Deschamps, P

1980-01-01

83

Energy metabolism and biosynthesis of Vibrio succinogenes growing with nitrate or nitrite as terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Growth of Vibrio succinogenes with nitrate as terminal electron acceptor was found to be a function of the following two catabolic reactions: HCO j + NO~ + H + ~ CO2 + NO2 + H20 (a) 3HCO z +NOr +5H + ~ 3CO2+NH 2 +2H20. (b) The latter reaction (b) was responsible for growth with nitrite. 2. Either succinate or

Martin Bokranz; Joachim Katz; Imke Schröder; Anthony M. Roberton; Achim Kröger

1983-01-01

84

Nitrogen13-labeled nitrite and nitrate: distribution and metabolism after intratracheal administration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radioactive nitrogen-13 from nitrite (NOâ⁻) or nitrate (NOâ⁻) administered intratracheally or intravenously without added carrier to mice or rabbits was distributed evenly throughout most organs and tissues regardless of the entry route or the anion administered. Nitrogen-13 from both anions was distributed uniformly between plasma and blood cells. Rapid in vivo oxidation of NOâ⁻ to NOâ⁻ at concentrations of 2

N. J. Parks; K. A. Krohn; C. A. Mathis; J. H. Chasko; K. R. Geiger; M. E. Gregor; N. F. Peek

1981-01-01

85

Total Sputum Nitrate plus Nitrite Is Raised during Acute Pulmonary Infection in Cystic Fibrosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitric oxide (NO) can be detected in exhaled gas in human subjects. It is produced by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and is rapidly metabolized to nitrite and nitrate (NO 2 \\/NO 3 ). Exhaled NO is reported to be elevated in patients with asthma, bronchiectasis, or upper respiratory tract infection. Recent re- ports have shown no increase of exhaled NO

SEAMUS J. LINNANE; VERA M. KEATINGS; CHRISTINE M. COSTELLO; JOHN B. MOYNIHAN; CLARE M. O'CONNOR; MUIRIS X. FITZGERALD; PAUL M C LOUGHLIN

1998-01-01

86

Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste by reverse-polarity capillary zone electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first application of reverse-polarity capillary zone electrophoresis for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using synthetic Hanford waste, followed by the analysis of four real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate electrolyte at

Asopuru A Okemgbo; Herbert H Hill; Steven G Metcalf; Michael A Bachelor

1999-01-01

87

Risk of Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma and Nitrate and Nitrite from the Diet in Connecticut Women  

PubMed Central

The incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma has substantially increased during the past several decades, and although established risk factors such as immunodeficiency and viral infection may be responsible for a portion of the cases, the vast majority of the NHL cases remain unexplained. Dietary nitrate and nitrite intake are exposures of particular interest for non-Hodgkin lymphoma risk as they have been shown to cause lymphomas in animal studies and there is growing evidence of adverse impact in the epidemiological literature. We investigated NHL risk in general and by subtype in relation to dietary nitrate and nitrite intake in a population-based case-control study of 1,304 women in Connecticut. Nitrate and nitrite intake was assessed using a 120-item food frequency questionnaire. We found no association between risk of NHL and dietary nitrate and a slightly increased risk of NHL for higher dietary nitrite intake (OR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.04–1.79). The risk was significantly increased for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.08–2.42), follicular lymphoma (OR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.02–2.54), and T-cell lymphoma (OR = 2.38; 95% CI: 1.12–5.06). Animal products containing nitrite appear to be driving the risk for DLBC lymphoma and follicular lymphoma, whereas the risk for T-cell lymphoma is being driven by plant products. Our results confirm a previous finding for nitrite intake and highlight the importance of evaluating NHL risk by histologic type. We conclude that these results should be replicated in a larger study with data on water consumption as well as diet. PMID:20204494

Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Ward, Mary H.; Zheng, Tongzhang; Zahm, Shelia; Holford, Theodore R.; Boyle, Peter; Zhao, Ping; Dai, Min; Leaderer, Brian; Zhang, Yawei

2011-01-01

88

Colorimetric determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water by enzymatic reduction, automated discrete analyzer methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

In addition to operational details and performance benchmarks for these new DA-AtNaR2 nitrate + nitrite assays, this report also provides results of interference studies for common inorganic and organic matrix constituents at 1, 10, and 100 times their median concentrations in surface-water and groundwater samples submitted annually to the NWQL for nitrate + nitrite analyses. Paired t-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank statistical analyses of results determined by CFA-CdR methods and DA-AtNaR2 methods indicate that nitrate concentration differences between population means or sign ranks were either statistically equivalent to zero at the 95 percent confidence level (p ? 0.05) or analytically equivalent to zero-that is, when p < 0.05, concentration differences between population means or medians were less than MDLs.

Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

2011-01-01

89

Dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study.  

PubMed

Nitrate and nitrite are precursors of endogenously formed N-nitroso compounds (NOC), known animal carcinogens. Nitrosation reactions forming NOCs can be inhibited by vitamin C and other antioxidants. We prospectively investigated the association between dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer in the Shanghai Women's Health Study, a cohort of 73,118 women ages 40-70 residing in Shanghai. We evaluated effect modification by factors that affect endogenous formation of NOCs: vitamin C (at or above/below median) and red meat intake (at or above/below median). Nitrate, nitrite and other dietary intakes were estimated from a 77-item food frequency questionnaire administered at baseline. Over a mean of 11 years of follow-up, we identified 619 colorectal cancer cases (n?=?383, colon; n?=?236, rectum). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. Overall, nitrate intake was not associated with colorectal cancer risk (HR?=?1.08; 95% CI: 0.73-1.59). However, among women with vitamin C intake below the median (83.9 mg day(-1) ) and hence higher potential exposure to NOCs, risk of colorectal cancer increased with increasing quintiles of nitrate intake (highest vs. lowest quintile HR?=?2.45; 95% CI: 1.15-5.18; p trend?=?0.02). There was no association among women with higher vitamin C intake. We found no association between nitrite intake and risk of colorectal cancer overall or by intake level of vitamin C. Our findings suggest that high dietary nitrate intake among subgroups expected to have higher exposure to endogenously formed NOCs increases risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:24242755

Dellavalle, Curt T; Xiao, Qian; Yang, Gong; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Aschebrook-Kilfoy, Briseis; Zheng, Wei; Lan Li, Hong; Ji, Bu-Tian; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chow, Wong-Ho; Gao, Yu-Tang; Ward, Mary H

2014-06-15

90

[The content of nitrates and nitrites in fruits, vegetables and other foodstuffs].  

PubMed

There are presented the results of the investigation of many popular fresh and frozen vegetables as well as in fresh and frozen fruits, such as different kind of apples, strawberries, currants, raspberries and many other tender fruits mainly from market and few from own allotment-cottages performed in the year 1989-1992. The nitrate and nitrite was determined according to the Griess reaction. High levels of nitrate was encountered in lettuce, frozen spinach, fennel, radishes, parsley. Many of this samples contained more than 1000 mg of KNO3/kg of fresh product, but the highest level, over the 3500 mg/kg was found in lettuce. The remaining vegetables like carrots, celery, leeks and frozen French bean contained from several dozen to more than 800 mg KNO3/kg. The level of nitrite in all samples of the investigated vegetables and fruits was very low from zero to decimal part of milligram per kg. Very low level of nitrate was found in 7 species of investigated apples (from 1.3 to 9.7 mg KNO3/kg). A little higher level of this compound was ascertained in currants, gooseberries, raspberries, cherries (from 0.0 to 36.0 mg KNO3/kg product). The highest levels of nitrate occurred in samples of strawberries (maximum to 322.3 mg KNO3/kg) but mean level amounted 58.7 mg KNO3/kg. The encountered levels of nitrate in frozen vegetables and fruits as well as in jams and stewed fruits was only little less than in fresh products. Very high level (from 355.30 to 584.53 mg KNO3/kg) was ascertained in the fruit-vegetable juice named "Rinberen" and "Malberen" to which red beet extract was used for their production. It should be pointed out that when the containers of these juice was opened and stored at the room temperature (+20 degrees C) during 30 days, no changes was observed in the level of nitrate and nitrite. In the juice prepared from blanched carrot, the rate of the reduction of nitrate to nitrite has not been lowered, when this product was storage of this juice at room temperature, the mean level of nitrite increased significantly (from 0.14 to 82.89 mg NaNO2/kg) and the level of nitrate lowered from 261.0 to 46.4 mg KNO3/kg. It should be strongly recommended for consumption the juices from carrot only fresh prepared. There are also presented the results of investigation of nitrate in fermented cheeses.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:7777773

Nabrzyski, M; Gajewska, R

1994-01-01

91

[Content of nitrates and nitrites in early vegetables and potatoes sold in the marketplace of Bia?ystok in the year 1992].  

PubMed

Nitrate and nitrite were determined in early vegetables and potatoes sold in Bia?ystok in 1992. The levels of nitrates and nitrites were determined in 248 samples. Nitrate and nitrite were evaluated spectrophotometrically by the method of the Griess reaction, after reduction of the nitrates to nitrites, with cadmium dust. High values of nitrate were found in the early vegetables: lettuce, young red beets, radishes, dills, parsley, carrots, cucumbers and potatoes. The results were higher than the suggested limit in Poland. The nitrite contents, except for carrots, were determined in selected vegetables and potatoes. PMID:7878349

Rostkowski, J; Borawska, M; Omieljaniuk, N; Ot?og, K

1994-01-01

92

Comparison of effects of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide on reduction of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen by soil microorganisms  

SciTech Connect

Recent work has shown that nitrate inhibits reduction of nitrous oxide (N/sub 2/O) to dinitrogen (N/sub 2/) by soil microorganisms under anaerobic conditions. Studies to investigate the possibility that this inhibition is caused by nitrite or nitric oxide (NO) formed through microbial reduction of nitrate showed that both NO and nitrite inhibit reduction of N/sub 2/O to N/sub 2/ by soil microorganisms under anaerobic conditions (helium atmosphere) but that the inhibitory effect of NO on N/sub 2/O reduction is much smaller than the effects of nitrate or nitrite. Comparison of the effects of nitrate, nitrite, and mixtures of nitrate and nitrite on reduction of N/sub 2/O to N/sub 2/ by soils incubated under He showed that nitrate per se inhibits N/sub 2/O reduction and did not confirm a recent suggestion that the inhibitory effect of nitrate on N/sub 2/O reduction is due to nitrite formed through microbial reduction of nitrate.

Gaskell, J.F.; Blackmer, A.M.; Bremner, J.M.

1981-11-01

93

Removal of nitrite with sulfamic acid for nitrate N and O isotope analysis with the denitrifier method.  

PubMed

In environmental water samples that contain both nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-), isotopic analysis of nitrate alone by all currently available methods requires pretreatment to remove nitrite. Sulfamic acid addition, used previously for this purpose (Wu JP, Calvert SE, Wong CS. Deep-Sea Research Part I - Oceanographic Research Papers 1997; 44: 287), is shown here to be compatible with the denitrifier method for both N and O isotope analysis of nitrate. Sulfamic acid at a pH of approximately 1.7 reduces nitrite to N2. Samples are then neutralized with base prior to isotope analysis, to alleviate the buffering demands of the bacterial media and as a precaution to prevent modification of nitrate during storage with the residual sulfamic acid at low pH. Under appropriate reaction conditions, nitrite is completely removed within minutes. Sulfamic acid treatment does not compromise the completeness of the conversion of nitrate into N2O or the precision and accuracy of N and O isotope measurements by the denitrifier method. Nitrite concentrations upwards of 7 times the ambient nitrate can be removed without affecting the isotope composition of nitrate. The method is applied to analyses of the coupled N and O isotopes of nitrate and nitrite in waters of the Mexican Margin, to illustrate its efficacy and utility when employed either in the field upon sample collection or in the lab after months of frozen sample storage. PMID:19908214

Granger, Julie; Sigman, Daniel M

2009-12-01

94

The modifying effect of nitrites, nitrates and increased temperature on 14C metabolism.  

PubMed

The paper deals with the experimental findings regarding the effects of non-radiational factors, such as sodium nitrite and nitrate and increased temperature, on the metabolism kinetics of 14C inorganic and organic compounds (14C-sodium bicarbonate, 14C-glucose) in conditions of long-term internal exposure to the nuclide. The authors determined the time which elapses before the steady state is achieved as well as the maximum concentration, the accumulation factor and the dose strength. At a concentration of 3 g/l, nitrites and nitrates were shown to produce no significant modifying effect on the kinetics of 14C metabolism. In hyperthermic conditions, 14C metabolism proved to be more intensive. The findings reported herein may have practical applications in setting up hygienic norms and evaluating the hazards of 14C accumulation in the environment. PMID:2542396

Vasilenko IYa; Osipov, V A; Istomina, A G; Dementyev, S I

1989-01-01

95

Nitrogen cycling in oxygen deficient zones : insights from [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O of nitrite and nitrate  

E-print Network

The stable isotopes, [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O, of nitrite and nitrate can be powerful tools used to interpret nitrogen cycling in the ocean. They are particularly useful in regions of the ocean where there are multiple ...

Buchwald, Carolyn

2013-01-01

96

A simple simultaneous flow injection method based on phosphomolybdenum chemistry for nitrate and nitrite determinations in water and fish samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A direct spectrophotometric flow injection method for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate has been developed. The method is based on the oxidation of a phosphomolybdenum blue complex by the addition of nitrite and the decrease in absorbance of the blue complex is monitored at 820 nm. The injected sample is split into two segments. One of the streams

L. Monser; S. Sadok; G. M. Greenway; I. Shah; R. F. Uglow

2002-01-01

97

Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was

AJM van Loon; A. A. M. Botterweck; R. A. Goldbohm; HAM Brants; JD van Klaveren; PA van den Brandt

1998-01-01

98

The nitrate–nitrite–nitric oxide pathway in physiology and therapeutics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The inorganic anions nitrate (NO3?) and nitrite (NO2?) were previously thought to be inert end products of endogenous nitric oxide (NO) metabolism. However, recent studies show that these supposedly inert anions can be recycled in vivo to form NO, representing an important alternative source of NO to the classical l-arginine–NO-synthase pathway, in particular in hypoxic states. This Review discusses the

Jon O. Lundberg; Eddie Weitzberg; Mark T. Gladwin

2008-01-01

99

Effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate\\/nitrite in exercise-trained men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Betaine, beetroot juice, and supplemental nitrate have recently been reported to improve certain aspects of exercise performance,\\u000a which may be mechanistically linked to increased nitric oxide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect\\u000a of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate\\/nitrite, a surrogate marker or nitric oxide, in exercise-trained men.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used three different study designs (acute intake

Richard J Bloomer; Tyler M Farney; John F Trepanowski; Cameron G McCarthy; Robert E Canale

2011-01-01

100

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes using natural antimicrobials in no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added ham.  

PubMed

Consumer demand for foods manufactured without the direct addition of chemical preservatives, such as sodium nitrite and organic acid salts, has resulted in a unique class of "naturally" cured meat products. Formulation with a natural nitrate source and nitrate-reducing bacteria results in naturally cured processed meats that possess traits similar to conventionally cured meats. However, previous research has shown that the naturally cured products are more susceptible to pathogen growth. This study evaluated Listeria monocytogenes growth on ham manufactured with natural curing methods and with commercially available clean-label antimicrobials (cultured sugar and vinegar blend; lemon, cherry, and vinegar powder blend) and assessed impacts on physicochemical characteristics of the product. Hams made with either of the antimicrobials supported L. monocytogenes growth similar to that in the traditionally cured control (P > 0.05). Hams made with prefermented celery juice powder had the lowest residual nitrite concentrations (P < 0.05), and when no antimicrobial was added, L. monocytogenes growth was similar to that of the uncured control (P > 0.05). Aside from residual nitrite and nitrate concentrations, few physicochemical differences were identified. These findings show that ham can be produced with natural curing methods and antimicrobials to provide similar L. monocytogenes inhibition and physicochemical traits as in traditionally cured ham. PMID:22691474

Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Niebuhr, Steven E; Xi, Yuan; Schrader, Kohl D; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

2012-06-01

101

Potential and limitations of ozone for the removal of ammonia, nitrite, and yellow substances in marine recirculating aquaculture systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The high levels of water-reuse in intensive recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS) require an effective water treatment in order to maintain good water quality. In order to reveal the potential and limitations of ozonation for water quality improvement in marine RAS, we tested ozone's ability to remove nitrite, ammonia, yellow substances and total bacterial biomass in seawater, considering aspects such as

J. P. Schroeder; P. L. Croot; B. Von Dewitz; U. Waller; R. Hanel

2011-01-01

102

Regulation of Dietary Nitrate and Nitrite: Balancing Essential Physiological Roles with Potential Health Risks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a US and European Union regulatory limits on nitrates in drinking water are necessary to limit environmental pollution known\\u000a as eutrophication.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Health concerns of excessive nitrate and nitrite consumption have driven regulatory actions due to perceived risk of methemoglobinemia\\u000a in infants and gastrointestinal cancer risk in adults.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a • \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a The World Health Organization’s Acceptable Daily Intake recommendations for nitrate can

Norman G. Hord

103

Promotion of seed germination by nitrate, nitrite, hydroxylamine, and ammonium salts.  

PubMed

Action and uptake of azides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxylamines, and ammonium salts were measured on germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleum pratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B. verna, and Setaria glauca seeds. Nitrate and nitrite reductase activities were measured in vivo for each of these kinds of seeds. Activities were measured in vitro for catalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, and pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase on extracts of A. albus and L. sativa seeds before and after germination. The enzymic activities measured and the responsiveness of the haemproteins to inhibition by the several compounds indicate that nitrites, azides, and hydroxylamines promote seed germination by inhibition of H(2)O(2) decomposition by catalase. Ammonium salts showed pronounced promotive activity only for B. verna and B. vulgaris seeds, for which they served as metabolic substrates.The promotion of germination is thought to depend on coupling of peroxidase action to NADPH oxidation, which can regulate the pentose pathway of d-glucose 6-phosphate use. Pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase is the possible coupling enzyme. This enzyme and others required for the action are present in the seeds before imbibition of water. PMID:16658878

Hendricks, S B; Taylorson, R B

1974-09-01

104

Promotion of Seed Germination by Nitrate, Nitrite, Hydroxylamine, and Ammonium Salts 1  

PubMed Central

Action and uptake of azides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxylamines, and ammonium salts were measured on germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleum pratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B. verna, and Setaria glauca seeds. Nitrate and nitrite reductase activities were measured in vivo for each of these kinds of seeds. Activities were measured in vitro for catalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, and pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase on extracts of A. albus and L. sativa seeds before and after germination. The enzymic activities measured and the responsiveness of the haemproteins to inhibition by the several compounds indicate that nitrites, azides, and hydroxylamines promote seed germination by inhibition of H2O2 decomposition by catalase. Ammonium salts showed pronounced promotive activity only for B. verna and B. vulgaris seeds, for which they served as metabolic substrates. The promotion of germination is thought to depend on coupling of peroxidase action to NADPH oxidation, which can regulate the pentose pathway of d-glucose 6-phosphate use. Pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase is the possible coupling enzyme. This enzyme and others required for the action are present in the seeds before imbibition of water. PMID:16658878

Hendricks, S. B.; Taylorson, R. B.

1974-01-01

105

Fine structure characterization of zero-valent iron nanoparticles for decontamination of nitrites and nitrates in wastewater and groundwater  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the chemical reduction of nitrate or nitrite species by zero-valent iron nanoparticle (ZVIN) in aqueous solution and related reaction kinetics or mechanisms using fine structure characterization. This work also exemplifies the utilization of field emission-scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and x-ray diffraction (XRD) to reveal the speciation and possible reaction pathway in a very complex adsorption and redox reaction process. Experimentally, ZVIN of this study was prepared by sodium borohydride reduction method at room temperature and ambient pressure. The morphology of as-synthesized ZVIN shows that the nearly ball and ultrafine particles ranged of 20-50 nm were observed with FE-SEM or TEM analysis. The kinetic model of nitrites or nitrates reductive reaction by ZVIN is proposed as a pseudo first-order kinetic equation. The nitrite and nitrate removal efficiencies using ZVIN were found 65-83% and 51-68%, respectively, based on three different initial concentrations. Based on the XRD pattern analyses, it is found that the quantitative relationship between nitrite and Fe(III) or Fe(II) is similar to the one between nitrate and Fe(III) in the ZVIN study. The possible reason is due to the faster nitrite reduction by ZVIN. In fact, the occurrence of the relative faster nitrite reductive reaction suggested that the passivation of the ZVIN have a significant contribution to iron corrosion. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) or x-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra show that the nitrites or nitrates reduce to N2 or NH3 while oxidizing the ZVIN to Fe2O3 or Fe3O4 electrochemically. It is also very clear that decontamination of nitrate or nitrite species in groundwater via the in-situ remediation with a ZVIN permeable reactive barrier would be environmentally attractive.

Lin, Kuen-Song; Chang, Ni-Bin; Chuang, Tien-Deng

2008-04-01

106

Chemical reactivity of nitrates and nitrites towards TBP and potassium nickel ferrocyanide between 30 and 300 deg  

SciTech Connect

Since the late sixties, bitumen has been widely used by the nuclear industry as a matrix for the immobilization of low- and intermediate level radioactive waste originating mainly from the nuclear activities: precipitation or evaporator concentrates, ion exchange resins, incinerator ashes, and filter materials. Depending on bitumen and operating conditions, bituminization of radioactive waste can be operated between 130 and 180 deg. C, so chemical reaction can be induced with nitrate or nitrite towards elements contained in waste (TPB, potassium nickel ferrocyanide and cobalt compound) and bitumen. These reactions are mainly exothermic this is the reason why the enthalpy reaction and their temperature of initiation have to be determined independently of their concentration in waste. In this work, we have studied by Calvet Calorimetry at 0.1 deg. C/min heating rates, the behaviour of chemical elements especially oxido-reduction couples that can react at a temperature range 100- 300 deg. C (Nitrate/PPFeNi, Nitrite/PPFeNi, Nitrate/TBP, Nitrite/TBP, Nitrate/bitumen and Nitrite/bitumen). The initial temperature reaction of nitrates or nitrites towards potassium nickel ferrocyanide (PPFeNi) has been studied and is equal respectively to 225 deg. C and 175 deg. C. Because of the large scale temperature reaction of nitrate and PPFeNi, enthalpy reaction can not be calculated, although enthalpy reaction of nitrite and PPFeNi is equal to 270 kJ/mol of nitrite. Sodium Nitrate and TBP behaviour has been investigated, and an exothermic reaction at 135 deg. C until 250 deg. C is evidenced. The exothermic energy reaction is a function of TBP concentration and the enthalpy reaction has been determined. (authors)

Lambertin, D.; Chartier, D.; Joussot-Dubien, C. [CEA Valrho, DTCD/SPDE/L2ED, 30 - Bagnols sur Ceze (France)

2007-07-01

107

Nitrite oxidation in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone  

PubMed Central

Nitrite oxidation is the second step of nitrification. It is the primary source of oceanic nitrate, the predominant form of bioavailable nitrogen in the ocean. Despite its obvious importance, nitrite oxidation has rarely been investigated in marine settings. We determined nitrite oxidation rates directly in 15N-incubation experiments and compared the rates with those of nitrate reduction to nitrite, ammonia oxidation, anammox, denitrification, as well as dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Nitrite oxidation (?372?nM NO2??d?1) was detected throughout the OMZ even when in situ oxygen concentrations were low to non-detectable. Nitrite oxidation rates often exceeded ammonia oxidation rates, whereas nitrate reduction served as an alternative and significant source of nitrite. Nitrite oxidation and anammox co-occurred in these oxygen-deficient waters, suggesting that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) likely compete with anammox bacteria for nitrite when substrate availability became low. Among all of the known NOB genera targeted via catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, only Nitrospina and Nitrococcus were detectable in the Namibian OMZ samples investigated. These NOB were abundant throughout the OMZ and contributed up to ?9% of total microbial community. Our combined results reveal that a considerable fraction of the recently recycled nitrogen or reduced NO3? was re-oxidized back to NO3? via nitrite oxidation, instead of being lost from the system through the anammox or denitrification pathways. PMID:22170426

Fussel, Jessika; Lam, Phyllis; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Holtappels, Moritz; Gunter, Marcel; Kuypers, Marcel MM

2012-01-01

108

Nitrite oxidation in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone.  

PubMed

Nitrite oxidation is the second step of nitrification. It is the primary source of oceanic nitrate, the predominant form of bioavailable nitrogen in the ocean. Despite its obvious importance, nitrite oxidation has rarely been investigated in marine settings. We determined nitrite oxidation rates directly in (15)N-incubation experiments and compared the rates with those of nitrate reduction to nitrite, ammonia oxidation, anammox, denitrification, as well as dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium in the Namibian oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Nitrite oxidation (?372 nM NO(2)(-) d(-1)) was detected throughout the OMZ even when in situ oxygen concentrations were low to non-detectable. Nitrite oxidation rates often exceeded ammonia oxidation rates, whereas nitrate reduction served as an alternative and significant source of nitrite. Nitrite oxidation and anammox co-occurred in these oxygen-deficient waters, suggesting that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) likely compete with anammox bacteria for nitrite when substrate availability became low. Among all of the known NOB genera targeted via catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization, only Nitrospina and Nitrococcus were detectable in the Namibian OMZ samples investigated. These NOB were abundant throughout the OMZ and contributed up to ~9% of total microbial community. Our combined results reveal that a considerable fraction of the recently recycled nitrogen or reduced NO(3)(-) was re-oxidized back to NO(3)(-) via nitrite oxidation, instead of being lost from the system through the anammox or denitrification pathways. PMID:22170426

Füssel, Jessika; Lam, Phyllis; Lavik, Gaute; Jensen, Marlene M; Holtappels, Moritz; Günter, Marcel; Kuypers, Marcel M M

2012-06-01

109

Endogenous levels of nitrites and nitrates in wide consumption foodstuffs: Results of five years of official controls and monitoring.  

PubMed

The massive introduction of nitrogen fertilisers, necessary to maximise the global food production, has brought about an increase of the residual amounts of nitrites and nitrates in the products. Notoriously, these compounds may exercise toxic effects. In this work the results obtained from 5years of official controls and monitoring focused on tracing quantifiable amounts of nitrites and nitrates in 1785 samples of meat, dairy, fish products and leafy vegetables are reported. A widespread presence of nitrates at low concentrations in foodstuffs was verified. High concentrations of nitrates were registered in some leafy vegetables and mussels samples, while high nitrites concentrations were registered in some spinach samples. The results confirmed the necessity to develop most controls and suggest the introduction of new legal limits related to some combinations contaminant/matrix. Such new limits may fill legislative gaps that may cause wrong interpretations of the results obtained during official controls. PMID:23692764

Iammarino, Marco; Di Taranto, Aurelia; Cristino, Marianna

2013-10-15

110

A high-throughput assay format for determination of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase enzyme activities  

SciTech Connect

The authors describe a microplate-based high-throughput procedure for rapid assay of the enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, using extremely small volumes of reagents. The new procedure offers the advantages of rapidity, small sample size-nanoliter volumes, low cost, and a dramatic increase in the throughput sample number that can be analyzed simultaneously. Additional advantages can be accessed by using microplate reader application software packages that permit assigning a group type to the wells, recording of the data on exportable data files and exercising the option of using the kinetic or endpoint reading modes. The assay can also be used independently for detecting nitrite residues/contamination in environmental/food samples. 10 refs., 2 figs.

McNally, N.; Liu, Xiang Yang; Choudary, P.V. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

1997-01-01

111

A comparison of the mutagenic effects of endogenous and exogenous nitrite on Neurospora crassa  

E-print Network

to nitrite, and subsequently to ammonia, is the only known and well- established metabolic route through which nitrate can be utilized by 27, 51 those organisms ' . Since nitrate is reduced via nitrite to ammonia in a series of steps which are essentially..., N-( I-Naphthyl) ethylenediamine. nitrite reductase (N! R) have been extensively studied. However, the confirmed nitrate assimilatory pathway which converts inorganic nitrogen v1a n1trate and ammonia to L-glutamate or glutamine 1s as follows: NO3...

Chien, Yi-Ping

2012-06-07

112

Mammalian nitrate biosynthesis: mouse macrophages produce nitrite and nitrate in response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrate biosynthesis was studied in LPS-sensitive C3H\\/He and LPS-resistant C3H\\/HeJ mice. Intraperitoneal injection of 15 ..mu..g of LPS led to a temporary 5- to 6-fold increase in blood nitrate concentration in the C3H\\/He strain. Levels of nitrate excreted in the urine were also increased. In contrast, no increase was observed in the C3H\\/HeJ strain with LPS

D. J. Stuehr; M. A. Marletta

1985-01-01

113

Homologues of nitrite reductases in ammonia-oxidizing archaea: diversity and genomic context.  

PubMed

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea are frequent and ubiquitous inhabitants of terrestrial and marine environments. As they have only recently been detected, most aspects of their metabolism are yet unknown. Here we report on the occurrence of genes encoding potential homologues of copper-dependent nitrite reductases (NirK) in ammonia-oxidizing archaea of soils and other environments using metagenomic approaches and PCR amplification. Two pairs of highly overlapping 40 kb genome fragments, each containing nirK genes of archaea, were isolated from a metagenomic soil library. Between 68% and 85% of the open reading frames on these genome fragments had homologues in the genomes of the marine archaeal ammonia oxidizers Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Cenarchaeum symbiosum. Extensions of NirK homologues with C-terminal fused amicyanin domains were deduced from two of the four fosmids indicating structural variation of these multicopper proteins in archaea. Phylogenetic analyses including all major groups of currently known NirK homologues revealed that the deduced protein sequences of marine and soil archaea were separated into two highly divergent lineages that did not contain bacterial homologues. In contrast, another separated lineage contained potential multicopper oxidases of both domains, archaea and bacteria. More nirK gene variants directly amplified by PCR from several environments indicated further diversity of the gene and a widespread occurrence in archaea. Transcription of the potential archaeal nirK in soil was demonstrated at different water contents, but no significant increase in transcript copy number was observed with increased denitrifying activity. PMID:20132279

Bartossek, Rita; Nicol, Graeme W; Lanzen, Anders; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Schleper, Christa

2010-04-01

114

Nitrite/nitrate detection in serum based on dual-plate generator-collector currents in a microtrench.  

PubMed

A dual-electrode sensor is developed for rapid detection of nitrite/nitrate at micromolar levels in phosphate buffer media and in dilute horse serum without additional sample pre-treatment. A generator-collector configuration is employed so that on one electrode nitrate is reduced to nitrite and on the second electrode nitrite is oxidised back to nitrate. The resulting redox cycle gives rise to a specific and enhanced current signal which is exploited for sensitive and reliable measurement of nitrite/nitrate in the presence of oxygen. The electrode design is based on a dual-plate microtrench (approximately 15µm inter-electrode gap) fabricated from gold-coated glass and with a nano-silver catalyst for the reduction of nitrate. Fine tuning of the phosphate buffer pH is crucial for maximising collector current signals whilst minimising unwanted gold surface oxidation. A limit of detection of 24?M nitrate and a linear concentration range of 200-1400?M is reported for the microtrench sensor in phosphate buffer and dilute horse serum. Relative standard deviations for repeat measurements were in the range 1.8-6.9% (n=3) indicating good repeatability in both aqueous and biological media. Preliminary method validation against the standard chemiluminescence method used in medical laboratories is reported for nitrate analysis in serum. PMID:25281097

Gross, Andrew J; Holmes, Stephanie; Dale, Sara E C; Smallwood, Miranda J; Green, Stephen J; Peter Winlove, C; Benjamin, Nigel; Winyard, Paul G; Marken, Frank

2015-01-01

115

Vascular effects of dietary nitrate (as found in green leafy vegetables and beetroot) via the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway  

PubMed Central

The discovery that dietary (inorganic) nitrate has important vascular effects came from the relatively recent realization of the ‘nitrate?nitrite?nitric oxide (NO) pathway’. Dietary nitrate has been demonstrated to have a range of beneficial vascular effects, including reducing blood pressure, inhibiting platelet aggregation, preserving or improving endothelial dysfunction, enhancing exercise performance in healthy individuals and patients with peripheral arterial disease. Pre?clinical studies with nitrate or nitrite also show the potential to protect against ischaemia?reperfusion injury and reduce arterial stiffness, inflammation and intimal thickness. However, there is a need for good evidence for hard endpoints beyond epidemiological studies. Whilst these suggest reduction in cardiovascular risk with diets high in nitrate?rich vegetables (such as a Mediterranean diet), others have suggested possible small positive and negative associations with dietary nitrate and cancer, but these remain unproven. Interactions with other nutrients, such as vitamin C, polyphenols and fatty acids may enhance or inhibit these effects. In order to provide simple guidance on nitrate intake from different vegetables, we have developed the Nitrate ‘Veg?Table’ with ‘Nitrate Units’ [each unit being 1?mmol of nitrate (62?mg)] to achieve a nitrate intake that is likely to be sufficient to derive benefit, but also to minimize the risk of potential side effects from excessive ingestion, given the current available evidence. The lack of data concerning the long term effects of dietary nitrate is a limitation, and this will need to be addressed in future trials. PMID:22882425

Lidder, Satnam; Webb, Andrew J.

2013-01-01

116

The study of abiotic reduction of nitrate and nitrite in Boom Clay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In Belgium, Boom Clay is studied as a reference host rock for the geological disposal of high-level and intermediate-level radioactive waste. Compatibility studies at the SCK•CEN aim at investigating a perturbation of the capacity of Boom Clay to retard the migration of radionuclides to the biosphere, after disposal of Eurobitum bituminized radioactive waste in the clay ( Valcke et al., 2009; Aertsens et al., 2009; Bleyen et al., 2010). One of the geo-chemical perturbations is the possible oxidation of Boom Clay by the large amounts of nitrate that will be released by Eurobitum. A more oxidised Boom Clay could have a lower reducing capacity towards redox sensitive radionuclides, possibly enhancing their migration. As the conditions in the Boom Clay formation around a disposal gallery for Eurobitum are far from optimal for the growth of prokaryotes (limited space in the far-field, high pH in the near-field, gamma radiation by the waste during the first ?300 years (effect limited to the primary and secondary waste package)), the impact of microbially mediated reduction of nitrate and nitrite is unclear. Therefore, batch tests are performed at the SCK•CEN to study whether nitrate and nitrite can directly oxidise the main redoxactive components of Boom Clay (dissolved organic matter, kerogen, pyrite) without the mediation of prokaryotes. In a first series of batch tests, which are reported in this paper, the activity of denitrifying and nitrate reducing prokaryotes was inhibited by the addition of NaN 3. NaN 3 revealed to be an efficient inhibitor for these prokaryotes without affecting considerably the geochemistry of Boom Clay and/or Boom Clay pore water. Neither in batch tests with the Boom Clay slurries (with NaNO 3 (0.1 and 1 M) or NaNO 2 (0.1 M)) and with Boom Clay water (with 0.05 and 0.2 M NaNO 3) a pure chemical nitrate or nitrite reduction was observed after respectively 3, 7 and 17 weeks and 1 year (Boom Clay slurries) and about 2 years (Boom Clay water). Furthermore, batch tests in which bacterial activity was allowed, demonstrated that the Boom Clay natural organic matter is a poor carbon source for (denitrifying and nitrate reducing) prokaryotes.

Mariën, A.; Bleyen, N.; Aerts, S.; Valcke, E.

117

Macrophage Synthesis of Nitrite, Nitrate, and N-nitrosamines: Precursors and Role of the Respiratory Burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when activated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma synthesized nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-). Medium change after the activation showed that L-arginine was the only amino acid essential for this synthesis. D-Arginine would not substitute for L-arginine. Other analogues that could replace L-arginine were L-homoarginine, L-arginine methyl ester, L-arginamide, and the peptide L-arginyl-L-aspartate. L-Argininic

Radha Iyengar; Dennis J. Stuehr; Michael A. Marletta

1987-01-01

118

Introduction Current methods to determine nitrate (NO3  

E-print Network

205 Introduction Current methods to determine nitrate (NO3 ­ ) nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope of nitrate versus that of nitrite in a given sample. In the case of the ammonia distillation (Cline and Kaplan 1975) and ammonia diffusion (Sigman et al. 1997) methods for nitrate N isotope analysis, both

Sigman, Daniel M.

119

Plasma Levels of Nitrite and Nitrate in Early and Recent Classes of Fish  

PubMed Central

The stable metabolite of nitric oxide in plasma is NOx, the sum of nitrite plus nitrate. Measures of plasma NOx may provide information about the nitric oxide tonus of the entire endothelium including capillary microvessels. Although data are available for mammalian species, plasma NOx measurements in early vertebrate species are scarce. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that plasma NOx would be similar to the NOx in the water environment for fish in early classes (Agnatha and Chondrichthye) and would exceed water NOx levels in the known nitrite-sensitive fish (Osteichthye). Plasma samples were obtained from 18 species of adult fish (n = 167) and from their housing or natural water environment. NOx was measured by using chemiluminescence. Plasma NOx was detected in all species and ranged from 0.5 nmol/ml (skate) to 453.9 nmol/ml (shortnose gar). Average plasma NOx was significantly higher in sea lamprey than in Atlantic hagfish whereas that of little skate was 3-fold lower than in spiny dogfish shark. Plasma NOx differed significantly among early bony fish (paddlefish, pallid sturgeon, gar) yet was similar among modern bony fish, with the exception of rainbow trout. Plasma NOx reflected water NOx in only 2 species (hagfish and shark), and levels did not coincide with nitrite sensitivity. This study provides an expanded comparative view of plasma NOx levels across 3 groups of early fish. The data obtained suggest a nitric oxide system in early and modern fish. PMID:19004368

Williams, Donna A; Flood, Mary H; Lewis, Debra A; Miller, Virginia M; Krause, William J

2008-01-01

120

Successful application of nitritation/anammox to wastewater with elevated organic carbon to ammonia ratios.  

PubMed

The nitritation/anammox process has been mainly applied to high-strength nitrogenous wastewaters with very low biodegradable organic carbon content (<0.5 g COD?g N(-1)). However, several wastewaters have biodegradable organic carbon to nitrogen (COD/N) ratios between 0.5 and 1.7 g COD?g N(-1) and thus, contain elevated amounts of organic carbon but not enough for heterotrophic denitrification. In this study, the influence of elevated COD/N ratios was studied on a nitritation/anammox process with suspended sludge. In a step-wise manner, the influent COD/N ratio was increased to 1.4 g COD?g N(-1) by supplementing digester supernatant with acetate. The increasing availability of COD led to an increase of the nitrogen removal efficiency from around 85% with pure digester supernatant to >95% with added acetate while the nitrogen elimination rate stayed constant (275 ± 40 mg N?L(-1)?d(-1)). Anammox activity and abundance of anammox bacteria (AMX) were strongly correlated, and with increasing influent COD/N ratio both decreased steadily. At the same time, heterotrophic denitrification with nitrite and the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) gradually increased. Simultaneously, the sludge retention time (SRT) decreased significantly with increasing COD loading to about 15 d and reached critical values for the slowly growing AMX. When the SRT was increased by reducing biomass loss with the effluent, AMX activity and abundance started to rise again, while the AOB activity remained unaltered. Fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that the initial AMX community shifted within only 40 d from a mixed AMX community to "Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" as the dominant AMX type with an influent COD/N ratio of 0.8 g COD?g N(-1) and higher. "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" is known to oxidise acetate, and its ability to outcompete other types of AMX indicates that AMX participated in acetate oxidation. In a later phase, glucose was added to the influent instead of acetate. The new substrate composition did not significantly influence the nitrogen removal nor the AMX activity, and "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" remained the dominant type of AMX. Overall, this study showed that AMX can coexist with heterotrophic bacteria at elevated influent COD/N ratios if a sufficiently high SRT is maintained. PMID:24355291

Jenni, Sarina; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

2014-02-01

121

Nitrate reductase and nitrite as additional components of defense system in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) against Helicoverpa armigera herbivory.  

PubMed

Amylase inhibitors serve as attractive candidates of defense mechanisms against insect attack. Therefore, the impediment of Helicoverpa armigera digestion can be the effective way of controlling this pest population. Nitrite was found to be a potent mixed non-competitive competitive inhibitor of partially purified ?-amylase of H. armigera gut. This observation impelled us to determine the response of nitrite and nitrate reductase (NR) towards H. armigera infestation in nine pigeonpea genotypes (four moderately resistant, three intermediate and two moderately susceptible). The significant upregulation of NR in moderately resistant genotypes after pod borer infestation suggested NR as one of the factors that determine their resistance status against insect attack. The pod borer attack caused greater reduction of nitrate and significant accumulation of nitrite in moderately resistant genotypes. The activity of nitrite reductase (NiR) was also enhanced more in moderately resistant genotypes than moderately susceptible genotypes on account of H. armigera herbivory. Expression of resistance to H. armigera was further revealed when significant negative association between NR, NiR, nitrite and percent pod damage was observed. This is the first report that suggests nitrite to be a potent inhibitor of H. armigera ?-amylase and also the involvement of nitrite and NR in providing resistance against H. armigera herbivory. PMID:25307464

Kaur, Rimaljeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Taggar, Gaurav Kumar

2014-10-01

122

Acute toxicity of nitrite and ammonia to Daphnia similoides of different developmental stages: using the modified Gaussian model to describe.  

PubMed

To gain an insight into the tolerance of Daphnia to nitrite and ammonia, a modified Gaussian model was used to describe the trends of changes in LC50s of nitrite and ammonia to Daphnia similoides at different developmental stages. LC50s of NO(2)-N and NH(3)-N increased with age before maturation and then decreased at maturation. A modified Gaussian model provided an accurate fit for the changes in LC50s of NO(2)-N and NH(3)-N, in which the parameters have definite biological meanings. From this model, we can gain an insight into the maximum LC50 and the age that has the maximum LC50 and predict LC50s at any specific ages. We suggest that such a model might be used to describe the trend in acute toxicity of some other zooplankton species at different stages. PMID:20431865

Xiang, Fuhui; Yang, Wei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

2010-06-01

123

Aminophenyl Benzimidazole as a New Reagent for the Estimation of NO2\\/Nitrite\\/Nitrate at Trace Level: Application to Environmental Samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air and nitrite\\/nitrate in water and soil samples has been developed. Nitrogen dioxide in air has been fixed as nitrite ion using alkaline sodium arsenite as absorbing medium. The method is based on the reaction of nitrite with aminophenyl benzimidazole in acid medium to form diazonium

M. Pandurangappa; Y. Venkataramanappa

2007-01-01

124

Simultaneous electrochemical determination of nitrate and nitrite in aqueous solution using Ag-doped zeolite-expanded graphite-epoxy electrode.  

PubMed

In this work a new electrochemical sensor based on an Ag-doped zeolite-expanded graphite-epoxy composite electrode (AgZEGE) was evaluated as a novel alternative for the simultaneous quantitative determination of nitrate and nitrite in aqueous solutions. Cyclic voltammetry was used to characterize the electrochemical behavior of the electrode in the presence of individual or mixtures of nitrate and nitrite anions in 0.1M Na(2)SO(4) supporting electrolyte. Linear dependences of current versus nitrate and nitrite concentrations were obtained for the concentration ranges of 1-10mM for nitrate and 0.1-1mM for nitrite using cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA), and multiple-pulsed amperometry (MPA) procedures. The comparative assessment of the electrochemical behavior of the individual anions and mixtures of anions on this modified electrode allowed determining the working conditions for the simultaneous detection of the nitrite and nitrate anions. Applying MPA allowed enhancement of the sensitivity for direct and indirect nitrate detection and also for nitrite detection. The proposed sensor was applied in tap water samples spiked with known nitrate and nitrite concentrations and the results were in agreement with those obtained by a comparative spectrophotometric method. This work demonstrates that using multiple-pulse amperometry with the Ag-doped zeolite-expanded graphite-epoxy composite electrode provides a real opportunity for the simultaneous detection of nitrite and nitrate in aqueous solutions. PMID:21035645

Manea, Florica; Remes, Adriana; Radovan, Ciprian; Pode, Rodica; Picken, Stephen; Schoonman, Joop

2010-11-15

125

Comparative Induction of Nitrate Reductase by Nitrate and Nitrite in Barley Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The comparative induction of nitrate reductase (NR) by ambient NO3? and NO2? as a function of influx, reduction (as NR was induced) and accumulation in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum valgare L.) seedlings was determined. The dynamic interaction of NO3? influx, reduction and accumulation on NR induction was shown. The activity of NR, as it was induced, influenced its further induction by affecting the internal concentration of NO3?. As the ambient concentration of NO3? increased, the relative influences imposed by influx and reduction on NO3? accumulation changed with influx becoming a more predominant regulant. Significant levels of NO3? accumulated in NO2?-fed leaves. When the leaves were supplied cycloheximide or tungstate along with NO2?, about 60% more NO3? accumulated in the leaves than in the absence of the inhibitors. In NO3?-supplied leaves NR induction was observed at an ambient concentration of as low as 0.02 mm. No NR induction occurred in leaves supplied with NO2? until the ambient NO2? concentration was 0.5 mm. In fact, NR induction from NO2? solutions was not seen until NO3? was detected in the leaves. The amount of NO3? accumulating in NO2?-fed leaves induced similar levels of NR as did equivalent amounts of NO3? accumulating from NO3?-fed leaves. In all cases the internal concentration of NO3?, but not NO2?, was highly correlated with the amount of NR induced. The evidence indicated that NO3? was a more likely inducer of NR than was NO2?. PMID:11539032

Aslam, Muhammad; Rosichan, Jeff L.; Huffaker, Ray C.

1987-01-01

126

Comparative induction of nitrate reductase by nitrate and nitrite in barley leaves  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The comparative induction of nitrate reductase (NR) by ambient NO3- and NO2- as a function of influx, reduction (as NR was induced) and accumulation in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was determined. The dynamic interaction of NO3- influx, reduction and accumulation on NR induction was shown. The activity of NR, as it was induced, influenced its further induction by affecting the internal concentration of NO3-. As the ambient concentration of NO3- increased, the relative influences imposed by influx and reduction on NO3- accumulation changed with influx becoming a more predominant regulant. Significant levels of NO3- accumulated in NO2(-)-fed leaves. When the leaves were supplied cycloheximide or tungstate along with NO2-, about 60% more NO3- accumulated in the leaves than in the absence of the inhibitors. In NO3(-)-supplied leaves NR induction was observed at an ambient concentration of as low as 0.02 mM. No NR induction occurred in leaves supplied with NO2- until the ambient NO2- concentration was 0.5 mM. In fact, NR induction from NO2- solutions was not seen until NO3- was detected in the leaves. The amount of NO3- accumulating in NO2(-)-fed leaves induced similar levels of NR as did equivalent amounts of NO3- accumulating from NO3(-)-fed leaves. In all cases the internal concentration of NO3-, but not NO2-, was highly correlated with the amount of NR induced. The evidence indicated that NO3- was a more likely inducer of NR than was NO2-.

Aslam, M.; Rosichan, J. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

1987-01-01

127

Simazine biodegradation and community structures of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in bioaugmented soil: impact of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen sources.  

PubMed

The objective of the present study was to investigate the impact of ammonia and nitrate nitrogen sources on simazine biodegradation by Arthrobacter sp. strain SD1 and the community structures of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in non-agricultural soil. Soil microcosms with different treatments were constructed for herbicide biodegradation test. The relative abundance of the strain SD1 and the structures of AOA and AOB communities were assessed using quantitative PCR (q-PCR) and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (TRFLP), respectively. The co-existence of two inorganic nitrogen sources (ammonia and nitrate) had certain impact on simazine dissipation by the strain SD1. Bioaugmentation could induce a shift in the community structures of both AOA and AOB, but AOA were more responsive. Nitrogen application had significant impacts on AOA and AOB communities in bioaugmented soils. Moreover, in non-bioaugmented soil, the community structure of AOA, instead of AOB, could be quickly recovered after herbicide application. This study could add some new insights towards the impacts of nitrogen sources on s-triazine bioremediation and ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil ecosystem. PMID:24194418

Wan, Rui; Yang, Yuyin; Sun, Weimin; Wang, Zhao; Xie, Shuguang

2014-02-01

128

Maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites and nitrosamines and selected birth defects in offspring: a case-control study  

PubMed Central

Background Dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines can increase the endogenous formation of N-nitroso compounds in the stomach. Results from animal studies suggest that these compounds might be teratogenic. We examined the relationship between maternal dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites (including plant and animal sources as separate groups), and nitrosamines and several types of birth defects in offspring. Methods For this population-based case–control study, data from a 58-question food frequency questionnaire, adapted from the short Willett Food Frequency Questionnaire and administered as part of the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), were used to estimate daily intake of dietary nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in a sample of 6544 mothers of infants with neural tube defects (NTD)s, oral clefts (OC)s, or limb deficiencies (LD)s and 6807 mothers of unaffected control infants. Total daily intake of these compounds was divided into quartiles based on the control mother distributions. Odds ratios (OR)s and 95% confidence intervals (CI)s were estimated using logistic regression; estimates were adjusted for maternal daily caloric intake, maternal race-ethnicity, education, dietary folate intake, high fat diet (> 30% of calories from fat), and state of residence. Results While some unadjusted ORs for NTDS had 95% (CI)s that excluded the null value, none remained significant after adjustment for covariates, and the effect sizes were small (adjusted odds ratios [aOR] <1.12). Similar results were found for OCs and LDs with the exception of animal nitrites and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (aORs and CIs for quartile 4 compared to quartile 1 =1.24; CI=1.05-1.48), animal nitrites and cleft lip (4th quartile aOR=1.32; CI=1.01-1.72), and total nitrite and intercalary LD (4th quartile aOR=4.70; CI=1.23-17.93). Conclusions Overall, odds of NTDs, OCs or LDs did not appear to be significantly associated with estimated dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosamines. PMID:23514444

2013-01-01

129

Influence of aeration and sludge retention time on ammonium oxidation to nitrite and nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Partial nitrification to nitrite was reported to be technically feasible and economically favourable, especially when wastewater with high ammonium concentrations or low C\\/N ratios are treated. Nitritation can be obtained by selectively inhibiting nitrite oxidizing microrganisms through appropriate regulation of the system's pH, temperature, and sludge retention time. In addition to already known methods, the work showed that aeration patterns

Alfieri Pollice; Valter Tandoi; Carmela Lestingi

2002-01-01

130

Rhodococcus sp. RB1 grows in the presence of high nitrate and nitrite concentrations and assimilates nitrate in moderately saline environments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rhodococcus sp. RB1 was able to thrive in media with up to 0.9 M NaCl or KCl and in the presence of high concentrations of nitrate (up to 0.9 M) and nitrite (up to 60 mM), but only under oxic conditions. An adaptation period was not required for salt tolerance, but a rapid extrusion of K+ and intake of Na+

Rafael Blasco; Manuel Martínez-Luque; Marta P. Madrid; Francisco Castillo; Conrado Moreno-Vivián

2001-01-01

131

Effects of roxithromycin on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of wheat.  

PubMed

In a pot-cultural experiment, the impact of the antibiotic roxithromycin (ROX) addition was assessed on the diversities of microbial structure and function communities, especially involved in ammonia and nitrite oxidation in wheat rhizosphere soil with and without the addition of earthworms. The abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and total bacteria were surveyed by the quantitative PCR. The quantities of total bacteria, AOB, and NOB with earthworms were higher than those without earthworms because of the synergistic effect. ROX inhibited the growth of AOB in all treatments, although the quantities of AOB were in a light increase in medium and heavy polluted treatments compared with that in the light polluted treatments. Different from AOB, the quantities of NOB were lowest in light polluted treatments, but the quantities of NOB were rapidly increased in medium and heavy polluted treatments compared with that in the control. These results indicated that the application of ROX principally had a negative effect on nitrification performance by affecting the abundances and relative ratios of both AOB and NOB in soil communities, which affected the N cycle in an agricultural ecosystem. According to the metabolic diversities evaluated by the biologic assay, the tendency of metabolic diversities was quite contrary to the quantities of NOB in all treatments and showed the contrast growing relation of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria under ROX pollution pressure in agricultural ecosystems. PMID:24150789

Yu, Binbin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Shuai; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Qixing

2014-01-01

132

SIMULTANEOUS DETERMINATION OF NITRITE AND NITRATE IN DRINKING WATER AND HUMAN SERUM BY HIGH PERFORMANCE ANIONEXCHANGE CHROMATOGRAPHY AND UV DETECTION  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid, accurate, and sensitive method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate. A low capacity strong anion exchange PRP-X100 Hamilton, 150 × 4.1 mm, 10 ?m, with exchange capacity 0.19 ± 0.02 meq\\/g, analytical column was used, with a mixture of 0.1 M NaCl-CH3OH, at a volume ratio 45:55. The flow rate of 2 mL\\/min,

I. N. Papadoyannis; V. F. Samanidou; Ch. C. Nitsos

1999-01-01

133

Nitrate/nitrite reductase activity of sulfido/selenido bridged dinuclear ruthenium(III) complexes.  

PubMed

Series of dinuclear species [Ru(2)(L)(2)(LH)(2)-mu-S(2)Cl(2)], [Ru(2)(L)(2)(LH)(4)-mu-Se(2)Cl(2)] (L=L(1)H and L(3)H) and [Ru(2)(L(2))(2)(L(2)H)-mu-Se(2)Cl(2)].2H(2)O, where L(1)H, L(2)H and L(3)H represent for 2-mercapto-5-phenyl-1,3,4-oxadiazole, 2-mercapto-benzimidazole and 2-mercapto-benzothiazole, respectively, have been prepared and characterized by their elemental analyses and spectral (IR, UV-visible, 1H NMR and FAB mass) data. The diamagnetism of these complexes are indicative of an exchange coupled dinuclear ruthenium(III) species containing S(2)(2-) and Se(2)(2-) bridges. The complexes along with free heterocycles (L(1)H-L(3)H) as well as RuCl(3) x 3H(2)0 were tested for their nitrate and nitrite reductase activities. The electrochemical behaviour of the complexes showed irreversible oxidation peaks at +(1.04-1.40) V quite comparable to those reported for sulphido bridged complexes. PMID:11566330

Mishra, L; Vilaplana, R; Singh, V K; Yadaw, A K; González-Vilchez, F

2001-09-01

134

Effects of simulated microgravity on arterial nitric oxide synthase and nitrate and nitrite content  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The aim of the present work was to investigate the alterations in nitric oxide synthase (NOS) expression and nitrate and nitrite (NOx) content of different arteries from simulated microgravity rats. Male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to either a control group or simulated microgravity group. For simulating microgravity, animals were subjected to hindlimb unweighting (HU) for 20 days. Different arterial tissues were removed for determination of NOS expression and NOx. Western blotting was used to measure endothelial NOS (eNOS) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein content. Total concentrations of NOx, stable metabolites of nitric oxide, were determined by the chemiluminescence method. Compared with controls, isolated vessels from simulated microgravity rats showed a significant increase in both eNOS and iNOS expression in carotid arteries and thoracic aorta and a significant decrease in eNOS and iNOS expression of mesenteric arteries. The eNOS and iNOS content of cerebral arteries, as well as that of femoral arteries, showed no differences between the two groups. Concerning NOx, vessels from HU rats showed an increase in cerebral arteries, a decrease in mesenteric arteries, and no change in carotid artery, femoral artery and thoracic aorta. These data indicated that there were differential alterations in NOS expression and NOx of different arteries after hindlimb unweighting. We suggest that these changes might represent both localized adaptations to differential body fluid redistribution and other factors independent of hemodynamic shifts during simulated microgravity.

Ma, Jin; Kahwaji, Chadi I.; Ni, Zhenmin; Vaziri, Nosratola D.; Purdy, Ralph E.

2003-01-01

135

Selective determination method for measurement of nitrite and nitrate in water samples using high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column photochemical reaction and chemiluminescence detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and selective method for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in water samples has been developed. The method is based on ion-exchange separation, online photochemical reaction, and luminol chemiluminescence detection. The separation of nitrite and nitrate was achieved using an anion-exchange column with a 20mM borate buffer (pH 10.0). After the separation, these ions were converted

Hitoshi Kodamatani; Shigeo Yamazaki; Keiitsu Saito; Takashi Tomiyasu; Yu Komatsu

2009-01-01

136

Discrimination between structurally related ligands nitrate and nitrite controls autokinase activity of the NarX transmembrane signal transducer of Escherichia coli K-12.  

PubMed

Anaerobic respiratory gene expression in Escherichia coli is differentially controlled by nitrate and nitrite through dual interacting two-component regulatory systems. The NarX sensor is one of two membrane-spanning sensor kinases that control the phosphorylation state of two DNA-binding response regulators. We have studied NarX autophosphorylation in crude membrane preparations from cells that overexpress NarX protein. The low basal autophosphorylation rate was stimulated about sixfold and threefold by nitrate and nitrite respectively. This demonstrates that nitrate and nitrite differentially activate NarX autokinase activity. We also isolated single-residue substitutions in NarX that affect its ability to respond to or discriminate between nitrate and nitrite. Most of these substitutions affect residues within the conserved P-box sequence in the periplasmic domain. We characterized several of the mutants in vivo, by monitoring ligand-regulated gene expression, and in vitro, by monitoring ligand-responsive autophosphorylation. At least one change, K491 (Lys at position 49 changed to Ile), resulted in a protein with greatly impaired ability to discriminate between nitrate and nitrite. Other changes (H45E and R59K) resulted in proteins that responded normally to nitrate but were unable to respond to nitrite. These results implicate the P-box region in discrimination between subtly different small molecules. PMID:9426129

Williams, S B; Stewart, V

1997-12-01

137

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea and nitrite-oxidizing nitrospiras in the biofilter of a shrimp recirculating aquaculture system.  

PubMed

This study analysed the nitrifier community in the biofilter of a zero discharge, recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) for the production of marine shrimp in a low density (low ammonium production) system. The ammonia-oxidizing populations were examined by targeting 16S rRNA and amoA genes of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA). The nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were investigated by targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Archaeal amoA genes were more abundant in all compartments of the RAS than bacterial amoA genes. Analysis of bacterial and archaeal amoA gene sequences revealed that most ammonia oxidizers were related to Nitrosomonas marina and Nitrosopumilus maritimus. The NOB detected were related to Nitrospira marina and Nitrospira moscoviensis, and Nitrospira marina-type NOB were more abundant than N. moscoviensis-type NOB. Water quality and biofilm attachment media played a role in the competitiveness of AOA over AOB and Nitrospira marina-over N. moscoviensis-type NOB. PMID:22775980

Brown, Monisha N; Briones, Aurelio; Diana, James; Raskin, Lutgarde

2013-01-01

138

Changes in Benthic Denitrification, Nitrate Ammonification, and Anammox Process Rates and Nitrate and Nitrite Reductase Gene Abundances along an Estuarine Nutrient Gradient (the Colne Estuary, United Kingdom)? †  

PubMed Central

Estuarine sediments are the location for significant bacterial removal of anthropogenically derived inorganic nitrogen, in particular nitrate, from the aquatic environment. In this study, rates of benthic denitrification (DN), dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), and anammox (AN) at three sites along a nitrate concentration gradient in the Colne estuary, United Kingdom, were determined, and the numbers of functional genes (narG, napA, nirS, and nrfA) and corresponding transcripts encoding enzymes mediating nitrate reduction were determined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. In situ rates of DN and DNRA decreased toward the estuary mouth, with the findings from slurry experiments suggesting that the potential for DNRA increased while the DN potential decreased as nitrate concentrations declined. AN was detected only at the estuary head, accounting for ?30% of N2 formation, with 16S rRNA genes from anammox-related bacteria also detected only at this site. Numbers of narG genes declined along the estuary, while napA gene numbers were stable, suggesting that NAP-mediated nitrate reduction remained important at low nitrate concentrations. nirS gene numbers (as indicators of DN) also decreased along the estuary, whereas nrfA (an indicator for DNRA) was detected only at the two uppermost sites. Similarly, nitrate and nitrite reductase gene transcripts were detected only at the top two sites. A regression analysis of log(n + 1) process rate data and log(n + 1) mean gene abundances showed significant relationships between DN and nirS and between DNRA and nrfA. Although these log-log relationships indicate an underlying relationship between the genetic potential for nitrate reduction and the corresponding process activity, fine-scale environmentally induced changes in rates of nitrate reduction are likely to be controlled at cellular and protein levels. PMID:19304834

Dong, Liang F.; Smith, Cindy J.; Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Stott, Andrew; Osborn, A. Mark; Nedwell, David B.

2009-01-01

139

Nitrite accumulation from simultaneous free-ammonia and free-nitrous-acid inhibition and oxygen limitation in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

To achieve nitrite accumulation for shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) in a biofilm process, we explored the simultaneous effects of oxygen limitation and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition in the nitrifying biofilm. We used the multi-species nitrifying biofilm model (MSNBM) to identify conditions that should or should not lead to nitrite accumulation, and evaluated the effectiveness of those conditions with experiments in continuous flow biofilm reactors (CFBRs). CFBR experiments were organized into four sets with these expected outcomes based on the MSNBM as follows: (i) Control, giving full nitrification; (ii) oxygen limitation, giving modest long-term nitrite build up; (iii) FA inhibition, giving no long-term nitrite accumulation; and (iv) FA inhibition plus oxygen limitation, giving major long-term nitrite accumulation. Consistent with MSNBM predictions, the experimental results showed that nitrite accumulated in sets 2-4 in the short term, but long-term nitrite accumulation was maintained only in sets 2 and 4, which involved oxygen limitation. Furthermore, nitrite accumulation was substantially greater in set 4, which also included FA inhibition. However, FA inhibition (and accompanying FNA inhibition) alone in set 3 did not maintained long-term nitrite accumulation. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity batch tests confirmed that little NOB or only a small fraction of NOB were present in the biofilms for sets 4 and 2, respectively. The experimental data supported the previous modeling results that nitrite accumulation could be achieved with a lower ammonium concentration than had been required for a suspended-growth process. Additional findings were that the biofilm exposed to low dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and FA inhibition was substantially denser and probably had a lower detachment rate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 43-52. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24981425

Park, Seongjun; Chung, Jinwook; Rittmann, Bruce E; Bae, Wookeun

2015-01-01

140

Intracellular Conversion of Environmental Nitrate and Nitrite to Nitric Oxide with Resulting Developmental Toxicity to the Crustacean Daphnia magna  

PubMed Central

Background Nitrate and nitrite (jointly referred to herein as NOx) are ubiquitous environmental contaminants to which aquatic organisms are at particularly high risk of exposure. We tested the hypothesis that NOx undergo intracellular conversion to the potent signaling molecule nitric oxide resulting in the disruption of endocrine-regulated processes. Methodology/Principal Findings These experiments were performed with insect cells (Drosophila S2) and whole organisms Daphnia magna. We first evaluated the ability of cells to convert nitrate (NO3?) and nitrite (NO2?) to nitric oxide using amperometric real-time nitric oxide detection. Both NO3? and NO2? were converted to nitric oxide in a substrate concentration-dependent manner. Further, nitric oxide trapping and fluorescent visualization studies revealed that perinatal daphnids readily convert NO2? to nitric oxide. Next, daphnids were continuously exposed to concentrations of the nitric oxide-donor sodium nitroprusside (positive control) and to concentrations of NO3? and NO2?. All three compounds interfered with normal embryo development and reduced daphnid fecundity. Developmental abnormalities were characteristic of those elicited by compounds that interfere with ecdysteroid signaling. However, no compelling evidence was generated to indicate that nitric oxide reduced ecdysteroid titers. Conclusions/Significance Results demonstrate that nitrite elicits developmental and reproductive toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations due likely to its intracellular conversion to nitric oxide. PMID:20805993

Hannas, Bethany R.; Das, Parikshit C.; Li, Hong; LeBlanc, Gerald A.

2010-01-01

141

Kinetics of nirS Expression (Cytochrome cd 1 Nitrite Reductase) in Pseudomonas stutzeri during the Transition from Aerobic Respiration to Denitrification: Evidence for a Denitrification Specific Nitrate and Nitrite-Responsive Regulatory System  

Microsoft Academic Search

After shifting an oxygen-respiring culture of Pseudomonas stutzeri to nitrate or nitrite respiration, we directly monitored the expression of the nirS gene by mRNA analysis. nirS encodes the 62-kDa subunit of the homodimeric cytochrome cd1 nitrite reductase involved in denitrification. Information was sought about the requirements for gene activation, potential regulators of such activation, and signal transduction pathways triggered by

ELISABETH HARTIG; WALTER G. ZUMFT

1999-01-01

142

Reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry with isotope dilution for the analysis of nitrate and nitrite in water.  

PubMed

A new method was developed for the analysis of nitrate and nitrite in a variety of water matrices by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. For this direct analysis method, nitrate and nitrite anions were well separated under the optimized LC conditions, detected by monitoring m/z 62 and m/z 46 ions, and quantitated by using an isotope dilution technique that utilized the isotopically labeled analogs. The method sensitivity, accuracy, and precision were investigated, along with matrix effects resulting from common inorganic matrix anions. The isotope dilution technique, along with sample pretreatment using barium, silver, and hydrogen cartridges, effectively compensated for the ionization suppression caused by the major water matrix anions, including chloride, sulfate, phosphate, and carbonate. The method detection limits, based on seven reagent water replicates fortified at 0.01 mg N/L nitrate and 0.1 mg N/L nitrite, were 0.001 mg N/L for nitrate and 0.012-0.014 mg N/L for nitrite. The mean recoveries from the replicate fortified reagent water and lab water samples containing the major water matrix anions, were 92-103% for nitrate with an imprecision (relative standard deviation, RSD) of 0.4-2.1% and 92-110% for nitrite with an RSD of 1.1-4.4%. For the analysis of nitrate and nitrite in drinking water, surface water, and groundwater samples, the obtained results were generally consistent with those obtained from the reference methods. The mean recoveries from the replicate matrix spikes were 92-123% for nitrate with an RSD of 0.6-7.7% and 105-113% for nitrite with an RSD of 0.3-1.8%. PMID:21168849

Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

2011-01-21

143

Nitrite and nitrate formation on model NOx storage materials: on the influence of particle size and composition.  

PubMed

A well-defined model-catalyst approach has been utilized to study the formation and decomposition of nitrite and nitrate species on a model NO(x) storage material. The model system comprises BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles of different size and stoichiometry, prepared under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions on Al(2)O(3)/NiAl(110). Adsorption and reaction of NO(2) has been investigated by molecular beam (MB) methods and time-resolved IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (TR-IRAS) in combination with structural characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The growth behavior and chemical composition of the BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles has been investigated previously. In this work we focus on the effect of particle size and stoichiometry on the reaction with NO(2). Particles of different size and of different Ba(2+) : Al(3+) surface ion ratio are prepared by varying the preparation conditions. It is shown that at 300 K the reaction mechanism is independent of particle size and composition, involving initial nitrite formation and subsequent transformation of nitrites into surface nitrates. The coordination geometry of the surface nitrates, however, changes characteristically with particle size. For small BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles high temperature (800 K) oxygen treatment gives rise to particle ripening, which has a minor effect on the NO(2) uptake behavior, however. STM shows that the morphology of the particle system is largely conserved during NO(2) exposure at 300 K. The reaction is limited to the formation of surface nitrites and nitrates, which are characterized by low thermal stability and completely decompose below 500 K. As no further sintering occurs before decomposition, NO(2) uptake and release is a fully reversible process. For large BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles, aggregates with different Ba(2+) : Al(3+) surface ion ratio were prepared. It was shown that the stoichiometry has a major effect on the kinetics of NO(2) uptake. For barium-aluminate-like particles with high Al(3+) concentration, the formation of nitrites and nitrates on the BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles at 300 K is slow, and kinetically restricted to the formation of surface species. Only at elevated temperature (500 K) are surface nitrates converted into well-defined bulk Ba(NO(3))(2). This bulk Ba(NO(3))(2) exhibits substantially higher thermal stability and undergoes restructuring and sintering before it decomposes at 700 K. For Ba(2+)-rich BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles, on the other hand, nitrate formation occurs at a much higher rate than for the barium-aluminate-like particles. Furthermore, nitrate formation is not limited to the surface, but NO(2) exposure gives rise to the formation of amorphous bulk Ba(NO(3))(2) particles even at 300 K. PMID:19325986

Desikusumastuti, A; Qin, Z; Happel, M; Staudt, T; Lykhach, Y; Laurin, M; Rohr, F; Shaikhutdinov, S; Libuda, J

2009-04-14

144

Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms have been observed to oxidize Fe(II) at neutral pH under anoxic and microoxic conditions. While most of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become encrusted with Fe(III)-rich minerals, photoautotrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers avoid cell encrustation. The Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms and the reasons for encrustation remain largely unresolved. Here we used cultivation-based methods and electron microscopy to compare two previously described nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers ( Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002) and two heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 and P. denitrificans Pd 1222). All four strains oxidized ?8 mM Fe(II) within 5 days in the presence of 5 mM acetate and accumulated nitrite (maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 1.0 mM) in the culture media. Iron(III) minerals, mainly goethite, formed and precipitated extracellularly in close proximity to the cell surface. Interestingly, mineral formation was also observed within the periplasm and cytoplasm; intracellular mineralization is expected to be physiologically disadvantageous, yet acetate consumption continued to be observed even at an advanced stage of Fe(II) oxidation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were detected by lectin staining with fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the presence of Fe(II), suggesting that EPS production is a response to Fe(II) toxicity or a strategy to decrease encrustation. Based on the data presented here, we propose a nitrite-driven, indirect mechanism of cell encrustation whereby nitrite forms during heterotrophic denitrification and abiotically oxidizes Fe(II). This work adds to the known assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and complicates our ability to delineate microbial Fe(II) oxidation in ancient microbes preserved as fossils in the geological record. PMID:24271182

Klueglein, Nicole; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Floetenmeyer, Matthias; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin

2014-01-01

145

Reversible intercalation of ammonia molecules into a layered double hydroxide structure without exchanging nitrate counter-ions  

SciTech Connect

A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 A, typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 A. Thermal treatment at 150 {sup o}C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 A. Intense N-H stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup +} species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia, the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 A basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 A basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 {sup o}C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. - Graphical abstract: LDH-nitrate precipitated with ammonia expands the interlayer space if ammonia is bubbled up to pH 10. The basal distance decreased when the compound was heated at 150 {sup o}C or stirred in acetone. Nitrate ions are not exchanged.

Carbajal Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Wypych, Fernando [CEPESQ-Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Parana, P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Castillon Barraza, Felipe; Contreras Lopez, Oscar Edel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

2010-10-15

146

Prenatal Exposure to Nitrates, Nitrites, Nitrosatable Drugs, and Small-For-Gestational-Age Births  

E-print Network

Certain drugs, which contain nitrosatable amines (secondary or tertiary amines) or amides can react with nitrite in the stomach to form N-nitroso compounds. Experimental data from animal studies suggest that exposure to these compounds might reduce...

Shinde, Mayura

2013-11-27

147

Prenatal Exposure to Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosatable Drugs and Preterm Births  

E-print Network

Nitrosatable drugs react with nitrite in the stomach to form N-nitroso compounds, observed in animal models to result in adverse pregnancy outcomes such as birth defects and reduced fetal weight. Previous studies examining prenatal exposure...

Vuong, Ann Minh

2013-10-28

148

A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) or nitrate to ammonia and glass (NAG) process: Phase 2 report  

SciTech Connect

Continuing benchtop studies using Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants and actual Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) low-level waste (LLW), employing a new denitration process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 and 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted to gaseous ammonia. In this process, aluminum powders can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid. The process may be able to use contaminated aluminum scrap metal from DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nitrate-free ceramic product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics or silica and/or fluxing agents can be added to form a glassy ceramic or a flowable glass product. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 70% were obtained for the waste form produced. Sintered pellets produced from supernate from Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVSTs) have been leached in accordance with the 16.1 leach test for the radioelements {sup 85}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. Despite lengthy counting times, {sup 85}Sr could not be detected in the leachates. {sup 137}Cs was only slightly above background and corresponded to a leach index of 12.2 to 13.7 after 8 months of leaching. Leach testing of unsintered and sintered reactor product spiked with hazardous metals proved that both sintered and unsintered product passed the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) test. Design of the equipment and flowsheet for a pilot demonstration-scale system to prove the nitrate destruction portion of the NAC process and product formation is under way.

Mattus, A.J.; Walker, J.F. Jr.; Youngblood, E.L.; Farr, L.L.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Tiegs, T.N.

1994-12-01

149

Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

The biological treatment of ammonia-rich landfill leachates due to an inadequate C to N ratio requires expensive supplementation of carbon from an external carbon source. In an effort to reduce treatment costs, the objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during landfill leachate co-treatment with municipal wastewater. Initially, the laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and fed only raw municipal wastewater (RWW) during a start-up period of 9 weeks. Then, in the co-treatment period, consisting of the next 17 weeks, the system was fed a mixture of RWW and an increasing quantity of landfill leachates (from 1 to 10% by volume). The results indicate that landfill leachate addition of up to 10% (by volume) influenced the effluent quality, except for BOD5. During the experiment, a positive correlation (r(2)?=?0.908) between ammonia load in the influent and nitrite in the effluent was observed, suggesting that the second step of nitrification was partially inhibited. The partial nitrification (PN) was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was observed when the oxygen concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg O2/dm(3) and free ammonia (FA) ranged from 2.01 to 35.86 mg N-NH3/dm(3) in the aerobic phase. Increasing ammonia load in wastewater influent was also correlated with an increasing amount of total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent, which suggested insufficient amounts of assimilable organic carbon to complete denitrification. Because nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway is beneficial for carbon-limited and highly ammonia-loaded mixtures, obtaining PN can lead to a reduction in the external carbon source needed to support denitrification. PMID:24569868

Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Luczkiewicz, A; Fitobor, K; Olanczuk-Neyman, K

2014-06-01

150

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. ha...

H. Li J. Q. Chambers, D. T. Hobbs

1988-01-01

151

Simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate at nanomolar level in seawater using on-line solid phase extraction hyphenated with liquid waveguide capillary cell for spectrophotometric detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A flow system coupled with on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) and liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC) spectrophotometric\\u000a detection has been established to simultaneously determine nanomolar levels of nitrite and nitrate in surface seawaters. The\\u000a azo-compound that formed from nitrite could be quantitatively extracted on HLB SPE cartridge, and then eluted and detected\\u000a in a LWCC detector of 16 cm path length.

Min Zhang; Dongxing Yuan; Guohe Chen; Quanlong Li; Zhen Zhang; Ying Liang

2009-01-01

152

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by a strain of Clostridium butyricum isolated from estuarine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate dissimilation in chemostat grown cultures ofClostridium butyricum SS6 has been investigated. Sucrose limited cultures grown on nitrate produced nitrite as the principal end-product of nitrate reduction whilst under nitrate-limiting conditions ammonia accumulated in the spent media. Nitrate reduction was accompanied by the synthesis of a soluble nitrate reductase (123 nmol·NADH oxidised · min-1 · mg protein-1) and in addition,

S. M. Keith; G. T. MacFarlane; R. A. Herbert

1982-01-01

153

Analysis of nitrites and nitrates in hams and sausages by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography with a nanolatex-coated capillary column.  

PubMed

In this work, a new open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) method with the nanolatex-coated column was proposed for the determination of nitrites and nitrates in foodstuffs. The method was simple and repeatable as a result of avoiding the introduction of an electroosmotic flow reverse additive (such as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride) in electrophoretic buffer. The limits of quantitation were 0.89 and 1.05 mg kg?¹ for nitrate and nitrite, respectively, whereas the overall recoveries ranged from 94 to 103%. The developed OT-CEC method was successfully applied for 12 samples, and the residue profiles of nitrites and nitrates in hams and sausages were obtained and evaluated. PMID:24661287

Zhang, Yanhao; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yaxiao; Li, Haibin; Yu, Ajuan; Deng, Zhifen; Sun, Barry Baoguo; Zhang, Shusheng

2014-04-16

154

Effect of ascorbate, nitrate and nitrite on the amount of flavour compounds produced from leucine by Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus.  

PubMed

Resting cells of Staphylococcus xylosus and S. carnosus were incubated with ascorbate, nitrate and nitrite in defined reaction medium and their degradation of (3)H-labelled leucine into methyl-branched catabolites were studied using HPLC/radiometric detection. The experiments were carried out with and without addition of ?-ketoglutarate. The main catabolic product of leucine degradation was 3-methylbutanoic acid but also small amounts of ?-hydroxy isocaproic acid were produced. Nitrite addition lowered the concentration of 3-methylbutanoic acid for both Staphylococcus species and this effect was strongly amplified by ascorbate for S. xylosus but not for S. carnosus. For both species ascorbate alone had little if any effect. Also nitrate lowered the concentration of 3-methylbutanoic acid for S. xylosus. The concentration of ?-hydroxy isocaproic acid was, however, increased by addition of nitrite and nitrate for S. xylosus. Addition of ?-ketoglutarate generally increased the concentration of 3-methylbutanoic acid for both S. xylosus and S. carnosus. PMID:22062228

Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Talon, Régine

2004-10-01

155

Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

Scheele, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cady, H.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1992-01-01

156

Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

Scheele, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cady, H.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-01-01

157

A mixture of nitrite-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms affects the ?18O of dissolved nitrate during anaerobic microbial denitrification depending on the ?18O of ambient water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O of nitrate are frequently used to determine sources of nitrate and to assess denitrification processes in the environment. Nitrate isotope ratios are thought to be conservative unless involved in (bio-) chemical conversion processes. Thus, stable isotopes are considered to be a reliable tool to determine sources of nitrate in aquatic habitats even after transport and dilution has occurred. Denitrification is known to shift both isotope ratios towards higher ?-values. A fixed ratio of 0.5 for ??18O/??15N has been proposed and has been widely used to detect denitrification in terrestrial environments, predominantly in aquifers. However, it is observed in environmental and laboratory studies that this ratio actually varies between less than 0.5 and 1 for uncertain reasons with laboratory studies usually describing a ratio close to 1. Here we report results of anoxic incubation experiments with natural populations of nitrate-reducing microorganisms using sediments from three different environments. In our experiments we used water with a ?18O in excess of 500‰ and found a microbially mediated influence of the oxygen isotopic composition of ambient water on the isotopic composition of the residual dissolved nitrate. We found up to 5.7 ± 2.3% of the oxygen-atoms in the residual dissolved nitrate was exchanged by oxygen-atoms from ambient water within the limited timeframe of the experiments. The fastest incorporation of oxygen-atoms from water into dissolved nitrate correlated with the highest intermittent nitrite concentrations observed in our experiments. In a second series of batch experiments we also found that pure cultures of the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter vulgaris promoted the incorporation of oxygen atoms from ambient water into dissolved nitrate under anoxic conditions. Presumably this happens via a reoxidation of intermediary formed nitrite by the enzyme "nitrite oxidoreductase" (NXR) in concurrence with respiratory nitrate reduction. In this context, our hypothesis is a reversibility of the reactions at the NXR enzyme even in the absence of external electron acceptors for nitrite oxidation. We suggest that the presence of nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms in aquatic environments may catalyse such an incorporation of oxygen-atoms stemming from ambient water into nitrate. This process may thus mask the original ?18O value of nitrate sources during denitrification and also distort the observed enrichment of 18O that is ascribed to denitrification. Our results are highly likely an explanation of the deviation of the described variable ??18O/??15N ratios for denitrification in terrestrial field studies from the values observed in the laboratory on pure cultures.

Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Einsiedl, Florian

2013-10-01

158

Investigation of reduction and tolerance capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi against nitrate and nitrite in fermented sausage condition.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis KGR3111, Lactobacillus curvatus KGR 2103, Lactobacillus plantarum KGR 5105, and Lactobacillus sakei KGR 4108 isolated from kimchi were investigated for their potential to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages with the capability to reduce and tolerate nitrate/nitrite. The reduction capability of tested strains for nitrate was not dramatic. All tested strains, however, showed the capability to produce nitrite reductase with the reduction amount of 58.46-75.80 mg/l of NO(2)(-). L. brevis and L. plantarum showed nitrate tolerance with the highest number of 8.71 log cfu/ml and 8.81 log cfu/ml, and L. brevis and L. sakei exhibited nitrite tolerance with the highest number of 8.24 log cfu/ml and 8.25 log cfu/ml, respectively. As a result, L. brevis, L. plantarum, and L. sakei isolated from kimchi showed a tolerance against nitrate or nitrite with a good nitrite reduction capability, indicating the satisfaction of one of the selection criteria to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages. PMID:24821591

Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon

2014-08-01

159

Nitrate-to-nitrite-to-nitric oxide conversion modulated by nitrate-containing {Fe(NO)2}9 dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC).  

PubMed

Nitrosylation of high-spin [Fe(?(2)-O(2)NO)(4)](2-) (1) yields {Fe(NO)}(7) mononitrosyl iron complex (MNIC) [(?(2)-O(2)NO)(?(1)-ONO(2))(3)Fe(NO)](2-) (2) displaying an S = 3/2 axial electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum (g(?) = 3.988 and g(?) = 2.000). The thermally unstable nitrate-containing {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) dinitrosyl iron complex (DNIC) [(?(1)-ONO(2))(2)Fe(NO)(2)](-) (3) was exclusively obtained from reaction of HNO(3) and [(OAc)(2)Fe(NO)(2)](-) and was characterized by IR, UV-vis, EPR, superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD). In contrast to {Fe(NO)(2)}(9) DNIC [(ONO)(2)Fe(NO)(2)](-) constructed by two monodentate O-bound nitrito ligands, the weak interaction between Fe(1) and the distal oxygens O(5)/O(7) of nitrato-coordinated ligands (Fe(1)···O(5) and Fe(1)···O(7) distances of 2.582(2) and 2.583(2) Å, respectively) may play important roles in stabilizing DNIC 3. Transformation of nitrate-containing DNIC 3 into N-bound nitro {Fe(NO)}(6) [(NO)(?(1)-NO(2))Fe(S(2)CNEt(2))(2)] (7) triggered by bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl) disulfide ((S(2)CNEt(2))(2)) implicates that nitrate-to-nitrite conversion may occur via the intramolecular association of the coordinated nitrate and the adjacent polarized NO-coordinate ligand (nitrosonium) of the proposed {Fe(NO)(2)}(7) intermediate [(NO)(2)(?(1)-ONO(2))Fe(S(2)CNEt(2))(2)] (A) yielding {Fe(NO)}(7) [(NO)Fe(S(2)CNEt(2))(2)] (6) along with the release of N(2)O(4) (·NO(2)) and the subsequent binding of ·NO(2) to complex 6. The N-bound nitro {Fe(NO)}(6) complex 7 undergoes Me(2)S-promoted O-atom transfer facilitated by imidazole to give {Fe(NO)}(7) complex 6 accompanied by release of nitric oxide. This result demonstrates that nitrate-containing DNIC 3 acts as an active center to modulate nitrate-to-nitrite-to-nitric oxide conversion. PMID:23237534

Tsai, Fu-Te; Lee, Yu-Ching; Chiang, Ming-Hsi; Liaw, Wen-Feng

2013-01-01

160

Ammonia from Iron(II) Reduction of Nitrite and the Strecker Synthesis: Do Iron(II) and Cyanide Interfere with Each Other?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, affect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The two reactions can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, forming glycine from nitrite, Fe(+2), formaldehyde, and cyanide.

Summers, David P.; Lerner, Narcinda; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

1996-01-01

161

Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50?mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5?mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10?nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TR? and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

2012-01-01

162

Members of the NPF3 transporter subfamily encode pathogen-inducible nitrate/nitrite transporters in grapevine and Arabidopsis.  

PubMed

Vitis vinifera, the major grapevine species cultivated for wine production, is very susceptible to Erysiphe necator, the causal agent of powdery mildew (PM). This obligate biotrophic fungal pathogen attacks both leaf and berry, greatly affecting yield and quality. To investigate possible mechanisms of nutrient acquisition by successful biotrophs, we characterized a candidate NITRATE TRANSPORTER1/PEPTIDE TRANSPORTER FAMILY (NPF, formerly NRT1/PTR) member, grapevine NFP3.2, that was up-regulated in E. necator-inoculated susceptible V. vinifera Cabernet Sauvignon leaves, but not in resistant V. aestivalis Norton. Expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes and two-electrode voltage clamp measurements showed that VvNPF3.2 is a low-affinity transporter for both nitrate and nitrite and displays characteristics of NPF members from other plants. We also cloned the Arabidopsis ortholog, AtNPF3.1, and showed that AtNPF3.1 similarly transported nitrate and nitrite with low affinity. With an Arabidopsis triple mutant that is susceptible to E. necator, we found that AtNPF3.1 is up-regulated in the leaves of infected Arabidopsis similarly to VvNPF3.2 in susceptible grapevine leaves. Expression of the reporter ?-glucuronidase (GUS) driven by the promoter of VvNPF3.2 or AtNPF3.1 in Arabidopsis indicated that both transporters are expressed in vascular tissue, with expression in major and minor veins, respectively. Interestingly, the promoter of VvNPF3.2 allowed induced expression of GUS in minor veins in PM-infected leaves. Our experiments lay the groundwork for investigating the manipulation of host nutrient distribution by biotrophic pathogens and characterizing physiological variables in the pathogenesis of this difficult to study grapevine disease. PMID:24259683

Pike, Sharon; Gao, Fei; Kim, Min Jung; Kim, Sang Hee; Schachtman, Daniel P; Gassmann, Walter

2014-01-01

163

Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

164

Selection of Crop Varieties for Efficient Production Using Urea, Ammonia, Nitrite, and Nitrate in Celss  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The presence of NO2(-) in the external solution increased the overall efficiency of the mixed N sources by cereal leaves. The NH4(+) in the substrate solution decreased the efficiency of NO3(-) reduction, while NO3(-) in the substrate solution increased the efficiency of NH4(+) assimilation.

Huffaker, R. C.

1982-01-01

165

Expression of Nitrate and Nitrite Reductase Activities under Various Forms of Nitrogen Nutrition in Phaseolus vulgaris L. 1  

PubMed Central

The main objectives of this work were to study the effect of different N sources on plant growth, N accumulation, and on the expression of nitrate reductase activity in Phaseolus vulgaris L. leaves. Plants were grown under greenhouse conditions (15 to 25 kilolux; 16/8 hour day/night cycles) in plastic pots filled with perlite: vermiculite (1:1) and watered daily with a minus N solution (N2 plants) or supplemented with either KNO3, (NH4)2SO4, or urea as combined N sources. Significant levels of nitrate reductase activity in trifoliolate leaves of N2-, NH4+-, urea-, or NO3?-dependent plants was demonstrated throughout this work. Leaves from the urea- or NH4+-grown plants accumulated NO2? in the dark but not in the light when NO2? was supplied by vacuum infiltration. These results indicated that the potential for reduction of NO3? or NO2? was not impaired by growing the plants on NH4+ or urea and, in addition, provided evidence for the occurrence of a non-nitrate-inducible nitrite reductase. The nitrate reductase activities associated with N2-, NH4+-, or urea-dependent plants are tentatively regarded as `constitutive' to differentiate from the widely occurring NO3?-inducible nitrate reductase activity. Plants grown on NO3? or urea accumulated significantly larger amounts of reduced N and dry matter as compared to NH4+- and N2-dependent plants. Regardless of N treatment, or size of plants, about 50% of the N accumulated by the plant was allocated to the leaves. PMID:16662985

Timpo, Emelia E.; Neyra, Carlos A.

1983-01-01

166

Diagnostic Role of Salivary and GCF Nitrite, Nitrate and Nitric Oxide to Distinguish Healthy Periodontium from Gingivitis and Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of subclinical and early stage clinical periodontal dysfunction could prevent from further socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic applicability of nitric oxide and its end-metabolites in periodontal tissue health and disease. Forty-two patients were enrolled and divided into three groups according to gingivitis (GI) and clinical attachment level (CAL) indices: a healthy group (GI<1, CAL<1), b: gingivitis (GI>1, CAL>1) and c: periodontitis (CAL>1) with 14 patients in each group. Unstimulated saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected. Samples were evaluated for nitrite, nitrate and total nitric oxide contents with the ELISA method. In addition, CAL, GI, plaque index (PI), decay, missing, filling (DMFT) and bleeding index (BI) scores were also recorded. Except for GCF nitrite content (P= 0.89), there was an increasing trend for measured biomarkers in both saliva and GCF (Periodontitis> gingivitis> healthy periodontium, P< 0.05). Data remained stable after simultaneous adjustment for DMFT and BI scores as confounding factors. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, cut point and p- value were as the followings: GCF nitrate (0.71, 0.11, 0.29,0.43, 4.97, P= 0.04), nitric oxide GCF ( 0.64, 0.18, 0.28, 0.5, 10.12, P= 0.04), nitrite saliva (0.93, 0.96,0.93,0.96,123.48, P< 0.001), salivary nitrate (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 123.6, P< 0.001), salivary nitric oxide (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 246.65, P <0.001). Our results revealed that NO plays an important role in the process of destruction of periodontal tissues. Within the limitation of our study, detecting NO biomarker and its end metabolites in saliva is of more value to assess the periodontal health comparing to GCF.

Poorsattar Bejeh-Mir, Arash; Parsian, Hadi; Akbari Khoram, Maryam; Ghasemi, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali; Khosravi-Samani, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

167

Widespread metabolic potential for nitrite and nitrate assimilation among Prochlorococcus ecotypes  

E-print Network

The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the most abundant photosynthetic organism in oligotrophic regions of the oceans. The inability to assimilate nitrate is considered an important factor underlying the distribution ...

Kathuria, Satish

168

Thermal annealing of nitrite in gamma-irradiated tris\\/ethylenediamine\\/cobalt\\/III\\/ nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

The annealing of chemical radiation damage in 1 MGy60Co gamma irradiated tris-\\/ethylenediamine\\/cobalt\\/III\\/ nitrate has been studied at different temperatures between 100 and 150 °C. The nitrate moiety suffers very little decomposition and the damage is only partially removed under these conditions. The recovery rate is rapid in the initial period\\/up to 1 h\\/ and remains almost constant on further heating

D. Bhatta; P. G. Dalai; S. R. Mohanty

1984-01-01

169

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate and nitrite at Nafion-coated electrodes in concentrated sodium hydroxide solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electrochemical reduction of nitrate ions in alkaline solution has been studied using various cathode materials and is the basis for a patent describing the conversion of nitrate into hydroxide ion in carbonate solutions. Recently, Taniguchi et al. have reported that certain well studied transition metal cyclic amine complexes, namely Co(III)-cyclam and Ni(II)-cyclam where cyclam is 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane, efficiently electrocatalyze the

H. Li; J. Q. Chambers; D. T. Hobbs

1988-01-01

170

Metabolic profiles and aprE expression in anaerobic cultures of Bacillus subtilis using nitrate as terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultures using nitrate as the terminal electron acceptor were conducted in Schaeffer's medium to evaluate the growth performance and metabolic profiles of Bacillus subtilis, and its potential to express the aprE (subtilisin) gene under anoxic conditions. Nitrate was converted to ammonia through nitrite reduction; and different product profiles were observed during the growth phase when nitrate was added at various

J. Espinosa-de-los-Monteros; A. Martinez; F. Valle

2001-01-01

171

Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

Dodds, J.N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[UNOCAL, Brea, CA (United States). Hartley Research Center

1994-07-01

172

Evidence for function overlapping of CymA and the cytochrome bc1 complex in the Shewanella oneidensis nitrate and nitrite respiration.  

PubMed

Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for its versatility of anaerobic respiration. CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane-bound tetraheme c-type cytochrome, plays a central role in anaerobic respiration by transferring electrons from the quinone pool to a variety of terminal reductases. Although loss of CymA results in defect in respiration of many electron acceptors (EAs), a significant share of the capacity remains in general. In this study, we adopted a transposon random mutagenesis method in a cymA null mutant to identify substituent(s) of CymA with respect to nitrite and nitrate respiration. A total of 87 insertion mutants, whose ability to reduce nitrite was further impaired, were obtained. Among the interrupted genes, the petABC operon appeared to be the most likely candidate given the involvement of the cytochrome bc1 complex that it encodes in electron transport. Subsequent analyses not only confirmed that the complex and CymA were indeed functionally overlapping in nitrate/nitrite respiration but also revealed that both proteins were able to draw electrons from ubiquinone and menaquinone. Furthermore, we found that expression of the bc1 complex was affected by oxygen but not nitrate or nitrite and by global regulators ArcA and Crp in an indirect manner. PMID:24650148

Fu, Huihui; Jin, Miao; Ju, Lili; Mao, Yinting; Gao, Haichun

2014-10-01

173

The influence of formula modifications and additives on ammonia loses from surface-applied urea-ammonium nitrate solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Urea-ammonium nitrate (UAN) solution fertilizers are subject to N loss through ammonia (NH3) volatilization. This loss may be reduced by manipulation of the proportion of urea and by use of additives to reduce urea hydrolysis or increase fertilizer solution acidity. This research was design to study the effect of urea proportion in UAN solutions, added ammonium thiosulfate (ATS), and aquechem

T. AL-Kanani; A. F. Mackenzie; H. Blenkhorn

1990-01-01

174

Evaluation of a solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production operating with ammonia/lithium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

A novel solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico is presented. The system operates with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture. The system developed has a nominal capacity of 8 kg of ice/day. It consists of a cylindrical parabolic collector acting as generator-absorber. Evaporator temperatures as low as -11 C were obtained for several hours with solar coefficients of performance up to 0.08. It was found that the coefficient of performance increases with the increment of solar radiation and the solution concentration. A dependency of the coefficient of performance was not founded against the cooling water temperature. Also it was found that the maximum operating pressure increases meanwhile the generation temperature decreases with an increase of the solution concentration. (author)

Rivera, W.; Moreno-Quintanar, G.; Best, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 34, 62580 Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Rivera, C.O.; Martinez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria Campus Coatzacoalcos, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Universidad Km 7.5, 96530 Coatzacoalcos, Ver. (Mexico)

2011-01-15

175

[Dynamic simulation of ammonia- and nitrate N leakage from paddy field under different N supply].  

PubMed

By using self-designed lysimeters, the dynamic changes of ammonia- and nitrate N leakage from the plowpan of paddy field under different N supply were studied, aimed to understand the N leakage loss from paddy field during rice growth period. A dynamic model was built to simulate the N translocation and transformation in rice plant, soil, and water by Vensim software. The data from the field experiment with N fertilization rates of 0, 75, 150, 225, 300, and 375 kg x hm(-2) in Yuhang district, Hangzhou City in 2003 were used for calibrating the model, and the data from the field experiment in 2007 were utilized for validating the model. The simulated N concentrations in the leakage fitted well with the observed data, suggesting that the simulated results were reliable and the model was applicable. PMID:19795646

Li, Jin-Wen; Zhong, Sheng; Wang, Mi; Yang, Jing-Ping; Xu, Wei

2009-06-01

176

Denitrification kinetics of high nitrate concentration water: pH effect on inhibition and nitrite accumulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of pH variation, within the range 6.5, 7.0, 7.5, 8.5 and 9, on activated sludge denitrification of a synthetic wastewater containing 2700mg\\/l NO3-N was examined using bench-scale Sequencing Batch Reactors. Two major effects were observed. One, at pH values of 6.5 and 7.0, denitrification of a synthetic wastewater containing high nitrate levels was significantly inhibited. Two, denitrification was

Charles Glass; JoAnn Silverstein

1998-01-01

177

Competition between nitrate and nitrite reduction in denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

Microsoft Academic Search

A pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens was used as a model system to study the kinetics of denitrification. An exponentially growing culture was harvested and resuspended in an anoxic acetate solution buffered with K\\/Na phosphate at pH values of 6.6, 7.0, 7.4, and 7.8. The temperature was kept at 28 C in all assays. Nitrate pulses of approximately 0.2 mg

J. S. Almeida; M. A. M. Reis; M. J. T. Carrondo

1995-01-01

178

Low-disturbance manure incorporation effects on ammonia and nitrate loss.  

PubMed

Low-disturbance manure application methods can provide the benefits of manure incorporation, including reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions, in production systems where tillage is not possible. However, incorporation can exacerbate nitrate (NO3?) leaching. We sought to assess the trade-offs in NH3 and NO3? losses caused by alternative manure application methods. Dairy slurry (2006-2007) and liquid swine manure (2008-2009) were applied to no-till corn by (i) shallow (<10 cm) disk injection, (ii) surface banding with soil aeration, (iii) broadcasting, and (iv) broadcasting with tillage incorporation. Ammonia emissions were monitored for 72 h after application using ventilated chambers and passive diffusion samplers, and NO3? leaching to 80 cm was monitored with buried column lysimeters. The greatest NH3 emissions occurred with broadcasting (35-63 kg NH3-N ha?), and the lowest emissions were from unamended soil (<1 kg NH-N ha?¹). Injection decreased NH-N emissions by 91 to 99% compared with broadcasting and resulted in lower emissions than tillage incorporation 1 h after broadcasting. Ammonia-nitrogen emissions from banding manure with aeration were inconsistent between years, averaging 0 to 71% that of broadcasting. Annual NO3? leaching losses were small (<25 kg NO3-N ha?¹) and similar between treatments, except for the first winter when NO3? leaching was fivefold greater with injection. Because NO3? leaching with injection was substantially lower over subsequent seasons, we hypothesize that the elevated losses during the first winter were through preferential flow paths inadvertently created during lysimeter installation. Overall, shallow disk injection yielded the lowest NH3 emissions without consistently increasing NO3? leaching, whereas manure banding with soil aeration conserved inconsistent amounts of N. PMID:22565274

Dell, Curtis J; Kleinman, Peter J A; Schmidt, John P; Beegle, Douglas B

2012-01-01

179

Thermochemical nitrate reduction  

SciTech Connect

A series of preliminary experiments was conducted directed at thermochemically converting nitrate to nitrogen and water. Nitrates are a major constituent of the waste stored in the underground tanks on the Hanford Site, and the characteristics and effects of nitrate compounds on stabilization techniques must be considered before permanent disposal operations begin. For the thermochemical reduction experiments, six reducing agents (ammonia, formate, urea, glucose, methane, and hydrogen) were mixed separately with {approximately}3 wt% NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} solutions in a buffered aqueous solution at high pH (13); ammonia and formate were also mixed at low pH (4). Reactions were conducted in an aqueous solution in a batch reactor at temperatures of 200{degrees}C to 350{degrees}C and pressures of 600 to 2800 psig. Both gas and liquid samples were analyzed. The specific components analyzed were nitrate, nitrite, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, and ammonia. Results of experimental runs showed the following order of nitrate reduction of the six reducing agents in basic solution: formate > glucose > urea > hydrogen > ammonia {approx} methane. Airnmonia was more effective under acidic conditions than basic conditions. Formate was also effective under acidic conditions. A more thorough, fundamental study appears warranted to provide additional data on the mechanism of nitrate reduction. Furthermore, an expanded data base and engineering feasibility study could be used to evaluate conversion conditions for promising reducing agents in more detail and identify new reducing agents with improved performance characteristics.

Cox, J.L.; Lilga, M.A.; Hallen, R.T.

1992-09-01

180

Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste  

SciTech Connect

As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

1995-08-01

181

Nitrosomonas Nm143-like ammonia oxidizers and Nitrospira marina-like nitrite oxidizers dominate the nitrifier community in a marine aquaculture biofilm.  

PubMed

Zero-discharge marine aquaculture systems are an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional aquaculture. In these systems, water is purified and recycled via microbial biofilters. Here, quantitative data on nitrifier community structure of a trickling filter biofilm associated with a recirculating marine aquaculture system are presented. Repeated rounds of the full-cycle rRNA approach were necessary to optimize DNA extraction and the probe set for FISH to obtain a reliable and comprehensive picture of the ammonia-oxidizing community. Analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) confirmed the results. The most abundant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were members of the Nitrosomonas sp. Nm143-lineage (6.7% of the bacterial biovolume), followed by Nitrosomonas marina-like AOB (2.2% of the bacterial biovolume). Both were outnumbered by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the Nitrospira marina-lineage (15.7% of the bacterial biovolume). Although more than eight other nitrifying populations were detected, including Crenarchaeota closely related to the ammonia-oxidizer 'Nitrosopumilus maritimus', their collective abundance was below 1% of the total biofilm volume; their contribution to nitrification in the biofilter is therefore likely to be negligible. PMID:18093145

Foesel, Bärbel U; Gieseke, Armin; Schwermer, Carsten; Stief, Peter; Koch, Liat; Cytryn, Eddie; de la Torré, José R; van Rijn, Jaap; Minz, Dror; Drake, Harold L; Schramm, Andreas

2008-02-01

182

Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and\\/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur.

R. D. Scheele; R. L. Sell; J. L. Sobolik; L. L. Burger

1995-01-01

183

Maternal characteristics associated with the dietary intake of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines in women of child-bearing age: a cross-sectional study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Multiple N-nitroso compounds have been observed in animal studies to be both mutagenic and teratogenic. Human exposure to N-nitroso compounds and their precursors, nitrates and nitrites, can occur through exogenous sources, such as diet, drinking water, occupation, or environmental exposures, and through endogenous exposures resulting from the formation of N-nitroso compounds in the body. Very little information is available

John S Griesenbeck; Jean D Brender; Joseph R Sharkey; Michelle D Steck; John C Huber Jr; Antonio A Rene; Thomas J McDonald; Paul A Romitti; Mark A Canfield; Peter H Langlois; Lucina Suarez

2010-01-01

184

Fluidic Automation of Nitrate and Nitrite Bioassays in Whole Blood by Dissolvable-Film Based Centrifugo-Pneumatic Actuation  

PubMed Central

This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducree, Jens

2013-01-01

185

AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the available information on ammonia as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Ammonia is a ubiquitous substance and is known widely as a household cleaning agent and as a fertilizer. It plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle--in the...

186

A low-temperature process for the denitration of Hanford single-shell tank, nitrate-based waste utilizing the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new, low-temperature (50 to 60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), have conclusively shown that between 85 to 99% of the nitrate can be readily converted. In this process, aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an aluminum oxide-sodium aluminate-based solid which might function as its own waste form. The process may actually be able to utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final, nearly nitrate-free ceramic-like product can be pressed and sintered like other ceramics. Based upon the starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution, volume reductions of 50 to 55% were obtained for the waste form produced, compared to an expected 35 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data extracted from bench-top studies indicate that the process will be very economical to operate, and data were used to cost a batch, 1,200-kg NO{sub 3}/h plant for working off Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Their total process cost analysis presented in the appendix, indicates that between $2.01 to 2.66 per kilogram of nitrate converted will be required. Additionally, data on the fate of select radioelements present in solution are presented in this report as well as kinetic, operational, and control data for a number of experiments. Additionally, if the ceramic product functions as its own waste form, it too will offer other cost savings associated with having a smaller volume of waste form as well as eliminating other process steps such as grouting.

Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Dillow, T.A.; Farr, L.L.; Loghry, S.L.; Pitt, W.W.; Gibson, M.R.

1994-12-01

187

Ammonia Conversion Characteristics in a Closed Recirculating Aquaculture System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification and denitrification were commonly used in the recirculating aquaculture system (RAS) to decrease the ammonia and nitrate concentration. The variation characteristics of nitrogenous compounds and microbiology in a closed RAS were studied with gradually increasing ammonia-nitrogen (NH4 +-N) concentration. The NH4 +-N was completely converted into nitrite nitrogen (NO2 --N) in 46 days, but the NO2 --N raised slowly

Guang-Yu Wang; Ji-xian Yang; Fang Ma; Lei Chen; Wei-Guo Li; Jingbo Guo

2009-01-01

188

Ammonia sources in the California South Coast Air Basin and their impact on ammonium nitrate formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Observations from the NOAA WP-3D aircraft during CalNex in May and June 2010 are used to quantify ammonia (NH3) emissions from automobiles and dairy facilities in the California South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB) and assess their impact on particulate ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) formation. These airborne measurements in the SoCAB are used to estimate automobile NH3 emissions, 62 ± 24 metric tons day-1, and dairy facility NH3 emissions, 33 ± 16 to 176 ± 88 metric tons day-1. Emission inventories agree with the observed automobile NH3:CO emission ratio, but substantially underpredict dairy facility NH3 emissions. Conditions observed downwind of the dairy facilities were always thermodynamically favorable for NH4NO3 formation due to high NH3 mixing ratios from the concentrated sources. Although automobile emissions generated lower NH3 mixing ratios, they also can thermodynamically favor NH4NO3 formation. As an aerosol control strategy, addressing the dairy NH3 source would have the larger impact on reducing SoCAB NH4NO3 formation.

Nowak, J. B.; Neuman, J. A.; Bahreini, R.; Middlebrook, A. M.; Holloway, J. S.; McKeen, S. A.; Parrish, D. D.; Ryerson, T. B.; Trainer, M.

2012-04-01

189

18O isotope shift in 15N NMR analysis of biological N-oxidations: H2O-NO2- exchange in the ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas  

PubMed Central

The 18O/16O shifts in 15N NMR were determined for nitrite (0.13 ppm or 4.2 Hz at 7.05 T) and nitrate (0.056 ppm or 1.7 Hz at 7.05 T) at neutral pH. The technique, which allows clear differentiation between 16O and 18O derivatives of 15N, was used to assess the source of oxygens in nitrite produced by oxidation of ammonia in Nitrosomonas. The two oxygens of nitrite produced by cell-catalyzed oxidation of ammonia or hydroxylamine had the 16O/18O isotope composition of water. Nitrosomonas is shown to catalyze the rapid exchange of oxygen between nitrite and water. The exchange reaction required the concomitant oxidation of ammonia. The amount of nitrite exchanged could exceed the amount of ammonia oxidized by a factor of 3. This exchange explains previous difficulties in the determination of the source of nitrite oxygen in ammonia oxidation. When cells oxidized [15N]ammonia in the presence of a great excess of exogenous [14N]nitrite, 20% of one oxygen in the resulting [15N]nitrite was derived from dioxygen. Dioxygen is apparently the source of at least one oxygen in nitrite produced by Nitrosomonas. PMID:16593233

Andersson, Kristoffer K.; Philson, Stephen B.; Hooper, Alan B.

1982-01-01

190

An experimental investigation of the thermal/fluid properties of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) product slurry  

SciTech Connect

Recently, a new immobilization technique for LLW, the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process, has been developed. Instead of mixing the liquid waste form directly with the cement to make concrete blocks, the NAC process eliminates the nitrate from the LLW by converting it to ammonia gas. Aluminum particles are used as a reductant to complete this conversion. The final product of the NAC process is gibbsite, which can be further sintered to a ceramic waste form. Experimental tests are conducted to measure the apparent viscosity, the pressure drop, and the heat transfer coefficient of the pipe flow of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process product slurry. The tests indicate that the NAC product slurry exhibits a typical pseudoplastic fluid behavior. The pressure drop in the pipe flow is a function of the Reynolds number and the slurry temperature. The results also indicate that at a low slurry temperature, the slurry is uniformly heated peripherally. At a high slurry temperature, however, the slurry may be thermally stratified. In a straight pipe, the Nusselt number is reduced as the slurry temperature increases.

Muguercia, I.; Lagos, L.; Yang, G.; Li, W.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.; Walker, J.W.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1994-12-31

191

Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.  

PubMed

Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

2011-01-01

192

Kinetics of electro-oxidation of ammonia-N, nitrites and COD from a recirculating aquaculture saline water system using BDD anodes.  

PubMed

The viability of the electro-oxidation technology provided with boron doped diamond (BDD) electrodes for the treatment and reuse of the seawater used in a Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) was evaluated in this work. The influence of the applied current density (5-50 A m(-2)) in the removal of Total Ammonia Nitrogen (TAN), nitrite and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was analyzed observing that complete TAN removal together with important reductions of the other considered contaminants could be achieved, thus meeting the requirements for reuse of seawater in RAS systems. TAN removal, mainly due to an indirect oxidation mechanism was described by a second order kinetics while COD and nitrite removal followed zero-th order kinetics. The values of the kinetic constants for the anodic oxidation of each compound were obtained as a function of the applied current density (k(TAN) = 7.86 × 10(-5) · exp(6.30 × 10(-2) J); kNO2 = 3.43 × 10(-2) J; k(COD) = 1.35 × 10(-2) J). The formation of free chlorine and oxidation by-products, i.e., trihalomethanes (THMs) was followed along the electro-oxidation process. Although a maximum concentration of 1.7 mg l(-1) of total trihalomethanes was detected an integrated process combining electrochemical oxidation in order to eliminate TAN, nitrite and COD and adsorption onto activated carbon to remove the residual chlorine and THMs is proposed, as an efficient alternative to treat and reuse the seawater in fish culture systems. Finally, the energy consumption of the treatment has been evaluated. PMID:20832837

Díaz, V; Ibáñez, R; Gómez, P; Urtiaga, A M; Ortiz, I

2011-01-01

193

Nitrogen Transformations and Diversity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in a Desert Ephemeral Stream Receiving Untreated Wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Levels of inorganic nitrogen species (ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate), ammonia oxidation potential (AOP), and diversity of\\u000a ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were studied in the sediments of a 50-km-long segment of an ephemeral stream in the Negev\\u000a desert, receiving untreated wastewater. Water analysis in downstream sampling points showed reductions of 91.7% in biological\\u000a oxygen demand, 87.7% in chemical oxygen demand, 73.9% in

Roey Angel; Lior Asaf; Zeev Ronen; Ali Nejidat

2010-01-01

194

(PRESENTED AT CMAS) THE NONLINEAR RESPONSE OF NITRATE REPLACEMENT THAT MITIGATES SULFATE REDUCTION: THE GAS RATION AS AN INDICTOR AND SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The poster presents an assessment, using the CMAQ air quality model, showing the inorganic gas ratio (the ratio of free ammonia to total nitrate) can function as a screening indicator of the winter replacement of sulfate by nitrate when sulfate is reduced. It also presents an as...

195

Nitrate reduction  

DOEpatents

Nitrates are reduced to nitrogen gas by contacting the nitrates with a metal to reduce the nitrates to nitrites which are then contacted with an amide to produce nitrogen and carbon dioxide or acid anions which can be released to the atmosphere. Minor amounts of metal catalysts can be useful in the reduction of the nitrates to nitrites. Metal salts which are formed can be treated electrochemically to recover the metals.

Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

2000-01-01

196

Dietary nitrate supplementation: effects on plasma nitrite and pulmonary O2 uptake dynamics during exercise in hypoxia and normoxia.  

PubMed

We investigated the effects of dietary nitrate (NO3 (-)) supplementation on the concentration of plasma nitrite ([NO2 (-)]), oxygen uptake (V?o2) kinetics, and exercise tolerance in normoxia (N) and hypoxia (H). In a double-blind, crossover study, 12 healthy subjects completed cycle exercise tests, twice in N (20.9% O2) and twice in H (13.1% O2). Subjects ingested either 140 ml/day of NO3 (-)-rich beetroot juice (8.4 mmol NO3; BR) or NO3 (-)-depleted beetroot juice (PL) for 3 days prior to moderate-intensity and severe-intensity exercise tests in H and N. Preexercise plasma [NO2 (-)] was significantly elevated in H-BR and N-BR compared with H-PL (P < 0.01) and N-PL (P < 0.01). The rate of decline in plasma [NO2 (-)] was greater during severe-intensity exercise in H-BR [-30 ± 22 nM/min, 95% confidence interval (CI); -44, -16] compared with H-PL (-7 ± 10 nM/min, 95% CI; -13, -1; P < 0.01) and in N-BR (-26 ± 19 nM/min, 95% CI; -38, -14) compared with N-PL (-1 ± 6 nM/min, 95% CI; -5, 2; P < 0.01). During moderate-intensity exercise, steady-state pulmonary V?o2 was lower in H-BR (1.91 ± 0.28 l/min, 95% CI; 1.77, 2.13) compared with H-PL (2.05 ± 0.25 l/min, 95% CI; 1.93, 2.26; P = 0.02), and V?o2 kinetics was faster in H-BR (?: 24 ± 13 s, 95% CI; 15, 32) compared with H-PL (31 ± 11 s, 95% CI; 23, 38; P = 0.04). NO3 (-) supplementation had no significant effect on V?o2 kinetics during severe-intensity exercise in hypoxia, or during moderate-intensity or severe-intensity exercise in normoxia. Tolerance to severe-intensity exercise was improved by NO3 (-) in hypoxia (H-PL: 197 ± 28; 95% CI; 173, 220 vs. H-BR: 214 ± 43 s, 95% CI; 177, 249; P = 0.04) but not normoxia. The metabolism of NO2 (-) during exercise is altered by NO3 (-) supplementation, exercise, and to a lesser extent, hypoxia. In hypoxia, NO3 (-) supplementation enhances V?o2 kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise and improves severe-intensity exercise tolerance. These findings may have important implications for individuals exercising at altitude. PMID:25009219

Kelly, James; Vanhatalo, Anni; Bailey, Stephen J; Wylie, Lee J; Tucker, Christopher; List, Stephen; Winyard, Paul G; Jones, Andrew M

2014-10-01

197

Nitrates  

MedlinePLUS

... prescription instructions. Why do I need to take nitrates? Nitrates are used to treat the chest pain associated ... symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF) . How do nitrates work? Nitrates are a vasodilator . Vasodilators widen (dilate) ...

198

Fate of Nitrate Acquired by the Tubeworm Riftia pachyptila  

PubMed Central

The hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila lacks a mouth and gut and lives in association with intracellular, sulfide-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria. Growth of this tubeworm requires an exogenous source of nitrogen for biosynthesis, and, as determined in previous studies, environmental ammonia and free amino acids appear to be unlikely sources of nitrogen. Nitrate, however, is present in situ (K. Johnson, J. Childress, R. Hessler, C. Sakamoto-Arnold, and C. Beehler, Deep-Sea Res. 35:1723–1744, 1988), is taken up by the host, and can be chemically reduced by the symbionts (U. Hentschel and H. Felbeck, Nature 366:338–340, 1993). Here we report that at an in situ concentration of 40 ?M, nitrate is acquired by R. pachyptila at a rate of 3.54 ?mol g?1 h?1, while elimination of nitrite and elimination of ammonia occur at much lower rates (0.017 and 0.21 ?mol g?1 h?1, respectively). We also observed reduction of nitrite (and accordingly nitrate) to ammonia in the trophosome tissue. When R. pachyptila tubeworms are exposed to constant in situ conditions for 60 h, there is a difference between the amount of nitrogen acquired via nitrate uptake and the amount of nitrogen lost via nitrite and ammonia elimination, which indicates that there is a nitrogen “sink.” Our results demonstrate that storage of nitrate does not account for the observed stoichiometric differences in the amounts of nitrogen. Nitrate uptake was not correlated with sulfide or inorganic carbon flux, suggesting that nitrate is probably not an important oxidant in metabolism of the symbionts. Accordingly, we describe a nitrogen flux model for this association, in which the product of symbiont nitrate reduction, ammonia, is the primary source of nitrogen for the host and the symbionts and fulfills the association's nitrogen needs via incorporation of ammonia into amino acids. PMID:10877768

Girguis, Peter R.; Lee, Raymond W.; Desaulniers, Nicole; Childress, James J.; Pospesel, Mark; Felbeck, Horst; Zal, Franck

2000-01-01

199

Nitrate in Ground Waters of the United States: Contrasting Scales and Processes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate is one of the most ubiquitous compounds in ground water. Studies conducted during 1992 - 1995 by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program detected nitrate in 71% of shallow ground water samples, more than 13 times as often as organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, and orthophosphate (based on a common detection threshold of 0.2 mg\\/L). Nitrate

B. T. Nolan

2002-01-01

200

Nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) bench scale stabilization studies. Final technical progress report, May 1995--May 1996  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy (DOE) has large quantities of sodium-nitrate based liquid wastes. Around 1 billion liters of high level waste tank supernatant are present at Hanford, Savannah River Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The largest quantity of these wastes is in the 149 single shell tanks at Hanford which hold up to 1 million gallons each. These tank waste are typically 4 to 5 molar in nitrate and contain radionuclides, various salts, and heavy metals. INEL high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.7 and 0.6 grams per liter of chromium and mercury, respectively. SRP high-level waste tank supernatant contains about 0.2 g/L of chromium. Other heavy metals could well be present at lower levels in theses tank wastes. The major components present in these wastes are summarized in Appendix A. These wastes are currently regulated and managed by the DOE. Under the Federal Facility Compliance Act (FFCA) DOE is subject to RCRA, which would apply to these tank supernatants. Stabilization of this waste is difficult because nitrates are very mobile. Additionally, vitrification of these wastes produces large quantities of hard-to-manage NO{sub x} emissions. The conversion of sodium nitrate to ammonia is discussed.

NONE

1996-05-01

201

Assessment of Nitrification in Distribution Systems of Waters with Elevated Ammonia Levels  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this work is to monitor ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in drinking water from the distribution systems of four drinking water utilities in Illinois. A monthly drinking water distribution system water quality monitoring protocol for each water utility in Illinois h...

202

Effects of repeated application of sulfadiazine-contaminated pig manure on the abundance and diversity of ammonia and nitrite oxidizers in the root-rhizosphere complex of pasture plants under field conditions  

PubMed Central

In a field experiment, the impact of repeated application of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ)-contaminated pig manure was assessed on functional microbial communities involved in ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the root-rhizosphere complexes (RRCs) of diverse plants composing a pasture. We surveyed the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) as well as Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the diversity of amoA AOA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA amplicons using a cloning-sequencing approach. Whereas the first SDZ-contaminated manure application caused only slight effects on the investigated microbial communities and did not change the diversity and abundance pattern significantly, the second application of SDZ-contaminated manure induced an up to 15-fold increased ratio of AOA:AOB and a reduction of nrxA genes. The diversity of AOA amoA increased after the second application of SDZ-contaminated manure compared to the control treatment whereas a clear reduction of nrxA OTUs was visible in the same samples. The results indicate that the application of SDZ may principally affect nitrite oxidation by NOB and alternative pathways like nitrite reduction might be favored under these conditions. PMID:23420031

Ollivier, Julien; Schacht, Daniela; Kindler, Reimo; Groeneweg, Joost; Engel, Marion; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael

2013-01-01

203

Co-occurrence of nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane oxidizing and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing bacteria in two Qinghai-Tibetan saline lakes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrite-dependent anaerobic methane-oxidizing (n-damo) bacteria and anaerobic ammonia oxidizing (anammox) bacteria are two groups of microorganisms involved in global carbon and nitrogen cycling. In order to test whether the n-damo and anammox bacteria co-occur in natural saline environments, the DNA and cDNA samples obtained from the surficial sediments of two saline lakes (with salinity of 32 and 84 g/L, respectively) on the Tibetan Plateau were PCR-amplified with the use of anammox- and n-damo-specific primer sets, followed by clone library construction and phylogenetic analysis. DNA and cDNA-based clones affiliated with n-damo and anammox bacteria were successfully retrieved from the two samples, indicating that these two groups of bacteria can co-occur in natural saline environments with salinity as high as 84 g/L. Our finding has great implications for our understanding of the global carbon and nitrogen cycle in nature.

Yang, Jian; Jiang, Hongchen; Wu, Geng; Hou, Weiguo; Sun, Yongjuan; Lai, Zhongping; Dong, Hailiang

2012-12-01

204

GIS-based methodologies for assessing nitrate,nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK basin,the Humber Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(4), 823833 (2004) EGU  

E-print Network

GIS-based methodologies for assessing nitrate,nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK basin,the Humber 823 Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(4), 823833 (2004) © EGU GIS a Geographical Information System (GIS) framework. This basin contains diverse characteristics, from areas

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

205

Simultaneous determination of nitrite, nitrate, thiocyanate and uric acid in human saliva by capillary zone electrophoresis and its application to the study of daily variations.  

PubMed

Simultaneous determination of nitrite (NO2-), nitrate (NO3-), thiocyanate (SCN-) and uric acid in human saliva was performed by capillary zone electrophoresis using a coated capillary with reversed electroosmotic flow (EOF), using a 100 mM sodium phosphate buffer at pH 6.5 as a running buffer. Saliva samples were deproteinized with acetonitrile and filtered through a membrane filter. The important advantages of the reported method are: simple operation, short analysis time, minimal sample pre-treatment and sample dilution. In order to evaluate the daily variations of the anionic components, the concentrations were determined in the human saliva of four healthy volunteers upon waking and at 2qh intervals during a day. PMID:15532573

Tanaka, Yoshihide; Naruishi, Nahoko; Fukuya, Hiroshi; Sakata, Jo; Saito, Keiitsu; Wakida, Shin-Ichi

2004-10-01

206

Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin  

E-print Network

in physicochemically diverse geothermal habitats, including > 40 hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (de la Torre Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea Jeremy A. Dodsworth,1 Bruce A. Hungate2 crenarchaeol, another possible biomarker for AOA, has been recovered from hot springs in the US Great Basin

Ahmad, Sajjad

207

Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin  

E-print Network

in physicochemically diverse geothermal habitats, including > 40 hot springs in Yellowstone National Park (de la Torre Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaeaemi_2508 1..16 Jeremy A. Dodsworth,1 Bruce A crenarchaeol, another possible biomarker for AOA, has been recovered from hot springs in the US Great Basin

Ahmad, Sajjad

208

Convective heat transfer behavior of the product slurry of the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing liquid form low level radioactive waste (LLW). An experimental study has been conducted to measure the heat transfer properties of the NAC product slurry. The results indicate that the heat transfer coefficient for both concentration slurries is much higher than that of pure water, which may be due to the higher conductivity of the gibbsite powder. For the 20% concentration slurry, the heat transfer coefficient increased as the generalized Reynolds number and slurry temperature increased. The heat transfer coefficient of 40% is a function of the Reynolds number only. The test results also indicate that the thermal entrance region can be observed only when the generalized Reynolds number is smaller than 1,000. The correlation equation is also developed based on the experimental data in this paper.

Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-12-01

209

Presence of a functional nitrate assimilation pathway in Mycobacterium smegmatis.  

PubMed

Ability of Mycobacterium smegmatis to assimilate nitrate was evaluated in its active and dormant phase. Nitrate (10 mM), nitrite (0.5 mM) and ammonia (10mM) allowed growth of M. smegmatis concomitant with their complete depletion from the culture in 144, 120 and 96 h, respectively, when used as sole nitrogen source. Azide (50 microM) stopped the growth of M. smegmatis when nitrate was used as sole nitrogen source. l-methionine-S-sulfoximine (l-MSO), which is a well-known inhibitor of glutamine synthetase, an enzyme also involved in nitrogen metabolic pathway, when applied at 10 microg/ml concentration, completely inhibited the growth of the organism when nitrate or nitrite was used as sole nitrogen source. There was no effect of either azide or l-MSO at above concentrations on the growth of the organism when asparagine or ammonia was used as sole nitrogen source. More significantly, utilization of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia continued even in oxygen depletion induced dormant culture at the rates of 289, 25 and 354 microM/day, respectively. These rates were 5-8 times slower than the rates of 1966, 127 and 2890 microM/day, respectively, in active replicating phase. In the presence of azide (50 microM) and l-MSO (10 microg/ml), 2.1 and 1.51 logs reduction in viability of dormant M. smegmatis was observed using nitrate and nitrite, respectively, as sole nitrogen source. Altogether, the results indicated the presence of nitrate assimilation pathway operating in both active and dormant stage of M. smegmatis. PMID:17888619

Khan, Arshad; Akhtar, Shamim; Ahmad, Jawid N; Sarkar, Dhiman

2008-01-01

210

Oxygen Regulates Tissue Nitrite Metabolism  

PubMed Central

Abstract Aims: Once dismissed as an inert byproduct of nitric oxide (NO) auto-oxidation, nitrite (NO2-) is now accepted as an endocrine reservoir of NO that elicits biological responses in major organs. While it is known that tissue nitrite is derived from NO oxidation and the diet, little is known about how nitrite is metabolized by tissue, particularly at intermediate oxygen tensions. We investigated the rates and mechanisms of tissue nitrite metabolism over a range of oxygen concentrations. Results: We show that the rate of nitrite consumption differs in each organ. Further, oxygen regulates the rate and products of nitrite metabolism. In anoxia, nitrite is reduced to NO, with significant formation of iron–nitrosyl proteins and S-nitrosothiols. This hypoxic nitrite metabolism is mediated by different nitrite reductases in each tissue. In contrast, low concentrations (?3.5??M) of oxygen increase the rate of nitrite consumption by shifting nitrite metabolism to oxidative pathways, yielding nitrate. While cytochrome P450 and myoglobin contribute in the liver and heart, respectively, mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase plays a significant role in nitrite oxidation, which is inhibited by cyanide. Using cyanide to prevent artifactual nitrite decay, we measure metabolism of oral and intraperitoneally administered nitrite in mice. Innovation: These data provide insight into the fate of nitrite in tissue, the enzymes involved in nitrite metabolism, and the role of oxygen in regulating these processes. Conclusion: We demonstrate that even at low concentrations, oxygen is a potent regulator of the rate and products of tissue nitrite metabolism. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 17, 951–961. PMID:22098300

Curtis, Erin; Hsu, Lewis L.; Noguchi, Audrey C.; Geary, Lisa

2012-01-01

211

Enhanced activity and selectivity of carbon nanofiber supported Pd catalysts for nitrite reduction.  

PubMed

Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. PMID:22295991

Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J

2012-03-01

212

Toxicity of Nitrite to Fish: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms

William M. Lewis Jr; Donald P. Morris

1986-01-01

213

Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate\\/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We compared Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine (GlycoCarn®) and three different pre-workout nutritional supplements on measures of skeletal muscle oxygen saturation (StO2), blood nitrate\\/nitrite (NOx), lactate (HLa), malondialdehyde (MDA), and exercise performance in men. METHODS: Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 19 resistance trained men performed tests of muscular power (bench press throws) and endurance (10 sets of bench press to muscular

Richard J Bloomer; Tyler M Farney; John F Trepanowski; Cameron G McCarthy; Robert E Canale; Brian K Schilling

2010-01-01

214

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago.  

PubMed

When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the endogenous nitrite production was increased by raising the level of nitrate reductase through simultaneous treatment with nitrate and benzyladenine, the activity of nitrite reductase was not higher than in embryos treated with nitrate alone. On the other hand, tungstate given together with nitrate drastically inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity without reducing the enhancement of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrite enhanced nitrite reductase activity, though less efficiently than nitrate. PMID:16658983

Dilworth, M F; Kende, H

1974-12-01

215

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago12  

PubMed Central

When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the endogenous nitrite production was increased by raising the level of nitrate reductase through simultaneous treatment with nitrate and benzyladenine, the activity of nitrite reductase was not higher than in embryos treated with nitrate alone. On the other hand, tungstate given together with nitrate drastically inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity without reducing the enhancement of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrite enhanced nitrite reductase activity, though less efficiently than nitrate. PMID:16658983

Dilworth, Machi Fukuyama; Kende, Hans

1974-01-01

216

Characterization of nitrite uptake in Arabidopsis thaliana: evidence for a nitrite-specific transporter.  

PubMed

Nitrite-specific plasma membrane transporters have been described in bacteria, algae and fungi, but there is no evidence of a nitrite-specific plasma membrane transporter in higher plants. We have used 13NO2(-) to characterize nitrite influx into roots of Arabidopsis thaliana. Hydroponically grown Arabidopsis mutants, defective in high-affinity nitrate transport, were used to distinguish between nitrate and nitrite uptake by means of the short-lived tracers 13NO2(-) and 13NO3(-). This approach allowed us to characterize a nitrite-specific transporter. The Atnar2.1-2 mutant, lacking a functional high-affinity nitrate transport system, is capable of nitrite influx that is constitutive and thermodynamically active. The corresponding fluxes conform to a rectangular hyperbola, exhibiting saturation at concentrations above 200 ?M (Km = 185 ?M and Vmax = 1.89 ?mol g(-1) FW h(-1)). Nitrite influx via the putative nitrite transporter is not subject to competitive inhibition by nitrate but is downregulated after 6 h exposure to ammonium. These results signify the existence of a nitrite-specific transporter in Arabidopsis. This transporter enables Atnar2.1-2 mutants, which are incapable of sustained growth on low nitrate, to maintain significant growth on low nitrite. In wild-type plants, this nitrite flux may increase nitrogen acquisition and also participate in the induction of genes specifically induced by nitrite. PMID:23763619

Kotur, Zorica; Siddiqi, Yaeesh M; Glass, Anthony D M

2013-10-01

217

Analytical properties of some commercially available nitrate reductase enzymes evaluated as replacements for cadmium in automated, semiautomated, and manual colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multiyear research effort at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) evaluated several commercially available nitrate reductase (NaR) enzymes as replacements for toxic cadmium in longstanding automated colorimetric air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer (CFA) methods for determining nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) in water. This research culminated in USGS approved standard- and low-level enzymatic reduction, colorimetric automated discrete analyzer NOx methods that have been in routine operation at the NWQL since October 2011. The enzyme used in these methods (AtNaR2) is a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouseear cress) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Because the scope of the validation report for these new automated discrete analyzer methods, published as U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 5–B8, was limited to performance benchmarks and operational details, extensive foundational research with different enzymes—primarily YNaR1, a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Pichia angusta in the yeast Pichia pastoris—remained unpublished until now. This report documents research and development at the NWQL that was foundational to development and validation of the discrete analyzer methods. It includes: (1) details of instrumentation used to acquire kinetics data for several NaR enzymes in the presence and absence of known or suspected inhibitors in relation to reaction temperature and reaction pH; and (2) validation results—method detection limits, precision and bias estimates, spike recoveries, and interference studies—for standard- and low-level automated colorimetric CFA-YNaR1 reduction NOx methods in relation to corresponding USGS approved CFA cadmium-reduction (CdR) NOx methods. The cornerstone of this validation is paired sample statistical and graphical analysis of NOx concentrations from more than 3,800 geographically and seasonally diverse surface-water and groundwater samples that were analyzed in parallel by CFA-CdR and CFA enzyme-reduction methods. Finally, (3) demonstration of a semiautomated batch procedure in which 2-milliliter analyzer cups or disposable spectrophotometer cuvettes serve as reaction vessels for enzymatic reduction of nitrate to nitrite prior to analytical determinations. After the reduction step, analyzer cups are loaded onto CFA, flow injection, or discrete analyzers for simple, rapid, automatic nitrite determinations. In the case of manual determinations, analysts dispense colorimetric reagents into cuvettes containing post-reduction samples, allow time for color to develop, insert cuvettes individually into a spectrophotometer, and record percent transmittance or absorbance in relation to a reagent blank. Data presented here demonstrate equivalent analytical performance of enzymatic reduction NOx methods in these various formats to that of benchmark CFA-CdR NOx methods.

Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

2013-01-01

218

Annual dissolved nitrite plus nitrate and total phosphorous loads for the Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia River basins, 1968-2004  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Annual stream-water loads were calculated near the outlet of four of the larger river basins (Susquehanna, St. Lawrence, Mississippi-Atchafalaya, and Columbia) in the United States for dissolved nitrite plus nitrate (NO2 + NO3) and total phosphorus using LOADEST load estimation software. Loads were estimated for the period 1968-2004; although loads estimated for individual river basins and chemical constituent combinations typically were for shorter time periods due to limitations in data availability. Stream discharge and water-quality data for load estimates were obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with additional stream discharge data for the Mississippi-Atchafalaya River Basin from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The loads were estimated to support national assessments of changes in stream nutrient loads that are periodically conducted by Federal agencies (for example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) and other water- and land-resource organizations. Data, methods, and results of load estimates are summarized herein; including World Wide Web links to electronic ASCII text files containing the raw data. The load estimates are compared to dissolved NO2 + NO3 loads for three of the large river basins from 1971 to 1998 that the USGS provided during 2001 to The H. John Heinz III Center for Science, Economics and the Environment (The Heinz Center) for a report The Heinz Center published during 2002. Differences in the load estimates are the result of using the most up-to-date monitoring data since the 2001 analysis, differences in how concentrations less than the reporting limit were handled by the load estimation models, and some errors and exclusions in the 2001 analysis datasets (which resulted in some inaccurate load estimates).

Aulenbach, Brent T.

2006-01-01

219

Control of aeration, aerobic SRT and COD input for mainstream nitritation/denitritation.  

PubMed

This work describes the development of an intermittently aerated pilot-scale process (V = 0.34 m(3)) operated without oxidized nitrogen recycle and supplemental carbon addition optimized for nitrogen removal via nitritation/denitritation. The aeration pattern was controlled using a novel aeration strategy based on set-points for reactor ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations with the aim of maintaining equal effluent ammonia and nitrate + nitrite (NOx) concentrations. Further, unique operational and process control strategies were developed to facilitate the out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) based on optimizing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) input, imposing transient anoxia, aggressive solids retention time (SRT) operation towards ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) washout and high dissolved oxygen (DO) (>1.5 mg/L). Sustained nitrite accumulation (NO2-N/NOx-N = 0.36 ± 0.27) was observed while AOB activity was greater than NOB activity (AOB: 391 ± 124 mgN/L/d, NOB: 233 ± 151 mgN/L/d, p < 0.001) during the entire study. The reactor demonstrated total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal rate of 151 ± 74 mgN/L/d at an influent COD/ [Formula: see text] -N ratio of 10.4 ± 1.9 at 25 °C. The TIN removal efficiency was 57  ±  25% within the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h and within an SRT of 4-8 days. Therefore, this pilot-scale study demonstrates that application of the proposed online aeration control is able to out-select NOB in mainstream conditions providing relatively high nitrogen removal without supplemental carbon and alkalinity at a low HRT. PMID:24721663

Regmi, Pusker; Miller, Mark W; Holgate, Becky; Bunce, Ryder; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

2014-06-15

220

Bioassimilation versus nitrification for the removal of ammonia in aquaculture biofilters  

E-print Network

, but their abundance in aquacultural waters is not well documented (Bock et al. , 1986). Additionally, several heterotrophic nitrifying microbes have been described (Castignetti & Hollocher, 1984), but their importance in aquaculture is neither well documented nor... well understood. Although nitrate is many times less toxic than either ammonia or nitrite to most animals, it can support the growth of undesirable microbes or accumulate to such a high concentration in recirculating aquaculture that the cultured...

Kamps, Ray Herbert

2012-06-07

221

Abiotic nitrogen fixation on terrestrial planets: reduction of NO to ammonia by FeS.  

PubMed

Understanding the abiotic fixation of nitrogen and how such fixation can be a supply of prebiotic nitrogen is critical for understanding both the planetary evolution of, and the potential origin of life on, terrestrial planets. As nitrogen is a biochemically essential element, sources of biochemically accessible nitrogen, especially reduced nitrogen, are critical to prebiotic chemistry and the origin of life. Loss of atmospheric nitrogen can result in loss of the ability to sustain liquid water on a planetary surface, which would impact planetary habitability and hydrological processes that shape the surface. It is known that NO can be photochemically converted through a chain of reactions to form nitrate and nitrite, which can be subsequently reduced to ammonia. Here, we show that NO can also be directly reduced, by FeS, to ammonia. In addition to removing nitrogen from the atmosphere, this reaction is particularly important as a source of reduced nitrogen on an early terrestrial planet. By converting NO directly to ammonia in a single step, ammonia is formed with a higher product yield (~50%) than would be possible through the formation of nitrate/nitrite and subsequent conversion to ammonia. In conjunction with the reduction of NO, there is also a catalytic disproportionation at the mineral surface that converts NO to NO? and N?O. The NO? is then converted to ammonia, while the N?O is released back in the gas phase, which provides an abiotic source of nitrous oxide. PMID:22283408

Summers, David P; Basa, Ranor C B; Khare, Bishun; Rodoni, David

2012-02-01

222

The history of aerobic ammonia oxidizers: from the first discoveries to today.  

PubMed

Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, has long been considered a central biological process in the global nitrogen cycle, with its first description dated 133 years ago. Until 2005, bacteria were considered the only organisms capable of nitrification. However, the recent discovery of a chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, changed our concept of the range of organisms involved in nitrification, highlighting the importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as potential players in global biogeochemical nitrogen transformations. The uniqueness of these archaea justified the creation of a novel archaeal phylum, Thaumarchaeota. These recent discoveries increased the global scientific interest within the microbial ecology society and have triggered an analysis of the importance of bacterial vs archaeal ammonia oxidation in a wide range of natural ecosystems. In this mini review we provide a chronological perspective of the current knowledge on the ammonia oxidation pathway of nitrification, based on the main physiological, ecological and genomic discoveries. PMID:24972807

Monteiro, Maria; Séneca, Joana; Magalhães, Catarina

2014-07-01

223

Profile of nitric oxide (NO) metabolites (nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso groups) in honeys of different botanical origins: nitrate accumulation as index of origin, quality and of therapeutic opportunities.  

PubMed

Besides dermoprotective activity, honey also has a strong gastroprotective effect, from salivary reduction of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) to nitrite (NO(2)(-)) and intragastric formation of nitric oxide (NO), this lastly involved in the preservation of the gastric mucosa capillaries and in boosting mucous production. Aim of this work is to profile the distribution of NO metabolites (NO(3)(-), NO(2)(-) and total N-nitroso-groups, N-NO) in a set of honeys (n=54) of different botanical origins, using a chemiluminescence based technique (NO-analyzer, NOA). All the honeys contained appreciable amounts of NO(3)(-) (from 1.63+/-0.04 to 482.98+/-5.34 mg/kg), the highest in honeydew honeys (10-40 times than in nectar honeys). Low levels of NO(2)(-) were found in all samples (0.01+/-0.00 to 0.56+/-0.01 mg/kg). N-NO groups, at trace levels in some nectar honeys, were higher in honeydew samples (from 0.01+/-0.00 to 0.29+/-0.01 mg/kg). Total phenol content (TP) and total protein (TProt) were comparable to those in literature. Multivariate analysis indicated that N-NO groups were significantly associated with NO(2)(-) and TP thus to suggest an in situ environmental nitrosation of specific nitrosable substrates (lysine, proline) favored by high reducing conditions. The bee-smoking process can be an alternative or complementary explanation for N-NO contamination. Hence NO(3)(-) rich honeys intake may exert beneficial effects against NSAIDs-induced gastric injury. Finally NO(3)(-) is a potential reliable marker of a honey's origin and quality. PMID:20451343

Beretta, Giangiacomo; Gelmini, Fabrizio; Lodi, Viola; Piazzalunga, Andrea; Maffei Facino, Roberto

2010-11-01

224

REDUCTION OF NITRATE THROUGH THE USE OF NITRATE REDUCTASE FOR THE SMARTCHEM AUTOANALYZER  

EPA Science Inventory

The standard method for the determination of nitrate in drinking water, USEPA Method 353.2 ¿Determination of Nitrate-Nitrite by Automated Colorimetry,¿ employs cadmium as the reductant for the conversion of nitrate to nitrite. The nitrite is then analyzed colorimetrically by way ...

225

Acetate limitation and nitrite accumulation during denitrification  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite accumulated in denitrifying activated sludge mixed liquor when the carbon and electron source, acetate, was limited. If acetate was added to obtain a carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the range of 2:1 to 3:1, nitrate was completely consumed at the same rate with no nitrite accumulation, indicating that nitrate concentration controlled the respiration rate as long as sufficient substrate was present. However, when acetate was reduced to a C:N ratio of 1:1, while nitrate continued to be consumed, > 50% of the initial nitrate-nitrogen accumulated as nitrite and 29% persisted as nitrite throughout an endogenous denitrification period of 8--9 h. While nitrite accumulated during acetate-limited denitrification, the specific nitrate reduction rate increased significantly compared with the rate when excess acetate was provided as follows: 0.034 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h versus 0.023 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h, respective. This may be explained by nitrate respiration out-competing nitrite respiration for limited acetate electrons. Complete restoration of balanced denitrification and elimination of nitrite accumulation during denitrification required several weeks after the C:N ratio was increased back to 2:1.

Oh, J. [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). School of Environmental Engineering] [Pohang Univ. of Science and Technology (Korea, Republic of). School of Environmental Engineering; Silverstein, J. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)] [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

1999-03-01

226

Stable Isotope Probing Analysis of Interactions between Ammonia Oxidizers?  

PubMed Central

The response of natural microbial communities to environmental change can be assessed by determining DNA- or RNA-targeted changes in relative abundance of 16S rRNA gene sequences by using fingerprinting techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DNA-DGGE and RNA-DGGE, respectively) or by stable isotope probing (SIP) of 16S rRNA genes following incubation with a 13C-labeled substrate (DNA-SIP-DGGE). The sensitivities of these three approaches were compared during batch growth of communities containing two or three Nitrosospira pure or enriched cultures with different tolerances to a high ammonia concentration. Cultures were supplied with low, intermediate, or high initial ammonia concentrations and with 13C-labeled carbon dioxide. DNA-SIP-DGGE provided the most direct evidence for growth and was the most sensitive, with changes in DGGE profiles evident before changes in DNA- and RNA-DGGE profiles and before detectable increases in nitrite and nitrate production. RNA-DGGE provided intermediate sensitivity. In addition, the three molecular methods were used to follow growth of individual strains within communities. In general, changes in relative activities of individual strains within communities could be predicted from monoculture growth characteristics. Ammonia-tolerant Nitrosospira cluster 3b strains dominated mixed communities at all ammonia concentrations, and ammonia-sensitive strains were outcompeted at an intermediate ammonia concentration. However, coexistence of ammonia-tolerant and ammonia-sensitive strains occurred at the lowest ammonia concentration, and, under some conditions, strains inhibited at high ammonia in monoculture were active at high ammonia in mixed cultures, where they coexisted with ammonia-tolerant strains. The results therefore demonstrate the sensitivity of SIP for detection of activity of organisms with relatively low yield and low activity and its ability to follow changes in the structure of interacting microbial communities. PMID:20154116

Tourna, Maria; Freitag, Thomas E.; Prosser, James I.

2010-01-01

227

Microbial Reduction of Chromate in the Presence of Nitrate by Three Nitrate Respiring Organisms  

PubMed Central

A major challenge for the bioremediation of toxic metals is the co-occurrence of nitrate, as it can inhibit metal transformation. Geobacter metallireducens, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, and Sulfurospirillum barnesii are three soil bacteria that can reduce chromate [Cr(VI)] and nitrate, and may be beneficial for developing bioremediation strategies. All three organisms respire through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), employing different nitrate reductases but similar nitrite reductase (Nrf). G. metallireducens reduces nitrate to nitrite via the membrane bound nitrate reductase (Nar), while S. barnesii and D. desulfuricans strain 27774 have slightly different forms of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap). We investigated the effect of DNRA growth in the presence of Cr(VI) in these three organisms and the ability of each to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and found that each organisms responded differently. Growth of G. metallireducens on nitrate was completely inhibited by Cr(VI). Cultures of D. desulfuricans on nitrate media was initially delayed (48?h) in the presence of Cr(VI), but ultimately reached comparable cell yields to the non-treated control. This prolonged lag phase accompanied the transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Viable G. metallireducens cells could reduce Cr(VI), whereas Cr(VI) reduction by D. desulfuricans during growth, was mediated by a filterable and heat stable extracellular metabolite. S. barnesii growth on nitrate was not affected by Cr(VI), and Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III). However, Cr(VI) reduction activity in S. barnesii, was detected in both the cell free spent medium and cells, indicating both extracellular and cell associated mechanisms. Taken together, these results have demonstrated that Cr(VI) affects DNRA in the three organisms differently, and that each have a unique mechanism for Cr(VI) reduction. PMID:23251135

Chovanec, Peter; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Zhang, Ning; Basu, Partha; Stolz, John F.

2012-01-01

228

Occurrence of Nitrites in Soils.  

E-print Network

cannot be used directly as food for plants, but must first be changed to soluble organic compounds, to ammonia, or to nitrates. While ammonia can be assimilated by plants (4), it is generally believed that nitrates are nsed more extensively than... ammonia by cultivated plants in ordinary arable soils. On account of its importance, the process of nitrification. has received extensive study both in the field and in the laboratory (1, '7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12). The capacity of various soils to produce...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Sterges, A. J.

1930-01-01

229

Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000-2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOX and NH3) from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% ~ 80% increases in SO2 and NOX emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC) and Sichuan Basin (SCB), while nitrate makes equal contribution as sulfate over North China (NC). Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011-2015) Five Year Plan (FYP), China's total SO2 and NOX emissions are projected to change by -16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. However, the amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given our finding that bottom-up inventories tend to overestimate China's ammonia emissions during the 2000 - 2006 period. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their levels in 2006, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC for which NOX emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015 (the same percentage change as NOX emissions), the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

Zhang, Q.; Wang, Y.; He, K.; Zhang, Q.

2012-12-01

230

Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000-2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3) from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60%~80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC) and Sichuan Basin (SCB), while nitrate makes equal contribution as sulfate over North China (NC). Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011-2015) Five Year Plan (FYP), China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by -16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. However, the amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given our finding that bottom-up inventories tend to overestimate China's ammonia emissions during the 2000-2006 period. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their levels in 2006, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q. Q.; He, K.; Zhang, Q.; Chai, L.

2012-09-01

231

Effects of nitrate adaptation by rumen inocula donors and substrate fiber proportion on in vitro nitrate disappearance, methanogenesis, and rumen fermentation acid.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to evaluate the main effects of dietary nitrate adaptation by cattle and alfalfa cell wall to starch ratio in in vitro substrates on nitrate disappearance and nitrite and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations, as well as hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) accumulations. Rumen fluid from steers fed diets containing urea or nitrate was added into in vitro incubations containing sodium nitrate as the sole nitrogen source and 20 cell wall : 80 starch or 80 cell wall : 20 starch as the carbohydrate source. The results showed that during 24 h incubation, rumen fluid inoculums from steers adapted to dietary nitrate resulted in more rapid nitrate disappearance by 6 h of incubation (P < 0.01), no significant effect on nitrite concentration and diminished CH4 accumulation (P < 0.05). Cell wall to starch ratio did not affect nitrate disappearance, CH4 accumulation and total VFA concentration. The higher cell wall ratio had the lower total gas production and H2 concentration (P < 0.05). Ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration increased because of adaptation of donors to nitrate feeding (P < 0.05). Nitrate adaptation did not alter total VFA concentration, but increased acetate, and decreased propionate and butyrate molar proportions (P < 0.01). PMID:23391259

Lin, M; Schaefer, D M; Zhao, G Q; Meng, Q X

2013-07-01

232

Nitrite acts as a transcriptome signal at micromolar concentrations in Arabidopsis roots.  

PubMed

Nitrate serves as a potent signal to control gene expression in plants and algae, but little is known about the signaling role of nitrite, the direct product of nitrate reduction. Analysis of several nitrate-induced genes showed that nitrite increases mRNA levels as rapidly as nitrate in nitrogen-starved Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Both nitrite and nitrate induction are apparent at concentrations as low as 100 nm. The response at low nitrite concentrations was not due to contaminating nitrate, which was present at <1% of the nitrite concentration. High levels of ammonium (20 mm) in the growth medium suppressed induction of several genes by nitrate, but had varied effects on the nitrite response. Transcriptome analysis using 250 or 5 microm nitrate or nitrite showed that over one-half of the nitrate-induced genes, which included genes involved in nitrate and ammonium assimilation, energy production, and carbon and nitrogen metabolism responded equivalently to nitrite; however, the nitrite response was more robust and there were many genes that responded specifically to nitrite. Thus, nitrite can serve as a signal as well as if not better than nitrate. PMID:17951451

Wang, Rongchen; Xing, Xiujuan; Crawford, Nigel

2007-12-01

233

Electrocatalytic reduction of nitrate in sodium hydroxide solution in the presence of low-valent cobalt-cyclam species  

Microsoft Academic Search

In concentrated NaOH solution nitrate and nitrite ions are efficiently reduced to a mixture of products including hydroxylamine and ammonia via an electrocatalytic process in the presence of cobalt complexes of 1,4,8,11-tetraazacyclotetradecane (cyclam). A key mechanistic role is proposed for Co{sup I}(cyclam)NOâ, which is generated in the diffusion layer at ca. -1.3 V vs SCE. The lack of dependent on

Hulin Li; William C. Anderson; James Q. Chambers; David T. Hobbs

1989-01-01

234

Thermochemical nitrate destruction  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

Cox, John L. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

235

The abiotic fixation of nitrogen on mars and other terrestrial planets: conversion of nitrogen, through NO, into nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, and nitrous oxide  

Microsoft Academic Search

The abiotic fixation of nitrogen is critical to understanding habitability, planetary evolution and the potential origin of life on terrestrial planets such as Mars. A non-biological source of biochemically accessible nitrogen is necessary for the origin and early evolution of life. The Martian surface has become uninhabitable, in part due to loss of atmospheric gases, such as nitrogen, resulting in

David Summers; Ranor Basa; Bishun Khare; David Rodoni

2010-01-01

236

Competition for Ammonia Influences the Structure of Chemotrophic Communities in Geothermal Springs  

PubMed Central

Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii” and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs. PMID:24242238

Hamilton, Trinity L.; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R.; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, Jose R.; Peters, John W.

2014-01-01

237

Nitrite reduction mechanism on a pd surface.  

PubMed

Nitrate (NO3(-)) is one of the most harmful contaminants in the groundwater, and it causes various health problems. Bimetallic catalysts, usually palladium (Pd) coupled with secondary metallic catalyst, are found to properly treat nitrate-containing wastewaters; however, the selectivity toward N2 production over ammonia (NH3) production still requires further improvement. Because the N2 selectivity is determined at the nitrite (NO2(-)) reduction step on the Pd surface, which occurs after NO3(-) is decomposed into NO2(-) on the secondary metallic catalyst, we here performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments to investigate the NO2(-) reduction pathway on the Pd surface activated by hydrogen. Based on extensive DFT calculations on the relative energetics among ?100 possible intermediates, we found that NO2(-) is easily reduced to NO* on the Pd surface, followed by either sequential hydrogenation steps to yield NH3 or a decomposition step to N* and O* (an adsorbate on Pd is denoted using an asterisk). Based on the calculated high migration barrier of N*, we further discussed that the direct combination of two N* to yield N2 is kinetically less favorable than the combination of a highly mobile H* with N* to yield NH3. Instead, the reduction of NO2(-) in the vicinity of the N* can yield N2O* that can be preferentially transformed into N2 via diverse reaction pathways. Our DFT results suggest that enhancing the likelihood of N* encountering NO2(-) in the solution phase before combination with surface H* is important for maximizing the N2 selectivity. This is further supported by our experiments on NO2(-) reduction by Pd/TiO2, showing that both a decreased H2 flow rate and an increased NO2(-) concentration increased the N2 selectivity (78.6-93.6% and 57.8-90.9%, respectively). PMID:25280017

Shin, Hyeyoung; Jung, Sungyoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin; Kim, Hyungjun

2014-11-01

238

Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

1992-03-01

239

Electrochemical regeneration of zeolites and the removal of ammonia.  

PubMed

The electrochemical regeneration of zeolites was investigated with the objective of removing ammonia from water harmlessly and reusing the regeneration solution in an undivided electrochemical cell assembled with a Ti/IrO(2)-Pt anode and a Cu/Zn cathode. Zeolites could be completely regenerated through the electrochemical method in this study. With NaCl as a supporting electrolyte, the conversion rate of ammonia adsorbed by the zeolites into nitrogen gas was more that 96%, while the conversion rate to nitrate was less than 4%; no ammonia or nitrite was detected in the solution after electrolysis. The surface of the cathode appeared to be rougher after electrolysis than before. More nitrate was produced when the amount of NaCl was raised or when the current density was increased to the range of 20-60 mA/cm(2). The regeneration solution can be repeatedly reused over a long period of time with the proper amount of NaCl added to the solution. Even after the solution was reused for five times, it could still completely regenerate the zeolites, saving both water resources and the chemical reagent. PMID:19411139

Lei, Xiaohui; Li, Miao; Zhang, Zhenya; Feng, Chuanping; Bai, Wei; Sugiura, Norio

2009-09-30

240

A peroxynitrite complex of copper: formation from a copper-nitrosyl complex, transformation to nitrite and exogenous phenol oxidative coupling or nitration  

PubMed Central

Reaction of nitrogen monoxide with a copper(I) complex possessing a tridentate alkylamine ligand gives a Cu(I)–(·NO) adduct, which when exposed to dioxygen generates a peroxynitrite (O=NOO?)–Cu(II) species. This undergoes thermal transformation to produce a copper(II) nitrito (NO2?) complex and 0.5 mol equiv O2. In the presence of a substituted phenol, the peroxynitrite complex effects oxidative coupling, whereas addition of chloride ion to dissociate the peroxynitrite moiety instead leads to phenol ortho nitration. Discussions include the structures (including electronic description) of the copper–nitrosyl and copper–peroxynitrite complexes and the formation of the latter, based on density functional theory calculations and accompanying spectroscopic data. PMID:19662443

Park, Ga Young; Deepalatha, Subramanian; Puiu, Simona C.; Lee, Dong-Heon; Mondal, Biplab; Sarjeant, Amy A. Narducci; del Rio, Diego; Pau, Monita Y. M.; Solomon, Edward I.; Karlin, Kenneth D.

2010-01-01

241

Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

1992-01-01

242

Nitrite reduction to nitrous oxide by propionibacteria: Detoxication mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Propionibacterium acidi-propionici, P. freudenreichii, P. jensenii, P. shermanii and P. thoenii were studied. All strains reduced nitrate to nitrite and further to N2O. Recovery of added nitrite-N as N2O-N approached 100%, so that no other end product existed in a significant quantity. Specific rates of N2O production were 3 to 6 orders of magnitude

Heinrich F. Kaspar

1982-01-01

243

Transportation of reclaimed wastewater through a long pipe: inhibition of sulphide production by nitrite from the secondary treatment.  

PubMed

The agricultural reuse of reclaimed wastewater has become a necessity in places with water shortages. Frequently, this involves the operation of long transportation pipelines, like in the South Tenerife reuse system, whose main element is a completely filled 61 km long gravity pipe in cast iron. Sulphide generation, which could contribute to pipe corrosion, is a usual process taking place during transportation if anaerobic conditions prevail. In the Wastewater Treatment Plant of Santa Cruz (Tenerife, Spain) a partial nitrification process was achieved by increasing the mean residence time through the aeration step at low dissolved oxygen concentration. Such conditions, combined with the right temperature and a free ammonia concentration above 1 mg l(-1), inhibited nitratation and favoured nitritation, which led to concentrations of NO2-N above 8 mg l(-1) in the secondary effluent. During the transportation, nitrite inhibited the appearance of anaerobic conditions, and, consequently, no sulphide generation occurred. At the same time, a nitrite reduction process took place with a first order kinetics and a rate coefficient of 0.052 h(-1)' at 25 degrees C. A parallel behaviour between the nitrite depletion and the oxidation-reduction potential evolution along the pipeline was also observed. PMID:15176751

Delgado, S; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez-Gómez, L E; Elmaleh, S

2004-03-01

244

Emerging role of nitrite in human biology.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) plays a fundamental role in maintaining normal vascular function. NO is produced by endothelial cells and diffuses both into smooth muscle causing vasodilation and into the vessel lumen where the majority of this highly potent gas is rapidly inactivated by dioxygenation reaction with oxyhemoglobin to form nitrate. Diffusional barriers for NO around the erythrocyte and along the endothelium in laminar flowing blood reduce the inactivation reaction of NO by hemoglobin, allowing sufficient NO to escape for vasodilation and also to react in plasma and tissues to form nitrite anions (NO(2)(-)) and NO-modified peptides and proteins (RX-NO). Several recent studies have highlighted the importance of the nitrite anion in human biology. These studies have shown that measurement of plasma nitrite is a sensitive index of constitutive NO synthesis, suggesting that it may be useful as a marker of endothelial function. Additionally, recent evidence suggests that nitrite represents a circulating storage pool of NO and may selectively donate NO to hypoxic vascular beds. The conversion of nitrite to NO requires a reaction with a deoxygenated heme protein, suggesting a novel function of hemoglobin as a deoxygenation-dependent nitrite reductase. This review focuses on the role of nitrite as a circulating NO donor, its potential as an index of NO synthase (NOS) activity and endothelial function, and discusses potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. PMID:15121102

Dejam, André; Hunter, Christian J; Schechter, Alan N; Gladwin, Mark T

2004-01-01

245

Studies on the stabilization and purification of nitrite reductase from Neurospora crassa  

E-print Network

not suitable for analysis by sodium dodecylsulfate gel electrophoresis. Staining of the gel by a method specific for nitrite reductase revealed one artifact band and one nitrite-dependent band. Increases in the total amount of enzyme activity recovered were... In vitro stability of nitrite reductase DEAR-cellulose elution profile 24 29 Polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis of Step 5 enzyme. Gels stained for nitrite reductase and nitrate reductase activities 32 Polyacrylami. de disc gel electrophoresis...

Bonewitz, Roland Frederick

2012-06-07

246

Abundance and Diversity of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers in a Coastal Groundwater System ? †  

PubMed Central

Nitrification, the microbially catalyzed oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, is a key process in the nitrogen cycle. Archaea have been implicated in the first part of the nitrification pathway (oxidation of ammonia to nitrite), but the ecology and physiology of these organisms remain largely unknown. This work describes two different populations of sediment-associated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in a coastal groundwater system in Cape Cod, MA. Sequence analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) shows that one population of putative AOA inhabits the upper meter of the sediment, where they may experience frequent ventilation, with tidally driven overtopping and infiltration of bay water supplying dissolved oxygen, ammonium, and perhaps organic carbon. A genetically distinct population occurs deeper in the sediment, in a mixing zone between a nitrate- and oxygen-rich freshwater zone and a reduced, ammonium-bearing saltwater wedge. Both of these AOA populations are coincident with increases in the abundance of group I crenarchaeota 16S rRNA gene copies. PMID:20971859

Rogers, Daniel R.; Casciotti, Karen L.

2010-01-01

247

Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

1992-03-01

248

Inverse kinetic isotope fractionation during bacterial nitrite oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Natural abundance stable isotopes in nitrate ( NO3-), nitrite ( NO2-), and nitrous oxide (N 2O) have been used to better understand the cycling of nitrogen in marine and terrestrial environments. However, in order to extract the greatest information from the distributions of these isotopic species, the kinetic isotope effects for each of the relevant microbial reactions are needed. To date, kinetic isotope effects for nitrite oxidation and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) have not been reported. In this study, the nitrogen isotope effect was measured for microbial nitrite oxidation to nitrate. Nitrite oxidation is the second step in the nitrification process, and it plays a key role in the regeneration of nitrate in the ocean. Surprisingly, nitrite oxidation occurred with an inverse kinetic isotope effect, such that the residual nitrite became progressively depleted in 15N as the reaction proceeded. Three potential explanations for this apparent inverse kinetic isotope effect were explored: (1) isotope exchange equilibrium between nitrite and nitrous acid prior to reaction, (2) reaction reversibility at the enzyme level, and (3) true inverse kinetic fractionation. Comparison of experimental data to ab initio calculations and theoretical predictions leads to the conclusion that the fractionation is most likely inverse at the enzyme level. Inverse kinetic isotope effects are rare, but the experimental observations reported here agree with kinetic isotope theory for this simple N-O bond-forming reaction. Nitrite oxidation is therefore fundamentally different from all other microbial processes in which N isotope fractionation has been studied. The unique kinetic isotope effect for nitrite oxidation should help to better identify its role in the cycling of nitrite in ocean suboxic zones, and other environments in which nitrite accumulates.

Casciotti, Karen L.

2009-04-01

249

Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.  

PubMed

The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed. PMID:25170152

Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

2014-08-29

250

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

251

Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns  

E-print Network

Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris March 2009 Accepted 26 March 2009 Keywords: Arsenic Nitrate metabolism Pteris vittata Arsenic

Ma, Lena

252

Nitrite impacts the survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in response to isoniazid and hydrogen peroxide  

PubMed Central

When access to molecular oxygen is restricted, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) can respire an alternative electron acceptor, nitrate. We found that Mtb within infected primary human macrophages in vitro at physiologic tissue oxygen tensions respired nitrate, generating copious nitrite. A strain of Mtb lacking a functioning nitrate reductase was more susceptible than wild-type Mtb to treatment with isoniazid during infection of macrophages. Likewise, nitrate reductase-deficient Mtb was more susceptible to isoniazid than wild-type Mtb in axenic culture, and more resistant to hydrogen peroxide. These phenotypes were reversed by the addition of exogenous nitrite. Further investigation suggested that nitrite might inhibit the bacterial catalase. To the extent that Mtb itself is the most relevant source of nitrite acting within Mtb, these findings suggest that inhibitors of Mtb's nitrate transporter or nitrate reductase could enhance the efficacy of isoniazid. PMID:24019302

Cunningham-Bussel, Amy; Bange, Franz C; Nathan, Carl F

2013-01-01

253

Protection against oral and gastrointestinal diseases: Importance of dietary nitrate intake, oral nitrate reduction and enterosalivary nitrate circulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the last 20 years, dietary nitrate has been implicated in the formation of methemoglobin and carcinogenic nitrosamines in humans. This has led to restrictions of nitrate and nitrite levels in food and drinking water. However, there is no epidemiological evidence for an increased risk of gastric and intestinal cancer in population groups with high dietary vegetable or nitrate intake.

Callum Duncan; Hong Li; Roelf Dykhuizen; Rennie Frazer; Peter Johnston; Gillian MacKnight; Lorna Smith; Kathryn Lamza; Hamish McKenzie; Les Batt; Denise Kelly; Michael Golden; Nigel Benjamin; Carlo Leifert

1997-01-01

254

Unimolecular reactions of nitrites and nitrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Photodissociation of CH3ONO, C2H5ONO, and C3H7ONO have been studied using multiphoton ionization (MPI) to detect the NO fragment. Each of these molecules was dissociated by one photon (382-383 nm) and the fragment NO(X 2 Pi) was excited and ionized in a subsequent (2+1) photon process. All events occurred within the same laser pulse duration (- 7 ns), thus ensuring collision-free conditions. The MPI spectrum NO was analyzed for rotational state distributions. When compared to a room temperature spectrum of NO at 300 K, the extent of NO rotational excitation observed in CH3ONO was very large, Erot>1/2100 cm) and the distribution of NO was found to be non-thermal. C2H5ONO and C3H7ONO on the other hand, produced NO fragments which displayed a Boltzmann behavior and could be characterized by Trot equals 350 K and 250 K respectively.

Wittig, C.; Reisler, H.

1983-04-01

255

AMMONIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, EMISSIONS, INORGANIC PM 2.5, AND CLEAN AIR INTERSTATE RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation discusses the role of ammonia as an atmospheric pollutant. Ammonia is emitted primarily from agricultural sources, although vehicles are the largest sources in urban centers. When combined with nitrate and sulfate, ammonia forms particulate matter which has be...

256

Molecular Structure of Ammonia  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ammonia is a non-ionic colorless gas at ambient temperatures and a hydrogen bonding liquid at 240 Kelvin that has the remarkable ability to dissolve alkali metals. Ammonia is a Lewis base and is readily absorbed by water to form small amounts of ammonium hydroxide (pKb = 4.74). Naturally, ammonia has its sources in the biosphere (the nitrogen cycle) and is a trace gas in air and a source of ammonium ions in rain and atmospheric aerosols. Ammonia is prepared industrially by the Haber-Bosch process in quantities exceeding 120 million metric tons per year. In this process, ammonia gas is formed when hydrogen and nitrogen (3:1) are compressed to pressures of 200 atm and passed over an iron catalyst at 380-450 degrees C. Much of the ammonia produced this way (85%) is used as fertilizers on crops, a significant portion of which leaches from croplands into streams causing nitrate pollution and eutrophication of waterways (e.g., dead-zone in the Gulf of Mexico). Other sources of ammonia include combustion (coal and biomass burning) and from bacterial decomposition of animal excreta.

2006-05-02

257

Effect of Encapsulating Nitrate in Sesame Gum on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters.  

PubMed

Encapsulation is a method used to protect material from certain undesirable environments, for controlled release at a more favorable time and place. Animal productivity would be enhanced if feed additives are delivered to be utilized at their site of action, bypassing the rumen where they are likely to be degraded by microbial action. A novel method of encapsulation with sesame gum was used to coat nitrate, a known enteric methane mitigating agent, and tested for the effect on methane reduction and other in vitro fermentation parameters using rumen fluid from cannulated Hanwoo steers. Orchard grass was used as basal diet for fermentation. The treatments were matrix (1.1 g sesame gum+0.4 g sesame oil cake) only, encapsulated nitrate (matrix+nitrate [21 mM]), free nitrate (21 mM), and a control that contained no additive. Analyses of fermentation parameters were done at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h time periods. In comparison to control, both free and encapsulated nitrate produced significantly reduced (p<0.01) methane (76% less) and also the total volatile fatty acids were reduced. A significantly higher (p<0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen was obtained with the encapsulated nitrate treatment (44%) compared to the free form (28%) and matrix only (20%) (p = 0.014). This might suggest slow release of encapsulated nitrate so that it is fully reduced to ammonia. Thus, this pioneering study found a significant reduction in methane production following the use of sesame gum encapsulated nitrate that shows the potential of a controlled release system in enhancing sustainability of ruminant production while reducing/eliminating the risk of nitrite toxicity. PMID:25358317

Mamvura, Chiedza Isabel; Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Lee, Hong-Gu; Choi, Nag-Jin

2014-11-01

258

Effect of Encapsulating Nitrate in Sesame Gum on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters  

PubMed Central

Encapsulation is a method used to protect material from certain undesirable environments, for controlled release at a more favorable time and place. Animal productivity would be enhanced if feed additives are delivered to be utilized at their site of action, bypassing the rumen where they are likely to be degraded by microbial action. A novel method of encapsulation with sesame gum was used to coat nitrate, a known enteric methane mitigating agent, and tested for the effect on methane reduction and other in vitro fermentation parameters using rumen fluid from cannulated Hanwoo steers. Orchard grass was used as basal diet for fermentation. The treatments were matrix (1.1 g sesame gum+0.4 g sesame oil cake) only, encapsulated nitrate (matrix+nitrate [21 mM]), free nitrate (21 mM), and a control that contained no additive. Analyses of fermentation parameters were done at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h time periods. In comparison to control, both free and encapsulated nitrate produced significantly reduced (p<0.01) methane (76% less) and also the total volatile fatty acids were reduced. A significantly higher (p<0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen was obtained with the encapsulated nitrate treatment (44%) compared to the free form (28%) and matrix only (20%) (p = 0.014). This might suggest slow release of encapsulated nitrate so that it is fully reduced to ammonia. Thus, this pioneering study found a significant reduction in methane production following the use of sesame gum encapsulated nitrate that shows the potential of a controlled release system in enhancing sustainability of ruminant production while reducing/eliminating the risk of nitrite toxicity. PMID:25358317

Mamvura, Chiedza Isabel; Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Lee, Hong-gu; Choi, Nag-Jin

2014-01-01

259

Nitrate removal in closed-system aquaculture by columnar denitrification.  

PubMed Central

The columnar denitrification method of nitrate-nitrogen removal from high-density, closed system, salmonid aquaculture was investigated and found to be feasible. However, adequate chemical monitoring was found to be necessary for the optimization and quality control of this method. When methanol-carbon was not balanced with inlet nitrate-nitrogen, the column effluent became unsatisfactory for closed-system fish culture due to the presence of excess amounts of nitrite, ammonia, sulfide, and dissolved organic carbon. Sulfide production was also influenced by column maturity and residence time. Methane-carbon was found to be unsatisfactory as an exogenous carbon source. Endogenous carbon could not support high removal efficiencies. Freshwater columns adpated readily to an artificial seawater with a salinity of 18% without observable inhibition. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the bacterial flora was mainly rod forms with the Peritricha (protozoa) dominating as the primary consumers. Denitrifying bacteria isolated from freshwater columns were tentatively identified as species of Pseudomonas and Alcaligenes. A pilot plant column was found to behave in a manner similar to the laboratory columns except that nitrite production was never observed. Images PMID:1008557

Balderston, W L; Sieburth, J M

1976-01-01

260

Swimming performance of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after nitrite exposure  

SciTech Connect

Tests of prolonged swimming are generally considered most useful in sublethal stress assessment, as they draw on both major biochemical energy sources. No research to date has quantified either the swimming performance of I. punctatus or effects of nitrite exposure on swimming of any species. Our purpose was to determine if nitrite exposure affects the prolonged swimming performance of channel catfish, and to delineate the extent that methemoglobinemia resulting from nitrate exposure correlates with performance.

Watenpaugh, D.E.; Beitinger, T.L.

1985-05-01

261

The anoxic plant mitochondrion as a nitrite: NO reductase.  

PubMed

Under the conditions of oxygen deprivation, accumulating nitrite can be reduced in the mitochondrial electron transport chain forming free radical nitric oxide (NO). By reducing nitrite to NO, plant mitochondria preserve the capacity to oxidize external NADH and NADPH and retain a limited power for ATP synthesis complementing glycolytic ATP production. NO participates in O(2) balance in mitochondria by competitively inhibiting cytochrome c oxidase which can oxidize it to nitrite when oxygen concentration increases. Some of the NO escapes to the cytosol, where the efficient scavenging system involving non-symbiotic hemoglobin oxygenates NO to nitrate and supports continuous anaerobic turnover of nitrogen species. PMID:21406251

Gupta, Kapuganti J; Igamberdiev, Abir U

2011-07-01

262

Differential Effect of Tungsten on the Development of Endogenous and Nitrate-Induced Nitrate Reductase Activities in Soybean Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of tungsten on the development of endogenous and nitrate-induced NADH- and FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activities in primary leaves of 10-day-old soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings was studied. The seedlings were grown with or without exogenous nitrate. High levels of endogenous nitrate reductase activities developed in leaves of seedlings grown without nitrate. However, no endogenous nitrite reductase activity was detected in such seedlings. The FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activity was about 40% of NADH-linked activity. Tungsten had little or no effect on the development of endogenous NADH- and FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activities, respectively. By contrast, in nitrate-grown seedlings, tungsten only inhibited the nitrate-induced portion of NADH-linked nitrate reductase activity, whereas the FMNH2-linked activity was inhibited completely. Tungsten had no effect on the development of nitrate-induced nitrite reductase activity. The complete inhibition of FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activity by tungsten in nitrate-grown plants was apparently an artifact caused by the reduction of nitrite by nitrite reductase in the assay system. The results suggest that in soybean leaves either the endogenous nitrate reductase does not require molybdenum or the molybdenum present in the seed is preferentially utilized by the enzyme complex as compared to nitrate-induced nitrate reductase. PMID:16662475

Aslam, Muhammad

1982-01-01

263

Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria Contribute Minimally to Nitrification in a Nitrogen-Impacted Forested Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Deposition rates of atmospheric nitrogenous pollutants to forests in the San Bernardino Mountains range east of Los Angeles, California, are the highest reported in North America. Acidic soils from the west end of the range are N-saturated and have elevated rates of N-mineralization, nitrification, and nitrate leaching. We assessed the impact of this heavy nitrogen load on autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing communities by investigating their composition, abundance, and activity. Analysis of 177 cloned ?-Proteobacteria ammonia oxidizer 16S rRNA genes from highly to moderately N-impacted soils revealed similar levels of species composition; all of the soils supported the previously characterized Nitrosospira clusters 2, 3, and 4. Ammonia oxidizer abundance measured by quantitative PCR was also similar among the soils. However, rates of potential nitrification activity were greater for N-saturated soils than for soils collected from a less impacted site, but autotrophic (i.e., acetylene-sensitive) activity was low in all soils examined. N-saturated soils incubated for 30 days with ammonium accumulated additional soluble ammonium, whereas less-N-impacted soils had a net loss of ammonium. Lastly, nitrite production by cultivated Nitrosospira multiformis, an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium adapted to relatively high ammonium concentrations, was significantly inhibited in pH-controlled slurries of sterilized soils amended with ammonium despite the maintenance of optimal ammonia-oxidizing conditions. Together, these results showed that factors other than autotrophic ammonia oxidizers contributed to high nitrification rates in these N-impacted forest soils and, unlike many other environments, differences in nitrogen content and soil pH did not favor particular autotrophic ammonia oxidizer groups. PMID:15640188

Jordan, Fiona L.; Cantera, J. Jason L.; Fenn, Mark E.; Stein, Lisa Y.

2005-01-01

264

An evaluation of liquid ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) as a candidate piscicide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eradication of populations of nonnative aquatic species for the purpose of reintroducing native fish is often difficult because very few effective tools are available for removing aquatic organisms. This creates the need to evaluate new chemicals that could be used as management tools for native fish conservation. Ammonia is a natural product of fish metabolism and is naturally present in the environment at low levels, yet is known to be toxic to most aquatic species. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of using liquid ammonia as a fisheries management tool by evaluating its effectiveness at killing undesirable aquatic species and its persistence in a pond environment. A suite of invasive aquatic species commonly found in the southwestern USA were introduced into two experimental outdoor ponds located at the Rocky Mountain Research Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. Each pond was treated with ammonium hydroxide (29%) at 38 ppm. This target concentration was chosen because previous studies using anhydrous ammonia reported incomplete fish kills in ponds at concentrations less than 30 ppm. Water quality was monitored for 49 d to determine how quickly the natural bacteria in the environment converted the ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia levels remained above 8 ppm for 24 and 18 d, respectively, in ponds 1 and 2. Nitrite levels in each pond began to rise approximately 14 d after dosing with ammonia and stayed above 5 ppm for an additional 21 d in pond 1 and 18 d in pond 2. After 49 d all water in both ponds was drained and no fish, crayfish, or tadpoles were found to have survived the treatment, but aquatic turtles remained alive and appeared unaffected. Liquid ammonia appears to be an effective tool for removing many problematic invasive aquatic species and may warrant further investigation as a piscicide.

Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, R.; Hedwall, Shaula J.

2013-01-01

265

Population dynamics of nitrifying bacteria for nitritation achieved in Johannesburg (JHB) process treating municipal wastewater.  

PubMed

Population dynamic of nitrifying bacteria was investigated for nitrogen removal from municipal wastewater. Nitritation was established with nitrite accumulation ratios above 85%. Quantitative PCR indicated that Nitrospira was dominant nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) and Nitrobacter was few. During nitritation achieving, Nitrobacter was firstly eliminated, along with inhibition of Nitrospira bioactivities, then Nitrospira percentage declined and was finally washed out. Nitritation establishment depended on inhibiting and eliminating of NOB rather than ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) enriching. This is the first study where population dynamics of Nitrobacter and Nitrospira were investigated to reveal mechanism of nitritation in a continuous-flow process. Phylogenetic analysis of AOB indicated that Nitrosomonas-like cluster and Nitrosomonas oligotropha were dominant AOB, accounting for 81.6% of amoA gene clone library. Community structure of AOB was similar to that of complete nitrification system with long hydraulic retention time, but different from that of nitritation reactor with low DO concentration. PMID:24736209

Zeng, Wei; Bai, Xinlong; Zhang, Limin; Wang, Anqi; Peng, Yongzhen

2014-06-01

266

Hydroxylamine Reductase Enzymes from Maize Scutellum and Their Relationship to Nitrite Reductase 1  

PubMed Central

Three enzymes contribute to the total hydroxylamine reductase activity of corn (Zea mays L.) scutellum extracts. Two of these resemble enzymes previously prepared from leaves, while the third, which accounts for a major part of the activity, appears to have no counterpart in leaf tissue. One of the hydroxylamine reductases found only in small amounts is associated with nitrite reductase and is induced, together with nitrite reductase, by nitrite. The other two enzymes are noninducible by nitrite and can be totally separated from nitrite reductase, which subsequently remains capable of catalyzing the reduction of nitrite to ammonia. Possible causes of the decline of hydroxylamine reductase activity during the induction of nitrite reductase are discussed. PMID:16659553

Hucklesby, Dereck P.; Hageman, Richard H.

1976-01-01

267

Sulfate-nitrate-ammonium aerosols over China: response to 2000-2015 emission changes of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and ammonia  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a chemical transport model to examine the change of sulfate-nitrate-ammonium (SNA) aerosols over China due to anthropogenic emission changes of their precursors (SO2, NOx and NH3) from 2000 to 2015. From 2000 to 2006, annual mean SNA concentrations increased by about 60% over China as a result of the 60% and 80% increases in SO2 and NOx emissions. During this period, sulfate is the dominant component of SNA over South China (SC) and Sichuan Basin (SCB), while nitrate and sulfate contribute equally over North China (NC). Based on emission reduction targets in the 12th (2011-2015) Five-Year Plan (FYP), China's total SO2 and NOx emissions are projected to change by -16% and +16% from 2006 to 2015, respectively. The amount of NH3 emissions in 2015 is uncertain, given the lack of sufficient information on the past and present levels of NH3 emissions in China. With no change in NH3 emissions, SNA mass concentrations in 2015 will decrease over SCB and SC compared to their 2006 levels, but increase over NC where the magnitude of nitrate increase exceeds that of sulfate reduction. This suggests that the SO2 emission reduction target set by the 12th FYP, although effective in reducing SNA over SC and SCB, will not be successful over NC, for which NOx emission control needs to be strengthened. If NH3 emissions are allowed to keep their recent growth rate and increase by +16% from 2006 to 2015, the benefit of SO2 reduction will be completely offset over all of China due to the significant increase of nitrate, demonstrating the critical role of NH3 in regulating nitrate. The effective strategy to control SNA and hence PM2.5 pollution over China should thus be based on improving understanding of current NH3 emissions and putting more emphasis on controlling NH3 emissions in the future.

Wang, Y.; Zhang, Q. Q.; He, K.; Zhang, Q.; Chai, L.

2013-03-01

268

1-{(2-(2,4-DICHLOROPHENYL)-4PROPYL1,3-DIOXOLAN-2-YL)METHYL}- 1?-1,2,4TRIAZOLE AS SELECTIVE EXTRACTANT OF PALLADIUM(II) FROM NITRIC ACID AND NITRATE-NITRITE SOLUTIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search and studying of new effective and selective extractants for extraction of platinum metals from nitrate solutions is caused by the necessity of the selective separation and recovery of platinum group metals from nitrate solutions of the affinage production of precious metals, as well as from solutions of processing of the spent catalysts and secondary raw materials. Especially this

Yu. I. Murinov; R. A. Khisamutdinov; G. R. Anpilogova

2009-01-01

269

Strategies of Nitrosomonas europaea 19718 to counter low dissolved oxygen and high nitrite concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Nitrosomonas europaea is a widely studied chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacterium. While significant work exists on the ammonia oxidation pathway of N. europaea, its responses to factors such as dissolved oxygen limitation or sufficiency or exposure to high nitrite concentrations, particularly at the functional gene transcription level are relatively sparse. The principal goal of this study was to investigate responses

Ran Yu; Kartik Chandran

2010-01-01

270

A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon  

PubMed Central

Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2014-01-01

271

A mesophilic, autotrophic, ammonia-oxidizing archaeon of thaumarchaeal group I.1a cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon.  

PubMed

Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and "Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis," is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and "Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis," and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name "Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis" for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Jeon, Che Ok; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2014-06-01

272

Nitrospira-Like Bacteria Associated with Nitrite Oxidation in Freshwater Aquaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Oxidation of nitrite to nitrate in aquaria is typically attributed to bacteria belonging to the genus Nitrobacter which are members of the a subdivision of the class Proteobacteria. In order to identify bacteria responsible for nitrite oxidation in aquaria, clone libraries of rRNA genes were developed from biofilms of several freshwater aquaria. Analysis of the rDNA libraries, along with results

TIMOTHY A. HOVANEC; LANCE T. TAYLOR; ANDREW BLAKIS; EDWARD F. DELONG

1998-01-01

273

Nitrate formation in atmospheric aerosols  

Microsoft Academic Search

Equilibrium nitrate levels in aqueous solution in the presence of sodium chloride, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, carbon dioxide, ammonia, and sulfuric acid are calculated. Nitrate levels in solution are of the order of those observed in the atmosphere when the gaseous concentrations are at typical urban levels. Sulfate levels in such solutions are predicted to be relatively low

Ann E. Orel; John H. Seinfeld

1977-01-01

274

Quantitative Systems Pharmacology Model of NO Metabolome and Methemoglobin Following Long-Term Infusion of Sodium Nitrite in Humans  

PubMed Central

A long-term sodium nitrite infusion is intended for the treatment of vascular disorders. Phase I data demonstrated a significant nonlinear dose-exposure-toxicity relationship within the therapeutic dosage range. This study aims to develop a quantitative systems pharmacology model characterizing nitric oxide (NO) metabolome and methemoglobin after sodium nitrite infusion. Nitrite, nitrate, and methemoglobin concentration–time profiles in plasma and RBC were used for model development. Following intravenous sodium nitrite administration, nitrite undergoes conversion in RBC and tissue. Nitrite sequestered by RBC interacts more extensively with deoxyhemoglobin, which contributes greatly to methemoglobin formation. Methemoglobin is formed less-than-proportionally at higher nitrite doses as characterized with facilitated methemoglobin removal. Nitrate-to-nitrite reduction occurs in tissue and via entero-salivary recirculation. The less-than-proportional increase in nitrite and nitrate exposure at higher nitrite doses is modeled with a dose-dependent increase in clearance. The model provides direct insight into NO metabolome disposition and is valuable for nitrite dosing selection in clinical trials. PMID:23903463

Vega-Villa, K; Pluta, R; Lonser, R; Woo, S

2013-01-01

275

Nitrite inhibition of denitrification by Pseudomonas fluorescens  

SciTech Connect

Using a pure culture of Pseudomonas fluorescens as a model system nitrite inhibition of denitrification was studied. A mineral media with acetate and nitrate as sole electron donor and acceptor, respectively, was used. Results obtained in continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTR) operated at pH values between 6.6 and 7.8 showed that growth inhibition depended only on the nitrite undissociated fraction concentration (nitrous acid). A mathematical model to describe this dependence is put forward. The maximum nitrous acid concentration compatible with cell growth and denitrification activity was found to be 66 {mu}g N/L. Denitrification activity was partially associated with growth, as described by the Luedeking-Piret equation. However, when the freshly inoculated reactor was operated discontinuously, nitrite accumulation caused growth uncoupling from denitrification activity. The authors suggest that these results can be interpreted considering that (a) nitrous acid acts as a proton uncoupler; and (b) cultures continuously exposed to nitrous acid prevent the uncoupling effect but not the growth inhibition. Examination of the growth dependence on nitrite concentration at pH 7.0 showed that adapted cultures (growth on CSTR) are less sensitive to nitrous acid inhibition than the ones cultivated in batch.

Almeida, J.S.; Julio, S.M.; Reis, M.A.M. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal); Carrondo, M.J.T. [FCT/UNL, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)]|[Inst. de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica, Oeiras (Portugal)

1995-05-05

276

Anaerobic phototrophic nitrite oxidation by Thiocapsa sp. strain KS1 and Rhodopseudomonas sp. strain LQ17.  

PubMed

In anaerobic enrichment cultures for phototrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacteria from different freshwater sites, two different cell types, i.e. non-motile cocci and motile, rod-shaped bacteria, always outnumbered all other bacteria. Most-probable-number (MPN) dilution series with samples from two freshwater sites yielded only low numbers (nitrite oxidizers. Slightly higher numbers (about 10(4) cm(-3)) were found in activated sewage sludge. Anaerobic phototrophic oxidation of nitrite was studied with two different isolates, the phototrophic sulfur bacterium strain KS1 and the purple nonsulfur bacterium strain LQ17, both of which were isolated from activated sludge collected from the municipal sewage treatment plant in Konstanz, Germany. Strain KS1 converted 1 mM nitrite stoichiometrically to nitrate with concomitant formation of cell matter within 2-3 days, whereas strain LQ17 oxidized only up to 60 % of the given nitrite to nitrate within several months with the concomitant formation of cell biomass. Nitrite oxidation to nitrate was strictly light-dependent and required the presence of molybdenum in the medium. Nitrite was oxidized in both the presence and absence of oxygen. Nitrite inhibited growth at concentrations higher than 2 mM. Hydroxylamine and hydrazine were found to be toxic to the phototrophs in the range 5-50 muM and did not stimulate phototrophic growth. Based on morphology, substrate-utilization pattern, in vivo absorption spectra, and 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain KS1 was assigned to the genus Thiocapsa and strain LQ17 to the genus Rhodopseudomonas. Also, Thiocapsa roseopersicina strains DSM 217 and DSM 221 were found to oxidize nitrite to nitrate with concomitant growth. We conclude that the ability to use nitrite phototrophically as electron donor is widespread in nature, but low MPN counts indicate that its contribution to nitrite oxidation in the studied habitats is rather limited. PMID:20447994

Schott, Joachim; Griffin, Benjamin M; Schink, Bernhard

2010-08-01

277

Electrochemical removal of nitrate using ZVI packed bed bipolar electrolytic cell.  

PubMed

The present study investigates the performance of the zero valent iron (ZVI, Fe(0)) packed bed bipolar electrolytic cell for nitrate removal. The packing mixture consists of ZVI as electronically conducting material and silica sand as non-conducting material between main cathode and anode electrodes. In the continuous column experiments for the simulated groundwater (initial nitrate and electrical conductivity of about 30 mg L(-1) as N and 300 ?S cm(-1), respectively), above 99% of nitrate was removed at the applied potential of 600 V with the main anode placed on the bottom of reactor. The influx nitrate was converted to ammonia (20% to maximum 60%) and nitrite (always less than 0.5 mg L(-1) as N in the effluent). The optimum packing ratio (v/v) of silica sand to ZVI was found to be 1:1-2:1. Magnetite was observed on the surface of the used ZVI as corrosion product. The reduction at the lower part of the reactor in acidic condition and adsorption at the upper part of the reactor in alkaline condition are the major mechanism of nitrate removal. PMID:22739545

Jeong, Joo-Young; Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Joo-Yang

2012-09-01

278

Reaction of caffeic acid derivatives with acidic nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Caffeic derivatives were reacted with acidic nitrite at controlled pH in order to mimic the gastric juice conditions. At pH 2, whereas caffeic acid reacts exclusively on the side chain, its esters are readily nitrated. Under more acidic conditions (pH 1), caffeic acid methyl ester undergoes a dimerisation into a norlignan derivative.

Philippe Cotelle; Hervé Vezin

2001-01-01

279

Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory proteins (Gmet_2478 and Gmet_1641) were up-regulated with exposure to Cr(VI). A nine-heme cytochrome C was purified that could reduce nitrite and could be oxidized by Cr(VI). For D. desulfuricans, we found that confirmed that Cr(VI) induced a prolonged lag period when Cr(VI) was reduced. Over three hundred proteins were unequivocally identified by LC/MS-MS and a significant number of down-regulated proteins for which the levels were changed >2 fold compared to control. Sulfite reductase levels were similar, however, nitrate and nitrite reductase were down-regulated. The supernatant of spent cultures was found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI). In addition, desulfoviridin was purified from nitrate grown cells and shown to have nitrite reductase activity that was inhibited by Cr(VI). For S. barnesii, periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), nitrite reductase (Nrf), and the metalloid reductase (Rar) were purified and characterized. The supernatant of spent cultures was also found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI) but that Rar also reduced Cr(VI). Our results from specific aims 1 through 3 indicate that for G. metallireducens, Cr(VI) inhibits nitrate respiration as it oxidizes cytochromes involved in nitrate respiration. Iron reduction is apparently not affected and the inhibitory affects of Cr(VI) may be attenuated by the addition of sufficient Fe(III) to generate Fe(II) that abiotically reduces the chromium. For S. barnesii, although the enzyme assays indicate that the components of the respiratory pathway for nitrate (e.g. Nap and Nrf) are inhibited by chromate, the organism has a mechanism to prevent this from actually occurring. Our current hypothesis is that the non-specific metalloid reductase (Rar) is providing resistance by reducing the Cr(VI). The strategy here would be to enhance its growth and metabolism in the natural setting. Lactate is a suitable electron donor for S. barnesii but other donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microb

John F. Stolz

2011-06-15

280

Investigation of molten nitrate salt chemistry for solar receiver applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Molten 60% sodium, 40% potassium nitrate salt mixtures were investigated for chemical and physical properties important to the design of a commercial solar receiver system. These properties are: nitrate-nitrite equilibrium with air, reactions with carbon dioxide and water vapor in air, in-situ regeneration of nitrates from decomposition products, and dynamic effects of a flowing, thermally cycled environment on salt properties.

D. W. Nelswander; T. J. Giordano; S. P. Prine

1981-01-01

281

Coupling the 15 O of nitrate as a constraint on  

E-print Network

Coupling the 15 N/14 N and 18 O/16 O of nitrate as a constraint on benthic nitrogen cycling Moritz February 2004 Abstract We report 15 N/14 N and 18 O/16 O ratios of nitrate in benthic chamber incubationsÃ? 2 dÃ? 1 . Between 46% and 100% of the total denitrification can be explained by nitrate or nitrite

Sigman, Daniel M.

282

Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil.  

PubMed

Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. Nitrite produced by AOA and further oxidized to nitrate can cause nitrogen loss from soils, surface and groundwater contamination, and water eutrophication. The AOA discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA. PMID:22715335

Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patrícia Dörr; Camargo, Flavio A O; Triplett, Eric W

2012-01-01

283

The periplasmic nitrite reductase of Thauera selenatis may catalyze the reduction of selenite to elemental selenium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thauera selenatis grows anaerobically with selenate, nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor; use of selenite as an electron acceptor does not support growth. When grown with selenate, the product was selenite; very little of the selenite was further reduced to elemental selenium. When grown in the presence of both selenate and nitrate both electron acceptors were reduced concomitantly;

Helene DeMoll-Decker; Joan M. Macy

1993-01-01

284

Haematological responses of acute nitrite exposure in walleye (Sander vitreus).  

PubMed

Nitrite (NO2-) is a toxic intermediary of the bacterial oxidation of nitrogenous wastes (e.g. ammonia) in an aquatic environment. It becomes most lethal when oxygen becomes limited due to high fish densities or in the presence of high bacterial activity due to waste build-up-both situations commonly found in intensive aquaculture. To date however, little is known about how this toxin affects the physiology of walleye, an intended culture species, particularly in intensive re-circulating systems. This study aims to define threshold concentrations of nitrite that affect haemoglobin-oxygen affinity and carrying capacity in walleye. During in vivo tests, fish (N=20) were subjected to a medium effective concentration (EC50) of nitrite (0.9 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h while the effects of nitrite accumulation on blood properties were measured. The effects of oxygenation state on red blood cell (RBC) nitrite uptake and metHb formation was further investigated by in vitro tonometry. In vitro nitrite exposure to 3 mmol L(-1) resulted in a significantly higher methaemoglobin formation in 50% air saturated than 100% air saturated RBCs. Both cell water content and haematocrit decreased with time in 50% air saturated treatments, whereas total Hb remained constant, suggesting a reduction in RBC volume. Similar effects were observed during 48 h in vivo and in vitro nitrite exposure tests, indicating the reduction in RBC volume likely was not the result of a catecholamine response. Walleye were found to be tolerant to an accumulation of blood-NO2- levels similar to common carp, a highly Mean Cellular Volume (MCV) tolerant species, before succumbing to methaemoglobinemia. The elevated tolerance to nitrite of walleye is a beneficial characteristic for successful rearing in a culture setting, where reduced oxygen and elevated MCV levels are prevalent. The findings from this study may be used in developing guidelines for species-specific management of nitrogenous wastes in aquaculture. PMID:16806526

Madison, Barry N; Wang, Yuxiang S

2006-08-12

285

Diversity of Assimilatory Nitrate Reductase Genes From Plankton and Epiphytes Associated with a Seagrass Bed  

E-print Network

, Florida, USA. Nitrate reductase genes from diatoms (NR) and heterotrophic bacteria (nasA) were amplified to nitrite and ammonium before being transformed into organic nitrogen. The reduction of nitrate to nitrite. This is the first step toward the goal of investigating the effects of environmental con- ditions on the rate

Ward, Bess

286

Substrate binding to a nitrite reductase induces a spin transition.  

PubMed

The multiheme enzyme nitrite reductase catalyzes a 6-electron reduction of nitrite to ammonia. The reaction is initiated by substrate binding to the free axial position of the high spin penta-coordinated heme active site. The spin configuration of the resulting complex is crucial for discrimination between the heterolytic vs homolytic character of the cleavage of the N-O bond and, therefore, subsequent steps of the catalytic cycle. Here, we report the first experimental evidence, based on resonance Raman spectroscopy, that nitrite binding to the enzyme from D. vulgaris induces a transition from the high spin to the low spin configuration in the catalytic heme, thereby favoring the heterolytic route. PMID:20369861

Martins, Gabriel; Rodrigues, Luisa; Cunha, Filipa M; Matos, Daniela; Hildebrandt, Peter; Murgida, Daniel H; Pereira, Inês A C; Todorovic, Smilja

2010-04-29

287

Haematological responses of acute nitrite exposure in walleye ( Sander vitreus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite (NO2?) is a toxic intermediary of the bacterial oxidation of nitrogenous wastes (e.g. ammonia) in an aquatic environment. It becomes most lethal when oxygen becomes limited due to high fish densities or in the presence of high bacterial activity due to waste build-up—both situations commonly found in intensive aquaculture. To date however, little is known about how this toxin

Barry N. Madison; Yuxiang S. Wang

2006-01-01

288

Kinetic studies on autohydrogenotrophic growth of Ralstonia eutropha with nitrate as terminal electron acceptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Autohydrogenotrophic batch growth of Ralstonia eutropha H16 was studied in a stirred-tank reactor with nitrate and nitrite as terminal electron acceptors and the sole limiting substrates.\\u000a Assuming product inhibition by nitrite, saturation kinetics with the two limiting substrates and a simple switching function,\\u000a which allows growth on nitrite only at low nitrate concentrations, resulted in a kinetic growth model with

Armin Tiemeyer; Hannes Link; Dirk Weuster-Botz

2007-01-01

289

Nitrate in Ground Waters of the United States: Contrasting Scales and Processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate is one of the most ubiquitous compounds in ground water. Studies conducted during 1992 - 1995 by the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program detected nitrate in 71% of shallow ground water samples, more than 13 times as often as organic nitrogen, ammonia, nitrite, and orthophosphate (based on a common detection threshold of 0.2 mg/L). Nitrate commonly occurs in mixtures with other contaminants. Mixtures of "anthropogenic" nitrate (>3 mg/L as N), atrazine, and deethylatrazine were among the most frequently occurring mixtures in ground water samples from 1,497 domestic and public supply wells. The samples were analyzed for nitrate, 83 pesticides, and 60 volatile organic compounds. Elevated nitrate concentration in ground water has been associated with adverse health effects. Interpretive studies conducted at contrasting spatial scales reveal different processes influencing nitrate behavior in ground water. At the national scale, an empirical model indicates that leaching and water-table position influence nitrate concentration in shallow ground water (typically <5 m deep). The probability of nitrate contamination is greater in areas with high nitrogen loading and well-drained soils overlying unconsolidated sand and gravel deposits. Median nitrate concentration for wells grouped by mapped probability region increases from 0.24 to 8.3 mg/L as the predicted probability of nitrate exceeding 4 mg/L increases from 0.17 or less to >0.83. With these shallow ground-water data, nitrate contamination risk increases with increasing depth to ground water because of reduced denitrification potential. Denitrification commonly occurs under anoxic conditions in areas with very shallow depth to ground water (i.e., high water-table position). A regional study indicates that nitrate reduction and calcite dissolution processes influence nitrate concentration in ground waters of the southeastern United States. Water and sediment of the North Carolina-Virginia Coastal Plain contain sufficient organic carbon (4.2 mg/L) for bacterial reduction of nitrate to nitrogen gas, and median nitrate concentration in the area is <0.05 mg/L. Median depth to water in the area is about 2 m. In contrast, nitrate concentration is high (median = 4.6 mg/L) in ground water samples from the Great Valley Carbonate area of the Potomac River Basin. Acidic water creates solution channels in carbonate rocks that readily convey nitrate and other contaminants to ground water. Nitrate concentration is related to land use and point estimates of ground-water recharge in a subregional scale study conducted in a North Atlantic Coastal Plain aquifer in southern New Jersey. The recharge estimates are based on pedotransfer functions that relate water-retention parameters to measured soil texture and bulk density. Ranked nitrate concentration was grouped by low (29.1 cm/yr or less) and high (>29.1 cm/yr) recharge categories in a two-way analysis of variance that compensated for land use. Nitrate concentration is significantly lower in the high recharge category (p = 0.024), suggesting possible dilution by infiltrating water or by bulk flow within the aquifer. This is in contrast to the leaching process indicated by the national-scale model. Although median depth to ground water in the area is only about 1 m, median nitrate concentration is 5.5 mg/L in the low recharge category and 2.4 mg/L in the high recharge category, irrespective of land use. The high nitrate concentration relative to ground waters of the North Carolina-Virginia Coastal Plain indicates that denitrification is not a mitigating factor in the southern New Jersey study area.

Nolan, B. T.

2002-12-01

290

Horizontal Transfer of a Nitrate Assimilation Gene Cluster and Ecological Transitions in Fungi: A  

E-print Network

Horizontal Transfer of a Nitrate Assimilation Gene Cluster and Ecological Transitions in Fungi, Massachusetts, United States of America High affinity nitrate assimilation genes in fungi occur in a cluster (f nitrate transporter; euknr, which codes for nitrate reductase; and NAD(P)H- nir, which codes for nitrite

Hibbett, David S.

291

Cultivation of autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaea from marine sediments in coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

The role of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nitrogen cycling in marine sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we enriched and characterized AOA from marine sediments. Group I.1a crenarchaea closely related to those identified in marine sediments and "Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus" (99.1 and 94.9% 16S rRNA and amoA gene sequence identities to the latter, respectively) were substantially enriched by coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The selective enrichment of AOA over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is likely due to the reduced oxygen levels caused by the rapid initial growth of SOB. After biweekly transfers for ca. 20 months, archaeal cells became the dominant prokaryotes (>80%), based on quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The increase of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was coincident with the amount of ammonia oxidized, and expression of the archaeal amoA gene was observed during ammonia oxidation. Bacterial amoA genes were not detected in the enrichment culture. The affinities of these AOA to oxygen and ammonia were substantially higher than those of AOB. [(13)C]bicarbonate incorporation and the presence and activation of genes of the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle indicated autotrophy during ammonia oxidation. In the enrichment culture, ammonium was oxidized to nitrite by the AOA and subsequently to nitrate by Nitrospina-like bacteria. Our experiments suggest that AOA may be important nitrifiers in low-oxygen environments, such as oxygen-minimum zones and marine sediments. PMID:20870784

Park, Byoung-Joon; Park, Soo-Je; Yoon, Dae-No; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2010-11-01

292

FINAL REPORT. MECHANISM OF PITTING CORROSION PREVENTION BY NITRITE IN CARBON STEEL EXPOSED TO DILUTE SALT SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during...

293

Comment on Egami's concept of the evolution of nitrate respiration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results suggest that the presence of common nitrogen salts (sodium nitrite and nitrate) in the irradiation medium can markedly protect filamentous blue-green algae from potentially lethal ultraviolet irradiation. The present results as well as general biological arguments of Egami support and extend Egami's original view that anaerobic respiratory pathways using nitrite and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors evolved prior to oxygen requiring aerobic respiratory pathways.

Rambler, M.; Margulis, L.

1976-01-01

294

Effects of Nitrite on Development of Embryos and Early Larval Stages of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that high nitrate levels in food and water may cause birth defects or spontaneous abortions in humans. Experimental mammalian studies show that high nitrite levels adversely affect reproductive outcomes, but have not shown congenital malformations. Consequently, the teratogenic potential of nitrite is unclear. In this study, the effects of nitrite on development of zebrafish embryos and early larval stages were investigated. Eggs were exposed to ethanol (a known teratogen), nitrite, or nitrate for 24 or 96 hours, and larvae examined at 120 hours. Sublethal exposure to 300?mM ethanol for 24 hours caused severe pericardial and yolk sac edema, craniofacial and axial malformations, and swim bladder noninflation. The 96 hour LC50 for nitrite was 411?mg/L. Less severe edema, craniofacial (but not axial) malformations, swim bladder noninflation, and immobility were observed after sublethal exposure to nitrite between 10 and 300?mg/L for 96 hours. Exposure to nitrite for 24 hours at concentrations as high as 2000?mg/L was not lethal. Only axial malformations and swim bladder noninflation were observed at 1500?mg/L. The results demonstrate that sublethal nitrite concentrations cause developmental defects. The type and magnitude of these defects differed after 24 and 96 hours of exposure. PMID:22823424

Simmons, Alison E.; Karimi, Ida; Talwar, Mayank

2012-01-01

295

Nitrite Promotes the Growth and Decreases the Lignin Content of indica Rice Calli: A Comprehensive Transcriptome Analysis of Nitrite-Responsive Genes during In Vitro Culture of Rice  

PubMed Central

As both major macronutrients and signal molecules, nitrogen metabolites, such as nitrate and nitrite, play an important role in plant growth and development. In this study, the callus growth of indica rice cv. 9311 was significantly enhanced by nitrite, whereas the soluble protein content remained unchanged. The deep RNA sequencing technology (RNA-seq) showed that the transcriptional profiles of cv. 9311 calli were significantly changed after adding nitrite to the nitrate-free medium, and these nitrite-responsive genes were involved in a wide range of plant processes, particularly in the secondary metabolite pathways. Interestingly, most of the genes involved in phenylpropanoid-related pathways were coordinately down-regulated by nitrite, such as four cinnamoyl-CoA reductase, and these in turn resulted in the decrease of lignin content of indica calli. Furthermore, several candidate genes related to cell growth or stress responses were identified, such as genes coding for expansins, SMALL AUXIN UP RNA (SAUR) and HSP20s, and these suggested that nitrite could probably serve as a transcriptome signal to enhance the indica calli growth by regulation of various downstream genes expression. This study contributes to a better understanding of the function of nitrite during the process of plant tissue culture and could aid in the application of this technology to improved indica genetic transformation efficiency. PMID:24740395

Fang, Gen; Zhao, Qingchuan; Zeng, Qi; Li, Xuemei; Gong, Hanyu; Li, Yangsheng

2014-01-01

296

Nitrogen removal over nitrite by aeration control in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the potential of aeration control for the achievement of N-removal over nitrite with aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactors. N-removal over nitrite requires less COD, which is particularly interesting if COD is the limiting parameter for nutrient removal. The nutrient removal performances for COD, N and P have been analyzed as well as the concentration of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge. Aeration phase length control combined with intermittent aeration or alternate high-low DO, has proven to be an efficient way to reduce the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria population and hence achieve N-removal over nitrite. N-removal efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved for an influent wastewater with COD:N:P ratios of 20:2.5:1. The total N-removal rate was 0.18 kgN·m-3·d-1. With N-removal over nitrate the N-removal was only 74%. At 20 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased by over 95% in 60 days and it was possible to switch from N-removal over nitrite to N-removal over nitrate and back again. At 15 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased too but less, and nitrite oxidation could not be completely suppressed. However, the combination of aeration phase length control and high-low DO was also at 15 °C successful to maintain the nitrite pathway despite the fact that the maximum growth rate of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at temperatures below 20 °C is in general higher than the one of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:25006970

Lochmatter, Samuel; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

2014-07-01

297

Online measurements of ammonia, acidic trace gases and aerosol inorganic ionic species in the Amazon Basin under biomass burning and background conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have measured diurnal and seasonal variations in the mixing ratios of ammonia (NH_3), nitric acid (HNO_3), nitrous acid (HNO_2), hydrochloric acid (HCl) and water-soluble inorganic aerosol species as ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), nitrite (NO2-), chloride (Cl_-) and sulfate (SO_42-) on a pasture site in the Amazon Basin (Rondônia, Brazil) from September to November 2002 (LBA-SMOCC). Sampling was performed using a wet-annular denuder in combination with a Steam-Jet Aerosol Collector (SJAC) followed by online analysis using a mobile ion chromatograph for anions and flow injection analysis for ammonium. Measurements were supported by monitoring of meteorological parameters (e.g., relative humidity, air temperature, wind speed). Results from the biomass burning season, transition period and wet season will be presented. Preliminary evaluations show that ammonia levels were found to be highest (median values of 2.0 ppb during the biomass burning season), whereas median values for acidic trace gases were found to be an order of magnitude lower (0.2 ppb for nitric acid and 0.14 ppb for hydrochloric acid under biomass burning conditions). Preliminary results of aerosol species show that the mixing ratios were highest during the burning season (median values for ammonium ? 1.0 ppb, for nitrate ? 0.3 ppb, for nitrite ? 0.05 ppb, for chloride ? 0.1 ppb and for sulfate ? 0.25 ppb). The calculated median mixing ratio levels decreased steadily from the biomass burning season through the transition period to the wet season, by approximately 75% for trace gases and by 50% and 75% for aerosol ammonium and other inorganic aerosol species respectively. We found a strong dependence of ammonia, nitric acid, and aerosol ammonium nitrate on meteorological parameters (especially air temperature and relative humidity) as well as on daily/ nocturnal boundary layer conditions during day and night time. The diurnal data sets suggest that evaporation of ammonia and nitric acid from the aerosol surface contributes effectively to increased mixing ratios in the turbulent boundary layer at day time. Additionally, we found that a sharp increase of relative humidity to nearly 100% and a decrease of temperature from day to night time promotes the formation of aerosol ammonium nitrate due to gas-aerosol interactions. Both the soluble inorganic ionic species and soluble gases, such as NH_3 and HNO_3, are expected to play a major role in the nucleation and growth of cloud droplets under clean and polluted conditions.

Trebs, I.; Meixner, F. X.; Otjes, R. P.; Slanina, J. J.; Jongejan, P. A. C.; Moura, M. A. L.; da Silva, R. S., Jr.; Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.

2003-04-01

298

Corn leaf nitrate reductase - A nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development, characterization, and operational details of an enzymatic, air-segmented continuous-flow analytical method for colorimetric determination of nitrate + nitrite in natural-water samples is described. This method is similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 353.2 and U.S. Geological Survey method 1-2545-90 except that nitrate is reduced to nitrite by soluble nitrate reductase (NaR, EC 1.6.6.1) purified from corn leaves rather than a packed-bed cadmium reactor. A three-channel, air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer-configured for simultaneous determination of nitrite (0.020-1.000 mg-N/L) and nitrate + nitrite (0.05-5.00 mg-N/L) by the nitrate reductase and cadmium reduction methods-was used to characterize analytical performance of the enzymatic reduction method. At a sampling rate of 90 h-1, sample interaction was less than 1% for all three methods. Method detection limits were 0.001 mg of NO2- -N/L for nitrite, 0.003 mg of NO3-+ NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the cadmium-reduction method, and 0.006 mg of NO3- + NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the enzymatic-reduction method. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by both methods was greater than 95% complete over the entire calibration range. The difference between the means of nitrate + nitrite concentrations in 124 natural-water samples determined simultaneously by the two methods was not significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level.

Patton, C.J.; Fischer, A.E.; Campbell, W.H.; Campbell, E.R.

2002-01-01

299

Effect of light and substrate availability on the primary nitrite maximum in the Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The primary nitrite maximum (PNM) is a common feature in seasonally stratified seas; however, there is debate over which processes are chiefly responsible for the formation of PNM. Two general mechanisms have been proposed: (1) spatial segregation of ammonium oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers at different depths in the water column, and (2) exudation of nitrite by phytoplankton following incomplete nitrate assimilation. We show that in the seasonally stratified Gulf of Aqaba, Red Sea, both processes contribute to PNM formation at different times of year and depths in the water column. During the days immediately following stratification, nitrite formation was strongly correlated with decreasing irradiance and chlorophyll, suggesting that incomplete nitrate reduction by light limited phytoplankton was a major source of nitrite. However, as stratification progressed, nitrite continued to be generated below the euphotic depth by ammonium oxidation, possibly due to differential photoinhibition of ammonium and nitrite oxidizing populations. Natural abundance stable nitrogen isotope analyses revealed a decoupling of isotopic signatures of the nitrogen and oxygen in the combined nitrate and nitrite pool. This decoupling became stronger as stratification progressed, and suggests assimilation and nitrification were co-occurring. Nitrogen tracer experiments also show that the organic nitrogen pool was rapidly recycled, serving as an important source for both nitrification and assimilation. Our results demonstrate that nitrogen transformation rates throughout the water column are controlled by light and substrate availability over diel and seasonal cycles and allow phytoplankton and nitrifying microbes to contribute jointly to PNM formation.

Mackey, K. R.; Bristow, L. A.; Altabet, M. A.; Post, A.; Paytan, A.

2010-12-01

300

Parallel pathways for nitrite reduction during anaerobic growth in Thermus thermophilus.  

PubMed

Respiratory reduction of nitrate and nitrite is encoded in Thermus thermophilus by the respective transferable gene clusters. Nitrate is reduced by a heterotetrameric nitrate reductase (Nar) encoded along transporters and regulatory signal transduction systems within the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE). The nitrite respiration cluster (nic) encodes homologues of nitrite reductase (Nir) and nitric oxide reductase (Nor). The expression and role of the nirSJM genes in nitrite respiration were analyzed. The three genes are expressed from two promoters, one (nirSp) producing a tricistronic mRNA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the other (nirJp) producing a bicistronic mRNA only under conditions of anoxia plus a nitrogen oxide. As for its nitrite reductase homologues, NirS is expressed in the periplasm, has a covalently bound heme c, and conserves the heme d1 binding pocket. NirJ is a cytoplasmic protein likely required for heme d1 synthesis and NirS maturation. NirM is a soluble periplasmic homologue of cytochrome c552. Mutants defective in nirS show normal anaerobic growth with nitrite and nitrate, supporting the existence of an alternative Nir in the cells. Gene knockout analysis of different candidate genes did not allow us to identify this alternative Nir protein but revealed the requirement for Nar in NirS-dependent and NirS-independent nitrite reduction. As the likely role for Nar in the process is in electron transport through its additional cytochrome c periplasmic subunit (NarC), we concluded all the Nir activity takes place in the periplasm by parallel pathways. PMID:24443532

Alvarez, Laura; Bricio, Carlos; Hidalgo, Aurelio; Berenguer, José

2014-04-01

301

Parallel Pathways for Nitrite Reduction during Anaerobic Growth in Thermus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

Respiratory reduction of nitrate and nitrite is encoded in Thermus thermophilus by the respective transferable gene clusters. Nitrate is reduced by a heterotetrameric nitrate reductase (Nar) encoded along transporters and regulatory signal transduction systems within the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE). The nitrite respiration cluster (nic) encodes homologues of nitrite reductase (Nir) and nitric oxide reductase (Nor). The expression and role of the nirSJM genes in nitrite respiration were analyzed. The three genes are expressed from two promoters, one (nirSp) producing a tricistronic mRNA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the other (nirJp) producing a bicistronic mRNA only under conditions of anoxia plus a nitrogen oxide. As for its nitrite reductase homologues, NirS is expressed in the periplasm, has a covalently bound heme c, and conserves the heme d1 binding pocket. NirJ is a cytoplasmic protein likely required for heme d1 synthesis and NirS maturation. NirM is a soluble periplasmic homologue of cytochrome c552. Mutants defective in nirS show normal anaerobic growth with nitrite and nitrate, supporting the existence of an alternative Nir in the cells. Gene knockout analysis of different candidate genes did not allow us to identify this alternative Nir protein but revealed the requirement for Nar in NirS-dependent and NirS-independent nitrite reduction. As the likely role for Nar in the process is in electron transport through its additional cytochrome c periplasmic subunit (NarC), we concluded all the Nir activity takes place in the periplasm by parallel pathways. PMID:24443532

Alvarez, Laura; Bricio, Carlos; Hidalgo, Aurelio

2014-01-01

302

Nitrate Trends in Minnesota Rivers  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The objective of this study was to assess long-term trends (30 to 35 years) of flow-adjusted concentrations of nitrite+nitrate-N (hereinafter referred to as nitrate) in a way that would allow us to discern changing trends. Recognizing that these trends are commonly different from one river to another river and from one part of the state to another, our objective was to examine as many river monitoring sites across the state as possible for which sufficient long term streamflow and concentration data were available.

Wall, Dave; Christopherson, Dave; Lorenz, Dave; Martin, Gary

2013-01-01

303

Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens.  

PubMed

Since lichens lack roots and take up water, solutes and gases over the entire thallus surface, these organisms respond more sensitively to changes in atmospheric purity than vascular plants. After centuries where effects of sulphur dioxide and acidity were in the focus of research on atmospheric chemistry and lichens, recently the globally increased levels of ammonia and nitrate increasingly affect lichen vegetation and gave rise to intense research on the tolerance of lichens to nitrogen pollution. The present paper discusses the main findings on the uptake of ammonia and nitrate in the lichen symbiosis and to the tolerance of lichens to eutrophication. Ammonia and nitrate are both efficiently taken up under ambient conditions. The tolerance to high nitrogen levels depends, among others, on the capability of the photobiont to provide sufficient amounts of carbon skeletons for ammonia assimilation. Lowly productive lichens are apparently predisposed to be sensitive to excess nitrogen. PMID:20096494

Hauck, Markus

2010-05-01

304

Nitrate reductase activity of bacteria in saliva of term and preterm infants  

PubMed Central

The salivary glands of adults concentrate nitrate from the plasma into saliva where it is converted to nitrite by bacterial nitrate reductases. Nitrite can play a beneficial role in adult gastrointestinal and cardiovascular physiology. When nitrite is swallowed, some of it is converted to nitric oxide (NO) in the stomach and may then exert protective effects in the gastrointestinal tract and throughout the body. It has yet to be determined either when newborn infants acquire oral nitrate reducing bacteria or what the effects of antimicrobial therapy or premature birth may be on the bacterial processing of nitrate to nitrite. We measured nitrate and nitrite levels in the saliva of adults and both preterm and term human infants in the early weeks of life. We also measured oral bacterial reductase activity in the saliva of both infants and adults, and characterized the species of nitrate reducing bacteria present. Oral bacterial conversion of nitrate to nitrite in infants was either undetectable or markedly lower than the conversion rates of adults. No measurable reductase activity was found in infants within the first two weeks of life, despite the presence of oral nitrate reducing bacteria such as Actinomyces odontolyticus, and Veillonella atypica, and Rothia mucilaginosa. We conclude that relatively little nitrite reaches the infant gastrointestinal tract due to the lack of oral bacterial nitrate reductase activity. Given the importance of the nitrate-nitrite-NO axis in adults, the lack of oral nitrate-reducing bacteria in infants may be relevant to the vulnerability of newborns to hypoxic stress and gastrointestinal tract pathologies. PMID:22842223

Kanady, Jesica A.; Aruni, A. Wilson; Ninnis, Janet R.; Hopper, Andrew O.; Blood, Jamie D.; Byrd, Benjamin L.; Holley, Leighton R.; Staker, Michael R.; Hutson, Shandee; Fletcher, Hansel M.; Power, Gordon G.; Blood, Arlin B.

2012-01-01

305

Nitrate Protocol  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The purpose of this resource is to measure the nitrate-nitrogen of water. Students will use a nitrate kit to measure the nitrate-nitrogen in the water at their hydrology site. The exact procedure depends on the instructions in the nitrate kit used.

The GLOBE Program, UCAR (University Corporation for Atmospheric Research)

2003-08-01

306

Nitrite anion therapy protects against chronic ischemic tissue injury in db/db diabetic mice in a NO/VEGF-dependent manner.  

PubMed

Nitrite anion has been demonstrated to be a prodrug of nitric oxide (NO) with positive effects on tissue ischemia/reperfusion injury, cytoprotection, and vasodilation. However, effects of nitrite anion therapy for ischemic tissue vascular remodeling during diabetes remain unknown. We examined whether sodium nitrite therapy altered ischemic revascularization in BKS-Lepr(db/db) mice subjected to permanent unilateral femoral artery ligation. Sodium nitrite therapy completely restored ischemic hind limb blood flow compared with nitrate or PBS therapy. Importantly, delayed nitrite therapy 5 days after ischemia restored ischemic limb blood flow in aged diabetic mice. Restoration of blood flow was associated with increases in ischemic tissue angiogenesis activity and cell proliferation. Moreover, nitrite but not nitrate therapy significantly prevented ischemia-mediated tissue necrosis in aged mice. Nitrite therapy significantly increased ischemic tissue vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein expression that was essential for nitrite-mediated reperfusion of ischemic hind limbs. Nitrite significantly increased ischemic tissue NO bioavailability along with concomitant reduction of superoxide formation. Lastly, nitrite treatment also significantly stimulated hypoxic endothelial cell proliferation and migration in the presence of high glucose in an NO/VEGF-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that nitrite therapy effectively stimulates ischemic tissue vascular remodeling in the setting of metabolic dysfunction that may be clinically useful. PMID:24009258

Bir, Shyamal C; Pattillo, Christopher B; Pardue, Sibile; Kolluru, Gopi K; Shen, Xinggui; Giordano, Tony; Kevil, Christopher G

2014-01-01

307

Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee

1997-01-01

308

Origin and fate of the secondary nitrite maximum in the Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian Sea harbours one of the three major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world's oceans, and it alone is estimated to account for ~10-20 % of global oceanic nitrogen (N) loss. While actual rate measurements have been few, the consistently high accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) coinciding with suboxic conditions in the central-northeastern part of the Arabian Sea has led to the general belief that this is the region where active N-loss takes place. Most subsequent field studies on N-loss have thus been drawn almost exclusively to the central-NE. However, a recent study measured only low to undetectable N-loss activities in this region, compared to orders of magnitude higher rates measured towards the Omani Shelf where little NO2- accumulated (Jensen et al., 2011). In this paper, we further explore this discrepancy by comparing the NO2--producing and consuming processes, and examining the relationship between the overall NO2- balance and active N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Based on a combination of 15N-incubation experiments, functional gene expression analyses, nutrient profiling and flux modeling, our results showed that NO2- accumulated in the central-NE Arabian Sea due to a net production via primarily active nitrate (NO3-) reduction and to a certain extent ammonia oxidation. Meanwhile, NO2- consumption via anammox, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (NH4+) were hardly detectable in this region, though some loss to NO2- oxidation was predicted from modeled NO3- changes. No significant correlation was found between NO2- and N-loss rates (p>0.05). This discrepancy between NO2- accumulation and lack of active N-loss in the central-NE Arabian Sea is best explained by the deficiency of labile organic matter that is directly needed for further NO2- reduction to N2O, N2 and NH4+, and indirectly for the remineralized NH4+ required by anammox. Altogether, our data do not support the long-held view that NO2- accumulation is a direct activity indicator of N-loss in the Arabian Sea or other OMZs. Instead, NO2- accumulation more likely corresponds to long-term integrated N-loss that has passed the prime of high and/or consistent in situ activities.

Lam, P.; Jensen, M. M.; Kock, A.; Lettmann, K. A.; Plancherel, Y.; Lavik, G.; Bange, H. W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

2011-06-01

309

Origin and fate of the secondary nitrite maximum in the Arabian Sea  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian Sea harbours one of the three major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) in the world's oceans, and it alone is estimated to account for ~10-20% of global oceanic nitrogen (N) loss. While actual rate measurements have been few, the consistently high accumulation of nitrite (NO2-) coinciding with suboxic conditions in the central-northeastern part of the Arabian Sea has led to the general belief that this is the region where active N-loss takes place. Most subsequent field studies on N-loss have thus been drawn almost exclusively to the central-NE. However, a recent study measured only low to undetectable N-loss activities in this region, compared to orders of magnitude higher rates measured towards the Omani shelf where little NO2- accumulated (Jensen et al., 2011). In this paper, we further explore this discrepancy by comparing the NO2- producing and consuming processes, and examining the relationship between the overall NO2- balance and active N-loss in the Arabian Sea. Based on a combination of 15N-incubation experiments, functional gene expression analyses, nutrient profiling and flux modeling, our results showed that NO2- accumulated in the Central-NE Arabian Sea due to a net production via primarily active nitrate (NO3-) reduction and to a certain extent ammonia oxidation. Meanwhile, NO2- consumption via anammox, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate/nitrite reduction to ammonium (NH4+) were hardly detectable in this region, though some loss to NO2- oxidation was predicted from modeled NO3- changes. No significant correlation was found between NO2- and N-loss rates (p>0.05). This discrepancy between NO2- accumulation and lack of active N-loss in the Central-NE Arabian Sea is best explained by the deficiency of organic matter that is directly needed for further NO2- reduction to N2O, N2 and NH4+, and indirectly for the remineralized NH4+ required by anammox. Altogether, our data do not support the long-held view that NO2- accumulation is a direct activity indicator of N-loss in the Arabian Sea or other OMZs. Instead, NO2- accumulation more likely corresponds to long-term integrated N-loss that has passed the prime of high and/or consistent in situ activities.

Lam, P.; Jensen, M. M.; Kock, A.; Lettmann, K. A.; Plancherel, Y.; Lavik, G.; Bange, H. W.; Kuypers, M. M. M.

2011-03-01

310

Citrus co-products as technological strategy to reduce residual nitrite content in meat products.  

PubMed

Sodium or potassium nitrite is widely used as a curing agent in cured meat products because it inhibits outgrowth and neurotoxin formation by Clostridium botulinum, delays the development of oxidative rancidity, develops the characteristic flavor of cured meats, and reacts with myoglobin and stabilizes the red meat color. As soon as nitrite is added in the meat formulation, it starts to disappear and the nitrite that has not reacted with myoglobin and it is available corresponds to residual nitrite level. Health concerns relating to the use of nitrates and nitrites in cured meats (cooked and dry cured) trend toward decreased usage to alleviate the potential risk to the consumers from formation of carcinogenic compounds. Recently, some new ingredients principally agro-industrial co-products in general and those from the citrus industry in particular (albedo [with different treatments], dietetic fiber obtained from the whole co-product, and washing water used in the process to obtain the dietetic fiber) are seen as good sources of bio-compounds that may help to reduce the residual nitrite level in meat products. From these co-products, citrus fiber shows the highest potential to reduce the residual nitrite level, followed by the albedo and finally the washing water. The aim of this article is to describe the latest advances concerning the use of citrus co-products in meat products as a potential ingredient to reduce the nitrite level. PMID:19799678

Viuda-Martos, M; Fernández-López, J; Sayas-Barbera, E; Sendra, E; Navarro, C; Pérez-Alvarez, J A

2009-10-01

311

Single-Dose Pharmacokinetics of Different Oral Sodium Nitrite Formulations in Diabetes Patients  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Diabetic foot ulcers, although associated with macrovascular disease and neuropathy, have a microvascular disease causing ischemia not amenable to surgical intervention. Nitrite selectively releases nitric oxide in ischemic tissues, and diabetes subjects have low nitrite levels that do not increase with exercise. This study explores the safety and pharmacokinetics of a single dose of sodium nitrite in subjects with diabetic foot ulcers. Subjects and Methods Using a blinded, randomized crossover study design, 12 subjects with diabetes mellitus and active or healed foot ulcers received a single dose of sodium nitrite on two occasions 7–28 days apart, once with an immediate release (IR) formulation and once with an enteric-coated (EC) formulation for delayed release. Serum nitrite, nitrate, methemoglobin, sulfhemoglobin, blood pressure, pulse rate, complete blood count, chemistry panel, electrocardiogram, and adverse events were followed for up to 6?h after each dose. The IR and EC nitrite levels were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and by pharmacokinetic modeling. Results The IR formulation elevated nitrite levels between 0.25 and 0.75?h (P<0.05). The EC formulation did not elevate nitrite levels significantly, but both formulations gave plasma nitrite levels previously suggested to be therapeutic (approximately 2–5??M). The IR formulation gave an asymptomatic blood pressure drop of 10/6?mm Hg (P<0.003), and two subjects experienced mild flushing. There was no elevation of methemoglobin or other safety concerns. Pharmacokinetic modeling of plama nitrite levels gave r2 values of 0.81 and 0.97 for the fits for IR and EC formulations, respectively. Conclusions Oral sodium nitrite administration is well tolerated in diabetes patients. PMID:22468627

Predmore, Benjamin L.; Flanagan, Douglas R.; Giordano, Tony; Qiu, Yang; Brandon, Angela; Lefer, David J.; Patel, Rakesh P.; Kevil, Christopher G.

2012-01-01

312

Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated nitrite (NO2?) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning

Sjannie Lefevre; Frank B. Jensen; Do. T. T. Huong; Tobias Wang; Nguyen T. Phuong; Mark Bayley

2011-01-01

313

Haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish Channa striata.  

PubMed

The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 mM. Effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mM, 1.4mM, and 3.0mM) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. Plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient levels. Extracellular nitrate rose by several mM, indicating that a large proportion of the nitrite taken up was converted to nitrate. Nitrite reacted with erythrocyte haemoglobin (Hb) causing methaemoglobin (metHb) to increase to 30% and nitrosylhaemoglobin (HbNO) to increase to 10% of total Hb. Both metHb and HbNO stabilised after 4 days, and functional Hb levels accordingly never fell below 60% of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism behind the observed changes in regulation. PMID:22516674

Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

2012-08-15

314

Nitrite transport activity of a novel HPP family protein conserved in cyanobacteria and chloroplasts.  

PubMed

Some cyanobacterial genomes encode an integral membrane protein of the HPP family, which exhibited nitrite transport activity when expressed in the nitrite transport-less NA4 mutant of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus strain PCC 7942. AT5G62720 and AT3G47980 were found to encode Arabidopsis homologs of the cyanobacterial protein. The product of AT5G62720 was localized to the chloroplast envelope membrane and was shown to confer nitrite uptake activity on the NA4 mutant when expressed with an N-terminally truncated transit peptide or as a fusion with the N-terminal region of the cyanobacterial HPP family protein. Kinetic analyses showed that the Arabidopsis protein has much higher affinity for nitrite (K(m) = 13 µM) than the cyanobacterial protein (K(m) = 150 µM). Illuminated chloroplasts isolated from the mutant lines of AT5G62720 showed much lower activity of nitrite uptake than the chloroplasts isolated from the wild-type Col-0 plants, while the chloroplasts of the mutants of AT1G68570 (AtNPF3.1), the gene previously reported to encode a plastid nitrite transporter AtNitr1, showed wild-type levels of nitrite uptake activity. AT3G47980 was expressed in roots but not in shoots. It has a putative transit peptide similar to that of AT5G62720 and its fusion with the N-terminal region of the cyanobacterial HPP protein showed low but significant activity of nitrite transport in the cyanobacterial cell. Transcription of AT5G62720 (AtNITR2;1) and AT3G47980 (AtNITR2;2) was stimulated by nitrate under the control of the NIN-like proteins, suggesting that the HPP proteins represent nitrate-inducible components of the nitrite transport system of plastids. PMID:24904028

Maeda, Shin-ichi; Konishi, Mineko; Yanagisawa, Shuichi; Omata, Tatsuo

2014-07-01

315

Soil and Sediment Bacteria Capable of Aerobic Nitrate Respiration  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several laboratory strains of gram-negative bacteria are known to be able to respire nitrate in the presence ofoxygen,althoughthephysiologicaladvantagegainedfromthisprocessisnotentirelyclear.Thecontribution that aerobic nitrate respiration makes to the environmental nitrogen cycle has not been studied. As afirst step in addressing this question, a strategy which allows for the isolation of organisms capable of reducing nitrate to nitrite following aerobic growth has been developed.

JON P. CARTER; YA HSIN HSIAO; STEPHEN SPIRO; ANDDAVID J. RICHARDSON

1995-01-01

316

Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

1983-08-01

317

Measuring ammonia from space: limits and possibilities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ammonia (NH3) is an important component in local, regional, and global tropospheric chemistry. Ammonia contributes significantly to several well-known environmental problems: excess deposition in terrestrial ecosystems can lead to soil acidification and loss of plant diversity, while in coastal ecosystems, it can cause eutrophication, algal blooms, and loss of fish and shellfish. In the atmosphere NH3 can combine with sulfates and nitric acid to form ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate, which constitute a substantial fraction of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Nevertheless, there is great uncertainty in the magnitude and in the spatial/seasonal variability of ammonia concentrations and emissions. Retrievals of ammonia from spectra obtained from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) flying on the AURA satellite have the potential of significantly increasing our knowledge of the spatial and temporal variability of ammonia and of providing constraints on ammonia emissions through the use of inverse models at both the regional and global scales. We will present an updated evaluation of the TES ammonia retrievals using sensitivity studies, simulations, and in situ observations. We will demonstrate TES’ capability to discern spatial gradients and temporal variability in ammonia concentrations, with results from the TES transects over the Central Valley and North Carolina, as well as monthly means from TES global surveys. We will also show an example of using TES NH3 measurements to constrain surface emissions over North America.

Cady-Pereira, K. E.; Pinder, R. W.; Walker, J. T.; Bash, J. O.; Luo, M.; Henze, D. K.; Shephard, M. W.; Zhu, J.; Rinsland, C.

2010-12-01

318

Nitrite Signaling in Pulmonary Hypertension: Mechanisms of Bioactivation, Signaling, and Therapeutics  

PubMed Central

Abstract Significance: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a disorder characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and mean pulmonary artery pressure leading to impaired function of the right ventricle, reduced cardiac output, and death. An imbalance between vasoconstrictors and vasodilators plays an important role in the pathobiology of PAH. Recent Advances: Nitric oxide (NO) is a potent vasodilator in the lung, whose bioavailability and signaling pathway are impaired in PAH. It is now appreciated that the oxidative product of NO metabolism, the inorganic anion nitrite (NO2?), functions as an intravascular endocrine reservoir of NO bioactivity that can be reduced back to NO under physiological and pathological hypoxia. Critical Issues: The conversion of nitrite to NO is controlled by coupled electron and proton transfer reactions between heme- and molybdenum-containing proteins, such as hemoglobin and xanthine oxidase, and by simple protonation and disproportionation, and possibly by catalyzed disproportionation. The two major sources of nitrite (and nitrate) are the endogenous l-arginine–NO pathway, by oxidation of NO, and the diet, with conversion of nitrate from diet into nitrite by oral commensal bacteria. In the current article, we review the enzymatic formation of nitrite and the available data regarding its use as a therapy for PAH and other cardiovascular diseases. Future Directions: The successful efficacy demonstrated in several animal models and safety in early clinical trials suggest that nitrite may represent a promising new therapy for PAH. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 1797–1809. PMID:22871207

Bueno, Marta; Wang, Jun; Mora, Ana L.

2013-01-01

319

Some characteristics of nitrate reductase induction in Lemna minor L  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low levels of nitrate reductase can be detected in plants of Lemna minor grown on some organic nitrogen sources. Nitrogen-starvation does not lead to a derepression of nitrate reductase activity. Nitrate ions are necessary for the development of maximum enzyme activity and the maintenance of high enzyme levels. Nitrogen-starvation of ammonia-grown plants increases the subsequent rate of nitrate-mediated induction. It

T. O. Orebamjo; G. R. Stewart

1974-01-01

320

High Abundances of Potentially Active Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Oligotrophic, High-Altitude Lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA  

PubMed Central

Nitrification plays a central role in the nitrogen cycle by determining the oxidation state of nitrogen and its subsequent bioavailability and cycling. However, relatively little is known about the underlying ecology of the microbial communities that carry out nitrification in freshwater ecosystems—and particularly within high-altitude oligotrophic lakes, where nitrogen is frequently a limiting nutrient. We quantified ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in 9 high-altitude lakes (2289–3160 m) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, in relation to spatial and biogeochemical data. Based on their ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected. AOB were present in 88% of samples and were more abundant than AOA in all samples. Both groups showed >100 fold variation in abundance between different lakes, and were also variable through time within individual lakes. Nutrient concentrations (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate) were generally low but also varied across and within lakes, suggestive of active internal nutrient cycling; AOB abundance was significantly correlated with phosphate (r2?=?0.32, p<0.1), whereas AOA abundance was inversely correlated with lake elevation (r2?=?0.43, p<0.05). We also measured low rates of ammonia oxidation—indicating that AOB, AOA, or both, may be biogeochemically active in these oligotrophic ecosystems. Our data indicate that dynamic populations of AOB and AOA are found in oligotrophic, high-altitude, freshwater lakes. PMID:25402442

Hayden, Curtis J.; Beman, J. Michael

2014-01-01

321

Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream.

Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-03-30

322

The redox interplay between nitrite and nitric oxide: From the gut to the brain?  

PubMed Central

The reversible redox conversion of nitrite and nitric oxide (•NO) in a physiological setting is now widely accepted. Nitrite has long been identified as a stable intermediate of •NO oxidation but several lines of evidence support the reduction of nitrite to nitric oxide in vivo. In the gut, this notion implies that nitrate from dietary sources fuels the longstanding production of nitrite in the oral cavity followed by univalent reduction to •NO in the stomach. Once formed, •NO boosts a network of reactions, including the production of higher nitrogen oxides that may have a physiological impact via the post-translational modification of proteins and lipids. Dietary compounds, such as polyphenols, and different prandial states (secreting specific gastric mediators) modulate the outcome of these reactions. The gut has unusual characteristics that modulate nitrite and •NO redox interplay: (1) wide range of pH (neutral vs acidic) and oxygen tension (c.a. 70 Torr in the stomach and nearly anoxic in the colon), (2) variable lumen content and (3) highly developed enteric nervous system (sensitive to •NO and dietary compounds, such as glutamate). The redox interplay of nitrite and •NO might also participate in the regulation of brain homeostasis upon neuronal glutamatergic stimulation in a process facilitated by ascorbate and a localized and transient decrease of oxygen tension. In a way reminiscent of that occurring in the stomach, a nitrite/•NO/ascorbate redox interplay in the brain at glutamatergic synapses, contributing to local •NO increase, may impact on •NO-mediated process. We here discuss the implications of the redox conversion of nitrite to •NO in the gut, how nitrite-derived •NO may signal from the digestive to the central nervous system, influencing brain function, as well as a putative ascorbate-driven nitrite/NO pathway occurring in the brain. PMID:24024161

Pereira, Cassilda; Ferreira, Nuno R.; Rocha, Bárbara S.; Barbosa, Rui M.; Laranjinha, João

2013-01-01

323

Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the ß Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous compound in composting material, and the conversion of this compound to nitrite in the environment by chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing

GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; ZINAIDA S. NAOUMENKO; PIET J. L. DERIKX; ANDREAS FELSKE; JOHN R. STEPHEN; IRINA A. ARKHIPCHENKO

1999-01-01

324

Release of ammonia from HAN-type PHA  

SciTech Connect

A preliminary design basis for ammonia scrubbers in the DWPF has been issued. This design basis is based on a theoretical model of ammonia evolution from the SRAT, SME and RCT. It is desirable to acquire actual process data on ammonia evolution prior to performing detailed design of scrubbers for DWPF. The evolution of ammonia from the SRAT and SME in the Integrated DWPF Melter System (IDMS) was investigated during the HM4 run. In this run, Precipitate Hydrolysis Aqueous (PHA), which was made in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) using the HAN (hydroxylamine nitrate) process was used, thus resulting in PHA with a high concentration of ammonium ion.

Zamecnik, J.R.

1992-06-10

325

The NreA protein functions as a nitrate receptor in the staphylococcal nitrate regulation system.  

PubMed

Staphylococci are able to use nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. The regulation of energy metabolism is dependent on the presence of oxygen and nitrate. Under anaerobic conditions, staphylococci employ the nitrate regulatory element (Nre) for transcriptional activation of genes involved in reduction and transport of nitrate and nitrite. Of the three proteins that constitute the Nre system, NreB has been characterized as an oxygen sensor kinase and NreC has been characterized as its cognate response regulator. Here, we present structural and functional data that establish NreA as a new type of nitrate receptor. The structure of NreA with bound nitrate was solved at 2.35Å resolution, revealing a GAF domain fold. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that NreA binds nitrate with low micromolar affinity (KD=22?M). Two crystal forms for NreA were obtained, with either bound nitrate or iodide. While the binding site is hydrophobic, two helix dipoles and polar interactions contribute to specific binding of the ions. The expression of nitrate reductase (NarGHI) was examined using a narG-lip (lipase) reporter gene assay in vivo. Expression was regulated by the presence of NreA and nitrate. Structure-guided mutations of NreA reduced its nitrate binding affinity and also affected the gene expression, thus providing support for the function of NreA as a nitrate receptor. PMID:24389349

Niemann, Volker; Koch-Singenstreu, Mareike; Neu, Ancilla; Nilkens, Stephanie; Götz, Friedrich; Unden, Gottfried; Stehle, Thilo

2014-04-01

326

Nitrite transport in chloroplast inner envelope vesicles. I. Direct measurement of proton-linked transport  

SciTech Connect

Chloroplast inner envelope membrane vesicles that are loaded with the pH-sensitive fluorophore, pyranine, show rapid internal acidification when nitrite is added. Acidification is dependent upon {Delta}pH, with the inside of vesicles being alkaline with respect to the outside. The rate of vesicle acidification was directly proportional to the concentration of nitrite that was added and the imposed pH difference across the membrane. In contrast, added nitrate had no effect on vesicle acidification. Nitrite also caused acidification of asolectin vesicles that were prepared by extrusion were approximately the same size, allowing them to be compared when the final extent of acidification, measured after the pH gradient had collapsed, was similar. The rate of nitrite-dependent acidification was similar in these two preparations at any single nitrite concentration. These results indicate that nitrite movement occurs by rapid diffusion across membranes as nitrous acid, and this movement is dependent on a proton gradient across the lipid bilayer. Under conditions approximating these in vivo, the rate of diffusion of nitrous acid far exceeds that of nitrite reduction within chloroplasts. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Shingles, R.; Roh, M.H.; McCarty, R.E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)

1996-11-01

327

Further studies on the effect of nitrogen dioxide on mast cells: The effect of the metabolite, nitrite  

SciTech Connect

To evaluate the relationship between atmospheric nitrogen dioxide exposure and the development of allergic diseases, the effects of nitrite as a chemical product of inhaled nitrogen dioxide on mast cell functions were investigated. We have studied nitride-induced histamine release from two functionally distinct mast cell populations, namely peritoneal mast cells (PMC) and intestinal mucosal mast cells (IMMC) of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-infected rats. High concentrations of nitrite alone (10, 20, and 50 mM) induced histamine release from IMMC, but not from PMC. Moreover, histamine release from PMC and IMMC stimulated with sensitizing antigen was significantly enhanced by pretreatment with 50 mM nitrite or nitrate. No differences in histamine release from nitrite-treated and control PMC were seen below 1 mM. To investigate the effect of nitrite on tumor cell cytotoxic activity, PMC were incubated with various concentrations of nitrite. Pretreatment with 5 and 50 mM nitrite markedly depressed tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-[alpha]-dependent natural cytotoxicity of PMC for the tumor target WEHI-164. Thus, high concentrations of nitrite enhanced mast cell histamine release, but depressed TNF-[alpha]-dependent cytotoxicity. However, low concentrations of nitrite (<1 mM) that would normally be produced by short-term atmospheric exposure to nitrogen dioxide may have no significant effects on mast cell functions. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

Fujimaki, Hidekazu (National Institute for Environmental Studies, Onogawa (Japan)); Ozawa, Masashi (The Jikei Univ. School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan)); Bissonnette, E.; Befus, A.D. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

1993-05-01

328

Differential photoinhibition of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidation.  

PubMed

Inhibition by light potentially influences the distribution of ammonia oxidizers in aquatic environments and is one explanation for nitrite maxima near the base of the euphotic zone of oceanic waters. Previous studies of photoinhibition have been restricted to bacterial ammonia oxidizers, rather than archaeal ammonia oxidizers, which dominate in marine environments. To compare the photoinhibition of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers, specific growth rates of two ammonia-oxidizing archaea (Nitrosopumilus maritimus and Nitrosotalea devanaterra) and bacteria (Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosospira multiformis) were determined at different light intensities under continuous illumination and light/dark cycles. All strains were inhibited by continuous illumination at the highest intensity (500 ?E m(-2) s(-1)). At lower light intensities, archaeal growth was much more photosensitive than bacterial growth, with greater inhibition at 60 ?E m(-2) s(-1) than at 15 ?E m(-2) s(-1), where bacteria were unaffected. Archaeal ammonia oxidizers were also more sensitive to cycles of 8-h light/16-h darkness at two light intensities (60 and 15 ?E m(-2) s(-1)) and, unlike bacterial strains, showed no evidence of recovery during dark phases. The findings provide evidence for niche differentiation in aquatic environments and reduce support for photoinhibition as an explanation of nitrite maxima in the ocean. PMID:22093004

Merbt, Stephanie N; Stahl, David A; Casamayor, Emilio O; Martí, Eugènia; Nicol, Graeme W; Prosser, James I

2012-02-01

329

Bridge Creek Watershed Volunteer Lake Secchi Disk Monitoring Program  

E-print Network

Creek Watershed Volunteer Lake Monitoring Program. Using a Secchi disk, volunteers collected water dissolved phosphorus, ammonia, Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, nitrite + nitrate, total nitrogen, total, l'ammoniac, l'azote kjeldahl, le nitrate, le nitrite, le nitrite + nitrate, l'azote total, l

330

Nitrite toxicity to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute nitrite exposure to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda). Specific objectives of this study included (1) determining the 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h LC-50's of nitrite to crayfish of different weights and genders in freshwater, (2) determining the LC-50's of nitrite to crayfish in water with elevated chloride concentrations, and (3), in order to gain insight into the mechanisms of nitrite toxicity in crayfish, determining hemolymph nitrite concentrations in crayfish exposed to nitrite in freshwater and water with elevated chloride concentrations.

Gutzmer, M.P.; Tomasso, J.R.

1985-03-01

331

The use of epidemiological concepts and techniques to discern factors associated with the nitrate concentration of well water on swine farms in the USA.  

PubMed

This epidemiological study investigates the relationship between various factors associated with swine farms and the nitrate concentration of well water in the USA. Through a random sampling procedure, 605 swine farms located in 18 states were selected for inclusion in this study. A total of 631 well water samples were collected from these farms and tested for a variety of elements and compounds. The concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, sulfate, chloride, sodium, potassium, ammonia, fluoride, bromide and lithium were determined by an ion chromatograph while an inductively coupled argon plasma emission spectrophotometer was used to determine the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, barium, zinc, iron and phosphate. Data concerning various farm factors were gathered via a personally administered questionnaire. The data were examined using both multiple linear regression and logistic regression. Results indicate that 53.6% (338/631) of the wells contained detectable levels of nitrate, 11.7% (74/631) had nitrate levels exceeding 45 ppm and 4.3% (27/631) exceeded 100 ppm. Logistic models demonstrated an association between nitrate concentrations > 45 ppm, increasing water potassium levels and wells < 100 ft deep. Nitrate levels > 100 ppm were related to increasing water concentrations of potassium, magnesium, barium and zinc, wells 6-10 years old, increasing distance from the study farm to the nearest cattle farm and a greater distance to the nearest waterway located off the study farm. A negative association was seen between nitrate concentrations > 100 ppm, the water level of sulfate, and the use of the same well to supply both the household and livestock. Multiple linear regression models revealed a positive association between increasing nitrate concentration and the water levels of chloride, calcium, zinc and the greater number of miles from the study farm to the nearest farm with cattle or sheep. A negative association was noted between the concentration of well water nitrate and the water levels of sulfate and ammonia, the use of water treatment, the number of miles to the nearest farm with poultry, the employment of water treatment and the use of the same well to supply water to both livestock and the household. PMID:7939621

Bruning-Fann, C; Kaneene, J B; Miller, R A; Gardner, I; Johnson, R; Ross, F

1994-08-15

332

Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.  

PubMed

In this study we investigated nitrite (NO??) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC?? of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish. PMID:21545779

Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

2011-07-01

333

Pseudo-constitutivity of nitrate-responsive genes in nitrate reductase mutants  

PubMed Central

In fungi, transcriptional activation of genes involved in NO3- assimilation requires the presence of an inducer (nitrate or nitrite) and low intracellular concentrations of the pathway products ammonium or glutamine. In Aspergillus nidulans, the two transcription factors NirA and AreA act synergistically to mediate nitrate/nitrite induction and nitrogen metabolite derepression, respectively. In all studied fungi and in plants, mutants lacking nitrate reductase (NR) activity express nitrate-metabolizing enzymes constitutively without the addition of inducer molecules. Based on their work in A. nidulans, Cove and Pateman proposed an “autoregulation control” model for the synthesis of nitrate metabolizing enzymes in which the functional nitrate reductase molecule would act as co-repressor in the absence and as co-inducer in the presence of nitrate. However, NR mutants could simply show “pseudo-constitutivity” due to induction by nitrate which accumulates over time in NR-deficient strains. Here we examined this possibility using strains which lack flavohemoglobins (fhbs), and are thus unable to generate nitrate internally, in combination with nitrate transporter mutations (nrtA, nrtB) and a GFP-labeled NirA protein. Using different combinations of genotypes we demonstrate that nitrate transporters are functional also in NR null mutants and show that the constitutive phenotype of NR mutants is not due to nitrate accumulation from intracellular sources but depends on the activity of nitrate transporters. However, these transporters are not required for nitrate signaling because addition of external nitrate (10 mM) leads to standard induction of nitrate assimilatory genes in the nitrate transporter double mutants. We finally show that NR does not regulate NirA localization and activity, and thus the autoregulation model, in which NR would act as a co-repressor of NirA in the absence of nitrate, is unlikely to be correct. Results from this study instead suggest that transporter-mediated NO3- accumulation in NR deficient mutants, originating from traces of nitrate in the media, is responsible for the constitutive expression of NirA-regulated genes, and the associated phenotype is thus termed “pseudo-constitutive”. PMID:23454548

Schinko, Thorsten; Gallmetzer, Andreas; Amillis, Sotiris; Strauss, Joseph

2013-01-01

334

Gene expression analysis of the mechanism of inhibition of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are inhibited by nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) in the presence of nitrate. This inhibition has been attributed either to an increase in redox potential or to production of nitrite by the NR-SOB. Nitrite specifically inhibits the final step in the sulfate reduction pathway. When the NR-SOB Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO was added to mid-log phase cultures of the SRB Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough in the presence of nitrate, sulfate reduction was inhibited. Strain CVO reduced nitrate and oxidized sulfide, with transient production of nitrite. Sulfate reduction by D. vulgaris resumed once nitrite was depleted. A DNA macroarray with open reading frames encoding enzymes involved in energy metabolism of D. vulgaris was used to study the effects of NR-SOB on gene expression. Shortly following addition of strain CVO, D. vulgaris genes for cytochrome c nitrite reductase and hybrid cluster proteins Hcp1 and Hcp2 were upregulated. Genes for sulfate reduction enzymes, except those for dissimilatory sulfite reductase, were downregulated. Genes for the membrane-bound electron transferring complexes QmoABC and DsrMKJOP were downregulated and unaffected, respectively, whereas direct addition of nitrite downregulated both operons. Overall the gene expression response of D. vulgaris upon exposure to strain CVO and nitrate resembled that observed upon direct addition of nitrite, indicating that inhibition of SRB is primarily due to nitrite production by NR-SOB. PMID:16104868

Haveman, Shelley A; Greene, E Anne; Voordouw, Gerrit

2005-09-01

335

Microstructural Characterization of Colloid-Derived Bimetallic Pd-Cu Nanocatalysts Supported on -Al2O3 for Nitrate Reduction  

E-print Network

2O3 for Nitrate Reduction Zhenyu Liu* , Kathryn A. Guy** , John R. Shapley** , Charles J. Werth including nitrates, which causes "blue-baby" syndrome and is a suspected carcinogen. Fundamental to develop heterogeneous catalysts as a viable water purification method. The rates of nitrate and nitrite

Frenkel, Anatoly

336

Nitration of the salivary component 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid in the human oral cavity: enhancement of nitration under acidic conditions.  

PubMed

4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid (HPA) and nitrite are present in human mixed whole saliva, and HPA can be nitrated by peroxidase/hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))/nitrite systems in the oral cavity. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to estimate the concentrations of HPA, nitrated HPA [4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetic acid (NO(2)HPA)], nitrite, and thiocyanate (SCN(-)) in saliva from 73 patients with periodontal diseases and to elucidate the conditions necessary to induce nitration of HPA. High concentrations of HPA, nitrite, and SCN(-) were found in the saliva of patients older than 50 yr of age. NO(2)HPA was detected in seven patients who were older than 60 yr of age. Nitrite-dependent formation of NO(2)HPA by a bacterial fraction prepared from mixed whole saliva was faster at pH 5.3 than at pH 7, and increased as the rate of H(2)O(2) formation increased. The formation of NO(2)HPA was inhibited by SCN(-) and by salivary antioxidants such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, and glutathione. These results suggest that nitration can proceed at an acidic site in the oral cavity where H(2)O(2) is produced under conditions of decreased concentrations of SCN(-) and of antioxidants. PMID:19758252

Takahama, Umeo; Imamura, Hitoshi; Hirota, Sachiko

2009-10-01

337

Active secretion and protective effect of salivary nitrate against stress in human volunteers and rats  

PubMed Central

Up to 25% of the circulating nitrate in blood is actively taken up, concentrated, and secreted into saliva by the salivary glands. Salivary nitrate can be reduced to nitrite by the commensal bacteria in the oral cavity or stomach and then further converted to nitric oxide (NO) in vivo, which may play a role in gastric protection. However, whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings has not yet been determined. This study was designed to determine whether salivary nitrate is actively secreted in human beings as an acute stress response and what role salivary nitrate plays in stress-induced gastric injury. To observe salivary nitrate function under stress conditions, alteration of salivary nitrate and nitrite was analyzed among 22 healthy volunteers before and after a strong stress activity, jumping down from a platform at the height of 68m. A series of stress indexes was analyzed to monitor the stress situation. We found that both the concentration and the total amount of nitrate in mixed saliva were significantly increased in the human volunteers immediately after the jump, with an additional increase 1 h later (p < 0.01). Saliva nitrite reached a maximum immediately after the jump and was maintained 1 h later. To study the biological functions of salivary nitrate and nitrite in stress protection, we further carried out a water-immersion-restraint stress (WIRS) assay in male adult rats with bilateral parotid and submandibular duct ligature (BPSDL). Intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO; gastric mucosal blood flow; and gastric ulcer index (UI) were monitored and nitrate was administrated in drinking water to compensate for nitrate secretion in BPSDL animals. Significantly decreased levels of intragastric nitrate, nitrite, and NO and gastricmucosal blood flow were measured in BPSDL rats during the WIRS assay compared to sham control rats (p < 0.05). Recovery was observed in the BPSDL rats upon nitrate administration. The WIRS-induced UI was significantly higher in the BPSDL animals compared to controls, and nitrate administration rescued the WIRS-induced gastric injury in BPSDL rats. In conclusion, this study suggests that stress promotes salivary nitrate secretion and nitrite formation, which may play important roles in gastric protection against stress-induced injury via the nitrate-dependent NO pathway. PMID:23277147

Jin, Luyuan; Qin, Lizheng; Xia, Dengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Fan, Zhipeng; Zhang, Chunmei; Gu, Liankun; He, Junqi; Ambudkar, Indu S.; Deng, Dajun; Wang, Songlin

2014-01-01

338

Dietary nitrate ameliorates pulmonary hypertension: cytoprotective role for endothelial nitric oxide synthase and xanthine oxidoreductase  

PubMed Central

Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is a multi-factorial disease characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance and right ventricular failure; morbidity and mortality remain unacceptably high. Loss of nitric oxide (NO) bioactivity is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of PH and agents that augment pulmonary NO signaling are clinically effective in the disease. Inorganic nitrate (NO3?) and nitrite (NO2?) elicit a reduction in systemic blood pressure in healthy individuals; this effect is underpinned by endogenous and sequential reduction to NO. Herein, we determined whether dietary nitrate and nitrite might be preferentially reduced to NO by the hypoxia associated with PH, and thereby offer a convenient, inexpensive method of supplementing NO functionality to reduce disease severity. Methods & Results Dietary nitrate reduced the right ventricular pressure and hypertrophy, and pulmonary vascular re-modeling, in wild-type mice exposed to 3 weeks hypoxia; this beneficial activity was mirrored largely by dietary nitrite. The cytoprotective effects of dietary nitrate were associated with increased plasma & lung concentrations of nitrite and cGMP. The beneficial effects of dietary nitrate and nitrite were reduced in mice lacking endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) or treated with the xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR) inhibitor allopurinol. Conclusions These data demonstrate that dietary nitrate, and to a lesser extent dietary nitrite, elicit pulmonary dilatation, prevent pulmonary vascular remodeling, and reduce the RVH characteristic of PH. This favorable pharmacodynamic profile is dependent on eNOS and XOR -catalyzed reduction of nitrite to NO. Exploitation of this mechanism (i.e. dietary nitrate/nitrite supplementation) represents a viable, orally-active therapy for PH. PMID:22572914

Baliga, Reshma S; Milsom, Alexandra B; Ghosh, Suborno M; Trinder, Sarah L; MacAllister, Raymond J; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Hobbs, Adrian J

2012-01-01

339

Nitric oxide controls nitrate and ammonium assimilation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.  

PubMed

Nitrate and ammonium are major inorganic nitrogen sources for plants and algae. These compounds are assimilated by means of finely regulated processes at transcriptional and post-translational levels. In Chlamydomonas, the expression of several genes involved in high-affinity ammonium (AMT1.1, AMT1.2) and nitrate transport (NRT2.1) as well as nitrate reduction (NIA1) are downregulated by ammonium through a nitric oxide (NO)-dependent mechanism. At the post-translational level, nitrate/nitrite uptake and nitrate reductase (NR) are also inhibited by ammonium, but the mechanisms implicated in this regulation are scarcely known. In this work, the effect of NO on nitrate assimilation and the high-affinity ammonium uptake was addressed. NO inhibited the high-affinity uptake of ammonium and nitrate/nitrite, as well as the NR activity, in a reversible form. In contrast, nitrite reductase and glutamine synthetase activities were not affected. The in vivo and in vitro studies suggested that NR enzyme is inhibited by NO in a mediated process that requires the cell integrity. These data highlight a role of NO in inorganic nitrogen assimilation and suggest that this signalling molecule is an important regulator for the first steps of the pathway. PMID:23918969

Sanz-Luque, Emanuel; Ocaña-Calahorro, Francisco; Llamas, Angel; Galvan, Aurora; Fernandez, Emilio

2013-08-01

340

Sulfide- and nitrite-dependent nitric oxide production in the intestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Summary In the gut ecosystem, nitric oxide (NO) has been described to have damaging effects on the energy metabolism of colonocytes. Described mechanisms of NO production are microbial reduction of nitrate via nitrite to NO and conversion of l?arginine by NO synthase. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary compounds can stimulate the production of NO by representative cultures of the human intestinal microbiota and whether this correlates to other processes in the intestinal tract. We have found that the addition of a reduced sulfur compound, i.e. cysteine, contributed to NO formation. This increase was ascribed to higher sulfide concentrations generated from cysteine that in turn promoted the chemical conversion of nitrite to NO. The NO release from nitrite was of the order of 4‰ at most. Overall, it was shown that two independent biological processes contribute to the chemical formation of NO in the intestinal tract: (i) the production of sulfide by fermentation of sulfur containing amino acids or reduction of sulfate by sulfate reducing bacteria, and (ii) the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Our results indicate that dietary thiol compounds in combination with nitrate may contribute to colonocytes damaging processes by promoting NO formation. PMID:22129449

Vermeiren, Joan; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Glynn; Boeckx, Pascal; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

2012-01-01

341

Mutational Analysis of the Respiratory Nitrate Transporter NarK2 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis induces nitrate reductase activity in response to decreasing oxygen levels. This is due to regulation of both the transcription and the activity of the nitrate transporter NarK2. A model of NarK2 structure is proposed containing 12 membrane spanning regions consistent with other members of the major facilitator superfamily. The role of the proton gradient was determined by exposing M. tuberculosis to uncouplers. Nitrite production decreased indicating that the importation of nitrate involved an H+/nitrate symporter. The addition of nitrite before nitrate had no effect, suggesting no role for a nitrate/nitrite antiporter. In addition the NarK2 knockout mutant showed no defect in nitrite export. NarK2 is proposed to be a Type I H+/nitrate symporter. Site directed mutagenesis was performed changing 23 amino acids of NarK2. This allowed the identification of important regions and amino acids of this transporter. Five of these mutants were inactive for nitrate transport, seven produced reduced activity and eleven mutants retained wild type activity. NarK2 is inactivated in the presence of oxygen by an unknown mechanism. However none of the mutants, including those with mutated cysteines, were altered in their response to oxygen levels. The assimilatory nitrate transporter NasA of Bacillus subtilis was expressed in the M. tuberculosis NarK2 mutant. It remained active during aerobic incubation showing that the point of oxygen control is NarK2. PMID:23029022

Giffin, Michelle M.; Raab, Ronald W.; Morganstern, Melissa; Sohaskey, Charles D.

2012-01-01

342

Comparative effects of glyceryl trinitrate and amyl nitrite on pulse wave reflection and augmentation index  

PubMed Central

Aims The influence of vasodilators on augmentation index (AIx) offers a simple, rapid and noninvasive method of evaluating vascular function. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is widely used as an endothelium-independent vasodilator, although other nitrates that are shorter acting may have advantages in clinical studies. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two short-acting nitrates, GTN and amyl nitrite, which have differing pharmacodynamic profiles. Methods Twenty-one healthy volunteers (15 male; mean age 35 years, range 21–56 years) attended on three occasions and received sublingual GTN (0.5 mg for 3 min), inhaled amyl nitrite (0.2 ml inhaled for 30 s), or no treatment in a randomized cross-over design. Haemodynamic responses of AIx, blood pressure and thoracic bioimpedance (heart rate, cardiac index) were assessed by measurement at baseline, every 60 s for the first 5 min, and then every 5 min for a further 55 min. Results AIx was reduced by amyl nitrite (peak effect ?9 ± 2% at 1 min, P < 0.002) and GTN (peak effect ?12 ± 3% at 4 min, P < 0.05). Compared with amyl nitrite, the onset and offset of action of GTN was slower. Amyl nitrite initially increased heart rate by 27 ± 4% (P < 0.001) and cardiac index by 13 ± 3% (P < 0.001) whereas GTN had no significant effect (P > 0.05). Neither agent affected blood pressure. Conclusions GTN causes a slower and more sustained reduction in AIx than amyl nitrite. Although amyl nitrite causes a more rapid fall and recovery in AIx, it induces a reflex tachycardia that may limit interpretation of the initial (1 min) but not later (2 min) changes in AIx. The prolonged offset of GTN suggests that a sufficient washout period must be included when making repeated measures or when assessing the subsequent effects of other agents. PMID:15752371

Greig, Lynn D; Leslie, Stephen J; Gibb, Fraser W; Tan, Sherilyn; Newby, David E; Webb, David J

2005-01-01

343

Nitrate reduction functional genes and nitrate reduction potentials persist in deeper estuarine sediments. Why?  

PubMed

Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This raises interesting questions as to what the alternative metabolic roles for the various nitrate reductases could be, analogous to the alternative metabolic roles found for nitrite reductases. PMID:24728381

Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J; Dong, Liang F; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J; Nedwell, David B

2014-01-01

344

Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.  

PubMed

Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO?-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO?-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite. PMID:23771179

Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

2014-02-01

345

Nitrite-generated NO circumvents dysregulated arginine/NOS signaling to protect against intimal hyperplasia in Sprague-Dawley rats  

PubMed Central

Vascular disease, a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, results from vascular injury. Following vascular injury, damaged or dysfunctional endothelial cells and activated SMCs engage in vasoproliferative remodeling and the formation of flow-limiting intimal hyperplasia (IH). We hypothesized that vascular injury results in decreased bioavailability of NO secondary to dysregulated arginine-dependent NO generation. Furthermore, we postulated that nitrite-dependent NO generation is augmented as an adaptive response to limit vascular injury/proliferation and can be harnessed for its protective effects. Here we report that sodium nitrite (intraperitoneal, inhaled, or oral) limited the development of IH in a rat model of vascular injury. Additionally, nitrite led to the generation of NO in vessels and SMCs, as well as limited SMC proliferation via p21Waf1/Cip1 signaling. These data demonstrate that IH is associated with increased arginase-1 levels, which leads to decreased NO production and bioavailability. Vascular injury also was associated with increased levels of xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a known nitrite reductase. Chronic inhibition of XOR and a diet deficient in nitrate/nitrite each exacerbated vascular injury. Moreover, established IH was reversed by dietary supplementation of nitrite. The vasoprotective effects of nitrite were counteracted by inhibition of XOR. These data illustrate the importance of nitrite-generated NO as an endogenous adaptive response and as a pathway that can be harnessed for therapeutic benefit. PMID:21436585

Alef, Matthew J.; Vallabhaneni, Raghuveer; Carchman, Evie; Morris, Sidney M.; Shiva, Sruti; Wang, Yinna; Kelley, Eric E.; Tarpey, Margaret M.; Gladwin, Mark T.; Tzeng, Edith; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.

2011-01-01

346

Competition and coexistence of aerobic ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at low oxygen concentrations  

Microsoft Academic Search

In natural and man-made ecosystems nitrifying bacteria experience frequent exposure to oxygen-limited conditions and thus\\u000a have to compete for oxygen. In several reactor systems (retentostat, chemostat and sequencing batch reactors) it was possible\\u000a to establish co-cultures of aerobic ammonium- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at very low oxygen concentrations (2–8 ?M) provided\\u000a that ammonium was the limiting N compound. When ammonia was in

A. Olav Sliekers; Suzanne C. M. Haaijer; Marit H. Stafsnes; J. Gijs Kuenen; Mike S. M. Jetten

2005-01-01

347

Physiological role for nitrate-reducing oral bacteria in blood pressure control  

PubMed Central

Circulating nitrate (NO3?), derived from dietary sources or endogenous nitric oxide production, is extracted from blood by the salivary glands, accumulates in saliva, and is then reduced to nitrite (NO2?) by the oral microflora. This process has historically been viewed as harmful, because nitrite can promote formation of potentially carcinogenic N-nitrosamines. More recent research, however, suggests that nitrite can also serve as a precursor for systemic generation of vasodilatory nitric oxide, and exogenous administration of nitrate reduces blood pressure in humans. However, whether oral nitrate-reducing bacteria participate in “setting” blood pressure is unknown. We investigated whether suppression of the oral microflora affects systemic nitrite levels and hence blood pressure in healthy individuals. We measured blood pressure (clinic, home, and 24-h ambulatory) in 19 healthy volunteers during an initial 7-day control period followed by a 7-day treatment period with a chlorhexidine-based antiseptic mouthwash. Oral nitrate-reducing capacity and nitrite levels were measured after each study period. Antiseptic mouthwash treatment reduced oral nitrite production by 90% (p < 0.001) and plasma nitrite levels by 25% (p = 0.001) compared to the control period. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased by 2–3 .5 mm Hg, increases correlated to a decrease in circulating nitrite concentrations (r2 = 0.56, p = 0.002). The blood pressure effect appeared within 1 day of disruption of the oral microflora and was sustained during the 7-day mouthwash intervention. These results suggest that the recycling of endogenous nitrate by oral bacteria plays an important role in determination of plasma nitrite levels and thereby in the physiological control of blood pressure. PMID:23183324

Kapil, Vikas; Haydar, Syed M.A.; Pearl, Vanessa; Lundberg, Jon O.; Weitzberg, Eddie; Ahluwalia, Amrita

2013-01-01

348

California's ammonia emissions have been drastically underestimated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California, Los Angeles and the Central Valley often have atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's health guidelines. In the air, chemical reactions between ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides can create inorganic aerosols like ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. With their small particle sizes, these compounds can be dangerous to breathe, particularly for those with respiratory problems.

Schultz, Colin

2014-08-01

349

The reaction of nitrite with the haemocyanin of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia).  

PubMed Central

The reaction of nitrite at pH 5.0-7.0 with the deoxyhaemocyanin of a mollusc, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), yielded nitrosylhaemocyanin (CuIA.NO+ CuIIB), in contrast with the formation of methaemocyanin with the deoxyhaemocyanin of the crustacean Astacus leptodactylus (mud crayfish). With Helix haemocyanin 1 NO was thereby liberated per active site, as shown by m.s., as against 2 NO with Astacus haemocyanin. Helix nitrosylhaemocyanin was characterized in c.d. by the negative extremum at 336 nm (CuIA.NO+) and by the mononuclear e.p.r. signal at g = 2 (CuIIB). Binuclear e.p.r. signals have been observed after the addition of nitrite to methaemocyanins. With Astacus methaemocyanin, no further reaction occurred, whereas with Helix methaemocyanin the mononuclear e.p.r. signal, characteristic for nitrosylhaemocyanin gradually appeared. This formation of Helix nitrosylhaemocyanin implicates the binding, most likely on CuIIA, of a second nitrite besides a bridging nitrite, so that a dismutation into NO and NO2 can occur there. A further dismutation of NO2 yields nitrite and nitrate. The formation of the latter was demonstrated by Raman spectrometry. The reaction rate of Helix methaemocyanin with nitrite decreased with increasing pH according to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation with a pKa value of 6.77, attributed to a mu-aquo bridging ligand, which can be exchanged for nitrite, in equilibrium with a mu-hydroxo ligand which cannot. These data also favour the formulation of the final reaction product as nitrosylhaemocyanin instead of semi-methaemocyanin, with or without bound nitrite. PMID:2244878

Tahon, J P; Maes, G; Vinckier, C; Witters, R; Zeegers-Huyskens, T; De Ley, M; Lontie, R

1990-01-01

350

The reaction of nitrite with the haemocyanin of the Roman snail (Helix pomatia).  

PubMed

The reaction of nitrite at pH 5.0-7.0 with the deoxyhaemocyanin of a mollusc, the Roman snail (Helix pomatia), yielded nitrosylhaemocyanin (CuIA.NO+ CuIIB), in contrast with the formation of methaemocyanin with the deoxyhaemocyanin of the crustacean Astacus leptodactylus (mud crayfish). With Helix haemocyanin 1 NO was thereby liberated per active site, as shown by m.s., as against 2 NO with Astacus haemocyanin. Helix nitrosylhaemocyanin was characterized in c.d. by the negative extremum at 336 nm (CuIA.NO+) and by the mononuclear e.p.r. signal at g = 2 (CuIIB). Binuclear e.p.r. signals have been observed after the addition of nitrite to methaemocyanins. With Astacus methaemocyanin, no further reaction occurred, whereas with Helix methaemocyanin the mononuclear e.p.r. signal, characteristic for nitrosylhaemocyanin gradually appeared. This formation of Helix nitrosylhaemocyanin implicates the binding, most likely on CuIIA, of a second nitrite besides a bridging nitrite, so that a dismutation into NO and NO2 can occur there. A further dismutation of NO2 yields nitrite and nitrate. The formation of the latter was demonstrated by Raman spectrometry. The reaction rate of Helix methaemocyanin with nitrite decreased with increasing pH according to the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation with a pKa value of 6.77, attributed to a mu-aquo bridging ligand, which can be exchanged for nitrite, in equilibrium with a mu-hydroxo ligand which cannot. These data also favour the formulation of the final reaction product as nitrosylhaemocyanin instead of semi-methaemocyanin, with or without bound nitrite. PMID:2244878

Tahon, J P; Maes, G; Vinckier, C; Witters, R; Zeegers-Huyskens, T; De Ley, M; Lontie, R

1990-11-01

351

21 CFR 181.34 - Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite.  

...issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture for use as color fixatives and preservative agents, with or without sodium or potassium nitrate, in the curing of red meat and poultry products. [48 FR 1705, Jan. 14,...

2014-04-01

352

NITRATE REDUCTION AND ASSIMILATION IN CHLORELLA  

PubMed Central

1. Nitrate reduction and assimilation have been studied in Chlorella pyrenoidosa under growth conditions by observing effects on the CO2/O2 gas exchange quotient. 2. During assimilation of glucose in the dark, nitrate reduction is noted as an increase in the R.Q. to about 1.6 caused by an increased rate of carbon dioxide production. 3. During photosynthesis at low light intensity nitrate reduction is evidenced by a reduction in the CO2O2 quotient to about 0.7 caused by a decreased rate of carbon dioxide uptake. 4. Chlorella will assimilate nitrogen from either nitrate or ammonia. When both sources are supplied, only ammonia is utilized and no nitrate reduction occurs. It is inferred that under the usual conditions of growth nitrate is reduced only at a rate required for subsequent cellular syntheses. The effect of nitrate reduction on the CO2O2 quotient therefore provides a measure of the relative rate of nitrogen assimilation. 5. Over-all photosynthetic metabolism may be described from elementary analysis of the cells since excretory products are negligible. The gas exchange predicted in this way is in good agreement with the observed CO2/O2 quotients. PMID:18885680

Cramer, Marian; Myers, Jack

1948-01-01

353

Nitrite toxicity to crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus, the effects of sublethal nitrite exposure on hemolymph nitrite, total hemocyte counts, and hemolymph glucose.  

PubMed

The 48-h acute toxicity range of nitrite to narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus was within 22 and 70 mg L(-1) (mean 29.43 mg L(-1)). Environmental chloride (100 mg L(-1) chloride) increased the 48-h toxicity of nitrite to a range of 31 and 80 mg L(-1) (mean 49.20 mg L(-1)). Hemolymph nitrite, total hemocyte counts (THCs), and hemolymph glucose were examined in A. leptodactylus exposed to different sublethal nitrite concentrations. The same parameters were also determined for A. leptodactylus exposed to different sublethal nitrite concentrations with additional environmental chloride. Additionally, hemolymph nitrite and THCs were analyzed for crayfish exposed to nitrite-free water after 24 h following a 48-h exposure to nitrite. In the nitrite-exposed tests, hemolymph nitrite increased directly with water nitrite; however, after recovery, nitrite in hemolymph decreased. In the nitrite plus chloride-exposed tests, the accumulation of nitrite in hemolymph was relatively low compared to the nitrite-exposed tests. Thus, hemolymph to environment ratios of nitrite in the nitrite-exposed tests were higher than those of nitrite plus chloride-exposed tests. THCs decreased following nitrite exposure and, in general, increased after recovery. In the nitrite with chloride exposed and recovery from nitrite tests, THCs increased. Hemolymph glucose levels elevated following nitrite exposure, independent of water nitrite concentrations. However, with environmental chloride nitrite exposure did not cause elevation of hemolymph glucose. Hemolymph nitrite accumulation was found to be closely related to the decrease in THCs and increase in hemolymph glucose. PMID:15388276

Yildiz, Hijran Yavuzcan; Benli, A Caglan Karasu

2004-11-01

354

Metagenomic Analysis of Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in the Oral Cavity: Implications for Nitric Oxide Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria. PMID:24670812

Hyde, Embriette R.; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Bryan, Nathan S.

2014-01-01

355

Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of low levels of nitrite by catalytic reaction between pyrogallol red and bromate.  

PubMed

A kinetic spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace nitrite (0.003-1.000 microg/ml) based on its catalytic effect on the reaction between potassium bromate and pyrogallol red in acidic media is described. The reaction is monitored spectrophotometrically by measuring the decreasing colour of pyrogallol red at 467 nm by the fixed-time method. At a given time of 3.0 min at 30 degrees, the detection limit is 0.001 microg/ml and the relative standard deviation for 0.010 microg/ml nitrite is 1.8% (n = 8). The method is free from most interferences, especially from large amounts of nitrate and ammonium. The procedure was successfully applied to the determination of trace nitrite in natural water without preconcentration. PMID:18965793

Ensafi, A A; Samimifar, M

1993-09-01

356

Sources and Mobility of Nitrates in European High Arctic Snow  

Microsoft Academic Search

Measurements of atmospheric and snow mixing ratios of nitrates and nitrites and their fluxes above the snow surface were made during two intensive campaigns during spring time 2001 in the high Arctic at Ny-Ålesund, Svalbard as part of the EU project \\

H. J. Beine; F. Dominé; A. Ianniello; M. Nardino; I. Allegrini; K. Teinilä; R. Hillamo

2002-01-01

357

Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously in pigs and screening of fodder with DPB test prior offering to animals is strongly recommended to contain the nitrate/nitrite toxicity risk.

Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

2014-01-01

358

Cell Density-Regulated Recovery of Starved Biofilm Populations of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The speed of recovery of cell suspensions and biofilm populations of the ammonia oxidizer Nitrosomonas europaea, following starvation was determined. Stationary-phase cells, washed and resuspended in ammonium- free inorganic medium, were starved for periods of up to 42 days, after which the medium was supplemented with ammonium and subsequent growth was monitored by measuring nitrite concentration changes. Cultures exhibited a

S. E. BATCHELOR; M. COOPER; S. R. CHHABRA; L. A. GLOVER; G. S. A. B. STEWART; P. WILLIAMS; J. I. PROSSER

1997-01-01

359

Nitrite toxicity to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of acute nitrite exposure to the crayfish Procambarus clarkii (Decapoda). Specific objectives of this study included (1) determining the 24-, 48-, 72- and 96-h LC-50's of nitrite to crayfish of different weights and genders in freshwater, (2) determining the LC-50's of nitrite to crayfish in water with elevated chloride concentrations,

Michael P. Gutzmer; J. R. Tomasso

1985-01-01

360

Fluorometric determination of nitrite with acetaminophen  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, sensitive and selective fluorometric method for the determination of nitrite is described. The fluorometric determination is based on the reaction of acetaminophen with nitrite in an acidic medium followed by alkalinization of the reaction which yields a highly fluorescent product, exhibit (?ex\\/?em=325\\/430 nm). The optimum experimental conditions were studied. The fluorescene intensity is linear over a nitrite concentration

Murad I. H Helaleh; T Korenaga

2000-01-01

361

Nitrite produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages in physiologic oxygen impacts bacterial ATP consumption and gene expression  

PubMed Central

In high enough concentrations, such as produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Lesional macrophages in macaques and humans with tuberculosis express iNOS, and mice need iNOS to avoid succumbing rapidly to tuberculosis. However, Mtb’s own ability to produce RNS is rarely considered, perhaps because nitrate reduction to nitrite is only prominent in axenic Mtb cultures at oxygen tensions ?1%. Here we found that cultures of Mtb-infected human macrophages cultured at physiologic oxygen tensions produced copious nitrite. Surprisingly, the nitrite arose from the Mtb, not the macrophages. Mtb responded to nitrite by ceasing growth; elevating levels of ATP through reduced consumption; and altering the expression of 120 genes associated with adaptation to acid, hypoxia, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and iron deprivation. The transcriptomic effect of endogenous nitrite was distinct from that of nitric oxide. Thus, whether or not Mtb is hypoxic, the host expresses iNOS, or hypoxia impairs the action of iNOS, Mtb in vivo is likely to encounter RNS by producing nitrite. Endogenous nitrite may slow Mtb’s growth and prepare it to resist host stresses while the pathogen waits for immunopathology to promote its transmission. PMID:24145454

Cunningham-Bussel, Amy; Zhang, Tuo; Nathan, Carl F.

2013-01-01

362

Supporting palladium metal on gold nanoparticles improves its catalysis for nitrite reduction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) anions are often found in groundwater and surface water as contaminants globally, especially in agricultural areas due to nitrate-rich fertilizer use. One popular approach to studying the removal of nitrite/nitrate from water has been their degradation to dinitrogen via Pd-based reduction catalysis. However, little progress has been made towards understanding how the catalyst structure can improve activity. Focusing on the catalytic reduction of nitrite in this study, we report that Au NPs supporting Pd metal ("Pd-on-Au NPs") show catalytic activity that varies with volcano-shape dependence on Pd surface coverage. At room temperature, in CO2-buffered water, and under H2 headspace, the NPs were maximally active at a Pd surface coverage of 80%, with a first-order rate constant (kcat = 576 L gPd-1 min-1) that was 15x and 7.5x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (~4 nm; 40 L gPd-1 min-1) and Pd/Al2O3 (1 wt% Pd; 76 L gPd-1 min-1), respectively. Accounting only for surface Pd atoms, these NPs (576 L gsurface-Pd-1 min-1) were 3.6x and 1.6x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (160 L gsurface-Pd-1 min-1) and Pd/Al2O3 (361 L gsurface-Pd-1 min-1). These NPs retained ~98% of catalytic activity at a chloride concentration of 1 mM, whereas Pd/Al2O3 lost ~50%. The Pd-on-Au nanostructure is a promising approach to improve the catalytic reduction process for nitrite and, with further development, also for nitrate anions.Nitrate (NO3-) and nitrite (NO2-) anions are often found in groundwater and surface water as contaminants globally, especially in agricultural areas due to nitrate-rich fertilizer use. One popular approach to studying the removal of nitrite/nitrate from water has been their degradation to dinitrogen via Pd-based reduction catalysis. However, little progress has been made towards understanding how the catalyst structure can improve activity. Focusing on the catalytic reduction of nitrite in this study, we report that Au NPs supporting Pd metal ("Pd-on-Au NPs") show catalytic activity that varies with volcano-shape dependence on Pd surface coverage. At room temperature, in CO2-buffered water, and under H2 headspace, the NPs were maximally active at a Pd surface coverage of 80%, with a first-order rate constant (kcat = 576 L gPd-1 min-1) that was 15x and 7.5x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (~4 nm; 40 L gPd-1 min-1) and Pd/Al2O3 (1 wt% Pd; 76 L gPd-1 min-1), respectively. Accounting only for surface Pd atoms, these NPs (576 L gsurface-Pd-1 min-1) were 3.6x and 1.6x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (160 L gsurface-Pd-1 min-1) and Pd/Al2O3 (361 L gsurface-Pd-1 min-1). These NPs retained ~98% of catalytic activity at a chloride concentration of 1 mM, whereas Pd/Al2O3 lost ~50%. The Pd-on-Au nanostructure is a promising approach to improve the catalytic reduction process for nitrite and, with further development, also for nitrate anions. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr04540d

Qian, Huifeng; Zhao, Zhun; Velazquez, Juan C.; Pretzer, Lori A.; Heck, Kimberly N.; Wong, Michael S.

2013-12-01

363

The effect of amoxycillin on salivary nitrite concentrations: an important mechanism of adverse reactions?  

PubMed Central

Broad spectrum antibiotics are known to predispose towards oral candidiasis and gastroenteritis. Oral nitrite synthesis by commensal bacteria may be important in protecting the mouth and lower intestine from pathogenic organisms, including Candida albicans. The effect of 2 days administration of the broad spectrum antibiotic amoxycillin on salivary nitrite concentration, following a 200 mg potassium nitrate oral load, was studied in 10 healthy volunteers. The Cmax fell by 40% and the AUC was reduced by 1227 microM h (43%, 95% CI 273, 2181, P < 0.006) in the antibiotic treated group when compared with control. These findings suggest that destruction of nitrate reductase containing bacteria in the mouth by antibiotics may explain an increased incidence of infection with Candida and other pathogens. PMID:7640157

Dougall, H T; Smith, L; Duncan, C; Benjamin, N

1995-01-01

364

Supporting palladium metal on gold nanoparticles improves its catalysis for nitrite reduction.  

PubMed

Nitrate (NO3(-)) and nitrite (NO2(-)) anions are often found in groundwater and surface water as contaminants globally, especially in agricultural areas due to nitrate-rich fertilizer use. One popular approach to studying the removal of nitrite/nitrate from water has been their degradation to dinitrogen via Pd-based reduction catalysis. However, little progress has been made towards understanding how the catalyst structure can improve activity. Focusing on the catalytic reduction of nitrite in this study, we report that Au NPs supporting Pd metal ("Pd-on-Au NPs") show catalytic activity that varies with volcano-shape dependence on Pd surface coverage. At room temperature, in CO2-buffered water, and under H2 headspace, the NPs were maximally active at a Pd surface coverage of 80%, with a first-order rate constant (k(cat) = 576 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)) that was 15x and 7.5x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (~4 nm; 40 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)) and Pd/Al2O3 (1 wt% Pd; 76 L g(Pd)(-1) min(-1)), respectively. Accounting only for surface Pd atoms, these NPs (576 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)) were 3.6x and 1.6x higher than monometallic Pd NPs (160 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)) and Pd/Al2O3 (361 L g(surface-Pd)(-1) min(-1)). These NPs retained ~98% of catalytic activity at a chloride concentration of 1 mM, whereas Pd/Al2O3 lost ~50%. The Pd-on-Au nanostructure is a promising approach to improve the catalytic reduction process for nitrite and, with further development, also for nitrate anions. PMID:24195966

Qian, Huifeng; Zhao, Zhun; Velazquez, Juan C; Pretzer, Lori A; Heck, Kimberly N; Wong, Michael S

2014-01-01

365

Electrocatalytic activity of a new nanostructured polymeric tetraruthenated porphyrin film for nitrite detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

The preparation of the monomer and thin films of a new polymeric tetraruthenated porphyrin material and their characterization by spectroscopic and electrochemical techniques, are described. This material is one of the most active electrocatalyst for the oxidation of nitrite ions to nitrate, exhibiting a heterogeneous cross-exchange rate constant (kf=(6.2±0.1×104)M–1s–1) 30 times higher than that previously described for the electrostatic assembled

Herbert Winnischofer; Simone de Souza Lima; Koiti Araki; Henrique Eisi Toma

2003-01-01

366

Water and waste water analysis for nitrate via nitration of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method is presented which allows rapid nitrate analyses of water and waste water samples and soil extracts. The linear working range is typically 0.5–30 mg NO 3?N\\/liter and duplicate analysis of samples and standards routinely produces confidence limits for the regression estimate of ? ±0.1 mg NO 3?N\\/liter at the 95% confidence level. Nitrite, formaldehyde and soluble Iron, as

W. P. Robarge; A. Edwards; B. Johnson

1983-01-01

367

GLOBE Videos: Hydrology Protocols-Nitrates (12:13 min)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video provides a step-by-step guide to determining nitrate and nitrite concentrations in a water sample, using a nitrate testing kit. It describes what chemical reactions are taking place throughout the testing process. The resource includes a video and a written transcript, and is supported by the Nitrate Protocol in the GLOBE Teacher's Guide. This is one of seven videos on hydrology in the 24-part instructional video series describing scientific protocols used by GLOBE (Global Learning and Observation to Benefit the Environment) a worldwide, hands-on, K-12 school-based science education program.

368

21 CFR 862.1510 - Nitrite (nonquantitative) test system.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1510 Nitrite (nonquantitative) test system. (a) Identification. A nitrite (nonquantitative) test system is a device intended to identify nitrite in urine....

2013-04-01

369

NxrB encoding the beta subunit of nitrite oxidoreductase as functional and phylogenetic marker for nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira.  

PubMed

Nitrospira are the most widespread and diverse known nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and key nitrifiers in natural and engineered ecosystems. Nevertheless, their ecophysiology and environmental distribution are understudied because of the recalcitrance of Nitrospira to cultivation and the lack of a molecular functional marker, which would allow the detection of Nitrospira in the environment. Here we introduce nxrB, the gene encoding subunit beta of nitrite oxidoreductase, as a functional and phylogenetic marker for Nitrospira. Phylogenetic trees based on nxrB of Nitrospira were largely congruent to 16S ribosomal RNA-based phylogenies. By using new nxrB-selective polymerase chain reaction primers, we obtained almost full-length nxrB sequences from Nitrospira cultures, two activated sludge samples, and several geographically and climatically distinct soils. Amplicon pyrosequencing of nxrB fragments from 16 soils revealed a previously unrecognized diversity of terrestrial Nitrospira with 1801 detected species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) (using an inferred species threshold of 95% nxrB identity). Richness estimates ranged from 10 to 946 coexisting Nitrospira species per soil. Comparison with an archaeal amoA dataset obtained from the same soils [Environ. Microbiol. 14: 525-539 (2012)] uncovered that ammonia-oxidizing archaea and Nitrospira communities were highly correlated across the soil samples, possibly indicating shared habitat preferences or specific biological interactions among members of these nitrifier groups. PMID:24118804

Pester, Michael; Maixner, Frank; Berry, David; Rattei, Thomas; Koch, Hanna; Lücker, Sebastian; Nowka, Boris; Richter, Andreas; Spieck, Eva; Lebedeva, Elena; Loy, Alexander; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

2014-10-01

370

Sources of atmospheric ammonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The information available on factors that influence emissions from the principal societal sources of ammonia to the atmosphere, namely combustion processes, volatilization of farm animal wastes, and volatilization of fertilizers, is reviewed. Emission factors are established for each major source of atmospheric ammonia. The factors are then multiplied by appropriate source characterization descriptors to obtain calculated fluxes of ammonia to the atmosphere on a state-by-state basis for the United States.

Harriss, R. C.; Michaels, J. T.

1982-01-01

371

Nitrite oxidation in the upper water column and oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient in the sea and its distribution is controlled by microorganisms. Within the N cycle, nitrite (NO2(-)) has a central role because its intermediate redox state allows both oxidation and reduction, and so it may be used by several coupled and/or competing microbial processes. In the upper water column and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP), we investigated aerobic NO2(-) oxidation, and its relationship to ammonia (NH3) oxidation, using rate measurements, quantification of NO2(-)-oxidizing bacteria via quantitative PCR (QPCR), and pyrosequencing. (15)NO2(-) oxidation rates typically exhibited two subsurface maxima at six stations sampled: one located below the euphotic zone and beneath NH3 oxidation rate maxima, and another within the OMZ. (15)NO2(-) oxidation rates were highest where dissolved oxygen concentrations were <5??M, where NO2(-) accumulated, and when nitrate (NO3(-)) reductase genes were expressed; they are likely sustained by NO3(-) reduction at these depths. QPCR and pyrosequencing data were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.79), and indicated that Nitrospina bacteria numbered up to 9.25% of bacterial communities. Different Nitrospina groups were distributed across different depth ranges, suggesting significant ecological diversity within Nitrospina as a whole. Across the data set, (15)NO2(-) oxidation rates were decoupled from (15)NH4(+) oxidation rates, but correlated with Nitrospina (r(2)=0.246, P<0.05) and NO2(-) concentrations (r(2)=0.276, P<0.05). Our findings suggest that Nitrospina have a quantitatively important role in NO2(-) oxidation and N cycling in the ETNP, and provide new insight into their ecology and interactions with other N-cycling processes in this biogeochemically important region of the ocean. PMID:23804152

Beman, J Michael; Leilei Shih, Joy; Popp, Brian N

2013-11-01

372

Nitrite oxidation in the upper water column and oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean  

PubMed Central

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient in the sea and its distribution is controlled by microorganisms. Within the N cycle, nitrite (NO2?) has a central role because its intermediate redox state allows both oxidation and reduction, and so it may be used by several coupled and/or competing microbial processes. In the upper water column and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP), we investigated aerobic NO2? oxidation, and its relationship to ammonia (NH3) oxidation, using rate measurements, quantification of NO2?-oxidizing bacteria via quantitative PCR (QPCR), and pyrosequencing. 15NO2? oxidation rates typically exhibited two subsurface maxima at six stations sampled: one located below the euphotic zone and beneath NH3 oxidation rate maxima, and another within the OMZ. 15NO2? oxidation rates were highest where dissolved oxygen concentrations were <5??M, where NO2? accumulated, and when nitrate (NO3?) reductase genes were expressed; they are likely sustained by NO3? reduction at these depths. QPCR and pyrosequencing data were strongly correlated (r2=0.79), and indicated that Nitrospina bacteria numbered up to 9.25% of bacterial communities. Different Nitrospina groups were distributed across different depth ranges, suggesting significant ecological diversity within Nitrospina as a whole. Across the data set, 15NO2? oxidation rates were decoupled from 15NH4+ oxidation rates, but correlated with Nitrospina (r2=0.246, P<0.05) and NO2? concentrations (r2=0.276, P<0.05). Our findings suggest that Nitrospina have a quantitatively important role in NO2? oxidation and N cycling in the ETNP, and provide new insight into their ecology and interactions with other N-cycling processes in this biogeochemically important region of the ocean. PMID:23804152

Beman, J Michael; Leilei Shih, Joy; Popp, Brian N

2013-01-01

373

Removal of ammonia by immobilized Nitrosomonas europaea in a biotrickling filter packed with polyurethane foam.  

PubMed

A biotrickling filter with Nitrosomonas europaea immobilized on polyurethane foam is proposed for treating ammonia contaminated air. The effect of the surface velocity of the recirculation medium, nitrite concentration, pH, empty bed residence time (EBRT) and ammonia inlet load on the NH(3) removal process was investigated. The total amount of biomass immobilized on the carrier was 3.29+/-0.52 x 10(10) cells g(-1) dry carrier. The maximum elimination capacity of the biotrickling filter was 270 g Nm(-3)h(-1) at pH 7.5, an EBRT of 11s, and nitrite concentrations below 100mM. These results show that system studied can be considered as a viable alternative for the treatment of gaseous emissions containing high concentrations of ammonia. PMID:19118862

Ramírez, Martín; Gómez, José Manuel; Aroca, Germán; Cantero, Domingo

2009-03-01

374

Inhibition of Staphylococcal Biofilm Formation by Nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several environmental stresses have been demonstrated to increase polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) synthesis and biofilm formation by the human pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In this study we characterized an adaptive response of S. aureus SA113 to nitrite-induced stress and show that it involves concomitant impairment of PIA synthesis and biofilm formation. Transcriptional analysis provided evidence that nitrite, either

Steffen Schlag; Christiane Nerz; Timo A. Birkenstock; Florian Altenberend; Friedrich Gotz

2007-01-01

375

Electrolytic production of uranous nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Efficient production of uranous nitrate is important in nuclear fuel reprocessing because U(IV) acts as a plutonium reductant in solvent extraction and can be coprecipitated with plutonium and/or throium as oxalates during fuel reprocessing. Experimental conditions are described for the efficient electrolytic production of uranous nitrate for use as a reductant in the SRP Purex process. The bench-scale, continuous-flow, electrolysis cell exhibits a current efficiency approaching 100% in combination with high conversion rates of U(VI) to U(IV) in simulated and actual SRP Purex solutions. High current efficiency is achieved with a voltage-controlled mercury-plated platinum electrode and the use of hydrazine as a nitrite scavenger. Conversion of U(VI) to U(IV) proceeds at 100% efficiency. Cathodic gas generation is minimal. The low rate of gas generation permits a long residence time within the cathode, a necessary condition for high conversions on a continuous basis. Design proposals are given for a plant-scale, continuous-flow unit to meet SRP production requirements. Results from the bench-scale tests indicate that an 8-kW unit can supply sufficient uranous nitrate reductant to meet the needs of the Purex process at SRP.

Orebaugh, E.G.; Propst, R.C.

1980-04-01

376

Effects of high hydrostatic pressure and varying concentrations of sodium nitrite from traditional and vegetable-based sources on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to determine the effect the source of added nitrite and high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) had on the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on ready-to-eat (RTE) sliced ham. Use of 600MPa HHP for 3min resulted in an immediate 3.9-4.3log CFU/g reduction in L. monocytogenes numbers, while use of 400MPa HHP (3min) provided less than 1log CFU/g reduction. With the 600MPa HHP treatment, sliced ham with a conventional concentration of sodium nitrite (200ppm) was not different in L. monocytogenes growth from use with 50 or 100ppm of sodium nitrite in pre-converted celery powder. Instrumental color values as well as residual nitrite and residual nitrate concentrations for cured (sodium nitrite and nitrite from celery powder) and uncured ham formulations are discussed. PMID:23391864

Myers, Kevin; Cannon, Jerry; Montoya, Damian; Dickson, James; Lonergan, Steven; Sebranek, Joseph

2013-05-01

377

Inhibition of hypochlorous acid-induced cellular toxicity by nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronic inflammation results in increased nitrogen monoxide (NO) formation and the accumulation of nitrite (NO). Neutrophils stimulated by various inflammatory mediators release myeloperoxidase to produce the cytotoxic agent hypochlorous acid (HOCl). Exposure of chondrocytic SW1353 cells to HOCl resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent loss in viability, ATP, and glutathione levels. Treatment of cells with NO but not nitrate (NO) substantially decreased HOCl-dependent cellular toxicity even when NO was added at low (?M) concentrations. In contrast, NO alone (even at 1 mM concentrations) did not affect cell viability or ATP and glutathione levels. These data suggest that NO accumulation at chronic inflammatory sites, where both HOCl and NO are overproduced, may be cytoprotective against damage caused by HOCl. We propose that this is because HOCl is removed by reacting with NO to give nitryl chloride (NO2Cl), which is less damaging in our cell system. inflammation | cell toxicity | nitryl chloride | nitric oxide | arthritis

Whiteman, Matthew; Hooper, D. Craig; Scott, Gwen S.; Koprowski, Hilary; Halliwell, Barry

2002-09-01

378

Nitrate Reduction in an Unconfined Sandy Aquifer: Water Chemistry, Reduction Processes, and Geochemical Modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Ground water chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate-contaminated groundwater emanate from the agricultural areas and spread through the aquifer. The aquifer can be subdivided into an upper 10- to 15-m thick oxic zone that contains O2 and NO3-, and a lower anoxic zone characterized by Fe2+-rich waters. The redox boundary is very sharp, which suggests that reduction processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content of total dissolved ions in the NO3--free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors in the reduced zone of the aquifer are organic matter, present as reworked brown coal fragments from the underlying Miocene, and small amounts of pyrite at an average concentration of 3.6 mmol/kg. Electron balances across the redoxcline, based on concentrations of O2, NO3-, SO42- and total inorganic carbon (TIC), indicate that pyrite is by far the dominant electron donor even though organic matter is much more abundant. Groundwater transport and chemical reactions were modeled using the code PHREEQM, which combines a chemical equilibrium model with a one-dimensional mixing cell transport model. Only the vertical component of the water transport was modeled since, in contrast to rates along flow lines, the vertical rates are close to constant as required by the one-dimensional model. Average vertical transport rates of water in the saturated zone were obtained by tritium dating. The modeling process is a two-step procedure. First the sediment column is initialized with natural water containing only oxygen as electron acceptor, and subsequently agricultural waters containing both oxygen and nitrate are fed into the column. The nitrate concentration of agricultural waters entering the saturated zone varies with time, and an input function was therefore constructed by linear mixing of natural waters and agricultural waters. This input function was fed into the column initialized with natural water, and the model run forward in time to the year 1988 where field data are available. Comparison with field data shows that the variation in groundwater chemistry is well described by the model when reduction of oxygen and reduction of nitrate by pyrite oxidation are the only redox reactions occurring. Finally, predictions are made for the distribution of water chemistry in the year 2003. Downward progression of the redoxcline is accelerated by a factor of five due to nitrate pollution of the aquifer, but absolute rates remain small, of the order of a few centimeters per year. The controlling factor for nitrate migration through the aquifer, once it has reached the anoxic zone, is the concentration and distribution of pyrite in the sediments.

Postma, Dieke; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning; Larsen, Flemming

1991-08-01

379

Study of the interactions of molten sodium nitrate-potassium nitrate 50 mol % mixture with water vapor and carbon dioxide in air. Final report, June 2, 1980June 30, 1981  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interactions of aerial components such as water, carbon dioxide, and oxygen with the binary 50 mol % mixture of sodium nitrate and potassium nitrate have been studied in the temperature range 300 to 600°C using electrochemical methods. In addition, the behavior of nitrite ions in this melt was investigated electrochemically. By judicious choice of techniques, in situ electroanalysis was

S. H. White; U. M. Twardoch

1981-01-01

380

Nitrogen cycling. The environmental controls that govern the end product of bacterial nitrate respiration.  

PubMed

In the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle, microbial respiration processes compete for nitrate as an electron acceptor. Denitrification converts nitrate into nitrogenous gas and thus removes fixed nitrogen from the biosphere, whereas ammonification converts nitrate into ammonium, which is directly reusable by primary producers. We combined multiple parallel long-term incubations of marine microbial nitrate-respiring communities with isotope labeling and metagenomics to unravel how specific environmental conditions select for either process. Microbial generation time, supply of nitrite relative to nitrate, and the carbon/nitrogen ratio were identified as key environmental controls that determine whether nitrite will be reduced to nitrogenous gas or ammonium. Our results define the microbial ecophysiology of a biogeochemical feedback loop that is key to global change, eutrophication, and wastewater treatment. PMID:25104387

Kraft, Beate; Tegetmeyer, Halina E; Sharma, Ritin; Klotz, Martin G; Ferdelman, Timothy G; Hettich, Robert L; Geelhoed, Jeanine S; Strous, Marc

2014-08-01

381

Assessing Ammonia Treatment Options  

EPA Science Inventory

This is the second of three articles to help water system operators understand ammonia and how to monitor and control its effects at the plant and in the distribution system. The first article (Opflow, April 2012) provided an overview of ammonia's chemistry, origins, and water sy...

382

Genome sequence of the chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi Nb-255  

SciTech Connect

The alphaproteobacterium Nitrobacter winogradskyi (ATCC 25391) is a gram-negative facultative chemolithoautotroph capable of extracting energy from the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. Sequencing and analysis of its genome revealed a single circular chromosome of 3,402,093 bp encoding 3,143 predicted proteins. There were extensive similarities to genes in two alphaproteobacteria, Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 (1,300 genes) and Rhodopseudomonas palustris CGA009 CG (815 genes). Genes encoding pathways for known modes of chemolithotrophic and chemoorganotrophic growth were identified. Genes encoding multiple enzymes involved in anapleurotic reactions centered on C2 to C4 metabolism, including a glyoxylate bypass, were annotated. The inability of N. winogradskyi to grow on C6 molecules is consistent with the genome sequence, which lacks genes for complete Embden-Meyerhof and Entner-Doudoroff pathways, and active uptake of sugars. Two gene copies of the nitrite oxidoreductase, type I ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, cytochrome c oxidase, and gene homologs encoding an aerobic-type carbon monoxide dehydrogenase were present. Similarity of nitrite oxidoreductases to respiratory nitrate reductases was confirmed. Approximately 10% of the N. winogradskyi genome codes for genes involved in transport and secretion, including the presence of transporters for various organic-nitrogen molecules. The N. winogradskyi genome provides new insight into the phylogenetic identity and physiological capabilities of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. The genome will serve as a model to study the cellular and molecular processes that control nitrite oxidation and its interaction with other nitrogen-cycling processes.

Hauser, Loren John [ORNL; Land, Miriam L [ORNL; Larimer, Frank W [ORNL; Arp, D J [Oregon State University; Hickey, W J [University of Wisconsin, Madison

2006-03-01

383

Fate of process solution cyanide and nitrate at three nevada gold mines inferred from stable carbon and nitrogen isotope measurements  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Stable isotope methods have been used to identify the mechanisms responsible for cyanide consumption at three heap-leach operations that process Carlin-type gold ores in Nevada, U.S.A. The reagent cyanide had ??15N values ranging from -5 to -2??? and ??13C values from -60 to -35???. The wide ??13C range reflects the use by different suppliers of isotopically distinct natural-gas feedstocks and indicates that isotopes may be useful in environmental studies where there is a need to trace cyanide sources. In heap-leach circuits displaying from 5 to 98% consumption of cyanide, barren-solution and pregnant-solution cyanide were isotopically indistinguishable. The similarity is inconsistent with cyanide loss predominantly by HCN offgassing (a process that in laboratory experiments caused substantial isotopic changes), but it is consistent with cyanide retention within the heaps as solids, a process that caused minimal isotopic changes in laboratory simulations, or with cyanide oxidation, which also appears to cause minimal changes. In many pregnant solutions cyanide was carried entirely as metal complexes, which is consistent with ferrocyanides having precipitated or cyanocomplexes having been adsorbed within the heaps. It is inferred that gaseous cyanide emissions from operations of this type are less important than has generally been thought and that the dissolution or desorption kinetics of solid species is an important control on cyanide elution when the spent heaps undergo rinsing. Nitrate, nitrite and ammonium had ??15N values of 1-16???. The data reflect isotopic fractionation during ammonia offgassing or denitrification of nitrate - particularly in reclaim ponds - but do not indicate the extent to which nitrate is derived from cyanide or from explosive residues. ?? The Institution of Mining and Metallurgy 2000.

Johnson, C.A.; Grimes, D.J.; Rye, R.O.

2000-01-01

384

Ammonia biofiltration and nitrous oxide generation during the start-up of gas-phase compost biofilters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas-Phase Biofiltration technology is widely utilized for treating ammonia gas (NH 3) with one of its potential detrimental by-products being nitrous oxide (N 2O), a potent greenhouse gas (100-y radiative forcing 298 times greater than carbon dioxide). The present work was conducted to investigate the relation between NH 3 removal during biofiltration and N 2O generation as a product of incomplete denitrification during the start-up of gas-phase compost biofilters. Four laboratory scale tubular biofilters in up flow mode (20 s residence-time) were studied for 21 days: 3 replicates were subjected to 16 ppm v (0.78 g m -2 h -1) of NH 3 and a statistical control not subjected to NH 3. Ammonia concentration differences between biofilter inlet (Bottom = 16 ppm v) and outlet (Top) and N 2O concentration differences between biofilter outlet (Top) and biofilter inlet (background concentrations at the bottom) were used to determine the extent of the correlation between NH 3 removal and N 2O generation. Correlations with CH 4 and CO 2 were also reported. The high Spearman correlation coefficients for the three replicates ( ? = -0.845, -0.820, and -0.841, with P ? 0.0001 for replications A, B and C, respectively) suggested that availability of nitrate/nitrite owing to NH 3 nitrification favored conditions for N 2O generation as a sub-product of denitrification. The statistical control received no NH 3 inputs and did not generate N 2O. Therefore, the results indicated that the process of NH 3 removal was a trigger for N 2O production. Carbon dioxide and N 2O were moderately correlated. Methane and N 2O were weakly correlated and only for replicate C. No significant correlation was found for the Statistical Control between N 2O and CH 4.

Maia, Guilherme D. N.; Day V, George B.; Gates, Richard S.; Taraba, Joseph L.

2012-01-01

385

Down under the tunic: bacterial biodiversity hotspots and widespread ammonia-oxidizing archaea in coral reef ascidians.  

PubMed

Ascidians are ecologically important components of marine ecosystems yet the ascidian microbiota remains largely unexplored beyond a few model species. We used 16S rRNA gene tag pyrosequencing to provide a comprehensive characterization of microbial symbionts in the tunic of 42 Great Barrier Reef ascidian samples representing 25 species. Results revealed high bacterial biodiversity (3?217 unique operational taxonomic units (OTU0.03) from 19 described and 14 candidate phyla) and the widespread occurrence of ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota in coral reef ascidians (24 of 25 host species). The ascidian microbiota was clearly differentiated from seawater microbial communities and included symbiont lineages shared with other invertebrate hosts as well as unique, ascidian-specific phylotypes. Several rare seawater microbes were markedly enriched (200-700 fold) in the ascidian tunic, suggesting that the rare biosphere of seawater may act as a conduit for horizontal symbiont transfer. However, most OTUs (71%) were rare and specific to single hosts and a significant correlation between host relatedness and symbiont community similarity was detected, indicating a high degree of host-specificity and potential role of vertical transmission in structuring these communities. We hypothesize that the complex ascidian microbiota revealed herein is maintained by the dynamic microenvironments within the ascidian tunic, offering optimal conditions for different metabolic pathways such as ample chemical substrate (ammonia-rich host waste) and physical habitat (high oxygen, low irradiance) for nitrification. Thus, ascidian hosts provide unique and fertile niches for diverse microorganisms and may represent an important and previously unrecognized habitat for nitrite/nitrate regeneration in coral reef ecosystems. PMID:24152714

Erwin, Patrick M; Pineda, Mari Carmen; Webster, Nicole; Turon, Xavier; López-Legentil, Susanna

2014-03-01

386

Impact of ammonia concentration on Spirulina platensis growth in an airlift photobioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spirulina platensis was cultivated in a bench-scale airlift photobioreactor using synthetic wastewater (total nitrogen 412mgL?1, total phosphorous 90mgL?1, pH 9–10) with varying ammonia\\/total nitrogen ratios (50–100% ammonia with balance nitrate) and hydraulic residence times (15–25d). High average biomass density (3500–3800mgL?1) and productivity (5.1gm?2d?1) were achieved when ammonia was maintained at 50% of the total nitrogen. Both high ammonia concentrations and

Xin Yuan; Amit Kumar; Ashish K. Sahu; Sarina J. Ergas

2011-01-01

387

Electrochemical reduction of nitrate in the presence of an amide  

DOEpatents

The electrochemical reduction of nitrates in aqueous solutions thereof in the presence of amides to gaseous nitrogen (N.sub.2) is described. Generally, electrochemical reduction of NO.sub.3 proceeds stepwise, from NO.sub.3 to N.sub.2, and subsequently in several consecutive steps to ammonia (NH.sub.3) as a final product. Addition of at least one amide to the solution being electrolyzed suppresses ammonia generation, since suitable amides react with NO.sub.2 to generate N.sub.2. This permits nitrate reduction to gaseous nitrogen to proceed by electrolysis. Suitable amides include urea, sulfamic acid, formamide, and acetamide.

Dziewinski, Jacek J. (Los Alamos, NM); Marczak, Stanislaw (Los Alamos, NM)

2002-01-01

388

New composite nitrite-free and low-nitrite meat-curing systems using natural colorants  

PubMed Central

Nitrite-free and low-nitrite meat-curing systems were developed to eliminate or reduce nitrite in frankfurter-type sausages. Different composite meat-curing mixtures were formulated using cochineal and paprika as natural colorants, sodium hypophosphite (SHP) as antimicrobial agent, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) as antioxidant and sodium nitrite. The treatment, which contained 0.015% cochineal, most closely resembled the 120 ppm NaNO2 in its ability to create cured-meat color. BHA was found to be a strong antioxidant at the 30 ppm level in cooked sausages during refrigerated storage for 5 weeks. All treatments containing 40 ppm sodium nitrite were successful in replicating sensory attributes of frankfurter samples. Our findings support the use of SHP as possible antibotulinal agent in nitrite-free meat-curing systems. PMID:24804046

Eskandari, Mohammad H; Hosseinpour, Sara; Mesbahi, GholamReza; Shekarforoush, Shahram

2013-01-01

389

Ammonia Leak Locator Study  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

1995-01-01

390

Achieving nitrite accumulation in a continuous system treating low-strength domestic wastewater: switchover from batch start-up to continuous operation with process control.  

PubMed

Although biological nitrogen removal via nitrite is recognized as one of the cost-effective and sustainable biological nitrogen removal processes, nitrite accumulation has proven difficult to achieve in continuous processes treating low-strength nitrogenous wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite was achieved and maintained in a lab-scale completely stirred tank reactor (CSTR) treating real domestic wastewater. During the start-up period, sludge with ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) but no nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) was obtained by batch operation with aeration time control. The nitrifying sludge with the dominance of AOB was then directly switched into continuous operation. It was demonstrated that p