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1

TOXICITY OF AMMONIA, NITRITE AND NITRATE TO FISHES  

EPA Science Inventory

Ammonia and nitrite are highly toxic to fishes, wig ammonia occurring in urface waters more commonly than nitrite. itrate is a related compound but is not ignificantly toxic to fishes. he acute toxicity of ammonia to aquatic organisms s affected by water pH, dissolved oxygen, tem...

2

Reference material for nutrients in seawater: stability of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia and phosphate in autoclaved samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

Reference material is increasingly used as a basis for quality control and quality assurance in general. Results of autoclaving applied to produce reference material for nutrients in seawater are presented and discussed.When preliminary experiments had shown satisfactory behavior of nitrate, nitrite and ammonia when autoclaved together in seawater samples, a 27 month experiment was undertaken with these three nutrients and

Alain Aminot; Roger Kérouel

1995-01-01

3

Toxicity of un-ionized ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate to juvenile bay scallops, Argopecten irradians irradians.  

PubMed

Juvenile bay scallops (7.2-26.4 mm) were exposed for 72 h to different concentrations of un-ionized ammonia, nitrite, or nitrate. Using the Trimmed Spearman Karber method, 50% lethal concentrations (LC(50)) and 95% confidence limits were calculated individually for each. Un-ionized ammonia concentrations above 1.0 mg N-NH(3)/L resulted in 100% scallop mortality within 72 h. The 72-h LC(50) for un-ionized ammonia was calculated at 0.43 mg N/L. At nitrite concentrations of 800 mg N/L or higher 100% mortality was observed. The 72-h LC(50) for nitrite was calculated at 345 mg N/L. Nitrate was the least toxic, with 100% mortality observed at a concentration of 5000 mg N/L. The calculated nitrate 72-h LC(50) was 4453 mg N/L. Our results indicate that un-ionized ammonia is the most lethal nitrogenous waste component to bay scallops. PMID:17932709

Widman, James C; Meseck, Shannon L; Sennefelder, George; Veilleux, David J

2008-04-01

4

Ammonia Formation by the Reduction of Nitrite/Nitrate by FeS: Ammonia Formation Under Acidic Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

FeS reduces nitrite to, ammonia at pHs lower than the corresponding reduction by aqueous Fe+2. The reduction follows a reasonable first order decay, in nitrite concentration, with a half life of about 150 min (room temperature, CO2, pH 6.25). The highest ammonia product yield measured was 53%. Under CO2, the product yield decreases from pH 5.0 to pH 6.9. The increasing concentration of bicarbonate at higher pH interferes with the reaction. Bicarbonate interference is shown by comparing runs under N2 and CO2. The reaction proceeds well in the presence of such species as chloride, sulfate, and phosphate though the yield drops significantly with phosphate. FeS also reduces nitrate and, unlike with Fe+2, the reduction shows more reproducibility. Again, the product yield decreases with increasing pH, from 7% at pH 4.7 to 0% at pH 6.9. It appears as if nitrate is much more sensitive to the presence of added species, perhaps not competing as well for binding sites on the FeS surface. This may be the cause of the lack of reproducibility of nitrate reduction by Fe+2 (which also can be sensitive to binding by certain species).

Summers, David P.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

2000-01-01

5

Acute and chronic toxicity of ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate to the endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas).  

PubMed

Toxicity tests with ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate were conducted on the endangered Topeka shiner (Notropis topeka) to determine if current U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) water quality criteria are protective of this species. Results from acute lethal and chronic growth tests are reported for both Topeka shiners and fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Embryo-larval tests were conducted with only fathead minnows because Topeka shiner embryos were not available. Predicted outcomes for Topeka shiner embryo-larval toxicity endpoints were calculated by comparing relationships between growth tests and embryo-larval tests for fathead minnows and extrapolating those relationships to Topeka shiners. Results show that the U.S. EPA's criterion for total ammonia-nitrogen (TAN), 1.24 mg/L when early life stages are present, would be protective, given that our most sensitive result was a predicted maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for Topeka shiners at 5.63 mg/L TAN, calculated from the fathead minnow chronic embryo-larval test. The U.S. EPA's criterion for nitrite (5 mg/L) would not be protective, given that our most sensitive result was a predicted MATC for Topeka shiners of 3.97 mg/L NO2-N, calculated from the fathead minnow chronic embryo-larval test. However, nitrite is generally transient, and unpublished field data show levels far lower than the criterion. Finally, the U.S. EPA's recommendation of a maximum of 90 mg/L NO3-N for the protection of warmwater fishes would protect Topeka shiners but not fathead minnows. For Topeka shiners, the MATC from the 30-d juvenile growth test was 360 mg/L NO3-N, but for fathead minnows, the MATC was 84 mg/L. More field sampling may be needed to determine if levels comply with criteria, especially in Topeka shiner critical habitat. PMID:19459722

Adelman, Ira R; Kusilek, Luke I; Koehle, Jessica; Hess, Jonathan

2009-10-01

6

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2012-01-01

7

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2011-01-01

8

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...2014-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2014-01-01

9

9 CFR 319.2 - Products and nitrates and nitrites.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-01-01 false Products and nitrates and nitrites. 319.2 Section 319... General § 319.2 Products and nitrates and nitrites. Any product, such...is a standard in this part and to which nitrate or nitrite is permitted or required...

2013-01-01

10

Utilization of nitrate or nitrite as single nitrogen source by Mycobacterium avium.  

PubMed Central

Twenty L-amino acids and several inorganic compounds were tested individually, as a sole nitrogen source, for ability to support the growth of Mycobacterium avium LM1 serovar 1. Of the amino acids tested, only L-glutamine provided nutritional support comparable to that of ammonium chloride at 1 mM. With either 1 mM potassium nitrate or nitrite substituted for ammonium chloride, similar numbers of CFU were produced. M. avium cells were grown in potassium nitrate or nitrite concentrations of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM, and the medium was assayed for remaining nitrogen compound at several times during growth. Rates of utilization were of first-order kinetics, with nitrite removed more rapidly than nitrate. The rates were approximately 10 times as rapid at 0.25 mM than at 2 mM for either nitrogen source. Nine clinical isolates that included M. avium serovars 1, 4, and 8 and Mycobacterium scrofulaceum serovar 43 were tested for rate of utilization of ammonia, nitrate, or nitrite. Ammonia and nitrite were utilized with first-order kinetics by all strains. Nitrate utilization occurred but was not at the same level for all strains. Clinical tests indicate that M. avium is negative for nitrate reductase; this is because of the rapid reduction of nitrite produced from nitrate. PMID:3818923

McCarthy, C M

1987-01-01

11

Sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth and the reaction of nitrite with ammonia  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An analysis of sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth was conducted. Rates of formation and destruction, and steady state concentrations of both species were determined by steady state kinetics. The importance of the reaction of nitrite with ammonia on the feasibility of ammonia formation from nitrite was evaluated. The analysis considered conditions such as temperature, ferrous iron concentration, and pH. For sinks we considered the reduction of nitrite to ammonia, reaction between nitrite and ammonia, photochemical destruction of both species, and destruction at hydrothermal vents. Under most environmental conditions, the primary sink for nitrite is reduction to ammonia. The reaction between ammonia and nitrite is not an important sink for either nitrite or ammonia. Destruction at hydrothermal vents is important at acidic pH's and at low ferrous iron concentrations. Photochemical destruction, even in a worst case scenario, is unimportant under many conditions except possibly under acidic, low iron concentration, or low temperature conditions. The primary sink for ammonia is photochemical destruction in the atmosphere. Under acidic conditions, more of the ammonia is tied up as ammonium (reducing its vapor pressure and keeping it in solution) and hydrothermal destruction becomes more important.

Summers, D. P.

1999-01-01

12

Impact of protozoan grazing on nitrification and the ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacterial communities in activated sludge.  

PubMed

In activated sludge, protozoa feed on free-swimming bacteria and suspended particles, inducing flocculation and increasing the turnover rate of nutrients. In this study, the effect of protozoan grazing on nitrification rates under various conditions in municipal activated sludge batch reactors was examined, as was the spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) within the activated sludge. The reactors were monitored for ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and total nitrogen concentrations, and bacterial numbers in the presence and absence of cycloheximide (a protozoan inhibitor), allylthiourea (an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation), and EDTA (a deflocculating agent). The accumulations of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia were lower in batches without than with protozoa grazing. Inhibition of ammonia oxidation also decreased the amount of nitrite and nitrate accumulation. Inhibiting protozoan grazing along with ammonia oxidation further decreased the amounts of nitrite and nitrate accumulated. Induction of deflocculation led to high nitrate accumulation, indicating high levels of nitrification; this effect was lessened in the absence of protozoan grazing. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization and confocal laser scanning microscopy, AOB and NOB were found clustered within the floc, and inhibiting the protozoa, inhibiting ammonia oxidation, or inducing flocculation did not appear to lower the number of AOB and NOB present or affect their position within the floc. These results suggest that the AOB and NOB are present but less active in the absence of protozoa. PMID:17668014

Pogue, Amy J; Gilbride, Kimberley A

2007-05-01

13

A Novel Nitrate/Nitrite Permease in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002  

PubMed Central

The nrtP and narB genes, encoding nitrate/nitrite permease and nitrate reductase, respectively, were isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 and characterized. NrtP is a member of the major facilitator superfamily and is unrelated to the ATP-binding cassette-type nitrate transporters that previously have been described for freshwater strains of cyanobacteria. However, NrtP is similar to the NRT2-type nitrate transporters found in diverse organisms. An nrtP mutant strain consumes nitrate at a 4.5-fold-lower rate than the wild type, and this mutant grew exponentially on a medium containing 12 mM nitrate at a rate approximately 2-fold lower than that of the wild type. The nrtP mutant cells could not consume nitrite as rapidly as the wild type at pH 10, suggesting that NrtP also functions in nitrite uptake. A narB mutant was unable to grow on a medium containing nitrate as a nitrogen source, although this mutant could grow on media containing urea or nitrite with rates similar to those of the wild type. Exogenously added nitrite enhanced the in vivo activity of nitrite reductase in the narB mutant; this suggests that nitrite acts as a positive effector of nitrite reductase. Transcripts of the nrtP and narB genes were detected in cells grown on nitrate but were not detected in cells grown on urea or ammonia. Transcription of the nrtP and narB genes is probably controlled by the NtcA transcription factor for global nitrogen control. The discovery of a nitrate/nitrite permease in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 suggests that significant differences in nutrient transporters may occur in marine and freshwater cyanobacteria. PMID:10572142

Sakamoto, Toshio; Inoue-Sakamoto, Kaori; Bryant, Donald A.

1999-01-01

14

Molecular components of nitrate and nitrite efflux in yeast.  

PubMed

Some eukaryotes, such as plant and fungi, are capable of utilizing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Once transported into the cell, nitrate is reduced to ammonium by the consecutive action of nitrate and nitrite reductase. How nitrate assimilation is balanced with nitrate and nitrite efflux is unknown, as are the proteins involved. The nitrate assimilatory yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as a model to dissect these efflux systems. We identified the sulfite transporters Ssu1 and Ssu2 as effective nitrate exporters, Ssu2 being quantitatively more important, and we characterize the Nar1 protein as a nitrate/nitrite exporter. The use of strains lacking either SSU2 or NAR1 along with the nitrate reductase gene YNR1 showed that nitrate reductase activity is not required for net nitrate uptake. Growth test experiments indicated that Ssu2 and Nar1 exporters allow yeast to cope with nitrite toxicity. We also have shown that the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae sulfite efflux permease Ssu1 is also able to excrete nitrite and nitrate. These results characterize for the first time essential components of the nitrate/nitrite efflux system and their impact on net nitrate uptake and its regulation. PMID:24363367

Cabrera, Elisa; González-Montelongo, Rafaela; Giraldez, Teresa; Alvarez de la Rosa, Diego; Siverio, José M

2014-02-01

15

Molecular Components of Nitrate and Nitrite Efflux in Yeast  

PubMed Central

Some eukaryotes, such as plant and fungi, are capable of utilizing nitrate as the sole nitrogen source. Once transported into the cell, nitrate is reduced to ammonium by the consecutive action of nitrate and nitrite reductase. How nitrate assimilation is balanced with nitrate and nitrite efflux is unknown, as are the proteins involved. The nitrate assimilatory yeast Hansenula polymorpha was used as a model to dissect these efflux systems. We identified the sulfite transporters Ssu1 and Ssu2 as effective nitrate exporters, Ssu2 being quantitatively more important, and we characterize the Nar1 protein as a nitrate/nitrite exporter. The use of strains lacking either SSU2 or NAR1 along with the nitrate reductase gene YNR1 showed that nitrate reductase activity is not required for net nitrate uptake. Growth test experiments indicated that Ssu2 and Nar1 exporters allow yeast to cope with nitrite toxicity. We also have shown that the well-known Saccharomyces cerevisiae sulfite efflux permease Ssu1 is also able to excrete nitrite and nitrate. These results characterize for the first time essential components of the nitrate/nitrite efflux system and their impact on net nitrate uptake and its regulation. PMID:24363367

Cabrera, Elisa; González-Montelongo, Rafaela; Giraldez, Teresa; de la Rosa, Diego Alvarez

2014-01-01

16

ACUTE TOXICITY OF AMMONIA AND NITRITE TO CUTTHROAT TROUT FRY  

EPA Science Inventory

The toxicity of ammonia and of nitrite was tested on cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki) fry (1-3 g) for periods up to a month in eight laboratory flow-through bioassays. Median lethal concentration (LC50) values for ammonia (mg/liter un-ionized NH3) were 0.5-0.8 for 96 hours, and 0.3...

17

Acute toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to sensitive freshwater insects, mollusks, and a crustacean.  

PubMed

Both point- and nonpoint-sources of pollution have contributed to increased inorganic nitrogen concentrations in freshwater ecosystems. Although numerous studies have investigated the toxic effects of ammonia on freshwater species, relatively little work has been performed to characterize the acute toxicity of the other two common inorganic nitrogen species: nitrate and nitrite. In particular, to our knowledge, no published data exist on the toxicity of nitrate and nitrite to North American freshwater bivalves (Mollusca) or stoneflies (Insecta, Plecoptera). We conducted acute (96-h) nitrate and nitrite toxicity tests with two stonefly species (Allocapnia vivipara and Amphinemura delosa), an amphipod (Hyalella azteca), two freshwater unionid mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea and Megalonaias nervosa), a fingernail clam (Sphaerium simile), and a pond snail (Lymnaea stagnalis). Overall, we did not observe a particularly wide degree of variation in sensitivity to nitrate, with median lethal concentrations ranging from 357 to 937 mg NO(3)-N/l; furthermore, no particular taxonomic group appeared to be more sensitive to nitrate than any other. In our nitrite tests, the two stoneflies tested were by far the most sensitive, and the three mollusks tested were the least sensitive. In contrast to what was observed in the nitrate tests, variation among species in sensitivity to nitrite spanned two orders of magnitude. Examination of the updated nitrite database, including previously published data, clearly showed that insects tended to be more sensitive than crustaceans, which were in turn more sensitive than mollusks. Although the toxic mechanism of nitrite is generally thought to be the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments into forms that cannot carry oxygen, our observed trend in sensitivity of broad taxonomic groups, along with information on respiratory pigments in those groups, suggests that some other yet unknown mechanism may be even more important. PMID:21877224

Soucek, D J; Dickinson, A

2012-02-01

18

Nitrates, nitrites and gastric cancer in Great Britain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate and nitrite were measured in the saliva of two populations who differed in their risk of developing gastric cancer. Surprisingly, the levels of both ions were significantly higher in the low-risk group.

David Forman; Samim Al-Dabbagh; Richard Doll

1985-01-01

19

Determination of nitrite and nitrate reduction by capillary ion electrophoresis.  

PubMed

Production of nitrates and nitrites is a common step in many methodologies used to measure nitric oxide (NO) and NO-derived products in biological fluids. We report conditions that allow the rapid separation and quantification of nitrite from nitrate ions in biological fluids by capillary ion electrophoresis (CIE). CIE can be used to directly quantify nitrites and nitrates near the millimolar range. To detect lower levels, we have used CIE to monitor the reduction of nitrites and nitrates to NO for chemiluminescence detection. For reduction reactions, we directly compared the ability of three commonly used agents--potassium iodide (KI), mercuric chloride (HgCl2) and vanadium chloride (VCl3)--to reduce nitrite and nitrate ions to NO. Nitrites/nitrates can be efficiently reduced to NO at 37 degrees C using vanadium chloride (100%) or HgCl2 (80%). However, these CE-derived conditions cannot simply be extrapolated to chemiluminescence measurements. Vanadium (III) yields high background in the photomultiplier that diminishes the sensitivity of chemiluminescence measurement to that outside of physiological ranges. We find that reactions carried out at 37 degrees C in 2 M HCl using HgCl2 is efficient using both techniques. PMID:9372285

Trushina, E V; Oda, R P; Landers, J P; McMurray, C T

1997-09-01

20

Dissimilatory Nitrite Reductase Genes from Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The presence of a copper-containing dissimilatory nitrite reductase gene (nirK) was discovered in several isolates of b-subdivision ammonia-oxidizing bacteria using PCR and DNA sequencing. PCR primers Cunir3 and Cunir4 were designed based on published nirK sequences from denitrifying bacteria and used to amplify a 540-bp fragment of the nirK gene from Nitrosomonas marina and five additional isolates of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.

KAREN L. CASCIOTTI; BESS B. WARD

2001-01-01

21

USING THE BERTHELOT METHOD FOR NITRITE AND NITRATE ANALYSIS  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The indophenol-blue or Berthelot method for ammonium analysis can be used indirectly for the determination of nitrite and nitrate after initial reduction of these species with Devarda’s alloy. Since this approach subjects nitrate determination to interferences normally associated with ammonium anal...

22

Nitrate and Nitrite Content of Human, Formula, Bovine, and Soy Milks: Implications for Dietary Nitrite and Nitrate Recommendations  

PubMed Central

Abstract Background Estimation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations of milk sources may provide insight into potential health risks and benefits of these food sources for infants, children, and adults. The World Health Organization and American Academy of Pediatrics recommends exclusive consumption of human milk for the first 6 months of life. Human milk is known to confer significant nutritional and immunological benefits for the infant. Consumption of formula, cow's, and soy milk may be used as alternatives to human milk for infants. Methods We sought to estimate potential exposure to nitrate and nitrite in human, formula, bovine, and soy milk to inform total dietary exposure estimates and recommendations. Using sensitive quantitative methodologies, nitrite and nitrate were analyzed in different samples of milk. Results Human milk concentrations of colostrum (expressed days 1–3 postpartum; n?=?12), transition milk (expressed days 3–7 postpartum; n?=?17), and mature milk (expressed >7 days postpartum; n?=?50) were 0.08?mg/100?mL nitrite and 0.19?mg/100?mL nitrate, 0.001?mg/100?mL nitrite and 0.52?mg/100?mL nitrate, and 0.001?mg/100?mL nitrite and 0.3?mg/100?mL nitrate, respectively, revealing that the absolute amounts of these anions change as the composition of milk changes. When expressed as a percentage of the World Health Organization's Acceptable Daily Intake limits, Silk® Soy Vanilla (WhiteWave Foods, Broomfield, CO) intake could result in high nitrate intakes (104% of this standard), while intake of Bright Beginnings Soy Pediatric® formula (PBM Nutritionals, Georgia, VT) could result in the highest nitrite intakes (383% of this standard). Conclusions The temporal relationship between the provision of nitrite in human milk and the development of commensal microbiota capable of reducing dietary nitrate to nitrite supports a hypothesis that humans are adapted to provide nitrite to the gastrointestinal tract from birth. These data support the hypothesis that the high concentrations of breastmilk nitrite and nitrate are evidence for a physiologic requirement to support gastrointestinal and immune homeostasis in the neonate. PMID:20958096

Hord, Norman G.; Ghannam, Janine S.; Garg, Harsha K.; Berens, Pamela D.

2011-01-01

23

The Action of Light on Nitrate and Nitrite Assimilation by the Marine Chlorophyte, Dunaliella tertiolecta (Butcher)  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Light caused up to a 20-fold increase in the rate of nitrate and nitrite assimilation by the marine chlorophyte Dunahella tertiolecta. While higher rates of oxygen evolution were observed during both nitrate and nitrite assimilation, the extra oxygen released was not related to the amounts of nitrate or nitrite assimilated. Carbon dioxide was required for light to increase nitrate

B. R. GRANT; N. S. W. Australia

1967-01-01

24

Relation between nitrate and nitrite food habits with lung cancer.  

PubMed

Nitrites, a probable human carcinogen, generate reactive nitrogen species that may cause damage to the lung. We evaluated the association between nutritional habits related to nitrite and nitrate intake and risk of lung cancer in Mazandaran, Northern Province of Iran. In this case-control study the two groups were matched for gender and age (+/- 5 years). A semi -quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was used to collect dietary data about nutritional habits related to nitrate, nitrite, vitamins E and C intake, from 40 lung cancer cases and 40 control subjects admitted at Mazanaran hospitals. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the risk of lung cancer using logistic regression. Mean score of nutritional habits in case group was significantly lower than that in control group (P less than or equal 0.001). We observed a positive association between animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake (OR = 2.7, 95% CI: 0.13-0.96) and risk of lung cancer. Decreased risk of lung cancer was also observed with fruit intake (OR = 0.26, 95% CI: 1.3-11). Our results indicate a probable association between nutritional habits related to animal sources of nitrate and nitrite intake and the risk of lung cancer that requires to be confirmed by other studies. PMID:23350350

Karimzadeh, Laleh; Koohdani, Fariba; Siassi, Fereydoon; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Moslemi, Daryoush; Safari, Farid

2012-01-01

25

Impacts of Nitrate and Nitrite on Physiology of Shewanella oneidensis  

PubMed Central

Shewanella oneidensis exhibits a remarkable versatility in anaerobic respiration, which largely relies on its diverse respiratory pathways. Some of these are expressed in response to the existence of their corresponding electron acceptors (EAs) under aerobic conditions. However, little is known about respiration and the impact of non-oxygen EAs on the physiology of the microorganism when oxygen is present. Here we undertook a study to elucidate the basis for nitrate and nitrite inhibition of growth under aerobic conditions. We discovered that nitrate in the form of NaNO3 exerts its inhibitory effects as a precursor to nitrite at low concentrations and as an osmotic-stress provider (Na+) at high concentrations. In contrast, nitrite is extremely toxic, with 25 mM abolishing growth completely. We subsequently found that oxygen represses utilization of all EAs but nitrate. To order to utilize EAs with less positive redox potential, such as nitrite and fumarate, S. oneidensis must enter the stationary phase, when oxygen respiration becomes unfavorable. In addition, we demonstrated that during aerobic respiration the cytochrome bd oxidase confers S. oneidensis resistance to nitrite, which likely functions via nitric oxide (NO). PMID:23626841

Zhang, Haiyan; Fu, Huihui; Wang, Jixuan; Sun, Linlin; Jiang, Yaoming; Zhang, Lili; Gao, Haichun

2013-01-01

26

Technological and economic update on the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic process  

SciTech Connect

The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process, which was developed several years ago at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), still remains relatively unknown. This is despite its simplicity in converting nitrate or nitrite to ammonia gas at high efficiency while forming a very useful hydrated alumina-based solid that binds most metals and nonmetals. Two recent Department of Energy (DOE)-contracted total life-cycle cost analyses, related to treating nitrate-based wastes at Hanford, Savannah River, and Oak Ridge, have shown that the NAC technology is only one-third to one-fourth the cost of vitrification, electroreduction, steam reforming, and plasma arc.

Mattus, A.J.

1998-05-01

27

Isolation and characterization of a chlorate-resistant mutant (Clo- R) of the symbiotic cyanobacterium Nostoc ANTH: heterocyst formation and N(2)-fixation in the presence of nitrate, and evidence for separate nitrate and nitrite transport systems.  

PubMed

Nostoc ANTH is a filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium capable of N(2)-fixation in the absence of combined nitrogen. A chlorate-resistant mutant (Clo- R) of Nostoc ANTH was isolated that differentiates heterocysts and fixes N(2) in the presence of nitrate, but not in the presence of nitrite or ammonium. The mutant lacks nitrate uptake and thereby also lacks induction of nitrate reductase activity by nitrate. However, this mutant is able to transport and assimilate nitrite, indicating that there is a transport system for nitrite that is distinct from that for the nitrate. The lack of inhibitory effect of nitrate on N(2)-fixation was owing to lack of nitrate uptake and not to lack of enzymes for its assimilation (nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase) or the lack of an ammonium transport system for retention of ammonia. The mutant has potential for use as a biofertilizer supplementing chemical nitrate fertilizer in rice fields, without N(2)-fixation being adversely affected. PMID:12070686

Bhattacharya, Jyotirmoy; Singh, Arvind Kumar; Rai, Amar Nath

2002-08-01

28

Rapid simultaneous determination of nitrate and nitrite on a centrifugal microfluidic device  

Microsoft Academic Search

A centrifugal microfluidic device was developed for the rapid sequential determination of two critical environmental species, nitrate and nitrite, in water samples. The nitrate is reduced to nitrite and the nitrite is derivatized. The analytes are determined spectrophotometrically through the disc with a 1.4mm pathlength. The detection limits are 0.05 and 0.16mgL?1 for nitrite and nitrate respectively. The use of

Yongqing Xi; Erin J. Templeton; Eric D. Salin

2010-01-01

29

Ammonia on the prebiotic Earth: Iron(II) reduction of nitrite. [Abstract only  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Theories for the origin of life require the availability of reduced nitrogen. In the non-reducing atmosphere suggested by geochemical evidence, production in the atmosphere and survival of NH3 against photochemical destruction are problematic. Electric discharges and impact shocks would produce NO rather than HCN or NH3. Conversion of NO to nitrous and nitric acid (by way of HNO) and precipitation in acid rain would provide a source of fixed nitrogen to the early ocean. One solution to the NH3 problem may have been the reduction of nitrite/nitrate in the ocean with aqueous ferrous iron, Fe(2+): 6Fe(+2) + 7 H2O + NO2(-) yields 3Fe2O3 + 11 H(+) + NH3. We have measured the kinetics of this reaction as a function of temperature, pH, and concentrations of salts, Fe(+2), and NO2(-). Cations (Na(+), Mg(2+), K(+)) and anions (Cl(-), Br(-), SO4(2-)) increase the rate by factors of 4 to 8. Although a competing pathway yields N2, the efficiency of the conversion of nitrite to ammonia ranges from 25% to 85%. Nitrate reduction was not consistently reproducible; however, when it was observed, its rate was slower by at least 8X than that of nitrite reduction. If the prebiotic atmosphere contained 0.2 to 10 atmospheres CO2 as suggested by Walker (1985), the Fe(+2) concentration and the rate would have been limited by siderite (FeCO3) solubility.

Summers, David P.; Chang, Sherwood

1994-01-01

30

Community Analysis of Ammonia and Nitrite Oxidizers during Start-Up of Nitritation Reactors  

PubMed Central

Partial nitrification of ammonium to nitrite under oxic conditions (nitritation) is a critical process for the effective use of alternative nitrogen removal technologies from wastewater. Here we investigated the conditions which promote establishment of a suitable microbial community for performing nitritation when starting from regular sewage sludge. Reactors were operated in duplicate under different conditions (pH, temperature, and dilution rate) and were fed with 50 mM ammonium either as synthetic medium or as sludge digester supernatant. In all cases, stable nitritation could be achieved within 10 to 20 days after inoculation. Quantitative in situ hybridization analysis with group-specific fluorescent rRNA-targeted oligonucleotides (FISH) in the different reactors showed that nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the genus Nitrospira were only active directly after inoculation with sewage sludge (up to 4 days and detectable up to 10 days). As demonstrated by quantitative FISH and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses of the amoA gene (encoding the active-site subunit of the ammonium monooxygenase), the community of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria changed within the first 15 to 20 days from a more diverse set of populations consisting of members of the Nitrosomonas communis and Nitrosomonas oligotropha sublineages and the Nitrosomonas europaea-Nitrosomonas eutropha subgroup in the inoculated sludge to a smaller subset in the reactors. Reactors operated at 30°C and pH 7.5 contained reproducibly homogeneous communities dominated by one amoA RFLP type from the N. europaea-N. eutropha group. Duplicate reactors at pH 7.0 developed into diverse communities and showed transient population changes even within the ammonia oxidizer community. Reactors at pH 7.5 and 25°C formed communities that were indistinguishable by the applied FISH probes but differing in amoA RFLP types. Communities in reactors fed with sludge digester supernatant exhibited a higher diversity and were constantly reinoculated with ammonium oxidizers from the supernatant. Therefore, such systems could be maintained at a higher dilution rate (0.75 day?1 compared to 0.2 day?1 for the synthetic wastewater reactors). Despite similar reactor performance with respect to chemical parameters, the underlying community structures were different, which may have an influence on stability during perturbations. PMID:12788718

Egli, Konrad; Langer, Christian; Siegrist, Hans-Ruedi; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Wagner, Michael; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

2003-01-01

31

Effects of nitrate addition to a diet on fermentation and microbial populations in the rumen of goats, with special reference to Selenomonas ruminantium having the ability to reduce nitrate and nitrite.  

PubMed

This study investigated the effects of dietary nitrate addition on ruminal fermentation characteristics and microbial populations in goats. The involvement of Selenomonas ruminantium in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen was also examined. As the result of nitrate feeding, the total concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids decreased, whereas the acetate?:?propionate ratio and the concentrations of ammonia and lactate increased. Populations of methanogens, protozoa and fungi, as estimated by real-time PCR, were greatly decreased as a result of nitrate inclusion in the diet. There was modest or little impact of nitrate on the populations of prevailing species or genus of bacteria in the rumen, whereas Streptococcus bovis and S.?ruminantium significantly increased. Both the activities of nitrate reductase (NaR) and nitrite reductase (NiR) per total mass of ruminal bacteria were increased by nitrate feeding. Quantification of the genes encoding NaR and NiR by real-time PCR with primers specific for S.?ruminantium showed that these genes were increased by feeding nitrate, suggesting that the growth of nitrate- and nitrite-reducing S.?ruminantium is stimulated by nitrate addition. Thus, S.?ruminantium is likely to play a major role in nitrate and nitrite reduction in the rumen. PMID:25439583

Asanuma, Narito; Yokoyama, Shota; Hino, Tsuneo

2014-11-30

32

Vegetable-borne nitrate and nitrite and the risk of methaemoglobinaemia.  

PubMed

High levels of nitrate in vegetables are frequently reported. The potential hazard of vegetable-borne nitrate is from its conversion to methaemoglobin-producing nitrite before and/or after ingestion. Methaemoglobin cannot bind oxygen and produces a leftward shift in oxygen-dissociation curve, causing hypoxaemia. Infants under 3 months old are particularly susceptible to methaemoglobinaemia. Older infants and children are also at risk. Adults are not thought to be at risk of vegetable-borne nitrate or nitrite induced methaemoglobinaemia. This view should now change if the high nitrate levels in some vegetables and the effects of storage and food processing on its conversion to nitrite are taken into consideration. In fresh, undamaged vegetables, the nitrite concentrations are usually very low. Under adverse post-harvest storage conditions, nitrite concentrations in vegetables increase as a result of bacterial contamination and endogenous nitrate reductase action. Nitrite accumulation in vegetables is inhibited under frozen storage because endogenous nitrate reductase is inactivated. Pureeing releases endogenous nitrate reductase, increasing nitrite concentrations in vegetables. Oral reduction of nitrate is the most important source of nitrite. In order to maximise the health benefits from eating vegetables, measures should be taken to reduce the nitrate and nitrite exposures while maintaining the recommended vegetable intake. Excessive use of nitrogen fertilizers should be avoided so as to reduce nitrate build up in soil or vegetables. Vegetables must be stored and processed properly to prevent bacteria contamination. Removal of stem and midrib results in a decrease of nitrate content in lettuce and spinach. Peeling of potatoes and beetroot decreases the nitrate content. Nitrate levels in some vegetables can decrease after cooking in water or blanching. Home prepared infant food containing vegetables should be avoided until the infant is 3 months or older. PMID:21075182

Chan, Thomas Y K

2011-01-15

33

Effect of blood nitrite and nitrate levels on murine platelet function.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) appears to play an important role in the regulation of thrombosis and hemostasis by inhibiting platelet function. The discovery of NO generation by reduction of nitrite (NO??) and nitrate (NO??) in mammals has led to increased attention to these anions with respect to potential beneficial effects in cardiovascular diseases. We have previously shown that nitrite anions at 0.1 µM inhibit aggregation and activation of human platelet preparations in vitro in the presence of red blood cells and this effect was enhanced by deoxygenation, an effect likely due to NO generation. In the present study, we hypothesized that nitrite and nitrate derived from the diet could also alter platelet function upon their conversion to NO in vivo. To manipulate the levels of nitrite and nitrate in mouse blood, we used antibiotics, NOS inhibitors, low nitrite/nitrate (NOx) diets, endothelial NOS knock-out mice and also supplementation with high levels of nitrite or nitrate in the drinking water. We found that all of these perturbations affected nitrite and nitrate levels but that the lowest whole blood values were obtained by dietary restriction. Platelet aggregation and ATP release were measured in whole blood and the results show an inverse correlation between nitrite/nitrate levels and platelet activity in aggregation and ATP release. Furthermore, we demonstrated that nitrite-supplemented group has a prolonged bleeding time compared with control or low NOx diet group. These results show that diet restriction contributes greatly to blood nitrite and nitrate levels and that platelet reactivity can be significantly affected by these manipulations. Our study suggests that endogenous levels of nitrite and nitrate may be used as a biomarker for predicting platelet function and that dietary manipulation may affect thrombotic processes. PMID:23383344

Park, Ji Won; Piknova, Barbora; Huang, Paul L; Noguchi, Constance T; Schechter, Alan N

2013-01-01

34

Nitrification with high nitrite accumulation for the treatment of wastewater with high ammonia concentration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper was to determine the best conditions for partial nitrification with nitrite accumulation of simulated industrial wastewater with high ammonia concentration, lowering the total oxygen needed in the nitrification step, which may mean great saving in aeration. Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and pH were selected as operational parameters to study the possibility of nitrite accumulation not

G Ruiz; D Jeison; R Chamy

2003-01-01

35

Automated, colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate ions in natural water samples  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The apparatus and methods used for the automatic, colorimetric determinations of dissolved nutrients (nitrate plus nitrite, nitrite, ammonium and orthophosphate) in natural waters are described. These techniques allow for the determination of nitrate plus nitrite for the concentration range 0.02 to 8 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as N (nitrogen); for nitrite, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as N; for ammonium, the range is 0.006 to 2.0 mg/L as N; and for orthophosphate, the range is 0.002 to 1.0 mg/L as P (phosphorus). Data are presented that demonstrate the accuracy, precision and quality control of the methods.

Antweiler, Ronald C.; Patton, Charles J.; Taylor, Howard E.

1996-01-01

36

Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate () and nitrite () contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40?mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19?mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89?mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41?mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

2013-01-01

37

A novel control method for nitritation: The domination of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria by high concentrations of inorganic carbon in an airlift-fluidized bed reactor.  

PubMed

A novel nitritation method based on the addition of inorganic carbon (IC) was verified using an airlift-fluidized bed reactor packed with sponge cubes. A continuous-treatment experiment demonstrated that the type of nitrification-nitrite or nitrate accumulation-could be controlled by the addition of different alkalinity sources (NaHCO(3) or NaOH, respectively). The maximum rate of ammonia oxidation at 30 degrees C was 2.47kg-N/(m(3) d), with nitrate formation of less than 0.5% of the converted ammonia. Nitrite accumulation of over 90% was maintained stably over 250 days at 30 degrees C and was achieved even at 19 degrees C. Qualitative and quantitative shifts of nitrifying bacteria in the biofilm were monitored by real-time PCR and T-RFLP analysis. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were dominant but nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were eliminated in the reactor when NaHCO(3) was used as the alkalinity source. From the kinetic data, we inferred that high IC concentrations drive stable nitritation by promoting a higher growth rate for AOB than for NOB. PMID:20554306

Tokutomi, Takaaki; Shibayama, Chizu; Soda, Satoshi; Ike, Michihiko

2010-07-01

38

Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during...

39

Carbon-Fiber Nitrite Microsensor for In Situ Biofilm Monitoring  

EPA Science Inventory

During nitrification, nitrite is produced as an intermediate when ammonia is oxidized to nitrate. It is well established that nitrifying biofilm are involved in nitrification episodes in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems with nitrite accumulation occurring during ...

40

Anisole Nitration During Gamma-Irradiation of Aqueous Nitrite and Nitrate Solutions: Free Radical Versus Ionic Mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

The nitration of aromatic compounds in the condensed phase is of interest to nuclear waste treatment applications. This chapter discusses our investigation of radiolytic aromatic nitration mechanisms in the condensed phase toward understanding the nitration products created during nuclear fuel reprocessing. The nitration reactions of anisole, a model aromatic compound, were studied in ?-irradiated acidic nitrate, neutral nitrate, and neutral nitrite solutions. The nitrated anisole product distributions were the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed with radiation. In the irradiated acidic condensed phase, radiation-enhanced nitrous acid-catalyzed nitrosonium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution followed by oxidation reactions dominated over radical addition reactions. Neutral nitrate anisole solutions were dominated by mixed nitrosonium/nitronium ion electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions, but with lower product yields. Irradiation of neutral nitrite anisole solution resulted in a statistical substitution pattern for nitroanisole products, suggesting non-electrophilic free radical reactions involving the •NO2 radical.

Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk; Thomas D. Cullen

2010-04-01

41

Anisole nitration during gamma-irradiation of aqueous nitrite and nitrate solutions: Free radical versus ionic mechanisms  

SciTech Connect

Radiolytic aromatic nitration mechanisms in the condensed phase are ubiquitous, and especially of interest in atmospheric aerosol chemistry, water treatment by advanced oxidation technologies, and nuclear fuel reprocessing. Here, the radiolytically-induced nitration reactions of anisole, the simplest aryl alkyl ether, were investigated in ?-irradiated acidic nitrate solution, and in neutral nitrate and nitrite solutions. The nitrated anisole product distribution was the same with and without radiation in acidic solution, although more products were formed as a result of irradiation. This suggests that the mechanism of nitration in acidic solution is nitronium ion- induced electrophilic aromatic substitution. The rate of production of nitrated products in neutral nitrate solution was much lower, although the distribution of isomers was similar to that expected for nitronium ion electrophilic nitration. In contrast, the product distribution in neutral nitrite solution approached a statistically random substitution pattern, suggesting a non-electrophilic free radical reaction involving •NO2 radical. When hydroxyl radical (•OH) was scavenged by varying the initial nitrite concentration, the concentration of nitrated products increased with increasing nitrite, indicating that the reaction was probably one of direct •NO2 radical addition. However, this latter mechanism will not be important in acidic solutions, such as those often encountered in atmospheric aerosols or ?-irradiated nuclear fuel reprocessing solutions, due to low amounts of produced •NO2 radical and the low reaction rate constants for the •NO2 radical with aromatic compounds.

Gracy Elias; Bruce J. Mincher; Leigh R. Martin; Stephen P. Mezyk; Thomas Cullen

2010-04-01

42

Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level in relation  

E-print Network

1 Nitric oxide 2012, in press Plasma and exhaled breath condensate nitrite-nitrate level - , Nitrate; NO2, Nitrogen dioxide; O3, Ozone; PM10, Particulate Matter with aerodynamic diameter 10µm; Q, quartile Abstract This study evaluated the associations between biological markers in the nitrate

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

43

NarK is a nitrite-extrusion system involved in anaerobic nitrate respiration by Escherichia coli  

Microsoft Academic Search

Escherichia coli can use nitrate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. A polytopic membrane protein, termed NarK, has been implicated in nitrate uptake and nitrite excretion and is thought to function as a nitrate\\/nitrite antiporter. The longest-lived radioactive isotope of nitrogen, 13N-nitrate (half-life = 9.96 min) and the nitrite-sensitive fluorophore N-(ethoxycarbonylmethyl)-6-methoxyquinolinium bromide have now been used to define

John J. Rowe; Trees Ubbink-Kok; Douwe Molenaar; Wil N. Konings; Arnold J. M. Driessen

1994-01-01

44

Centimeter-wave reflection in the nitrates and nitrites of sodium and potassium: Experiment and theory  

Microsoft Academic Search

Temperature-dependent centimeter-wave reflection is studied in powdered samples of potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium nitrite (KNO2), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), and sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Temperature-dependent reflection measurements at centimeter-wave frequencies were performed on an HP8510B Network analyzer based reflectometer. These measurements are compared to calculations utilizing a Debye relaxation model. Reflection losses seen in KNO2 and NaNO2 are expected to be due

Steven G. Cornelison; Arthur Gauss; J. Krane; J. R. Hardy

1997-01-01

45

Niche differentiation of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers in rice paddy soil.  

PubMed

The dynamics of populations and activities of ammonia-oxidizing and nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms were investigated in rice microcosms treated with two levels of nitrogen. Different soil compartments (surface, bulk, rhizospheric soil) and roots (young and old roots) were collected at three time points (the panicle initiation, heading and maturity periods) of the season. The population dynamics of bacterial (AOB) and archaeal (AOA) ammonia oxidizers was assayed by determining the abundance (using qPCR) and composition (using T-RFLP and cloning/sequencing) of their amoA genes (coding for a subunit of ammonia monooxygenase), that of nitrite oxidizers (NOB) by quantifying the nxrA gene (coding for a subunit of nitrite oxidase of Nitrobacter spp.) and the 16S rRNA gene of Nitrospira spp. The activity of the nitrifiers was determined by measuring the rates of potential ammonia oxidation and nitrite oxidation and by quantifying the copy numbers of amoA and nxrA transcripts. Potential nitrite oxidation activity was much higher than potential ammonia oxidation activity and was not directly affected by nitrogen amendment demonstrating the importance of ammonia oxidizers as pace makers for nitrite oxidizer populations. Marked differences in the distribution of bacterial and archaeal ammonia oxidizers, and of Nitrobacter-like and Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizers were found in the different compartments of planted paddy soil indicating niche differentiation. In bulk soil, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas) were at low abundance and displayed no activity, but in surface soil their activity and abundance was high. Nitrite oxidation in surface soil was dominated by Nitrospira spp. By contrast, ammonia-oxidizing Thaumarchaeota and Nitrobacter spp. seemed to dominate nitrification in rhizospheric soil and on rice roots. In contrast to soil compartment, the level of N fertilization and the time point of sampling had only little effect on the abundance, composition and activity of the nitrifying communities. The results of our study show that in rice fields population dynamics and activity of nitrifiers is mainly differentiated by the soil compartments rather than by nitrogen amendment or season. PMID:23437806

Ke, Xiubin; Angel, Roey; Lu, Yahai; Conrad, Ralf

2013-08-01

46

Sensitivity to nitrate and nitrite in pond-breeding amphibians from the Pacific Northwest, USA  

SciTech Connect

In static experiments, the authors studied the effects of nitrate and nitrate solutions on newly hatched larvae of five species of amphibians, namely Rana pretiosa, Rana aurora, Bufo boreas, Hyla regilla, and Ambystoma gracile. When nitrate or nitrite ions were added to the water, some larvae of some species reduced feeding activity, swam less vigorously, showed disequilibrium and paralysis, suffered abnormalities and edemas, and eventually died. The observed effects increased with both concentration and time, and there were significant differences in sensitivity among species. Ambrystoma gracile displayed the highest acute effect in water with nitrate and nitrite. The three ranid species had acute effects in water with nitrite. In chronic exposures, R. pretiosa was the most sensitive species to nitrates and nitrites. All species showed 15-d LC50s lower than 2 mg N-NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}}/L. For both N ions, B. boreas was the least sensitive amphibian. All species showed a high morality at the US Environmental Protection Agency-recommended limits of nitrite for warm-water fishes and a significant larval mortality at the recommended limits of nitrite concentration for drinking water. The recommended levels of nitrate for warm-water fishes were highly toxic for R. pretiosa and A. gracile larvae.

Marco, A.; Quilchano, C.; Blaustein, A.R.

1999-12-01

47

A Rapid, Simple Spectrophotometric Method for Simultaneous Detection of Nitrate and Nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous methods are available for measurement of nitrate (NO?3). However, these assays can either be time consuming or require specialized equipment (e.g., nitrate reductase, chemiluminescent detector). We have developed a method for simultaneous evaluation of nitrate and nitrite concentrations in a microtiter plate format. The principle of this assay is reduction of nitrate by vanadium(III) combined with detection by the

Katrina M. Miranda; Michael G. Espey; David A. Wink

2001-01-01

48

Effects of agriculture production systems on nitrate and nitrite accumulation on baby-leaf salads.  

PubMed

Nitrate and nitrite are widespread contaminants of vegetables, fruits, and waters. The levels of these compounds are increased as a result of using organic wastes from chemical industries, domestic wastes, effluents, nitrogenous fertilizers, and herbicides in agriculture. Therefore, determining the nitrate and nitrite levels in biological, food, and environmental samples is important to protect human health and the environment. In this context, we set this study, in which we report the effect of production system (conventional and organic) on the accumulation of nitrates and nitrites in fresh baby-leaf samples. The average levels of the nitrate ([Formula: see text]) and nitrite ([Formula: see text]) contents in six different baby-leaf salads of a single species (green lettuce, red lettuce, watercress, rucola, chard, and corn salad) produced in organic and conventional agriculture system were evaluated. Spectrophotometric analytical method recently published was validated and used. Nitrates and nitrites were detected in all samples. The nitrates levels from organic production varied between 1.45 and 6.40?mg/kg fresh weight (FW), whereas those from conventional production ranged from 10.5 to 45.19?mg/kg FW. The nitrites content was lower than nitrates and ranged from 0.32 to 1.89?mg/kg FW in organic production system and between 0.14 and 1.41?mg/kg FW in conventional production system. Our results showed that the nitrate content was dependent on the agricultural production system, while for nitrites, this dependency was less pronounced. PMID:24804008

Aires, Alfredo; Carvalho, Rosa; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Saavedra, Maria J

2013-01-01

49

Progress report on the evaluation of porous cathode for the electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites in liquid wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the experimental and modeling work performed to evaluate porous cathodes for the electrochemical reduction of nitrites in liquid wastes. The experiments were done using the MP{dagger} cell with two different porous cathodes: nickel foam and TySAR{trademark}SB{double_dagger}. The experimental results are compared with each other and to those obtained with a planar nickel cathode. The results show that the ammonia production reaction is the dominant cathodic reaction ({approximately}80% efficiency) for all three electrodes. The temperature range used in this study was 29-37 {circ}C while the catholyte feed was either 0.6M NaNO{sub 2} or 1.9M NaNO{sub 3}, both supported by a 1.33 M NaOH solution. All experiments used a constant current density of 0.25 A/cm{sup 2}. The experimental results suggest that the porous nickel electrode at lower temperatures ({approximately}31{circ}C) is the most efficient of the three electrodes for the reduction of nitrates and nitrites. The porous nickel electrode exhibited the highest conversion of nitrates and nitrites, and the lowest overpotential for a given current density. The partial current fractions at known catholyte concentrations were used to extract the exchange-current densities for the five cathodic reactions. Using these kinetic parameters, dynamic simulations of the four hour experiments were performed. Agreement was found between the model and experimental results for changes in the moles of the nitrate and nitrite and the cell overpotential with time. Future work will determine the effects of temperature and current densities on the exchange-current densities and reaction product distributions. The performance of other porous cathode materials (TySAR{trademark}EP{section}, TySAR{trademark}IM) will also be evaluated.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Jha, K.; Weidner, J.W.; White, R.E. [South Carolina Univ., Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1995-12-27

50

Decreased steroid hormone synthesis from inorganic nitrite and nitrate: studies in vitro and in vivo.  

PubMed

Nitrites and nitrates are consumed nonchalantly in diet. Organic nitrates are also used as vasodilators in angina pectoris, but the therapy is associated with tolerance whose mechanism remains elusive. Previously, we found inorganic nitrate inhibited steroidogenesis in vitro. Because adrenocorticoids regulate water and electrolyte metabolism, tolerance may ensue from steroid deficiency. We have studied the effects of nitrite and nitrate on in vitro synthesis and in vivo blood levels of steroid hormones. In vitro, nitrite was more potent than nitrate in inhibiting human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-stimulated androgen synthesis by Mouse Leydig Tumor cells. At concentrations above 42 mM, nitrite completely inhibited androgen synthesis, and, unlike nitrate, the inhibition was irreversible by increasing hCG concentration. The cAMP production remained intact but reduced with both ions. The nitric oxide (NO) scavenger, 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxy-3-oxide (c-PTIO) significantly increased hCG- or cAMP-stimulated androgen synthesis in all buffers, suggesting that NO is a chemical species directly involved in the nitrite/nitrate-induced inhibition. This is further supported by c-PTIO countering the inhibitory action of methylene blue on androgen synthesis. Rats given distilled water containing 50 mg/L NaNO(2) or NaNO(3) for 4 weeks drank significantly less daily. At the end, their blood corticosterone and testosterone levels were significantly decreased. The adrenocortical histology showed bigger lipid droplets, which are pathogonomic of impaired steroidogenesis. Nitrite and nitrate are metabolized to NO, which binds heme in cytochrome P450 enzymes, thereby inhibiting steroidogenesis. Therapeutic nitrates likewise may decrease adrenal (and gonadal) steroidogenesis. Cortisol deficiency would impair water excretion causing volume expansion, and aldosterone deficiency would cause sodium loss and raised renin. Paradoxically, volume expansion without sodium retention and raised renin has all been reported in tolerance. PMID:11133344

Panesar, N S; Chan, K W

2000-12-15

51

A Novel Nitrate\\/Nitrite Permease in the Marine Cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. Strain PCC 7002  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nrtP and narB genes, encoding nitrate\\/nitrite permease and nitrate reductase, respectively, were isolated from the marine cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7002 and characterized. NrtP is a member of the major facilitator superfamily and is unrelated to the ATP-binding cassette-type nitrate transporters that previously have been described for freshwater strains of cyanobacteria. However, NrtP is similar to the NRT2-

TOSHIO SAKAMOTO; KAORI INOUE-SAKAMOTO; DONALD A. BRYANT

1999-01-01

52

Evidence of parallel denitrification and nitrite oxidation in the ODZ of the Arabian Sea from paired stable isotopes of nitrate and nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Arabian Sea is a major oceanic nitrogen sink, and its oxygen-deficient zone (ODZ) extends from 150 m to 1200 m water depth. To identify the dominant transformation processes of reactive nitrogen and to quantify the amounts of nitrogen turned over in the different reactions of the nitrogen cycle, we use paired data on stable isotope ratios of nitrogen and oxygen in nitrate and nitrite measured at four near-coastal and five open ocean stations in the Arabian Sea. We find significant nitrate reduction and denitrification between 100 m and 400 m in the open Arabian Sea, which are most intense in the eastern and northern part of the basin, and estimate that about 50% of initial nitrate is being reduced either to dinitrogen gas (denitrification) or to nitrite (nitrate reduction) in the core zone of denitrification. Nitrite accumulates in concentrations above 4 µM in the water column of the eastern and northern Arabian Sea. Large differences in isotopic ratios of nitrate and nitrite and a decoupling of their stable nitrogen and oxygen isotopes can be explained by the reoxidation of nitrite. The observed decoupling of the paired isotopes may be due to the exchange of oxygen of nitrite with oxygen from ambient water. In agreement with model estimates from the literature, about 25% of the nitrate initially reduced to nitrite is returned to the nitrate pool by nitrification in the upper and lower denitrification layer while 40% is denitrified.

Gaye, Birgit; Nagel, Birgit; Dähnke, Kirstin; Rixen, Tim; Emeis, Kay-Christian

2013-12-01

53

Average daily nitrate and nitrite intake in the Belgian population older than 15 years.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to assess the dietary intake of nitrate and nitrite in Belgium. The nitrate content of processed vegetables, cheeses and meat products was analysed. These data were completed by data from non-targeted official control and from the literature. In addition, the nitrite content of meat products was measured. Concentration data for nitrate and nitrite were linked to food consumption data of the Belgian Food Consumption Survey. This study included 3245 respondents, aged 15 years and older. Food intakes were estimated by a repeated 24-h recall using EPIC-SOFT. Only respondents with two completed 24-h recalls (n=3083) were included in the analysis. For the intake assessment, average concentration data and individual consumption data were combined. Usual intake of nitrate/nitrite was calculated using the Nusser method. The mean usual daily intake of nitrate was 1.38 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (bw) day(-1) and the usual daily intake at the 97.5 percentile was 2.76 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). Exposure of the Belgian population to nitrate at a mean intake corresponded to 38% of the ADI (while 76% at the 97.5 percentile). For the average consumer, half of the intake was derived from vegetables (especially lettuce) and 20% from water and water-based drinks. The average daily intake of nitrate and nitrite from cheese and meat products was low (0.2% and 6% of the ADI at average intake, respectively). Scenario analyses with a higher consumption of vegetables or a higher nitrate concentration in tap water showed a significant higher intake of nitrate. Whether this is beneficial or harmful must be further assessed. PMID:21728895

Temme, E H M; Vandevijvere, S; Vinkx, C; Huybrechts, I; Goeyens, L; Van Oyen, H

2011-09-01

54

Reduction of nitrite and nitrate on nano-dimensioned FeS.  

PubMed

The reaction of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) on nanometer-sized FeS particles was investigated in alkaline (initial pH = 10.3) solutions at reaction temperatures of 22, 70, and 120 °C using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy that allowed an analysis of adsorbate complexation on the FeS and reaction product in the aqueous phase, respectively. ATR-FTIR showed that NO was a surface-bound intermediate on FeS during its exposure to NO2(-) at all three reaction temperatures. Ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4(+)) product was also produced when FeS was exposed to NO2(-) at the 70 °C and 120 °C reaction temperatures. Activation of NO3(-) to form surface-bound NO was experimentally observed to occur at 120 °C on FeS, but not at the lower reaction temperatures. Furthermore, NH3/NH4(+) product in the aqueous phase was only present during the reaction of FeS with NO3(-) at the highest temperature used in this study. PMID:23955667

Gordon, Alexander D; Smirnov, Alexander; Shumlas, Samantha L; Singireddy, Soujanya; DeCesare, Matthew; Schoonen, Martin A A; Strongin, Daniel R

2013-10-01

55

Reduction of Nitrite and Nitrate on Nano-dimensioned FeS  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reaction of nitrite (NO2 -) and nitrate (NO3 -) on nanometer-sized FeS particles was investigated in alkaline (initial pH = 10.3) solutions at reaction temperatures of 22, 70, and 120 °C using in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and fluorescence spectroscopy that allowed an analysis of adsorbate complexation on the FeS and reaction product in the aqueous phase, respectively. ATR-FTIR showed that NO was a surface-bound intermediate on FeS during its exposure to NO2 - at all three reaction temperatures. Ammonia/ammonium (NH3/NH4 +) product was also produced when FeS was exposed to NO2 - at the 70 °C and 120 °C reaction temperatures. Activation of NO3 - to form surface-bound NO was experimentally observed to occur at 120 °C on FeS, but not at the lower reaction temperatures. Furthermore, NH3/NH4 + product in the aqueous phase was only present during the reaction of FeS with NO3 - at the highest temperature used in this study.

Gordon, Alexander D.; Smirnov, Alexander; Shumlas, Samantha L.; Singireddy, Soujanya; DeCesare, Matthew; Schoonen, Martin A. A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

2013-10-01

56

Investigating the microbiological safety of uncured no nitrate or nitrite added processed meat products  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of preservative-free foods among consumers has stimulated rapid growth of processed meats manufactured without nitrite. The objective of the first phase of this study was to quantify the potential for Clostridium perfringens growth in commercial processed meats manufactured without the direct addition of nitrite\\/nitrate. These results indicate that commercial natural\\/organic cured meats have more potential for pathogen growth

Armitra Lavette Jackson

2010-01-01

57

Effect of Sodium Nitrite and Sodium Nitrate on Botulinal Toxin Production and Nitrosamine Formation in Wieners  

PubMed Central

Wieners were formulated and processed approximating commercial conditions as closely as possible. Twenty-four batches of product were made with the addition of six levels of sodium nitrite (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 300 ?g/g), four levels of sodium nitrate (0, 50, 150, and 450 ?g/g), and two levels of Clostridium botulinum (0 and 620 spores/g). After formulation, processing, and vacuum packaging, portions of each batch were incubated at 27 C or held for 21 days at 7 C followed by incubation at 27 C for 56 days. The latter storage condition approximated distribution of product through commercial channels and potential temperature abuse at the consumer level. Samples were analyzed for botulinal toxin, nitrite, and nitrate levels after 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, and 56 days of incubation. When nitrite was not added, toxic samples were detected after 14 days of incubation at 27 C. At the lowest level of nitrite added (50 ?g/g), no toxic samples were observed until 56 days of incubation. Higher levels of nitrite completely inhibited toxin production throughout the incubation period. Nine uninoculated samples, representing various levels and combinations of nitrite and nitrate, were evaluated organoleptically. The flavor quality of wieners made with nitrite was judged significantly higher (P = 0.05) than of wieners made without nitrite. The nine samples were negative for 14 volatile nitrosamines at a sensitivity level of 10 ng/g. The results indicated that nitrite effectively inhibited botulinal toxin formation at commercially employed levels in wieners and that detectable quantities of nitrosamines were not produced during preparation and processing of the product for consumption. PMID:4580194

Hustad, Gerald O.; Cerveny, John G.; Trenk, Hugh; Deibel, Robert H.; Kautter, Donald A.; Fazio, Thomas; Johnston, Ralph W.; Kolari, Olaf E.

1973-01-01

58

[Effect of the triazine herbicide herbazine-50 on the nitrate-nitrite concentration of corn].  

PubMed

Studied were the changes in the nitrate-nitrite content of maize grown on areas treated with herbazine-50 and artificial nitrogen fertilizers. The chemical analysis of various parts of the plant (stem. leaves, flowers and grains) revealed that the content of nitrates and nitrites was highest in the ears, and lowest in the leaves. Highest was also the content of nitrates and nitrites in all parts of the plant in maize from areas treated with herbazine-50 at the rate of 4 kg of a. i. per hectare as well as with artificial nitrogen fertilizers (ammonium nitrate and superphosphate at 450 kg/ha), followed by maize obtained from areas where ammonium nitrate and superphosphate at 450 kg/ha were introduced only. Slightly lower amounts of nitrates and nitrites were found in maize from areas treated with herbazine-50 at 4 kg/ha only, and lowest was their content in maize from areas that were neither fertilized nor treated with herbazine-50. PMID:506061

Nikov, S; Mikha?lov, G

1979-01-01

59

Electrochemical reduction of nitrate and nitrite in concentrated sodium hydroxide at platinum and nickel electrodes  

SciTech Connect

This work describes the electrochemical reduction of nitrate in alkaline solutions. Conditions which maximize the current efficiency for the production of dinitrogen and/or ammonia gases could be very important for the treatment of radioactive waste solutions.

Hu Lin Li [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Robertson, D.H.; Chambers, J.Q. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hobbs, D.T. [Savannah River Lab., Aiken, SC (United States)

1996-10-01

60

Anaerobic respiration of Bacillus macerans with fumarate, TMAO, nitrate and nitrite and regulation of the pathways by oxygen and nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bacillus macerans, anaerobic respiratory pathways and the regulation of facultatively anaerobic catabolism by electron acceptors were analysed. In addition to fermentative growth, B. macerans was able to grow anaerobically by fumarate, trimethylamine N-oxide, nitrate, and nitrite respiration with glycerol as donor. During growth by fumarate respiration, a membrane-bound fumarate reductase was present that was different from succinate dehydrogenase. The

Jan Schirawski; Gottfried Unden

1995-01-01

61

The reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide towards nitrate and nitrite salts  

SciTech Connect

Beginning in late 1988, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) began an experimental program at the request of Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to investigate the effects of temperature on the oxidation reaction between synthetic nickel cesium ferrocyanide (FeCN) and nitrates and nitrites representative of materials present in some of the Hanford single-shell tanks (SSTs). After completing a preliminary series of experiments in 1988, the program was expanded to include five tasks to evaluate the effect of selected compositional and operational parameters on the reaction and explosion temperatures of FeCN and nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures. 10 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

Burger, L.L.; Scheele, R.D.

1991-09-01

62

Promotion ofSeedGermination byNitrate, Nitrite, Hydroxylamine, andAmmoniumSalts1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Actionanduptakeofazides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxyla- mines,andammoniumsalts weremeasured ongermination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleumpratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B.verna, andSetaria glauca seeds. Nitrate andnitrite reductase activities weremeasured invivoforeachofthese kindsofseeds. Activities weremeasured invitroforcatalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, andpyridine nucleotide quinone reductase onextracts ofA.albus andL.sativa seeds before and aftergermination. Theenzymicactivities measuredandthe responsiveness ofthehaemproteins toinhibition bytheseveral compoundsindicate thatnitrites, azides, andhydroxylamines promoteseedgermination byinhibition ofH202decomposition bycatalase. Ammnonium salts showedpronounced

S. B. HENDRICKS; R. B. TAYLORSON

63

Changes in hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, acid-base balance, and electrolytes in Marsupenaeus japonicus under combined ammonia and nitrite stress.  

PubMed

Ammonia and nitrite are the most common toxic nitrogenous compounds in aquaculture ponds. We evaluated the effects of a combined treatment with these two compounds on the hemolymph acid-base balance, electrolytes and oxyhemocyanin content in kuruma shrimp, (Marsupenaeus japonicus). The shrimp (6.37±1.29 g) were individually exposed to 9 different ammonia and nitrite regimes {ammonia at 0 (control), 0.39, and 1.49 mM combined with nitrite at 0 (control), 0.38, and 1.49 mM} in a 30‰ saline solution at 22°C. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin (OxyHc), protein content, acid-base balance, osmolality, and electrolyte levels were measured in treated shrimp after 48 h of treatment. Hemolymph OxyHc, protein content, the OxyHc/protein ratio, pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), TCO2, OH(-)/H(+), osmolality, and Cl(-), Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), and Mg(2+) levels were inversely related to the dose of ammonia and nitrite. However, hemolymph pO2 levels directly increased with the ammonia and nitrite concentrations. Following exposure to 1.49 mM ammonia+1.49 mM nitrite, the hemolymph pO2 increased by 89.5%, whereas the hemolymph OxyHc, protein content, OxyHc/protein ratio, pH, pCO2, HCO3(-), TCO2, OH(-)/H(+), osmolality, Cl(-), and Na(+) decreased by 51.2, 28.2, 34.9, 2.9, 51.1, 71.5, 70.8, 42.8, 4.9, 32.1, and 38.6%, respectively, compared with control shrimp. Combined ammonia and nitrite stress may therefore exert a synergistic effect on shrimp relative to the stress induced by ammonia or nitrite alone. PMID:23399445

Cheng, Sha-Yen; Shieh, Li-Wei; Chen, Jiann-Chu

2013-04-15

64

Ammonia adsorption and nitritation in sediments derived from the Three Gorges Reservoir, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influences of suspended particles (SPs) on NH4\\u000a + adsorption and nitritation occurring in the water system of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) were evaluated in this study.\\u000a The results indicated that the adsorption of NH4\\u000a + was significantly affected by the SPs concentration under the conditions typically present in the TGR. The amount of ammonia\\u000a adsorbed per unit weight

Hongyuan Wang; Zhenyao Shen; Xuejun Guo; Junfeng Niu; Bin Kang

2010-01-01

65

Mass-spectrometric examination of vaporization of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vaporization of sodium nitrite and sodium and potassium nitrates was examined by high-temperature mass spectrometry. The inverse\\u000a temperature dependences of the vapor pressure logarithm for these compounds were presented. Enthalpies of vaporization and\\u000a standard enthalpies of formation of gaseous NaNO2, NaNO3, and KNO3 were determined.

G. P. Dukhanin; S. I. Lopatin

2011-01-01

66

Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste by reverse-polarity capillary zone electrophoresis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the first application of reverse-polarity capillary zone electrophoresis for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using synthetic Hanford waste, followed by the analysis of four real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as an electroosmotic flow modifier in a borate electrolyte at

Asopuru A Okemgbo; Herbert H Hill; Steven G Metcalf; Michael A Bachelor

1999-01-01

67

A Crp-dependent two-component system regulates nitrate and nitrite respiration in Shewanella oneidensis.  

PubMed

We have previously illustrated the nitrate/nitrite respiratory pathway of Shewanella oneidensis, which is renowned for its remarkable versatility in respiration. Here we investigated the systems regulating the pathway with a reliable approach which enables characterization of mutants impaired in nitrate/nitrite respiration by guaranteeing biomass. The S. oneidensis genome encodes an Escherichia coli NarQ/NarX homolog SO3981 and two E. coli NarP/NarL homologs SO1860 and SO3982. Results of physiological characterization and mutational analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis possesses a single two-component system (TCS) for regulation of nitrate/nitrite respiration, consisting of the sensor kinase SO3981(NarQ) and the response regulator SO3982(NarP). The TCS directly controls the transcription of nap and nrfA (genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases, respectively) but regulates the former less tightly than the latter. Additionally, phosphorylation at residue 57 of SO3982 is essential for its DNA-binding capacity. At the global control level, Crp is found to regulate expression of narQP as well as nap and nrfA. In contrast to NarP-NarQ, Crp is more essential for nap rather than nrfA. PMID:23240049

Dong, Yangyang; Wang, Jixuan; Fu, Huihui; Zhou, Guangqi; Shi, Miaomiao; Gao, Haichun

2012-01-01

68

A Crp-Dependent Two-Component System Regulates Nitrate and Nitrite Respiration in Shewanella oneidensis  

PubMed Central

We have previously illustrated the nitrate/nitrite respiratory pathway of Shewanella oneidensis, which is renowned for its remarkable versatility in respiration. Here we investigated the systems regulating the pathway with a reliable approach which enables characterization of mutants impaired in nitrate/nitrite respiration by guaranteeing biomass. The S. oneidensis genome encodes an Escherichia coli NarQ/NarX homolog SO3981 and two E. coli NarP/NarL homologs SO1860 and SO3982. Results of physiological characterization and mutational analyses demonstrated that S. oneidensis possesses a single two-component system (TCS) for regulation of nitrate/nitrite respiration, consisting of the sensor kinase SO3981(NarQ) and the response regulator SO3982(NarP). The TCS directly controls the transcription of nap and nrfA (genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductases, respectively) but regulates the former less tightly than the latter. Additionally, phosphorylation at residue 57 of SO3982 is essential for its DNA-binding capacity. At the global control level, Crp is found to regulate expression of narQP as well as nap and nrfA. In contrast to NarP-NarQ, Crp is more essential for nap rather than nrfA. PMID:23240049

Dong, Yangyang; Wang, Jixuan; Fu, Huihui; Zhou, Guangqi; Shi, Miaomiao; Gao, Haichun

2012-01-01

69

Electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites in alkaline media in the presence of hexavalent chromium  

E-print Network

chromium H. A. DUARTE, K. JHA, J. W. WEIDNER* Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South in the presence of hexavalent chromate. Even at chromate concentrations as low as 9 mg dmA3 , the chromium eects of the chromium hydroxide ®lm, enabling the electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites

Weidner, John W.

70

Simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in human plasma by on-capillary preconcentration with field-amplified sample stacking.  

PubMed

A simple method for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in human plasma has been developed using CZE with minimal sample preparation. Field-amplified sample stacking (FASS) was used to achieve submicromolar detection by dilution of the plasma sample with deionized water. In CZE, the separation of nitrite and nitrate was achieved within 10?min without adding EOF modifier. The optimal condition was achieved with 50?mM phosphate buffer at pH 9.3. The ninefold diluted plasma samples were injected hydrodynamically for 40?s into a 60?cm×75??m id uncoated fused-silica capillary. The separation voltage was 20?kV (negative potential) and UV detection was performed at 214?nm. The linearity curves for nitrite and nitrate were obtained by the standard addition method. The estimated LODs for nitrite and nitrate in ninefold diluted plasma sample were 0.05 and 0.07??M, respectively. The LODs for nitrite and nitrate in original plasma samples were 0.45 and 0.63??M. The intra- and inter-day precisions for both analytes were <2.6% and the recovery ranged between 92.3 and 113.3%. It was found that nitrite was more stable than nitrate in the plasma after the sample preparation. This proposed method was applied to a number of human plasma samples and the measured nitrite and nitrate concentrations in human plasma were consistent with the literature ranges. PMID:22170613

Wang, Xu; Masschelein, Evi; Hespel, Peter; Adams, Erwin; Van Schepdael, Ann

2012-01-01

71

Modeling pitting corrosion of iron exposed to alkaline solutions containing nitrate and nitrite  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pitting corrosion could be extremely serious for dilute high-level radioactive waste stored or processed in carbon steel tanks at the Savannah River Site. In these solutions, nitrate is an aggressive ion with respect to pitting of carbon steel while nitrite can be used as an inhibitor. Excessive additions of nitrite increase the risk of generating unstable nitrogen compounds during waste processing, and insufficient additions of nitrite could increase the risk of corrosion-induced failure. Thus there are strong incentives to obtain a fundamental understanding of the role of nitrite in pitting corrosion prevention with these solution chemistries. In this dissertation, both a 1-D and a 2-D model are used to study the pitting mechanism as a function of nitrite/nitrate ratios. The 1-D model used BAND(J) to test a reaction mechanism for the passivation behavior by comparing the predicted Open Circuit Potential (OCP) with OCP data from experiments at different NO2-/NO3- ratio. The model predictions are compared with Cyclic Potentiodynamic Polarization (CPP) experiments. A 2-D model was developed for the propagation of a pit in iron by writing subroutines for finite element software of GAMBIT and FIDAP. Geometrically distributed anodic and cathodic reactions are assumed. The results show three partial explanations describing the inhibition influence of nitrite to iron corrosion: the competing reduction reaction of nitrate to nitrite, the formation of Fe(OH)+, and the function of the porous film. The current distributions and the effect of porosity of the film on pH are also explained. The calculation results also show that rate of pit growth decreases as the pit diameter increases until it reaches a constant value. The profile of the local current density on the pit wall is parabolic for small pits and it changes to a linear distribution for large pits. The model predicts that addition of nitrite will decrease the production of ferrous ions and those can prevent iron from dissolving. Also nitrate ion will accumulate in the pit if not enough inhibitor is added to the solution, and this will accelerate pit growth.

Chen, Lifeng

2001-07-01

72

Nitrite Quantum Yields from Photolysis of Nitrate in/on Ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chemical reactions in snow are important to both the chemical composition of snow and the overlying atmospheric boundary layer. The photochemistry of nitrate in snowpacks is of particular interest due to production of reactive nitrogen species that include NOx, nitrite, and products of secondary chemistry. The photolysis of nitrate has three channels: (1) NO2 + OH, (2) NO2- + O(3P), and, at least at lower illumination wavelengths (< 300 nm), (3)ONOO-. The first photochemical pathway, to form NO2, has received the most attention in ice but there are limited kinetic observations of the remaining two pathways. In this work, we slowly freeze laboratory ice with known concentrations of nitrate, illuminate at 313 nm, and measure NO2- concentrations using a liquid waveguide capillary cell. Based on the rate of nitrite formation, and an independent measure of the photon flux, we determine the nitrite quantum yield. We will discuss these quantum yields as a function of temperature (-30C to 25C), nitrate concentration (10uM - 10 mM), and the presence of organic scavengers.

Benedict, K. B.; Anastasio, C.

2013-12-01

73

Plasma nitrate plus nitrite changes during continuous intravenous infusion interleukin 2.  

PubMed Central

Nitric oxide (NO), a biologically active mediator generated in many cell types by the enzyme NO synthase, may play an important role in cardiovascular toxicity that is frequently observed in cancer patients during intravenous (i.v.) interleukin 2 (IL-2) therapy. The induction of NO synthase and the production of NO seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of the vascular leakage syndrome, as well as in the regulation of myocardial contractility. In the present study, we evaluated the pattern of plasmatic NO changes during multiple cycles of continuous i.v. infusion (CIVI) of IL-2 in ten advanced cancer patients (five males, five females, median age 59 years, range 33-67 years; eight affected by renal cell cancer and two affected by malignant melanoma). The patients received IL-2 at 18 MIU m-2 day-1 (14 cycles) or 9 MIU m-2 day-1 (seven cycles) for 96 h, repeated every 3 weeks. Interferon alpha (IFN alpha) was also administered subcutaneously (s.c) during the 3 week interval between IL-2 cycles. For each cycle, plasma samples were collected before treatment (t0), 24 h (t1), 48 h (t2), 72 h (t3) and 96 h (t4) after the start of IL-2 infusion, and 24 h after the end of the cycle. NO concentration was determined spectrophotometrically by measuring the accumulation of both nitrite and nitrate (after reduction to nitrite). The following observations may be drawn from data analysis: (1) plasma nitrate + nitrite significantly raised during treatment (P = 0.0226 for t0 vs t3), but statistical significance was retained only when cycles administered with IL-2 18 MIU m-2 day-1 are considered (P = 0.0329 for t0 vs t3; P = 0.0354 for t0 vs t2 vs t4) (dose-dependent pattern); (2) during subsequent cycles a significant trend toward a progressive increase of plasma nitrate + nitrite levels, with increasing cumulative dose of IL-2, was observed (linear regression coefficient r = 0.62, P = 0.0141 for t0; r = 0.80, P = 0.0003 for t1; r = 0.62, P = 0.013 for t2; r = 0.69, P = 0.045 for t3); (3) plasma nitrate + nitrite levels peaked earlier in subsequent cycles than in the first cycle; (4) all patients experienced hypotension. The mean of the systolic blood pressure values was significantly lower at the time of plasma nitrate + nitrite peak than at t0 (P = 0.0004); (5) the two cases of grade III hypotension occurred in patients with the higher mean and peak plasma nitrate + nitrite values. We conclude that determination of plasma nitrate + nitrite levels during CIVI IL-2 can usefully estimate, in a dose-dependent pattern, the degree of peripheral vascular relaxation and capillary leakage associated with cytokine action, clinically manifested as hypotension. However, isolated cardiac toxicity that continues to represent a relevant problem during IL-2 therapy, does not appear to correlate with plasma nitrate + nitrite levels; therefore, further studies are required to understand adequately the mechanisms underlying IL-2-induced cardiac toxicity. PMID:8883421

Citterio, G.; Pellegatta, F.; Lucca, G. D.; Fragasso, G.; Scaglietti, U.; Pini, D.; Fortis, C.; Tresoldi, M.; Rugarli, C.

1996-01-01

74

Inorganic nitrate promotes the browning of white adipose tissue through the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway.  

PubMed

Inorganic nitrate was once considered an oxidation end product of nitric oxide metabolism with little biological activity. However, recent studies have demonstrated that dietary nitrate can modulate mitochondrial function in man and is effective in reversing features of the metabolic syndrome in mice. Using a combined histological, metabolomics, and transcriptional and protein analysis approach, we mechanistically defined that nitrate not only increases the expression of thermogenic genes in brown adipose tissue but also induces the expression of brown adipocyte-specific genes and proteins in white adipose tissue, substantially increasing oxygen consumption and fatty acid ?-oxidation in adipocytes. Nitrate induces these phenotypic changes through a mechanism distinct from known physiological small molecule activators of browning, the recently identified nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway. The nitrate-induced browning effect was enhanced in hypoxia, a serious comorbidity affecting white adipose tissue in obese individuals, and corrected impaired brown adipocyte-specific gene expression in white adipose tissue in a murine model of obesity. Because resulting beige/brite cells exhibit antiobesity and antidiabetic effects, nitrate may be an effective means of inducing the browning response in adipose tissue to treat the metabolic syndrome. PMID:25249574

Roberts, Lee D; Ashmore, Tom; Kotwica, Aleksandra O; Murfitt, Steven A; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Feelisch, Martin; Murray, Andrew J; Griffin, Julian L

2015-02-01

75

Differential contributions of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers to nitrification in four paddy soils.  

PubMed

Rice paddy fields are characterized by regular flooding and nitrogen fertilization, but the functional importance of aerobic ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers under unique agricultural management is poorly understood. In this study, we report the differential contributions of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) to nitrification in four paddy soils from different geographic regions (Zi-Yang (ZY), Jiang-Du (JD), Lei-Zhou (LZ) and Jia-Xing (JX)) that are representative of the rice ecosystems in China. In urea-amended microcosms, nitrification activity varied greatly with 11.9, 9.46, 3.03 and 1.43??g NO3(-)-N?g(-1) dry weight of soil per day in the ZY, JD, LZ and JX soils, respectively, over the course of a 56-day incubation period. Real-time quantitative PCR of amoA genes and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed significant increases in the AOA population to various extents, suggesting that their relative contributions to ammonia oxidation activity decreased from ZY to JD to LZ. The opposite trend was observed for AOB, and the JX soil stimulated only the AOB populations. DNA-based stable-isotope probing further demonstrated that active AOA numerically outcompeted their bacterial counterparts by 37.0-, 10.5- and 1.91-fold in (13)C-DNA from ZY, JD and LZ soils, respectively, whereas AOB, but not AOA, were labeled in the JX soil during active nitrification. NOB were labeled to a much greater extent than AOA and AOB, and the addition of acetylene completely abolished the assimilation of (13)CO2 by nitrifying populations. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that archaeal ammonia oxidation was predominantly catalyzed by soil fosmid 29i4-related AOA within the soil group 1.1b lineage. Nitrosospira cluster 3-like AOB performed most bacterial ammonia oxidation in the ZY, LZ and JX soils, whereas the majority of the (13)C-AOB in the JD soil was affiliated with the Nitrosomona communis lineage. The (13)C-NOB was overwhelmingly dominated by Nitrospira rather than Nitrobacter. A significant correlation was observed between the active AOA/AOB ratio and the soil oxidation capacity, implying a greater advantage of AOA over AOB under microaerophilic conditions. These results suggest the important roles of soil physiochemical properties in determining the activities of ammonia oxidizers and nitrite oxidizers.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 10 October 2014; doi:10.1038/ismej.2014.194. PMID:25303715

Wang, Baozhan; Zhao, Jun; Guo, Zhiying; Ma, Jing; Xu, Hua; Jia, Zhongjun

2014-10-10

76

Nitrogen cycling in oxygen deficient zones : insights from [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O of nitrite and nitrate  

E-print Network

The stable isotopes, [delta]¹?N and [delta]¹?O, of nitrite and nitrate can be powerful tools used to interpret nitrogen cycling in the ocean. They are particularly useful in regions of the ocean where there are multiple ...

Buchwald, Carolyn

2013-01-01

77

Centimeter-wave reflection in the nitrates and nitrites of sodium and potassium: Experiment and theory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temperature-dependent centimeter-wave reflection is studied in powdered samples of potassium nitrate (KNO3), potassium nitrite (KNO2), sodium nitrate (NaNO3), and sodium nitrite (NaNO2). Temperature-dependent reflection measurements at centimeter-wave frequencies were performed on an HP8510B Network analyzer based reflectometer. These measurements are compared to calculations utilizing a Debye relaxation model. Reflection losses seen in KNO2 and NaNO2 are expected to be due to the presence of permanent dipoles that are excited to "hopping'' modes as the temperature is raised. Although NaNO3 shows little reflection losses, KNO3 shows significant losses as the temperature is raised toward the order/disorder transition temperature of 128 °C. This is believed to be due to the development of "induced'' dipole moments as the lattice becomes increasingly disordered.

Cornelison, Steven G.; Gauss, Arthur, Jr.; Krane, J.; Hardy, J. R.

1997-02-01

78

Simultaneous dynamic thermogravimetry and mass spectrometry of the evaporation of alkali metal nitrates and nitrites  

Microsoft Academic Search

Six alkali metal nitrates and nitrites were evaporated in vacuum at a constant heating rate in a combined mass spectrometric and thermogravimetric apparatus. Time resolved profiles of decomposition gases and kinetics were obtained for LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3, Na\\/KNO3, NaNO2 and KNO2. Activation energies for the evaporation of these salts were calculated and compared to previous results of isothermal experiments. In

C. M. Kramer; Z. A. Munir; J. V. Volponi

1983-01-01

79

DXRD studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate\\/nitrite salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic X-ray diffraction (DXRD) has been used to identify and quantify the solid-state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na[sub 2]NiFe(CN)[sub 6], and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate\\/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of certain waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work that indicated that

Joseph N. Dodds; William J. Thomson

1994-01-01

80

Total nitrite\\/nitrate in expired breath condensate of patients with asthma  

Microsoft Academic Search

Production of nitric oxide (NO) is generally increased during inflammatory diseases including asthma. The eventual fate of NO is oxidation to nitrite (NO2) and nitrate (NO3), both of which are end-products of NO metabolism. Hydrogen Peroxide (H2O2) is increased in exhaled breath condensate of asthmatic subjects and may be used as a non-invasive marker of oxidative stress. NO has in

K. GANAS; S. LOUKIDES; G. PAPATHEODOROU; P. PANAGOU; N. KALOGEROPOULOS

2001-01-01

81

Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes using natural antimicrobials in no-nitrate-or-nitrite-added ham.  

PubMed

Consumer demand for foods manufactured without the direct addition of chemical preservatives, such as sodium nitrite and organic acid salts, has resulted in a unique class of "naturally" cured meat products. Formulation with a natural nitrate source and nitrate-reducing bacteria results in naturally cured processed meats that possess traits similar to conventionally cured meats. However, previous research has shown that the naturally cured products are more susceptible to pathogen growth. This study evaluated Listeria monocytogenes growth on ham manufactured with natural curing methods and with commercially available clean-label antimicrobials (cultured sugar and vinegar blend; lemon, cherry, and vinegar powder blend) and assessed impacts on physicochemical characteristics of the product. Hams made with either of the antimicrobials supported L. monocytogenes growth similar to that in the traditionally cured control (P > 0.05). Hams made with prefermented celery juice powder had the lowest residual nitrite concentrations (P < 0.05), and when no antimicrobial was added, L. monocytogenes growth was similar to that of the uncured control (P > 0.05). Aside from residual nitrite and nitrate concentrations, few physicochemical differences were identified. These findings show that ham can be produced with natural curing methods and antimicrobials to provide similar L. monocytogenes inhibition and physicochemical traits as in traditionally cured ham. PMID:22691474

Sullivan, Gary A; Jackson-Davis, Armitra L; Niebuhr, Steven E; Xi, Yuan; Schrader, Kohl D; Sebranek, Joseph G; Dickson, James S

2012-06-01

82

Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate inhibition of SRB that was independent of hNRB or NR-SOB. Examination of corrosion coupons following bioreactor experiments revealed that nitrite inhibition was the only mechanism that prevented both souring and corrosion. Sulfide elimination by hNRB or NR-SOB resulted in increased pitting corrosion in the region of greatest microbial activity. These findings are instructive for designing souring control treatments and improve understanding of oil field microbial communities.

Hubert, Casey R. J.

83

Promotion of seed germination by nitrate, nitrite, hydroxylamine, and ammonium salts.  

PubMed

Action and uptake of azides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxylamines, and ammonium salts were measured on germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleum pratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B. verna, and Setaria glauca seeds. Nitrate and nitrite reductase activities were measured in vivo for each of these kinds of seeds. Activities were measured in vitro for catalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, and pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase on extracts of A. albus and L. sativa seeds before and after germination. The enzymic activities measured and the responsiveness of the haemproteins to inhibition by the several compounds indicate that nitrites, azides, and hydroxylamines promote seed germination by inhibition of H(2)O(2) decomposition by catalase. Ammonium salts showed pronounced promotive activity only for B. verna and B. vulgaris seeds, for which they served as metabolic substrates.The promotion of germination is thought to depend on coupling of peroxidase action to NADPH oxidation, which can regulate the pentose pathway of d-glucose 6-phosphate use. Pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase is the possible coupling enzyme. This enzyme and others required for the action are present in the seeds before imbibition of water. PMID:16658878

Hendricks, S B; Taylorson, R B

1974-09-01

84

Promotion of Seed Germination by Nitrate, Nitrite, Hydroxylamine, and Ammonium Salts 1  

PubMed Central

Action and uptake of azides, nitrates, nitrites, hydroxylamines, and ammonium salts were measured on germination of Amaranthus albus, Lactuca sativa, Phleum pratense, Barbarea vulgaris, B. verna, and Setaria glauca seeds. Nitrate and nitrite reductase activities were measured in vivo for each of these kinds of seeds. Activities were measured in vitro for catalase, peroxidase, glycolate oxidase, and pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase on extracts of A. albus and L. sativa seeds before and after germination. The enzymic activities measured and the responsiveness of the haemproteins to inhibition by the several compounds indicate that nitrites, azides, and hydroxylamines promote seed germination by inhibition of H2O2 decomposition by catalase. Ammonium salts showed pronounced promotive activity only for B. verna and B. vulgaris seeds, for which they served as metabolic substrates. The promotion of germination is thought to depend on coupling of peroxidase action to NADPH oxidation, which can regulate the pentose pathway of d-glucose 6-phosphate use. Pyridine nucleotide quinone reductase is the possible coupling enzyme. This enzyme and others required for the action are present in the seeds before imbibition of water. PMID:16658878

Hendricks, S. B.; Taylorson, R. B.

1974-01-01

85

Nitrite and Nitrate Levels of Gingival Crevicular Fluid and Saliva in Subjects with Gingivitis and Chronic Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

ABSTRACT Objectives Nitrosative stress plays an essential role in the pathogenesis of periodontal disease. The aim of this study is to analyze the gingival crevicular fluid and saliva nitrite and nitrate levels in periodontally healthy and diseased sites. Material and Methods A total of 60 individuals including, 20 chronic periodontitis and 20 gingivitis patients and 20 periodontally healthy controls participated in the present study. Probing depth, clinical attachment level, bleeding on probing, gingival index and plaque index were assessed, gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) and saliva samples were obtained from the subjects, including 480 GCF samples and 60 unstimulated whole saliva samples. Nitrite and nitrate were analyzed by Griess reagent. Results Total GCF nitrite levels were higher in gingivitis and periodontitis groups (1.07 [SD 0.62] nmol and 1.08 [SD 0.59] nmol) than the control group (0.83 [SD 0.31] nmol) (P < 0.05) but did not differ significantly between gingivitis and periodontitis groups (P > 0.05). The difference in GCF nitrate level was not significant among the control, gingivitis and periodontitis groups (7.7 [SD 2.71] nmol, 7.51 [SD 4.16] nmol and 7.38 [SD 1.91] nmol). Saliva nitrite and nitrate levels did not differ significantly among three study groups. Saliva nitrate/nitrite ratios were higher in periodontitis and gingivitis groups than the control group. A gradual decrease in nitrate/nitrite ratio in GCF was detected with the presence of inflammation. Conclusions It may be suggested that nitrite in gingival crevicular fluid is a better periodontal disease marker than nitrate and may be used as an early detection marker of periodontal inflammation, and that local nitrosative stress markers don’t show significant difference between the initial and advanced stages of periodontal disease. PMID:25089177

Topcu Ali, Orkun; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Sahbazoglu, Kemal Burak; Yamalik, Nermin; Kilinc, Kamer; Karabulut, Erdem

2014-01-01

86

Insights into the Effect of Nitric Oxide and its Metabolites Nitrite and Nitrate at Inhibiting Neointimal Hyperplasia  

PubMed Central

Objective Periadventitial delivery of the nitric oxide (NO) donor PROLI/NO following arterial injury effectively inhibits neointimal hyperplasia. Given the short half-life of NO release from PROLI/NO, our goal was to determine if inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia by PROLI/NO was due to NO, or its metabolites nitrite and nitrate. Methods and Results In vitro, the NO donor DETA/NO inhibited proliferation of rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (RASMC), but neither nitrite nor nitrate did. In vivo, following rat carotid artery balloon injury or injury plus the molar equivalents of PROLI/NO, nitrite, or nitrate (n=8–11/group), PROLI/NO was found to provide superior inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia (82% inhibition of intimal area, and 44% inhibition of medial area, p<0.001). Only modest inhibition was noted with nitrite or nitrate (45% and 41% inhibition of intimal area, and 31% and 29% inhibition of medial area, respectively, p<0.001). No effects on blood pressure were noted with any treatment groups. In vivo, only PROLI/NO inhibited cellular proliferation and increased arterial lumen area compared to injury alone (p<0.001). However, all three treatments inhibited inflammation (p<0.001). Conclusions PROLI/NO was more effective at inhibiting neointimal hyperplasia following arterial injury than nitrite or nitrate. However, modest inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia was observed with nitrite and nitrate, likely secondary to anti-inflammatory actions. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the efficacy of NO donors is primarily due to NO production and not its metabolites, nitrite and nitrate. PMID:21554972

Vavra, Ashley K.; Havelka, George E.; Martinez, Janet; Lee, Vanessa R.; Fu, Bo; Jiang, Qun; Keefer, Larry K.; Kibbe, Melina R.

2011-01-01

87

Enriched Nitrate and Depleted Nitrite Isotopic Signatures in the OMZ off Northern Chile  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The vast majority of fixed nitrogen loss from the ocean’s water-column occurs in the O2 minimum zones of the Arabian Sea and the eastern tropical North and South Pacific (ETNP and ETSP). In these regions, subsurface O2 concentrations reach suboxic levels that favor microbial production of N2 gas from combined N sources via heterotrophic denitrification and anammox. One of the most intense oxygen minimum zones (OMZ) is found in the ETSP, especially off northern Chile, where O2 depleted waters can reach into the photic zone as a result of coastal upwelling and a narrow continental shelf. Despite the importance of these regions there still remains much uncertainty about N cycling in these regions. We present ?15N and ?18O isotope data for nitrate and ?15N data for nitrite, which along with corroborating relative gene abundances from metagenomes provide insight into N-cycling processes both within and above the OMZ. Depth profiles showed some of the highest ?15N nitrate values seen to date in an OMZ (up to 32‰), which has implications for tracing denitrification related biogeochemical signals throughout the Pacific and for downcore recording of past changes in OMZ intensity. Co-occurring nitrite ?15N in the OMZ fell in the range -6 to -20‰, resulting in a ?15N offset between co-occurring nitrate and nitrite in the range 30 to 40‰. This offset is greater than that expected from heterotrophic denitrification alone, implying either a larger isotope effect for the first enzymatic step in denitrification (NO3- reduction to NO2-) than previously estimated from field and culture studies or, more likely, that additional processes are enhancing this separation. NO3- consumption by heterotrophic denitrification has been shown to increase both ?15N and ?18O of nitrate in a 1:1 ratio. The slope for samples in the OMZ off northern Chile show a clear but surprisingly negative deviation from the expected slope of 1, again suggesting additional processes are occurring in this region of the water column. A number of processes including anammox, organic matter remineralization, and nitrification will be discussed in an attempt to explain these deviations. Complex nitrite and nitrate interactions will also be discussed with respect to the surface waters and the oxycline.

Bristow, L. A.; Altabet, M. A.; Stewart, F.; Delong, E.; Ulloa, O.

2010-12-01

88

A quick incorporation of N into the soluble high-molecular compound in rice (Oryza sativa L.) roots by application of N-labeled nitrate\\/nitrite  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nitrate\\/nitrite response, which occurs within minutes for the gene expression of the primary nitrogen metabolism in higher-plant roots, has almost been described, but the intermediate signaling molecule that exerts in signal transduction remains to be elucidated. It is hypothesized that the constitutively present signaling molecule may bind quickly to exogenously applied nitrate\\/nitrite to transduce the nitrate\\/nitrite signal. To examine

Tadakatsu Yoneyama; Nobuo Suzui; Noriko S. Ishioka; Shu Fujimaki

2011-01-01

89

Modification of nitrifying biofilm into nitritating one by combination of increased free ammonia concentrations, lowered HRT and dissolved oxygen concentration.  

PubMed

Nitrifying biomass on ring-shaped carriers was modified to nitritating one in a relatively short period of time (37 days) by limiting the air supply, changing the aeration regime, shortening the hydraulic retention time and increasing free ammonia (FA) concentration in the moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR). The most efficient strategy for the development and maintenance of nitritating biofilm was found to be the inhibition of nitrifying activity by higher FA concentrations (up to 6.5 mg/L) in the process. Reject water from sludge treatment from the Tallinn Wastewater Treatment Plant was used as substrate in the MBBR. The performance of high-surfaced biocarriers taken from the nitritating activity MBBR was further studied in batch tests to investigate nitritation and nitrification kinetics with various FA concentrations and temperatures. The maximum nitrite accumulation ratio (96.6%) expressed as the percentage of NO2(-)-N/NOx(-)-N was achieved for FA concentration of 70 mg/L at 36 degrees C. Under the same conditions the specific nitrite oxidation rate achieved was 30 times lower than the specific nitrite formation rate. It was demonstrated that in the biofilm system, inhibition by FA combined with the optimization of the main control parameters is a good strategy to achieve nitritating activity and suppress nitrification. PMID:22125903

Zekker, Ivar; Rikmann, Ergo; Tenno, Toomas; Menert, Anne; Lemmiksoo, Vallo; Saluste, Alar; Tenno, Taavo; Tomingas, Martin

2011-01-01

90

A high-throughput assay format for determination of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase enzyme activities.  

PubMed

The authors describe a microplate-based high-throughput procedure for rapid assay of the enzyme activities of nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase, using extremely small volumes of reagents. The new procedure offers the advantages of rapidity, small sample size-nanoliter volumes, low cost, and a dramatic increase in the throughput sample number that can be analyzed simultaneously. Additional advantages can be accessed by using microplate reader application software packages that permit assigning a group type to the wells, recording of the data on exportable data files and exercising the option of using the kinetic or endpoint reading modes. The assay can also be used independently for detecting nitrite residues/contamination in environmental/food samples. PMID:9103606

McNally, N; Liu, X Y; Choudary, P V

1997-01-01

91

Inverse Modeling of Ammonia Daven K. Henze  

E-print Network

Separation Characteristics Other #12;3 Access WetlandsAccess Wetlands Wetland 1 Wetland 4 Wetland 2 Wetland 3 ­ Turbidity: · LaMotte® colorimeter ­ Ammonia nitrogen, nitrite, nitrate and phosphate: · LaMotte® water

92

Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin  

E-print Network

Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaea Jeremy A. Dodsworth,1 Bruce A. Hungate2 about these processes in natural thermal environments. Rates of ammonia oxi- dation, denitrification

Ahmad, Sajjad

93

Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin  

E-print Network

Ammonia oxidation, denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium in two US Great Basin hot springs with abundant ammonia-oxidizing archaeaemi_2508 1..16 Jeremy A. Dodsworth,1 Bruce A these processes in natural thermal environments. Rates of ammonia oxi- dation, denitrification and dissimilatory

Ahmad, Sajjad

94

Vacuum Ultraviolet Absorption in Alkali-Nitrites and Alkali-Nitrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vacuum ultraviolet absorption in alkali-nitrites (NaNO2 and KNO2) and alkali-nitrates (LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3, RbNO3 and CsNO3) has been investigated in the region from 5 to 23 eV at room and liquid nitrogen temperatures. Two types of absorption bands are observed for each of these salts with polyatomic anions. One of them appears at about 6 eV and is relatively insensitive

Hiroshi Yamashita; Riso Kato

1970-01-01

95

Macrophage Synthesis of Nitrite, Nitrate, and N-nitrosamines: Precursors and Role of the Respiratory Burst  

Microsoft Academic Search

The macrophage cell line RAW 264.7 when activated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma synthesized nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO3-). Medium change after the activation showed that L-arginine was the only amino acid essential for this synthesis. D-Arginine would not substitute for L-arginine. Other analogues that could replace L-arginine were L-homoarginine, L-arginine methyl ester, L-arginamide, and the peptide L-arginyl-L-aspartate. L-Argininic

Radha Iyengar; Dennis J. Stuehr; Michael A. Marletta

1987-01-01

96

Z-Selective Ruthenium Metathesis Catalysts: Comparison of Nitrate and Nitrite X-type Ligands.  

PubMed

Two new Ru-based metathesis catalysts, 3 and 4, have been synthesized for the purpose of comparing their catalytic properties to those of their cis-selective nitrate analogues, 1 and 2. Although catalysts 3 and 4 exhibited slower initiation rates than 1 and 2, they maintained high cis-selectivity in homodimerization and ring-opening metathesis polymerization reactions. Furthermore, the nitrite catalysts displayed higher cis-selectivity than 2 for ring-opening metathesis polymerizations, and 4 delivered higher yields of polymer. PMID:25484484

Pribisko, Melanie A; Ahmed, Tonia S; Grubbs, Robert H

2014-12-14

97

Evolution of nitrate and nitrite during the processing of dry-cured ham with partial replacement of NaCl by other chloride salts.  

PubMed

Nitrate and nitrite are commonly added to dry-cured ham to provide protection against pathogen microorganisms, especially Clostridium botulinum. Both nitrate and nitrite were monitored with ion chromatography in dry-cured hams salted with different NaCl formulations (NaCl partially replaced by KCl and/or CaCl(2), and MgCl(2)). Nitrate, that is more stable than nitrite, diffuses into the ham and acts as a reservoir for nitrite generation. A correct nitrate and nitrite penetration was detected from the surface to the inner zones of the hams throughout its processing, independently of the salt formulation. Nitrate and nitrite achieved similar concentrations, around 37 and 2.2 ppm, respectively in the inner zones of the ham for the three assayed salt formulations at the end of the process, which are in compliance with European regulations. PMID:22417729

Armenteros, Mónica; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel

2012-07-01

98

Introduction Current methods to determine nitrate (NO3  

E-print Network

205 Introduction Current methods to determine nitrate (NO3 ­ ) nitrogen (N) and oxygen (O) isotope of nitrate versus that of nitrite in a given sample. In the case of the ammonia distillation (Cline and Kaplan 1975) and ammonia diffusion (Sigman et al. 1997) methods for nitrate N isotope analysis, both

Sigman, Daniel M.

99

Natural abundance-level measurement of the nitrogen isotopic composition of oceanic nitrate: an adaptation of the ammonia diffusion method  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have adapted the “ammonia diffusion” method of nitrate extraction for natural-abundance level nitrogen isotopic measurement of oceanic nitrate. The method involves: (1) sample concentration (by boiling or evaporation); (2) conversion of nitrate to ammonia using Devarda's alloy; and (3) the gas-phase diffusion of ammonia onto an acidified glass fiber disk which is sandwiched between two porous Teflon membranes. We

D. M. Sigman; M. A. Altabet; R. Michener; D. C. McCorkle; B. Fry; R. M. Holmes

1997-01-01

100

Nitrate reductase and nitrite as additional components of defense system in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan L.) against Helicoverpa armigera herbivory.  

PubMed

Amylase inhibitors serve as attractive candidates of defense mechanisms against insect attack. Therefore, the impediment of Helicoverpa armigera digestion can be the effective way of controlling this pest population. Nitrite was found to be a potent mixed non-competitive competitive inhibitor of partially purified ?-amylase of H. armigera gut. This observation impelled us to determine the response of nitrite and nitrate reductase (NR) towards H. armigera infestation in nine pigeonpea genotypes (four moderately resistant, three intermediate and two moderately susceptible). The significant upregulation of NR in moderately resistant genotypes after pod borer infestation suggested NR as one of the factors that determine their resistance status against insect attack. The pod borer attack caused greater reduction of nitrate and significant accumulation of nitrite in moderately resistant genotypes. The activity of nitrite reductase (NiR) was also enhanced more in moderately resistant genotypes than moderately susceptible genotypes on account of H. armigera herbivory. Expression of resistance to H. armigera was further revealed when significant negative association between NR, NiR, nitrite and percent pod damage was observed. This is the first report that suggests nitrite to be a potent inhibitor of H. armigera ?-amylase and also the involvement of nitrite and NR in providing resistance against H. armigera herbivory. PMID:25307464

Kaur, Rimaljeet; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Taggar, Gaurav Kumar

2014-10-01

101

Arsenite oxidation initiated by the UV photolysis of nitrite and nitrate.  

PubMed

This study demonstrates that the production of reactive oxidizing species (e.g., hydroxyl radical (•OH)) during the photolysis of nitrite (NO2(-)) or nitrate (NO3(-)) leads to the oxidative conversion of arsenite (As(III)) to arsenate (As(V)). While the direct UV photolytic oxidation of As(III) was absent, nitrite (20 or 200 ?M) addition markedly accelerated the oxidation of As(III) under UV irradiation (? > 295 nm), which implies a role of NO2(-) as a photosensitizer for As(III) oxidation. Nitrate-mediated photooxidation of As(III) revealed an initial lag phase during which NO3(-) is converted into NO2(-). UV-Photosensitized oxidation of As(III) was kinetically enhanced under acidic pH condition where nitrous acid (HNO2) with a high quantum yield for •OH production is a predominant form of nitrite. On the other hand, alkaline pH that favors the photoinduced transformation of NO3(-) to NO2(-) significantly facilitated the catalytic reduction/oxidation cycling, which enabled the complete oxidation of As(III) at the condition of [As(III)]/[NO2(-)] ? 1 and markedly accelerated NO3(-)-sensitized oxidation of As(III). The presence of O2 and N2O as electron scavengers enhanced the photochemical dissociation of NO2(-) via intermolecular electron transfer, initiating the oxidative As(III) conversion route probably involving NO2• and superoxide radical anion (O2•(-)) as alternative oxidants. The outdoor experiment demonstrated the capability of NO2(-) for the photosensitized production of oxidizing species and the subsequent oxidation of As(III) into As(V) under solar irradiation. PMID:24617811

Kim, Dong-Hyo; Lee, Jaesang; Ryu, Jungho; Kim, Kitae; Choi, Wonyong

2014-04-01

102

Role of Nitrate and Nitrite in the Induction of Nitrite Reductase in Leaves of Barley Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

The role of NO3? and NO2? in the induction of nitrite reductase (NiR) activity in detached leaves of 8-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings was investigated. Barley leaves contained 6 to 8 micromoles NO2?/gram fresh weight × hour of endogenous NiR activity when grown in N-free solutions. Supply of both NO2? and NO3? induced the enzyme activity above the endogenous levels (5 and 10 times, respectively at 10 millimolar NO2? and NO3? over a 24 hour period). In NO3?-supplied leaves, NiR induction occurred at an ambient NO3? concentration of as low as 0.05 millimolar; however, no NiR induction was found in leaves supplied with NO2? until the ambient NO2? concentration was 0.5 millimolar. Nitrate accumulated in NO2?-fed leaves. The amount of NO3? accumulating in NO2?-fed leaves induced similar levels of NiR as did equivalent amounts of NO3? accumulating in NO3?-fed leaves. Induction of NiR in NO2?-fed leaves was not seen until NO3? was detectable (30 nanomoles/gram fresh weight) in the leaves. The internal concentrations of NO3?, irrespective of N source, were highly correlated with the levels of NiR induced. When the reduction of NO3? to NO2? was inhibited by WO42?, the induction of NiR was inhibited only partially. The results indicate that in barley leaves NiR is induced by NO3? directly, i.e. without being reduced to NO2?, and that absorbed NO2? induces the enzyme activity indirectly after being oxidized to NO3? within the leaf. PMID:11537455

Aslam, Muhammad; Huffaker, Ray C.

1989-01-01

103

Hydrogen bonding networks tune proton-coupled redox steps during the enzymatic six-electron conversion of nitrite to ammonia.  

PubMed

Multielectron multiproton reactions play an important role in both biological systems and chemical reactions involved in energy storage and manipulation. A key strategy employed by nature in achieving such complex chemistry is the use of proton-coupled redox steps. Cytochrome c nitrite reductase (ccNiR) catalyzes the six-electron seven-proton reduction of nitrite to ammonia. While a catalytic mechanism for ccNiR has been proposed on the basis of studies combining computation and crystallography, there have been few studies directly addressing the nature of the proton-coupled events that are predicted to occur along the nitrite reduction pathway. Here we use protein film voltammetry to directly interrogate the proton-coupled steps that occur during nitrite reduction by ccNiR. We find that conversion of nitrite to ammonia by ccNiR adsorbed to graphite electrodes is defined by two distinct phases; one is proton-coupled, and the other is not. Mutation of key active site residues (H257, R103, and Y206) modulates these phases and specifically alters the properties of the detected proton-dependent step but does not inhibit the ability of ccNiR to conduct the full reduction of nitrite to ammonia. We conclude that the active site residues examined are responsible for tuning the protonation steps that occur during catalysis, likely through an extensive hydrogen bonding network, but are not necessarily required for the reaction to proceed. These results provide important insight into how enzymes can specifically tune proton- and electron transfer steps to achieve high turnover numbers in a physiological pH range. PMID:25137350

Judd, Evan T; Stein, Natalia; Pacheco, A Andrew; Elliott, Sean J

2014-09-01

104

Determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford defense waste(HDW) by reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE)method  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the first application of reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis (RPCE) for rapid and accurate determination of nitrate and nitrite in Hanford Defense Waste (HDW). The method development was carried out by using Synthetic Hanford Waste (SHW), followed by the analysis of 4 real HDW samples. Hexamethonium bromide (HMB) was used as electroosmotic flow modifier in borate buffer at pH 9.2 to decrease the electroosmotic flow (EOF) in order to enhance the speed of analysis and the resolution of nitrate and nitrite in high ionic strength HDW samples. The application of this capillary zone electrophoresis method, when compared with ion chromatography for two major components of HDW, nitrate and nitrite slightly reduced analysis time, eliminated most pre-analysis handling of the highly radioactive sample, and cut analysis wastes by more than 2 orders of magnitude. The analysis of real HDW samples that were validated by using sample spikes showed a concentration range of 1.03 to 1.42 M for both nitrate. The migration times of the real HDW and the spiked HDW samples were within a precision of less than 3% relative standard deviation. The selectivity ratio test used for peak confirmation of the spiked samples was within 96% of the real sample. Method reliability was tested by spiking the matrix with 72.4 mM nitrate and nitrite. Recoveries for these spiked samples were 93-103%.

Metcalf, S.G.

1998-06-10

105

A SENSITIVE FLUORIMETRIC METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF NITRITE AND NITRATE IN SEAWATER BY A NOVEL RED-REGION FLUORESCENCE DYE  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel method for the determination of dissolved inorganic nitrite and nitrate in surface seawater was reported, which is based on the diazotization reaction between nitrite and a novel red-region fluorescent dye, tetra-substituted amino aluminum phthalocyanine (TAAlPc). Nitrate is determined as nitrite after reduction on a cadmium column. Under optimal conditions, the linear range of the calibration curve is 21–840

Xin-Qi Zhan; Dong-Hui Li; Hong Zheng; Jin-Gou Xu

2001-01-01

106

Induction of nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase, and glutamine synthetase isoforms in sunflower cotyledons as affected by nitrate, light, and plastid integrity  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary We investigated the inducibility of nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.6.6.1), nitrite reductase (NiR; EC 1.7.7.1), and glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) isoforms in cotyledons of 7-day-old seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in relation to light, nitrogen source (NO3-, NO2- or NH4+), and the involvement of plastids. Nitrate was absolutely (and specifically) required for NR induction, and stimulated more

P. Cabello; P. de la Haba; A. González-Fontes; J. M. Maldonado

1998-01-01

107

A seven-gene operon essential for formate-dependent nitrite reduction to ammonia by enteric bacteria.  

PubMed

The DNA sequence of the regulatory region and the structural gene, nrfA, for cytochrome c552 of Escherichia coli K-12 have been reported. We have now established that nrfA is the first gene in a seven-gene operon, designated the nrf operon, at least five of which are essential for formate-dependent nitrite reduction to ammonia. This operon terminates just upstream of the previously sequenced gltP gene encoding a sodium-independent, glutamate and aspartate transporter. Expression of lac fused to nrfA, nrfE or nrfG is regulated by oxygen repression, FNR-dependent anaerobic induction, nitrite induction and nitrate repression during anaerobic growth, exactly as previously reported for the nrfA promoter. In contrast, expression of the gltP-lac fusion was FNR-independent. The open reading frame immediately downstream of nrfA encodes NrfB, a hydrophilic, penta-haem cytochrome c with an M(r) of 20,714. The structure of the N-terminal region is typical of a signal peptide for a periplasmic protein: cleavage at the putative signal peptide cleavage site, Ala-26, would result in a periplasmic cytochrome with a molecular mass of 18 kDa. The NrfC polypeptide, M(r) 24,567, contains 16 cysteine residues arranged in four clusters typical of the CooF super-family of non-haem iron-sulphur proteins. The NrfD sequence predicts a 318-residue hydrophobic protein with a distribution of acidic and basic amino acids which suggests that NrfD is an integral transmembrane protein with loops in both the periplasm and the cytoplasm. Proteins most similar to NrfD include the PsrC subunit of polysulphide reductase from Wolinella, but, as seven of the 10 most similar proteins are NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductases, we propose that NrfD participates in the transfer of electrons from the quinone pool into the terminal components of the Nrf pathway. NrfE, M(r) 60,851, is predicted to be another hydrophobic, integral membrane protein homologous to the CdI1 protein of Rhodobacter capsulatus, which has been implicated in the assembly of periplasmic c-type cytochromes. The sequence of the 127 residue NrfF polypeptide, M(r) 14,522, is strikingly similar to the CcI2 protein of R. capsulatus, especially in the putative haem-binding motif, RCPQCQNQN.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:8057835

Hussain, H; Grove, J; Griffiths, L; Busby, S; Cole, J

1994-04-01

108

Effects of pH and catalyst concentration on photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous ammonia and nitrite in titanium dioxide suspensions.  

PubMed

Batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of titanium dioxide (TiO2) concentration and pH on the initial rates of photocatalytic oxidation of aqueous ammonium/ ammonia (NH4+/NH3) and nitrite (NO2-) in UV-illuminated TiO2 suspensions. While no simple kinetic model could fit the data at lower TiO2 concentrations, at TiO2 concentrations > or = 1 g/L, the experimental data were consistent with a model assuming consecutive first-order transformation of NH4+/NH3 to NO2- and NO2- to nitrate (NO3-). For TiO2 concentrations > or = 1 g/L, the rate constants for NO2 photocatalytic oxidation to NO3 were far more dependent on TiO2 concentration than were those for NH4+/NH3 oxidation to NO2-, suggesting that, without sufficient TiO2, complete oxidation of NH4+/NH3 to NO3- will not occur. Initial NH4+/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation rates were proportional to the initial concentrations of neutral NH3 and not total NH3(i.e., [NH4+] + [NH3]). Thus, the pH-dependent equilibrium between NH4+ and NH3, and not the pH-dependent electrostatic attraction between NH4+ and the TiO2 surface, is responsible for the increase in rates of NH4+/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation with increasing pH. Electrostatic adsorption, however, can partly explain the pH dependence of the initial rates of NO2- photocatalytic oxidation. Initial rates of NO2- photocatalytic oxidation were 1 order of magnitude higher for NO2- versus NH4+/NH3, indicating thatthe rate of NH4+/NH3 photocatalytic oxidation to NO3- was limited by NH4+/NH3 oxidation to NO2- under our experimental conditions. PMID:15952386

Zhu, Xingdong; Castleberry, Sunny R; Nanny, Mark A; Butler, Elizabeth C

2005-05-15

109

Successful application of nitritation/anammox to wastewater with elevated organic carbon to ammonia ratios.  

PubMed

The nitritation/anammox process has been mainly applied to high-strength nitrogenous wastewaters with very low biodegradable organic carbon content (<0.5 g COD?g N(-1)). However, several wastewaters have biodegradable organic carbon to nitrogen (COD/N) ratios between 0.5 and 1.7 g COD?g N(-1) and thus, contain elevated amounts of organic carbon but not enough for heterotrophic denitrification. In this study, the influence of elevated COD/N ratios was studied on a nitritation/anammox process with suspended sludge. In a step-wise manner, the influent COD/N ratio was increased to 1.4 g COD?g N(-1) by supplementing digester supernatant with acetate. The increasing availability of COD led to an increase of the nitrogen removal efficiency from around 85% with pure digester supernatant to >95% with added acetate while the nitrogen elimination rate stayed constant (275 ± 40 mg N?L(-1)?d(-1)). Anammox activity and abundance of anammox bacteria (AMX) were strongly correlated, and with increasing influent COD/N ratio both decreased steadily. At the same time, heterotrophic denitrification with nitrite and the activity of ammonia oxidising bacteria (AOB) gradually increased. Simultaneously, the sludge retention time (SRT) decreased significantly with increasing COD loading to about 15 d and reached critical values for the slowly growing AMX. When the SRT was increased by reducing biomass loss with the effluent, AMX activity and abundance started to rise again, while the AOB activity remained unaltered. Fluorescent in-situ hybridisation (FISH) showed that the initial AMX community shifted within only 40 d from a mixed AMX community to "Candidatus Brocadia fulgida" as the dominant AMX type with an influent COD/N ratio of 0.8 g COD?g N(-1) and higher. "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" is known to oxidise acetate, and its ability to outcompete other types of AMX indicates that AMX participated in acetate oxidation. In a later phase, glucose was added to the influent instead of acetate. The new substrate composition did not significantly influence the nitrogen removal nor the AMX activity, and "Ca. Brocadia fulgida" remained the dominant type of AMX. Overall, this study showed that AMX can coexist with heterotrophic bacteria at elevated influent COD/N ratios if a sufficiently high SRT is maintained. PMID:24355291

Jenni, Sarina; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Udert, Kai M

2014-02-01

110

Acute toxicity of nitrite and ammonia to Daphnia similoides of different developmental stages: using the modified Gaussian model to describe.  

PubMed

To gain an insight into the tolerance of Daphnia to nitrite and ammonia, a modified Gaussian model was used to describe the trends of changes in LC50s of nitrite and ammonia to Daphnia similoides at different developmental stages. LC50s of NO(2)-N and NH(3)-N increased with age before maturation and then decreased at maturation. A modified Gaussian model provided an accurate fit for the changes in LC50s of NO(2)-N and NH(3)-N, in which the parameters have definite biological meanings. From this model, we can gain an insight into the maximum LC50 and the age that has the maximum LC50 and predict LC50s at any specific ages. We suggest that such a model might be used to describe the trend in acute toxicity of some other zooplankton species at different stages. PMID:20431865

Xiang, Fuhui; Yang, Wei; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

2010-06-01

111

GIS-based methodologies for assessing nitrate,nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK basin,the Humber Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 8(4), 823833 (2004) EGU  

E-print Network

GIS-based methodologies for assessing nitrate,nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK-based methodologies for assessing nitrate, nitrite and ammonium distributions across a major UK basin, the Humber value for environmental managers and socio-economists. Keywords: GIS, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

112

Transcriptomic analysis of Staphylococcus xylosus in the presence of nitrate and nitrite in meat reveals its response to nitrosative stress  

PubMed Central

Staphylococcus xylosus is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation because of its crucial role in the reduction of nitrate to nitrite which contributes to color and flavor development. Despite longstanding use of these additives, their impact on the physiology of S. xylosus has not yet been explored. We present the first in situ global gene expression profile of S. xylosus in meat supplemented with nitrate and nitrite at the levels used in the meat industry. More than 600 genes of S. xylosus were differentially expressed at 24 or 72 h of incubation. They represent more than 20% of the total genes and let us to suppose that addition of nitrate and nitrite to meat leads to a global change in gene expression. This profile revealed that S. xylosus is subject to nitrosative stress caused by reactive nitrogen species (RNS) generated from nitrate and nitrite. To overcome this stress, S. xylosus has developed several oxidative stress resistance mechanisms, such as modulation of the expression of several genes involved in iron homeostasis and in antioxidant defense. Most of which belong to the Fur and PerR regulons, respectively. S. xylosus has also counteracted this stress by developing DNA and protein repair. Furthermore, it has adapted its metabolic response—carbon and nitrogen metabolism, energy production and cell wall biogenesis—to the alterations produced by nitrosative stress. PMID:25566208

Vermassen, Aurore; de la Foye, Anne; Loux, Valentin; Talon, Régine; Leroy, Sabine

2014-01-01

113

Geographic Distribution of Liver and Stomach Cancers in Thailand in Relation to Estimated Dietary Intake of Nitrate, Nitrite, and Nitrosodimethylamine  

Microsoft Academic Search

It is our working hypothesis that the high rate of the liver and gastric cancers in North and Northeast Thailand is associated with increased daily dietary intake of nitrate, nitrite, and nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Samples of fresh and preserved Thai foods were systematically collected and analyzed from 1988 to 1996 and from 1998 to 2005. Consumption frequencies of various food items

Eugene J. Mitacek; Klaus D. Brunnemann; Maitree Suttajit; Lee S. Caplan; Claude E. Gagna; Kris Bhothisuwan; Sirithon Siriamornpun; Charles F. Hummel; Hiroshi Ohshima; Ranja Roy; Nimit Martin

2008-01-01

114

Ammonia and Nitrite-Oxidizing Bacterial Communities in a Pilot-Scale Chloraminated Drinking Water Distribution System  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrification in drinking water distribution systems is a common operational problem for many utilities that use chloramines for secondary disinfection. The diversity of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite- oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in the distribution systems of a pilot-scale chloraminated drinking water treatment system was characterized using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis and 16S rRNA gene (ribosomal DNA (rDNA))

John M. Regan; Gregory W. Harrington; Daniel R. Noguera

2002-01-01

115

Nitrate and Nitrite Control of Respiratory Nitrate Reduction in Denitrifying Pseudomonas stutzeri by a Two-Component Regulatory System Homologous to NarXL of Escherichia coli  

PubMed Central

Bacterial denitrification is expressed in response to the concurrent exogenous signals of low-oxygen tension and nitrate or one of its reduction products. The mechanism by which nitrate-dependent gene activation is effected was investigated in the denitrifying bacterium Pseudomonas stutzeri ATCC 14405. We have identified and isolated from this organism the chromosomal region encoding the two-component sensor-regulator pair NarXL and found that it is linked with the narG operon for respiratory nitrate reductase. The same region encodes two putative nitrate or nitrite translocases, NarK and NarC (the latter shows the highest similarity to yeast [Pichia] and plant [Nicotiana] nitrate transporters), and the nitrate-regulated transcription factor, DnrE, of the FNR family. The roles of NarX and NarL in nitrate respiration were studied with deletion mutants. NarL activated the transcription of narG, narK, and dnrE but did not affect the denitrification regulons for the respiratory substrates nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide. The promoters of narG, narK, and dnrE carry sequence motifs, TACYYMT, which correspond to the NarL recognition sequence established for Escherichia coli. The cellular response toward nitrate and nitrite was mediated by the sensor protein NarX, which discriminated weakly between these oxyanions. Our data show that the NarXL two-component regulatory system has been incorporated into the bacterial denitrification process of P. stutzeri for selective regulation of nitrate respiration. PMID:10368138

Härtig, Elisabeth; Schiek, Ulrike; Vollack, Kai-Uwe; Zumft, Walter G.

1999-01-01

116

Exhaled nitric oxide, nitrite/nitrate levels, allergy, rhinitis and asthma in the EGEA study.  

PubMed

Although interest in biomarkers in the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway has recently increased, associations between nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)), and asthma, allergic sensitisation and rhinitis remain unclear. The study aimed to evaluate the associations between NO2(-)/NO3(-) and exhaled fraction of nitric oxide (FeNO) levels with asthma, allergic sensitisation and rhinitis. Plasma and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels were measured in 523 adults of the French Epidemiological study on Genetics and Environment of Asthma. Allergic sensitisation was defined by a positive skin prick test for at least one aeroallergen. Subjects were classified as non-sensitised, sensitised and as having allergic rhinitis. Plasma NO2 (-)/NO3(-) level was unrelated to any disease phenotypes. EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) level was unrelated to any asthma phenotypes. EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels were correlated in sensitised subjects only (r = 0.21 ± 0.10, p=0.01). EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels were higher in sensitised than in non-sensitised subjects (adjusted geometric mean (95% CI): 2.36 (1.96-2.84) versus 1.72 (1.38-2.14) ?mol per mg proteins, p=0.008; and 18.3 (16.7-20.0) versus 14.8 (13.3-16.5) ppb, p=0.0006, respectively), with gradual relationships from sensitised subjects to those with allergic rhinitis (p<0.0001). Results suggest that EBC NO2(-)/NO3(-) and FeNO levels may be considered as biological markers of intensity of allergic sensitisation and rhinitis. PMID:24791832

Nadif, Rachel; Rava, Marta; Decoster, Brigitte; Huyvaert, Hélène; Le Moual, Nicole; Bousquet, Jean; Siroux, Valérie; Varraso, Raphaëlle; Pin, Isabelle; Zerimech, Farid; Matran, Régis

2014-08-01

117

DXRD studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic X-ray diffraction (DXRD) has been used to identify and quantify the solid-state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na[sub 2]NiFe(CN)[sub 6], and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of certain waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work that indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place prior to the occurrence of exothermic reactions, which begin about 300[degree]C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction which produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release, and comparisons of this with heat-transfer rates from a hypothetical [open quotes]hot spot[close quotes] show that, even in a worse case scenario, the heat-transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions. 20 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

Dodds, J.N.; Thomson, W.J. (Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States))

1994-05-01

118

Plant nitrate reductase gene fragments enhance nitrite production in activated murine macrophage cell lines.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase (NR) gene fragments (1.1 kb and 800 bp) from the barley plant were incorporated into pSV2neo and transfected by electroporation into a variety of cell lines of different functionality. Only transfected murine macrophage cell lines demonstrated appreciably enhanced NO2- production (i.e., NR activity) both in the presence and absence of exogenous nitrate (NO3-). Addition of NO3- caused the greatest increase in NO2- production when macrophages were primed with interferon-gamma (INF-gamma) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Transfection of RAW 264.7 murine macrophages led to isolation of several novel neomycin-resistant subpopulations designated NR10(1), NR10(2) (both containing the 1.1 kb NR fragment) and NR800(5) (containing the 800 bp NR fragment). Similarly transfected nonleukocytic and leukocytic stem cell lines showed no significant NO2- production. Outside of the macrophage cell lines, only the murine T cell line EL-4 showed evidence of mild nitrite production enhancement. The mechanism of enhanced NO2- formation in NR transfected murine macrophages is unknown. However, study of these novel cells may lead to greater understanding of the expression of a plant NR in mammalian cells and highly controlled production of a cytotoxic molecule (NO2-) in macrophages. PMID:8198585

Bruno, J G; Parker, J E; Kiel, J L

1994-05-30

119

Copper, zinc superoxide dismutase and nitrate reductase coimmobilized bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate.  

PubMed

This work presents a novel bienzymatic biosensor for the simultaneous determination of nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-)) ions using copper, zinc superoxide dismutase (SOD1) and nitrate reductase (NaR) coimmobilized on carbon nanotubes (CNT)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified platinum electrode. Morphological changes of the PPy and CNT modified electrodes were investigated using scanning electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of the bienzymatic electrode (NaR-SOD1-CNT-PPy-Pt) was characterized by cyclic voltammetry exhibiting quasi-reversible redox peak at +0.06 V and reversible redox peaks at -0.76 and -0.62V vs. Ag/AgCl, for the immobilized SOD1 and NaR respectively. The electrocatalytic activity of SOD1 towards NO2(-) oxidation observed at +0.8 V was linear from 100 nM to 1mM with a detection limit of 50 nM and sensitivity of 98.5 ± 1.7 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Similarly, the coimmobilized NaR showed its electrocatalytic activity towards NO3(-) reduction at -0.76 V exhibiting linear response from 500 nM to 10mM NO3(-) with a detection limit of 200 nM and sensitivity of 84.5 ± 1.56 nA µM(-1)cm(-2). Further, the present bienzymatic biosensor coated with cellulose acetate membrane for the removal of non-specific proteins was used for the sensitive and selective determinations of NO2(-) and NO3(-) present in human plasma, whole blood and saliva samples. PMID:24055935

Madasamy, Thangamuthu; Pandiaraj, Manickam; Balamurugan, Murugesan; Bhargava, Kalpana; Sethy, Niroj Kumar; Karunakaran, Chandran

2014-02-15

120

Implications of Nitrate and Nitrite Isotopic Measurements for the Mechanisms of Fixed Nitrogen Cycling and Loss from the Peru Oxygen Deficient Zone.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oceanic oxygen deficient zones (ODZs) are important for N2O production and the oceanic nitrogen (N) budget. These regions have long been recognized as hotspots for fixed N loss from the ocean. However, the processes mediating fixed N cycling and loss are not fully understood. For example, denitrification and anammox may both be involved with nitrite reduction to N2. It is generally assumed that nitrite reduction is the only sink for nitrite in the ODZ, but a variety of evidence from natural abundance isotope analyses, 15N tracer experiments, concentration profile modeling, and microbial community analyses suggest that nitrite oxidation may play an important role in recycling N and retaining it in a bioavailable form. Natural abundance stable isotope ratios of nitrate and nitrite provide an integrated record of the relative rates of these processes. In particular, the dual isotopes (?15N and ?18O) of nitrate have been used to infer the relative rates of nitrate reduction and nitrite reoxidation. Here we examine the additional constraints that nitrite ?15N and ?18O measurements can add to nitrate ?15N and ?18O in determining the rates of processes controlling N turnover and loss in the Peruvian ODZ. Nitrite is unique a unique tracer of ODZ processes because it rarely accumulates outside of oxygen deficient waters and unique isotope effects govern its oxidation and reduction. We explore the patterns of nitrate ?15N and ?18O, along with the nitrite ?15N distributions using simple 1-D and box models and find that substantial nitrite oxidation is required to explain the observed concentration and isotope patterns. The inferred importance of nitrite oxidation is surprising given the low oxygen conditions and has implications for the controls on N2 production in the ODZ.

Casciotti, K.; Buchwald, C.

2012-12-01

121

NADPH oxidase in the renal microvasculature is a primary target for blood pressure-lowering effects by inorganic nitrate and nitrite.  

PubMed

Renal oxidative stress and nitric oxide (NO) deficiency are key events in hypertension. Stimulation of a nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway with dietary nitrate reduces blood pressure, but the mechanisms or target organ are not clear. We investigated the hypothesis that inorganic nitrate and nitrite attenuate reactivity of renal microcirculation and blood pressure responses to angiotensin II (ANG II) by modulating nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase activity and NO bioavailability. Nitrite in the physiological range (10(-7)-10(-5) mol/L) dilated isolated perfused renal afferent arterioles, which were associated with increased NO. Contractions to ANG II (34%) and simultaneous NO synthase inhibition (56%) were attenuated by nitrite (18% and 26%). In a model of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase-1 knockouts), abnormal ANG II-mediated arteriolar contractions (90%) were normalized by nitrite (44%). Mechanistically, effects of nitrite were abolished by NO scavenger and xanthine oxidase inhibitor, but only partially attenuated by inhibiting soluble guanylyl cyclase. Inhibition of NADPH oxidase with apocynin attenuated ANG II-induced contractility (35%) similar to that of nitrite. In the presence of nitrite, no further effect of apocynin was observed, suggesting NADPH oxidase as a possible target. In preglomerular vascular smooth muscle cells and kidney cortex, nitrite reduced both basal and ANG II-induced NADPH oxidase activity. These effects of nitrite were also abolished by xanthine oxidase inhibition. Moreover, supplementation with dietary nitrate (10(-2) mol/L) reduced renal NADPH oxidase activity and attenuated ANG II-mediated arteriolar contractions and hypertension (99±2-146±2 mm Hg) compared with placebo (100±3-168±3 mm Hg). In conclusion, these novel findings position NADPH oxidase in the renal microvasculature as a prime target for blood pressure-lowering effects of inorganic nitrate and nitrite. PMID:25312440

Gao, Xiang; Yang, Ting; Liu, Ming; Peleli, Maria; Zollbrecht, Christa; Weitzberg, Eddie; Lundberg, Jon O; Persson, A Erik G; Carlström, Mattias

2015-01-01

122

Dietary nitrate and nitrite and the risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study  

PubMed Central

During the past several decades, an increasing incidence of thyroid cancer has been observed worldwide. Nitrate inhibits iodide uptake by the thyroid, potentially disrupting thyroid function. An increased risk of thyroid cancer associated with nitrate intake was recently reported in a cohort study of older women in Iowa. We evaluated dietary nitrate and nitrite intake and thyroid cancer risk overall and for subtypes in the National Institutes of Health-American Association of Retired Persons (NIH-AARP) Diet and Health Study, a large prospective cohort of 490,194 men and women, ages 50–71 years in 1995–1996. Dietary intakes were assessed using a 124-item food frequency questionnaire. During an average of 7 years of follow-up we identified 370 incident thyroid cancer cases (170 men, 200 women) with complete dietary information. Among men, increasing nitrate intake was positively associated with thyroid cancer risk (relative risk (RR) for the highest quintile versus lowest quintile RR=2.28, 95% CI: 1.29–4.04l; p-trend <0.001); however, we observed no trend with intake among women (p-trend=0.61). Nitrite intake was not associated with risk of thyroid cancer for either men or women. We evaluated risk for the two main types of thyroid cancer. We found positive associations for nitrate intake and both papillary (RR = 2.10; 95%CI: 1.09–4.05; p-trend=0.05) and follicular thyroid cancer (RR= 3.42; 95%CI: 1.03–11.4; p-trend=0.01) among men. Nitrite intake was associated with increased risk of follicular thyroid cancer (RR= 2.74; 95%CI: 0.86–8.77; p-trend=0.04) among men. Our results support a role of nitrate in thyroid cancer risk and suggest that further studies to investigate these exposures are warranted. PMID:20824705

Kilfoy, Briseis A.; Zhang, Yawei; Park, Yikyung; Holford, Theodore R.; Schatzkin, Arthur; Hollenbeck, Albert; Ward, Mary H.

2010-01-01

123

Catalytic reduction of nitrates and nitrites in water solution on pumice-supported Pd–Cu catalysts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two series of pumice-supported palladium and palladium–copper catalysts, prepared by impregnation with different palladium and copper precursors, were tested for the hydrogenation of aqueous nitrate and nitrite solutions. Measurements were performed in a stirred tank reactor, operating in batch conditions, in buffered water solution at atmospheric pressure and at 293K. The activities of the catalysts were calculated in terms of

F Deganello; L. F Liotta; A Macaluso; A. M Venezia; G Deganello

2000-01-01

124

The effect of exogenously supplied hydroxylamine on glutamate dehydrogenase, nitrate reductase, and nitrite reductase in isolated pea roots  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hydroxylamine added to the nutrient medium in sublethal concentrations (0.2 to 1.0 mN) enhanced NADH2 dependent glutamate dehydrogenase activity in isolated pea roots. The increase in activity depended on proteosynthesis and\\u000a was lower in the presence of NO3\\u000a ? and NH4\\u000a + ions. The induction of nitrate reductase and of nitrite reductase was partly inhibited by sublethal hydroxylamine concentrations.

J. Sahulka

1974-01-01

125

Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate\\/nitrite salts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, NaâNiFe(CN)â, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate\\/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which

Dodds

1994-01-01

126

Kinetics of the oxidation of model toxicants during photolysis of nitrites and nitrates in an aqueous medium  

Microsoft Academic Search

Quantitative toxicology methods with the use of the enzymic activity of luminescent bacteria and the reproductive function\\u000a of Tetrahymena pyriformis infusoria as test functions were employed to study the kinetics of the detoxication of model toxicants during photolysis\\u000a of nitrite and nitrate. The model objects were the para-nitrosodimethylaniline (p-NDA) dye and a 2000-fold diluted solution of black liquor, which is

N. I. Zaitseva; I. S. Baikova; V. O. Shvydkii; R. R. Borodulin; E. V. Shtamm; Yu. I. Skurlatov

2009-01-01

127

Secondary targets of nitrite-derived reactive nitrogen species: nitrosation/nitration pathways, antioxidant defense mechanisms and toxicological implications.  

PubMed

Nitrite, the primary metabolite of nitric oxide (NO) and a widely diffused component of human diet, plays distinct and increasingly appreciated roles in human physiology. However, when exposed to acidic environments, typically in the stomach, or under oxidative stress conditions, it may be converted to a range of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) which in turn can target a variety of biomolecules. Typical consequences of toxicological relevance include protein modification, DNA base deamination and the formation of N-nitrosamines, among the most potent mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds for humans. Besides primary biomolecules, nitrite can cause structural modifications to a variety of endogenous and exogenous organic compounds, ranging from polyunsaturated fatty acids to estrogens, tocopherol, catecholamines, furans, retinoids, dietary phenols, and a range of xenobiotics. The study of the interactions between nitrite and key food components, including phenolic antioxidants, has therefore emerged as an area of great promise for delineating innovative strategies in cancer chemoprevention. Depending on substrates and conditions, diverse reaction pathways may compete to determine product features and distribution patterns. These include nitrosation and nitration but also oxidation, via electron transfer to nitrosonium ion or nitrogen dioxide. This contribution aims to provide an overview of the main classes of compounds that can be targeted by nitrite and to discuss at chemical levels the possible reaction mechanisms under conditions that model those occurring in the stomach. The toxicological implications of the nitrite-modified molecules are finally addressed, and a rational chemical approach to the design of potent antinitrosing agents is illustrated. PMID:21923154

d'Ischia, Marco; Napolitano, Alessandra; Manini, Paola; Panzella, Lucia

2011-12-19

128

Understanding Ion Sensing in Zn(II) Porphyrins: Spectroscopic and Computational Studies of Nitrite/Nitrate Binding  

PubMed Central

The development of effective sensor elements relies on the ability of a chromophore to bind an analyte selectively and then report the binding through changes in spectroscopic signals. In this report the ability of Zn(II) Tetraphenyl Porphyrin (ZnTPP) to selectively bind nitrite over nitrate ions is examined. The results of Benesi-Hildebrand analysis reveals that ZnTPP binds NO2? and NO3? ions with association constants of 739±70 M?1 and 134±15 M?1, respectively. Interestingly, addition of a pyridine ligand to the fifth coordination site of the Zn(II) center enhances ion binding with the association constants increasing to 71,300±8,000 M?1 and 18,900±3,000 M?1 for nitrite and nitrate, respectively. Density functional theory calculations suggest a binding mechanism through which Zn(II)–porphyrin interactions are disrupted by ligand and base coordination to Zn(II), with Zn(II) having more favorable overlap with nitrite orbitals, which are less delocalized than nitrate orbitals. Overall, these provide new insights into the ability to tune the affinity and selectivity of porphyrin based sensors utilizing electronic factors associated with the central Zn(II) ion. PMID:22480312

Whittington, Christi L.; Maza, William A.; Woodcock, H. Lee; Larsen, Randy W.

2015-01-01

129

Effects of roxithromycin on ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the rhizosphere of wheat.  

PubMed

In a pot-cultural experiment, the impact of the antibiotic roxithromycin (ROX) addition was assessed on the diversities of microbial structure and function communities, especially involved in ammonia and nitrite oxidation in wheat rhizosphere soil with and without the addition of earthworms. The abundances of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and total bacteria were surveyed by the quantitative PCR. The quantities of total bacteria, AOB, and NOB with earthworms were higher than those without earthworms because of the synergistic effect. ROX inhibited the growth of AOB in all treatments, although the quantities of AOB were in a light increase in medium and heavy polluted treatments compared with that in the light polluted treatments. Different from AOB, the quantities of NOB were lowest in light polluted treatments, but the quantities of NOB were rapidly increased in medium and heavy polluted treatments compared with that in the control. These results indicated that the application of ROX principally had a negative effect on nitrification performance by affecting the abundances and relative ratios of both AOB and NOB in soil communities, which affected the N cycle in an agricultural ecosystem. According to the metabolic diversities evaluated by the biologic assay, the tendency of metabolic diversities was quite contrary to the quantities of NOB in all treatments and showed the contrast growing relation of autotrophic and heterotrophic bacteria under ROX pollution pressure in agricultural ecosystems. PMID:24150789

Yu, Binbin; Wang, Xin; Yu, Shuai; Li, Qiang; Zhou, Qixing

2014-01-01

130

NITRATE CONTAMINATION OF GROUND WATER (GW-761)  

EPA Science Inventory

The occurrence of nitrate and related compounds in ground water is discussed from the perspectives of its natural as well as anthropogenic origins. A brief explanation of the nitrogen cycle touches on the production as well as utilization of ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, and nitrog...

131

Nitrite and nitrate formation on model NOx storage materials: on the influence of particle size and composition.  

PubMed

A well-defined model-catalyst approach has been utilized to study the formation and decomposition of nitrite and nitrate species on a model NO(x) storage material. The model system comprises BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles of different size and stoichiometry, prepared under ultrahigh-vacuum (UHV) conditions on Al(2)O(3)/NiAl(110). Adsorption and reaction of NO(2) has been investigated by molecular beam (MB) methods and time-resolved IR reflection absorption spectroscopy (TR-IRAS) in combination with structural characterization by scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The growth behavior and chemical composition of the BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles has been investigated previously. In this work we focus on the effect of particle size and stoichiometry on the reaction with NO(2). Particles of different size and of different Ba(2+) : Al(3+) surface ion ratio are prepared by varying the preparation conditions. It is shown that at 300 K the reaction mechanism is independent of particle size and composition, involving initial nitrite formation and subsequent transformation of nitrites into surface nitrates. The coordination geometry of the surface nitrates, however, changes characteristically with particle size. For small BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles high temperature (800 K) oxygen treatment gives rise to particle ripening, which has a minor effect on the NO(2) uptake behavior, however. STM shows that the morphology of the particle system is largely conserved during NO(2) exposure at 300 K. The reaction is limited to the formation of surface nitrites and nitrates, which are characterized by low thermal stability and completely decompose below 500 K. As no further sintering occurs before decomposition, NO(2) uptake and release is a fully reversible process. For large BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles, aggregates with different Ba(2+) : Al(3+) surface ion ratio were prepared. It was shown that the stoichiometry has a major effect on the kinetics of NO(2) uptake. For barium-aluminate-like particles with high Al(3+) concentration, the formation of nitrites and nitrates on the BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles at 300 K is slow, and kinetically restricted to the formation of surface species. Only at elevated temperature (500 K) are surface nitrates converted into well-defined bulk Ba(NO(3))(2). This bulk Ba(NO(3))(2) exhibits substantially higher thermal stability and undergoes restructuring and sintering before it decomposes at 700 K. For Ba(2+)-rich BaAl(2x)O(1+3x) particles, on the other hand, nitrate formation occurs at a much higher rate than for the barium-aluminate-like particles. Furthermore, nitrate formation is not limited to the surface, but NO(2) exposure gives rise to the formation of amorphous bulk Ba(NO(3))(2) particles even at 300 K. PMID:19325986

Desikusumastuti, A; Qin, Z; Happel, M; Staudt, T; Lykhach, Y; Laurin, M; Rohr, F; Shaikhutdinov, S; Libuda, J

2009-04-14

132

Nitrite accumulation from simultaneous free-ammonia and free-nitrous-acid inhibition and oxygen limitation in a continuous-flow biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

To achieve nitrite accumulation for shortcut biological nitrogen removal (SBNR) in a biofilm process, we explored the simultaneous effects of oxygen limitation and free ammonia (FA) and free nitrous acid (FNA) inhibition in the nitrifying biofilm. We used the multi-species nitrifying biofilm model (MSNBM) to identify conditions that should or should not lead to nitrite accumulation, and evaluated the effectiveness of those conditions with experiments in continuous flow biofilm reactors (CFBRs). CFBR experiments were organized into four sets with these expected outcomes based on the MSNBM as follows: (i) Control, giving full nitrification; (ii) oxygen limitation, giving modest long-term nitrite build up; (iii) FA inhibition, giving no long-term nitrite accumulation; and (iv) FA inhibition plus oxygen limitation, giving major long-term nitrite accumulation. Consistent with MSNBM predictions, the experimental results showed that nitrite accumulated in sets 2-4 in the short term, but long-term nitrite accumulation was maintained only in sets 2 and 4, which involved oxygen limitation. Furthermore, nitrite accumulation was substantially greater in set 4, which also included FA inhibition. However, FA inhibition (and accompanying FNA inhibition) alone in set 3 did not maintained long-term nitrite accumulation. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) activity batch tests confirmed that little NOB or only a small fraction of NOB were present in the biofilms for sets 4 and 2, respectively. The experimental data supported the previous modeling results that nitrite accumulation could be achieved with a lower ammonium concentration than had been required for a suspended-growth process. Additional findings were that the biofilm exposed to low dissolved oxygen (DO) limitation and FA inhibition was substantially denser and probably had a lower detachment rate. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 43-52. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24981425

Park, Seongjun; Chung, Jinwook; Rittmann, Bruce E; Bae, Wookeun

2015-01-01

133

Dissimilatory Nitrate Reduction in Anaerobic Sediments Leading to River Nitrite Accumulation  

PubMed Central

Recent studies on Northern Ireland rivers have shown that summer nitrite (NO(inf2)(sup-)) concentrations greatly exceed the European Union guideline of 3 (mu)g of N liter(sup-1) for rivers supporting salmonid fisheries. In fast-flowing aerobic small streams, NO(inf2)(sup-) is thought to originate from nitrification, due to the retardation of Nitrobacter strains by the presence of free ammonia. Multiple regression analyses of NO(inf2)(sup-) concentrations against water quality variables of the six major rivers of the Lough Neagh catchment in Northern Ireland, however, suggested that the high NO(inf2)(sup-) concentrations found in the summer under warm, slow-flow conditions may result from the reduction of NO(inf3)(sup-). This hypothesis was supported by field observations of weekly changes in N species. Here, reduction of NO(inf3)(sup-) was observed to occur simultaneously with elevation of NO(inf2)(sup-) levels and subsequently NH(inf4)(sup+) levels, indicating that dissimilatory NO(inf3)(sup-) reduction to NH(inf4)(sup+) (DNRA) performed by fermentative bacteria (e.g., Aeromonas and Vibrio spp.) is responsible for NO(inf2)(sup-) accumulation in these large rivers. Mechanistic studies in which (sup15)N-labelled NO(inf3)(sup-) in sediment extracts was used provided further support for this hypothesis. Maximal concentrations of NO(inf2)(sup-) accumulation (up to 1.4 mg of N liter(sup-1)) were found in sediments deeper than 6 cm associated with a high concentration of metabolizable carbon and anaerobic conditions. The (sup15)N enrichment of the NO(inf2)(sup-) was comparable to that of the NO(inf3)(sup-) pool, indicating that the NO(inf2)(sup-) was predominantly NO(inf3)(sup-) derived. There is evidence which suggests that the high NO(inf2)(sup-) concentrations observed arose from the inhibition of the DNRA NO(inf2)(sup-) reductase system by NO(inf3)(sup-). PMID:16535749

Kelso, B.; Smith, R. V.; Laughlin, R. J.; Lennox, S. D.

1997-01-01

134

Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria  

PubMed Central

Microorganisms have been observed to oxidize Fe(II) at neutral pH under anoxic and microoxic conditions. While most of the mixotrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become encrusted with Fe(III)-rich minerals, photoautotrophic and microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidizers avoid cell encrustation. The Fe(II) oxidation mechanisms and the reasons for encrustation remain largely unresolved. Here we used cultivation-based methods and electron microscopy to compare two previously described nitrate-reducing Fe(II) oxidizers ( Acidovorax sp. strain BoFeN1 and Pseudogulbenkiania sp. strain 2002) and two heterotrophic nitrate reducers (Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 and P. denitrificans Pd 1222). All four strains oxidized ?8 mM Fe(II) within 5 days in the presence of 5 mM acetate and accumulated nitrite (maximum concentrations of 0.8 to 1.0 mM) in the culture media. Iron(III) minerals, mainly goethite, formed and precipitated extracellularly in close proximity to the cell surface. Interestingly, mineral formation was also observed within the periplasm and cytoplasm; intracellular mineralization is expected to be physiologically disadvantageous, yet acetate consumption continued to be observed even at an advanced stage of Fe(II) oxidation. Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were detected by lectin staining with fluorescence microscopy, particularly in the presence of Fe(II), suggesting that EPS production is a response to Fe(II) toxicity or a strategy to decrease encrustation. Based on the data presented here, we propose a nitrite-driven, indirect mechanism of cell encrustation whereby nitrite forms during heterotrophic denitrification and abiotically oxidizes Fe(II). This work adds to the known assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and complicates our ability to delineate microbial Fe(II) oxidation in ancient microbes preserved as fossils in the geological record. PMID:24271182

Klueglein, Nicole; Zeitvogel, Fabian; Stierhof, York-Dieter; Floetenmeyer, Matthias; Konhauser, Kurt O.; Obst, Martin

2014-01-01

135

The nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process -- a newly developed low-temperature technology  

SciTech Connect

Bench-top feasibility studies with Hanford single-shell tank (SST) simulants, using a new low-temperature (50-60C) process for converting nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC), showed that between 90 and 99% of the nitrate at Hanford can be readily converted to ammonia. Aluminum powders or shot can be used to convert alkaline, nitrate-based supernate to ammonia and an alumina-silica-based ceramic solid. The process may utilize already contaminated aluminum scrap metal from various DOE sites to effect the conversion. The final nitrate-free ceramic product can be calcined, pressed, and sintered like any other ceramic. Based on starting volumes of 6.2 and 3.1 M sodium nitrate solution (probable supernate concentrations resulting from salt-cake/sludge removal from Hanford SSTs), volume reductions as high as 70% are currently obtained, compared with an expected 40 to 50% volume increase if the Hanford supernate were grouted. Engineering data indicate that the process will be very economical. Data were used to cost a batch facility with a production rate of 1200 kilograms of nitrate per hour for processing all the Hanford SST waste over 20 years. Process cost analysis indicates that between $2.01 and 2.66 will be required to convert each kilogram of nitrate. These costs are one-third to one-half of the processing costs for electrolytic and thermal processes. The ceramic waste form offers other cost savings associated with a smaller volume of waste as well as eliminates other process steps such as grouting. Silica added to the reactor, based upon the total sodium in the waste, permits us to actually bind the sodium in a nepheline phase of the final ceramic structure as well as bind most metals and nonmetals in the ceramic.

Mattus, A.J.; Lee, D.D.

1993-06-01

136

Nitrate reduction by organotrophic Anammox bacteria in a nitritation/anammox granular sludge and a moving bed biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

The effects of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on nitrogen removal and microbial community structure in nitritation/anammox process were compared within a granular sludge reactor and a moving bed biofilm reactor. Nitrate productions in both systems were lower by 40-68% in comparison with expected nitrate production. Expected sludge production on VFAs was estimated to be 67-77% higher if heterotrophs were the main acetate degraders suggesting that Anammox bacteria used its organotrophic capability and successfully competed with general heterotrophs for organic carbon, which led to a reduced sludge production. FISH measurements showed a population consisting of mainly Anammox and AOB in both reactors and oxygen uptake rate (OUR) tests also confirmed that flocculent biomass consisted of a minor proportion of heterotrophs with a large proportion of AOBs. The dominant Anammox bacterium was Candidatus "Brocadia fulgida" with a minor fraction of Candidatus "Anammoxoglobus propionicus", both known to be capable of oxidizing VFAs. PMID:22520220

Winkler, Mari K H; Yang, Jingjing; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Plaza, Elzbieta; Trela, Jozef; Hultman, Bengt; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

2012-06-01

137

Analysis of nitrites and nitrates in hams and sausages by open-tubular capillary electrochromatography with a nanolatex-coated capillary column.  

PubMed

In this work, a new open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (OT-CEC) method with the nanolatex-coated column was proposed for the determination of nitrites and nitrates in foodstuffs. The method was simple and repeatable as a result of avoiding the introduction of an electroosmotic flow reverse additive (such as cetyltrimethylammonium chloride) in electrophoretic buffer. The limits of quantitation were 0.89 and 1.05 mg kg?¹ for nitrate and nitrite, respectively, whereas the overall recoveries ranged from 94 to 103%. The developed OT-CEC method was successfully applied for 12 samples, and the residue profiles of nitrites and nitrates in hams and sausages were obtained and evaluated. PMID:24661287

Zhang, Yanhao; Tian, Xiangyu; Guo, Yaxiao; Li, Haibin; Yu, Ajuan; Deng, Zhifen; Sun, Barry Baoguo; Zhang, Shusheng

2014-04-16

138

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction by a strain of Clostridium butyricum isolated from estuarine sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate dissimilation in chemostat grown cultures ofClostridium butyricum SS6 has been investigated. Sucrose limited cultures grown on nitrate produced nitrite as the principal end-product of nitrate reduction whilst under nitrate-limiting conditions ammonia accumulated in the spent media. Nitrate reduction was accompanied by the synthesis of a soluble nitrate reductase (123 nmol·NADH oxidised · min-1 · mg protein-1) and in addition,

S. M. Keith; G. T. MacFarlane; R. A. Herbert

1982-01-01

139

Isolation and Characterization of a Chlorate-Resistant Mutant (Clo R ) of the Symbiotic Cyanobacterium Nostoc ANTH: Heterocyst Formation and N 2 Fixation in the Presence of Nitrate, and Evidence for Separate Nitrate and Nitrite Transport Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nostoc ANTH is a filamentous, heterocystous cyanobacterium capable of N2-fixation in the absence of combined nitrogen. A chlorate-resistant mutant (Clo-R) of Nostoc ANTH was isolated that differentiates heterocysts and fixes N2 in the presence of nitrate, but not in the presence of nitrite or ammonium. The mutant lacks nitrate uptake and thereby also\\u000a lacks induction of nitrate reductase activity by

Jyotirmoy Bhattacharya; Arvind Kumar Singh; Amar Nath Rai

2002-01-01

140

Determination of nanomolar concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in natural waters using long path length absorbance spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

The concentrations of nitrite and nitrate in many natural waters are below the detection limits of conventional colorimetric analysis. A liquid core waveguide (LCW) has been used to extend the sensitivity of conventional colorimetric nitrite and nitrate determinations by more than an order of magnitude. Long path length absorbance spectroscopy (LPAS) with a 4.5 m path length LCW made of Teflon AF-2400 provides detection limits for NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} equal to 0.5 and 1.5 nM, respectively. The absorbance response of the LPAS system varies linearly with concentration. Calculations of azo dye molar absorbance using LPAS observations at nanomolar concentrations are in excellent agreement with molar absorbance results obtained with conventional measurement systems at much higher concentrations. For 1 nM NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentration differences, the 4.5 m path length LCW used in this work produces absorbance differences on the order of 0.02. No significant changes in the behavior of the LPAS system have been observed for periods of 6 month and more. The system is simple, rugged, and amenable to field studies.

Yao, W.; Byrne, R.H.; Waterbury, R.D. [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States). Dept. of Marine Science] [Univ. of South Florida, St. Petersburg, FL (United States). Dept. of Marine Science

1998-09-01

141

Magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: An efficient adsorbent for the separation and removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental samples.  

PubMed

A novel type of magnetic nanosorbent, hydroxyapatite-coated Fe2 O3 nanoparticles was synthesized and used for the adsorption and removal of nitrite and nitrate ions from environmental samples. The properties of synthesized magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. After the adsorption process, the separation of ?-Fe2 O3 @hydroxyapatite nanoparticles from the aqueous solution was simply achieved by applying an external magnetic field. The effects of different variables on the adsorption efficiency were studied simultaneously using an experimental design. The variables of interest were amount of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles, sample volume, pH, stirring rate, adsorption time, and temperature. The experimental parameters were optimized using a Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology after a Plackett-Burman screening design. Under the optimum conditions, the adsorption efficiencies of magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbents toward NO3 (-) and NO2 (-) ions (100 mg/L) were in the range of 93-101%. The results revealed that the magnetic hydroxyapatite nanoparticles adsorbent could be used as a simple, efficient, and cost-effective material for the removal of nitrate and nitrite ions from environmental water and soil samples. PMID:25376506

Ghasemi, Ensieh; Sillanpää, Mika

2015-01-01

142

Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Site`s evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL`s thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

Scheele, R.D. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Cady, H.H. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1992-01-01

143

Preliminary safe-handling experiments on a mixture of cesium nickel ferrocyanide and equimolar sodium nitrate/nitrite  

SciTech Connect

As part of the Hanford Site's evaluation of the potential hazards associated with the storage of ferrocyanide wastes generated when ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from waste supernates in the 1950s, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) subcontracted with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to perform a series of sensitivity tests. These test supplement PNL's thermal sensitivity testing results on the reactivity of cesium nickel ferrocyanide (Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}) and nitrates and nitrites (Burger and Schelle 1991). LANL used a selected set of their standard tests to determine the sensitivity of a mixture of Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} (FECN-1) and equimolar sodium nitrate and nitrite oxidant to nonthermal and thermal stimuli. The stoichiometric ratio of oxidant to Cs{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6} in the tested mixture FECN-1 was 1.1:1. The appendix presents the results of the LANL testing of the sensitivity of FECN-1 to initiation by mechanical impact, spark, friction, and various thermal conditions. In addition to the sensitivity testing, LANL used an Accelerating Rate Calorimeter (ARC) to estimate the behavior of large batches of the mixture.

Scheele, R.D. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)); Cady, H.H. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States))

1992-01-01

144

Investigation of reduction and tolerance capability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi against nitrate and nitrite in fermented sausage condition.  

PubMed

Lactobacillus brevis KGR3111, Lactobacillus curvatus KGR 2103, Lactobacillus plantarum KGR 5105, and Lactobacillus sakei KGR 4108 isolated from kimchi were investigated for their potential to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages with the capability to reduce and tolerate nitrate/nitrite. The reduction capability of tested strains for nitrate was not dramatic. All tested strains, however, showed the capability to produce nitrite reductase with the reduction amount of 58.46-75.80 mg/l of NO(2)(-). L. brevis and L. plantarum showed nitrate tolerance with the highest number of 8.71 log cfu/ml and 8.81 log cfu/ml, and L. brevis and L. sakei exhibited nitrite tolerance with the highest number of 8.24 log cfu/ml and 8.25 log cfu/ml, respectively. As a result, L. brevis, L. plantarum, and L. sakei isolated from kimchi showed a tolerance against nitrate or nitrite with a good nitrite reduction capability, indicating the satisfaction of one of the selection criteria to be used as starter culture for fermented sausages. PMID:24821591

Paik, Hyun-Dong; Lee, Joo-Yeon

2014-08-01

145

A mixture of nitrite-oxidizing and denitrifying microorganisms affects the ?18O of dissolved nitrate during anaerobic microbial denitrification depending on the ?18O of ambient water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The stable isotopes 15N/14N and 18O/16O of nitrate are frequently used to determine sources of nitrate and to assess denitrification processes in the environment. Nitrate isotope ratios are thought to be conservative unless involved in (bio-) chemical conversion processes. Thus, stable isotopes are considered to be a reliable tool to determine sources of nitrate in aquatic habitats even after transport and dilution has occurred. Denitrification is known to shift both isotope ratios towards higher ?-values. A fixed ratio of 0.5 for ??18O/??15N has been proposed and has been widely used to detect denitrification in terrestrial environments, predominantly in aquifers. However, it is observed in environmental and laboratory studies that this ratio actually varies between less than 0.5 and 1 for uncertain reasons with laboratory studies usually describing a ratio close to 1. Here we report results of anoxic incubation experiments with natural populations of nitrate-reducing microorganisms using sediments from three different environments. In our experiments we used water with a ?18O in excess of 500‰ and found a microbially mediated influence of the oxygen isotopic composition of ambient water on the isotopic composition of the residual dissolved nitrate. We found up to 5.7 ± 2.3% of the oxygen-atoms in the residual dissolved nitrate was exchanged by oxygen-atoms from ambient water within the limited timeframe of the experiments. The fastest incorporation of oxygen-atoms from water into dissolved nitrate correlated with the highest intermittent nitrite concentrations observed in our experiments. In a second series of batch experiments we also found that pure cultures of the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrobacter vulgaris promoted the incorporation of oxygen atoms from ambient water into dissolved nitrate under anoxic conditions. Presumably this happens via a reoxidation of intermediary formed nitrite by the enzyme "nitrite oxidoreductase" (NXR) in concurrence with respiratory nitrate reduction. In this context, our hypothesis is a reversibility of the reactions at the NXR enzyme even in the absence of external electron acceptors for nitrite oxidation. We suggest that the presence of nitrite-oxidizing microorganisms in aquatic environments may catalyse such an incorporation of oxygen-atoms stemming from ambient water into nitrate. This process may thus mask the original ?18O value of nitrate sources during denitrification and also distort the observed enrichment of 18O that is ascribed to denitrification. Our results are highly likely an explanation of the deviation of the described variable ??18O/??15N ratios for denitrification in terrestrial field studies from the values observed in the laboratory on pure cultures.

Wunderlich, Anja; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Einsiedl, Florian

2013-10-01

146

Nitrite in feed: From Animal health to human health  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite is widely consumed from the diet by animals and humans. However the largest contribution to exposure results from the in vivo conversion of exogenously derived nitrate to nitrite. Because of its potential to cause to methaemoglobin (MetHb) formation at excessive levels of intake, nitrite is regulated in feed and water as an undesirable substance. Forages and contaminated water have been shown to contain high levels of nitrate and represent the largest contributor to nitrite exposure for food-producing animals. Interspecies differences in sensitivity to nitrite intoxication principally result from physiological and anatomical differences in nitrite handling. In the case of livestock both pigs and cattle are relatively susceptible. With pigs this is due to a combination of low levels of bacterial nitrite reductase and hence potential to reduce nitrite to ammonia as well as reduced capacity to detoxify MetHb back to haemoglobin (Hb) due to intrinsically low levels of MetHb reductase. In cattle the sensitivity is due to the potential for high dietary intake and high levels of rumen conversion of nitrate to nitrite, and an adaptable gut flora which at normal loadings shunts nitrite to ammonia for biosynthesis. However when this escape mechanism gets overloaded, nitrite builds up and can enter the blood stream resulting in methemoglobinemia. Looking at livestock case histories reported in the literature no-observed-effect levels of 3.3 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) per day for nitrite in pigs and cattle were estimated and related to the total daily nitrite intake that would result from complete feed at the EU maximum permissible level. This resulted in margins of safety of 9-fold and 5-fold for pigs and cattle, respectively. Recognising that the bulkiness of animal feed limits their consumption, these margins in conjunction with good agricultural practise were considered satisfactory for the protection of livestock health. A human health risk assessment was also carried out taking into account all direct and indirect sources of nitrite from the human diet, including carry-over of nitrite in animal-based products such as milk, eggs and meat products. Human exposure was then compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for nitrite of 0-0.07 mg/kg b.w. per day. Overall, the low levels of nitrite in fresh animal products represented only 2.9% of the total daily dietary exposure and thus were not considered to raise concerns for human health. It is concluded that the potential health risk to animals from the consumption of feed or to man from eating fresh animal products containing nitrite, is very low.

Cockburn, Andrew [Institute for Research on Environment and Sustainability, Devonshire Building, University of Newcastle upon Tyne, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE17RU (United Kingdom); Brambilla, Gianfranco [Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Toxicological chemistry unit, Viale Regina Elena 299, 00161 Rome (Italy); Fernández, Maria-Luisa [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, Instituto Nacional de Investigación y Tecnología Agraria y Alimentaria (INIA), Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación, Carretera de la Coruña, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Arcella, Davide [Unit on Data Collection and Exposure, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A43100 Parma (Italy); Bordajandi, Luisa R. [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy); Cottrill, Bruce [Policy Delivery Group, Animal Health and Welfare, ADAS, Wolverhampton (United Kingdom); Peteghem, Carlos van [University of Gent, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Dorne, Jean-Lou, E-mail: jean-lou.dorne@efsa.europa.eu [Unit on Contaminants in the Food chain, European Food Safety Authority, Largo N. Palli 5/A, 43100 Parma (Italy)

2013-08-01

147

Influence of Nitrate and Nitrite on Thyroid Hormone Responsive and Stress-Associated Gene Expression in Cultured Rana catesbeiana Tadpole Tail Fin Tissue  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and nitrite are common aqueous pollutants that are known to disrupt the thyroid axis. In amphibians, thyroid hormone (TH)-dependent metamorphosis is affected, although whether the effect is acceleration or deceleration of this developmental process varies from study to study. One mechanism of action of these nitrogenous compounds is through alteration of TH synthesis. However, direct target tissue effects on TH signaling are hypothesized. The present study uses the recently developed cultured tail fin biopsy (C-fin) assay to study possible direct tissue effects of nitrate and nitrite. Tail biopsies obtained from premetamorphic Rana catesbeiana tadpoles were exposed to 5 and 50?mg/L nitrate (NO3–N) and 0.5 and 5?mg/L nitrite (NO2–N) in the absence and presence of 10?nM T3. Thyroid hormone receptor ? (TR?) and Rana larval keratin type I (RLKI), both of which are TH-responsive gene transcripts, were measured using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. To assess cellular stress which could affect TH signaling and metamorphosis, heat shock protein 30, and catalase (CAT) transcript levels were also measured. We found that nitrate and nitrite did not significantly change the level of any of the four transcripts tested. However, nitrate exposure significantly increased the heteroscedasticity in response of TR? and RLKI transcripts to T3. Alteration in population variation in such a way could contribute to the previously observed alterations of metamorphosis in frog tadpoles, but may not represent a major mechanism of action. PMID:22493607

Hinther, Ashley; Edwards, Thea M.; Guillette, Louis J.; Helbing, Caren C.

2012-01-01

148

Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during wastewater co-treatment with ammonia-rich landfill leachates in a sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

The biological treatment of ammonia-rich landfill leachates due to an inadequate C to N ratio requires expensive supplementation of carbon from an external carbon source. In an effort to reduce treatment costs, the objective of the study was to determine the feasibility of nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway during landfill leachate co-treatment with municipal wastewater. Initially, the laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was inoculated with nitrifying activated sludge and fed only raw municipal wastewater (RWW) during a start-up period of 9 weeks. Then, in the co-treatment period, consisting of the next 17 weeks, the system was fed a mixture of RWW and an increasing quantity of landfill leachates (from 1 to 10% by volume). The results indicate that landfill leachate addition of up to 10% (by volume) influenced the effluent quality, except for BOD5. During the experiment, a positive correlation (r(2)?=?0.908) between ammonia load in the influent and nitrite in the effluent was observed, suggesting that the second step of nitrification was partially inhibited. The partial nitrification (PN) was also confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) analysis of nitrifying bacteria. Nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway was observed when the oxygen concentration ranged from 0.5 to 1.5 mg O2/dm(3) and free ammonia (FA) ranged from 2.01 to 35.86 mg N-NH3/dm(3) in the aerobic phase. Increasing ammonia load in wastewater influent was also correlated with an increasing amount of total nitrogen (TN) in the effluent, which suggested insufficient amounts of assimilable organic carbon to complete denitrification. Because nitrogen removal via the nitrite pathway is beneficial for carbon-limited and highly ammonia-loaded mixtures, obtaining PN can lead to a reduction in the external carbon source needed to support denitrification. PMID:24569868

Fudala-Ksiazek, S; Luczkiewicz, A; Fitobor, K; Olanczuk-Neyman, K

2014-06-01

149

Reversible intercalation of ammonia molecules into a layered double hydroxide structure without exchanging nitrate counter-ions  

SciTech Connect

A zinc/aluminum LDH was precipitated with recycled ammonia from a chemical vapor deposition reaction. The LDH presented a crystalline phase with basal distance of 8.9 A, typical for nitrate-containing LDHs, and another phase with a basal distance of 13.9 A. Thermal treatment at 150 {sup o}C eliminated the phase with the bigger basal distance leaving only the anhydrous nitrate-intercalated LDH structure with 8.9 A. Intense N-H stretching modes in the FTIR spectra suggested that the expansion was due to intercalation of ammonia in the form of [NH{sub 4}(NH{sub 3}){sub n}]{sup +} species. When additional samples were precipitated with pure ammonia, the conventional LDH nitrate structure was obtained (8.9 A basal distance) at pH=7, as well as a pure crystalline phase with 13.9 A basal distance at pH=10 due to ammonia intercalation that can be removed by heating at 150 {sup o}C or by stirring in acetone, confirming a unusual sensu stricto intercalation process into a LDH without exchanging nitrate ions. - Graphical abstract: LDH-nitrate precipitated with ammonia expands the interlayer space if ammonia is bubbled up to pH 10. The basal distance decreased when the compound was heated at 150 {sup o}C or stirred in acetone. Nitrate ions are not exchanged.

Carbajal Arizaga, Gregorio Guadalupe, E-mail: gregoriocarbajal@yahoo.com.m [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico); Wypych, Fernando [CEPESQ-Research Centre of Applied Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of Parana, P.O. Box 19081, 81531-980 Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Castillon Barraza, Felipe; Contreras Lopez, Oscar Edel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Centro de Nanociencias y Nanotecnologia, Km. 107 Carretera Tijuana-Ensenada, Apdo. Postal 14, C.P. 22800. Ensenada, Baja California (Mexico)

2010-10-15

150

Nitrate and ammonia contaminations in drinking water and the affecting factors in Hailun, northeast China.  

PubMed

Drinking water samples (N = 228) from domestic tube wells (DTWs) and seven samples from public water supply wells (PWSWs) were collected and tested in Hailun, northeast China. The percentage of samples with nitrate and ammonia concentrations above the maximum acceptable concentration of nitrate, 10 mg N/L, and the maximum ensure concentration of ammonia, 1.5 mg/L, for the DTWs were significantly higher than for the PWSWs. Of the DTWs, an important observation was that the occurrence of groundwater nitrate contamination was directly related to well tube material with different joint pathways. Nitrate in seamless-tube wells was lower statistically significantly than those in multiple-section-tube wells (p < .001). Furthermore, well depth and hydrogeological setting might have some impacts on nitrogen contamination and the major sources of inorganic nitrogen contamination may be nitrogenous chemical fertilizer. Therefore, PWSWs built for all families are the best way to ensure the drinking water safety in villages. For DTWs it is necessary to use seamless tubes and to dig deep enough according to the depth of groundwater level. Improving the efficiency of chemical fertilizer use would also reduce the risk of groundwater contamination. PMID:23505772

Zhao, Xinfeng; Chen, Liding; Zhang, Haiping

2013-03-01

151

Diagnostic Role of Salivary and GCF Nitrite, Nitrate and Nitric Oxide to Distinguish Healthy Periodontium from Gingivitis and Periodontitis.  

PubMed

Diagnosis of subclinical and early stage clinical periodontal dysfunction could prevent from further socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic applicability of nitric oxide and its end-metabolites in periodontal tissue health and disease. Forty-two patients were enrolled and divided into three groups according to gingivitis (GI) and clinical attachment level (CAL) indices: a healthy group (GI<1, CAL<1), b: gingivitis (GI>1, CAL>1) and c: periodontitis (CAL>1) with 14 patients in each group. Unstimulated saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected. Samples were evaluated for nitrite, nitrate and total nitric oxide contents with the ELISA method. In addition, CAL, GI, plaque index (PI), decay, missing, filling (DMFT) and bleeding index (BI) scores were also recorded. Except for GCF nitrite content (P= 0.89), there was an increasing trend for measured biomarkers in both saliva and GCF (Periodontitis> gingivitis> healthy periodontium, P< 0.05). Data remained stable after simultaneous adjustment for DMFT and BI scores as confounding factors. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, cut point and p- value were as the followings: GCF nitrate (0.71, 0.11, 0.29,0.43, 4.97, P= 0.04), nitric oxide GCF ( 0.64, 0.18, 0.28, 0.5, 10.12, P= 0.04), nitrite saliva (0.93, 0.96,0.93,0.96,123.48, P< 0.001), salivary nitrate (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 123.6, P< 0.001), salivary nitric oxide (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 246.65, P <0.001). Our results revealed that NO plays an important role in the process of destruction of periodontal tissues. Within the limitation of our study, detecting NO biomarker and its end metabolites in saliva is of more value to assess the periodontal health comparing to GCF. PMID:25317400

Poorsattar Bejeh-Mir, Arash; Parsian, Hadi; Akbari Khoram, Maryam; Ghasemi, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali; Khosravi-Samani, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

152

Diagnostic Role of Salivary and GCF Nitrite, Nitrate and Nitric Oxide to Distinguish Healthy Periodontium from Gingivitis and Periodontitis  

PubMed Central

Diagnosis of subclinical and early stage clinical periodontal dysfunction could prevent from further socioeconomic burden. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic applicability of nitric oxide and its end-metabolites in periodontal tissue health and disease. Forty-two patients were enrolled and divided into three groups according to gingivitis (GI) and clinical attachment level (CAL) indices: a healthy group (GI<1, CAL<1), b: gingivitis (GI>1, CAL>1) and c: periodontitis (CAL>1) with 14 patients in each group. Unstimulated saliva and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) were collected. Samples were evaluated for nitrite, nitrate and total nitric oxide contents with the ELISA method. In addition, CAL, GI, plaque index (PI), decay, missing, filling (DMFT) and bleeding index (BI) scores were also recorded. Except for GCF nitrite content (P= 0.89), there was an increasing trend for measured biomarkers in both saliva and GCF (Periodontitis> gingivitis> healthy periodontium, P< 0.05). Data remained stable after simultaneous adjustment for DMFT and BI scores as confounding factors. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, cut point and p- value were as the followings: GCF nitrate (0.71, 0.11, 0.29,0.43, 4.97, P= 0.04), nitric oxide GCF ( 0.64, 0.18, 0.28, 0.5, 10.12, P= 0.04), nitrite saliva (0.93, 0.96,0.93,0.96,123.48, P< 0.001), salivary nitrate (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 123.6, P< 0.001), salivary nitric oxide (0.93, 0.96, 0.93, 0.96, 246.65, P <0.001). Our results revealed that NO plays an important role in the process of destruction of periodontal tissues. Within the limitation of our study, detecting NO biomarker and its end metabolites in saliva is of more value to assess the periodontal health comparing to GCF. PMID:25317400

Poorsattar Bejeh-Mir, Arash; Parsian, Hadi; Akbari Khoram, Maryam; Ghasemi, Nafiseh; Bijani, Ali; Khosravi-Samani, Mahmoud

2014-01-01

153

Simultaneous determination of nanomolar nitrite and nitrate in seawater using reverse flow injection analysis coupled with a long path length liquid waveguide capillary cell.  

PubMed

A reverse flow injection analysis (rFIA) method coupled with 1m liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection for simultaneous determination of nanomolar nitrite and nitrate in seawater was developed. The design of two analytical channels sharing the same detection system in the proposed method allowed the analysis of both nitrite and nitrate with single sample injection. Different strategies of reagent injection were investigated to obtain a higher sensitivity and a better peak shape. A dual-wavelength detection mode was chosen to eliminate the light source shifting and sample matrix interference. Experimental parameters were optimized based on a univariate experimental design and the matrix effect from seawater was preliminarily investigated. The proposed method had high sensitivity with detection limit of 0.6 nmol L(-1) for both nitrite and nitrate. The linearity was 2-500 nmol L(-1) for both analytes, and the upper limit could be extended by choosing a lower sensitivity detection wavelength. The analytical results of 26 surface seawater samples obtained with the proposed method showed good agreement with those using a reference method operated using an automated segmented flow analyzer. The proposed method could greatly minimize the trouble introduced by bubbles in the segmented flow analyzer. It also had the advantages of high precision and high sample throughput (nitrite and nitrate detected in triplicate; 5 h(-1)). Compared to normal flow injection analysis, the rFIA method is superior due to its lower reagent consumption, less dispersion of sample, as well as higher sensitivity. PMID:24209368

Feng, Sichao; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yongming; Yuan, Dongxing; Zhu, Yong

2013-12-15

154

Widespread metabolic potential for nitrite and nitrate assimilation among Prochlorococcus ecotypes  

E-print Network

The marine cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus is the most abundant photosynthetic organism in oligotrophic regions of the oceans. The inability to assimilate nitrate is considered an important factor underlying the distribution ...

Kathuria, Satish

155

Effects of Waterborne Copper, Cyanide, Ammonia, and Nitrite on Stress Parameters and Changes in Susceptibility to Saprolegniosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)  

PubMed Central

The effects of toxic exposures on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to saprolegniosis were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (0.25 mg/liter), cyanide (0.07 mg/liter), ammonia (0.5 mg/liter), and nitrite (0.24 mg/liter) for 24 h. After exposure, the fish were challenged by Saprolegnia parasitica (3.6 x 10(sup6) zoospores per liter) for 10 min. Cortisol and cholesterol were used to indicate stress response. Similar increases of cortisol were found for the four tested chemicals. All fish with cortisol levels higher than 370 ng/ml developed the disease, while only 24% of the fish with cortisol levels lower than 370 ng/ml were infected. Cholesterol levels remained unchanged after toxic exposure. Increased susceptibilities to the pathogen were observed for ammonia (71%), copper (57%), nitrite (50%), and cyanide (33%). The increases in susceptibility as a result of cyanide and nitrite exposure could be explained by the stress response. For copper and ammonia, the combination of two different effects, the stress response and specific impairments of the defense mechanism of trout against saprolegniosis, should be considered. PMID:16535039

Carballo, M.; Munoz, M. J.; Cuellar, M.; Tarazona, J. V.

1995-01-01

156

Evaluation of porous cathodes for the electrochemical reduction of nitrates and nitrites in alkaline waste streams  

E-print Network

was developed that included a divided cell with a porous cathode, a cation-selective separator, a planar anode, and reservoirs for electrolyte recirculation and gas±liquid separation. Constant current experiments were done that the ammonia production reaction is the dominant cathodic reaction ($80% of the current). Estimates

Weidner, John W.

157

Ferrocyanide Safety Project Dynamic X-Ray Diffraction studies of sodium nickel ferrocyanide reactions with equimolar nitrate/nitrite salts  

SciTech Connect

Dynamic X-ray Diffraction (DXRD) has been to used to identify and quantify the solid state reactions that take place between sodium nickel ferrocyanide, Na{sub 2}NiFe(CN){sub 6}, and equimolar concentrations of sodium nitrate/nitrite, reactions of interest to the continued environmental safety of several large underground waste storage tanks at the Hanford site in eastern Washington. The results are supportive of previous work, which indicated that endothermic dehydration and melting of the nitrates take place before the occurrence of exothermic reactions that being about 300{degrees}C. The DXRD results show that a major reaction set at these temperatures is the occurrence of a series reaction that produces sodium cyanate, NaCNO, as an intermediate in a mildly exothermic first step. In the presence of gaseous oxygen, NaCNO subsequently reacts exothermally and at a faster rate to form metal oxides. Measurements of the rate of this reaction are used to estimate the heat release. Comparisons of this estimated heat release rate with heat transfer rates from a hypothetical ``hot spot`` show that, even in a worst-case scenario, the heat transfer rates are approximately eight times higher than the rate of energy release from the exothermic reactions.

Dodds, J.N. [Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering]|[UNOCAL, Brea, CA (United States). Hartley Research Center

1994-07-01

158

Analytical techniques for quantifying (15)N/(14)N of nitrate, nitrite, total dissolved nitrogen and ammonium in environmental samples using a gas chromatograph equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

The measurement of (15)N concentrations in environmental samples requires sophisticated pretreatment devices and expensive isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). This report describes the use of a gas chromatograph equipped with a quadrupole-type mass spectrometer (GC/MS) to measure (15)N concentrations of ammonium, nitrate, nitrite, and total dissolved nitrogen (TDN) in distilled water, a 2 M KCl solution and a 0.5 M K(2)SO(4) solution. The system measures nitrous oxide (N(2)O) that is ultimately converted from the target N compound, requiring no special apparatus such as a purge-and-trap pretreatment device. It uses a denitrifier lacking N(2)O reductase, which produces N(2)O from nitrate. Persulfate oxidation was applied to convert TDN to nitrate, while additional pretreatment with ammonia diffusion was required for ammonium prior to the persulfate oxidation. Up to 100 samples can be measured daily using the system. We can generally run (15)N measurements with only 1-10 mL of sample for each chemical species of N, a volume 1/10-1/100 times smaller than the amount necessary for conventional methods. Our method is useful for measuring (15)N with GC/MS, offering greater convenience than IRMS. PMID:21487202

Isobe, Kazuo; Suwa, Yuichi; Ikutani, Junko; Kuroiwa, Megumi; Makita, Tomoko; Takebayashi, Yu; Yoh, Muneoki; Otsuka, Shigeto; Senoo, Keishi; Ohmori, Masayuki; Koba, Keisuke

2011-01-01

159

Evidence for function overlapping of CymA and the cytochrome bc1 complex in the Shewanella oneidensis nitrate and nitrite respiration.  

PubMed

Shewanella oneidensis is an important model organism for its versatility of anaerobic respiration. CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane-bound tetraheme c-type cytochrome, plays a central role in anaerobic respiration by transferring electrons from the quinone pool to a variety of terminal reductases. Although loss of CymA results in defect in respiration of many electron acceptors (EAs), a significant share of the capacity remains in general. In this study, we adopted a transposon random mutagenesis method in a cymA null mutant to identify substituent(s) of CymA with respect to nitrite and nitrate respiration. A total of 87 insertion mutants, whose ability to reduce nitrite was further impaired, were obtained. Among the interrupted genes, the petABC operon appeared to be the most likely candidate given the involvement of the cytochrome bc1 complex that it encodes in electron transport. Subsequent analyses not only confirmed that the complex and CymA were indeed functionally overlapping in nitrate/nitrite respiration but also revealed that both proteins were able to draw electrons from ubiquinone and menaquinone. Furthermore, we found that expression of the bc1 complex was affected by oxygen but not nitrate or nitrite and by global regulators ArcA and Crp in an indirect manner. PMID:24650148

Fu, Huihui; Jin, Miao; Ju, Lili; Mao, Yinting; Gao, Haichun

2014-10-01

160

Chemical shifts of N14 in the NMR spectra of nitrates, nitrites, and nitro-compounds  

Microsoft Academic Search

The nuclear magnetic resonances of N14 in the nitrate groups LiNO3, NaNO3, KNO3, AgNO3, Ag(NH3)2NO3, Zn(NO3)2, Pb(NO3)2, Cd(NO3)2, UO2(NO3)2, and Al(NO3)3 have a zero chemical shift with respect to the N14 peak in the nitrate group of NH4NO3 ; the line widths of these resonances are the same. The N14 peak in HNO3 is of comparable width but has a

Bernhard M. Schmidt; L. Carlton Brown; Dudley Williams

1958-01-01

161

Rheological properties of the product slurry of the Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process  

SciTech Connect

The Nitrate to Ammonia and Ceramic (NAC) process is an innovative technology for immobilizing the liquid from Low Level radioactive Waste (LLW). An experimental study was conducted to measure the rheological properties of the pipe flow of the NAC product slurry. Test results indicate that the NAC product slurry has a profound rheological behavior. At low solids concentration, the slurry exhibits a typical dilatant fluid (or shear thinning)fluid. The transition from dilatant fluid to pseudo-plastic fluid will occur at between 25% to 30% solids concentration in temperature ranges of 50--80{degree}C. Correlation equations are developed based on the test data.

Muguercia, I.; Yang, G.; Ebadian, M.A. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Lee, D.D.; Mattus, A.J.; Hunt, R.D. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1995-03-01

162

Nitrite in organ protection.  

PubMed

In the last decade, the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has emerged to therapeutical importance. Modulation of endogenous nitrate and nitrite levels with the subsequent S-nitros(yl)ation of the downstream signalling cascade open the way for novel cytoprotective strategies. In the following, we summarize the actual literature and give a short overview on the potential of nitrite in organ protection. PMID:23826831

Rassaf, Tienush; Ferdinandy, Peter; Schulz, Rainer

2014-01-01

163

Experimental investigation of nitrogen and oxygen isotope fractionation in nitrate and nitrite during denitrification  

Microsoft Academic Search

In batch experiments, we studied the isotope fractionation of nitrogen and oxygen during denitrification of two bacterial\\u000a strains (Azoarcus sp. strain DSM 9056 and Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes strain F10). Denitrification experiments were conducted with succinate and toluene as electron donor in three waters with\\u000a a distinct oxygen isotope composition. Nitrate consumption was observed in all batch experiments. Reaction rates for succinate

Kay Knöller; Carsten Vogt; Marika Haupt; Stefan Feisthauer; Hans-Hermann Richnow

2011-01-01

164

Limited impact of free ammonia on Nitrobacter spp. inhibition assessed by chemical and molecular techniques.  

PubMed

Free ammonia has long been identified as a nitrite oxidation inhibitor. However, past attempts to use this compound to eliminate nitrite oxidation and thereby promote more efficient nitrogen removal strategies during biological wastewater treatment have often failed. Additionally, contradictory results exist in the literature where direct measurements of free ammonia inhibition of nitrite oxidation have been reported. In this study, suspended biomass samples (nitrifier enriched activated sludge) were collected from a bench scale nitrification reactor with Nitrobacter spp. as the dominant nitrite oxidizer and subjected to batch respirometric experiments designed to quantify free ammonia inhibition of nitrite oxidization. A variety of data including ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate conversion rates, oxygen consumption rates, and Nitrobacter ribosomal RNA transcript abundance, a molecular indicator of growth activity, were used to assess nitrite oxidation and growth activity. Both the traditional and molecular activity assessments indicated that free ammonia had a limited inhibitory effect on Nitrobacter spp. In fact, the pH changes necessary to induce high free ammonia concentrations (>10mg-N/L) had a demonstrably more important inhibiting effect on nitrite oxidation than free ammonia. In contrast, during high ammonia oxidizing activity (5.3mg-N/L/h), low nitrite oxidation rates (0.2mg-N/L/h) and severely impaired Nitrobacter spp. growth activity, indicated by a low abundance of the Nitrobacter spp. ribosomal gene transcript relative to the ribosomal gene (0.08), were measured. The findings suggest that pH changes and ammonia oxidizing bacteria activity are more important factors limiting Nitrobacter spp. mediated nitrite oxidation, rather than the free ammonia concentration. PMID:20153631

Hawkins, Shawn; Robinson, Kevin; Layton, Alice; Sayler, Gary

2010-06-01

165

Organic tank safety project: Preliminary results of energetics and thermal behavior studies of model organic nitrate and/or nitrite mixtures and a simulated organic waste  

SciTech Connect

As a result of years of production and recovery of nuclear defense materials and subsequent waste management at the Hanford Site, organic-bearing radioactive high-level wastes (HLW) are currently stored in large (up to 3. ML) single-shell storage tanks (SSTs). Because these wastes contain both fuels (organics) and the oxidants nitrate and nitrite, rapid energetic reactions at certain conditions could occur. In support of Westinghouse Hanford Company`s (WHC) efforts to ensure continued safe storage of these organic- and oxidant-bearing wastes and to define the conditions necessary for reactions to occur, we measured the thermal sensitivities and thermochemical and thermokinetic properties of mixtures of selected organics and sodium nitrate and/or nitrite and a simulated Hanford organic-bearing waste using thermoanalytical technologies. These thermoanalytical technologies are used by chemical reactivity hazards evaluation organizations within the chemical industry to assess chemical reaction hazards.

Scheele, R.D.; Sell, R.L.; Sobolik, J.L.; Burger, L.L.

1995-08-01

166

A downsized flow set up based on multicommutation for the sequential photometric determination of iron(II)\\/iron(III) and nitrite\\/nitrate in surface water  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a downsized flow set up designed based on multicommutation concept for photometric determination of iron(II)\\/iron(III) and nitrite\\/nitrate is surface water is described. The flow system network comprised a set of three-way solenoid valves, reaction coil and a double-channel flow cell, which were nested in order to obtain a compact and small-size instrument. To accomplish the downsizing requirement

Mário Almir Feres; Boaventura F. Reis

2005-01-01

167

Fluidic automation of nitrate and nitrite bioassays in whole blood by dissolvable-film based centrifugo-pneumatic actuation.  

PubMed

This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

Nwankire, Charles E; Chan, Di-Sien S; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

2013-01-01

168

Fluidic Automation of Nitrate and Nitrite Bioassays in Whole Blood by Dissolvable-Film Based Centrifugo-Pneumatic Actuation  

PubMed Central

This paper demonstrates the full centrifugal microfluidic integration and automation of all liquid handling steps of a 7-step fluorescence-linked immunosorbent assay (FLISA) for quantifying nitrate and nitrite levels in whole blood within about 15 min. The assay protocol encompasses the extraction of metered plasma, the controlled release of sample and reagents (enzymes, co-factors and fluorescent labels), and incubation and detection steps. Flow control is implemented by a rotationally actuated dissolvable film (DF) valving scheme. In the valves, the burst pressure is primarily determined by the radial position, geometry and volume of the valve chamber and its inlet channel and can thus be individually tuned over an extraordinarily wide range of equivalent spin rates between 1,000 RPM and 5,500 RPM. Furthermore, the vapour barrier properties of the DF valves are investigated in this paper in order to further show the potential for commercially relevant on-board storage of liquid reagents during shelf-life of bioanalytical, ready-to-use discs. PMID:24064595

Nwankire, Charles E.; Chan, Di-Sien S.; Gaughran, Jennifer; Burger, Robert; Gorkin, Robert; Ducrée, Jens

2013-01-01

169

Nitrosomonas Nm143-like ammonia oxidizers and Nitrospira marina-like nitrite oxidizers dominate the nitrifier community in a marine aquaculture biofilm.  

PubMed

Zero-discharge marine aquaculture systems are an environmentally friendly alternative to conventional aquaculture. In these systems, water is purified and recycled via microbial biofilters. Here, quantitative data on nitrifier community structure of a trickling filter biofilm associated with a recirculating marine aquaculture system are presented. Repeated rounds of the full-cycle rRNA approach were necessary to optimize DNA extraction and the probe set for FISH to obtain a reliable and comprehensive picture of the ammonia-oxidizing community. Analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase gene (amoA) confirmed the results. The most abundant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) were members of the Nitrosomonas sp. Nm143-lineage (6.7% of the bacterial biovolume), followed by Nitrosomonas marina-like AOB (2.2% of the bacterial biovolume). Both were outnumbered by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria of the Nitrospira marina-lineage (15.7% of the bacterial biovolume). Although more than eight other nitrifying populations were detected, including Crenarchaeota closely related to the ammonia-oxidizer 'Nitrosopumilus maritimus', their collective abundance was below 1% of the total biofilm volume; their contribution to nitrification in the biofilter is therefore likely to be negligible. PMID:18093145

Foesel, Bärbel U; Gieseke, Armin; Schwermer, Carsten; Stief, Peter; Koch, Liat; Cytryn, Eddie; de la Torré, José R; van Rijn, Jaap; Minz, Dror; Drake, Harold L; Schramm, Andreas

2008-02-01

170

Ammonia transformations and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in a clay soil underlying a manure pond.  

PubMed

Unlined manure ponds are constructed on clay soil worldwide to manage farm waste. Seepage of ammonia-rich liquor into underlying soil layers contributes to groundwater contamination by nitrate. To identify the possible processes that lead to the production of nitrate from ammonia in this oxygen-limited environment, we studied the diversity and abundance of ammonia-transforming microorganisms under an unlined manure pond. The numbers of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and anammox bacteria were most abundant in the top of the soil profile and decreased significantly with depth (0.5 m), correlating with soil pore-water ammonia concentrations and soil ammonia concentrations, respectively. On the other hand, the numbers of ammonia-oxidizing archaea were relatively constant throughout the soil profile (10(7) amoA copies per g(soil)). Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria were detected mainly in the top 0.2 m. The results suggest that nitrate accumulation in the vadose zone under the manure pond could be the result of complete aerobic nitrification (ammonia oxidation to nitrate) and could exist as a byproduct of anammox activity. While the majority of the nitrogen was removed within the 0.5-m soil section, possibly by combined anammox and heterotrophic denitrification, a fraction of the produced nitrate leached into the groundwater. PMID:22385337

Sher, Yonatan; Baram, Shahar; Dahan, Ofer; Ronen, Zeev; Nejidat, Ali

2012-07-01

171

Effect of nitrate and nitrite on sulfide production by two thermophilic, sulfate-reducing enrichments from an oil field in the North Sea.  

PubMed

Thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria (tSRB) can be major contributors to the production of H(2)S (souring) in oil reservoirs. Two tSRB enrichments from a North Sea oil field, NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, were obtained at 58 degrees C with acetate-propionate-butyrate and with lactate as the electron donor, respectively. Analysis by rDNA sequencing indicated the presence of Thermodesulforhabdus norvegicus in NS-tSRB1 and of Archaeoglobus fulgidus in NS-tSRB2. Nitrate (10 mM) had no effect on H(2)S production by mid-log phase cultures of NS-tSRB1 and NS-tSRB2, whereas nitrite (0.25 mM or higher) inhibited sulfate reduction. NS-tSRB1 did not recover from inhibition, whereas sulfate reduction activity of NS-tSRB2 recovered after 500 h. Nitrite was also effective in souring inhibition and H(2)S removal in upflow bioreactors, whereas nitrate was similarly ineffective. Hence, nitrite may be preferable for souring prevention in some high-temperature oil fields because it reacts directly with sulfide and provides long-lasting inhibition of sulfate reduction. PMID:17245576

Kaster, Krista M; Grigoriyan, Alexander; Jenneman, Gary; Jennneman, Gary; Voordouw, Gerrit

2007-05-01

172

A shortcut to wide-ranging biological actions of dietary polyphenols: modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway in the gut.  

PubMed

Dietary polyphenols are complex, natural compounds with recognized health benefits. Initially attractive to the biomedical area due to their in vitro antioxidant properties, the biological implications of polyphenols are now known to be far from their acute ability to scavenge free radicals but rather to modulate redox signaling pathways. Actually, it is now recognized that dietary polyphenols are extensively metabolized in vivo and that the chemical, biophysical and biological properties of their metabolites are, in most cases, quite different from the ones of the parent molecules. Hence, the study of the metabolic, absorptive and signaling pathways of both phenolics and derivatives has become a major issue. In this paper we propose a short-cut for the systemic effects of polyphenols in connection with nitric oxide (?NO) biology. This free radical is a ubiquitous signaling molecule with pivotal functions in vivo. It is produced through an enzymatic pathway and also through the reduction of dietary nitrate and nitrite in the human stomach. At acidic gastric pH, dietary polyphenols, in the form they are conveyed in foods and at high concentration, not only promote nitrite reduction to ?NO but also embark in a complex network of chemical reactions to produce higher nitrogen oxides with signaling functions, namely by inducing post-translational modifications. Modified endogenous molecules, such as nitrated proteins and lipids, acquire important physiological functions. Thus, local and systemic effects of ?NO such as modulation of vascular tone, mucus production in the gut and protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury are, in this sense, triggered by dietary polyphenols. Evidence to support the signaling and biological effects of polyphenols by modulation of the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway will be herein provided and discussed. General actions of polyphenols encompassing absorption and metabolism in the intestine/liver are short-cut via the production of diffusible species in the stomach that have not only a local but also a general impact. PMID:24912104

Rocha, Bárbara S; Nunes, Carla; Pereira, Cassilda; Barbosa, Rui M; Laranjinha, João

2014-08-01

173

Development of a new generation low cost treatment of ammonia for livestock effluents using anammox and nitritation  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Excess ammonia in livestock production is a global problem, and the use of conventional biological nitrogen (N) removal methods is expensive. We developed a new generation, low cost treatment system suitable for high ammonia livestock effluents that is based on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anam...

174

Simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in dew, rain, snow and lake water samples by ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, fast, sensitive and accurate reversed-phase ion-pair HPLC method for simultaneous determination of nitrite and nitrate in atmospheric liquids and lake waters has been developed. Separations were accomplished in less than 10min using a reversed-phase C18 column (150mm×2.00mm i.d., 5?m particle size) with a mobile phase containing 83% 3.0mM ion-interaction reagent tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBA-OH) and 2.0mM sodium phosphate buffer

Yuegang Zuo; Chengjun Wang; Thuan Van

2006-01-01

175

Fate of Nitrate Acquired by the Tubeworm Riftia pachyptila  

PubMed Central

The hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila lacks a mouth and gut and lives in association with intracellular, sulfide-oxidizing chemoautotrophic bacteria. Growth of this tubeworm requires an exogenous source of nitrogen for biosynthesis, and, as determined in previous studies, environmental ammonia and free amino acids appear to be unlikely sources of nitrogen. Nitrate, however, is present in situ (K. Johnson, J. Childress, R. Hessler, C. Sakamoto-Arnold, and C. Beehler, Deep-Sea Res. 35:1723–1744, 1988), is taken up by the host, and can be chemically reduced by the symbionts (U. Hentschel and H. Felbeck, Nature 366:338–340, 1993). Here we report that at an in situ concentration of 40 ?M, nitrate is acquired by R. pachyptila at a rate of 3.54 ?mol g?1 h?1, while elimination of nitrite and elimination of ammonia occur at much lower rates (0.017 and 0.21 ?mol g?1 h?1, respectively). We also observed reduction of nitrite (and accordingly nitrate) to ammonia in the trophosome tissue. When R. pachyptila tubeworms are exposed to constant in situ conditions for 60 h, there is a difference between the amount of nitrogen acquired via nitrate uptake and the amount of nitrogen lost via nitrite and ammonia elimination, which indicates that there is a nitrogen “sink.” Our results demonstrate that storage of nitrate does not account for the observed stoichiometric differences in the amounts of nitrogen. Nitrate uptake was not correlated with sulfide or inorganic carbon flux, suggesting that nitrate is probably not an important oxidant in metabolism of the symbionts. Accordingly, we describe a nitrogen flux model for this association, in which the product of symbiont nitrate reduction, ammonia, is the primary source of nitrogen for the host and the symbionts and fulfills the association's nitrogen needs via incorporation of ammonia into amino acids. PMID:10877768

Girguis, Peter R.; Lee, Raymond W.; Desaulniers, Nicole; Childress, James J.; Pospesel, Mark; Felbeck, Horst; Zal, Franck

2000-01-01

176

Nitrates  

MedlinePLUS

... prescription instructions. Why do I need to take nitrates? Nitrates are used to treat the chest pain associated ... symptoms of congestive heart failure (CHF) . How do nitrates work? Nitrates are a vasodilator . Vasodilators widen (dilate) ...

177

(PRESENTED AT CMAS) THE NONLINEAR RESPONSE OF NITRATE REPLACEMENT THAT MITIGATES SULFATE REDUCTION: THE GAS RATION AS AN INDICTOR AND SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE  

EPA Science Inventory

The poster presents an assessment, using the CMAQ air quality model, showing the inorganic gas ratio (the ratio of free ammonia to total nitrate) can function as a screening indicator of the winter replacement of sulfate by nitrate when sulfate is reduced. It also presents an as...

178

OBSERVABLE INDICATORS OF THE SENSITIVITY OF PM 2.5 NITRATE TO EMISSION REDUCTIONS, PART II: SENSITIVITY TO ERRORS IN TOTAL AMMONIA AND TOTAL NITRATE OF THE CMAQ-PREDICTED NONLINEAR EFFECT OF SO 2 EMISSION REDUCTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The inorganic aerosol system of sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium can respond nonlinearly to changes in precursor sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. The potential increase in nitrate, when sulfate is reduced and the associated ammonia is released, can negate the sulfate mass...

179

AMMONIA  

EPA Science Inventory

This document summarizes the available information on ammonia as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Ammonia is a ubiquitous substance and is known widely as a household cleaning agent and as a fertilizer. It plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle--in the...

180

Effects on inorganic nitrogen compounds release of contaminated sediment treatment with in situ calcium nitrate injection.  

PubMed

Notable releases of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia are often observed in contaminated sediment treatment works implementing in situ calcium nitrate injection. In order to provide extended information for making best decision of employing this in situ sediment remediation technology, in this study the releases of nitrate, nitrite, and ammonia from the sediment after the calcium nitrate addition operation was investigated in column setups designed to simulate the scenarios of a stagnant water (e.g., a pound or small lake) and a tidal-influenced water (e.g., a river mouth), respectively. Comparison with published aquatic toxicity data or authorized criteria was conducted to assess if there is any toxic effect that might be induced. Along with the vigorous N2 emission due to the denitrification reactions which occurred in the treated sediment, external loaded nitrate, intermediately produced nitrite, and indigenous ammonia in the sediment showed being mobilized and released out. Their promoted release and fast buildup in the overlying water to an excessive level probably cause toxic effects to sensitive freshwater living species. Among them, the potential ecological risk induced by the promoted sediment ammonia release is the greatest, and cautions shall be raised for applying the calcium nitrate injection in ammonia-rich sediments. The caused impacts shall be less violent in a tidal-influenced water body, and comparatively, the continuous and fast accumulation of the released inorganic nitrogen compounds in a stagnant water body might impose severer influences to the ecosystem until being further transferred to less harmful forms. PMID:25135170

Liu, Tongzhou; Yuan, Jiajia; Dong, Wenyi; Wu, Huacai; Wang, Hongjie

2015-01-01

181

Nitrate reductase from Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides.  

PubMed Central

The facultative phototroph Rhodopseudomonas sphaeroides DSM158 was incapable of either assimilating or dissimilating nitrate, although the organism could reduce it enzymatically to nitrite either anaerobically in the light or aerobically in the dark. Reduction of nitrate was mediated by a nitrate reductase bound to chromatophores that could be easily solubilized and functioned with chemically reduced viologens or photochemically reduced flavins as electron donors. The enzyme was solubilized, and some of its kinetic and molecular parameters were determined. It seemed to be nonadaptive, ammonia did not repress its synthesis, and its activity underwent a rapid decline when the cells entered the stationary growth phase. Studies with inhibitors and with metal antagonists indicated that molybdenum and possibly iron participate in the enzymatic reduction of nitrate. The conjectural significance of this nitrate reductase in phototrophic bacteria is discussed. PMID:6978883

Kerber, N L; Cardenas, J

1982-01-01

182

Signal-dependent phosphorylation of the membrane-bound NarX two-component sensor-transmitter protein of Escherichia coli: nitrate elicits a superior anion ligand response compared to nitrite.  

PubMed

The Nar two-component regulatory system, consisting of the dual sensor-transmitters NarX and NarQ and the dual response regulators NarL and NarP, controls the expression of various anaerobic respiratory pathway genes and fermentation pathway genes. Although both NarX and NarQ are known to detect the two environmental signals nitrate and nitrite, little is known regarding the sensitivity and selectivity of ligand for detection or activation of the sensor-transmitters. In this study, we have developed a sensitive anion-specific in vitro assay for NarX autophosphorylation by using Escherichia coli membranes highly enriched in the full-length NarX protein. In this ATP- and magnesium-dependent reaction, nitrate elicited a greater signal output (i.e., NarX autophosphorylation) than did nitrite. Nitrate stimulation occurred at concentrations as low as 5 microM, and the half-maximal level of NarX autophosphorylation occurred at approximately 35 microM nitrate. In contrast, nitrite-dependent stimulation was detected only at 500 microM, while 3.5 mM nitrite was needed to achieve half-maximal NarX autophosphorylation. Maximal nitrate- and nitrite-stimulated levels of NarX phosphorylation were five and two times, respectively, over the basal level of NarX autophosphorylation. The presence of Triton X-100 eliminated the nitrate-stimulated kinase activity and lowered the basal level of activity, suggesting that the membrane environment plays a crucial role in nitrate detection and/or regulation of kinase activity. These results provide in vitro evidence for the differential detection of dual signaling ligands by the NarX sensor-transmitter protein, which modulates the cytoplasmic NarX autokinase activity and phosphotransfer to NarL, the cognate response regulator. PMID:10464202

Lee, A I; Delgado, A; Gunsalus, R P

1999-09-01

183

Dairy slurry application method impacts ammonia emission and nitrate in no-till corn silage.  

PubMed

Reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions through slurry incorporation or other soil management techniques may increase nitrate (NO3) leaching, so quantifying potential losses from these alternative pathways is essential to improving slurry N management. Slurry N losses, as NH3 or NO3 were evaluated over 4 yr in south-central Wisconsin. Slurry (i.e., dairy cow [Bos taurus] manure from a storage pit) was applied each spring at a single rate (-75 m3 ha(-1)) in one of three ways: surface broadcast (SURF), surface broadcast followed by partial incorporation using an aerator implement (AER-INC), and injection (INJ). Ammonia emissions were measured during the 120 h following slurry application using chambers, and NO3 leaching was monitored in drainage lysimeters. Yield and N3 uptake of oat (Avena sativa L.), corn (Zea mays L.), and winter rye (Secale cereale L.) were measured each year, and at trial's end soils were sampled in 15- to 30-cm increments to 90-cm depth. There were significant tradeoffs in slurry N loss among pathways: annual mean NH3-N emission across all treatments was 5.3, 38.3, 12.4, and 21.8 kg ha(-1) and annual mean NO3-N leaching across all treatments was 24.1, 0.9, 16.9, and 7.3 kg ha' during Years 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Slurry N loss amounted to 27.1% of applied N from the SURF treatment (20.5% as NH3-N and 6.6% as NO,-N), 23.3% from AER-INC (12.0% as NH3-N and 11.3% as NO3-N), and 9.19% from INJ (4.4% as NH3-N and 4.7% as NO3-N). Although slurry incorporation decreased slurry N loss, the conserved slurry N did not significantly impact crop yield, crop N uptake or soil properties at trial's end. PMID:21520745

Powell, J M; Jokela, W E; Misselbrook, T H

2011-01-01

184

Comparison of nitrite\\/nitrate concentration in human plasma and serum samples measured by the enzymatic batch Griess assay, ion-pairing HPLC and ion-trap GC–MS: The importance of a correct removal of proteins in the Griess assay  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mass spectrometry-based approaches are the reference techniques for the determination of nitrite and nitrate in plasma and serum. However, due to their simplicity and rapidity, assays based on the Griess reaction or HPLC are generally used in clinical studies, but they generate diverging values for nitrite\\/nitrate concentration. In this study, particular attention is paid to the optimization of the deproteinization

Federica Romitelli; Stefano Angelo Santini; Eleonora Chierici; Dario Pitocco; Barbara Tavazzi; Angela Maria Amorini; Giuseppe Lazzarino; Enrico Di Stasio

2007-01-01

185

Post-anoxic denitrification via nitrite driven by PHB in feast-famine sequencing batch reactor.  

PubMed

Recently, it was found that excess phosphorus removal could be induced by aerobic/extended-idle regime. In this study, an anoxic period was introduced after the aeration to realize simultaneous nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The results demonstrated that stable partial nitrification could be achieved by controlling the aeration duration at 2.5h because it could not only obtain a desirable ammonia oxidation to nitrite but also avoid the extensive aeration converting nitrite to nitrate, and moreover, the accumulated poly-3-hydroxybutyrate still remain in a relative sufficient concentration (1.5mmolCg(-1) VSS), which could subsequently served as internal carbon source for post-anoxic denitrification. The nitrite accumulation ratio was observed to have relatively high correlation with biological nutrient removal. Over stages with stable high-level nitrite accumulation, the process achieved desirable and stable nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies averaging 95% and 99% respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that the faster growth rate of the ammonia oxidizing bacteria than the nitrite oxidizing bacteria was the main reason for achieving nitrite accumulation. In addition, the secondary phosphorus release was negligible and the process maintained excellent nutrient removal under low influent ammonia nitrogen. PMID:23769322

Chen, Hong-Bo; Yang, Qi; Li, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Yan; Luo, Kun; Zeng, Guang-Ming

2013-08-01

186

The Nitrate Reductase and Nitrite Reductase Operons and the narT Gene of Staphylococcus carnosus Are Positively Controlled by the Novel Two-Component System NreBC  

PubMed Central

In Staphylococcus carnosus, the nreABC (for nitrogen regulation) genes were identified and shown to link the nitrate reductase operon (narGHJI) and the putative nitrate transporter gene narT. An nreABC deletion mutant, m1, was dramatically affected in nitrate and nitrite reduction and growth. Transcription of narT, narGHJI, and the nitrite reductase (nir) operon was severely reduced even when cells were cultivated anaerobically without nitrate or nitrite. nreABC transcripts were detected when cells were grown aerobically or anaerobically with or without nitrate or nitrite. NreA is a GAF domain-containing protein of unknown function. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that NreC is phosphorylated by NreB and that phospho-NreC specifically binds to a GC-rich palindromic sequence to enhance transcription initiation. This binding motif was found at the narGHJI, nir, and narT promoters but not at the moeB promoter. NreB is a cytosolic protein with four N-terminal cysteine residues. The second cysteine residue was shown to be important for NreB function. In vitro autophosphorylation of NreB was not affected by nitrate, nitrite, or molybdate. The nir promoter activity was iron dependent. The data provide evidence for a global regulatory system important for aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, with NreB and NreC forming a classical two-component system and NreB acting as a sensor protein with oxygen as the effector molecule. PMID:12426351

Fedtke, I.; Kamps, A.; Krismer, B.; Götz, F.

2002-01-01

187

The nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase operons and the narT gene of Staphylococcus carnosus are positively controlled by the novel two-component system NreBC.  

PubMed

In Staphylococcus carnosus, the nreABC (for nitrogen regulation) genes were identified and shown to link the nitrate reductase operon (narGHJI) and the putative nitrate transporter gene narT. An nreABC deletion mutant, m1, was dramatically affected in nitrate and nitrite reduction and growth. Transcription of narT, narGHJI, and the nitrite reductase (nir) operon was severely reduced even when cells were cultivated anaerobically without nitrate or nitrite. nreABC transcripts were detected when cells were grown aerobically or anaerobically with or without nitrate or nitrite. NreA is a GAF domain-containing protein of unknown function. In vivo and in vitro studies showed that NreC is phosphorylated by NreB and that phospho-NreC specifically binds to a GC-rich palindromic sequence to enhance transcription initiation. This binding motif was found at the narGHJI, nir, and narT promoters but not at the moeB promoter. NreB is a cytosolic protein with four N-terminal cysteine residues. The second cysteine residue was shown to be important for NreB function. In vitro autophosphorylation of NreB was not affected by nitrate, nitrite, or molybdate. The nir promoter activity was iron dependent. The data provide evidence for a global regulatory system important for aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, with NreB and NreC forming a classical two-component system and NreB acting as a sensor protein with oxygen as the effector molecule. PMID:12426351

Fedtke, I; Kamps, A; Krismer, B; Götz, F

2002-12-01

188

Effects of 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate gel on resistance exercise performance and blood nitrate/nitrite in resistance trained men.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide dietary supplements are popular within the sport community. Our recent work involving the oral intake of 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate demonstrated an approximately 6.7% increase in circulating nitrate/nitrite. However, no measures of exercise performance were obtained. The present study used a topical form of this molecule to determine the impact on exercise performance and blood nitrate/nitrite. Fourteen resistance trained men (24 ± 1 years old) reported to the laboratory on 2 occasions to undergo exercise testing, which consisted of arm curl isometric force and muscular endurance (3 sets to fatigue using 80, 65, and 50% of 1 repetition maximum [1RM]: total of 9 sets). The gel (2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate; mixed in tea tree oil) or placebo (tea tree oil) was applied topically by the subjects for 7 days before each test day, with 7-10 days separating the randomly ordered conditions. Blood samples, arm circumference, and perceived "muscle pump" were taken before and immediately after exercise on both test days. The heart rate and perceived exertion were measured after each set. No statistically significant differences were noted between conditions for performance variables (p > 0.05). However, when using a load of 50% of 1RM, 6.2% more repetitions were performed when using the gel as compared with when using the placebo; 19.9% more repetitions were performed by 8 subjects noted to be "responders" to gel treatment. Blood lactate and muscle pump significantly increased with exercise (p < 0.0001) but were not different between conditions (p > 0.05). Minimal change was noted in nitrate/nitrite, and the heart rate and perceived exertion were nearly identical between conditions (p > 0.05). These findings indicate that 2-nitrooxy ethyl 2-amino 3-methylbutanoate gel has a modest (6.2%), nonstatistically significant effect on exercise performance, in particular when using a load of 50% 1RM-with greater benefit noted in selected individuals. Studies inclusive of a larger sample size are needed to extend these initial findings. PMID:21921823

Bloomer, Richard J; Alleman, Rick J; Cantrell, Greg S; Farney, Tyler M; Schilling, Brian K

2012-06-01

189

Diversity and Abundance of Nitrate Reductase Genes (narG and napA), Nitrite Reductase Genes (nirS and nrfA), and Their Transcripts in Estuarine Sediments?  

PubMed Central

Estuarine systems are the major conduits for the transfer of nitrate from agricultural and other terrestrial-anthropogenic sources into marine ecosystems. Within estuarine sediments some microbially driven processes (denitrification and anammox) result in the net removal of nitrogen from the environment, while others (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium) do not. In this study, molecular approaches have been used to investigate the diversity, abundance, and activity of the nitrate-reducing communities in sediments from the hypernutrified Colne estuary, United Kingdom, via analysis of nitrate and nitrite reductase genes and transcripts. Sequence analysis of cloned PCR-amplified narG, napA, and nrfA gene sequences showed the indigenous nitrate-reducing communities to be both phylogenetically diverse and also divergent from previously characterized nitrate reduction sequences in soils and offshore marine sediments and from cultured nitrate reducers. In both the narG and nrfA libraries, the majority of clones (48% and 50%, respectively) were related to corresponding sequences from delta-proteobacteria. A suite of quantitative PCR primers and TaqMan probes was then developed to quantify phylotype-specific nitrate (narG and napA) and nitrite reductase (nirS and nrfA) gene and transcript numbers in sediments from three sites along the estuarine nitrate gradient. In general, both nitrate and nitrite reductase gene copy numbers were found to decline significantly (P < 0.05) from the estuary head towards the estuary mouth. The development and application, for the first time, of quantitative reverse transcription-PCR assays to quantify mRNA sequences in sediments revealed that transcript numbers for three of the five phylotypes quantified were greatest at the estuary head. PMID:17400770

Smith, Cindy J.; Nedwell, David B.; Dong, Liang F.; Osborn, A. Mark

2007-01-01

190

Assessment of Nitrification in Distribution Systems of Waters with Elevated Ammonia Levels  

EPA Science Inventory

The objective of this work is to monitor ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate in drinking water from the distribution systems of four drinking water utilities in Illinois. A monthly drinking water distribution system water quality monitoring protocol for each water utility in Illinois h...

191

N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite from domestic wastewater: main sources and control method.  

PubMed

Nitrite has been commonly recognized as an important factor causing N(2)O production, which weakened the advantages of nitrogen removal via nitrite. To reduce and control N(2)O production from wastewater treatment plants, both long-term and batch tests were carried out to investigate main sources and pathways of N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite from real domestic wastewater. The obtained results showed that N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite was 1.5 times as much as that during nitrogen removal via nitrate. It was further demonstrated that ammonia oxidization were main source of N(2)O production during nitrogen removal from domestic wastewater; whereas, almost no N(2)O was produced during nitrite oxidization and anoxic denitrification. N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite decreased about 50% by applying the step-feed SBR, due to the effective control of nitrite and ammonia, the precursors of N(2)O production. Therefore, the step-feed system is recommended as an effective method to reduce N(2)O production during nitrogen removal via nitrite from domestic wastewater. PMID:20000535

Yang, Qing; Liu, Xiuhong; Peng, Chengyao; Wang, Shuying; Sun, Hongwei; Peng, Yongzhen

2009-12-15

192

Effects of repeated application of sulfadiazine-contaminated pig manure on the abundance and diversity of ammonia and nitrite oxidizers in the root-rhizosphere complex of pasture plants under field conditions  

PubMed Central

In a field experiment, the impact of repeated application of the antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ)-contaminated pig manure was assessed on functional microbial communities involved in ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the root-rhizosphere complexes (RRCs) of diverse plants composing a pasture. We surveyed the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) as well as Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by quantitative PCR (qPCR), and the diversity of amoA AOA and Nitrobacter-like nxrA amplicons using a cloning-sequencing approach. Whereas the first SDZ-contaminated manure application caused only slight effects on the investigated microbial communities and did not change the diversity and abundance pattern significantly, the second application of SDZ-contaminated manure induced an up to 15-fold increased ratio of AOA:AOB and a reduction of nrxA genes. The diversity of AOA amoA increased after the second application of SDZ-contaminated manure compared to the control treatment whereas a clear reduction of nrxA OTUs was visible in the same samples. The results indicate that the application of SDZ may principally affect nitrite oxidation by NOB and alternative pathways like nitrite reduction might be favored under these conditions. PMID:23420031

Ollivier, Julien; Schacht, Daniela; Kindler, Reimo; Groeneweg, Joost; Engel, Marion; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Kleineidam, Kristina; Schloter, Michael

2013-01-01

193

Start-up and bacterial communities of single-stage nitrogen removal using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) for treatment of high strength ammonia wastewater.  

PubMed

In this study, a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) was used to start up the single-stage nitrogen removal system using anammox and partial nitritation (SNAP) process seeding from surplus activated sludge. The volumetric nitrogen loading rate (vNLR) was firstly 0.075 kg N m(-3) d(-1) and then gradually increased to 0.60 kg N m(-3) d(-1). A maximal total nitrogen (TN) removal rate of 0.54 kg N m(-3) d(-1) was achieved by the SNAP process after 132 days operation with NH4(+)-N and TN removal efficiency of 99.4% and 90.5%, respectively. This reactor may have applications for the SNAP process treating high strength ammonia wastewater. And dewatered surplus activated sludge was recommended as the seed sludge for engineering applications. The dominant bacterial strains were Xanthomonas campestris, Nitrosomonas europaea and Ignavibacterium album, corresponding to the percentage of 24%, 22% and 20%, respectively, based on the 16S rDNA amplicon pyrosequencing of the SNAP sludge. PMID:25105271

Zhang, Jianbing; Zhou, Jian; Han, Yi; Zhang, Xiaoguang

2014-10-01

194

Kinetic parameters and inhibition response of ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in membrane bioreactors and conventional activated sludge processes.  

PubMed

Ammonium and nitrite oxidizing biomasses (AOB and NOB) were investigated in parallel pilot plants: a membrane bioreactor (MBR) and a conventional activated sludge process (CASP) fed with domestic wastewater. The kinetics of AOB and NOB were monitored through titrimetric tests. The maximum specific growth rate of the AOB (micro(max,AOB)) was affected by the solids' retention time (SRT) maintained during the start up: by varying the start up SRT from 20 d to 8 d, micro(max,AOB) in the CASP varied from 0.45 d(-1) +/- 0.04 to 0.72 d(-1) +/- 0.2 respectively; the mean value of micro(max,AOB) in the MBR samples (always maintained at SRT = 20 d) was in the range 0.45-0.49 d(-1). The endogenous decay coefficients of the NOB and AOB and the maximum specific growth rates of the NOB were similar in both MBR and CASP. Inhibition tests with different concentrations of allylthiourea (ATU) were carried out on samples from both activated sludge systems: the MBR sludge exhibited higher sensitivity to a low ATU concentration; however, the maximum nitrification activity recovered more rapidly than the CASP sludge. PMID:21275252

Munz, G; Mori, G; Vannini, C; Lubello, C

2010-12-14

195

Potential Role of Nitrite for Abiotic Fe(II) Oxidation and Cell Encrustation during Nitrate Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria  

E-print Network

Reduction by Denitrifying Bacteria Nicole Klueglein,a Fabian Zeitvogel,b York-Dieter Stierhof,c Matthias and microoxic conditions. While most of the mix- otrophic nitrate-reducing Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria become assemblage of Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria in nature and compli- cates our ability to delineate microbial Fe

Konhauser, Kurt

196

Enhanced activity and selectivity of carbon nanofiber supported Pd catalysts for nitrite reduction.  

PubMed

Pd-based catalyst treatment represents an emerging technology that shows promise to remove nitrate and nitrite from drinking water. In this work we use vapor-grown carbon nanofiber (CNF) supports in order to explore the effects of Pd nanoparticle size and interior versus exterior loading on nitrite reduction activity and selectivity (i.e., dinitrogen over ammonia production). Results show that nitrite reduction activity increases by 3.1-fold and selectivity decreases by 8.0-fold, with decreasing Pd nanoparticle size from 1.4 to 9.6 nm. Both activity and selectivity are not significantly influenced by Pd interior versus exterior CNF loading. Consequently, turnover frequencies (TOFs) among all CNF catalysts are similar, suggesting nitrite reduction is not sensitive to Pd location on CNFs nor Pd structure. CNF-based catalysts compare favorably to conventional Pd catalysts (i.e., Pd on activated carbon or alumina) with respect to nitrite reduction activity and selectivity, and they maintain activity over multiple reduction cycles. Hence, our results suggest new insights that an optimum Pd nanoparticle size on CNFs balances faster kinetics with lower ammonia production, that catalysts can be tailored at the nanoscale to improve catalytic performance for nitrite, and that CNFs hold promise as highly effective catalyst supports in drinking water treatment. PMID:22295991

Shuai, Danmeng; Choe, Jong Kwon; Shapley, John R; Werth, Charles J

2012-03-01

197

Toxicity of Nitrite to Fish: A Review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms

William M. Lewis Jr; Donald P. Morris

1986-01-01

198

The Conversion of Nitrite to Nitrogen Oxide(s) by the Constitutive NAD(P)H-Nitrate Reductase Enzyme from Soybean.  

PubMed

A two-step purification protocol was used in an attempt to separate the constitutive NAD(P)H-nitrate reductase [NAD(P)H-NR, pH 6.5; EC 1.6.6.2] activity from the nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide (NO((x))) evolution activity extracted from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaflets. Both of these activities were eluted with NADPH from Blue Sepharose columns loaded with extracts from either wild-type or LNR-5 and LNR-6 (lack constitutive NADH-NR [pH 6.5]) mutant soybean plants regardless of nutrient growth conditions. Fast protein liquid chromatography-anion exchange (Mono Q column) chromatography following Blue Sepharose affinity chromatography was also unable to separate the two activities. These data provide strong evidence that the constitutive NAD(P)H-NR (pH 6.5) in soybean is the enzyme responsible for NO((x)) formation. The Blue Sepharose-purified soybean enzyme has a pH optimum of 6.75, an apparent K(m) for nitrite of 0.49 millimolar, and an apparent K(m) for NADPH and NADH of 7.2 and 7.4 micromolar, respectively, for the NO((x)) evolution activity. In addition to NAD(P)H, reduced flavin mononucleotide (FMNH(2)) and reduced methyl viologen (MV) can serve as electron donors for NO((x)) evolution activity. The NADPH-, FMNH(2)-, and reduced MV-NO((x)) evolution activities were all inhibited by cyanide. The NADPH activity was also inhibited by p-hydroxymer-curibenzoate, whereas, the FMNH(2) and MV activities were relatively insensitive to inhibition. These data indicate that the terminal molybdenum-containing portion of the enzyme is involved in the reduction of nitrite to NO((x)). NADPH eluted both NR and NO((x)) evolution activities from Blue Sepharose columns loaded with extracts of either nitrate- or zero N-grown winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus [L.]), whereas NADH did not elute either type of activity. Winged bean appears to contain only one type of NR enzyme that is similar to the constitutive NAD(P)H-NR (pH 6.5) enzyme of soybean. PMID:16666314

Dean, J V; Harper, J E

1988-10-01

199

[Screening and nitrogen transformation activity of ammonia-oxidizing molds during aerobic chicken manure composting].  

PubMed

In order to explicit the existence and nitrogen transformation activity of ammonia-oxidizing molds during aerobic chicken manure composting, the medium of ammonia-oxidizing molds was used to screen them, and correlation analysis between mycelium biomass and nitrogen transformation indexes was conducted, then high-effective ammonia-oxidizing strains were determined and added into aerobic compost. The results show that all tested strains are able to oxidize ammonium nitrogen to nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, indicating that there are plenty of ammonia-oxidizing molds during aerobic chicken manure composting. Significantly positive correlations are detected between total contents of nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen, mycelium biomass and mycelium Kjeldahl nitrogen. When cultured in the medium of ammonia-oxidizing molds for 144 hours, two high-effective ammonia-oxidizing strains, named M25-22 (Penicillium sp.) and M40-4 (Aspergillus sp.), produce nitrate nitrogen by 1.1 x 10(-3) mg x mL(-1), 1.5 x 10(-3) mg x mL(-1), respectively, and decrease ammonium nitrogen by approximately 0.3 mg x mL(-1). Compared with the control treatment, the composting treatment with microbial agent M25-22 or M40-4 has lower ammonium nitrogen content, and higher contents of nitrate nitrogen and total nitrogen, indicating that they are of practical significance in reducing nitrogen loss during aerobic composting. PMID:21250463

Wang, Li-Qun; Yu, Qi-Lin; Huang, Ming-Yuan

2010-11-01

200

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago12  

PubMed Central

When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the endogenous nitrite production was increased by raising the level of nitrate reductase through simultaneous treatment with nitrate and benzyladenine, the activity of nitrite reductase was not higher than in embryos treated with nitrate alone. On the other hand, tungstate given together with nitrate drastically inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity without reducing the enhancement of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrite enhanced nitrite reductase activity, though less efficiently than nitrate. PMID:16658983

Dilworth, Machi Fukuyama; Kende, Hans

1974-01-01

201

Control of Nitrite Reductase Activity in Excised Embryos of Agrostemma githago.  

PubMed

When excised embryos of Agrostemma githago were incubated with nitrate, the activities of both nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase were enhanced. By contrast, benzyladenine induced nitrate reductase only. Our data suggest that nitrate affected nitrite reductase activity directly, without first being reduced to nitrite. When the endogenous nitrite production was increased by raising the level of nitrate reductase through simultaneous treatment with nitrate and benzyladenine, the activity of nitrite reductase was not higher than in embryos treated with nitrate alone. On the other hand, tungstate given together with nitrate drastically inhibited the development of nitrate reductase activity without reducing the enhancement of nitrite reductase activity. Nitrite enhanced nitrite reductase activity, though less efficiently than nitrate. PMID:16658983

Dilworth, M F; Kende, H

1974-12-01

202

Semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity and total nitrite and nitrate concentrations in serum: novel biochemical markers for type 2 diabetes?  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) and the total nitrite and nitrate (NO( x )) concentrations in serum from type 2 diabetic patients and control subjects in order to evaluate if they could be used as novel diabetic markers. We studied 38 type 2 diabetic patients and 35 control subjects. Serum samples from those subjects were evaluated by radiochemical methods for SSAO activity using (14)C-benzylamine. Serum NO( x ) concentrations were obtained as an index of nitric oxide production by the Griess reaction. Serum SSAO activity was higher in type 2 diabetic patients than in control group and serum SSAO in type 2 diabetic correlated with age, serum creatinine and total cholesterol. Serum NO( x ) levels in type 2 diabetic patients were also significantly higher than those in the control group. Serum NO( x ) levels in control group correlated with serum SSAO activity. In conclusion, the increase in the SSAO activity and NO( x ) levels observed in type 2 diabetic patients could be parameters to take in account and play relevant role in diabetes development. SSAO and NO( x ) are suggested as markers for prognostic of diabetes. PMID:18853098

Nunes, Sandra Fernanda; Figueiredo, Isabel Vitoria; Soares, Paulo João; Costa, Nuria Espriu; Lopes, Maria Celeste; Caramona, Maria Margarida

2009-06-01

203

Analytical properties of some commercially available nitrate reductase enzymes evaluated as replacements for cadmium in automated, semiautomated, and manual colorimetric methods for determination of nitrate plus nitrite in water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

A multiyear research effort at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) evaluated several commercially available nitrate reductase (NaR) enzymes as replacements for toxic cadmium in longstanding automated colorimetric air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer (CFA) methods for determining nitrate plus nitrite (NOx) in water. This research culminated in USGS approved standard- and low-level enzymatic reduction, colorimetric automated discrete analyzer NOx methods that have been in routine operation at the NWQL since October 2011. The enzyme used in these methods (AtNaR2) is a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouseear cress) in the yeast Pichia pastoris. Because the scope of the validation report for these new automated discrete analyzer methods, published as U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 5–B8, was limited to performance benchmarks and operational details, extensive foundational research with different enzymes—primarily YNaR1, a product of recombinant expression of NaR from Pichia angusta in the yeast Pichia pastoris—remained unpublished until now. This report documents research and development at the NWQL that was foundational to development and validation of the discrete analyzer methods. It includes: (1) details of instrumentation used to acquire kinetics data for several NaR enzymes in the presence and absence of known or suspected inhibitors in relation to reaction temperature and reaction pH; and (2) validation results—method detection limits, precision and bias estimates, spike recoveries, and interference studies—for standard- and low-level automated colorimetric CFA-YNaR1 reduction NOx methods in relation to corresponding USGS approved CFA cadmium-reduction (CdR) NOx methods. The cornerstone of this validation is paired sample statistical and graphical analysis of NOx concentrations from more than 3,800 geographically and seasonally diverse surface-water and groundwater samples that were analyzed in parallel by CFA-CdR and CFA enzyme-reduction methods. Finally, (3) demonstration of a semiautomated batch procedure in which 2-milliliter analyzer cups or disposable spectrophotometer cuvettes serve as reaction vessels for enzymatic reduction of nitrate to nitrite prior to analytical determinations. After the reduction step, analyzer cups are loaded onto CFA, flow injection, or discrete analyzers for simple, rapid, automatic nitrite determinations. In the case of manual determinations, analysts dispense colorimetric reagents into cuvettes containing post-reduction samples, allow time for color to develop, insert cuvettes individually into a spectrophotometer, and record percent transmittance or absorbance in relation to a reagent blank. Data presented here demonstrate equivalent analytical performance of enzymatic reduction NOx methods in these various formats to that of benchmark CFA-CdR NOx methods.

Patton, Charles J.; Kryskalla, Jennifer R.

2013-01-01

204

Model-based evaluation on the conversion ratio of ammonium to nitrite in a nitritation process for ammonium-rich wastewater treatment.  

PubMed

Modeling for nitritation process was discussed and analyzed quantitatively for the factors that influence nitrite accumulation. The results indicated that pH, inorganic carbon source and Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT) as well as biomass concentration are the main factors that influenced the conversion ratio of ammonium to nitrite. A constant high pH can lead to a high nitritation rate and results in high conversion ratio on condition that free ammonia inhibition do not happen. In a CSTR system, without pH control, this conversion ratio can be monitored by pH variation in the reactor. The pH goes down far from the inlet level means a strongly nitrite accumulation. High concentration of alkalinity can promoted the conversion ratio by means of accelerating the nitritation rate through providing sufficient inorganic carbon source(carbon dioxide). When inorganic carbon source was depleted, the nitritation process stopped. HRT adjustment could be an efficient way to make the nitritation system run more flexible, which to some extent can meet the requirements of the fluctuant of inlet parameters such as ammonium concentration, pH, and temperature and so on. Biomass concentration is the key point, especially for a CSTR system in steady state, which was normally circumscribed by the characteristics of bacteria and may also affected by aeration mode and can be increased by prolonging the HRT on the condition of no nitrate accumulation when no recirculation available. The higher the biomass concentration is, the better the nitrite accumulation can be obtained. PMID:15900739

Li, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Cornelius, A; Rosenwinkel, K H; Kunst, S; Weichgrebe, D

2004-01-01

205

Efficient electrochemical reduction of nitrate to nitrogen using Ti\\/IrO 2–Pt anode and different cathodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical reduction of nitrate using Fe, Cu, and Ti as cathodes and Ti\\/IrO2–Pt as anode in an undivided and unbuffered cell was studied. In the presence of appropriate amount of NaCl, both cathodic reduction of nitrate and anodic oxidation of the by-products of ammonia and nitrite were achieved by all cathodes under a proper condition. Both in the absence and

Miao Li; Chuanping Feng; Zhenya Zhang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

206

Measurements of nitrite production and nitrite-producing organisms in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central California Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria or archaea and assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton or heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central California Current in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), high-resolution measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process with rates of NH3 oxidation of up to 50 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- profiles supported direct rate measurements of a net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM were similar at the mesotrophic and oligotrophic stations and ranged from 150-205 d. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.

Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

2013-03-01

207

Control of aeration, aerobic SRT and COD input for mainstream nitritation/denitritation.  

PubMed

This work describes the development of an intermittently aerated pilot-scale process (V = 0.34 m(3)) operated without oxidized nitrogen recycle and supplemental carbon addition optimized for nitrogen removal via nitritation/denitritation. The aeration pattern was controlled using a novel aeration strategy based on set-points for reactor ammonia, nitrite and nitrate concentrations with the aim of maintaining equal effluent ammonia and nitrate + nitrite (NOx) concentrations. Further, unique operational and process control strategies were developed to facilitate the out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) based on optimizing the chemical oxygen demand (COD) input, imposing transient anoxia, aggressive solids retention time (SRT) operation towards ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) washout and high dissolved oxygen (DO) (>1.5 mg/L). Sustained nitrite accumulation (NO2-N/NOx-N = 0.36 ± 0.27) was observed while AOB activity was greater than NOB activity (AOB: 391 ± 124 mgN/L/d, NOB: 233 ± 151 mgN/L/d, p < 0.001) during the entire study. The reactor demonstrated total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) removal rate of 151 ± 74 mgN/L/d at an influent COD/ [Formula: see text] -N ratio of 10.4 ± 1.9 at 25 °C. The TIN removal efficiency was 57  ±  25% within the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 3 h and within an SRT of 4-8 days. Therefore, this pilot-scale study demonstrates that application of the proposed online aeration control is able to out-select NOB in mainstream conditions providing relatively high nitrogen removal without supplemental carbon and alkalinity at a low HRT. PMID:24721663

Regmi, Pusker; Miller, Mark W; Holgate, Becky; Bunce, Ryder; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B

2014-06-15

208

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha and nitrite/nitrate responses during acute mastitis induced by Escherichia coli infection and endotoxin in dairy cows.  

PubMed

Concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and of NO(x) (sum of nitrite and nitrate as indicators of endogenous nitric oxide production) in milk and blood plasma were measured in three mastitis models in dairy cows in early lactation. Escherichia coli P4:O37 bacteria or endotoxin O111:B4 were administered into both left quarters of 12 and 6 cows, respectively. Six of the E. coli-infected cows were treated with a bactericidal antibiotic (Enrofloxacin; Bayer AG, Leverkusen, Germany) i.v. at 10 hr and subcutaneously (sc) at 30 hr after infection. NO(x) concentrations transiently increased maximally 10- to 11-fold in milk of E. coli-infected quarters with or without antibiotic treatment at 24 hr and after endotoxin administration. NO(x) concentrations did not change in milk of unchallenged quarters and in blood plasma. Increases of NO(x) were proceeded by a transient (96- to 149-fold) rise of milk TNF-alpha concentrations, which in endotoxin-administered quarters was maximal at 6 hr and in infected quarters without or with Enrofloxacin treatment at 10 and 14 hr. In blood plasma TNF-alpha concentrations only moderately increased to peaks in endotoxin-administered cows at 6 hr and in E. coli-infected cows at 14 hr postchallenge. In one severely sick, nontreated E. coli-infected cow milk, TNF-alpha response at 14 hr was excessive and followed by a spectacular rise of NO(x) concentration in milk between 48 and 72 hr. In conclusion, a possible clinical relevance of nitric oxide production associated with a rise of intramammary and systemic TNF-alpha during acute mastitis by E. coli infection and endotoxin in lactating dairy cows is indicated, but could not be inhibited by antibiotic treatment. PMID:11118787

Blum, J W; Dosogne, H; Hoeben, D; Vangroenweghe, F; Hammon, H M; Bruckmaier, R M; Burvenich, C

2000-11-01

209

Nitrite metabolism in Debaryomyces hansenii TOB-Y7, a yeast strain involved in tobacco fermentation.  

PubMed

The Italian cigar manufacturing process includes a fermentation step that leads to accumulation of nitrite and tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNA), undesirable by-products due to their negative impact on health. In this study, growth and biochemical properties of Debaryomyces hansenii TOB-Y7, a yeast strain that predominates during the early phase of fermentation, have been investigated. With respect to other D. hansenii collection strains (Y7426, J26, and CBS 1796), TOB-Y7 was characterized by the ability to tolerate very high nitrite levels and to utilize nitrite, but not nitrate, as a sole nitrogen source in a chemically defined medium, a property that was enhanced in microaerophilic environment. The ability to assimilate nitrite was associated to the presence of YNI1, the gene encoding the assimilatory NAD(P)H:nitrite reductase (NiR), absent in Y7426, J26, and CBS 1796 by Southern blot data. YNI1 from TOB-Y7 was entirely sequenced, and its expression was analyzed in different media by Northern blot and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The evidence that, in D. hansenii TOB-Y7, YNI1 was transcriptional active also in the presence of high ammonia concentration typical of tobacco fermentation, stimulated the development of an improved process that, on a laboratory scale, was proved to be effective in minimizing nitrite and TSNA accumulation. PMID:17318539

Vigliotta, Giovanni; Di Giacomo, Michele; Carata, Elisabetta; Massardo, Domenica R; Tredici, Salvatore M; Silvestro, Daniele; Paolino, Marianna; Pontieri, Paola; Del Giudice, Luigi; Parente, Dino; Alifano, Pietro

2007-06-01

210

Modelling and simulation revealing mechanisms likely responsible for achieving the nitrite pathway through aeration control.  

PubMed

Nitrogen removal via nitrite has recently gained a lot of interest because it results in significant savings in both aeration costs and COD (chemical oxygen demand) requirements for denitrification, when compared to the conventional biological nitrogen removal via nitrate. The effectiveness of two different control strategies to achieve the nitrite pathway in systems with sludge retention has been experimentally demonstrated: (i) control of aerobic phase length, with which aeration is terminated as soon as ammonia is completely oxidised; (ii) operation at low DO setpoints in the aerobic phase. These strategies have been extensively studied in nitrifying reactors and are currently applied in real systems achieving biological carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus removal. In this work, we aim to demonstrate, through modelling and simulation, that the competition between nitrite reducers and nitrite oxidisers for nitrite, rather than kinetic selection plays a major role in NOB washout. Moreover, the results show that the occurrence of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification under "aerobic" conditions is very helpful for the nitrite pathway obtainment and for a more efficient COD utilisation. PMID:20351425

Guisasola, A; Marcelino, M; Lemaire, R; Baeza, J A; Yuan, Z

2010-01-01

211

Dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium, and nitrate to alpine tundra at Niwot Ridge, Colorado  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70ngNm-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200ngNm-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to have been at or below about 20ngNm-3. Large deposition velocities (>2cms-1) were determined for nitrate and ammonium and may result from reactions with surface-derived aerosols. Copyright (C) 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.Micrometeorological measurements and ambient air samples, analyzed for concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NH4+, and NO3-, were collected at an alpine tundra site on Niwot Ridge, Colorado. The measured concentrations were extremely low and ranged between 5 and 70 ng N m-3. Dry deposition fluxes of these atmospheric species were calculated using the micrometeorological gradient method. The calculated mean flux for NH3 indicates a net deposition to the surface and indicates that NH3 contributed significantly to the total N deposition to the tundra during the August-September measurement period. Our pre-measurement estimate of the compensation point for NH3 in air above the tundra was 100-200 ng N m-3; thus, a net emission of NH3 was expected given the low ambient concentrations of NH3 observed. Based on our results, however, the NH3 compensation point at this alpine tundra site appears to have been at or below about 20 ng N m-3. Large deposition velocities (>2 cm s-1) were determined for nitrate and ammonium and may result from reactions with surface-derived aerosols.

Rattray, G.; Sievering, H.

2001-01-01

212

Some Effects of Sodium on Nitrate Assimilation and N2 Fixation in Anabaena cylindrica  

PubMed Central

Anabaena cylindrica grown with nitrate required higher levels of sodium (0.4 meq/l NaCl) to prevent chlorosis than when grown without combined nitrogen (0.004 meq/l NaCl). Nitrite accumulated in sodium-deficient cultures containing nitrate. Amounts of nitrite similar to those found in deficient cultures when added to normal cultures resulted in a chlorosis of the cells. Thus loss of chlorophyll was caused by nitrite toxicity. A deficiency of sodium resulted in an increased incorporation of 15NO3, 15NO2, 15NH3 or 14C glutamate into protein compared with normal cells. The enzyme nitrate reductase was markedly increased in cells grown without sodium. Evidence from chloramphenicol treatment of the cells suggests that sodium may exert its control of nitrate reductase through a protein factor(s). By contrast, N2 fixation was reduced in sodium deficient cells. Since the incorporation of ammonia or glutamate into protein was increased under these conditions, it is likely that the element is required for the conversion of N2 gas into ammonia. Various nitrogenous compounds including ammonium chloride, amides and amino acids at low concentrations (0.1 mm) greatly reduced the nitrite accumulation in sodium-deficient cultures. PMID:16656597

Brownell, P. F.; Nicholas, D. J. D.

1967-01-01

213

Treatment of nitrate contaminated water using an electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Treatment of nitrate contaminated water which is unsuitable for biological removal using an electrochemical method with Fe as a cathode and Ti\\/IrO2–Pt as an anode in an undivided cell was studied. In the absence and presence of 0.50g\\/L NaCl, the nitrate–N decreased from 100.0 to 7.2 and 12.9mg\\/L in 180min, respectively, and no ammonia and nitrite by-products were detected in

Miao Li; Chuanping Feng; Zhenya Zhang; Shengjiong Yang; Norio Sugiura

2010-01-01

214

Electrochemical reduction of nitrate using various anodes and a Cu\\/Zn cathode  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical reduction of nitrate was studied using a Cu\\/Zn cathode and Ti\\/Pt, Ti\\/IrO2–Pt and Ti\\/RuO2–Pt anodes in an undivided and unbuffered cell. A novel condition for performing both cathodic reduction of nitrate and anodic oxidation of the ammonia and nitrite by-products was achieved using Ti\\/Pt and Ti\\/IrO2–Pt anodes in the presence of NaCl, especially with Ti\\/IrO2–Pt anode. Nitrate could be

Miao Li; Chuanping Feng; Zhenya Zhang; Zhaoli Shen; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

215

Nutritional regulation of plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha and plasma and urinary nitrite/nitrate responses to endotoxin in cattle.  

PubMed

Effects of dietary protein level with and without L-arginine (Arg) infusion on plasma tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) response to endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) as well as plasma concentration and urine output of nitrite and nitrate (NOx), the stable end products of nitric oxide radical (NO), were studied in beef heifers (275-310 kg body wt). The animals were fed low- (LP; 7.96%) or high- (HP; 13.94%) protein diets for 10 days before LPS administration (Escherichia coli; 0.2 microgram/kg, iv). L-Arginine in saline (0.5 g/kg body wt) or saline was infused for 8 hr with one-third of total Arg infused before LPS administration. Plasma TNF-alpha concentrations increased in all heifers after LPS injection (peak at 1 hr and return to baseline at 4 hr); however, concentrations were lower in HP- than in LP-fed heifers at 1, 2, and 3 hr. Infusion of Arg did not affect plasma TNF-alpha response to LPS. Plasma NOx concentrations increased in all heifers after LPS challenge; compared with saline, Arg infusion increased the total response (integrated area under concentration curve) in LP- but not in HP-fed heifers. Relative to pretreatment period, the rate of NOx output in urine collected 2-6 hr after LPS administration increased in all heifers regardless of dietary protein level and was further amplified by Arg infusion. The rate of NOx output in urine collected 6-24 hr after LPS challenge was even higher in LP-fed heifers infused with Arg but returned to the basal values in other groups. Activity of hepatic inducible NO synthase was not affected by LPS, Arg, or dietary protein level at the time points studied. The data suggest that dietary protein levels can modulate both TNF-alpha and NO responses to LPS in cattle; high dietary protein intake decreases TNF-alpha response and attenuates the conversion of supplemental Arg to NO. PMID:9270720

Kahl, S; Elsasser, T H; Blum, J W

1997-09-01

216

Variable Ammonia Production Among Smooth and Rough Strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei: Resemblance to Bacteriocin Production  

PubMed Central

The colonial morphology of some strains of Pseudomonas pseudomallei was correlated with certain biochemical and physiological traits. After 3 days of growth on Wahba or heart infusion agars, smooth-colony strains generated toxic amounts of ammonia. Under the same conditions, the rough strains simultaneously produced oxalic acid which decreased the inhibitory concentration of ammonia. The ammonia-ammonium concentrations in smooth cultures exhibited certain bacteriocin-like characteristics. An unusually stable, smooth strain (strain 165) was chosen to compare and emphasize any differences with typical, rough strain 7815. Three-day-old smooth cultures grown on Wahba agar containing 3% (w/v) glycerol demonstrated ammonia toxicity. The substitution of glucose for glycerol completely obviated this toxicity. In highly aerated Wahba broth containing glucose, the amount of ammonia found in strain 165 smooth cultures and the amount of oxalic acid found in strain 7815 rough cultures were greatly reduced. In Difco nitrate broth smooth strain 165 did not form gas, and it reduced nitrate to nitrite only. Strain 7815 produced a gas and reduced both nitrate and nitrite. PMID:4562401

Rogul, Marvin; Carr, Susan R.

1972-01-01

217

Nitrite Acts as a Transcriptome Signal at Micromolar Concentrations in Arabidopsis Roots1(W)(OA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrate serves as a potent signal to control gene expression in plants and algae, but little is known about the signaling role of nitrite, the direct product of nitrate reduction. Analysis of several nitrate-induced genes showed that nitrite increases mRNA levels as rapidly as nitrate in nitrogen-starved Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) roots. Both nitrite and nitrate induction are apparent at concentrations

Rongchen Wang; Xiujuan Xing; Nigel Crawford

218

Abiotic nitrogen fixation on terrestrial planets: reduction of NO to ammonia by FeS.  

PubMed

Understanding the abiotic fixation of nitrogen and how such fixation can be a supply of prebiotic nitrogen is critical for understanding both the planetary evolution of, and the potential origin of life on, terrestrial planets. As nitrogen is a biochemically essential element, sources of biochemically accessible nitrogen, especially reduced nitrogen, are critical to prebiotic chemistry and the origin of life. Loss of atmospheric nitrogen can result in loss of the ability to sustain liquid water on a planetary surface, which would impact planetary habitability and hydrological processes that shape the surface. It is known that NO can be photochemically converted through a chain of reactions to form nitrate and nitrite, which can be subsequently reduced to ammonia. Here, we show that NO can also be directly reduced, by FeS, to ammonia. In addition to removing nitrogen from the atmosphere, this reaction is particularly important as a source of reduced nitrogen on an early terrestrial planet. By converting NO directly to ammonia in a single step, ammonia is formed with a higher product yield (~50%) than would be possible through the formation of nitrate/nitrite and subsequent conversion to ammonia. In conjunction with the reduction of NO, there is also a catalytic disproportionation at the mineral surface that converts NO to NO? and N?O. The NO? is then converted to ammonia, while the N?O is released back in the gas phase, which provides an abiotic source of nitrous oxide. PMID:22283408

Summers, David P; Basa, Ranor C B; Khare, Bishun; Rodoni, David

2012-02-01

219

Microbial Reduction of Chromate in the Presence of Nitrate by Three Nitrate Respiring Organisms  

PubMed Central

A major challenge for the bioremediation of toxic metals is the co-occurrence of nitrate, as it can inhibit metal transformation. Geobacter metallireducens, Desulfovibrio desulfuricans, and Sulfurospirillum barnesii are three soil bacteria that can reduce chromate [Cr(VI)] and nitrate, and may be beneficial for developing bioremediation strategies. All three organisms respire through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA), employing different nitrate reductases but similar nitrite reductase (Nrf). G. metallireducens reduces nitrate to nitrite via the membrane bound nitrate reductase (Nar), while S. barnesii and D. desulfuricans strain 27774 have slightly different forms of periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap). We investigated the effect of DNRA growth in the presence of Cr(VI) in these three organisms and the ability of each to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and found that each organisms responded differently. Growth of G. metallireducens on nitrate was completely inhibited by Cr(VI). Cultures of D. desulfuricans on nitrate media was initially delayed (48?h) in the presence of Cr(VI), but ultimately reached comparable cell yields to the non-treated control. This prolonged lag phase accompanied the transformation of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). Viable G. metallireducens cells could reduce Cr(VI), whereas Cr(VI) reduction by D. desulfuricans during growth, was mediated by a filterable and heat stable extracellular metabolite. S. barnesii growth on nitrate was not affected by Cr(VI), and Cr(VI) was reduced to Cr(III). However, Cr(VI) reduction activity in S. barnesii, was detected in both the cell free spent medium and cells, indicating both extracellular and cell associated mechanisms. Taken together, these results have demonstrated that Cr(VI) affects DNRA in the three organisms differently, and that each have a unique mechanism for Cr(VI) reduction. PMID:23251135

Chovanec, Peter; Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Zhang, Ning; Basu, Partha; Stolz, John F.

2012-01-01

220

The history of aerobic ammonia oxidizers: from the first discoveries to today.  

PubMed

Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, has long been considered a central biological process in the global nitrogen cycle, with its first description dated 133 years ago. Until 2005, bacteria were considered the only organisms capable of nitrification. However, the recent discovery of a chemoautotrophic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon, Nitrosopumilus maritimus, changed our concept of the range of organisms involved in nitrification, highlighting the importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as potential players in global biogeochemical nitrogen transformations. The uniqueness of these archaea justified the creation of a novel archaeal phylum, Thaumarchaeota. These recent discoveries increased the global scientific interest within the microbial ecology society and have triggered an analysis of the importance of bacterial vs archaeal ammonia oxidation in a wide range of natural ecosystems. In this mini review we provide a chronological perspective of the current knowledge on the ammonia oxidation pathway of nitrification, based on the main physiological, ecological and genomic discoveries. PMID:24972807

Monteiro, Maria; Séneca, Joana; Magalhães, Catarina

2014-07-01

221

Measurements of nitrite production in and around the primary nitrite maximum in the central California Current  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nitrite (NO2-) is a substrate for both oxidative and reductive microbial metabolism. NO2- accumulates at the base of the euphotic zone in oxygenated, stratified open-ocean water columns, forming a feature known as the primary nitrite maximum (PNM). Potential pathways of NO2- production include the oxidation of ammonia (NH3) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea as well as assimilatory nitrate (NO3-) reduction by phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacteria. Measurements of NH3 oxidation and NO3- reduction to NO2- were conducted at two stations in the central California Current in the eastern North Pacific to determine the relative contributions of these processes to NO2- production in the PNM. Sensitive (< 10 nmol L-1), precise measurements of [NH4+] and [NO2-] indicated a persistent NH4+ maximum overlying the PNM at every station, with concentrations as high as 1.5 ?mol L-1. Within and just below the PNM, NH3 oxidation was the dominant NO2- producing process, with rates of NH3 oxidation to NO2- of up to 31 nmol L-1 d-1, coinciding with high abundances of ammonia-oxidizing archaea. Though little NO2- production from NO3- was detected, potentially nitrate-reducing phytoplankton (photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Synechococcus, and Prochlorococcus) were present at the depth of the PNM. Rates of NO2- production from NO3- were highest within the upper mixed layer (4.6 nmol L-1 d-1) but were either below detection limits or 10 times lower than NH3 oxidation rates around the PNM. One-dimensional modeling of water column NO2- production agreed with production determined from 15N bottle incubations within the PNM, but a modeled net biological sink for NO2- just below the PNM was not captured in the incubations. Residence time estimates of NO2- within the PNM ranged from 18 to 470 days at the mesotrophic station and was 40 days at the oligotrophic station. Our results suggest the PNM is a dynamic, rather than relict, feature with a source term dominated by ammonia oxidation.

Santoro, A. E.; Sakamoto, C. M.; Smith, J. M.; Plant, J. N.; Gehman, A. L.; Worden, A. Z.; Johnson, K. S.; Francis, C. A.; Casciotti, K. L.

2013-11-01

222

Nitrate and periplasmic nitrate reductases  

PubMed Central

The nitrate anion is a simple, abundant and relatively stable species, yet plays a significant role in global cycling of nitrogen, global climate change, and human health. Although it has been known for quite some time that nitrate is an important species environmentally, recent studies have identified potential medical applications. In this respect the nitrate anion remains an enigmatic species that promises to offer exciting science in years to come. Many bacteria readily reduce nitrate to nitrite via nitrate reductases. Classified into three distinct types – periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), respiratory nitrate reductase (Nar) and assimilatory nitrate reductase (Nas), they are defined by their cellular location, operon organization and active site structure. Of these, Nap proteins are the focus of this review. Despite similarities in the catalytic and spectroscopic properties Nap from different Proteobacteria are phylogenetically distinct. This review has two major sections: in the first section, nitrate in the nitrogen cycle and human health, taxonomy of nitrate reductases, assimilatory and dissimilatory nitrate reduction, cellular locations of nitrate reductases, structural and redox chemistry are discussed. The second section focuses on the features of periplasmic nitrate reductase where the catalytic subunit of the Nap and its kinetic properties, auxiliary Nap proteins, operon structure and phylogenetic relationships are discussed. PMID:24141308

Sparacino-Watkins, Courtney; Stolz, John F.; Basu, Partha

2014-01-01

223

Thermochemical nitrate destruction  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrites present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200 C to about 600 C, and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

Cox, J.L.; Hallen, R.T.; Lilga, M.A.

1992-06-02

224

Demonstration of nitrogen removal via nitrite in a sequencing batch reactor treating domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrogen removal via nitrite, as opposed to the traditional nitrate, may be beneficial for carbon-limited biological wastewater treatment plants. However, reliable termination of nitrification at nitrite (nitritation) has proved difficult in the treatment of domestic wastewater. In this study, nitritation was attained in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with pre-denitrification treating domestic wastewater (total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) concentration of about

Richard Blackburne; Zhiguo Yuan; Jürg Keller

2008-01-01

225

Toxicity of nitrite to fish: a review  

SciTech Connect

Nitrite, an intermediate in the oxidation of ammonium to nitrate, changes hemoglobin to methemoglobin, which does not carry oxygen; nitrite may thus cause anoxia in fish and other aquatic organisms. The published literature on nitrite toxicity to fish, which consists of about 40 papers, shows that the ratio of the 24-h LC50 (concentration lethal to half of the test organisms in 24 h) to the 96-h LC50 has a median value of 2.0 and is fairly uniform across species; toxicity tests of differing duration can therefore be standardized to a common duration. In general, chronic effects are difficult to detect at concentrations below one-fifth of the 96-h LC50. Most fish concentrate nitrite in fresh water; chloride in the external environment offsets the toxicity of nitrite by competing with nitrite for uptake through the chloride cells of the gills. Bicarbonate also reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but it is less than 1% as effective as chloride. Calcium reduces the toxicity of nitrite, but much less than chloride; the effects of other metal cations have not been studied. Hydrogen ion concentration of the medium has not been shown to have a discrete effect on the toxicity of nitrite except at extreme concentrations uncharacteristic of the environments in which fish ordinarily live. Nitrite toxicity is exacerbated by low oxygen concentrations because nitrite reduces the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood. Very small fish seem less sensitive to nitrite than fish of intermediate or large size. Present evidence suggests that salmonids are among the fishes most sensitive to nitrite. The least-sensitive species tested thus far are the largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides and bluegill Lepomis macrochirus; the largemouth bass does not concentrate nitrite.

Lewis, W.M. Jr.; Morris, D.P.

1986-03-01

226

Post-translational Regulation of Nitrate Reductase  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Nitrate reductase (NR) catalyzes the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, which is the first step in the nitrate assimilation pathway, but can also reduce nitrite to nitric oxide (NO), an important signaling molecule that is thought to mediate a wide array of of developmental and physiological processes...

227

Thermochemical nitrate destruction  

DOEpatents

A method is disclosed for denitrification of nitrates and nitrates present in aqueous waste streams. The method comprises the steps of (1) identifying the concentration nitrates and nitrites present in a waste stream, (2) causing formate to be present in the waste stream, (3) heating the mixture to a predetermined reaction temperature from about 200.degree. C. to about 600.degree. C., and (4) holding the mixture and accumulating products at heated and pressurized conditions for a residence time, thereby resulting in nitrogen and carbon dioxide gas, and hydroxides, and reducing the level of nitrates and nitrites to below drinking water standards.

Cox, John L. (Richland, WA); Hallen, Richard T. (Richland, WA); Lilga, Michael A. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01

228

A Review on Alternative Carbon Sources for Biological Treatment of Nitrate Waste  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Huge amount of wastewater containing nitrogen is produced by various chemical and biological industries. Nitrogen is present in the form of ammonia, nitrate and nitrite. This review deals with treatment of nitrate based effluent using biological denitrification. Because of its adverse effect on aquatic life and human health, treatment of nitrate bearing effluents has become mandatory before discharge. Treatment of such wastes is a liability for the industries and incurs cost. However, the economics of the process can be controlled by selection of proper method and reduction in the operating cost. This paper reviews the advantages and disadvantages of different methods of nitrate removal with emphasis on biological denitrification. The cost of biological denitrification is controlled by the carbon source. Hence, use of alternative carbon sources such as agricultural wastes, industrial effluent or by products is reviewed in this paper. Policies for reducing the cost of nitrate treatment and enhancing the efficiency have been recommended.

Dhamole, Pradip B.; D'Souza, S. F.; Lele, S. S.

2015-01-01

229

Dynamics of ammonia-oxidizing communities in barley-planted bulk soil and rhizosphere following nitrate and ammonium fertilizer amendment.  

PubMed

Oxidation of ammonia by nitrifying microorganisms is a major pathway that fertilizer nitrogen (N) may take upon application to agricultural soils, but the relative roles of bacterial (AOB) vs. archaeal (AOA) ammonia oxidizers are controversial. We explored the effects of various forms of mineral N fertilizer on the AOB and AOA community dynamics in two different soils planted with barley. Ammonia oxidizers were monitored via real-time PCR and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of bacterial and archaeal amoA genes following the addition of either [NH?]?SO?, NH?NO? or KNO?. AOB and AOA communities were also studied specifically in the rhizospheres of two different barley varieties upon [NH?]?SO? vs. KNO? addition. AOB changed in community composition and increased in abundance upon ammonium amendment in bulk soil and rhizosphere, with changes in bacterial amoA copy numbers lagging behind relative to changes in soil ammonium. In both soils, only T-RFs corresponding to phylotypes related to Nitrosospira clade 3a underwent significant community changes. Increases in AOB abundance were generally stronger in the bulk soil than in the rhizosphere, implying significant ammonia uptake by plant roots. AOA underwent shifts in the community composition over time and fluctuated in abundance in all treatments irrespective of ammonia availability. AOB were thus considered as the main agents responsible for fertilizer ammonium oxidation, while the functions of AOA in soil N cycling remain unresolved. PMID:21039652

Glaser, Katrin; Hackl, Evelyn; Inselsbacher, Erich; Strauss, Joseph; Wanek, Wolfgang; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Sessitsch, Angela

2010-12-01

230

Hydrogen anode for nitrate waste destruction. Revision 2  

SciTech Connect

Large quantities of radioactive and hazardous wastes have been generated from nuclear materials production during the past fifty years. Processes are under evaluation to separate the high level radioactive species from the waste and store them permanently in the form of durable solids. The schemes proposed will separate the high level radioactive components, cesium-137 and strontium-90, into a small volume for incorporation into a glass wasteform. The remaining low-level radioactive waste contain species such as nitrites and nitrates that are capable of contaminating ground water. Electrochemical destruction of the nitrate and nitrite before permanent storage has been proposed. Not only will the electrochemical processing destroy these species, the volume of the waste could also be reduced. The use of a hydrogen gas-fed anode and an acid anolyte in an electrochemical cell used to destroy nitrate was demonstrated. A mixed Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} anolyte was shown to favor the nitrate cell performance, and the generation of a higher hydroxide ion concentration in the catholyte. The suggested scheme is an apparent method of sodium sulfate disposal and a possible means through which ammonia (to ammonium sulfate, fertilizer) and hydrogen gas could be recycled through the anode side of the reactor. This could result in a substantial savings in the operation of a nitrate destruction cell.

Hobbs, D.T. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Kalu, E.E.; White, R.E. [Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1996-02-10

231

Difficulties in maintaining long-term partial nitritation of ammonium-rich sludge digester liquids in a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR).  

PubMed

Nitrogen can be eliminated effectively from sludge digester effluents by anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), but 55-60% of the ammonium must first be oxidized to nitrite. Although a continuous flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with suspended biomass could be used, its hydraulic dilution rate is limited to 0.8-1 d(-1) (30 degrees C). Higher specific nitrite production rates can be achieved by sludge retention, as shown here for a moving-bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) with Kaldnes carriers on laboratory and pilot scales. The maximum nitrite production rate amounted to 2.7 gNO2-Nm(-2)d(-1) (3 gO2m(-3)d(-1), 30.5 degrees C), thus doubling the dilution rate compared to CSTR operation with suspended biomass for a supernatant with 700 gNH4-Nm(-3). Whenever the available alkalinity was fully consumed, an optimal amount of nitrite was produced. However, a significant amount of nitrate was produced after 11 months of operation, making the effluent unsuitable for anaerobic ammonium oxidation. Because the sludge retention time (SRT) is relatively long in biofilm systems, slow growth of nitrite oxidizers occurs. None of the selection criteria applied - a high ammonium loading rate, high free ammonia or low oxygen concentration - led to selective suppression of nitrite oxidation. A CSTR or SBR with suspended biomass is consequently recommended for full-scale operation. PMID:15303723

Fux, C; Huang, D; Monti, A; Siegrist, H

2004-01-01

232

Direct wet and dry deposition of ammonia, nitric acid, ammonium and nitrate to the Tampa Bay Estuary, FL, USA  

Microsoft Academic Search

The average total (wet plus dry) nitrogen deposition to the Tampa Bay Estuary was 7.3 (±1.3)kg-Nha?1yr?1 or 760 (±140)metric tons-Nyr?1 for August 1996–July 1999, estimated as a direct deposition rate to the 104,000-ha water surface. This nitrogen flux estimate accounted for ammonia exchange at the air–sea interface. The uncertainty estimate was based on measurement error. Wet deposition was 56% of

Noreen Poor; Ray Pribble; Holly Greening

2001-01-01

233

Influence of Nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area In Situ Redox Manipulation Barrier Longevity  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this laboratory study is to determine the influence of nitrate on the Hanford 100D Area in situ redox manipulation (ISRM) barrier longevity. There is a wide spread groundwater plume of 60 mg/L nitrate upgradient of the ISRM barrier with lower nitrate concentrations downgradient, suggestive of nitrate reduction occurring. Batch and 1-D column experiments showed that nitrate is being slowly reduced to nitrite and ammonia. These nitrate reduction reactions are predominantly abiotic, as experiments with and without bactericides present showed no difference in nitrate degradation rates. Nitrogen species transformation rates determined in experiments covered a range of ferrous iron/nitrate ratios such that the data can be used to predict rates in field scale conditions. Field scale reaction rate estimates for 100% reduced sediment (16 C) are: (a) nitrate degradation = 202 {+-} 50 h (half-life), (b) nitrite production = 850 {+-} 300 h, and (c) ammonia production = 650 {+-} 300 h. Calculation of the influence of nitrate reduction on the 100D Area reductive capacity requires consideration of mass balance and reaction rate effects. While dissolved oxygen and chromate reduction rates are rapid and essentially at equilibrium in the aquifer, nitrate transformation reactions are slow (100s of hours). In the limited (20-40 day) residence time in the ISRM barrier, only a portion of the nitrate will be reduced, whereas dissolved oxygen and chromate are reduced to completion. Assuming a groundwater flow rate of 1 ft/day, it is estimated that the ISRM barrier reductive capacity is 160 pore volumes (with no nitrate), and 85 pore volumes if 60 mg/L nitrate is present (i.e., a 47% decrease in the ISRM barrier longevity). Zones with more rapid groundwater flow will be less influenced by nitrate reduction. For example, a zone with a groundwater flow rate of 3 ft/day and 60 mg/L nitrate will have a reductive capacity of 130 pore volumes. Finally, long-term column experiments demonstrated the longevity of the reduced sediment barrier to reduce/immobilize 2 mg/L chromate in the presence of 8.4 mg/L dissolved oxygen (saturation), and 60 mg/L nitrate (maximums observed in the field). Initially the chromate reduction half-life was <0.1 h, 2.4 h by 120 pore volumes, and 17 h by 250 pore volumes. These chromate reduction rates are sufficiently fast relative to the 20-40 day residence time in the field for all chromate to be reduced/immobilized until the sediment is completely oxidized.

Szecsody, Jim E.; Phillips, Jerry L.; Vermeul, Vince R.; Fruchter, Jonathan S.; Williams, Mark D.

2005-07-15

234

Oxygen and carbon requirements for biological nitrogen removal processes accomplishing nitrification, nitritation, and anammox.  

PubMed

The oxygen and carbon savings associated with novel nitrogen removal processes for the treatment of high ammonia, low biodegradable organic matter waste streams such as the recycle streams from the dewatering of anaerobically digested sludges are well documented.This understanding may lead some to think that similar oxygen savings are possible if novel processes such as nitritation/ denitritation and partial nitritation-deammonification are incorporated into main liquid stream processes where influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen (nitrite and nitrate). It is demonstrated that the net oxygen required for nitrogen removal is 1.71 mg O2/mg ammonia-nitrogen converted to nitrogen gas as long as influent biodegradable organic matter is used to denitrify residual oxidized nitrogen. Less oxygen is required to produce oxidized nitrogen with these novel processes, but less biodegradable organic matter is also required for oxidized nitrogen reduction to nitrogen gas, resulting in reduced oxygen savings for the oxidation of biodegradable organic matter. The net oxygen requirement is the same since the net electron transfer for the conversion of ammonia-nitrogen to nitrogen gas is the same. The biodegradable organic matter required to reduce the oxidized nitrogen to nitrogen gas is estimated for these processes based on standard biological process calculations. It is estimated to be in the range of 3.5 to 4.0 mg biodegradable COD/mg ammonia-nitrogen reduced to nitrogen gas for nitrification-denitrification, 2.0 to 2.5 for nitritation-denitritation, and 0.5 for partial nitritation-deammonification. The resulting limiting influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratios are estimated and can be used to guide the appropriate selection of biological nitrogen removal process given knowledge of the biological process influent wastewater carbon-to-nitrogen ratio. Energy savings possible for mainstream processes incorporating these novel nitrogen removal processes include reduced process oxygen requirements from reduced biodegradable carbon loadings to the biological process and the potential that plant influent biodegradable carbon can be captured upstream of the biological nitrogen removal process and used to produce energy, for example, by conversion into biogas. PMID:24734468

Daigger, Glen T

2014-03-01

235

Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; Just-in-Time'' precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

Randall, D. (ed.); Marek, J.C.

1992-03-01

236

Competition for Ammonia Influences the Structure of Chemotrophic Communities in Geothermal Springs  

PubMed Central

Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon “Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii” and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs. PMID:24242238

Hamilton, Trinity L.; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R.; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R.; Peters, John W.

2014-01-01

237

Competition for ammonia influences the structure of chemotrophic communities in geothermal springs.  

PubMed

Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii" and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of nitrogen fixation in geothermal communities. These observations help to explain the strong pattern in the codistribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and diazotrophs in circumneutral-to-alkaline geothermal springs. PMID:24242238

Hamilton, Trinity L; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S

2014-01-01

238

Nitrate ammonification by Nautilia profundicola AmH: experimental evidence consistent with a free hydroxylamine intermediate  

PubMed Central

The process of nitrate reduction via nitrite controls the fate and bioavailability of mineral nitrogen within ecosystems; i.e., whether it is retained as ammonium (ammonification) or lost as nitrous oxide or dinitrogen (denitrification). Here, we present experimental evidence for a novel pathway of microbial nitrate reduction, the reverse hydroxylamine:ubiquinone reductase module (reverse-HURM) pathway. Instead of a classical ammonia-forming nitrite reductase that performs a 6 electron-transfer process, the pathway is thought to employ two catalytic redox modules operating in sequence: the reverse-HURM reducing nitrite to hydroxylamine followed by a hydroxylamine reductase that converts hydroxylamine to ammonium. Experiments were performed on Nautilia profundicola strain AmH, whose genome sequence led to the reverse-HURM pathway proposal. N. profundicola produced ammonium from nitrate, which was assimilated into biomass. Furthermore, genes encoding the catalysts of the reverse-HURM pathway were preferentially expressed during growth of N. profundicola on nitrate as an electron acceptor relative to cultures grown on polysulfide as an electron acceptor. Finally, nitrate-grown cells of N. profundicola were able to rapidly and stoichiometrically convert high concentrations of hydroxylamine to ammonium in resting cell assays. These experiments are consistent with the reverse-HURM pathway and a free hydroxylamine intermediate, but could not definitively exclude direct nitrite reduction to ammonium by the reverse-HURM with hydroxylamine as an off-pathway product. N. profundicola and related organisms are models for a new pathway of nitrate ammonification that may have global impact due to the wide distribution of these organisms in hypoxic environments and symbiotic or pathogenic associations with animal hosts. PMID:23847604

Hanson, Thomas E.; Campbell, Barbara J.; Kalis, Katie M.; Campbell, Mark A.; Klotz, Martin G.

2013-01-01

239

Nitrites derived from Foneiculum vulgare (fennel) seeds promotes vascular functions.  

PubMed

Recent evidence has demonstrated that nitrites play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Fennel (Foneiculum vulgare) seeds are often used as mouth fresheners after a meal in both the Indian sub-continent and around the world. The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. We also showed that chewing fennel seeds enhanced nitrite content of saliva. Thus our study indicates the potential role of fennel derived-nitrites on the vascular system. PMID:23240972

Swaminathan, Akila; Sridhara, Sree Rama Chaitanya; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Siamwala, Jamila H; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

2012-12-01

240

Comparative Kinetics and Reciprocal Inhibition of Nitrate and Nitrite Uptake in Roots of Uninduced and Induced Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seedlings 1  

PubMed Central

Nitrate and NO2? transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3? and NO2? was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3? and NO2?. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3? and NO2? uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3? and NO2? uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3? uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2? uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3? and NO2? inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3? was a more effective inhibitor than NO2?. Nitrate and NO2? transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited. PMID:11537883

Aslam, Muhammad; Travis, Robert L.; Huffaker, Ray C.

1992-01-01

241

Nitrite reduction to nitrous oxide by propionibacteria: Detoxication mechanism  

Microsoft Academic Search

Characteristics of dissimilatory nitrate reduction by Propionibacterium acidi-propionici, P. freudenreichii, P. jensenii, P. shermanii and P. thoenii were studied. All strains reduced nitrate to nitrite and further to N2O. Recovery of added nitrite-N as N2O-N approached 100%, so that no other end product existed in a significant quantity. Specific rates of N2O production were 3 to 6 orders of magnitude

Heinrich F. Kaspar

1982-01-01

242

Ceruloplasmin is a NO oxidase and nitrite synthase that determines endocrine NO homeostasis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite represents a bioactive reservoir of nitric oxide (NO) that may modulate vasodilation, respiration and cytoprotection after ischemia-reperfusion injury. Although nitrite formation is thought to occur via reaction of NO with oxygen, this third-order reaction cannot compete kinetically with the reaction of NO with hemoglobin to form nitrate. Indeed, the formation of nitrite from NO in the blood is limited

Sruti Shiva; Xunde Wang; Lorna A Ringwood; Xueying Xu; Susan Yuditskaya; Vidhya Annavajjhala; Hiroaki Miyajima; Neil Hogg; Zena Leah Harris; Mark T Gladwin

2006-01-01

243

21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (2) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of...

2014-04-01

244

Stability and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria community structure in different high-rate CANON reactors.  

PubMed

In completely autotrophic nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) process, the bioactivity of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) should be effectively inhibited. In this study, the stability of four high-rate CANON reactors and the effect of free ammonia (FA) and organic material on NOB community structure were investigated using DGGE. Results suggested that with the increasing of FA, the ratio of total nitrogen removal to nitrate production went up gradually, while the biodiversity of Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB both decreased. When the CANON reactor was transformed to simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) reactor by introducing organic material, the denitrifiers and aerobic heterotrophic bacteria would compete nitrite or oxygen with NOB, which then led to the biodiversity decreasing of both Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB. The distribution of Nitrobacter-like NOB and Nitrospira-like NOB were evaluated, and finally effective strategies for suppressing NOB in CANON reactors were proposed. PMID:25459821

Liang, Yuhai; Li, Dong; Zhang, Xiaojing; Zeng, Huiping; Yang, Zhuo; Cui, Shaoming; Zhang, Jie

2014-10-23

245

Correlation between total nitrite/nitrate concentrations and monoamine oxidase (types A and B) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase enzymatic activities in human mesenteric arteries from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between total nitrite/nitrate concentrations (NOx) and the kinetic parameters of monoamine oxidase enzymes (MAO-A and MAO-B) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in human mesenteric arteries. Arteries were from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients with sigmoid or rectum carcinoma for whom surgery was the first option and who were not exposed to neo-adjuvant therapy. Segments of human inferior mesenteric arteries from non-diabetic (61.1 ± 8.9 years old, 7 males and 5 females, N = 12) and type 2 diabetic patients (65.8 ± 6.2 years old, 8 males and 4 females, N = 12) were used to determine NOx concentrations and the kinetic parameters of MAO-A, MAO-B and SSAO by the Griess reaction and by radiochemical assay, respectively. The NOx concentrations in arteries from diabetic patients did not differ significantly from those of the non-diabetic group (10.28 ± 4.61 vs 10.71 ± 4.32 nmol/mg protein, respectively). In the non-diabetic group, there was a positive correlation between NOx concentrations and MAO-B parameters: Km (r = 0.612, P = 0.034) and Vmax (r = 0.593, P = 0.042), and a negative correlation with the SSAO parameters: Km (r = -0.625, P = 0.029) and Vmax (r = -0.754, P = 0.005). However, in the diabetic group no correlation was found between NOx concentrations and the three kinetic parameters of the enzymes. These results suggest an important function of sympathetic nerves and vascular NOx concentrations in arteries of non-diabetic patients. Thus, these results confirm the importance of a balance between oxidants and antioxidants in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis to prevent oxidative stress. PMID:22124705

Nunes, S F; Figueiredo, I V; Pereira, J S; Lopes, M C; Caramona, M M

2012-01-01

246

Correlation between total nitrite/nitrate concentrations and monoamine oxidase (types A and B) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase enzymatic activities in human mesenteric arteries from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients  

PubMed Central

The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between total nitrite/nitrate concentrations (NOx) and the kinetic parameters of monoamine oxidase enzymes (MAO-A and MAO-B) and semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase (SSAO) in human mesenteric arteries. Arteries were from non-diabetic and type 2 diabetic patients with sigmoid or rectum carcinoma for whom surgery was the first option and who were not exposed to neo-adjuvant therapy. Segments of human inferior mesenteric arteries from non-diabetic (61.1 ± 8.9 years old, 7 males and 5 females, N = 12) and type 2 diabetic patients (65.8 ± 6.2 years old, 8 males and 4 females, N = 12) were used to determine NOx concentrations and the kinetic parameters of MAO-A, MAO-B and SSAO by the Griess reaction and by radiochemical assay, respectively. The NOx concentrations in arteries from diabetic patients did not differ significantly from those of the non-diabetic group (10.28 ± 4.61 vs 10.71 ± 4.32 nmol/mg protein, respectively). In the non-diabetic group, there was a positive correlation between NOx concentrations and MAO-B parameters: Km (r = 0.612, P = 0.034) and Vmax (r = 0.593, P = 0.042), and a negative correlation with the SSAO parameters: Km (r = -0.625, P = 0.029) and Vmax (r = -0.754, P = 0.005). However, in the diabetic group no correlation was found between NOx concentrations and the three kinetic parameters of the enzymes. These results suggest an important function of sympathetic nerves and vascular NOx concentrations in arteries of non-diabetic patients. Thus, these results confirm the importance of a balance between oxidants and antioxidants in the maintenance of vascular homeostasis to prevent oxidative stress. PMID:22124705

Nunes, S.F.; Figueiredo, I.V.; Pereira, J.S.; Lopes, M.C.; Caramona, M.M.

2011-01-01

247

Defense Waste Processing Facility: Report of task force on options to mitigate the effect of nitrite on DWPF operations. Savannah River Site 200-S Area  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of accumulating ammonium nitrate (an explosive) as well as organic compounds in the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell Vent System was recently discovered. A task force was therefore organized to examine ways to avoid this potential hazard. Of thirty-two processing/engineering options screened, the task force recommended five options, deemed to have the highest technical certainty, for detailed development and evaluation: Radiolysis of nitrite in the tetraphenylborate precipitate slurry feed in a new corrosion-resistant facility. Construction of a Late Washing Facility for precipitate washing before transfer to the DWPF; ``Just-in-Time`` precipitation; Startup Workaround by radiolysis of nitrite in the existing corrosion-resistant Pump Pit tanks; Ammonia venting and organics separation in the DWPF; and, Estimated costs and schedules are included in this report.

Randall, D. [ed.; Marek, J.C.

1992-03-01

248

Growth of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria by aerobic hydrogen oxidation.  

PubMed

The bacterial oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is a key process of the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. Nitrite-oxidizing bacteria are considered a highly specialized functional group, which depends on the supply of nitrite from other microorganisms and whose distribution strictly correlates with nitrification in the environment and in wastewater treatment plants. On the basis of genomics, physiological experiments, and single-cell analyses, we show that Nitrospira moscoviensis, which represents a widely distributed lineage of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, has the genetic inventory to utilize hydrogen (H2) as an alternative energy source for aerobic respiration and grows on H2 without nitrite. CO2 fixation occurred with H2 as the sole electron donor. Our results demonstrate a chemolithoautotrophic lifestyle of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria outside the nitrogen cycle, suggesting greater ecological flexibility than previously assumed. PMID:25170152

Koch, Hanna; Galushko, Alexander; Albertsen, Mads; Schintlmeister, Arno; Gruber-Dorninger, Christiane; Lücker, Sebastian; Pelletier, Eric; Le Paslier, Denis; Spieck, Eva; Richter, Andreas; Nielsen, Per H; Wagner, Michael; Daims, Holger

2014-08-29

249

Simultaneous reduction of nitrate and oxidation of by-products using electrochemical method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrochemical denitrification was studied with an objective to enhance the selectivity of nitrate to nitrogen gas and to remove the by-products in an undivided electrochemical cell, in which Cu–Zn cathode and Ti\\/IrO2–Pt anode were assembled. In the presence of 0.50g\\/L NaCl as supporting electrolyte, the NO3?–N decreased from 100.0 to 9.7mg\\/L after 300min electrolysis; no ammonia and nitrite were detected

Miao Li; Chuanping Feng; Zhenya Zhang; Xiaohui Lei; Rongzhi Chen; Yinan Yang; Norio Sugiura

2009-01-01

250

Mechanism of nitrogen-13-labeled ammonia formation in a cryogenic water target.  

PubMed

Methods for producing N-13 ammonia via the 16O(p,alpha)13N nuclear reaction utilizing a cryogenic target have been investigated. These targets included frozen carbon dioxide and pure frozen water. Results from these targets were compared with the more traditional liquid water target with and without additives. A very dramatic difference was found between the pure water target in the frozen state when compared with the liquid state. When frozen, more than 95% of the nitrogen-13 activity is in the chemical form of ammonia at all radiation doses. In contrast, the liquid water target yielded predominately nitrates and nitrites at high radiation doses. When frozen carbon dioxide was irradiated under these conditions, more than 95% of the nitrogen-13 activity was in the form of nitrate and nitrite. The nitrogen oxides remained on the surface of the target and could be easily removed from the surface with pure water. The wash solution was converted to [13N]ammonia using the DeVarda's alloy method for reduction. It was determined that levels of [13N]ammonia sufficient for diagnostic medical procedures could be produced directly using the frozen water targets or from frozen carbon dioxide with a wet chemical reduction. These results have significance particularly in the design of targetry for low-energy, high-beam current accelerators, because targets of this design can be used with either no vacuum isolation window or a very thin window. The substitution of carbon-13-enriched carbon dioxide for natural carbon dioxide gives access to the 13C(p,n)13N nuclear reaction, which allows protons energies as low as 6 MeV to be used to produce useable quantities of N-13 ammonia. The mechanism of these reactions has been explored to determine why there are such dramatic differences in the product distribution between the frozen state and the liquid or gaseous state. PMID:10382848

Firouzbakht, M L; Schlyer, D J; Wolf, A P; Fowler, J S

1999-05-01

251

Diversity, Physiology, and Niche Differentiation of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea  

PubMed Central

Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, has been suggested to have been a central part of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle since the oxygenation of Earth. The cultivation of several ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as well as the discovery that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amo)-like gene sequences are nearly ubiquitously distributed in the environment and outnumber their bacterial counterparts in many habitats fundamentally revised our understanding of nitrification. Surprising insights into the physiological distinctiveness of AOA are mirrored by the recognition of the phylogenetic uniqueness of these microbes, which fall within a novel archaeal phylum now known as Thaumarchaeota. The relative importance of AOA in nitrification, compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), is still under debate. This minireview provides a synopsis of our current knowledge of the diversity and physiology of AOA, the factors controlling their ecology, and their role in carbon cycling as well as their potential involvement in the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It emphasizes the importance of activity-based analyses in AOA studies and formulates priorities for future research. PMID:22923400

2012-01-01

252

Diversity, physiology, and niche differentiation of ammonia-oxidizing archaea.  

PubMed

Nitrification, the aerobic oxidation of ammonia to nitrate via nitrite, has been suggested to have been a central part of the global biogeochemical nitrogen cycle since the oxygenation of Earth. The cultivation of several ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) as well as the discovery that archaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amo)-like gene sequences are nearly ubiquitously distributed in the environment and outnumber their bacterial counterparts in many habitats fundamentally revised our understanding of nitrification. Surprising insights into the physiological distinctiveness of AOA are mirrored by the recognition of the phylogenetic uniqueness of these microbes, which fall within a novel archaeal phylum now known as Thaumarchaeota. The relative importance of AOA in nitrification, compared to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), is still under debate. This minireview provides a synopsis of our current knowledge of the diversity and physiology of AOA, the factors controlling their ecology, and their role in carbon cycling as well as their potential involvement in the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It emphasizes the importance of activity-based analyses in AOA studies and formulates priorities for future research. PMID:22923400

Hatzenpichler, Roland

2012-11-01

253

Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium) Winter Nitrate Study (WNS) is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January-March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the Western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI) experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 ?g m-3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes) rather than just correlated with episodes because of similar synoptic meteorology.

Stanier, C. O.; Singh, A.; Adamski, W.; Baek, J.; Caughey, M.; Carmichael, G.; Edgerton, E.; Kenski, D.; Koerber, M.; Oleson, J.; Rohlf, T.; Lee, S. R.; Riemer, N.; Shaw, S.; Sousan, S.; Spak, S. N.

2012-06-01

254

Overview of the LADCO winter nitrate study: hourly ammonia, nitric acid and PM2.5 composition at an urban and rural site pair during PM2.5 episodes in the US Great Lakes region  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An overview of the LADCO (Lake Michigan Air Directors Consortium) Winter Nitrate Study (WNS) is presented. Sampling was conducted at ground level at an urban-rural pair of sites during January-March 2009 in eastern Wisconsin, toward the western edge of the US Great Lakes region. Areas surrounding these sites experience multiday episodes of wintertime PM2.5 pollution characterized by high fractions of ammonium nitrate in PM, low wind speeds, and air mass stagnation. Hourly surface monitoring of inorganic gases and aerosols supplemented long-term 24-h aerosol chemistry monitoring at these locations. The urban site (Milwaukee, WI) experienced 13 PM2.5 episodes, defined as periods where the seven-hour moving average PM2.5 concentration exceeded 27 ?g m-3 for at least four consecutive hours. The rural site experienced seven episodes by the same metric, and all rural episodes coincided with urban episodes. Episodes were characterized by low pressure systems, shallow/stable boundary layer, light winds, and increased temperature and relative humidity relative to climatological mean conditions. They often occurred in the presence of regional snow cover at temperatures near freezing, when snow melt and sublimation could generate fog and strengthen the boundary layer inversion. Substantial contribution to nitrate production from nighttime chemistry of ozone and NO2 to N2O5 and nitric acid is likely and requires further investigation. Pollutant-specific urban excess during episode and non-episode conditions is presented. The largest remaining uncertainties in the conceptual model of the wintertime episodes are the variability from episode-to-episode in ammonia emissions, the balance of daytime and nighttime nitrate production, the relationship between ammonia controls, NOx controls and ammonium nitrate reductions, and the extent to which snow and fog are causal (either through meteorological or chemical processes) rather than just correlated with episodes because of similar synoptic meteorology.

Stanier, C.; Singh, A.; Adamski, W.; Baek, J.; Caughey, M.; Carmichael, G.; Edgerton, E.; Kenski, D.; Koerber, M.; Oleson, J.; Rohlf, T.; Lee, S. R.; Riemer, N.; Shaw, S.; Sousan, S.; Spak, S. N.

2012-11-01

255

Inhibition Of Washed Sludge With Sodium Nitrite  

SciTech Connect

This report describes the results of electrochemical tests used to determine the relationship between the concentration of the aggressive anions in washed sludge and the minimum effective inhibitor concentration. Sodium nitrate was added as the inhibitor because of its compatibility with the DWPF process. A minimum of 0.05M nitrite is required to inhibit the washed sludge simulant solution used in this study. When the worst case compositions and safety margins are considered, it is expected that a minimum operating limit of nearly 0.1M nitrite will be specified. The validity of this limit is dependent on the accuracy of the concentrations and solubility splits previously reported. Sodium nitrite additions to obtain 0.1M nitrite concentrations in washed sludge will necessitate the additional washing of washed precipitate in order to decrease its sodium nitrite inhibitor requirements sufficiently to remain below the sodium limits in the feed to the DWPF. Nitrite will be the controlling anion in "fresh" washed sludge unless the soluble chloride concentration is about ten times higher than predicted by the solubility splits. Inhibition of "aged" washed sludge will not be a problem unless significant chloride dissolution occurs during storage. It will be very important tomonitor the composition of washed sludge during processing and storage.

Congdon, J. W.; Lozier, J. S.

2012-09-25

256

Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non-hyperaccumulating ferns  

E-print Network

Effects of arsenic on nitrate metabolism in arsenic hyperaccumulating and non Arsenic reduced the activity of nitrate and nitrite reductase more in Pteris ensiformis than Pteris March 2009 Accepted 26 March 2009 Keywords: Arsenic Nitrate metabolism Pteris vittata Arsenic

Ma, Lena

257

Abundance and Diversity of Archaeal Ammonia Oxidizers in a Coastal Groundwater System ? †  

PubMed Central

Nitrification, the microbially catalyzed oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, is a key process in the nitrogen cycle. Archaea have been implicated in the first part of the nitrification pathway (oxidation of ammonia to nitrite), but the ecology and physiology of these organisms remain largely unknown. This work describes two different populations of sediment-associated ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in a coastal groundwater system in Cape Cod, MA. Sequence analysis of the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A gene (amoA) shows that one population of putative AOA inhabits the upper meter of the sediment, where they may experience frequent ventilation, with tidally driven overtopping and infiltration of bay water supplying dissolved oxygen, ammonium, and perhaps organic carbon. A genetically distinct population occurs deeper in the sediment, in a mixing zone between a nitrate- and oxygen-rich freshwater zone and a reduced, ammonium-bearing saltwater wedge. Both of these AOA populations are coincident with increases in the abundance of group I crenarchaeota 16S rRNA gene copies. PMID:20971859

Rogers, Daniel R.; Casciotti, Karen L.

2010-01-01

258

Regulation and sequence of the structural gene for cytochrome c552 from Escherichia coli: not a hexahaem but a 50 kDa tetrahaem nitrite reductase.  

PubMed

The structural gene, nrfA, for cytochrome c552, which is the terminal reductase of the formate-dependent pathway for nitrite reduction to ammonia, has been located at co-ordinate 4366 on the physical map of the Escherichia coli chromosome. The DNA sequence of nrfA encodes a tetrahaem c-type cytochrome with a predicted M(r) for the unprocessed product of 53,788. Cleavage of the putative signal peptide at Ala-26 would result in a mature, periplasmic cytochrome of M(r) 50,580 rather than a larger hexahaem cytochrome, as has been widely reported previously. A cytochrome of this size was detected by staining SDS-polyacrylamide gels for covalently bound haem. This cytochrome was partially purified by anion exchange chromatography and confirmed to be cytochrome c552 by difference spectroscopy. Similar cytochromes were detected in five other E. coli strains including strain ST 249, which was used previously to purify and characterize the protein. A plasmid with an in-phase deletion within nrfA directed the synthesis of a truncated haemoprotein of the predicted mass. In-phase translational fusions to lacZ were used to locate the nrfA translation start, and the transcription start site was found by S1 mapping. Expression from the FNR-dependent nrfA promoter was almost totally repressed during aerobic growth, partially induced during anaerobic growth in the absence of nitrite or in the presence of nitrate, but fully induced only during anaerobic growth in the presence of nitrite. No nitrate repression was detected in a narL mutant, but nitrite induction was unaffected, indicating that the nitrite-sensing mechanism is independent of the NarL protein. Expression from the nrfA promoter was subject to glucose repression but regulation was independent of the CRP-cAMP complex. PMID:7934939

Darwin, A; Hussain, H; Griffiths, L; Grove, J; Sambongi, Y; Busby, S; Cole, J

1993-09-01

259

Oil field souring control by nitrate-reducing Sulfurospirillum spp. that outcompete sulfate-reducing bacteria for organic electron donors.  

PubMed

Nitrate injection into oil reservoirs can prevent and remediate souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Nitrate stimulates nitrate-reducing, sulfide-oxidizing bacteria (NR-SOB) and heterotrophic nitrate-reducing bacteria (hNRB) that compete with SRB for degradable oil organics. Up-flow, packed-bed bioreactors inoculated with water produced from an oil field and injected with lactate, sulfate, and nitrate served as sources for isolating several NRB, including Sulfurospirillum and Thauera spp. The former coupled reduction of nitrate to nitrite and ammonia with oxidation of either lactate (hNRB activity) or sulfide (NR-SOB activity). Souring control in a bioreactor receiving 12.5 mM lactate and 6, 2, 0.75, or 0.013 mM sulfate always required injection of 10 mM nitrate, irrespective of the sulfate concentration. Community analysis revealed that at all but the lowest sulfate concentration (0.013 mM), significant SRB were present. At 0.013 mM sulfate, direct hNRB-mediated oxidation of lactate by nitrate appeared to be the dominant mechanism. The absence of significant SRB indicated that sulfur cycling does not occur at such low sulfate concentrations. The metabolically versatile Sulfurospirillum spp. were dominant when nitrate was present in the bioreactor. Analysis of cocultures of Desulfovibrio sp. strain Lac3, Lac6, or Lac15 and Sulfurospirillum sp. strain KW indicated its hNRB activity and ability to produce inhibitory concentrations of nitrite to be key factors for it to successfully outcompete oil field SRB. PMID:17308184

Hubert, Casey; Voordouw, Gerrit

2007-04-01

260

Activation of Estrogen Receptor-? by the Anion Nitrite  

PubMed Central

In this study, the ability of nitrite and nitrate to mimic the effects of estradiol on growth and gene expression was measured in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. Similar to estradiol, treatment of MCF-7 cells with either 1 ?mol/L nitrite or 1 ?mol/L nitrate resulted in ~4-fold increase in cell growth and 2.3-fold to 3-fold increase in progesterone receptor (PgR), pS2, and cathepsin D mRNAs that were blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. The anions also recruited estrogen receptor-? (ER?) to the pS2 promoter and activated exogenously expressed ER? when tested in transient cotransfection assays. To determine whether nitrite or nitrate was the active anion, diphenyleneiodonium was used to inhibit oxidation/reduction reactions in the cell. The ability of diphenyleneiodonium to block the effects of nitrate, but not nitrite, on the induction of PgR mRNA and the activation of exogenously expressed ER? suggests that nitrite is the active anion. Concentrations of nitrite, as low as 100 nmol/L, induced a significant increase in PgR mRNA, suggesting that physiologically and environmentally relevant doses of the anion activate ER?. Nitrite activated the chimeric receptor Gal-ER containing the DNA-binding domain of GAL-4 and the ligand-binding domain of ER? and blocked the binding of estradiol to the receptor, suggesting that the anion activates ER? through the ligand-binding domain. Mutational analysis identified the amino acids Cys381, His516, Lys520, Lys529, Asn532, and His547 as important for nitrite activation of the receptor. PMID:18483281

Veselik, David J.; Divekar, Shailaja; Dakshanamurthy, Sivanesan; Storchan, Geoffrey B.; Turner, Jasmine M.A.; Graham, Kelly L.; Huang, Li; Stoica, Adriana; Martin, Mary Beth

2013-01-01

261

Swimming performance of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) after nitrite exposure  

SciTech Connect

Tests of prolonged swimming are generally considered most useful in sublethal stress assessment, as they draw on both major biochemical energy sources. No research to date has quantified either the swimming performance of I. punctatus or effects of nitrite exposure on swimming of any species. Our purpose was to determine if nitrite exposure affects the prolonged swimming performance of channel catfish, and to delineate the extent that methemoglobinemia resulting from nitrate exposure correlates with performance.

Watenpaugh, D.E.; Beitinger, T.L.

1985-05-01

262

Effect of Encapsulating Nitrate in Sesame Gum on In vitro Rumen Fermentation Parameters.  

PubMed

Encapsulation is a method used to protect material from certain undesirable environments, for controlled release at a more favorable time and place. Animal productivity would be enhanced if feed additives are delivered to be utilized at their site of action, bypassing the rumen where they are likely to be degraded by microbial action. A novel method of encapsulation with sesame gum was used to coat nitrate, a known enteric methane mitigating agent, and tested for the effect on methane reduction and other in vitro fermentation parameters using rumen fluid from cannulated Hanwoo steers. Orchard grass was used as basal diet for fermentation. The treatments were matrix (1.1 g sesame gum+0.4 g sesame oil cake) only, encapsulated nitrate (matrix+nitrate [21 mM]), free nitrate (21 mM), and a control that contained no additive. Analyses of fermentation parameters were done at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, and 48 h time periods. In comparison to control, both free and encapsulated nitrate produced significantly reduced (p<0.01) methane (76% less) and also the total volatile fatty acids were reduced. A significantly higher (p<0.01) concentration of ammonia nitrogen was obtained with the encapsulated nitrate treatment (44%) compared to the free form (28%) and matrix only (20%) (p = 0.014). This might suggest slow release of encapsulated nitrate so that it is fully reduced to ammonia. Thus, this pioneering study found a significant reduction in methane production following the use of sesame gum encapsulated nitrate that shows the potential of a controlled release system in enhancing sustainability of ruminant production while reducing/eliminating the risk of nitrite toxicity. PMID:25358317

Mamvura, Chiedza Isabel; Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Lee, Hong-Gu; Choi, Nag-Jin

2014-11-01

263

Ubiquity and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea in water columns and sediments of the ocean  

PubMed Central

Nitrification, the microbial oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, occurs in a wide variety of environments and plays a central role in the global nitrogen cycle. Catalyzed by the enzyme ammonia monooxygenase, the ability to oxidize ammonia was previously thought to be restricted to a few groups within the ?- and ?-Proteobacteria. However, recent metagenomic studies have revealed the existence of unique ammonia monooxygenase ?-subunit (amoA) genes derived from uncultivated, nonextremophilic Crenarchaeota. Here, we report molecular evidence for the widespread presence of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in marine water columns and sediments. Using PCR primers designed to specifically target archaeal amoA, we find AOA to be pervasive in areas of the ocean that are critical for the global nitrogen cycle, including the base of the euphotic zone, suboxic water columns, and estuarine and coastal sediments. Diverse and distinct AOA communities are associated with each of these habitats, with little overlap between water columns and sediments. Within marine sediments, most AOA sequences are unique to individual sampling locations, whereas a small number of sequences are evidently cosmopolitan in distribution. Considering the abundance of nonextremophilic archaea in the ocean, our results suggest that AOA may play a significant, but previously unrecognized, role in the global nitrogen cycle. PMID:16186488

Francis, Christopher A.; Roberts, Kathryn J.; Beman, J. Michael; Santoro, Alyson E.; Oakley, Brian B.

2005-01-01

264

Differential effect of tungsten on the development of endogenous and nitrate-induced nitrate reductase activities in soybean leaves.  

PubMed

The effect of tungsten on the development of endogenous and nitrate-induced NADH- and FMNH(2)-linked nitrate reductase activities in primary leaves of 10-day-old soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings was studied. The seedlings were grown with or without exogenous nitrate. High levels of endogenous nitrate reductase activities developed in leaves of seedlings grown without nitrate. However, no endogenous nitrite reductase activity was detected in such seedlings. The FMNH(2)-linked nitrate reductase activity was about 40% of NADH-linked activity. Tungsten had little or no effect on the development of endogenous NADH- and FMNH(2)-linked nitrate reductase activities, respectively. By contrast, in nitrate-grown seedlings, tungsten only inhibited the nitrate-induced portion of NADH-linked nitrate reductase activity, whereas the FMNH(2)-linked activity was inhibited completely. Tungsten had no effect on the development of nitrate-induced nitrite reductase activity. The complete inhibition of FMNH(2)-linked nitrate reductase activity by tungsten in nitrate-grown plants was apparently an artifact caused by the reduction of nitrite by nitrite reductase in the assay system. The results suggest that in soybean leaves either the endogenous nitrate reductase does not require molybdenum or the molybdenum present in the seed is preferentially utilized by the enzyme complex as compared to nitrate-induced nitrate reductase. PMID:16662475

Aslam, M

1982-07-01

265

Differential Effect of Tungsten on the Development of Endogenous and Nitrate-Induced Nitrate Reductase Activities in Soybean Leaves 1  

PubMed Central

The effect of tungsten on the development of endogenous and nitrate-induced NADH- and FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activities in primary leaves of 10-day-old soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) seedlings was studied. The seedlings were grown with or without exogenous nitrate. High levels of endogenous nitrate reductase activities developed in leaves of seedlings grown without nitrate. However, no endogenous nitrite reductase activity was detected in such seedlings. The FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activity was about 40% of NADH-linked activity. Tungsten had little or no effect on the development of endogenous NADH- and FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activities, respectively. By contrast, in nitrate-grown seedlings, tungsten only inhibited the nitrate-induced portion of NADH-linked nitrate reductase activity, whereas the FMNH2-linked activity was inhibited completely. Tungsten had no effect on the development of nitrate-induced nitrite reductase activity. The complete inhibition of FMNH2-linked nitrate reductase activity by tungsten in nitrate-grown plants was apparently an artifact caused by the reduction of nitrite by nitrite reductase in the assay system. The results suggest that in soybean leaves either the endogenous nitrate reductase does not require molybdenum or the molybdenum present in the seed is preferentially utilized by the enzyme complex as compared to nitrate-induced nitrate reductase. PMID:16662475

Aslam, Muhammad

1982-01-01

266

Rapid colorimetric determination of nitrate in plant tissue by nitration of salicylic acid  

Microsoft Academic Search

An analysis is described for the rapid determination of nitrate?N in plant extracts. The complex formed by nitration of salicylic acid under highly acidic conditions absorbs maximally at 410 nm in basic (pH>12) solutions. Absorbance of the chromophore is directly proportional to the amount of nitrate?N present. Ammonium, nitrite, and chloride ions do not interfere.

D. A. Cataldo; M. Maroon; L. E. Schrader; V. L. Youngs

1975-01-01

267

NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate\\/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of

Steimke

2011-01-01

268

AMMONIA: ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS, EMISSIONS, INORGANIC PM 2.5, AND CLEAN AIR INTERSTATE RULE  

EPA Science Inventory

This presentation discusses the role of ammonia as an atmospheric pollutant. Ammonia is emitted primarily from agricultural sources, although vehicles are the largest sources in urban centers. When combined with nitrate and sulfate, ammonia forms particulate matter which has be...

269

Enhanced formation of fine particulate nitrate at a rural site on the North China Plain in summer: The important roles of ammonia and ozone  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Severe PM2.5 pollution was observed frequently on the North China Plain, and nitrate contributed a large fraction of the elevated PM2.5 concentrations. To obtain a comprehensive understanding of the formation pathways of these fine particulate nitrate and the key factors that affect these pathways, field measurements of fine particulate nitrate and related air pollutants were made at a rural site on the North China Plain in the summer of 2013. Extremely high concentrations of fine particulate nitrate were frequently observed at night and in the early morning. The maximum hourly concentration of fine particulate nitrate reached 87.2 ?g m-3. This concentration accounted for 29.9% of the PM2.5. The very high NH3 concentration in the early morning significantly accelerated the formation of fine particulate nitrate, as indicated by the concurrent appearance of NH3 and NO3- concentration peaks and a rising neutralization ratio (the equivalent ratio of NH4+ to the sum of SO42- and NO3-). On a number of other episode days, strong photochemical activity during daytime led to high concentrations of O3 at night. The fast secondary formation of fine particulate nitrate was mainly attributed to the hydrolysis of N2O5, which was produced from O3 and NO2. Considering the important roles of NH3 and O3 in fine particulate nitrate formation, we suggest the control of NH3 emissions and photochemical pollution to address the high levels of fine particulate nitrate and the severe PM2.5 pollution on the North China Plain.

Wen, Liang; Chen, Jianmin; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Xinfeng; Caihong Xu; Sui, Xiao; Yao, Lan; Zhu, Yanhong; Zhang, Junmei; Zhu, Tong; Wang, Wenxing

2015-01-01

270

Nitrite accumulation by aeration controlled in sequencing batch reactors treating domestic wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

The feasibility of obtaining and keeping stable nitrite accumulation in Sequencing Batch Reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater is studied. The final product of ammonium oxidation is either reproducible nitrate or nitrite depending on the aeration strategy. With the aerobic-anoxic sequence, two SBRs fed with domestic wastewater are operated in parallel. One SBR (SBR1) is controlled by the aeration control strategy,

Y. Z. Peng; Y. Chen; C. Y. Peng; M. Liu; S. Y. Wang; X. Q. Song; Y. W. Cui

271

Ammonia Test  

MedlinePLUS

... of this website will be limited. Search Help? Ammonia Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also ... to normal, can it rise again? 1. Is ammonia testing used to detect or monitor ammonia poisoning? ...

272

Temporal and spatial stability of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in aquarium biofilters.  

PubMed

Nitrifying biofilters are used in aquaria and aquaculture systems to prevent accumulation of ammonia by promoting rapid conversion to nitrate via nitrite. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), as opposed to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were recently identified as the dominant ammonia oxidizers in most freshwater aquaria. This study investigated biofilms from fixed-bed aquarium biofilters to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of AOA and AOB abundance and diversity. Over a period of four months, ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms from six freshwater and one marine aquarium were investigated at 4-5 time points. Nitrogen balances for three freshwater aquaria showed that active nitrification by aquarium biofilters accounted for ? 81-86% of total nitrogen conversion in the aquaria. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacterial and thaumarchaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that AOA were numerically dominant over AOB in all six freshwater aquaria tested, and contributed all detectable amoA genes in three aquarium biofilters. In the marine aquarium, however, AOB outnumbered AOA by three to five orders of magnitude based on amoA gene abundances. A comparison of AOA abundance in three carrier materials (fine sponge, rough sponge and sintered glass or ceramic rings) of two three-media freshwater biofilters revealed preferential growth of AOA on fine sponge. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated that community composition within a given biofilter was stable across media types. In addition, DGGE of all aquarium biofilters revealed low AOA diversity, with few bands, which were stable over time. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes placed freshwater and marine aquaria communities in separate clusters. These results indicate that AOA are the dominant ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in freshwater aquarium biofilters, and that AOA community composition within a given aquarium is stable over time and across biofilter support material types. PMID:25479061

Bagchi, Samik; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Sauder, Laura A; Mosquera, Mariela; Neufeld, Josh D; Boon, Nico

2014-01-01

273

Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria Contribute Minimally to Nitrification in a Nitrogen-Impacted Forested Ecosystem  

PubMed Central

Deposition rates of atmospheric nitrogenous pollutants to forests in the San Bernardino Mountains range east of Los Angeles, California, are the highest reported in North America. Acidic soils from the west end of the range are N-saturated and have elevated rates of N-mineralization, nitrification, and nitrate leaching. We assessed the impact of this heavy nitrogen load on autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing communities by investigating their composition, abundance, and activity. Analysis of 177 cloned ?-Proteobacteria ammonia oxidizer 16S rRNA genes from highly to moderately N-impacted soils revealed similar levels of species composition; all of the soils supported the previously characterized Nitrosospira clusters 2, 3, and 4. Ammonia oxidizer abundance measured by quantitative PCR was also similar among the soils. However, rates of potential nitrification activity were greater for N-saturated soils than for soils collected from a less impacted site, but autotrophic (i.e., acetylene-sensitive) activity was low in all soils examined. N-saturated soils incubated for 30 days with ammonium accumulated additional soluble ammonium, whereas less-N-impacted soils had a net loss of ammonium. Lastly, nitrite production by cultivated Nitrosospira multiformis, an autotrophic ammonia-oxidizing bacterium adapted to relatively high ammonium concentrations, was significantly inhibited in pH-controlled slurries of sterilized soils amended with ammonium despite the maintenance of optimal ammonia-oxidizing conditions. Together, these results showed that factors other than autotrophic ammonia oxidizers contributed to high nitrification rates in these N-impacted forest soils and, unlike many other environments, differences in nitrogen content and soil pH did not favor particular autotrophic ammonia oxidizer groups. PMID:15640188

Jordan, Fiona L.; Cantera, J. Jason L.; Fenn, Mark E.; Stein, Lisa Y.

2005-01-01

274

An evaluation of liquid ammonia (ammonium hydroxide) as a candidate piscicide  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Eradication of populations of nonnative aquatic species for the purpose of reintroducing native fish is often difficult because very few effective tools are available for removing aquatic organisms. This creates the need to evaluate new chemicals that could be used as management tools for native fish conservation. Ammonia is a natural product of fish metabolism and is naturally present in the environment at low levels, yet is known to be toxic to most aquatic species. Our objective was to determine the feasibility of using liquid ammonia as a fisheries management tool by evaluating its effectiveness at killing undesirable aquatic species and its persistence in a pond environment. A suite of invasive aquatic species commonly found in the southwestern USA were introduced into two experimental outdoor ponds located at the Rocky Mountain Research Station in Flagstaff, Arizona. Each pond was treated with ammonium hydroxide (29%) at 38 ppm. This target concentration was chosen because previous studies using anhydrous ammonia reported incomplete fish kills in ponds at concentrations less than 30 ppm. Water quality was monitored for 49 d to determine how quickly the natural bacteria in the environment converted the ammonia to nitrate. Ammonia levels remained above 8 ppm for 24 and 18 d, respectively, in ponds 1 and 2. Nitrite levels in each pond began to rise approximately 14 d after dosing with ammonia and stayed above 5 ppm for an additional 21 d in pond 1 and 18 d in pond 2. After 49 d all water in both ponds was drained and no fish, crayfish, or tadpoles were found to have survived the treatment, but aquatic turtles remained alive and appeared unaffected. Liquid ammonia appears to be an effective tool for removing many problematic invasive aquatic species and may warrant further investigation as a piscicide.

Ward, David L.; Morton-Starner, R.; Hedwall, Shaula J.

2013-01-01

275

Temporal and Spatial Stability of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria in Aquarium Biofilters  

PubMed Central

Nitrifying biofilters are used in aquaria and aquaculture systems to prevent accumulation of ammonia by promoting rapid conversion to nitrate via nitrite. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), as opposed to ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), were recently identified as the dominant ammonia oxidizers in most freshwater aquaria. This study investigated biofilms from fixed-bed aquarium biofilters to assess the temporal and spatial dynamics of AOA and AOB abundance and diversity. Over a period of four months, ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms from six freshwater and one marine aquarium were investigated at 4–5 time points. Nitrogen balances for three freshwater aquaria showed that active nitrification by aquarium biofilters accounted for ?81–86% of total nitrogen conversion in the aquaria. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) for bacterial and thaumarchaeal ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes demonstrated that AOA were numerically dominant over AOB in all six freshwater aquaria tested, and contributed all detectable amoA genes in three aquarium biofilters. In the marine aquarium, however, AOB outnumbered AOA by three to five orders of magnitude based on amoA gene abundances. A comparison of AOA abundance in three carrier materials (fine sponge, rough sponge and sintered glass or ceramic rings) of two three-media freshwater biofilters revealed preferential growth of AOA on fine sponge. Denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE) of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes indicated that community composition within a given biofilter was stable across media types. In addition, DGGE of all aquarium biofilters revealed low AOA diversity, with few bands, which were stable over time. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) based on denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) fingerprints of thaumarchaeal 16S rRNA genes placed freshwater and marine aquaria communities in separate clusters. These results indicate that AOA are the dominant ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in freshwater aquarium biofilters, and that AOA community composition within a given aquarium is stable over time and across biofilter support material types. PMID:25479061

Sauder, Laura A.; Mosquera, Mariela; Neufeld, Josh D.; Boon, Nico

2014-01-01

276

Ammonia in simulated Hanford double-shell tank wastes: Solubility and effects on surface tension  

SciTech Connect

Radioactive and wastes left from defense materials production activities are temporarily stored in large underground tanks at the Hanford Site in south central Washington State (Tank Waste Science Panel 1991). Some of these wastes are in the form of a thick slurry (``double-shell slurry``) containing sodium nitrate, sodium nitrite, sodium aluminate, sodium hydroxide, sodium carbonate, organic complexants and buffering agents, complexant fragments and other minor components (Herting et al. 1992a; Herting et al. 1992b; Campbell et al. 1994). As a result of thermal and radiolytic processes, a number of gases are known to be produced by some of these stored wastes, including ammonia, nitrous oxide, nitrogen, hydrogen, and methane (Babad et al. 1991; Ashby et al. 1992; Meisel et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1993; Ashby et al. 1994; Bryan et al. 1993; US Department of Energy 1994). Before the emplacement of a mixer pump, these gases were retained in and periodically released from Tank 241-SY-101, a double-shell tank at the Hanford Site (Babad et al. 1992; US Department of Energy 1994). Gases are believed to be retained primarily in the form of bubbles attached to solid particles (Bryan, Pederson, and Scheele 1992), with very little actually dissolved in the liquid. Ammonia is an exception. The relation between the concentration of aqueous ammonia in such concentrated, caustic mixtures and the ammonia partial pressure is not well known, however.

Norton, J.D.; Pederson, L.R.

1994-09-01

277

Nitrate Reductase and Soluble Cytochrome c in Spirillum itersonii  

PubMed Central

The addition of nitrate to cultures of Spirillum itersonii incubated under low aeration produced a diauxic growth pattern in which the second exponential phase was preceded by the appearance of nitrite in the medium. The organism also grew anaerobically in the presence of nitrate. Nitrate reductase activity could be demonstrated in cell-free extracts by use of reduced methyl viologen as the electron donor. The enzyme was located in the supernatant fraction after centrifugation of extracts for 2 hr at 40,000 × g, and it sedimented as a single peak when centrifuged in a sucrose gradient. Nitrate reductase activity was found in cells grown with low aeration without nitrate, but was increased about twofold by addition of nitrate. Enzyme activity was negligible in cells grown with high aeration. The proportion of soluble cytochrome c was increased two- to threefold in cells grown with nitrate. The specific activities of nitrate reductase and soluble cytochrome c rose when nitrate or nitrite was added to cell suspensions incubated with low aeration; nitrite was more effective than nitrate during the early stages of incubation. A nitrate reductase-negative mutant synthesized increased amounts of soluble cytochrome c in response to nitrate or to nitrite in the cell suspension system. It is concluded that enhanced synthesis of soluble cytochrome c does not require the presence of a functional nitrate reductase. PMID:5429724

Gauthier, Dorothy K.; Clark-Walker, G. D.; Garrard, W. T.; Lascelles, June

1970-01-01

278

Performance evaluation of a continuous bipolar electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation (ECEO-EF) reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent.  

PubMed

The present study aimed to evaluate the performance of a continuous bipolar ECEO-EF reactor designed for simultaneous removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater effluent. The reactor was comprised of two distinct units: electrochemical and separation. In the electrochemical unit, Al, stainless steel, and RuO(2)/Ti plates were used. All the measurements were performed according to the standard methods. Maximum efficiency of the reactor for phosphate removal was 99% at pH of 6, current density of 3A, detention time of 60 min, and influent phosphate concentration of 50mg/l. The corresponding value for ammonia removal was 99% at a pH of 7 under the same operational conditions as for phosphate removal. For both phosphate and ammonia, the removal efficiency was highest at neutral pH, with higher current densities, and with lower influent concentrations. In addition to removal of phosphate and ammonia, application of the Al(3+) plates enabled the removal of nitrite and nitrate, which may be present in wastewater effluent and are also products of the electrochemical process. The reactor was also able to decrease the concentrations of phosphate, ammonia, and COD under actual wastewater conditions by 98%, 98%, and 72%, respectively. According to the results of the present study, the reactor can be used for efficient removal of ammonia and phosphate from wastewater. PMID:21741172

Mahvi, Amir Hossein; Ebrahimi, Seyed Jamal Al-Din; Mesdaghinia, Alireza; Gharibi, Hamed; Sowlat, Mohammad Hossein

2011-09-15

279

A novel nitrite reductase gene from the cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum.  

PubMed Central

The gene (nirA) for nitrite reductase was cloned from the nonheterocystous, filamentous cyanobacterium Plectonema boryanum. The predicted protein consists of 654 amino acids and has a calculated molecular weight of 72,135. The deduced amino acid sequence from positions 1 to 511 is strongly similar to the entire sequence of the ferredoxin-dependent nitrite reductases from other phototrophs, while the remainder of the protein is unique to the Plectonema nitrite reductase. The C-terminal portion of the protein (amino acids 584 to 654) is 30 to 35% identical to [2Fe-2S] ferredoxins from higher plants and cyanobacteria, with all of the four Cys residues involved in binding of the [2Fe-2S] cluster in the ferredoxins being conserved. Immunoblotting analysis of the extracts of P. boryanum cells showed that the NirA polypeptide has an apparent molecular mass of 75 kDa. An insertional mutant of nirA lacked the 75-kDa polypeptide, had no nitrite reductase activity, and failed to grow on nitrate and nitrite, indicating that the novel nirA is the sole nitrite reductase gene in P. boryanum and that the NirA polypeptide with the ferredoxin-like domain is the apoprotein of the functional nitrite reductase. As in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC7942, nirA is the first gene of a large transcription unit (> 7 kb in size) and is repressed by ammonium and derepressed simply by deprivation of ammonium from the medium. The development of nitrite reductase activity was, however, found to require the presence of nitrate in the medium. PMID:7592378

Suzuki, I; Kikuchi, H; Nakanishi, S; Fujita, Y; Sugiyama, T; Omata, T

1995-01-01

280

A Mesophilic, Autotrophic, Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaeon of Thaumarchaeal Group I.1a Cultivated from a Deep Oligotrophic Soil Horizon  

PubMed Central

Soil nitrification plays an important role in the reduction of soil fertility and in nitrate enrichment of groundwater. Various ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are considered to be members of the pool of ammonia-oxidizing microorganisms in soil. This study reports the discovery of a chemolithoautotrophic ammonia oxidizer that belongs to a distinct clade of nonmarine thaumarchaeal group I.1a, which is widespread in terrestrial environments. The archaeal strain MY2 was cultivated from a deep oligotrophic soil horizon. The similarity of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain MY2 to those of other cultivated group I.1a thaumarchaeota members, i.e., Nitrosopumilus maritimus and “Candidatus Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” is 92.9% for both species. Extensive growth assays showed that strain MY2 is chemolithoautotrophic, mesophilic (optimum temperature, 30°C), and neutrophilic (optimum pH, 7 to 7.5). The accumulation of nitrite above 1 mM inhibited ammonia oxidation, while ammonia oxidation itself was not inhibited in the presence of up to 5 mM ammonia. The genome size of strain MY2 was 1.76 Mb, similar to those of N. maritimus and “Ca. Nitrosoarchaeum koreensis,” and the repertoire of genes required for ammonia oxidation and carbon fixation in thaumarchaeal group I.1a was conserved. A high level of representation of conserved orthologous genes for signal transduction and motility in the noncore genome might be implicated in niche adaptation by strain MY2. On the basis of phenotypic, phylogenetic, and genomic characteristics, we propose the name “Candidatus Nitrosotenuis chungbukensis” for the ammonia-oxidizing archaeal strain MY2. PMID:24705324

Jung, Man-Young; Park, Soo-Je; Kim, So-Jeong; Kim, Jong-Geol; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

2014-01-01

281

Effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in treatment of coal chemical industry wastewater using moving bed biofilm reactor.  

PubMed

Nitrogen removal via nitrite (the nitrite pathway) is more suitable for carbon-limited industrial wastewater. Partial nitrification to nitrite is the primary step to achieve nitrogen removal via nitrite. The effect of alkalinity on nitrite accumulation in a continuous process was investigated by progressively increasing the alkalinity dosage ratio (amount of alkalinity to ammonia ratio, mol/mol). There is a close relationship among alkalinity, pH and the state of matter present in aqueous solution. When alkalinity was insufficient (compared to the theoretical alkalinity amount), ammonia removal efficiency increased first and then decreased at each alkalinity dosage ratio, with an abrupt removal efficiency peak. Generally, ammonia removal efficiency rose with increasing alkalinity dosage ratio. Ammonia removal efficiency reached to 88% from 23% when alkalinity addition was sufficient. Nitrite accumulation could be achieved by inhibiting nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) by free ammonia (FA) in the early period and free nitrous acid in the later period of nitrification when alkalinity was not adequate. Only FA worked to inhibit the activity of NOB when alkalinity addition was sufficient. PMID:25079631

Hou, Baolin; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Zhuang, Haifeng; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Peng

2014-05-01

282

Nitrate Enhanced Microbial Cr(VI) Reduction-Final Report  

SciTech Connect

A major challenge for the bioremediation of radionuclides (i.e., uranium, technetium) and metals (i.e., Cr(VI), Hg) is the co-occurrence of nitrate as it can inhibit metal transformation. Denitrification (nitrate reduction to dinitrogen gas) is considered the most important ecological process. For many metal and metalloid reducing bacteria, however, ammonia is the end product through respiratory nitrate reduction (RNRA). The focus of this work was to determine how RNRA impacts Cr(VI) transformation. The goal was to elucidate the specific mechanism(s) that limits Cr(VI) reduction in the presence of nitrate and to use this information to develop strategies that enhance Cr(VI) reduction (and thus detoxification). Our central hypothesis is that nitrate impacts the biotransformation of metals and metalloids in three ways 1) as a competitive alternative electron acceptor (inhibiting transformation), 2) as a co-metabolite (i.e., concomitant reduction, stimulating transformation), and 3) as an inducer of specific proteins and pathways involved in oxidation/reduction reactions (stimulating transformation). We have identified three model organisms, Geobacter metallireducens (mechanism 1), Sulfurospirillum barnesii, (mechasism 2), and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (mechanisms 3). Our specific aims were to 1) investigate the role of Cr(VI) concentration on the kinetics of both growth and reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and Cr(VI) in these three organisms; 2) develop a profile of bacterial enzymes involved in nitrate transformation (e.g., oxidoreductases) using a proteomic approach; 3) investigate the function of periplasmic nitrite reductase (Nrf) as a chromate reductase; and 4) develop a strategy to maximize microbial chromium reduction in the presence of nitrate. We found that growth on nitrate by G. metallireducens was inhibited by Cr(VI). Over 240 proteins were identified by LC/MS-MS. Redox active proteins, outer membrane heavy metal efflux proteins, and chemotaxis sensory proteins (Gmet_2478 and Gmet_1641) were up-regulated with exposure to Cr(VI). A nine-heme cytochrome C was purified that could reduce nitrite and could be oxidized by Cr(VI). For D. desulfuricans, we found that confirmed that Cr(VI) induced a prolonged lag period when Cr(VI) was reduced. Over three hundred proteins were unequivocally identified by LC/MS-MS and a significant number of down-regulated proteins for which the levels were changed >2 fold compared to control. Sulfite reductase levels were similar, however, nitrate and nitrite reductase were down-regulated. The supernatant of spent cultures was found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI). In addition, desulfoviridin was purified from nitrate grown cells and shown to have nitrite reductase activity that was inhibited by Cr(VI). For S. barnesii, periplasmic nitrate reductase (Nap), nitrite reductase (Nrf), and the metalloid reductase (Rar) were purified and characterized. The supernatant of spent cultures was also found to contain a filterable, heat stable compound that rapidly reduced Cr(VI) but that Rar also reduced Cr(VI). Our results from specific aims 1 through 3 indicate that for G. metallireducens, Cr(VI) inhibits nitrate respiration as it oxidizes cytochromes involved in nitrate respiration. Iron reduction is apparently not affected and the inhibitory affects of Cr(VI) may be attenuated by the addition of sufficient Fe(III) to generate Fe(II) that abiotically reduces the chromium. For S. barnesii, although the enzyme assays indicate that the components of the respiratory pathway for nitrate (e.g. Nap and Nrf) are inhibited by chromate, the organism has a mechanism to prevent this from actually occurring. Our current hypothesis is that the non-specific metalloid reductase (Rar) is providing resistance by reducing the Cr(VI). The strategy here would be to enhance its growth and metabolism in the natural setting. Lactate is a suitable electron donor for S. barnesii but other donors are possible. Although the version of the Phylochip used for monitoring the microb

John F. Stolz

2011-06-15

283

Effect of inorganic carbon on nitrite accumulation in an aerobic granule reactor.  

PubMed

Pilot scale experiments were performed to evaluate the potential of nitrite type nitrification process with an airlift reactor and granular biomass. Initially, oxygen limitation was used as the main control parameter for accumulating nitrite in the effluent. After 30 d operation, the maximum nitrite conversion rate reached 2.5 kgNO2-N m(-3) d(-1), average diameter of the granule was 0.7 mm. Nitrite type reaction continued over 100 d, but nitrate formation increased after 150 d of operation. Once nitrate formation increased, oxygen limitation could not eliminate nitrite oxidising bacteria from granule. To overcome nitrate formation, laboratory scale batch experiments were conducted and it revealed a high concentration of inorganic carbon which had a significant effect on nitrite accumulation. Following this new concept, inorganic carbon was fed to the pilot scale reactor by changing pH adjustment reagent from NaOH to Na2CO3 and nitrite accumulation was recovered successfully without changing DO concentration. These results show that a high concentration of inorganic carbon is one of the control parameters for accumulating nitrite in biofilm nitrification system. PMID:16889265

Tokutomi, T; Kiyokawa, T; Shibayama, C; Harada, H; Ohashi, A

2006-01-01

284

6, 14551480, 2006 Modelling of nitrate  

E-print Network

are formed as fine mode ammonium nitrate or react on existing sea salt particles. The model results show that ammonium nitrate particles play a non-negligible role in the total aerosol composition in certain optical depth of ammonium nitrate is relatively small due to limited availability of ammonia and reaction

Boyer, Edmond

285

Transformations of ammonia and the environmental impact of nitrifying bacteria  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the sequence of events leading from ammonia to N2 during the process of biotransformation of inorganic nitrogen compounds, the weakest link, with respect to our knowledge and understanding of the organisms involved, is nitrification. In particular, this is true for the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite. The enzymes have not been thoroughly studied, and the enzymatic mechanisms have not

Aharon Abeliovich

1992-01-01

286

Nitric oxide preferentially inhibits nitrite oxidizing communities with high affinity for nitrite.  

PubMed

The prerequisite to the development success of the novel mainstream processes partial nitritation/anammox is the out-selection of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB). A recent study suggested that this could be achieved through NO production by ammonium oxidizing bacteria under cyclic oxic-anoxic conditions. Indeed, it is known that among NOB, Nitrobacter species are reversibly inhibited by NO. However, the effect of NO on the activity of the NOB genus Nitrospira is not studied so far. Such an understanding is needed, since Nitrospira related NOB are mostly prevailing in sewage treatment plants. This study quantified the effect of NO on the nitratation activity of sludge types with different Nitrobacter/Nitrospira ratios. In an oxic bubbling column, a dosage of 4.4mg NOL(-1)d(-1) (?2?gNO-NL(-1) in liquid phase) inhibited the Nitrobacter dominated sludge with 24%. For the Nitrospira dominated sludge types, the inhibition was strongly correlated with the nitrite half saturation constant (Ks) ranging from 0% to 30-50% and 60-80% inhibition of the nitrite oxidation for Ks of 0.72, 0.36 and 0.06mg NO2(-)-NL(-1), respectively. This study showed that nitrifying communities with high affinity for nitrite and low specific nitrite oxidation rates (K-strategists) can be strongly inhibited by NO. The degree of inhibition could be confirmed in a set-up with NO dosage through an artificial alginate-based biofilm, ensuring a more direct contact between NO and the microorganisms. PMID:25475443

Courtens, Emilie N P; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Jordaens, Robin; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Boon, Nico

2015-01-10

287

Photocontrol of nitrite reductase gene expression in the barley seedling ( Hordeum vulgare L.)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite reductase (NIR, EC 1.7.7.1) — a key enzyme of nitrate assimilation — is known to be induced by nitrate and light. In the present work with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings, control of NIR gene expression by light and its dependency on intact plastids was studied. The major results were as follows: (i) It was confirmed that a single

B. Seith; A. Sherman; J. L. Wray; H. Mohr

1993-01-01

288

Kinetic Explanation for Accumulation of Nitrite, Nitric Oxide, and Nitrous Oxide During Bacterial Denitrification †  

PubMed Central

The kinetics of denitrification and the causes of nitrite and nitrous oxide accumulation were examined in resting cell suspensions of three denitrifiers. An Alcaligenes species and a Pseudomonas fluorescens isolate characteristically accumulated nitrite when reducing nitrate; a Flavobacterium isolate did not. Nitrate did not inhibit nitrite reduction in cultures grown with tungstate to prevent formation of an active nitrate reductase; rather, accumulation of nitrite seemed to depend on the relative rates of nitrate and nitrite reduction. Each isolate rapidly reduced nitrous oxide even when nitrate or nitrite had been included in the incubation mixture. Nitrate also did not inhibit nitrous oxide reduction in Alcaligenes odorans, an organism incapable of nitrate reduction. Thus, added nitrate or nitrite does not always cause nitrous oxide accumulation, as has often been reported for denitrifying soils. All strains produced small amounts of nitric oxide during denitrification in a pattern suggesting that nitric oxide was also under kinetic control similar to that of nitrite and nitrous oxide. Apparent Km values for nitrate and nitrite reduction were 15 ?M or less for each isolate. The Km value for nitrous oxide reduction by Flavobacterium sp. was 0.5 ?M. Numerical solutions to a mathematical model of denitrification based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics showed that differences in reduction rates of the nitrogenous compounds were sufficient to account for the observed patterns of nitrite, nitric oxide, and nitrous oxide accumulation. Addition of oxygen inhibited gas production from 13NO3? by Alcaligenes sp. and P. fluorescens, but it did not reduce gas production by Flavobacterium sp. However, all three isolates produced higher ratios of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen as the oxygen tension increased. Inclusion of oxygen in the model as a nonspecific inhibitor of each step in denitrification resulted in decreased gas production but increased ratios of nitrous oxide to dinitrogen, as observed experimentally. The simplicity of this kinetic model of denitrification and its ability to unify disparate observations should make the model a useful guide in research on the physiology of denitrifier response to environmental effectors. PMID:16345900

Betlach, Michael R.; Tiedje, James M.

1981-01-01

289

Magnetic Resonance Study of the Transmembrane Nitrite Diffusion  

PubMed Central

Nitrite (NO2-), being a product of metabolism of both nitric oxide (NO•) and nitrate (NO3-), can accumulate in tissues and regenerate NO• by several mechanisms. The effect of NO2- on ischemia/reperfusion injury was also reported. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of intracellular NO2- accumulation are poorly understood. We suggested significant role of nitrite penetration through biological membranes in the form of undissociated nitrous acid (HNO2). This hypothesis has been tested using large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine liposomes and several spectroscopic techniques. HNO2 transport across the phospholipid bilayer of liposomes facilitates proton transfer resulting in intraliposomal acidification, which was measured using pH-sensitive probes. NO2--mediated intraliposomal acidification was confirmed by EPR spectroscopy using membrane-impermeable pH-sensitive nitroxide, 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium-4-yl)-aminomethanesulfonic acid (pK 5.25), and by 31P-NMR spectroscopy using inorganic phosphate (pK 6.9). Nitrite accumulates inside liposomes in concentration exceeding its concentration in the bulk solution, when initial transmembrane pH gradient (alkaline inside) is applied. Intraliposomal accumulation of NO2- was observed by direct measurement using chemiluminescence technique. Perfusion of isolated rat hearts with buffer containing 4 ?M NO2- was performed. The nitrite concentrations in the effluent and in the tissue, measured after 1 minute perfusion were close, supporting fast penetration of the nitrite through the tissue. Measurements of the nitrate/nitrate showed that total concentration of NOx in myocardium increased from initial 7.8 ?M to 24.7 ?M after nitrite perfusion. Physiological significance of passive transmembrane transport of NO2- and its coupling with intraliposomal acidification are discussed. PMID:17306575

Samouilov, A.; Woldman, Ya.Yu.; Zweier, J.L.; Khramtsov, V.V.

2009-01-01

290

Haematological responses of acute nitrite exposure in walleye (Sander vitreus).  

PubMed

Nitrite (NO2-) is a toxic intermediary of the bacterial oxidation of nitrogenous wastes (e.g. ammonia) in an aquatic environment. It becomes most lethal when oxygen becomes limited due to high fish densities or in the presence of high bacterial activity due to waste build-up-both situations commonly found in intensive aquaculture. To date however, little is known about how this toxin affects the physiology of walleye, an intended culture species, particularly in intensive re-circulating systems. This study aims to define threshold concentrations of nitrite that affect haemoglobin-oxygen affinity and carrying capacity in walleye. During in vivo tests, fish (N=20) were subjected to a medium effective concentration (EC50) of nitrite (0.9 mmol L(-1)) for 48 h while the effects of nitrite accumulation on blood properties were measured. The effects of oxygenation state on red blood cell (RBC) nitrite uptake and metHb formation was further investigated by in vitro tonometry. In vitro nitrite exposure to 3 mmol L(-1) resulted in a significantly higher methaemoglobin formation in 50% air saturated than 100% air saturated RBCs. Both cell water content and haematocrit decreased with time in 50% air saturated treatments, whereas total Hb remained constant, suggesting a reduction in RBC volume. Similar effects were observed during 48 h in vivo and in vitro nitrite exposure tests, indicating the reduction in RBC volume likely was not the result of a catecholamine response. Walleye were found to be tolerant to an accumulation of blood-NO2- levels similar to common carp, a highly Mean Cellular Volume (MCV) tolerant species, before succumbing to methaemoglobinemia. The elevated tolerance to nitrite of walleye is a beneficial characteristic for successful rearing in a culture setting, where reduced oxygen and elevated MCV levels are prevalent. The findings from this study may be used in developing guidelines for species-specific management of nitrogenous wastes in aquaculture. PMID:16806526

Madison, Barry N; Wang, Yuxiang S

2006-08-12

291

Isolation and analysis of mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa unable to assimilate nitrate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can reduce nitrate to nitrite and eventually to nitrogen gas by the denitrification pathway, thereby providing the organism with a mode of respiration and ATP generation in the absence of oxygen. P. aeruginosa can also reduce nitrate to nitrite through an assimilatory pathway that provides the cell with reduced nitrogen for biosyntheses. In order to establish whether this

Stacey R. Sias; John L. Ingraham

1979-01-01

292

Archaea predominate among ammonia-oxidizing prokaryotes in soils  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification, a key process in the global nitrogen cycle that results in the formation of nitrate through microbial activity. The increase in nitrate availability in soils is important for plant nutrition, but it also has considerable impact on groundwater pollution owing to leaching. Here we show that archaeal ammonia oxidizers are more abundant

S. Leininger; T. Urich; M. Schloter; L. Schwark; J. Qi; G. W. Nicol; J. I. Prosser; S. C. Schuster; C. Schleper

2006-01-01

293

Inhibitory effect of nitrite on coagulation processes demonstrated by thrombelastography.  

PubMed

Nitric oxide (NO) can be generated by two-step reduction pathway in which nitrate is converted first into nitrite and then into NO via several mechanisms, as well as from arginine by endogenous nitric oxide synthase (NOS). We have recently shown that nitrite ions in the presence of erythrocytes inhibit platelet aggregation and activation, as measured by aggregometry and flow cytometric analysis of P-selectin, through its reduction to NO under partially deoxygenated conditions. In the current study, we investigated how nitrite may affect overall clotting processes via modulating platelet function using thrombelastography (TEG). We measured three major TEG parameters, reaction time (R, time to initial fibrin formation), ? angle (velocity of clot growth) and maximum amplitude (MA, maximum clot strength) using blood from healthy volunteers. An NO donor (DEANONOate) showed inhibitory effects on all TEG parameters in platelet rich plasma (PRP) and whole blood, resulting in delayed R, decreased angle, and reduced MA in a dose dependent manner. Nitrite ions also exhibited inhibitory effects in whole blood at 20% hematocrit, and this was greatly enhanced under hypoxic conditions, being demonstrable at 0.1 ?M concentration. Neither compound changed any TEG parameters in plasma. Our results suggest that nitrite affects overall blood clotting and that TEG may be used to follow this process. Further the physiological effects of factors which determine NO bioavailability, such as endogenous levels of blood and tissue nitrite, may be useful as biomarkers for predicting hemostatic potential. PMID:24858214

Park, J W; Piknova, B; Nghiem, K; Lozier, J N; Schechter, A N

2014-08-31

294

A new non-degenerate primer pair for the specific detection of the nitrite reductase gene nrfA in the genus Desulfovibrio.  

PubMed

Dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonia (DNRA) is the process in which nitrate is reduced, via nitrite, to ammonia. Bacteria known to carry out DNRA mainly originate from wastewater treatment plants, where DNRA is a relevant process. The ability to carry out DNRA is phylogenetically widespread, and the gene nrfA, encoding for the key enzyme of the second step of the pathway, could be used as a marker for this process. In this study we developed a new primer pair specific for nrfA in the genus Desulfovibrio. The specificity of the primer pair was tested on DNA from thirteen species of Desulfovibrio and DNA from two wastewater samples. PCR amplifications yielded products of the expected size (850 bp), and sequences obtained from Desulfovibrio strains and environmental sample clone libraries matched the Desulfovibrio nrfA gene. Nevertheless, we found nrfA gene sequences in the environmental samples that are not present in the databases. The new primer set can be used to obtain more sequences of the nrfA gene and improve our knowledge of the DNRA pathway in this genus, e.g. with the aim to improve the wastewater treatment process. PMID:23295220

Giacomucci, L; Purdy, K J; Zanardini, E; Polo, A; Cappitelli, F

2012-01-01

295

Ammonia Assimilation by Rhizobium Cultures and Bacteroids  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY The enzymes involved in the assimilation of ammonia by free-living cultures of Rhizobium spp. are glutamine synthetase (EC. 6.3. I. 2), glutamate synthase (L- glutamine : a-oxoglutarate amino transferase) and glutamate dehydrogenase (EC I.4. I.4). Under conditions of ammonia or nitrate limitation in a chemostat the assimilation of ammonia by cultures of R. leguminosarum, R. trifolii and R. japonicum

C. M. BROWN; M. J. DILWORTH

1975-01-01

296

FINAL REPORT. MECHANISM OF PITTING CORROSION PREVENTION BY NITRITE IN CARBON STEEL EXPOSED TO DILUTE SALT SOLUTIONS  

EPA Science Inventory

The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during...

297

Horizontal Transfer of a Nitrate Assimilation Gene Cluster and Ecological Transitions in Fungi: A  

E-print Network

Horizontal Transfer of a Nitrate Assimilation Gene Cluster and Ecological Transitions in Fungi, Massachusetts, United States of America High affinity nitrate assimilation genes in fungi occur in a cluster (f nitrate transporter; euknr, which codes for nitrate reductase; and NAD(P)H- nir, which codes for nitrite

Hibbett, David S.

298

Genetic and biochemical studies of nitrate reduction in Aspergillus nidulans.  

PubMed

1. In Aspergillus nidulans nitrate and nitrite induce nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase, and ammonium represses the three enzymes. 2. Nitrate reductase can donate electrons to a wide variety of acceptors in addition to nitrate. These artificial acceptors include benzyl viologen, 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride, cytochrome c and potassium ferricyanide. Similarly nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase (which are possibly a single enzyme in A. nidulans) can donate electrons to these same artificial acceptors in addition to the substrates nitrite and hydroxylamine. 3. Nitrate reductase can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen in place of the natural donor NADPH. The NADPH-nitrate-reductase activity is about twice that of reduced benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase under comparable conditions. 4. Mutants at six gene loci are known that cannot utilize nitrate and lack nitrate-reductase activity. Most mutants in these loci are constitutive for nitrite reductase, hydroxylamine reductase and all the nitrate-induced NADPH-diaphorase activities. It is argued that mutants that lack nitrate-reductase activity are constitutive for the enzymes of the nitrate-reduction pathway because the functional nitrate-reductase molecule is a component of the regulatory system of the pathway. 5. Mutants are known at two gene loci, niiA and niiB, that cannot utilize nitrite and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. 6. Mutants at the niiA locus possess inducible nitrate reductase and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is suggested that a single enzyme protein is responsible for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in A. nidulans and that the niiA locus is the structural gene for this enzyme. 7. Mutants at the niiB locus lack nitrate-reductase, nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is argued that the niiB gene is a regulator gene whose product is necessary for the induction of the nitrate-utilization pathway. The niiB mutants either lack or produce an incorrect product and consequently cannot be induced. 8. Mutants at the niiribo locus cannot utilize nitrate or nitrite unless provided with a flavine supplement. When grown in the absence of a flavine supplement the activities of some of the nitrate-induced enzymes are subnormal. 9. The growth and enzyme characteristics of a total of 123 mutants involving nine different genes indicate that nitrate is reduced to ammonium. Only two possible structural genes for enzymes concerned with nitrate utilization are known. This suggests that only two enzymes, one for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, the other for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium, are involved in this pathway. PMID:4382427

Pateman, J A; Rever, B M; Cove, D J

1967-07-01

299

Genetic and biochemical studies of nitrate reduction in Aspergillus nidulans  

PubMed Central

1. In Aspergillus nidulans nitrate and nitrite induce nitrate reductase, nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase, and ammonium represses the three enzymes. 2. Nitrate reductase can donate electrons to a wide variety of acceptors in addition to nitrate. These artificial acceptors include benzyl viologen, 2-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(p-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyltetrazolium chloride, cytochrome c and potassium ferricyanide. Similarly nitrite reductase and hydroxylamine reductase (which are possibly a single enzyme in A. nidulans) can donate electrons to these same artificial acceptors in addition to the substrates nitrite and hydroxylamine. 3. Nitrate reductase can accept electrons from reduced benzyl viologen in place of the natural donor NADPH. The NADPH–nitrate-reductase activity is about twice that of reduced benzyl viologen–nitrate reductase under comparable conditions. 4. Mutants at six gene loci are known that cannot utilize nitrate and lack nitrate-reductase activity. Most mutants in these loci are constitutive for nitrite reductase, hydroxylamine reductase and all the nitrate-induced NADPH-diaphorase activities. It is argued that mutants that lack nitrate-reductase activity are constitutive for the enzymes of the nitrate-reduction pathway because the functional nitrate-reductase molecule is a component of the regulatory system of the pathway. 5. Mutants are known at two gene loci, niiA and niiB, that cannot utilize nitrite and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. 6. Mutants at the niiA locus possess inducible nitrate reductase and lack nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is suggested that a single enzyme protein is responsible for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium in A. nidulans and that the niiA locus is the structural gene for this enzyme. 7. Mutants at the niiB locus lack nitrate-reductase, nitrite-reductase and hydroxylamine-reductase activities. It is argued that the niiB gene is a regulator gene whose product is necessary for the induction of the nitrate-utilization pathway. The niiB mutants either lack or produce an incorrect product and consequently cannot be induced. 8. Mutants at the niiribo locus cannot utilize nitrate or nitrite unless provided with a flavine supplement. When grown in the absence of a flavine supplement the activities of some of the nitrate-induced enzymes are subnormal. 9. The growth and enzyme characteristics of a total of 123 mutants involving nine different genes indicate that nitrate is reduced to ammonium. Only two possible structural genes for enzymes concerned with nitrate utilization are known. This suggests that only two enzymes, one for the reduction of nitrate to nitrite, the other for the reduction of nitrite to ammonium, are involved in this pathway. PMID:4382427

Pateman, J. A.; Rever, B. M.; Cove, D. J.

1967-01-01

300

Modulation by copper of the products of nitrite respiration in Pseudomonas perfectomarinus.  

PubMed Central

A synthetic growth medium was purified with the chelator 1,5-diphenylthiocarbazone to study the effects of copper on partial reactions and product formation of nitrite respiration in Pseudomonas perfectomarinus. This organism grew anaerobically in a copper-deficient medium with nitrate or nitrite as the terminal electron acceptor. Copper-deficient cells had high activity for reduction of nitrate, nitrite, and nitric oxide, but little activity for nitrous oxide reduction. High rates of nitrous oxide reduction were observed only in cells grown on a copper-sufficient (1 micro M) medium. Copper-deficient cells converted nitrate or nitrite initially to nitrous oxide instead of dinitrogen, the normal end product of nitrite respiration in this organism. In agreement with this was the finding that anaerobic growth of P. perfectomarinus with nitrous oxide as the terminal electron acceptor required copper. This requirement was not satisfied by substitution of molybdenum, zinc, nickel, cobalt, or manganese for copper. Reconstitution of nitrous oxide reduction in copper-deficient cells was rapid on addition of a small amount of copper, even though protein synthesis was inhibited. The results indicate an involvement of copper protein(s) in the last step of nitrite respiration in P. perfectomarinus. In addition we found that nitric oxide, a presumed intermediate of nitrite respiration, inhibited nitrous oxide reduction. PMID:7061387

Matsubara, T; Frunzke, K; Zumft, W G

1982-01-01

301

Haematological responses of acute nitrite exposure in walleye ( Sander vitreus)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrite (NO2?) is a toxic intermediary of the bacterial oxidation of nitrogenous wastes (e.g. ammonia) in an aquatic environment. It becomes most lethal when oxygen becomes limited due to high fish densities or in the presence of high bacterial activity due to waste build-up—both situations commonly found in intensive aquaculture. To date however, little is known about how this toxin

Barry N. Madison; Yuxiang S. Wang

2006-01-01

302

Ammonia synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process for producing ammonia in a synthesis loop in which fresh synthesis gas containing hydrogen, nitrogen and, lesser amounts of argon and methane is combined with a hydrogen enriched recycle gas to provide combined synthesis gas, the combined synthesis is introduced to and reacted over ammonia synthesis catalyst under synthesis conditions to provide converted gas containing ammonia, hydrogen,

B. G. Mandelik; J. R. Cassata; P. J. S. Katy; C. P. Van Dijk

1986-01-01

303

Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 38733883 Evaluation and improvement of ammonia  

E-print Network

Atmospheric Environment 37 (2003) 3873­3883 Evaluation and improvement of ammonia emissions Abstract Two case studies are performed to improve ammonia emissions inputs used to model fine particulate of ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. Ammonia emissions are analyzed in detail for North Carolina

Aneja, Viney P.

304

Effects of Nitrite on Development of Embryos and Early Larval Stages of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio)  

PubMed Central

Abstract Epidemiological studies suggest that high nitrate levels in food and water may cause birth defects or spontaneous abortions in humans. Experimental mammalian studies show that high nitrite levels adversely affect reproductive outcomes, but have not shown congenital malformations. Consequently, the teratogenic potential of nitrite is unclear. In this study, the effects of nitrite on development of zebrafish embryos and early larval stages were investigated. Eggs were exposed to ethanol (a known teratogen), nitrite, or nitrate for 24 or 96 hours, and larvae examined at 120 hours. Sublethal exposure to 300?mM ethanol for 24 hours caused severe pericardial and yolk sac edema, craniofacial and axial malformations, and swim bladder noninflation. The 96 hour LC50 for nitrite was 411?mg/L. Less severe edema, craniofacial (but not axial) malformations, swim bladder noninflation, and immobility were observed after sublethal exposure to nitrite between 10 and 300?mg/L for 96 hours. Exposure to nitrite for 24 hours at concentrations as high as 2000?mg/L was not lethal. Only axial malformations and swim bladder noninflation were observed at 1500?mg/L. The results demonstrate that sublethal nitrite concentrations cause developmental defects. The type and magnitude of these defects differed after 24 and 96 hours of exposure. PMID:22823424

Simmons, Alison E.; Karimi, Ida; Talwar, Mayank

2012-01-01

305

Nitrate reductase activity of plasma membranes from cultured carrot cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota L.) reduced nitrate to nitrite at a slow rate (0.4 µmoles\\/g dry wt · h) without any additions to the reaction medium. This rate was doubled or tripled in presence of 100 µM NADH. Ethanol and other alcohols stimulated the basal rate 8–10-fold. Isolated carrot plasma membranes also reduced nitrate to nitrite at a

R. Barr; M. Böttger; F. L. Crane; D. J. Morré

1995-01-01

306

Comment on Egami's concept of the evolution of nitrate respiration  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Recent results suggest that the presence of common nitrogen salts (sodium nitrite and nitrate) in the irradiation medium can markedly protect filamentous blue-green algae from potentially lethal ultraviolet irradiation. The present results as well as general biological arguments of Egami support and extend Egami's original view that anaerobic respiratory pathways using nitrite and nitrate as terminal electron acceptors evolved prior to oxygen requiring aerobic respiratory pathways.

Rambler, M.; Margulis, L.

1976-01-01

307

Validation of a method to directly and specifically measure nitrite in biological matrices.  

PubMed

The bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO) is influenced by chemical species generated through reactions with proteins, lipids, metals, and its conversion to nitrite and nitrate. A better understanding of the functions played by each of these species could be achieved by developing selective assays able of distinguishing nitrite from other NO species. Nagababu and Rifkind developed a method using acetic and ascorbic acids to measure nitrite-derived NO in plasma. Here, we adapted, optimized, and validated this method to assay nitrite in tissues. The method yielded linear measurements over 1-300 pmol of nitrite and was validated for tissue preserved in a nitrite stabilization solution composed of potassium ferricyanide, N-ethylmaleimide and NP-40. When samples were processed with chloroform, but not with methanol, ethanol, acetic acid or acetonitrile, reliable and reproducible nitrite measurements in up to 20 sample replicates were obtained. The method's accuracy in tissue was ?90% and in plasma 99.9%. In mice, during basal conditions, brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen and kidney cortex had similar nitrite levels. In addition, nitrite tissue levels were similar regardless of when organs were processed: immediately upon collection, kept in stabilization solution for later analysis or frozen and later processed. After ip nitrite injections, rapidly changing nitrite concentrations in tissue and plasma could be measured and were shown to change in significantly distinct patterns. This validated method could be valuable for investigations of nitrite biology in conditions such as sickle cell disease, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes, where nitrite is thought to play a role. PMID:25445633

Almeida, Luis E F; Kamimura, Sayuri; Kenyon, Nicholas; Khaibullina, Alfia; Wang, Li; de Souza Batista, Celia M; Quezado, Zenaide M N

2014-10-28

308

Nitrogen Removal over Nitrite by Aeration Control in Aerobic Granular Sludge Sequencing Batch Reactors  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the potential of aeration control for the achievement of N-removal over nitrite with aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactors. N-removal over nitrite requires less COD, which is particularly interesting if COD is the limiting parameter for nutrient removal. The nutrient removal performances for COD, N and P have been analyzed as well as the concentration of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge. Aeration phase length control combined with intermittent aeration or alternate high-low DO, has proven to be an efficient way to reduce the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria population and hence achieve N-removal over nitrite. N-removal efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved for an influent wastewater with COD:N:P ratios of 20:2.5:1. The total N-removal rate was 0.18 kgN·m?3·d?1. With N-removal over nitrate the N-removal was only 74%. At 20 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased by over 95% in 60 days and it was possible to switch from N-removal over nitrite to N-removal over nitrate and back again. At 15 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased too but less, and nitrite oxidation could not be completely suppressed. However, the combination of aeration phase length control and high-low DO was also at 15 °C successful to maintain the nitrite pathway despite the fact that the maximum growth rate of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at temperatures below 20 °C is in general higher than the one of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:25006970

Lochmatter, Samuel; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

2014-01-01

309

Nitrogen removal over nitrite by aeration control in aerobic granular sludge sequencing batch reactors.  

PubMed

This study investigated the potential of aeration control for the achievement of N-removal over nitrite with aerobic granular sludge in sequencing batch reactors. N-removal over nitrite requires less COD, which is particularly interesting if COD is the limiting parameter for nutrient removal. The nutrient removal performances for COD, N and P have been analyzed as well as the concentration of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in the granular sludge. Aeration phase length control combined with intermittent aeration or alternate high-low DO, has proven to be an efficient way to reduce the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria population and hence achieve N-removal over nitrite. N-removal efficiencies of up to 95% were achieved for an influent wastewater with COD:N:P ratios of 20:2.5:1. The total N-removal rate was 0.18 kgN·m-3·d-1. With N-removal over nitrate the N-removal was only 74%. At 20 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased by over 95% in 60 days and it was possible to switch from N-removal over nitrite to N-removal over nitrate and back again. At 15 °C, the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria concentration decreased too but less, and nitrite oxidation could not be completely suppressed. However, the combination of aeration phase length control and high-low DO was also at 15 °C successful to maintain the nitrite pathway despite the fact that the maximum growth rate of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria at temperatures below 20 °C is in general higher than the one of ammonium-oxidizing bacteria. PMID:25006970

Lochmatter, Samuel; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

2014-07-01

310

Drivers of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing communities in soil  

PubMed Central

Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are highly abundant and play an important role in the nitrogen cycle. In addition, AOA have a significant impact on soil quality. Nitrite produced by AOA and further oxidized to nitrate can cause nitrogen loss from soils, surface and groundwater contamination, and water eutrophication. The AOA discovered to date are classified in the phylum Thaumarchaeota. Only a few archaeal genomes are available in databases. As a result, AOA genes are not well annotated, and it is difficult to mine and identify archaeal genes within metagenomic libraries. Nevertheless, 16S rRNA and comparative analysis of ammonia monooxygenase sequences show that soils can vary greatly in the relative abundance of AOA. In some soils, AOA can comprise more than 10% of the total prokaryotic community. In other soils, AOA comprise less than 0.5% of the community. Many approaches have been used to measure the abundance and diversity of this group including DGGE, T-RFLP, q-PCR, and DNA sequencing. AOA have been studied across different soil types and various ecosystems from the Antarctic dry valleys to the tropical forests of South America to the soils near Mount Everest. Different studies have identified multiple soil factors that trigger the abundance of AOA. These factors include pH, concentration of available ammonia, organic matter content, moisture content, nitrogen content, clay content, as well as other triggers. Land use management appears to have a major effect on the abundance of AOA in soil, which may be the result of nitrogen fertilizer used in agricultural soils. This review summarizes the published results on this topic and suggests future work that will increase our understanding of how soil management and edaphoclimatic factors influence AOA. PMID:22715335

Zhalnina, Kateryna; de Quadros, Patrícia Dörr; Camargo, Flavio A. O.; Triplett, Eric W.

2012-01-01

311

Regulation of Nitrate Reductase in Neurospora crassa: Stability In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, reduced form (NADPH)-nitrate reductase and its related enzyme activities, NADPH-cytochrome c reductase and reduced benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase, are all induced following the transfer of ammonia-grown wild-type Neurospora mycelia to nitrate medium. After nitrate reductase is induced to the maximal level, the addition of an ammonium salt to, or the removal of nitrate from, the cultures results in a rapid inactivation of nitrate reductase and its two partial component activities. This rapid inactivation is slowed down by the protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide. Experiments on the mixing of extracts in vitro rule out the presence of an inhibitor of nitrate reductase in free form in extracts containing inactivated nitrate reductase. Ammonia does not inhibit the uptake of nitrate by the mycelia. Inactivation of nitrate reductase in vivo by ammonia depends on the concentration of the ammonium salt and is not reversed by increasing the nitrate concentration of the medium. The nitrate-inducible NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity and reduced benzyl viologen-nitrate reductase activity respectively of the nitrate-nonutilizing mutants nit-1 and nit-3 are not inactivated in vivo by the addition of an ammonium salt or the withdrawal of nitrate. This finding suggests that the integrity of the nitrate reductase complex is required for the in vivo inactivation of nitrate reductase and its associated activities. PMID:4401813

Subramanian, K. N.; Sorger, G. J.

1972-01-01

312

Nitrite reductase NirBD is induced and plays an important role during in vitro dormancy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the strongest reducers of nitrate among all mycobacteria. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite, mediated by nitrate reductase (NarGHJI) of M. tuberculosis, is induced during the dormant stage, and the enzyme has a respiratory function in the absence of oxygen. Nitrite reductase (NirBD) is also functional during aerobic growth when nitrite is the sole nitrogen source. However, the role of NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction during the dormancy is not yet characterized. Here, we analyzed nitrite reduction during aerobic growth as well as in a hypoxic dormancy model of M. tuberculosis in vitro. When nitrite was used as the sole nitrogen source in the medium, the organism grew and the reduction of nitrite was evident in both hypoxic and aerobic cultures of M. tuberculosis. Remarkably, the hypoxic culture of M. tuberculosis, compared to the aerobic culture, showed 32- and 4-fold-increased expression of nitrite reductase (NirBD) at the transcription and protein levels, respectively. More importantly, a nirBD mutant of M. tuberculosis was unable to reduce nitrite and compared to the wild-type (WT) strain had a >2-log reduction in viability after 240 h in the Wayne model of hypoxic dormancy. Dependence of M. tuberculosis on nitrite reductase (NirBD) was also seen in a human macrophage-based dormancy model where the nirBD mutant was impaired for survival compared to the WT strain. Overall, the increased expression and essentiality of nitrite reductase in the in vitro dormancy models suggested that NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction could be critical during the persistent stage of M. tuberculosis. PMID:23935045

Akhtar, Shamim; Khan, Arshad; Sohaskey, Charles D; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy; Sarkar, Dhiman

2013-10-01

313

Nitrite Reductase NirBD Is Induced and Plays an Important Role during In Vitro Dormancy of Mycobacterium tuberculosis  

PubMed Central

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is one of the strongest reducers of nitrate among all mycobacteria. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite, mediated by nitrate reductase (NarGHJI) of M. tuberculosis, is induced during the dormant stage, and the enzyme has a respiratory function in the absence of oxygen. Nitrite reductase (NirBD) is also functional during aerobic growth when nitrite is the sole nitrogen source. However, the role of NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction during the dormancy is not yet characterized. Here, we analyzed nitrite reduction during aerobic growth as well as in a hypoxic dormancy model of M. tuberculosis in vitro. When nitrite was used as the sole nitrogen source in the medium, the organism grew and the reduction of nitrite was evident in both hypoxic and aerobic cultures of M. tuberculosis. Remarkably, the hypoxic culture of M. tuberculosis, compared to the aerobic culture, showed 32- and 4-fold-increased expression of nitrite reductase (NirBD) at the transcription and protein levels, respectively. More importantly, a nirBD mutant of M. tuberculosis was unable to reduce nitrite and compared to the wild-type (WT) strain had a >2-log reduction in viability after 240 h in the Wayne model of hypoxic dormancy. Dependence of M. tuberculosis on nitrite reductase (NirBD) was also seen in a human macrophage-based dormancy model where the nirBD mutant was impaired for survival compared to the WT strain. Overall, the increased expression and essentiality of nitrite reductase in the in vitro dormancy models suggested that NirBD-mediated nitrite reduction could be critical during the persistent stage of M. tuberculosis. PMID:23935045

Akhtar, Shamim; Khan, Arshad; Sohaskey, Charles D.; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

2013-01-01

314

Denitrification of high strength nitrate waste from a nuclear industry using acclimatized biomass in a pilot scale reactor.  

PubMed

This work investigates the performance of acclimatized biomass for denitrification of high strength nitrate waste (10,000 mg/L NO3) from a nuclear industry in a continuous laboratory scale (32 L) and pilot scale reactor (330 L) operated over a period of 4 and 5 months, respectively. Effect of substrate fluctuations (mainly C/NO3-N) on denitrification was studied in a laboratory scale reactor. Incomplete denitrification (95-96 %) was observed at low C/NO3-N (?2), whereas at high C/NO3-N (?2.25) led to ammonia formation. Ammonia production increased from 1 to 9 % with an increase in C/NO3-N from 2.25 to 6. Complete denitrification and no ammonia formation were observed at an optimum C/NO3-N of 2.0. Microbiological studies showed decrease in denitrifiers and increase in nitrite-oxidizing bacteria and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria at high C/NO3-N (?2.25). Pilot scale studies were carried out with optimum C/NO3-N, and sustainability of the process was checked on the pilot scale for 5 months. PMID:25342265

Dhamole, Pradip B; Nair, Rashmi R; D'Souza, Stanislaus F; Pandit, Aniruddha B; Lele, S S

2015-01-01

315

Modelling agricultural ammonia emissions: impact on particulate matter Hamaoui-Laguel L.1  

E-print Network

Modelling agricultural ammonia emissions: impact on particulate matter formation Hamaoui-Laguel L.1. This was interpreted as a wrong estimate of ammonia emissions. Agriculture is the main source of anthropogenic ammonia emissions. Ammonia reacts with sulfuric and nitric acids to form ammonium sulfate and nitrate aerosols

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

316

Cultivation of Autotrophic Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea from Marine Sediments in Coculture with Sulfur-Oxidizing Bacteria? †  

PubMed Central

The role of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in nitrogen cycling in marine sediments remains poorly characterized. In this study, we enriched and characterized AOA from marine sediments. Group I.1a crenarchaea closely related to those identified in marine sediments and “Candidatus Nitrosopumilus maritimus” (99.1 and 94.9% 16S rRNA and amoA gene sequence identities to the latter, respectively) were substantially enriched by coculture with sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB). The selective enrichment of AOA over ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) is likely due to the reduced oxygen levels caused by the rapid initial growth of SOB. After biweekly transfers for ca. 20 months, archaeal cells became the dominant prokaryotes (>80%), based on quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis. The increase of archaeal 16S rRNA gene copy numbers was coincident with the amount of ammonia oxidized, and expression of the archaeal amoA gene was observed during ammonia oxidation. Bacterial amoA genes were not detected in the enrichment culture. The affinities of these AOA to oxygen and ammonia were substantially higher than those of AOB. [13C]bicarbonate incorporation and the presence and activation of genes of the 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate cycle indicated autotrophy during ammonia oxidation. In the enrichment culture, ammonium was oxidized to nitrite by the AOA and subsequently to nitrate by Nitrospina-like bacteria. Our experiments suggest that AOA may be important nitrifiers in low-oxygen environments, such as oxygen-minimum zones and marine sediments. PMID:20870784

Park, Byoung-Joon; Park, Soo-Je; Yoon, Dae-No; Schouten, Stefan; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Rhee, Sung-Keun

2010-01-01

317

Corn leaf nitrate reductase - A nontoxic alternative to cadmium for photometric nitrate determinations in water samples by air-segmented continuous-flow analysis  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Development, characterization, and operational details of an enzymatic, air-segmented continuous-flow analytical method for colorimetric determination of nitrate + nitrite in natural-water samples is described. This method is similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency method 353.2 and U.S. Geological Survey method 1-2545-90 except that nitrate is reduced to nitrite by soluble nitrate reductase (NaR, EC 1.6.6.1) purified from corn leaves rather than a packed-bed cadmium reactor. A three-channel, air-segmented continuous-flow analyzer-configured for simultaneous determination of nitrite (0.020-1.000 mg-N/L) and nitrate + nitrite (0.05-5.00 mg-N/L) by the nitrate reductase and cadmium reduction methods-was used to characterize analytical performance of the enzymatic reduction method. At a sampling rate of 90 h-1, sample interaction was less than 1% for all three methods. Method detection limits were 0.001 mg of NO2- -N/L for nitrite, 0.003 mg of NO3-+ NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the cadmium-reduction method, and 0.006 mg of NO3- + NO2- -N/L for nitrate + nitrite by the enzymatic-reduction method. Reduction of nitrate to nitrite by both methods was greater than 95% complete over the entire calibration range. The difference between the means of nitrate + nitrite concentrations in 124 natural-water samples determined simultaneously by the two methods was not significantly different from zero at the p = 0.05 level.

Patton, C.J.; Fischer, A.E.; Campbell, W.H.; Campbell, E.R.

2002-01-01

318

Achieving biological nitrogen removal via nitrite by salt inhibition.  

PubMed

The principal aim of this paper is to develop and evaluate an approach to obtain nitrogen removal bypassing nitrate. The method is based on the addition of sodium chloride (NaCI), selective inhibitor of nitrite oxidizers, to influent. Validation of the new method was conducted on laboratory-scale experiments applying the SBR activated sludge process to domestic wastewater with low C/N ratio. With the aerobic-anoxic sequence, three parallel SBRs achieving complete nitrification-denitrification are dosed by a certain concentration of NaCI to influent. The high nitrite accumulation, depending on the salinity in the influent and the application duration of salt, was obtained in SBRs treating saline wastewater. Optimum dosage and application duration of salt, which interact to determine the performance and stabilization of nitrite accumulation, were determined by experiment. In order to evaluate the method, the response of the biological treatment system to salt concentration was also explored. The repeatability of the method was further verified under various operational conditions. Microbial population tests supported the presumption that nitrite oxidizers are inhibited by salt addition and washed out of the system. The presented method is valuable to offer a solution to realize nitrogen removal via nitrite under normal conditions. PMID:16749447

Cui, Y W; Peng, Y Z; Peng, C Y; Gan, X Q; Ye, L

2006-01-01

319

Parallel Pathways for Nitrite Reduction during Anaerobic Growth in Thermus thermophilus  

PubMed Central

Respiratory reduction of nitrate and nitrite is encoded in Thermus thermophilus by the respective transferable gene clusters. Nitrate is reduced by a heterotetrameric nitrate reductase (Nar) encoded along transporters and regulatory signal transduction systems within the nitrate respiration conjugative element (NCE). The nitrite respiration cluster (nic) encodes homologues of nitrite reductase (Nir) and nitric oxide reductase (Nor). The expression and role of the nirSJM genes in nitrite respiration were analyzed. The three genes are expressed from two promoters, one (nirSp) producing a tricistronic mRNA under aerobic and anaerobic conditions and the other (nirJp) producing a bicistronic mRNA only under conditions of anoxia plus a nitrogen oxide. As for its nitrite reductase homologues, NirS is expressed in the periplasm, has a covalently bound heme c, and conserves the heme d1 binding pocket. NirJ is a cytoplasmic protein likely required for heme d1 synthesis and NirS maturation. NirM is a soluble periplasmic homologue of cytochrome c552. Mutants defective in nirS show normal anaerobic growth with nitrite and nitrate, supporting the existence of an alternative Nir in the cells. Gene knockout analysis of different candidate genes did not allow us to identify this alternative Nir protein but revealed the requirement for Nar in NirS-dependent and NirS-independent nitrite reduction. As the likely role for Nar in the process is in electron transport through its additional cytochrome c periplasmic subunit (NarC), we concluded all the Nir activity takes place in the periplasm by parallel pathways. PMID:24443532

Alvarez, Laura; Bricio, Carlos; Hidalgo, Aurelio

2014-01-01

320

Ammonia Monitor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Ammonia monitor and method of use are disclosed. A continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia in an aqueous process stream is possible over a wide dynamic range of concentrations. No reagents are required because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base. Ammonia is selectively transported across a membrane from the process stream to an analytical stream to an analytical stream under pH control. The specific electrical conductance of the analytical stream is measured and used to determine the concentration of ammonia.

Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); Thompson, John O. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor)

1999-01-01

321

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation with nitrogen dioxide by Nitrosomonas eutropha  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nitrosomonas eutropha, an obligately lithoautotrophic bacterium, was able to nitrify and denitrify simultaneously under anoxic conditions when\\u000a gaseous nitrogen dioxide (NO2) was supplemented to the atmosphere. In the presence of gaseous NO2, ammonia was oxidized, nitrite and nitric oxide (NO) were formed, and hydroxylamine occurred as an intermediate. Between\\u000a 40 and 60% of the produced nitrite was denitrified to dinitrogen

Ingo Schmidt; E. Bock

1997-01-01

322

Antihypertensive and antioxidant effects of a single daily dose of sodium nitrite in a model of renovascular hypertension.  

PubMed

Dietary nitrite and nitrate have been reported as alternative sources of nitric oxide (NO). In this regard, we reported previously that sodium nitrite added to drinking water was able to exert antihypertensive effects in an experimental model of hypertension in a dose-dependent manner. Taking into consideration that nitrite is continuously converted to nitrate in the bloodstream, here we expanded our previous report and evaluate whether a single daily dose of sodium nitrite could exert antihypertensive effects in 2 kidney-1 clip (2K1C) hypertensive rats. Sham-operated and 2K1C rats were treated with vehicle or sodium nitrite (15 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks. We evaluated the effects induced by sodium nitrite treatment on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and NO markers such as plasma nitrite, nitrite + nitrate (NOx), cGMP, and blood levels of nitrosyl-hemoglobin. In addition, we also evaluated effects of nitrite on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes. Dihydroethidium (DHE) was used to evaluate aortic reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by fluorescence microscopy, and plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive species (TBARS) were measured in plasma samples from all experimental groups. Red blood cell superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activity were evaluated with commercial kits. Sodium nitrite treatment reduced SBP in 2K1C rats (P?nitrite and NOx levels in 2K1C rats compared with normotensive controls (both P?Nitrite treatment restored the lower levels of nitrite and NOx. While no change was found in the blood levels of nitrosyl-hemoglobin (P?>?0.05), nitrite treatment increased the plasma levels of cGMP in 2K1C rats (P?nitrite blunted these alterations. Lower SOD and catalase activities were found in 2K1C hypertensive rats compared with controls (both P?Nitrite treatment restored SOD activity (P?nitrite is able to lower SBP and exert antioxidant effects in renovascular hypertension. PMID:22262021

Montenegro, Marcelo F; Pinheiro, Lucas C; Amaral, Jefferson H; Marçal, Diogo M O; Palei, Ana C T; Costa-Filho, Antonio J; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

2012-05-01

323

Characterization of Nitrite Degradation by Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013  

PubMed Central

Nitrites are potential carcinogens. Therefore, limiting nitrites in food is critically important for food safety. The nitrite degradation capacity of Lactobacillus casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 was investigated in pickle fermentation. After LCR 6013 fermentation for 120 h at 37°C, the nitrite concentration in the fermentation system was significantly lower than that in the control sample without the LCR 6013 strain. The effects of NaCl and Vc on nitrite degradation by LCR 6013 in the De Man, Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) medium were also investigated. The highest nitrite degradations, 9.29 mg/L and 9.89 mg/L, were observed when NaCl and Vc concentrations were 0.75% and 0.02%, respectively in the MRS medium, which was significantly higher than the control group (p ? 0.01). Electron capture/gas chromatography and indophenol blue staining were used to study the nitrite degradation pathway of LCR 6013. The nitrite degradation products contained N2O, but no NH4+The LCR 6013 strain completely degraded all NaNO2 (50.00 mg/L) after 16 h of fermentation. The enzyme activity of NiR in the periplasmic space was 2.5 times of that in the cytoplasm. Our results demonstrated that L. casei subsp. rhamnosus LCR 6013 can effectively degrade nitrites in both the pickle fermentation system and in MRS medium by NiR. Nitrites are degraded by the LCR 6013 strain, likely via the nitrate respiration pathway (NO2?>NO?>N2O?>N2), rather than the aammonium formation pathway (dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium, DNRA), because the degradation products contain N2O, but not NH4+. PMID:24755671

Liu, Dong-mei; Wang, Pan; Zhang, Xin-yue; Xu, Xi-lin; Wu, Hui; Li, Li

2014-01-01

324

Reduction of nitrate in Shewanella  

SciTech Connect

In the genome of Shewanella oneidensis, a napDAGHB gene cluster encoding periplasmic nitrate reductase (NapA) and accessory proteins and an nrfA gene encoding periplasmic nitrite reductase (NrfA) have been identified. These two systems seem to be atypical because the genome lacks genes encoding cytoplasmic membrane electron transport proteins, NapC for NAP and NrfBCD/NrfH for NRF, respectively. Here, we present evidence that reduction of nitrate to ammonium in S. oneidensis is carried out by these atypical systems in a two-step manner. Transcriptional and mutational analyses suggest that CymA, a cytoplasmic membrane electron transport protein, is likely to be the functional replacement of both NapC and NrfH in S. oneidensis. Surprisingly, a strain devoid of napB encoding the small subunit of nitrate reductase exhibited the maximum cell density sooner than the wild type. Further characterization of this strain showed that nitrite was not detected as a free intermediate in its culture and NapB provides a fitness gain for S. oneidensis to compete for nitrate in the environments. On the basis results from mutational analyses of napA, napB, nrfA and napBnrfA in-frame deletion mutants, we propose that NapB is able to favor nitrate reduction by routing electrons to NapA exclusively.

Gao, Haichun [University of Oklahoma; Yang, Zamin Koo [ORNL; Barua, Sumitra [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Reed, SB [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Nealson, Kenneth H. [University of Southern California; Fredrikson, JK [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Tiedje, James [Michigan State University, East Lansing; Zhou, Jizhong [University of Oklahoma

2009-01-01

325

High-rate partial nitritation using porous poly(vinyl alcohol) sponge.  

PubMed

Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) has been utilized as a support material for the immobilization of nitrifying bacteria without the comprehensive survey of partial nitritation. In the present study, the activities of nitrifiers and the maximum nitrogen conversion rate of partial nitritation with PVA sponge-cubes were specified according to different conditions. The selective enrichment of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) on PVA sponge-cubes was achieved by the competition between AOB and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria for dissolved oxygen. The efficiency of ammonia oxidation was proportional to the concentration of HCO3 (-) with the molar ratio of HCO3 (-)-C/NH4 (+)-N = 1.91 and a half of the ratio was applied to the further experiments to ensure stable partial nitritation. The maximum nitrogen conversion rate of partial nitritation was dependent on the volume, not the size of sponge-cubes. The partial nitritation showed the superior rate performance of 3.09 kg N/m(3) day with the packing ratio of 32 % of 5 × 5 × 5 mm(3) PVA sponge-cubes. PMID:24297159

Bae, Hyokwan; Yang, Heejeong; Chung, Yun-Chul; Yoo, Young Je; Lee, Seockheon

2014-06-01

326

Optimization and evaluation of a bottom substrate denitrification tank for nitrate removal from a recirculating aquaculture system.  

PubMed

A bottom substrate denitrification tank for a recirculating aquaculture system was developed. The laboratory scale denitrification tank was an 8 L tank (0.04 m2 tank surface area), packed to a depth of 5 cm with a bottom substrate for natural denitrifying bacteria. An aquarium pump was used for gentle water mixing in the tank; the dissolved oxygen in the water was maintained in aerobic conditions (e.g. > 2 mg/L) while anoxic conditions predominated only at the bottom substrate layer. The results showed that, among the four substrates tested (soil, sand, pumice stone and vermiculite), pumice was the most preferable material. Comparing carbon supplementation using methanol and molasses, methanol was chosen as the carbon source because it provided a higher denitrification rate than molasses. When methanol was applied at the optimal COD:N ratio of 5:1, a nitrate removal rate of 4591 +/- 133 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day was achieved. Finally, nitrate removal using an 80 L denitrification tank was evaluated with a 610 L recirculating tilapia culture system. Nitrate treatment was performed by batch transferring high nitrate water from the nitrification tank into the denitrification tank and mixing with methanol at a COD:N ratio of 5:1. The results from five batches of nitrate treatment revealed that nitrate was successfully removed from water without the accumulation of nitrite and ammonia. The average nitrate removal efficiency was 85.17% and the average denitrification rate of the denitrification tank was 6311 +/- 945 mg-N/m2 tank bottom area/day or 126 +/- 18 mg-N/L of pumice packing volume/day. PMID:24520693

Pungrasmi, Wiboonluk; Playchoom, Cholticha; Powtongsook, Sorawit

2013-08-01

327

Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important). Reduction of nitrite ions is believed to be the most important source of ammonia. Whether by radiolytic or thermal routes, nitrite reduction reactions proceed through nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, the nitrosyl anion, and the hyponitrite anion. Nitrite ion is also converted into hydroxylamine, another important intermediate on the pathway to form ammonia. These reaction pathways additionally result in the formation of nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen, whereas hydrogen formation is produced in a separate reaction sequence.

Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

1997-09-01

328

Effects of Nitrite Exposure on Acid–Base Balance, Respiratory Protein, and Ion Concentrations of Giant Freshwater Prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii at Low pH  

Microsoft Academic Search

.  \\u000a \\u000a Macrobrachium rosenbergii that had been exposed individually for 24 h to 0 (control), 2, 5, 10 mg\\/L nitrite-N (nitrite as nitrogen) at 4.3 and 7.7\\u000a pH levels were examined for hemolymph nitrite-N, oxyhemocyanin, protein, acid–base balance, ion concentrations, and ammonia-N\\u000a (ammonia as nitrogen) excretion. Hemolymph oxyhemocyanin, protein, pH, HCO3\\u000a \\u000a ? , TCO2, osmolality, and ion concentrations were inversely related

J.-C. Chen; Y. Lee

1997-01-01

329

Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study we investigated nitrite (NO2?) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning

Sjannie Lefevre; Frank B. Jensen; Do. T. T. Huong; Tobias Wang; Nguyen T. Phuong; Mark Bayley

2011-01-01

330

21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

... (1) As a preservative and color fixative, with or without sodium nitrite, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not exceed 500 parts per million and the level of...

2014-04-01

331

Ammonia (GCMP)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Ammonia fountain: this is a resource in the collection "General Chemistry Multimedia Problems". In an ammonia fountain, a flask is filled with ammonia gas. A tube from the flask extends into a pan of water that contains phenolphthalein. When a rubber bulb full of water is squeezed, the water squirts into the flask. Water from the pan then is pushed into the flask and the indicator changes color. General Chemistry Multimedia Problems ask students questions about experiments they see presented using videos and images. The questions asked apply concepts from different parts of an introductory course, encouraging students to decompartmentalize the material.

332

Haematological and ion regulatory effects of nitrite in the air-breathing snakehead fish Channa striata.  

PubMed

The tolerance and effects of nitrite on ion balance and haematology were investigated in the striped snakehead, Channa striata Bloch 1793, which is an air-breathing fish with reduced gills of importance for aquaculture in South East Asia. C. striata was nitrite tolerant with a 96 h LC50 of 4.7 mM. Effects of sub-lethal exposures to nitrite (0mM, 1.4mM, and 3.0mM) were determined during a 7-day exposure period. Plasma nitrite increased, but the internal concentration remained well below ambient levels. Extracellular nitrate rose by several mM, indicating that a large proportion of the nitrite taken up was converted to nitrate. Nitrite reacted with erythrocyte haemoglobin (Hb) causing methaemoglobin (metHb) to increase to 30% and nitrosylhaemoglobin (HbNO) to increase to 10% of total Hb. Both metHb and HbNO stabilised after 4 days, and functional Hb levels accordingly never fell below 60% of total Hb. Haematocrit and total Hb were unaffected by nitrite. Although the effects of nitrite exposure seemed minor in terms of plasma nitrite and metHb increases, ion balance was strongly affected. In the high exposure group, total osmolality decreased from 320 mOsm to 260 mOsm, and plasma sodium from 150 mM to 120 mM, while plasma chloride fell from 105 mM to 60mM and plasma bicarbonate rose from 12 mM in controls to 20mM in exposed fish. The extreme changes in ion balance in C. striata are different from the response reported in other fish, and further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism behind the observed changes in regulation. PMID:22516674

Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

2012-08-15

333

Chang, S.-K., Kozenlauskas, R., and Harrington, G. W. (1977). Determination of nitrite ion using differential pulse polarography. Anal. Chem. 49, 2272.  

E-print Network

ion using differential pulse polarography. Anal. Chem. 49, 2272. Gjerde, D. T., Fritz, J. S conductimetric detection. Anal. Chem. 47, 1801. Stratford, M. R. L. (1999). Measurement of nitrite and nitrate

Liu, Jie

334

Insights into high-temperature nitrogen cycling from studies of the thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing archaeon Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii. (Invited)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Our understanding of the nitrogen cycle has advanced significantly in recent years with the discovery of new metabolic processes and the recognition that key processes such as aerobic ammonia oxidation are more broadly distributed among extant organisms and habitat ranges. Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, is a key component of the nitrogen cycle and, until recently, was thought to be mediated exclusively by the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). The discovery that mesophilic marine archaea, some of the most abundant microorganisms on the planet, are capable of oxidizing ammonia to nitrite fundamentally changed our perception of the global nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are now thought to be significant drivers of nitrification in many marine and terrestrial environments. Most studies, however, have focused on the contribution of AOA to nitrogen cycling in mesophilic environments. Our recent discovery of a thermophilic AOA, Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, has expanded the role and habitat range of AOA to include high temperature environments. Numerous studies have shown that AOA are widely distributed in geothermal habitats with a wide range of temperature and pH. The availability of multiple AOA genome sequences, combined with metagenomic studies from mesophilic and thermophilic environments gives us a better understanding of the physiology, ecology and evolution of these organisms. Recent studies have proposed that the AOA represent the most deeply branching lineage within the Archaea, the Thaumarchaeota. Furthermore, genomic comparisons between AOA and AOB reveal significant differences in the proposed pathways for ammonia oxidation. These genetic differences likely explain fundamental physiological differences such as the resistance of N. yellowstonii and other AOA to the classical nitrification inhibitors allylthiourea and acetylene. Physiological studies suggest that the marine AOA are adapted to oligotrophic environments. Our studies, however, point to a greater metabolic versatility in N. yellowstonii, including the ability to utilize alternative sources of energy. Understanding the biology of N. yellowstonii, the most deeply branching cultivated AOA to date, gives us a better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary significance of these organisms and sheds new light on nitrogen cycling at high temperature.

de la Torre, J. R.

2010-12-01

335

Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria Community Dynamics in a Pilot-Scale Wastewater Treatment Plant  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundChemoautotrophic ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) have the metabolic ability to oxidize ammonia to nitrite aerobically. This metabolic feature has been widely used, in combination with denitrification, to remove nitrogen from wastewater in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). However, the relative influence of specific deterministic environmental factors to AOB community dynamics in WWTP is uncertain. The ecological principles underlying AOB community dynamics

Xiaohui Wang; Xianghua Wen; Yu Xia; Ma Hu; Fang Zhao; Kun Ding

2012-01-01

336

Nitrous oxide emission from nitrifying activated sludge dependent on denitrification by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.  

PubMed

Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is emitted during the aerated nitrification process of wastewater treatment, but its mechanism is not understood. In this study, we employed a model system to clarify the mechanism of N(2)O emission, utilizing the activated sludge derived from a piggery effluent. Aerated incubation of the sludge with ammonium (NH(4)(+)) or hydroxylamine (NH(2)OH) resulted in the emission of a significant amount of N(2)O. The emission stopped when the nitrification substrate (NH(4)(+) or NH(2)OH) was exhausted. When NH(4)(+) was replaced with nitrate (NO(3)(-)) and nitrite (NO(2)(-)), no N(2)O was emitted. This result suggests that the N(2)O emission under nitrifying conditions did not depend on the oxidation of NO(2)(-) by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) or denitrification by heterotrophic denitrifiers but depended on the oxidation of NH(4)(+) by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). When NO(2)(-), the product of nitrification by AOB, was added to the NH(4)(+)-oxidizing system, N(2)O emission was enormously enhanced, suggesting that N(2)O was formed via denitrification. Diethyldithiocarbamate (DCD), an inhibitor of copper-containing nitrite reductase (NirK), strongly blocked N(2)O emission from NH(2)OH. Furthermore, the expression of the gene (nirK) encoding NirK of AOB was detected in the sludge exposed to the nitrifying conditions. The results showed that N(2)O emission during the nitrification process depends on denitrification by AOB that reside in the activated sludge. This study provides direct evidence for the cause of N(2)O emission from activated sludge (non-pure culture). PMID:20138758

Kim, Sang-Wan; Miyahara, Morio; Fushinobu, Shinya; Wakagi, Takayoshi; Shoun, Hirofumi

2010-06-01

337

Evaluation of nitrate reductase activity in Rhizobium japonicum  

SciTech Connect

Nitrate reductase activity was evaluated by four approaches, using four strains of Rhizobium japonicum and 11 chlorate-resistant mutants of the four strains. It was concluded that in vitro assays with bacteria or bacteroids provide the most simple and reliable assessment of the presence or absence of nitrate reductase. Nitrite reductase activity with methyl viologen and dithionite was found, but the enzyme activity does not confound the assay of nitrate reductase. 18 references

Streeter, J.G.; DeVine, P.J.

1983-08-01

338

Stable Isotope Probing with 18O-Water to Investigate Growth and Mortality of Ammonia Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Soil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea oxidize ammonia to nitrite, the first and rate-limiting step in the important ecosystem process of nitrification. Growth and mortality of ammonia oxidizers in soil are difficult to quantify but accurate measurements would offer important insights into how environmental parameters regulate the population dynamics of these organisms. Stable isotope probing (SIP) is a recently developed

Karen Adair; Egbert Schwartz

2011-01-01

339

Transcription factors involved in controlling the expression of nitrate reductase genes in higher plants.  

PubMed

Nitrate reductase is a key enzyme in nitrogen assimilation, and it catalyzes the nitrate-to-nitrite reduction process in plants. A variety of factors, including nitrate, light, metabolites, phytohormones, low temperature, and drought, modulate the expression levels of nitrate reductase genes as well as nitrate reductase activity, which is consistent with its physiological role. Recently, several transcription factors involved in controlling the expression of nitrate reductase genes have been identified in Arabidopsis. NODULE-INCEPTION-like proteins (NLPs) are transcription factors responsible for nitrate-inducible expression of nitrate reductase genes. Since NLPs also control nitrate-inducible expression of genes encoding nitrate transporter, nitrite transporter, and nitrite reductase, the expression levels of nitrate reduction pathway-associated genes are coordinately modulated by NLPs in response to nitrate. LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES DOMAIN (LBD) transcription factors (LBD37-LBD39) are strong candidates for transcription factors mediating negative feedback regulation in response to increases in the contents of nitrogen-containing metabolites, whereas LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5) that promotes photomorphogenesis in light may be a transcription factor involved in light-induced expression of a nitrate reductase gene. Furthermore, unidentified transcription factors likely mediate other signals and regulate the expression of nitrate reductase genes. This review presents a summary of our current knowledge of such transcription factors. PMID:25443843

Yanagisawa, Shuichi

2014-12-01

340

Nitrifying biofilm acclimation to free ammonia in submerged biofilters. Start-up influence  

Microsoft Academic Search

Biofilms grown in two submerged nitrifying biofilters developed the capability to overcome inhibition caused by free ammonia during a 6month period. The biofilters were started with different start-up protocols, fed with the same synthetic waste-water and further operated under the same conditions for 6months. The threshold value of free ammonia concentration over which ammonia and nitrite oxidisers experienced inhibition was

S. Villaverde; F. Fdz-Polanco; P. A. Garc??a

2000-01-01

341

Dietary nitrate in man: friend or foe?  

PubMed

Based on the premise that dietary nitrate is detrimental to human health, increasingly stringent regulations are being instituted to lower nitrate levels in food and water. Not only does this pose a financial challenge to water boards and a threat to vegetable production in Northern Europe, but also may be eliminating an important non-immune mechanism for host defence. Until recently nitrate was perceived as a purely harmful dietary component which causes infantile methaemoglobinaemia, carcinogenesis and possibly even teratogenesis. Epidemiological studies have failed to substantiate this. It has been shown that dietary nitrate undergoes enterosalivary circulation. It is recirculated in the blood, concentrated by the salivary glands, secreted in the saliva and reduced to nitrite by facultative Gram-positive anaerobes (Staphylococcus sciuri and S. intermedius) on the tongue. Salivary nitrite is swallowed into the acidic stomach where it is reduced to large quantities of NO and other oxides of N and, conceivably, also contributes to the formation of systemic S-nitrosothiols. NO and solutions of acidified nitrite, mimicking gastric conditions, have been shown to have antimicrobial activity against a wide range of organisms. In particular, acidified nitrite is bactericidal for a variety of gastrointestinal pathogens such as Yersinia and Salmonella. NO is known to have vasodilator properties and to modulate platelet function, as are S-nitrosothiols. Thus, nitrate in the diet, which determines reactive nitrogen oxide species production in the stomach (McKnight et al. 1997), is emerging as an effective host defence against gastrointestinal pathogens, as a modulator of platelet activity and possibly even of gastrointestinal motility and microcirculation. Therefore dietary nitrate may have an important therapeutic role to play, not least in the immunocompromised and in refugees who are at particular risk of contracting gastroenteritides. PMID:10615207

McKnight, G M; Duncan, C W; Leifert, C; Golden, M H

1999-05-01

342

Effects of Pesticides on Nitrite Oxidation by Nitrobacter agilis1  

PubMed Central

The influence of pesticides on the growth of Nitrobacter agilis in aerated cultures and on the respiration of N. agilis cell suspensions and cell-free extracts was studied. Two pesticides, aldrin and simazine, were not inhibitory to growth of Nitrobacter, but five compounds [isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate (CIPC), chlordane, 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl) ethane (DDD), heptachlor, and lindane] prevented growth when added to the medium at a concentration of 10 ?g/ml. Whereas CIPC and eptam prevented nitrite oxidation by cell suspensions, the addition of DDD and lindane resulted in only partial inhibition of the oxidation. Heptachlor and chlordane also caused only partial inhibition of oxidation, but were more toxic with cell-free extract nitrite oxidase. None of the pesticides inhibited the nitrate reductase activity of cell-free extracts, but most caused some repression of cytochrome c oxidase activity. Heptachlor was the most deleterious compound. PMID:4314375

Winely, C. L.; Clemente, C. L. San

1970-01-01

343

A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water  

PubMed Central

Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species. PMID:23515432

Haaijer, Suzanne C. M.; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

2013-01-01

344

Evaluation of nitrate destruction methods  

SciTech Connect

A wide variety of high nitrate-concentration aqueous mixed [radioactive and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous] wastes are stored at various US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. These wastes will ultimately be solidified for final disposal, although the waste acceptance criteria for the final waste form is still being determined. Because the nitrates in the wastes will normally increase the volume or reduce the integrity of all of the waste forms under consideration for final disposal, nitrate destruction before solidification of the waste will generally be beneficial. This report describes and evaluates various technologies that could be used to destroy the nitrates in the stored wastes. This work was funded by the Department of Energy`s Office of Technology Development, through the Chemical/Physical Technology Support Group of the Mixed Waste Integrated Program. All the nitrate destruction technologies will require further development work before a facility could be designed and built to treat the majority of the stored wastes. Several of the technologies have particularly attractive features: the nitrate to ammonia and ceramic (NAC) process produces an insoluble waste form with a significant volume reduction, electrochemical reduction destroys nitrates without any chemical addition, and the hydrothermal process can simultaneously treat nitrates and organics in both acidic and alkaline wastes. These three technologies have been tested using lab-scale equipment and surrogate solutions. At their current state of development, it is not possible to predict which process will be the most beneficial for a particular waste stream.

Taylor, P.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kurath, D.E.; Guenther, R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-03-30

345

The NreA protein functions as a nitrate receptor in the staphylococcal nitrate regulation system.  

PubMed

Staphylococci are able to use nitrate as an alternative electron acceptor during anaerobic respiration. The regulation of energy metabolism is dependent on the presence of oxygen and nitrate. Under anaerobic conditions, staphylococci employ the nitrate regulatory element (Nre) for transcriptional activation of genes involved in reduction and transport of nitrate and nitrite. Of the three proteins that constitute the Nre system, NreB has been characterized as an oxygen sensor kinase and NreC has been characterized as its cognate response regulator. Here, we present structural and functional data that establish NreA as a new type of nitrate receptor. The structure of NreA with bound nitrate was solved at 2.35Å resolution, revealing a GAF domain fold. Isothermal titration calorimetry experiments showed that NreA binds nitrate with low micromolar affinity (KD=22?M). Two crystal forms for NreA were obtained, with either bound nitrate or iodide. While the binding site is hydrophobic, two helix dipoles and polar interactions contribute to specific binding of the ions. The expression of nitrate reductase (NarGHI) was examined using a narG-lip (lipase) reporter gene assay in vivo. Expression was regulated by the presence of NreA and nitrate. Structure-guided mutations of NreA reduced its nitrate binding affinity and also affected the gene expression, thus providing support for the function of NreA as a nitrate receptor. PMID:24389349

Niemann, Volker; Koch-Singenstreu, Mareike; Neu, Ancilla; Nilkens, Stephanie; Götz, Friedrich; Unden, Gottfried; Stehle, Thilo

2014-04-01

346

Effect of temperature and benzalkonium chloride on nitrate reduction.  

PubMed

The effect of temperature and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) on nitrate reduction was investigated in batch assays using a mixed nitrate reducing culture. Nitrate was transformed completely, mainly through denitrification, to dinitrogen at 5, 10, 15 and 22 °C. In the absence of BAC, reduction of individual nitrogen oxides had different susceptibility to temperature and transient nitrite accumulation was observed at low temperatures. When the effect of BAC was tested up to 100 mg/L from 5 to 22 °C, denitrification was inhibited at and above 50mg BAC/L with transient nitrite accumulation at all temperatures. The effect of BAC was described by a competitive inhibition model. Nitrite reduction was the denitrification step most susceptible to BAC, especially at low temperatures. BAC was not degraded during the batch incubation and was mostly biomass-adsorbed. Overall, this study shows that low temperatures exacerbate the BAC inhibitory effect, which in turn is controlled by adsorption to biomass. PMID:21334883

Hajaya, Malek G; Tezel, Ulas; Pavlostathis, Spyros G

2011-04-01

347

Point Source Ammonia Emissions are Having a Detrimental Impact On Prairie Vegetation  

E-print Network

Point Source Ammonia Emissions are Having a Detrimental Impact On Prairie Vegetation Carly J of atmospheric ammonia deposition from animal units. Three prairie fragments in Minnesota that were located- cant negative relationships with ammonia deposition and soil nitrate concentration, whereas aboveground

Weiblen, George D

348

High Abundances of Potentially Active Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria and Archaea in Oligotrophic, High-Altitude Lakes of the Sierra Nevada, California, USA  

PubMed Central

Nitrification plays a central role in the nitrogen cycle by determining the oxidation state of nitrogen and its subsequent bioavailability and cycling. However, relatively little is known about the underlying ecology of the microbial communities that carry out nitrification in freshwater ecosystems—and particularly within high-altitude oligotrophic lakes, where nitrogen is frequently a limiting nutrient. We quantified ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in 9 high-altitude lakes (2289–3160 m) in the Sierra Nevada, California, USA, in relation to spatial and biogeochemical data. Based on their ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) genes, AOB and AOA were frequently detected. AOB were present in 88% of samples and were more abundant than AOA in all samples. Both groups showed >100 fold variation in abundance between different lakes, and were also variable through time within individual lakes. Nutrient concentrations (ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate) were generally low but also varied across and within lakes, suggestive of active internal nutrient cycling; AOB abundance was significantly correlated with phosphate (r2?=?0.32, p<0.1), whereas AOA abundance was inversely correlated with lake elevation (r2?=?0.43, p<0.05). We also measured low rates of ammonia oxidation—indicating that AOB, AOA, or both, may be biogeochemically active in these oligotrophic ecosystems. Our data indicate that dynamic populations of AOB and AOA are found in oligotrophic, high-altitude, freshwater lakes. PMID:25402442

Hayden, Curtis J.; Beman, J. Michael

2014-01-01

349

Nitrite, a novel method to decrease ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat liver  

PubMed Central

AIM: To investigate whether nitrite administered prior to ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) reduces liver injury. METHODS: Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to 3 groups, including sham operated (n = 8), 45-min segmental ischemia of the left liver lobe (IR, n = 14) and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) preceded by the administration of 480 nmol of nitrite (n = 14). Serum transaminases were measured after 4 h of reperfusion. Liver microdialysate (MD) was sampled in 30-min intervals and analyzed for glucose, lactate, pyruvate and glycerol as well as the total nitrite and nitrate (NOx). The NOx was measured in serum. RESULTS: Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) at the end of reperfusion was higher in the IR group than in the nitrite group (40 ± 6.8 ?kat/L vs 22 ± 2.6 ?kat/L, P = 0.022). Similarly, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) was also higher in the I/R group than in the nitrite group (34 ± 6 ?kat vs 14 ± 1.5 ?kat, P = 0.0045). The NOx in MD was significantly higher in the nitrite group than in the I/R group (10.1 ± 2.9 ?mol/L vs 3.2 ± 0.9 ?mol/L, P = 0.031) after the administration of nitrite. During ischemia, the levels decreased in both groups and then increased again during reperfusion. At the end of reperfusion, there was a tendency towards a higher NOx in the I/R group than in the nitrite group (11.6 ± 0.7 ?mol/L vs 9.2 ± 1.1 ?mol/L, P = 0.067). Lactate in MD was significantly higher in the IR group than in the nitrite group (3.37 ± 0.18 mmol/L vs 2.8 ± 0.12 mmol/L, P = 0.01) during ischemia and the first 30 min of reperfusion. During the same period, glycerol was also higher in the IRI group than in the nitrite group (464 ± 38 ?mol/L vs 367 ± 31 ?mol/L, P = 0.049). With respect to histology, there were more signs of tissue damage in the I/R group than in the nitrite group, and 29% of the animals in the I/R group exhibited necrosis compared with none in the nitrite group. Inducible nitric oxide synthase transcription increased between early ischemia (t = 15) and the end of reperfusion in both groups. CONCLUSION: Nitrite administered before liver ischemia in the rat liver reduces anaerobic metabolism and cell necrosis, which could be important in the clinical setting.

Björnsson, Bergthor; Bojmar, Linda; Olsson, Hans; Sundqvist, Tommy; Sandström, Per

2015-01-01

350

The acute effect of flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach on cognitive performance and mood in healthy men and women.  

PubMed

Flavonoids and nitrate in a fruit and vegetable diet may be protective against cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline through effects on nitric oxide (NO) status. The circulating NO pool is increased via distinct pathways by dietary flavonoids and nitrate. Our aim was to investigate the acute effects of apples, rich in flavonoids, and spinach, rich in nitrate, independently and in combination on NO status, cognitive function and mood in a randomised, controlled, cross-over trial with healthy men and women (n = 30). The acute effects of four energy-matched treatments (control, apple, spinach and apple + spinach) were compared. Endpoints included plasma nitric oxide status (determined by measuring S-nitrosothiols + other nitroso species (RXNO)), plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite, urinary nitrate and nitrite as well as cognitive function (determined using the Cognitive Drug Research (CDR) computerized cognitive assessment battery) and mood. Relative to control, all treatments resulted in higher plasma RXNO. A significant increase in plasma nitrate and nitrite, salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as urinary nitrate and nitrite was observed with spinach and apple + spinach compared to control. No significant effect was observed on cognitive function or mood. In conclusion, flavonoid-rich apples and nitrate-rich spinach augmented NO status acutely with no concomitant improvements or deterioration in cognitive function and mood. PMID:24676365

Bondonno, Catherine P; Downey, Luke A; Croft, Kevin D; Scholey, Andrew; Stough, Con; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Ward, Natalie C; Puddey, Ian B; Swinny, Ewald; Mubarak, Aidilla; Hodgson, Jonathan M

2014-05-01

351

Molecular Analysis of Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria of the ß Subdivision of the Class Proteobacteria in Compost and Composted Materials  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the practice of composting animal wastes for use as biofertilizers has increased in recent years, little is known about the microorganisms responsible for the nitrogen transformations which occur in compost and during the composting process. Ammonia is the principle available nitrogenous compound in composting material, and the conversion of this compound to nitrite in the environment by chemolithotrophic ammonia-oxidizing

GEORGE A. KOWALCHUK; ZINAIDA S. NAOUMENKO; PIET J. L. DERIKX; ANDREAS FELSKE; JOHN R. STEPHEN; IRINA A. ARKHIPCHENKO

1999-01-01

352

Sulfide? and nitrite?dependent nitric oxide production in the intestinal tract  

PubMed Central

Summary In the gut ecosystem, nitric oxide (NO) has been described to have damaging effects on the energy metabolism of colonocytes. Described mechanisms of NO production are microbial reduction of nitrate via nitrite to NO and conversion of l?arginine by NO synthase. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dietary compounds can stimulate the production of NO by representative cultures of the human intestinal microbiota and whether this correlates to other processes in the intestinal tract. We have found that the addition of a reduced sulfur compound, i.e. cysteine, contributed to NO formation. This increase was ascribed to higher sulfide concentrations generated from cysteine that in turn promoted the chemical conversion of nitrite to NO. The NO release from nitrite was of the order of 4‰ at most. Overall, it was shown that two independent biological processes contribute to the chemical formation of NO in the intestinal tract: (i) the production of sulfide by fermentation of sulfur containing amino acids or reduction of sulfate by sulfate reducing bacteria, and (ii) the reduction of nitrate to nitrite. Our results indicate that dietary thiol compounds in combination with nitrate may contribute to colonocytes damaging processes by promoting NO formation. PMID:22129449

Vermeiren, Joan; Van de Wiele, Tom; Van Nieuwenhuyse, Glynn; Boeckx, Pascal; Verstraete, Willy; Boon, Nico

2012-01-01

353

Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus uptake by poly-phosphate accumulating organisms in enhanced biological phosphorus removal sludges.  

PubMed

Impact of nitrite on aerobic phosphorus (P) uptake of poly-phosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) in three different enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) systems was investigated, i.e., the enriched PAOs culture fed with synthetic wastewater, the two lab-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating domestic wastewater for nutrient removal through nitrite-pathway nitritation and nitrate-pathway nitrification, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization results showed that PAOs in the three sludges accounted for 72, 7.6 and 6.5% of bacteria, respectively. In the enriched PAOs culture, at free nitrous acid (FNA) concentration of 0.47 × 10(-3) mg HNO?-N/L, aerobic P-uptake and oxidation of intercellular poly-?-hydroxyalkanoates were both inhibited. Denitrifying phosphorus removal under the aerobic conditions was observed, indicating the existence of PAOs using nitrite as electron acceptor in this culture. When the FNA concentration reached 2.25 × 10(-3) mg HNO2-N/L, denitrifying phosphorus removal was also inhibited. And the inhibition ceased once nitrite was exhausted. Corresponding to both SBRs treating domestic wastewater with nitritation and nitrification pathway, nitrite inhibition on aerobic P-uptake by PAOs did not occur even though FNA concentration reached 3 × 10(-3) and 2.13 × 10(-3) mg HNO?-N/L, respectively. Therefore, PAOs taken from different EBPR activated sludges had different tolerance to nitrite. PMID:23771179

Zeng, Wei; Li, Boxiao; Yang, Yingying; Wang, Xiangdong; Li, Lei; Peng, Yongzhen

2014-02-01

354

Nitrite augments glucose uptake in adipocytes through the protein kinase A-dependent stimulation of mitochondrial fusion.  

PubMed

Though it is well accepted that adipose tissue is central in the regulation of glycemic homeostasis, the molecular mechanisms governing adipocyte glucose uptake remain unclear. Recent studies demonstrate that mitochondrial dynamics (fission and fusion) regulate lipid accumulation and differentiation in adipocytes. However, the role of mitochondrial dynamics in glucose homeostasis has not been explored. The nitric oxide oxidation products nitrite and nitrate are endogenous signaling molecules and dietary constituents that have recently been shown to modulate glucose metabolism, prevent weight gain, and reverse the development of metabolic syndrome in mice. Although the mechanism of this protection is unclear, the mitochondrion is a known subcellular target for nitrite signaling. Thus, we hypothesize that nitrite modulates mitochondrial dynamics and function to regulate glucose uptake in adipocytes. Herein, we demonstrate that nitrite significantly increases glucose uptake in differentiated murine adipocytes through a mechanism dependent on mitochondrial fusion. Specifically, nitrite promotes mitochondrial fusion by increasing the profusion protein mitofusin 1 while concomitantly activating protein kinase A (PKA), which phosphorylates and inhibits the profission protein dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1). Functionally, this signaling augments cellular respiration, fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial oxidant production, and glucose uptake. Importantly, inhibition of PKA or Drp1 significantly attenuates nitrite-induced mitochondrial respiration and glucose uptake. These findings demonstrate that mitochondria play an essential metabolic role in adipocytes, show a novel role for both nitrite and mitochondrial fusion in regulating adipocyte glucose homeostasis, and have implications for the potential therapeutic use of nitrite and mitochondrial modulators in glycemic regulation. PMID:24556414

Khoo, Nicholas K H; Mo, Li; Zharikov, Sergey; Kamga-Pride, Christelle; Quesnelle, Kelly; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Li, Lihua; Wang, Yinna; Shiva, Sruti

2014-05-01

355

Effect of supports on formation and reduction rate of stored nitrates on NSR catalysts as investigated by in situ FT\\/IR  

Microsoft Academic Search

Surface dynamics of nitrates on NOx storage–reduction (NSR) catalysts are examined by means of in situ FT\\/IR. In the initial state of NOx storage, both nitrite and nitrates are formed on Pt–Ba\\/Al2O3 surface, and then nitrite become abundant with the increase of storage time. The initial rate of nitrate storage is faster in a flow of NO\\/O2 mixture than in

Ken-ichi Shimizu; Yoshinori Saito; Takeshi Nobukawa; Naoto Miyoshi; Atsushi Satsuma

2008-01-01

356

Complete autotrophic denitrification in a single reactor using nitritation and anammox gel carriers.  

PubMed

A novel aerobic denitrification reactor, aerobic denitrification using nitrifying and anoxic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria immobilized on gel carriers in a single stage (AIGES), was developed. Two types of gel carriers, a nitritation gel carrier and an anammox gel carrier, were installed in single reactor, and the denitrification performance of simultaneous nitritation and anammox was evaluated. The denitrification performance increased gradually with increased aeration rate, reaching a denitrification rate of 1.4 kg N m(-3) d(-1) 2 weeks after the nitritation and anammox gel carriers were mixed. A high average denitrification efficiency of 82% was confirmed. Stable aerobic denitrification performance was observed for more than half a year. In the startup period of AIGES operation, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria were shown by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis to grow on the surface layer of anammox gel cubes. These results indicated that anammox gel carriers promptly adapted to an aerobic environment by altering the microbial ecosystem. PMID:23994309

Isaka, Kazuichi; Kimura, Yuya; Yamamoto, Tomoko; Osaka, Toshifumi; Tsuneda, Satoshi

2013-11-01

357

Nitrate Reduction Functional Genes and Nitrate Reduction Potentials Persist in Deeper Estuarine Sediments. Why?  

PubMed Central

Denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are processes occurring simultaneously under oxygen-limited or anaerobic conditions, where both compete for nitrate and organic carbon. Despite their ecological importance, there has been little investigation of how denitrification and DNRA potentials and related functional genes vary vertically with sediment depth. Nitrate reduction potentials measured in sediment depth profiles along the Colne estuary were in the upper range of nitrate reduction rates reported from other sediments and showed the existence of strong decreasing trends both with increasing depth and along the estuary. Denitrification potential decreased along the estuary, decreasing more rapidly with depth towards the estuary mouth. In contrast, DNRA potential increased along the estuary. Significant decreases in copy numbers of 16S rRNA and nitrate reducing genes were observed along the estuary and from surface to deeper sediments. Both metabolic potentials and functional genes persisted at sediment depths where porewater nitrate was absent. Transport of nitrate by bioturbation, based on macrofauna distributions, could only account for the upper 10 cm depth of sediment. A several fold higher combined freeze-lysable KCl-extractable nitrate pool compared to porewater nitrate was detected. We hypothesised that his could be attributed to intracellular nitrate pools from nitrate accumulating microorganisms like Thioploca or Beggiatoa. However, pyrosequencing analysis did not detect any such organisms, leaving other bacteria, microbenthic algae, or foraminiferans which have also been shown to accumulate nitrate, as possible candidates. The importance and bioavailability of a KCl-extractable nitrate sediment pool remains to be tested. The significant variation in the vertical pattern and abundance of the various nitrate reducing genes phylotypes reasonably suggests differences in their activity throughout the sediment column. This raises interesting questions as to what the alternative metabolic roles for the various nitrate reductases could be, analogous to the alternative metabolic roles found for nitrite reductases. PMID:24728381

Papaspyrou, Sokratis; Smith, Cindy J.; Dong, Liang F.; Whitby, Corinne; Dumbrell, Alex J.; Nedwell, David B.

2014-01-01

358

Outcompeting nitrite-oxidizing bacteria in single-stage nitrogen removal in sewage treatment plants: a model-based study.  

PubMed

This model-based study investigated the mechanisms and operational window for efficient repression of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) in an autotrophic nitrogen removal process. The operation of a continuous single-stage granular sludge process was simulated for nitrogen removal from pretreated sewage at 10 °C. The effects of the residual ammonium concentration were explicitly analyzed with the model. Competition for oxygen between ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and NOB was found to be essential for NOB repression even when the suppression of nitrite oxidation is assisted by nitrite reduction by anammox (AMX). The nitrite half-saturation coefficient of NOB and AMX proved non-sensitive for the model output. The maximum specific growth rate of AMX bacteria proved a sensitive process parameter, because higher rates would provide a competitive advantage for AMX. PMID:25216301

Pérez, Julio; Lotti, Tommaso; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Picioreanu, Cristian; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

2014-12-01

359

40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

2010-07-01

360

40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

2012-07-01

361

40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

2011-07-01

362

40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

2013-07-01

363

40 CFR 420.02 - General definitions.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...salts to nitrites (via Nitrosomas bacteria) and the further oxidation of nitrite to nitrate via Nitrobacter bacteria. Nitrification can be accomplished...Biological monitoring for ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing...

2014-07-01

364

Stable performance of non-aerated two-stage partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) with minimal process control.  

PubMed

Partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) technologies have rapidly developed over the last decade, but still considerable amounts of energy are required for active aeration. In this study, a non-aerated two-stage PANAM process was investigated. In the first-stage upflow fixed-film bioreactor, nitratation could not be prevented at ammonium loading rates up to 186 mg N l(-1) d(-1) and low influent dissolved oxygen (0.1 mg O(2) l(-1)). Yet, increasing the loading rate to 416 and 747 mg N l(-1) d(-1) by decreasing the hydraulic retention time to 8 and 5 h, respectively, resulted in partial nitritation with the desired nitrite to ammonium nitrogen ratio for the subsequent anammox stage (0.71-1.05). The second-stage anammox reactor was established with a synthetic feeding based on ammonium and nitrite. After establishing anammox at low biomass content (0.5 g VSS l(-1)), the anammox influent was switched to partial nitritation effluent at a loading rate of 71 mg N l(-1) d(-1), of which 78% was removed at the stoichiometrically expected nitrite to ammonium consumption ratios (1.19) and nitrate production to ammonium consumption ratio (0.24). The combined PANAM reactors were operated for 3 months at a stable performance. Overall, PANAM appeals economically, saving about 50% of the energy costs, as well as technically, given straightforward operational principles. PMID:22414169

Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Roychoudhury, Kunal; Nandy, Tapas

2012-05-01

365

Stable performance of non?aerated two?stage partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) with minimal process control  

PubMed Central

Summary Partial nitritation/anammox (PANAM) technologies have rapidly developed over the last decade, but still considerable amounts of energy are required for active aeration. In this study, a non?aerated two?stage PANAM process was investigated. In the first?stage upflow fixed?film bioreactor, nitratation could not be prevented at ammonium loading rates up to 186?mg?N?l?1?d?1 and low influent dissolved oxygen (0.1?mg?O2?l?1). Yet, increasing the loading rate to 416 and 747?mg?N?l?1?d?1 by decreasing the hydraulic retention time to 8 and 5?h, respectively, resulted in partial nitritation with the desired nitrite to ammonium nitrogen ratio for the subsequent anammox stage (0.71–1.05). The second?stage anammox reactor was established with a synthetic feeding based on ammonium and nitrite. After establishing anammox at low biomass content (0.5?g VSS l?1), the anammox influent was switched to partial nitritation effluent at a loading rate of 71?mg?N?l?1?d?1, of which 78% was removed at the stoichiometrically expected nitrite to ammonium consumption ratios (1.19) and nitrate production to ammonium consumption ratio (0.24). The combined PANAM reactors were operated for 3 months at a stable performance. Overall, PANAM appeals economically, saving about 50% of the energy costs, as well as technically, given straightforward operational principles. PMID:22414169

Bagchi, Samik; Biswas, Rima; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E.; Roychoudhury, Kunal; Nandy, Tapas

2012-01-01

366

Metagenomic Analysis of Nitrate-Reducing Bacteria in the Oral Cavity: Implications for Nitric Oxide Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

The microbiota of the human lower intestinal tract helps maintain healthy host physiology, for example through nutrient acquisition and bile acid recycling, but specific positive contributions of the oral microbiota to host health are not well established. Nitric oxide (NO) homeostasis is crucial to mammalian physiology. The recently described entero-salivary nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway has been shown to provide bioactive NO from dietary nitrate sources. Interestingly, this pathway is dependent upon oral nitrate-reducing bacteria, since humans lack this enzyme activity. This pathway appears to represent a newly recognized symbiosis between oral nitrate-reducing bacteria and their human hosts in which the bacteria provide nitrite and nitric oxide from nitrate reduction. Here we measure the nitrate-reducing capacity of tongue-scraping samples from six healthy human volunteers, and analyze metagenomes of the bacterial communities to identify bacteria contributing to nitrate reduction. We identified 14 candidate species, seven of which were not previously believed to contribute to nitrate reduction. We cultivated isolates of four candidate species in single- and mixed-species biofilms, revealing that they have substantial nitrate- and nitrite-reduction capabilities. Colonization by specific oral bacteria may thus contribute to host NO homeostasis by providing nitrite and nitric oxide. Conversely, the lack of specific nitrate-reducing communities may disrupt the nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide pathway and lead to a state of NO insufficiency. These findings may also provide mechanistic evidence for the oral systemic link. Our results provide a possible new therapeutic target and paradigm for NO restoration in humans by specific oral bacteria. PMID:24670812

Hyde, Embriette R.; Andrade, Fernando; Vaksman, Zalman; Parthasarathy, Kavitha; Jiang, Hong; Parthasarathy, Deepa K.; Torregrossa, Ashley C.; Tribble, Gena; Kaplan, Heidi B.; Petrosino, Joseph F.; Bryan, Nathan S.

2014-01-01

367

Mechanisms of human erythrocytic bioactivation of nitrite.  

PubMed

Nitrite signaling likely occurs through its reduction to nitric oxide (NO). Several reports support a role of erythrocytes and hemoglobin in nitrite reduction, but this remains controversial, and alternative reductive pathways have been proposed. In this work we determined whether the primary human erythrocytic nitrite reductase is hemoglobin as opposed to other erythrocytic proteins that have been suggested to be the major source of nitrite reduction. We employed several different assays to determine NO production from nitrite in erythrocytes including electron paramagnetic resonance detection of nitrosyl hemoglobin, chemiluminescent detection of NO, and inhibition of platelet activation and aggregation. Our studies show that NO is formed by red blood cells and inhibits platelet activation. Nitric oxide formation and signaling can be recapitulated with isolated deoxyhemoglobin. Importantly, there is limited NO production from erythrocytic xanthine oxidoreductase and nitric-oxide synthase. Under certain conditions we find dorzolamide (an inhibitor of carbonic anhydrase) results in diminished nitrite bioactivation, but the role of carbonic anhydrase is abrogated when physiological concentrations of CO2 are present. Importantly, carbon monoxide, which inhibits hemoglobin function as a nitrite reductase, abolishes nitrite bioactivation. Overall our data suggest that deoxyhemoglobin is the primary erythrocytic nitrite reductase operating under physiological conditions and accounts for nitrite-mediated NO signaling in blood. PMID:25471374

Liu, Chen; Wajih, Nadeem; Liu, Xiaohua; Basu, Swati; Janes, John; Marvel, Madison; Keggi, Christian; Helms, Christine C; Lee, Amber N; Belanger, Andrea M; Diz, Debra I; Laurienti, Paul J; Caudell, David L; Wang, Jun; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

2015-01-01

368

Dopaminium nitrate  

PubMed Central

The asymmetric unit of the title salt [systematic name: 2-(3,4-di­hydroxy­phen­yl)ethanaminium nitrate], C8H12NO2 +·NO3 ?, contains two independent cations and two independent nitrate anions. The crystal structure consists of discrete nitrate ions stacked in layers parallel to (010). These layers are linked via the dopaminium cations by O—H?O, N—H?O and weak C—H?O hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional supra­molecular network. PMID:24860376

Gatfaoui, Sofian; Marouani, Houda; Roisnel, Thierry; Dhaouadi, Hassouna

2014-01-01

369

[Analysis and establishment of control modes of advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite in SBR].  

PubMed

To achieve stable advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite in SBR, factors influencing pH variation in treating real domestic wastewater were investigated. The characteristic points were found to be appeared obviously on pH profile at both ends of ammonia oxidization and denitrification by analyzing the mechanism of biological nitrogen removal and the balance of carbonic acid. Using pH as control parameter in SBR for treating domestic or municipal wastewater with low organic concentration and suitable alkalinity could achieve advanced nitrogen removal with effluent TN below 1 mg/L. Moreover, it could prevent the decrease of nitrite accumulation rate causing by excessive aeration, which plays an important role on the stability of advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite. Based on theoretical analysis and experimental study, the real-time control strategy of advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite was established. To accommodate the different water quality and retain the accuracy of control strategy, 18 adjustable variables were set up in control strategy. The control strategy established a foundation for developing control software and control system of advanced nitrogen removal via nitrite. PMID:19545010

Yang, Qing; Peng, Yong-Zhen; Wang, Shu-Ying; Gu, Sheng-Bo; Liu, Xiu-Hong; Li, Ling-Yun

2009-04-15

370

Regulation of dissolved oxygen from accumulated nitrite during the heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification of Pseudomonas stutzeri T13.  

PubMed

The nitrogen-removing characteristics of Pseudomonas stutzeri T13, a heterotrophic nitrifying-aerobic denitrifying bacterium, were investigated. The ammonium and nitrate removal of the bacterium was found to reach nearly 100 % at 15 h. However, the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate reached only about 23.47 % because of the dramatic accumulation of nitrite at a high dissolved oxygen (DO) level (160 rpm). The process of nitrite reduction was found to be the bottleneck for the efficiency of aerobic denitrification. Decreasing the shaking speed from 160 to 50 rpm to lower the DO concentration during cultivation was an effective method of improving nitrite utilization because nitrite removal increased from 62.37 to 100 %. The 99.21 % capability of simultaneous heterotrophic nitrification and aerobic denitrification with TN removal was achieved at a relatively low DO level (50 rpm). PMID:25417744

Sun, Yilu; Li, Ang; Zhang, Xuening; Ma, Fang

2014-11-25

371

Structural Basis of Eukaryotic Nitrate Reduction: Crystal Structures of the Nitrate Reductase Active Site  

PubMed Central

Nitrate assimilation in autotrophs provides most of the reduced nitrogen on earth. In eukaryotes, reduction of nitrate to nitrite is catalyzed by the molybdenum-containing NAD(P)H:nitrate reductase (NR; EC 1.7.1.1-3). In addition to the molybdenum center, NR contains iron-heme and flavin adenine dinucleotide as redox cofactors involved in an internal electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to nitrate. Recombinant, catalytically active Pichia angusta nitrate-reducing, molybdenum-containing fragment (NR-Mo) was expressed in P. pastoris and purified. Crystal structures for NR-Mo were determined at 1.7 and 2.6 Å. These structures revealed a unique slot for binding nitrate in the active site and identified key Arg and Trp residues potentially involved in nitrate binding. Dimeric NR-Mo is similar in overall structure to sulfite oxidases, with significant differences in the active site. Sulfate bound in the active site caused conformational changes, as compared with the unbound enzyme. Four ordered water molecules located in close proximity to Mo define a nitrate binding site, a penta-coordinated reaction intermediate, and product release. Because yeast NAD(P)H:NR is representative of the family of eukaryotic NR, we propose a general mechanism for nitrate reduction catalysis. PMID:15772287

Fischer, Katrin; Barbier, Guillaume G.; Hecht, Hans-Juergen; Mendel, Ralf R.; Campbell, Wilbur H.; Schwarz, Guenter

2005-01-01

372

Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate  

SciTech Connect

Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate will ultimately create a need for environmentally responsible processes to reuse ammonium nitrate extracted from demilitarized rocket motors. Ammonium Nitrate was investigated as an oxidizing agent for methanol, acetic acid and phenol. High removal of organic, ammonia and nitrate was achieved at stoichiometric concentrations. The oxidation of ammonia by nitrate was much faster than the oxidation of either methanol or acetic acid. Phenol, however, was in strong competition with ammonia for the oxidizer (nitrate). Nitrogen products included N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2{sup {minus}}} as well as toxic NO and trace amounts of NO{sub 2}. Carbon products were CO{sub 2}, HCO{sub 3{sup {minus}}}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2{minus}}, and CO.

Proesmans, P.I.; Luan, L.; Buelow, S.J.

1996-04-01

373

Toxicological and Pathological Review of Concurrent Occurrence of Nitrite Toxicity and Swine Fever in Pigs  

PubMed Central

Background: Plant associated nitrate/nitrite poisoning in buffalo, cattle, goat and sheep had been reported from various parts of the world. Horses and pigs are considered less susceptible to nitrate poisoning. In this study epidemiology of rare outbreak of nitrate poisoning in combination with classical swine fever in a small pig farm was investigated for development of strategies to control and prevent such incidents in future. Materials and Methods: Concurrent infection of nitrate toxicity and classical swine fever were recorded in district Nawanshahar, Punjab. Eight pigs suddenly fell sick and died 2 days after feeding barseem + oats and marriage waste food. Twelve pigs were sick exhibiting symptoms of anorexia, fever (104-105oF), depression, constipation followed by diarrhea, respiratory difficulty, tremors and staggering gait with recumbency in four completely off-feed pigs. Blotchy discolorations of the skin of extremities (ears and snout) were observed in three pigs. Results: Hematological examination revealed marked leucopenia. Postmortem examination revealed dark brown colored blood evident on opening the carcass and presence of barseem, oats in stomach and intestines. Lymph nodes were swollen and hemorrhagic. Serosal surface of spleen show various infarcts and button ulcers were recorded in cecum and colon, pathognomic lesion of classical swine fever. Nitrate toxicity was confirmed on the basis of quantitative determination of nitrate in the biological material of sick and dead animals. Fodder samples were (barseem + oats) positive for diphenylamine blue (DPB) test, Nitrate concentration in offended barseem and oats were found to be 2612 ppm and 3344 ppm as nitrate nitrogen (No3-N), respectively. Excessive amount of nitrate in stomach contents (924-1365 ppm), liver (22-48 ppm) and kidney (17-22 ppm) of dead animals (n = 8) confirmed that death of pigs was due to toxicity induced by nitrate/nitrite. Conclusion: The green fodder should be used cautiously in pigs and screening of fodder with DPB test prior offering to animals is strongly recommended to contain the nitrate/nitrite toxicity risk. PMID:25253929

Sidhu, Pritam Kaur; Mahajan, Vishal; Verma, Sunil; Ashuma; Gupta, Mohinder Partap

2014-01-01

374

Nitrite produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages in physiologic oxygen impacts bacterial ATP consumption and gene expression  

PubMed Central

In high enough concentrations, such as produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Lesional macrophages in macaques and humans with tuberculosis express iNOS, and mice need iNOS to avoid succumbing rapidly to tuberculosis. However, Mtb’s own ability to produce RNS is rarely considered, perhaps because nitrate reduction to nitrite is only prominent in axenic Mtb cultures at oxygen tensions ?1%. Here we found that cultures of Mtb-infected human macrophages cultured at physiologic oxygen tensions produced copious nitrite. Surprisingly, the nitrite arose from the Mtb, not the macrophages. Mtb responded to nitrite by ceasing growth; elevating levels of ATP through reduced consumption; and altering the expression of 120 genes associated with adaptation to acid, hypoxia, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and iron deprivation. The transcriptomic effect of endogenous nitrite was distinct from that of nitric oxide. Thus, whether or not Mtb is hypoxic, the host expresses iNOS, or hypoxia impairs the action of iNOS, Mtb in vivo is likely to encounter RNS by producing nitrite. Endogenous nitrite may slow Mtb’s growth and prepare it to resist host stresses while the pathogen waits for immunopathology to promote its transmission. PMID:24145454

Cunningham-Bussel, Amy; Zhang, Tuo; Nathan, Carl F.

2013-01-01

375

Nitrite produced by Mycobacterium tuberculosis in human macrophages in physiologic oxygen impacts bacterial ATP consumption and gene expression.  

PubMed

In high enough concentrations, such as produced by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS) can kill Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Lesional macrophages in macaques and humans with tuberculosis express iNOS, and mice need iNOS to avoid succumbing rapidly to tuberculosis. However, Mtb's own ability to produce RNS is rarely considered, perhaps because nitrate reduction to nitrite is only prominent in axenic Mtb cultures at oxygen tensions ?1%. Here we found that cultures of Mtb-infected human macrophages cultured at physiologic oxygen tensions produced copious nitrite. Surprisingly, the nitrite arose from the Mtb, not the macrophages. Mtb responded to nitrite by ceasing growth; elevating levels of ATP through reduced consumption; and altering the expression of 120 genes associated with adaptation to acid, hypoxia, nitric oxide, oxidative stress, and iron deprivation. The transcriptomic effect of endogenous nitrite was distinct from that of nitric oxide. Thus, whether or not Mtb is hypoxic, the host expresses iNOS, or hypoxia impairs the action of iNOS, Mtb in vivo is likely to encounter RNS by producing nitrite. Endogenous nitrite may slow Mtb's growth and prepare it to resist host stresses while the pathogen waits for immunopathology to promote its transmission. PMID:24145454

Cunningham-Bussel, Amy; Zhang, Tuo; Nathan, Carl F

2013-11-01

376

Nitrite complexes of the rare earth elements.  

PubMed

The coordination chemistry of the nitrite anion has been investigated with rare earth elements, and the resulting complexes were structurally characterized. Among them, the first homoleptic examples of nitrite complexes of samarium, ytterbium and yttrium are described. The coordination behavior of the nitrite ion is directly controlled by the ionic radius of the metal cation. While the nitrito ligand is stable in the coordination sphere of cerium(iii), it is readily reduced by SmI2. PMID:24285159

Pouessel, Jacky; Thuéry, Pierre; Berthet, Jean-Claude; Cantat, Thibault

2014-03-21

377

Supplemental ammonia synthesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a process for producing ammonia in a synthesis loop fresh ammonia synthesis gas containing hydrogen, nitrogen, and lesser amounts of argon and methane is combined with a recycle gas to provide a combined synthesis gas. A portion of the combined synthesis gas is reacted over ammonia synthesis catalyst containing iron to provide a first converted gas having an ammonia

G. S. B. Katy; J. R. LeBlanc; J. M. Lee; H. P. Leftin; P. J. S. Katy; C. P. Van Dijk

1986-01-01

378

Mechanism of Pitting Corrosion Prevention by Nitrite in Carbon Steel Exposed to Dilute Salt Solutions  

SciTech Connect

The research has developed a broad fundamental understanding of the inhibition action of nitrite ions in preventing nitrate pitting corrosion of carbon steel tanks containing high-level radioactive waste. This fundamental understanding can be applied to specific situations during waste removal for permanent disposition and waste tank closure to ensure that the tanks are maintained safely. The results of the research provide the insight necessary to develop solutions that prevent further degradation.

Philip E. Zapp; John W. Van Zee

2002-02-01

379

Electrochemical processing of nitrate waste solutions. Phase 2, Final report  

SciTech Connect

The second phase of research performed at The Electrosynthesis Co., Inc. has demonstrated the successful removal of nitrite and nitrate from a synthetic effluent stream via a direct electrochemical reduction at a cathode. It was shown that direct reduction occurs at good current efficiencies in 1,000 hour studies. The membrane separation process is not readily achievable for the removal of nitrites and nitrates due to poor current efficiencies and membrane stability problems. A direct reduction process was studied at various cathode materials in a flow cell using the complete synthetic mix. Lead was found to be the cathode material of choice, displaying good current efficiencies and stability in short and long term tests under conditions of high temperature and high current density. Several anode materials were studied in both undivided and divided cell configurations. A divided cell configuration was preferable because it would prevent re-oxidation of nitrite by the anode. The technical objective of eliminating electrode fouling and solids formation was achieved although anode materials which had demonstrated good stability in short term divided cell tests corroded in 1,000 hour experiments. The cause for corrosion is thought to be F{sup {minus}} ions from the synthetic mix migrating across the cation exchange membrane and forming HF in the acid anolyte. Other possibilities for anode materials were explored. A membrane separation process was investigated which employs an anion and cation exchange membrane to remove nitrite and nitrate, recovering caustic and nitric acid. Present research has shown poor current efficiencies for nitrite and nitrate transport across the anion exchange membrane due to co-migration of hydroxide anions. Precipitates form within the anion exchange membranes which would eventually result in the failure of the membranes. Electrochemical processing offers a highly promising and viable method for the treatment of nitrate waste solutions.

Genders, D.; Weinberg, N.; Hartsough, D. [Electrosynthesis Co., Inc., Cheektowaga, NY (US)

1992-10-07

380

Safety and Feasibility of Long-term Intravenous Sodium Nitrite Infusion in Healthy Volunteers  

PubMed Central

Background Infusion of sodium nitrite could provide sustained therapeutic concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) for the treatment of a variety of vascular disorders. The study was developed to determine the safety and feasibility of prolonged sodium nitrite infusion. Methodology Healthy volunteers, aged 21 to 60 years old, were candidates for the study performed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH; protocol 05-N-0075) between July 2007 and August 2008. All subjects provided written consent to participate. Twelve subjects (5 males, 7 females; mean age, 38.8±9.2 years (range, 21–56 years)) were intravenously infused with increasing doses of sodium nitrite for 48 hours (starting dose at 4.2 µg/kg/hr; maximal dose of 533.8 µg/kg/hr). Clinical, physiologic and laboratory data before, during and after infusion were analyzed. Findings The maximal tolerated dose for intravenous infusion of sodium nitrite was 267 µg/kg/hr. Dose limiting toxicity occurred at 446 µg/kg/hr. Toxicity included a transient asymptomatic decrease of mean arterial blood pressure (more than 15 mmHg) and/or an asymptomatic increase of methemoglobin level above 5%. Nitrite, nitrate, S-nitrosothiols concentrations in plasma and whole blood increased in all subjects and returned to preinfusion baseline values within 12 hours after cessation of the infusion. The mean half-life of nitrite estimated at maximal tolerated dose was 45.3 minutes for plasma and 51.4 minutes for whole blood. Conclusion Sodium nitrite can be safely infused intravenously at defined concentrations for prolonged intervals. These results should be valuable for developing studies to investigate new NO treatment paradigms for a variety of clinical disorders, including cerebral vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage, and ischemia of the heart, liver, kidney and brain, as well as organ transplants, blood-brain barrier modulation and pulmonary hypertension. Clinical Trial Registration Information http://www.clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00103025 PMID:21249218

Pluta, Ryszard M.; Oldfield, Edward H.; Bakhtian, Kamran D.; Fathi, Ali Reza; Smith, René K.; DeVroom, Hetty L.; Nahavandi, Masoud; Woo, Sukyung; Figg, William D.; Lonser, Russell R.

2011-01-01

381

Biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by partial nitritation and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in a pilot plant.  

PubMed

In wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic sludge digestion, 15-20% of the nitrogen load is recirculated to the main stream with the return liquors from dewatering. Separate treatment of this ammonium-rich digester supernatant would significantly reduce the nitrogen load of the activated sludge system. Some years ago, a novel biological process was discovered in which ammonium is converted to nitrogen gas under anoxic conditions with nitrite as the electron acceptor (anaerobic ammonium oxidation, anammox). Compared to conventional nitrification and denitrification, the aeration and carbon-source demand is reduced by over 50 and 100%, respectively. The combination of partial nitritation to produce nitrite in a first step and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation in a second reactor was successfully tested on a pilot scale (3.6 m(3)) for over half a year. This report focuses on the feasibility of nitrogen removal from digester effluents from two different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with the combined partial nitritation/anammox process. Nitritation was performed in a continuously stirred tank reactor (V=2.0 m(3)) without sludge retention. Some 58% of the ammonium in the supernatant was converted to nitrite. At 30 degrees C the maximum dilution rate D(x) was 0.85 d(-1), resulting in nitrite production of 0.35 kg NO(2)-N m(-3)(reactor) d(-1). The nitrate production was marginal. The anaerobic ammonium oxidation was carried out in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR, V=1.6 m(3)) with a nitrogen elimination rate of 2.4 kg N m(-3)(reactor) d(-1) during the nitrite-containing periods of the SBR cycle. Over 90% of the inlet nitrogen load to the anammox reactor was removed and the sludge production was negligible. The nitritation efficiency of the first reactor limited the overall maximum rate of nitrogen elimination. PMID:12385716

Fux, Christian; Boehler, Marc; Huber, Philipp; Brunner, Irene; Siegrist, Hansruedi

2002-11-13

382

Microbiology of a Nitrite-Oxidizing Bioreactor  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microbiology of the biomass from a nitrite-oxidizing sequencing batch reactor (NOSBR) fed with an inorganic salts solution and nitrite as the sole energy source that had been operating for 6 months was investigated by microscopy, by culture-dependent methods, and by molecular biological methods, and the seed sludge that was used to inoculate the NOSBR was investigated by molecular biological

PAUL C. BURRELL; JURG KELLER; LINDA L. BLACKALL

1998-01-01

383

Sodium nitrite therapy attenuates hypertensive effects of HBOC-201 via nitrite reduction  

PubMed Central

Synopsis Hypertension secondary to scavenging of nitric oxide (NO) remains a limitation in the use hemoglobin based oxygen carriers (HBOCs). Recent studies suggest that nitrite reduction to NO by deoxyhemoglobin supports NO-signaling. Herein, we tested whether nitrite would attenuate HBOC-mediated hypertension using HBOC-201 (Biopure), a bovine cross-linked, low oxygen affinity hemoglobin. Similar to unmodified hemoglobin, deoxygenated HBOC-201 reduced nitrite to NO with rates directly proportional to the extent of deoxygenation. The functional importance of HBOC-201 dependent nitrite reduction was demonstrated using isolated aortic rings and a murine model of trauma, hemorrhage and resuscitation. In the former, HBOC-201 inhibited NO-donor and nitrite-dependent vasodilation when oxygenated. However, deoxygenated HBOC-201 failed to affect nitrite dependent vasodilation but still inhibited NO-donor dependent vasodilation consistent with a model in which nitrite-reduction by deoxyHBOC-201 counters NO-scavenging. Finally, resuscitation using HBOC-201 after trauma and hemorrhage, resulted in mild hypertension (~5-10mmHg). Administration of a single bolus nitrite (30-100nmol) at the onset of HBOC-201 resuscitation prevented hypertension. Nitrite had no effect on mean arterial pressure during resuscitation with lactated Ringers suggesting a role for nitrite-HBOC reactions in attenuating HBOC-mediated hypertension. Taken together these data support the concept that nitrite can be used as an adjunct therapy to prevent HBOC-dependent hypertension. PMID:19555351

Rodriguez, Cilina; Vitturi, Dario A.; He, Jin; Vandromme, Marianne; Brandon, Angela; Hutchings, Anne; Rue, Loring W.; Kerby, Jeffrey D; Patel, Rakesh P.

2009-01-01

384

Inhibition of microbial H2S production in an oil reservoir model column by nitrate injection.  

PubMed

The effect of nitrate addition on microbial H2S production in a seawater-flooded oil reservoir model column with crude oil as carbon and energy source was investigated. Injection of 0.5 mM nitrate for 2.5-3.5 months led to complete elimination of H2S (initially 0.45-0.67 mM). The major decline in H2S level coincided with the first complete nitrate consumption and production of nitrite. When nitrate was excluded, H2S production resumed after approximately 2.5 months and reached previous levels after approximately 5 months. Using a fluorescent antibody technique, three populations each of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and nitrate-reducing bacteria (NRB) were monitored. SRB dominated the anoxic zone prior to nitrate addition, comprising 64-93% of the total bacterial population. The monitored NRB constituted less than 6% and no increase was observed during nitrate addition (indicating that other, unidentified, NRB populations were present). After 1-3 months without significant H2S production (3.5-5.5 months with nitrate), the SRB population collapsed, the fraction being reduced to 9-25%. The dominant SRB strain in the column, which constituted on average 94% of the monitored SRB population, was partly/completely inhibited by 50/75 microM nitrite in batch culture tests. Similar nitrite concentrations (50-150 microM) were detected in the column when the H2S level declined, indicating that nitrite inhibition was the main cause of H2S elimination. The results from this study indicate that nitrate/nitrite can be used to prevent detrimental SRB activity in oil reservoirs. PMID:11935194

Myhr, S; Lillebø, B L P; Sunde, E; Beeder, J; Torsvik, T

2002-03-01

385

California's ammonia emissions have been drastically underestimated  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In California, Los Angeles and the Central Valley often have atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's health guidelines. In the air, chemical reactions between ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides can create inorganic aerosols like ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. With their small particle sizes, these compounds can be dangerous to breathe, particularly for those with respiratory problems.

Schultz, Colin

2014-08-01

386

Spatial distribution of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea across a 44-hectare farm related to ecosystem functioning  

PubMed Central

Characterization of spatial patterns of functional microbial communities could facilitate the understanding of the relationships between the ecology of microbial communities, the biogeochemical processes they perform and the corresponding ecosystem functions. Because of the important role the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and archaea (AOA) have in nitrogen cycling and nitrate leaching, we explored the spatial distribution of their activity, abundance and community composition across a 44-ha large farm divided into an organic and an integrated farming system. The spatial patterns were mapped by geostatistical modeling and correlations to soil properties and ecosystem functioning in terms of nitrate leaching were determined. All measured community components for both AOB and AOA exhibited spatial patterns at the hectare scale. The patchy patterns of community structures did not reflect the farming systems, but the AOB community was weakly related to differences in soil pH and moisture, whereas the AOA community to differences in soil pH and clay content. Soil properties related differently to the size of the communities, with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen correlating positively to AOB abundance, while clay content and pH showed a negative correlation to AOA abundance. Contrasting spatial patterns were observed for the abundance distributions of the two groups indicating that the AOB and AOA may occupy different niches in agro-ecosystems. In addition, the two communities correlated differently to community and ecosystem functions. Our results suggest that the AOA, not the AOB, were contributing to nitrate leaching at the site by providing substrate for the nitrite oxidizers. PMID:21228891

Wessén, Ella; Söderström, Mats; Stenberg, Maria; Bru, David; Hellman, Maria; Welsh, Allana; Thomsen, Frida; Klemedtson, Leif; Philippot, Laurent; Hallin, Sara

2011-01-01

387

Nitrite oxidation in the upper water column and oxygen minimum zone of the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean.  

PubMed

Nitrogen (N) is an essential nutrient in the sea and its distribution is controlled by microorganisms. Within the N cycle, nitrite (NO2(-)) has a central role because its intermediate redox state allows both oxidation and reduction, and so it may be used by several coupled and/or competing microbial processes. In the upper water column and oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) of the eastern tropical North Pacific Ocean (ETNP), we investigated aerobic NO2(-) oxidation, and its relationship to ammonia (NH3) oxidation, using rate measurements, quantification of NO2(-)-oxidizing bacteria via quantitative PCR (QPCR), and pyrosequencing. (15)NO2(-) oxidation rates typically exhibited two subsurface maxima at six stations sampled: one located below the euphotic zone and beneath NH3 oxidation rate maxima, and another within the OMZ. (15)NO2(-) oxidation rates were highest where dissolved oxygen concentrations were <5??M, where NO2(-) accumulated, and when nitrate (NO3(-)) reductase genes were expressed; they are likely sustained by NO3(-) reduction at these depths. QPCR and pyrosequencing data were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.79), and indicated that Nitrospina bacteria numbered up to 9.25% of bacterial communities. Different Nitrospina groups were distributed across different depth ranges, suggesting significant ecological diversity within Nitrospina as a whole. Across the data set, (15)NO2(-) oxidation rates were decoupled from (15)NH4(+) oxidation rates, but correlated with Nitrospina (r(2)=0.246, P<0.05) and NO2(-) concentrations (r(2)=0.276, P<0.05). Our findings suggest that Nitrospina have a quantitatively important role in NO2(-) oxidation and N cycling in the ETNP, and provide new insight into their ecology and interactions with other N-cycling processes in this biogeochemically important region of the ocean. PMID:23804152

Beman, J Michael; Leilei Shih, Joy; Popp, Brian N

2013-11-01

388

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have more important role than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in ammonia oxidation of strongly acidic soils.  

PubMed

Increasing evidence demonstrated the involvement of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in the global nitrogen cycle, but the relative contributions of AOA and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to ammonia oxidation are still in debate. Previous studies suggest that AOA would be more adapted to ammonia-limited oligotrophic conditions, which seems to be favored by protonation of ammonia, turning into ammonium in low-pH environments. Here, we investigated the autotrophic nitrification activity of AOA and AOB in five strongly acidic soils (pH<4.50) during microcosm incubation for 30 days. Significantly positive correlations between nitrate concentration and amoA gene abundance of AOA, but not of AOB, were observed during the active nitrification. (13)CO(2)-DNA-stable isotope probing results showed significant as