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Sample records for ammonia synthesis reaction

  1. Direct microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis by reaction of succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Nan; Liu, Dandan; Shi, Weiguang; Hua, Yingjie; Wang, Chongtai; Liu, Xiaoyang

    2013-10-01

    Since the discovery of submarine hot vents in the late 1970s, it has been postulated that submarine hydrothermal environments would be suitable for emergence of life on Earth. To simulate warm spring conditions, we designed a series of microwave-assisted amino acid synthesis involving direct reactions between succinic acid and ammonia in the presence of the magnetite catalyst. These reactions which generated aspartic acid and glycine were carried out under mild temperatures and pressures (90-180 C, 4-19 bar). We studied this specific reaction inasmuch as succinic acid and ammonia were traditionally identified as prebiotic compounds in primitive deep-sea hydrothermal systems on Earth. The experimental results were discussed in both biochemical and geochemical context to offer a possible route for abiotic amino acid synthesis. With extremely diluted starting materials (0.002 M carboxylic acid and 0.002 M ammonia) and catalyst loading, an obvious temperature dependency was observed in both cases [neither product was detected at 90 C in comparison with 21.08 ?mol L-1 (aspartic acid) and 70.25 umol L-1 (glycine) in 180 C]. However, an opposite trend presented for reaction time factor, namely a positive correlation for glycine, but a negative one for aspartic acid.

  2. Sugar-Driven Prebiotic Synthesis of Ammonia from Nitrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2010-03-01

    Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and ?-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible ?-hydroxycarbonyl group or an ?-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe+3 catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonias reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species.

  3. Catalytic Organometallic Reactions of Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Klinkenberg, Jessica L.

    2012-01-01

    Until recently, ammonia had rarely succumbed to catalytic transformations with homogeneous catalysts, and the development of such reactions that are selective for the formation of single products under mild conditions has encountered numerous challenges. However, recently developed catalysts have allowed several classes of reactions to create products with nitrogen-containing functional groups from ammonia. These reactions include hydroaminomethylation, reductive amination, alkylation, allylic substitution, hydroamination, and cross-coupling. This Minireview describes examples of these processes and the factors that control catalyst activity and selectivity. PMID:20857466

  4. The Ammonia Synthesis Reaction: An Exception to the Le Chatelier Principle and Effects of Nonideality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uline, Mark J.; Corti, David S.

    2006-01-01

    Le Chatelier's principle states that the further addition of a particular component will cause the reaction to shift in the direction that reduces the total number of moles of the system. However, the addition of one reactant [N[subscript 2

  5. Sugar-driven prebiotic synthesis of ammonia from nitrite.

    PubMed

    Weber, Arthur L

    2010-06-01

    Reaction of 3-5 carbon sugars, glycolaldehyde, and alpha-ketoaldehydes with nitrite under mild anaerobic aqueous conditions yielded ammonia, an essential substrate for the synthesis of nitrogen-containing molecules during abiogenesis. Under the same conditions, ammonia synthesis was not driven by formaldehyde, glyoxylate, 2-deoxyribose, and glucose, a result indicating that the reduction process requires an organic reductant containing either an accessible alpha-hydroxycarbonyl group or an alpha-dicarbonyl group. Small amounts of aqueous Fe(+3) catalyzed the sugar-driven synthesis of ammonia. The glyceraldehyde concentration dependence of ammonia synthesis, and control studies of ammonia's reaction with glyceraldehyde, indicated that ammonia formation is accompanied by incorporation of part of the synthesized ammonia into sugar-derived organic products. The ability of sugars to drive the synthesis of ammonia is considered important to abiogenesis because it provides a way to generate photochemically unstable ammonia at sites of sugar-based origin-of-life processes from nitrite, a plausible prebiotic nitrogen species. PMID:20213158

  6. Structure of the Active Platinum Cluster and Reaction Pathway of the Selective Synthesis of Phenol from Benzene and Oxygen Regulated with Ammonia on a Platinum Cluster/?-Zeolite Catalyst Studied by DFT Calculations.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takehiko; Tada, Mizuki; Wang, Linsheng; Malwadkar, Sachin; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2015-10-01

    DFT calculations were used to investigate the structure of the active Pt cluster and the catalytic reaction pathway for the selective synthesis of phenol from benzene and molecular oxygen regulated with ammonia on a Pt cluster/?-zeolite catalyst that was reported to be active for the selective hydroxylation of benzene only in the coexistence of ammonia. It was found that Pt5-Pt6 clusters were active for the direct synthesis of phenol, and they provided the reaction sites for bond rearrangements among ammonia, oxygen, and benzene; furthermore, the coexistence of ammonia was crucial for the selective oxidation of benzene to phenol, as it suppressed benzene combustion to CO2 and promoted the selective synthesis of phenol. It was further found that water coexisting in the system also played a significant role in desorbing phenol on the Pt cluster surface, which resulted in promotion of the overall selective synthesis of phenol. The energy diagram for the reaction sequences and the structures of the transition states were obtained, which indicated the origin of the Pt/? catalysis. PMID:26179978

  7. Ammonia synthesis using magnetic induction method (MIM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puspitasari, P.; Razak, J. Abd; Yahya, N.

    2012-09-01

    The most challenging issues for ammonia synthesis is to get the high yield. New approach of ammonia synthesis by using Magnetic Induction Method (MIM) and the Helmholtz Coils has been proposed. The ammonia detection was done by using Kjeldahl Method and FTIR. The system was designed by using Autocad software. The magnetic field of MIM was vary from 100mT-200mT and the magnetic field for the Helmholtz coils was 14mT. The FTIR result shows that ammonia has been successfully formed at stretching peaks 1097,1119,1162,1236, 1377, and 1464 cm-1. UV-VIS result shows the ammonia bond at 195nm of wavelength. The ammonia yield was increase to 244.72?mole/g.h by using the MIM and six pairs of Helmholtz coils. Therefore this new method will be a new promising method to achieve the high yield ammonia at ambient condition (at 25?C and 1atm), under the Magnetic Induction Method (MIM).

  8. The Sugar Model: Autocatalytic Activity of the Triose-Ammonia Reaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    2006-01-01

    Reaction of triose sugars with ammonia under anaerobic conditions yielded autocatalytic products. The autocatalytic behavior of the products was examined by measuring the effect of the crude triose-ammonia reaction product on the kinetics of a second identical triose-ammonia reaction. The reaction product showed autocatalytic activity by increasing both the rate of disappearance of triose and the rate formation of pyruvaldehyde, the product of triose dehydration. This synthetic process is considered a reasonable model of origin-of-life chemistry because it uses plausible prebiotic substrates, and resembles modern biosynthesis by employing the energized carbon groups of sugars to drive the synthesis of autocatalytic molecules.

  9. The sugar model: autocatalytic activity of the triose-ammonia reaction.

    PubMed

    Weber, Arthur L

    2007-04-01

    Reaction of triose sugars with ammonia under anaerobic conditions yielded autocatalytic products. The autocatalytic behavior of the products was examined by measuring the effect of the crude triose-ammonia reaction product on the kinetics of a second identical triose-ammonia reaction. The reaction product showed autocatalytic activity by increasing both the rate of disappearance of triose and the rate of formation of pyruvaldehyde, the product of triose dehydration. This synthetic process is considered a reasonable model of origin-of-life chemistry because it uses plausible prebiotic substrates, and resembles modern biosynthesis by employing the energized carbon groups of sugars to drive the synthesis of autocatalytic molecules. PMID:17225954

  10. Microscale Synthesis of Hexaamminechromium(III) Nitrate Using Liquid Ammonia Generated in the Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslowsky, Edward, Jr.

    2000-06-01

    The previously published synthesis of hexaamminechromium(III) nitrate using liquid ammonia as the solvent is an experiment that can be used in an advanced inorganic chemistry laboratory as an example of using a nonaqueous inorganic solvent in inorganic synthesis. Potential hazards are associated with the amount of liquid ammonia used in the experiment and the need to store this corrosive material (which is also expensive to purchase). These problems can be eliminated or reduced by performing this experiment on a microscale level and generating the small amount of ammonia needed directly in the laboratory at the time of the experiment. The ammonia is generated by heating concentrated ammonium hydroxide and condensing the ammonia vapors into the reaction vessel.

  11. Prebiotic Amino Acid Thioester Synthesis: Thiol-Dependent Amino Acid Synthesis from Formose substrates (Formaldehyde and Glycolaldehyde) and Ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1998-01-01

    Formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde (substrates of the formose autocatalytic cycle) were shown to react with ammonia yielding alanine and homoserine under mild aqueous conditions in the presence of thiol catalysts. Since similar reactions carried out without ammonia yielded alpha-hydroxy acid thioesters, the thiol-dependent synthesis of alanine and homoserine is presumed to occur via amino acid thioesters-intermediates capable of forming peptides. A pH 5.2 solution of 20 mM formaldehyde, 20 mM glycolaldehyde, 20 mM ammonium chloride, 23 mM 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and 23 mM acetic acid that reacted for 35 days at 40 C yielded (based on initial formaldehyde) 1.8% alanine and 0.08% homoserine. In the absence of thiol catalyst, the synthesis of alanine and homoserine was negligible. Alanine synthesis required both formaldehyde and glycolaldehyde, but homoserine synthesis required only glycolaldehyde. At 25 days the efficiency of alanine synthesis calculated from the ratio of alanine synthesized to formaldehyde reacted was 2.1%, and the yield (based on initial formaldehyde) of triose and tetrose intermediates involved in alanine and homoserine synthesis was 0.3 and 2.1%, respectively. Alanine synthesis was also seen in similar reactions containing only 10 mM each of aldehyde substrates, ammonia, and thiol. The prebiotic significance of these reactions that use the formose reaction to generate sugar intermediates that are converted to reactive amino acid thioesters is discussed.

  12. Organic synthesis by quench reactions.

    PubMed

    Park, W K; Hochstim, A R

    1975-01-01

    The effects of chemical quench reactions on the formation of organic compounds at a water surface under simulated primordial earth conditions were investigated for the study of chemical evolution. A mixture of gaseous methane and ammonia over a water surface was exposed to an arc discharge between an electrode and the water surface. This discharge served as a source of dissociated, ionized and excited atomic and molecular species. Various organic molecules were formed in the gaseous, aqueous, and solid states by a subsequent quenching of these reactive species on the water surface. The effects of these water-surface quench reactions were assessed by comparing the amounts of synthesized molecules to the amounts which formed during the discharge of an arc above the water level. The results showed that: (1) the water-surface quench reaction permitted faster rates of formation of an insoluble solid and (2) the quench discharge yielded twice as much amino acids and 17 times more insoluble solids by weight than the other discharge. The highest yield of amino acids with the quench reaction was 9 x 10-7 molecules per erg of input energy. These observations indicate that quench reactions on the oceans, rain, and clouds that would have followed excitation by lightning and shock waves may have played an important role in the prebiotic milieu. Furthermore, the possibility exists that quench reactions can be exploited for the synthesis of organic compounds on a larger scale from simple starting materials. PMID:1153193

  13. Electride support boosts nitrogen dissociation over ruthenium catalyst and shifts the bottleneck in ammonia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Masaaki; Kanbara, Shinji; Inoue, Yasunori; Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Sushko, Peter V; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Hara, Michikazu; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Novel approaches to efficient ammonia synthesis at an ambient pressure are actively sought out so as to reduce the cost of ammonia production and to allow for compact production facilities. It is accepted that the key is the development of a high-performance catalyst that significantly enhances dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond, which is generally considered a rate-determining step. Here we examine kinetics of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope exchange and hydrogen adsorption/desorption reactions for a recently discovered efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis--ruthenium-loaded 12CaO7Al2O3 electride (Ru/C12A7:e(-))--and find that the rate controlling step of ammonia synthesis over Ru/C12A7:e(-) is not dissociation of the nitrogen-nitrogen triple bond but the subsequent formation of N-Hn species. A mechanism of ammonia synthesis involving reversible storage and release of hydrogen atoms on the Ru/C12A7:e(-) surface is proposed on the basis of observed hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics. PMID:25816758

  14. Electride support boosts nitrogen dissociation over ruthenium catalyst and shifts the bottleneck in ammonia synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Kitano, Masaaki; Kanbara, Shinji; Inoue, Yasunori; Kuganathan, Navaratnarajah; Sushko, Peter V.; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Hara, Michikazu; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Novel approaches to efficient ammonia synthesis at an ambient pressure are actively sought out so as to reduce the cost of ammonia production and to allow for compact production facilities. It is accepted that the key is the development of a high-performance catalyst that significantly enhances dissociation of the nitrogen–nitrogen triple bond, which is generally considered a rate-determining step. Here we examine kinetics of nitrogen and hydrogen isotope exchange and hydrogen adsorption/desorption reactions for a recently discovered efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis—ruthenium-loaded 12CaO·7Al2O3 electride (Ru/C12A7:e−)—and find that the rate controlling step of ammonia synthesis over Ru/C12A7:e− is not dissociation of the nitrogen–nitrogen triple bond but the subsequent formation of N–Hn species. A mechanism of ammonia synthesis involving reversible storage and release of hydrogen atoms on the Ru/C12A7:e− surface is proposed on the basis of observed hydrogen absorption/desorption kinetics. PMID:25816758

  15. Resonant active sites in catalytic ammonia synthesis: A structural model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cholach, Alexander R.; Bryliakova, Anna A.; Matveev, Andrey V.; Bulgakov, Nikolai N.

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption sites Mn consisted of n adjacent atoms M, each bound to the adsorbed species, are considered within a realistic model. The sum of bonds Σ lost by atoms in a site in comparison with the bulk atoms was used for evaluation of the local surface imperfection, while the reaction enthalpy at that site was used as a measure of activity. The comparative study of Mn sites (n = 1-5) at basal planes of Pt, Rh, Ir, Fe, Re and Ru with respect to heat of N2 dissociative adsorption QN and heat of Nad + Had → NHad reaction QNH was performed using semi-empirical calculations. Linear QN(Σ) increase and QNH(Σ) decrease allowed to specify the resonant Σ for each surface in catalytic ammonia synthesis at equilibrium Nad coverage. Optimal Σ are realizable for Ru2, Re2 and Ir4 only, whereas other centers meet steric inhibition or unreal crystal structure. Relative activity of the most active sites in proportion 5.0 × 10- 5: 4.5 × 10- 3: 1: 2.5: 3.0: 1080: 2270 for a sequence of Pt4, Rh4, Fe4(fcc), Ir4, Fe2-5(bcc), Ru2, Re2, respectively, is in agreement with relevant experimental data. Similar approach can be applied to other adsorption or catalytic processes exhibiting structure sensitivity.

  16. Process for synthesis of ammonia borane for bulk hydrogen storage

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey, S Thomas; Heldebrant, David J; Linehan, John C; Karkamkar, Abhijeet J; Zheng, Feng

    2011-03-01

    The present invention discloses new methods for synthesizing ammonia borane (NH.sub.3BH.sub.3, or AB). Ammonium borohydride (NH.sub.4BH.sub.4) is formed from the reaction of borohydride salts and ammonium salts in liquid ammonia. Ammonium borohydride is decomposed in an ether-based solvent that yields AB at a near quantitative yield. The AB product shows promise as a chemical hydrogen storage material for fuel cell powered applications.

  17. How a century of ammonia synthesis changed the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erisman, Jan Willem; Sutton, Mark A.; Galloway, James; Klimont, Zbigniew; Winiwarter, Wilfried

    2008-10-01

    On 13 October 1908, Fritz Haber filed his patent on the ``synthesis of ammonia from its elements'' for which he was later awarded the 1918 Nobel Prize in Chemistry. A hundred years on we live in a world transformed by and highly dependent upon Haber-Bosch nitrogen.

  18. Sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth and the reaction of nitrite with ammonia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D. P.

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth was conducted. Rates of formation and destruction, and steady state concentrations of both species were determined by steady state kinetics. The importance of the reaction of nitrite with ammonia on the feasibility of ammonia formation from nitrite was evaluated. The analysis considered conditions such as temperature, ferrous iron concentration, and pH. For sinks we considered the reduction of nitrite to ammonia, reaction between nitrite and ammonia, photochemical destruction of both species, and destruction at hydrothermal vents. Under most environmental conditions, the primary sink for nitrite is reduction to ammonia. The reaction between ammonia and nitrite is not an important sink for either nitrite or ammonia. Destruction at hydrothermal vents is important at acidic pH's and at low ferrous iron concentrations. Photochemical destruction, even in a worst case scenario, is unimportant under many conditions except possibly under acidic, low iron concentration, or low temperature conditions. The primary sink for ammonia is photochemical destruction in the atmosphere. Under acidic conditions, more of the ammonia is tied up as ammonium (reducing its vapor pressure and keeping it in solution) and hydrothermal destruction becomes more important.

  19. Sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth and the reaction of nitrite with ammonia.

    PubMed

    Summers, D P

    1999-01-01

    An analysis of sources and sinks for ammonia and nitrite on the early Earth was conducted. Rates of formation and destruction, and steady state concentrations of both species were determined by steady state kinetics. The importance of the reaction of nitrite with ammonia on the feasibility of ammonia formation from nitrite was evaluated. The analysis considered conditions such as temperature, ferrous iron concentration, and pH. For sinks we considered the reduction of nitrite to ammonia, reaction between nitrite and ammonia, photochemical destruction of both species, and destruction at hydrothermal vents. Under most environmental conditions, the primary sink for nitrite is reduction to ammonia. The reaction between ammonia and nitrite is not an important sink for either nitrite or ammonia. Destruction at hydrothermal vents is important at acidic pH's and at low ferrous iron concentrations. Photochemical destruction, even in a worst case scenario, is unimportant under many conditions except possibly under acidic, low iron concentration, or low temperature conditions. The primary sink for ammonia is photochemical destruction in the atmosphere. Under acidic conditions, more of the ammonia is tied up as ammonium (reducing its vapor pressure and keeping it in solution) and hydrothermal destruction becomes more important. PMID:10077867

  20. Isotopic studies of the ammonia decomposition reaction mediated by sodium amide.

    PubMed

    Wood, Thomas J; Makepeace, Joshua W; Hunter, Hazel M A; Jones, Martin O; David, William I F

    2015-09-21

    We demonstrate that the ammonia decomposition reaction catalysed by sodium amide proceeds under a different mechanism to ammonia decomposition over transition metal catalysts. Isotopic variants of ammonia and sodium amide reveal a significant kinetic isotope effect in contrast to the nickel-catalysed reaction where there is no such effect. The bulk composition of the catalyst is also shown to affect the kinetics of the ammonia decomposition reaction. PMID:26271016

  1. Conversion of ammonia into hydrogen and nitrogen by reaction with a sulfided catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Charles W.

    1977-01-01

    A method is provided for removing ammonia from the sour water stream of a coal gasification process. The basic steps comprise stripping the ammonia from the sour water; heating the stripped ammonia to a temperature from between 400.degree. to 1,000.degree. F; passing the gaseous ammonia through a reactor containing a sulfided catalyst to produce elemental hydrogen and nitrogen; and scrubbing the reaction product to obtain an ammonia-free gas. The residual equilibrium ammonia produced by the reactor is recycled into the stripper. The ammonia-free gas may be advantageously treated in a Claus process to recover elemental sulfur. Iron sulfide or cobalt molybdenum sulfide catalysts are used.

  2. Reaction synthesis of intermetallics

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1994-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides was utilized to obtain nickel, iron, and cobalt aluminides. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain intermetallics and their composites. Extrusion conditions, reduction ratios, and hot-pressing conditions of the intermetallics and their composites are discussed.

  3. Synthesis of ammonia directly from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure.

    PubMed

    Lan, Rong; Irvine, John T S; Tao, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    The N?N bond (225?kcal mol?) in dinitrogen is one of the strongest bonds in chemistry therefore artificial synthesis of ammonia under mild conditions is a significant challenge. Based on current knowledge, only bacteria and some plants can synthesise ammonia from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure. Here, for the first time, we report artificial ammonia synthesis bypassing N? separation and H? production stages. A maximum ammonia production rate of 1.14 10???mol m? s? has been achieved when a voltage of 1.6?V was applied. Potentially this can provide an alternative route for the mass production of the basic chemical ammonia under mild conditions. Considering climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels used for synthesis of ammonia by conventional methods, this is a renewable and sustainable chemical synthesis process for future. PMID:23362454

  4. Synthesis of ammonia directly from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Rong; Irvine, John T. S.; Tao, Shanwen

    2013-01-01

    The N≡N bond (225 kcal mol−1) in dinitrogen is one of the strongest bonds in chemistry therefore artificial synthesis of ammonia under mild conditions is a significant challenge. Based on current knowledge, only bacteria and some plants can synthesise ammonia from air and water at ambient temperature and pressure. Here, for the first time, we report artificial ammonia synthesis bypassing N2 separation and H2 production stages. A maximum ammonia production rate of 1.14 × 10−5 mol m−2 s−1 has been achieved when a voltage of 1.6 V was applied. Potentially this can provide an alternative route for the mass production of the basic chemical ammonia under mild conditions. Considering climate change and the depletion of fossil fuels used for synthesis of ammonia by conventional methods, this is a renewable and sustainable chemical synthesis process for future. PMID:23362454

  5. Ammonia synthesis using a stable electride as an electron donor and reversible hydrogen store

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitano, Masaaki; Inoue, Yasunori; Yamazaki, Youhei; Hayashi, Fumitaka; Kanbara, Shinji; Matsuishi, Satoru; Yokoyama, Toshiharu; Kim, Sung-Wng; Hara, Michikazu; Hosono, Hideo

    2012-11-01

    Industrially, the artificial fixation of atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia is carried out using the Haber-Bosch process, but this process requires high temperatures and pressures, and consumes more than 1% of the world's power production. Therefore the search is on for a more environmentally benign process that occurs under milder conditions. Here, we report that a Ru-loaded electride [Ca24Al28O64]4+(e-)4 (Ru/C12A7:e-), which has high electron-donating power and chemical stability, works as an efficient catalyst for ammonia synthesis. Highly efficient ammonia synthesis is achieved with a catalytic activity that is an order of magnitude greater than those of other previously reported Ru-loaded catalysts and with almost half the reaction activation energy. Kinetic analysis with infrared spectroscopy reveals that C12A7:e- markedly enhances N2 dissociation on Ru by the back donation of electrons and that the poisoning of ruthenium surfaces by hydrogen adatoms can be suppressed effectively because of the ability of C12A7:e- to store hydrogen reversibly.

  6. AMMONIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document summarizes the available information on ammonia as it relates to its effects on man and his environment. Ammonia is a ubiquitous substance and is known widely as a household cleaning agent and as a fertilizer. It plays an important role in the nitrogen cycle--in the...

  7. Use of crown ethers to isolate intermediates in ammonia-borane dehydrocoupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Less, Robert J; Garca-Rodrguez, Ral; Simmonds, Hayley R; Allen, Lucy K; Bond, Andrew D; Wright, Dominic S

    2016-02-23

    The presence of 18-crown-6 in the Lewis acid-promoted dehydrocoupling reaction of ammonia borane permits isolation of [(THF)BH2NH3](+) and [BH2(NH3)2](+) cations. [(THF)BH2NH3](+) reacts with Lewis bases to give either boron adducts or by deprotonation at nitrogen to give borazine and ammonia-borane. PMID:26853317

  8. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOEpatents

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  9. Reaction of coordinated dinitrogen. 12. Identification of intermediates in the conversion of molybdenum-bound dinitrogen into ammonia and hydrazine. Factors affecting the ammonia-forming reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bossard, G.E.; George, T.A.; Howell, D.B.; Koczon, L.M.; Lester, R.K.

    1983-07-06

    When bis(dinitrogen) complexes of molybdenum and tungsten are treated with an excess of strong acid, with few exceptions, a complex containing the hydrazido(2-) ligand has been identified either as a product in the reaction or as an intermediate on the way to the formation of ammonia and hydrazine. In the case of those molybdenum complexes that produce ammonia, the stoichiometry of the reaction can be represented by eq 1 and 2: (1) )Mo/sup 0/(N/sub 2/)/sub 2/) ..-->../sup H/sup +// )Mo(NNH/sub 2/)) + N/sub 2/, (2) )Mo(NNH/sub 2/)) ..-->../sup H/sup +// 1/2N/sub 2/ + HN/sub 4//sup +/ + )Mo(III)), with a molybdenum(III) complex as the final molybdenum-containing product. Here the identification of two isomeric hydrazido(2-) complexes are reported upon, that are formed as a mixture in the reaction of excess HBr in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution with trans-(Mo(N/sub 2/)/sub 2/(triphos)(PPh/sub 3/)), where triphos = PhP(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/)/sub 2/. From this mixture of hydrazido(2-) complexes ammonia and a trace of hydrazine are produced in THF solution, but in benzene or toluene solution more hydrazine than ammonia is produced. On the basis of data presented, reversible phosphine dissociation is the next recognizable step toward ammonia formation.

  10. Tandem Reactions for Streamlining Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    HUSSAIN, MAHMUD M.; WALSH, PATRICK J.

    2009-01-01

    CONSPECTUS In 1980 Sharpless and Katsuki introduced the asymmetric epoxidation of prochiral allylic alcohols (the Sharpless-Katsuki Asymmetric Epoxidation), which enabled the rapid synthesis of highly enantioenriched epoxy alcohols. This reaction was a milestone in the development of asymmetric catalysis because it was the first highly enantioselective oxidation reaction. Furthermore, it provided access to enantioenriched allylic alcohols that are now standard starting materials in natural product synthesis. In 1981 Sharpless and coworkers made another seminal contribution by describing the kinetic resolution (KR) of racemic allylic alcohols. This work demonstrated that small-molecule catalysts could compete with enzymatic catalysts in KRs. For these pioneering works, Sharpless was awarded the 2001 Nobel Prize with Knowles and Noyori. Despite these achievements, the Sharpless KR is not an efficient method to prepare epoxy alcohols with high enantiomeric excess (ee). First, the racemic allylic alcohol must be prepared and purified. KR of the racemic allylic alcohol must be stopped at low conversion, because the ee of the product epoxy alcohol decreases as the KR progresses. Thus, better methods to prepare epoxy alcohols containing stereogenic carbinol carbons are needed. This Account summarizes our efforts to develop one-pot methods for the synthesis of various epoxy alcohols and allylic epoxy alcohols with high enantio-, diastereo-, and chemoselectivity. Our laboratory developed titanium-based catalysts for use in the synthesis of epoxy alcohols with tertiary carbinols. The catalysts are involved in the first step, which is an asymmetric alkyl or allyl addition to enones. The resulting intermediates are then subjected to a titanium-directed diastereoselective epoxidation to provide tertiary epoxy alcohols. Similarly, the synthesis of acyclic epoxy alcohols begins with asymmetric additions to enals and subsequent epoxidation. The methods described here enable the synthesis of skeletally diverse epoxy alcohols. PMID:18710197

  11. Ammonia

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonia ; CASRN 7664 - 41 - 7 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  12. ECUT energy data reference series: ammonia synthesis energy-use and capital stock information

    SciTech Connect

    Young, J.K.; Johnson, D.R.

    1984-07-01

    Energy requirements for ammonia synthesis totaled 0.55 quadrillion Btu of natural gas in 1980 and 28,500 MMBtu (8.3 x 10/sup 6/ kWh) of electricity. Efficiencies ranged from 0.72 to 0.8 for natural gas and 0.65 for electricity. Ammonia production in 1980 is estimated at 21 million tones. In the year 2000, U.S. ammonia production is estimated to be between 27 to 34 million tones with 19 to 31 million tons being produced using natural gas. A most likely value of 25 million tons of ammonia from natural gas feedstock is projected. As much as 20% of the energy from natural gas fuel could be saved if a more active catalyst could be developed that would reduce the operating pressure of ammonia synthesis to 1 atm.

  13. Regeneration of ammonia borane spent fuel by direct reaction with hydrazine and liquid ammonia.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Andrew D; Burrell, Anthony K; Dixon, David A; Garner, Edward B; Gordon, John C; Nakagawa, Tessui; Ott, Kevin C; Robinson, J Pierce; Vasiliu, Monica

    2011-03-18

    Ammonia borane (H(3)N-BH(3), AB) is a lightweight material containing a high density of hydrogen (H(2)) that can be readily liberated for use in fuel cell-powered applications. However, in the absence of a straightforward, efficient method for regenerating AB from dehydrogenated polymeric spent fuel, its full potential as a viable H(2) storage material will not be realized. We demonstrate that the spent fuel type derived from the removal of greater than two equivalents of H(2) per molecule of AB (i.e., polyborazylene, PB) can be converted back to AB nearly quantitatively by 24-hour treatment with hydrazine (N(2)H(4)) in liquid ammonia (NH(3)) at 40C in a sealed pressure vessel. PMID:21415349

  14. Reaction synthesis of heat-resistant materials

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1995-12-31

    Exothermicity associated with the synthesis of aluminides can be utilized to obtain aluminides of transition metals. Combustion synthesis, extrusion, and hot pressing were utilized to obtain dense intermetallics and their composites. Composites were analyzed by X- ray diffraction and microscopy techniques, and tensile properties were measured on button-head and sheet specimens of intermetallics and their composites. Mechanical properties of intermetallics obtained by reaction synthesis and densification compare well with conventionally processed materials. Reaction-synthesis principles were also extended to weld overlays. Possible approaches to obtaining dense products by reaction synthesis and densification are summarized in a schematic illustration. 19 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Photoinduced catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia under plausible "prebiotic" conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.

  16. Enhancement of Hsp70 synthesis protects common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., against lethal ammonia toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y Y; Roberts, R J; Bossier, P

    2012-08-01

    Exposure to TEX-OE, a patented extract of the prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) containing chaperone-stimulating factor, was shown to protect common carp, Cyprinus carpio L., fingerlings against acute ammonia stress. Survival was enhanced twofold from 50% to 95% after exposure to 5.92?mg?L(-1) NH(3) , a level determined in the ammonia challenge bioassay as the 1-h LD50 concentration for this species. Survival of TEX-OE-pre-exposed fish was enhanced by 20% over non-exposed controls during lethal ammonia challenge (14.21?mg?L(-1) ?NH(3) ). Increase in the levels of gill and muscle Hsp70 was evident in TEX-OE-pre-exposed fish but not in the unexposed controls, indicating that application of TEX-OE accelerated carp endogenous Hsp70 synthesis during ammonia perturbation. Protection against ammonia was correlated with Hsp70 accretion. PMID:22724455

  17. Liquid Chromatographic-Fluorescence Determination of Ammonia from Nitrogenase Reactions: A 2-Min Assay †

    PubMed Central

    Corbin, James L.

    1984-01-01

    The analytical potential of the reaction of ammonia with o-phthalaldehyde mercaptoethanol reagent at pH 7 (an atypical fluorescence) has already been demonstrated. This, coupled with additional findings reported here, has led to an ammonia determination well suited to nitrogenase studies. As a result, large numbers of samples can be rapidly analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatrography methods under mild conditions and without prior microdiffusion. Neither sodium dithionite (or other components of the usual nitrogenase assay), nor alternative substrates (cyanide, azide, methyl isonitrile), nor their products (methylamine, dimethylamine, hydrazine) interfere. High-pressure liquid chromatography showed that the fluorescent “product” of the o-phthalaldehyde mercaptoethanol reagent-ammonia reaction was, in fact, more than just a single compound. Despite this, once the proper solvent composition was found, high-pressure liquid chromatography with a small inexpensive C18 “guard” column proved quite fast and reproducible for this measurement. Fluorescence response to ammonia was linear to at least 40 nmol/ml. A previous problem, long-term stability of the fluorescence, was solved by running the reactions in the dark. Background ammonia in the buffer could be substantially reduced by an analogous o-phthalaldehyde mercaptoethanol reagent reaction, using t-butyl mercaptan, and solvent extraction. PMID:16346533

  18. Ammonia synthesis. Ammonia synthesis by N₂ and steam electrolysis in molten hydroxide suspensions of nanoscale Fe₂O₃.

    PubMed

    Licht, Stuart; Cui, Baochen; Wang, Baohui; Li, Fang-Fang; Lau, Jason; Liu, Shuzhi

    2014-08-01

    The Haber-Bosch process to produce ammonia for fertilizer currently relies on carbon-intensive steam reforming of methane as a hydrogen source. We present an electrochemical pathway in which ammonia is produced by electrolysis of air and steam in a molten hydroxide suspension of nano-Fe2O3. At 200°C in an electrolyte with a molar ratio of 0.5 NaOH/0.5 KOH, ammonia is produced at 1.2 volts (V) under 2 milliamperes per centimeter squared (mA cm(-2)) of applied current at coulombic efficiency of 35% (35% of the applied current results in the six-electron conversion of N2 and water to ammonia, and excess H2 is cogenerated with the ammonia). At 250°C and 25 bar of steam pressure, the electrolysis voltage necessary for 2 mA cm(-2) current density decreased to 1.0 V. PMID:25104378

  19. Electrochemically induced chain reactions in organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilovaisky, Alexey I.; Merkulova, V. M.; Elinson, Michail N.; Nikishin, Gennady I.

    2012-05-01

    Data on the use of electrochemically induced chain reactions in organic synthesis are considered systematically and generalized. These processes are of particular practical interest in view of the energy saving. Examples are given of the use of electrochemically induced chain reactions for the synthesis of different classes of organic compounds under electrolysis conditions. The bibliography includes 123 references.

  20. The influence of phase and morphology of molybdenum nitrides on ammonia synthesis activity and reduction characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Mckay, D.; Hargreaves, J.S.J. Rico, J.L.; Rivera, J.L.; Sun, X.-L.

    2008-02-15

    The reactivities of a series of ternary and binary molybdenum nitrides have been compared. Data have been obtained for the catalytic synthesis of ammonia at 400 deg. C and ambient pressure using a 3:1 H{sub 2}:N{sub 2} mixture. Amongst the ternary nitrides, the mass normalised activity is in the order Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N>Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N>>Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N. For the binary molybdenum nitrides, the ammonia synthesis activity is significantly lower than that of Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N and Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N and varies in the order {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N{approx}{beta}-Mo{sub 2}N{sub 0.78}>>{delta}-MoN. Nanorod forms of {beta}-Mo{sub 2}N{sub 0.78} and {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N exhibit generally similar activities to conventional polycrystalline samples, demonstrating that the influence of catalyst morphology is limited for these two materials. In order to characterise the reactivity of the lattice nitrogen species of the nitrides, temperature programmed reactions with a 3:1 H{sub 2}:Ar mixture at temperatures up to 700 deg. C have been performed. For all materials studied, the predominant form of nitrogen lost was N{sub 2}, with smaller amounts of NH{sub 3} being formed. Post-reaction powder diffraction analyses demonstrated lattice shifts in the case of Co{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N and Ni{sub 2}Mo{sub 3}N upon temperature programmed reaction with H{sub 2}/Ar. Incomplete decomposition yielding mixtures of Mo metal and the original phase were observed for Fe{sub 3}Mo{sub 3}N and {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N, whilst {beta}-Mo{sub 2}N{sub 0.78} transforms completely to Mo metal and {delta}-MoN is converted to {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N. - Graphical abstract: Nanorod {gamma}-Mo{sub 2}N.

  1. The Inversion Potential of Ammonia: An Intrinsic Reaction Coordinate Calculation for Student Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halpern, Arthur M.; Ramachandran, B. R.; Glendening, Eric D.

    2007-01-01

    A report is presented to describe how students can be empowered to construct the full, double minimum inversion potential for ammonia by performing intrinsic reaction coordinate calculations. This work can be associated with the third year physical chemistry lecture laboratory or an upper level course in computational chemistry.

  2. Carboxymethylguargum-silver nanocomposite: green synthesis, characterization and an optical sensor for ammonia detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal Gupta, Anek; Verma, Devendra Kumar

    2014-09-01

    This work describes the preparation of new carboxymethyl guar gum-silver nanocomposite (CMGG/Ag NC) by green synthesis method. For this carboxymethyl guar gum was used as a reducing agent as well as stabilizer. The silver nanoparticles obtained were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). The average size of the silver nanoparticles was found of 6 nm. Thus, the obtained CMGG/AgNPs NC was examined for optical sensing property for detection of ammonia in aqueous medium. The response time and the detection limit of ammonia in aqueous solution were detected at room temperature. It was concluded that in the future, at this room temperature optical ammonia sensor may be used for medical diagnosis and clinically for detecting low ammonia level (up to 1 ppm) in biological samples for various biomedical applications.

  3. Studies on the use of supercritical ammonia for ceramic nitride synthesis and fabrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, Linda; Lin, Y. C.; Philipp, Warren H.

    1990-01-01

    The extractability of ammonia halides (including ammonium thiocyanate) formed as byproducts from the synthesis of Si(NH)2 via ammonolysis of the corresponding silicon tetrahalides using supercritical NH3 as the extraction medium was investigated. It was found that the NH4SCN byproduct of ammonolysis of Si(SCN)4 can be almost completely extracted from the insoluble Si(NH)2 forming a promising system for the synthesis of pure Si(NH)2, one of the best precursors for Si3N4. In addition it was found that Si3N4, AlN, BN, and Si(NH)2 are insoluble in SC ammonia. Also discussed are design considerations for a supercritical ammonia extraction unit.

  4. Reaction pathways in the oxydehydrogenation of ammonia at Cu(110) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afsin, B.; Davies, P. R.; Pashusky, A.; Roberts, M. W.; Vincent, D.

    1993-03-01

    The activation of ammonia by oxygen at Cu(110) has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron and electron energy loss spectroscopies. The chemistry observed is dependent on the temperature, whether oxygen is preadsorbed and its surface coverage, or whether the oxygen is coadsorbed with ammonia. Amide species NH 2(a) are formed only when adsorbed ammonia is exposed to dioxygen at low temperatures. With increasing temperature further step-wise dehydrogenation occurs to give imide NH(a) and nitrogen adatoms N(a). For an ammonia-rich dioxygen-ammonia mixture a facile reaction to form exclusively bent imide species occurs at 295 K with no evidence for chemisorbed oxygen being present until ?NH approaches unity. A hot transient O -(s) species is implicated in the reaction mechanism. On the other hand for ?oxygen ? 1.0 the oxygen overlayer is relatively unreactive, imide formation being kinetically slow and limited in extent. Furthermore there is no evidence in the HREEL spectra for a loss peak characteristic of ? nh although a ? NH loss peak is present. This suggests a linear form of NH(a) in contrast to the bent form generated by coadsorption of ammonia and dioxygen. Two different oxygen species can exist at the copper surface: one that is highly reactive to ammonia and undergoes chemisorptive replacement, the other inactive. We suggest that the former is O --like and associated with isolated oxygen atoms and the latter O 2--like and associated with multi-oxygen atom copper nuclei. High catalytic oxydehydrogenation activity can be maintained during the coadsorption of dioxygen and ammonia, provided the development of O 2- species (oxide growth associated with surface reconstruction) is suppressed. The latter has been shown to occur even at low oxygen coverages ( ? ? 0.1) the ammonia molecule acting as a sensitive and specific probe for the isolated O --like species. The O -(s) species are therefore transients in the development of the chemisorbed oxygen overlayer and characterised by high chemical reactivity. Support for this model comes from recent scanning tunnelling microscope studies of the Al(111)-oxygen system of Ertl and coworkers [Phys. Rev. Lett. 68 (1992) 624] (ref. [1]).

  5. Effect of Ammonia Reaction Time on the Calytic Poperties of Sputtered Iron-Based Electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki-Seong; Lee, Minku; Hong, Tae-Whan; Ju, HyunChul; Kim, Whangi; Kim, Dongmin

    2013-10-01

    Fe-based electrocatalysts for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) were produced using a sputter deposition process involving a carbon paper (CP) and a NH3 heat treatment environment. The Fe-N-CP sample reacted with ammonia for 10 min at 950 C displayed a greater current density than the samples reacted with ammonia for other reaction times. The impedance of the samples treated for 10 min with ammonia shows the highest value, which means much higher ligand formation and lower electric conductivity, which are consistent with the results of cyclic voltammetry (CV). This is directly due to the formation of ligands between the Fe and CP used when exposed to a nitrogen environment. While the current density of the Fe-based electrocatalysts under review did not exceed that of standard Pt/C electrocatalysts, the results herein suggest that nonprecious metal electrodes may be a viable alternative in PEMFCs.

  6. GaN CVD Reactions: Hydrogen and Ammonia Decomposition and the Desorption of Gallium

    SciTech Connect

    Bartram, Michael E.; Creighton, J. Randall

    1999-05-26

    Isotopic labeling experiments have revealed correlations between hydrogen reactions, Ga desorption, and ammonia decomposition in GaN CVD. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) were used to demonstrate that hydrogen atoms are available on the surface for reaction after exposing GaN(0001) to deuterium at elevated temperatures. Hydrogen reactions also lowered the temperature for Ga desorption significantly. Ammonia did not decompose on the surface before hydrogen exposure. However, after hydrogen reactions altered the surface, N15H3 did undergo both reversible and irreversible decomposition. This also resulted in the desorption of N2 of mixed isotopes below the onset of GaN sublimation, This suggests that the driving force of the high nitrogen-nitrogen bond strength (226 kcal/mol) can lead to the removal of nitrogen from the substrate when the surface is nitrogen rich. Overall, these findings indicate that hydrogen can influence G-aN CVD significantly, being a common factor in the reactivity of the surface, the desorption of Ga, and the decomposition of ammonia.

  7. Experimental and theoretical studies of ammonia generation: Reactions of H2 with neutral cobalt nitride clusters.

    PubMed

    Yin, Shi; Xie, Yan; Bernstein, Elliot R

    2012-09-28

    Ammonia generation through reaction of H(2) with neutral cobalt nitride clusters in a fast flow reactor is investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Single photon ionization at 193 nm is used to detect neutral cluster distributions through time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Co(m)N(n) clusters are generated through laser ablation of Co foil into N(2)/He expansion gas. Mass peaks Co(m)NH(2) (m = 6, 10) and Co(m)NH(3) (m = 7, 8, 9) are observed for reactions of H(2) with the Co(m)N(n) clusters. Observation of these products indicates that clusters Co(m)N (m = 7, 8, 9) have high reactivity with H(2) for ammonia generation. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations are performed to explore the potential energy surface for the reaction Co(7)N + 3?2H(2) ? Co(7)NH(3), and a barrierless, thermodynamically favorable pathway is obtained. An odd number of hydrogen atoms in Co(m)NH(3) (m = 7, 8, 9) probably come from the hydrogen molecule dissociation on two active cobalt nitride clusters based on the DFT calculations. Both experimental observations and theoretical calculations suggest that hydrogen dissociation on two active cobalt nitride clusters is the key step to form NH(3) in a gas phase reaction. A catalytic cycle for ammonia generation from N(2) and H(2) on a cobalt metal catalyst surface is proposed based on our experimental and theoretical investigations. PMID:23020328

  8. The reaction of monochloramine and hydroxylamine: implications for ammoniaoxidizing bacteria in chloraminated drinking water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water chloramine use may promote ammoniaoxidizing bacteria (AOB) growth because of naturally occurring ammonia, residual ammonia remaining from chloramine formation, and ammonia released from chloramine decay and demand. A rapid chloramine residual loss is often associa...

  9. AMINO ACID SYNTHESIS IN PHOTO-SYNTHESIZING SPINACH CELLS. EFFECTS OF AMMONIA ON POOL SIZES AND RATES OF LABELING FROM {sup 14}CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, Peder Olesen; Cornwell, Karen L.; Gee, Sherry L.; Bassham, James A.

    1980-10-01

    Isolated cells from leaves of Spinacea oleracea have been maintained in a state capable of high rates of photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation for more than 60 h. The incorporation of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} under saturating CO{sub 2} conditions into carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids, and the effect of ammonia on this incorporation have been studied. Total incorporation, specific radioactivity and pool size have been determined as a function of time for most of the protein amino acids and for {gamma}-aminobutyric acid. the measurements of specific activities and of the approaches to {sup 14}C "saturation" of some amino acids indicate the presence and relative sizes of metabolically active and passive pools of these amino acids. Added ammonia decreased carbon fixation into carbohydrates and increased fixation into carboxylic acids and amino acids. Different amino acids were, however, affected in different and highly specific ways. Ammonia caused large stimulatory effects in incorporation of {sup 14}C into glutamine (a factor of 16), No effect or slight decreases were seen in glycine, serine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine labeling, In.the case of glutamate, {sup 14}C-labeling decreased, but specific activity increased. The production of labeled {gamma}-aminobutyric acid was virtually stopped by ammonia. The results indicate that added ammonia stimulates the reactions mediated by pyruvate kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, as seen with other plant systems. The data on the effects of added ammonia on total labeling, pool sizes, and specific activities of several amino acids provides a number of indications about the intracellular sites of principal synthesis from carbon skeletons of these amino acids and the selective nature of effects of increased intracellular ammonia concentration on such synthesis.

  10. Efficient synthesis of ammonia from N2 and H2 alone in a ferroelectric packed-bed DBD reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Ramírez, A.; Cotrino, J.; Lambert, R. M.; González-Elipe, A. R.

    2015-12-01

    A detailed study of ammonia synthesis from hydrogen and nitrogen in a planar dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor was carried out. Electrical parameters were systematically varied, including applied voltage and frequency, electrode gap, and type of ferroelectric material (BaTiO3 versus PZT). For selected operating conditions, power consumption and plasma electron density were estimated from Lissajous diagrams and by application of the Bolsig  +  model, respectively. Optical emission spectroscopy was used to follow the evolution of plasma species (\\text{N}{{\\text{H}}*},{{\\text{N}}*},~{N}2+~\\text{and} ~{N}2* ) as a function of applied voltage with both types of ferroelectric material. PZT gave both greater energy efficiency and higher ammonia yield than BaTiO3: 0.9 g NH3 kWh‑1 and 2.7% single pass N2 conversion, respectively. This performance is substantially superior to previously published findings on DBD synthesis of NH3 from N2 and H2 alone. The influence of electrical working parameters, the beneficial effect of PZT and the importance of controlling reactant residence time are rationalized in a reaction model that takes account of the principal process variables

  11. Ammonia gas transport and reactions in unsaturated sediments: implications for use as an amendment to immobilize inorganic contaminants.

    PubMed

    Zhong, L; Szecsody, J E; Truex, M J; Williams, M D; Liu, Y

    2015-05-30

    Use of gas-phase amendments for in situ remediation of inorganic contaminants in unsaturated sediments of the vadose zone may be advantageous, but there has been limited development and testing of gas remediation technologies. Treatment with ammonia gas has a potential for use in treating inorganic contaminants (such as uranium) because it induces a high pore-water pH, causing mineral dissolution and subsequent formation of stable precipitates that decrease the mobility of some contaminants. For field application of this treatment, further knowledge of ammonia transport in porous media and the geochemical reactions induced by ammonia treatment is needed. Laboratory studies were conducted to support calculations needed for field treatment design, to quantify advective and diffusive ammonia transport in unsaturated sediments, to evaluate inter-phase (gas/sediment/pore water) reactions, and to study reaction-induced pore-water chemistry changes as a function of ammonia delivery conditions, such as flow rate, gas concentration, and water content. Uranium-contaminated sediment was treated with ammonia gas to demonstrate U immobilization. Ammonia gas quickly partitions into sediment pore water and increases the pH up to 13.2. Injected ammonia gas advection front movement can be reasonably predicted by gas flow rate and equilibrium partitioning. The ammonia gas diffusion rate is a function of the water content in the sediment. Sodium, aluminum, and silica pore-water concentrations increase upon exposure to ammonia and then decline as aluminosilicates precipitate when the pH declines due to buffering. Up to 85% of the water-leachable U was immobilized by ammonia treatment. PMID:25723886

  12. Ab Initio Quantum Calculations of Reactions in Astrophysical Ices: Acetaldehyde and Acetone with Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Woon, D. E.

    2009-06-01

    Complex organic molecules, including amino acid precursors, have been observed in young stellar objects. Both laboratory and theoretical studies have shown that ice chemistry can play an important role in low-temperature synthetic pathways, with water serving as a catalyst that can significantly enhance reaction rates by lowering barriers or eliminating them altogether. Reactions between carbonyl species and ammonia are particularly promising, as shown in previous studies of the formaldehyde-ammonia reaction. In this study, we explore the reactions of ammonia with two larger carbonyl species, acetaldehyde and acetone, embedded in a water ice cluster. To examine the explicit impact of the water, we gradually increase the size of the cluster from 4H_2O to 12H_2O. Cluster calculations were performed at the MP2/{6-31}+G^{**} or B3LYP/{6-31}+G^{**} level. In order to account for the electrostatic contribution from bulk ice, the Polarizable Continuum Model (PCM) and Isodensity Surface Polarized Continuum Model (IPCM) were used to model reaction field solvation effects. For both acetaldehyde and acetone, the reactant is a charge transfer complex (a partial charge-transfer complex in small clusters and full proton-transfer complex in larger clusters). Rearrangement to amino-hydroxylated products can occur by surmounting a small reaction barrier. Stereo-selectivity is observed in the case of acetaldehyde. P. Ehrenfreund and S. B. Charnley, Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 38, 427 (2000). W. A. Schutte, L. J. Allamandola, and S. A. Sandford, Science 259, 1143 (1993) W. A. Schutte, L. J. Allamandola, and S. A. Sandford, Icarus 104, 118 (1993) D. E. Woon, Icarus 142, 550 (1999) S. P. Walch, C. W. Bauschicher, Jr., A. Ricca and E. L. O. Bakes, Chem. Phys. Lett, 333, 6 (2001)

  13. On the origin of high activity of hcp metals for ammonia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Shideh; Kaghazchi, Payam

    2016-02-10

    Structure and activity of nanoparticles of hexagonal close-packed (hcp) metals are studied using first-principles calculations. Results show that, in contact with a nitrogen environment, high-index {134[combining macron]2} facets are formed on hcp metal nanoparticles. Nitrogen molecules dissociate easily at kink sites on these high-index facets (activation barriers of <0.2 eV). Analysis of the site blocking effect and adsorption energies on {134[combining macron]2} facets explains the order of activity of hcp metals for ammonia synthesis: Re < Os < Ru. Our results indicate that the high activity of hcp metals for ammonia synthesis is due to the N-induced formation of {134[combining macron]2} facets with high activity for the dissociation of nitrogen molecules. However, quite different behavior for adsorption of dissociated N atoms leads to distinctive activity of hcp metals. PMID:26818719

  14. Engineering methylaspartate ammonia lyase for the asymmetric synthesis of unnatural amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raj, Hans; Szyma?ski, Wiktor; de Villiers, Jandr; Rozeboom, Henritte J.; Veetil, Vinod Puthan; Reis, Carlos R.; de Villiers, Marianne; Dekker, Frank J.; de Wildeman, Stefaan; Quax, Wim J.; Thunnissen, Andy-Mark W. H.; Feringa, Ben L.; Janssen, Dick B.; Poelarends, Gerrit J.

    2012-06-01

    The redesign of enzymes to produce catalysts for a predefined transformation remains a major challenge in protein engineering. Here, we describe the structure-based engineering of methylaspartate ammonia lyase (which in nature catalyses the conversion of 3-methylaspartate to ammonia and 2-methylfumarate) to accept a variety of substituted amines and fumarates and catalyse the asymmetric synthesis of aspartic acid derivatives. We obtained two single-active-site mutants, one exhibiting a wide nucleophile scope including structurally diverse linear and cyclic alkylamines and one with broad electrophile scope including fumarate derivatives with alkyl, aryl, alkoxy, aryloxy, alkylthio and arylthio substituents at the C2 position. Both mutants have an enlarged active site that accommodates the new substrates while retaining the high stereo- and regioselectivity of the wild-type enzyme. As an example, we demonstrate a highly enantio- and diastereoselective synthesis of threo-3-benzyloxyaspartate (an important inhibitor of neuronal excitatory glutamate transporters in the brain).

  15. Gas-phase synthesis of morpholine from diethylene glycol and ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Kronich, I.G.; Dobrovol'skii, S.V.; Nikolaev, Y.T.; Shikunov, B.I.; Dyumaev, K.M.

    1982-11-01

    The theory and practice of catalysis in the process of amination of compounds which contain two or more hydroxyl groups has generated much interest. Specifically, there is particular interest in the reaction of diethylene glycol and ammonia; the amination process in this case is accompanied by cyclization with formation of morpholine - a very important product which is needed in growing amounts in the production of rubber vulcanization accelerators, optical bleaches and a number of other products. The possibility of producing morpholine from diethylene glycol and ammonia in gas phase in the presence of hydrogenating-dehydrogenating catalysts was demonstrated earlier. This report presents the results of further research in this area.

  16. Polyurethane synthesis reactions in asphalts

    SciTech Connect

    Bukowski, A.; Gretkiewicz, J.

    1982-04-01

    A series of asphalt-polyurethane composites was prepared by means of polyurethane synthesis in asphalt and carried out in melt. The applied materials were asphalts of differentiated group components content, polyester polyols of chain structure from linear to strongly branched, 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate, 4,4-methylenebis(phenyl isocyanate), and tinorganic catalyst. The asphalt components react with isocyanates to a minimal degree. The influence of the applied substrates, temperature, and polyurethane content in the system on the basic kinetic relations characterizing the process is presented. Polyurethane synthesis in asphalts does not differ in a fundamental way from the obtaining of polyurethanes, especially when their content in the composition is significant, 20 wt% and more.

  17. Ammonia Gas Transport and Reactions in Unsaturated Sediments: Implications for Use as an Amendment to Immobilize Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Szecsody, James E.; Truex, Michael J.; Williams, Mark D.; Liu, Yuanyuan

    2015-05-01

    Use of gas-phase amendments for in situ remediation of inorganic contaminants in unsaturated sediments of the vadose zone may be advantageous, but there has been limited development and testing of gas remediation technologies. Treatment with ammonia gas has been studied and has a potential for use in treating inorganic contaminants such as uranium because it induces a high pore-water pH causing mineral dissolution and subsequent formation of stable precipitates that decrease the mobility of some contaminants. For field application, knowledge of ammonia transport and the geochemical reactions induced by ammonia is needed. Laboratory studies were conducted to support calculations needed for field treatment design, to quantify advective and diffusive ammonia transport in unsaturated sediments, to evaluate reactions among gas, sediment, and water, and to study reaction-induced pore-water chemistry changes as a function of ammonia delivery conditions. Ammonia gas quickly partitions into sediment pore water and increases pH up to 13.2. Injected ammonia gas front movement can be reasonably predicted by gas flow rate and equilibrium partitioning. The ammonia gas diffusion rate is a function of the water content in the sediment. Measured diffusion front movement was 0.05, 0.03, and 0.02 cm/hr. in sediments with 2.0%, 8.7%, and 13.0% water content, respectively. Sodium, aluminum, and silica pore-water concentrations increase on exposure to ammonia and then decline as aluminosilicates precipitate with declining pH. When uranium is present in the sediment and pore water, up to 85% of the water-leachable uranium was immobilized by ammonia treatment.

  18. Electrochemical ammonia synthesis from steam and nitrogen using proton conducting yttrium doped barium zirconate electrolyte with silver, platinum, and lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite electrocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Dae Sik; Joo, Jong Hoon; Yu, Ji Haeng; Yoon, Hyung Chul; Kim, Jong-Nam; Yoo, Chung-Yul

    2015-06-01

    Electrochemical ammonia synthesis from steam and nitrogen has been systematically investigated using a proton-conducting electrolyte supported cell based on 20 mol% yttrium doped barium zirconate (BaZr0.8Y0.2O3-δ) in a temperature range of 475-600 °C at atmospheric pressure. Silver (Ag), platinum (Pt), and lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite (La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ) are used for both anode and cathode electrocatalysts. Maximum ammonia formation rates of 4.9 × 10-11 mol cm-2 s-1 and 8.5 × 10-11 mol cm-2 s-1 are observed for Ag and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ electrocatalysts, respectively, when a voltage of 0.8 V is applied. However, Pt electrocatalyst shows a negligible ammonia formation rate lower than 1 × 10-12 mol cm-2 s-1. This is ascribed to the high activity of Pt for the hydrogen evolution reaction rather than the ammonia formation reaction. The conversion efficiency of all electrocatalysts is below 1%, primarily due to the limited nitrogen disassociation activity of the electrocatalysts.

  19. The Bacterial Ammonia Lyase EncP: A Tunable Biocatalyst for the Synthesis of Unnatural Amino Acids.

    PubMed

    Weise, Nicholas J; Parmeggiani, Fabio; Ahmed, Syed T; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-10-14

    Enzymes of the class I lyase-like family catalyze the asymmetric addition of ammonia to arylacrylates, yielding high value amino acids as products. Recent examples include the use of phenylalanine ammonia lyases (PALs), either alone or as a gateway to deracemization cascades (giving (S)- or (R)-?-phenylalanine derivatives, respectively), and also eukaryotic phenylalanine aminomutases (PAMs) for the synthesis of the (R)-?-products. Herein, we present the investigation of another family member, EncP from Streptomyces maritimus, thereby expanding the biocatalytic toolbox and enabling the production of the missing (S)-?-isomer. EncP was found to convert a range of arylacrylates to a mixture of (S)-?- and (S)-?-arylalanines, with regioselectivity correlating to the strength of electron-withdrawing/-donating groups on the ring of each substrate. The low regioselectivity of the wild-type enzyme was addressed via structure-based rational design to generate three variants with altered preference for either ?- or ?-products. By examining various biocatalyst/substrate combinations, it was demonstrated that the amination pattern of the reaction could be tuned to achieve selectivities between 99:1 and 1:99 for ?:?-product ratios as desired. PMID:26390197

  20. Sources of ammonia for urea synthesis in isolated rat liver cells.

    PubMed

    Rognstad, R

    1977-02-28

    L-Leucine inhibits urea synthesis in rat hepatocytes from a number of nitrogen sources, including ammonia. The inhibition by L-leucine is largely overcome by addition of 1 mM L-ornithine, suggesting that the main site of L-leucine action is at ornithine transcarbamylase, rather than at glutamate dyhydrogenase. L-Norvaline is a more potent inhibitor of urea synthesis than is L-leucine, but again the inhibition is largely counteracted by L-ornithine. Addition of aminooxyacetate and L-norvaline strongly suppresses the formation of glucose and lactate from L-asparagine, suggesting that an alternate pathway of aspartate metabolism, the purine nucleotide cycle, in not a major pathway. Hadacidin, an inhibitor of adenylosuccinate synthetase, an enzyme of the purine nucleotide cycle, has no effect on urea synthesis in rat liver cells. PMID:836898

  1. Process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein nitrogen is separated from hydrogen via ammonia synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Stetka, Steven S.; Nazario, Francisco N.

    1982-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of solid carbonaceous materials wherein bottoms residues are upgraded with a process wherein air is employed, the improvement wherein nitrogen buildup in the system is avoided by ammonia synthesis. In a preferred embodiment hydrogen from other portions of the liquefaction process will be combined with hydrogen produced as a result of the bottoms upgrading to increase the H.sub.2 :N.sub.2 ratio in the ammonia reactor.

  2. Catalytic Radical Domino Reactions in Organic Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Sebren, Leanne J.; Devery, James J.; Stephenson, Corey R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Catalytic radical-based domino reactions represent important advances in synthetic organic chemistry. Their development benefits synthesis by providing atom- and step-economical methods to complex molecules. Intricate combinations of radical, cationic, anionic, oxidative/reductive, and transition metal mechanistic steps result in cyclizations, additions, fragmentations, ring-expansions, and rearrangements. This Perspective summarizes recent developments in the field of catalytic domino processes. PMID:24587964

  3. Ammonia from Iron(II) Reduction of Nitrite and the Strecker Synthesis: Do Iron(II) and Cyanide Interfere with Each Other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, David P.; Lerner, Narcinda; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, affect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The two reactions can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, forming glycine from nitrite, Fe(+2), formaldehyde, and cyanide.

  4. Surfactant-assisted synthesis, characterizations, and room temperature ammonia sensing mechanism of nanocrystalline CuO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Iqbal; Bedi, R. K.

    2011-11-01

    CuO nanocrystalline powder has been synthesized by a sol?gel auto combustion route with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as cationic surfactant, and sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) as anionic surfactant. The powder samples are characterized by TGA/DTA, XRD, FESEM, and TEM techniques. Thermal analysis of the dried gel samples shows that addition of surfactant in the precursor increases the heat of reaction, which is evolved in the decomposition of metal citrate complex. The CTAB and SDS addition in the reaction mixture lowers the average crystallite size to few tens of nanometer. Surfactant doping in precursor causes a variation in lattice strain and changes to its type to compressive. CuO nanoparticles are bound together into facets-like weakly aggregated clusters, as indicated by FESEM images. TEM micrographs indicate the porous, nearly spherical particles having crystallite size around 7 and 18 nm for CTAB and SDS surfactant assisted CuO samples respectively. CuO nanoparticles assembled as thick film have been tested for their response to 100 ppm ammonia gas at room temperature. Cationic surfactant assisted sample shows maximum response to ammonia as compared to anionic surfactant. The CTAB assisted sensor shows almost completes recovery in 500 s whereas SDS assisted sample shows 75% recovery in the same time. The ammonia response of the films obeys the Elovich equation. The response rate of sensor is found to be maximum for CTAB assisted CuO films as compared to other samples. The kinetics of the response reaction shows that the ionic surfactants assisted CuO follows second order reaction kinetics.

  5. Synthesis of nanosilver on polyamide fabric using silver/ammonia complex.

    PubMed

    Montazer, Majid; Shamei, Ali; Alimohammadi, Farbod

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a novel synthesis method for nanosilver has been introduced on or within the polymeric chains of polyamide 6 fabric by using silver/ammonia complex [Ag(NH3)2](+). The silver complex was reduced directly by functional groups of polyamide chains without using any additional chemical reducing agents. The polyamide fabric was also stabilized with formation of new linkages between the polymeric chains of the nylon fabric through silver nanoparticle synthesis. The presence of nanosilver on the fabric was confirmed by UV-vis spectra, EDX patterns and XRD patterns. In addition, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was utilized to identify the chemical state of silver in a range of silver oxide and silver metal. The SEM images confirmed the presence of nanosilver on the polyamide within the size of 20 and 150 nm. Excellent antibacterial properties were achieved with the treated fabrics against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Further, the antibacterial properties of the polyamide fabric treated with 35 mg/L silver/ammonia were durable against washing as they only decreased to 98.6% after 20 washes. In addition, some other properties of the treated fabrics including color changes, dimensional stability, water droplet adsorption, and reflectance spectrum are reported and thoroughly discussed. PMID:24656365

  6. Synthesis of mono(dinitrogen) complexes of molybdenum. Formation of ammonia and hydrazine

    SciTech Connect

    George, T.A.; Tisdale, R.C.

    1988-08-24

    The synthesis and reactivity of a series of mono-N/sub 2/ complexes of molybdenum are reported. Reduction of MoCl/sub 3/(triphos), where triphos = PhP(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/)/sub 2/, with sodium amalgam in the presence of 2L or L/sub 2/ and with a regulated amount of N/sub 2/ led to the formation of Mo(N/sub 2/)(triphos)(L/sub 2/) (1-5): 1, L = PMe/sub 2/Ph; 2, L/sub 2/ = Me/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/PMe/sub 2/, dmpm; 3, L/sub 2/ = 1,2-(Me/sub 2/As)/sub 2/C/sub 6/H/sub 4/, diars; 4, L/sub 2/ = Ph/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/, dppm; 5, L/sub 2/ = Ph/sub 2/PCH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/, dppe. Complexes 3 and 5 were each a mixture of two isomeric mono-N/sub 2/ complexes. Complexes 1-5 reacted with excess HX (X = Br, Cl) to afford varying yields of ammonia, hydrazine, and N/sub 2/ (and some H/sub 2/). Loss of N/sub 2/ occurred readily from 1 when it was evacuate in the solid state to give 7. Five-coordinate 7 reacted with H/sub 2/, CO, and C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ in the solid state to form MoH/sub 2/(triphos)(PMe/sub 2/Ph)/sub 2/ (8), Mo(CO)(triphos)(PMe/sub 2/Ph)/sub 2/ (9), and Mo(C/sub 2/H/sub 4/)(triphos)(PMe/sub 2/Ph)/sub 2/ (10), respectively. Reaction of solids 7, 8, and 10 with N/sub 2/ regenerated 1. Structural assignments of the new complexes are based upon /sup 31/P and /sup 1/H NMR spectral data. Triphos is shown to adopt both fac and mer configurations. 33 references, 1 table.

  7. Synthesis of functional materials in combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuravlev, V. D.; Bamburov, V. G.; Ermakova, L. V.; Lobachevskaya, N. I.

    2015-12-01

    The conditions for obtaining oxide compounds in combustion reactions of nitrates of metals with organic chelating-reducing agents such as amino acids, urea, and polyvinyl alcohol are reviewed. Changing the nature of internal fuels and the reducing agent-to-oxidizing agent ratio makes possible to modify the thermal regime of the process, fractal dimensionality, morphology, and dispersion of synthesized functional materials. This method can be used to synthesize simple and complex oxides, composites, and metal powders, as well as ceramics and coatings. The possibilities of synthesis in combustion reactions are illustrated by examples of αand γ-Al2O3, YSZ composites, uranium oxides, nickel powder, NiO and NiO: YSZ composite, TiO2, and manganites, cobaltites, and aluminates of rare earth elements.

  8. Synthesis and Evaluation of Cu-SAPO-34 Catalysts for Ammonia Selective Catalytic Reduction. 1. Aqueous Solution Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Feng; Walter, Eric D.; Washton, Nancy M.; Szanyi, Janos; Peden, Charles HF

    2013-09-06

    SAPO-34 molecular sieves are synthesized using various structure directing agents (SDAs). Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts are prepared via aqueous solution ion exchange. Catalysts are characterized with surface area/pore volume measurements, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. Catalytic properties are examined using standard ammonia selective catalytic reduction (NH3-SCR) and ammonia oxidation reactions. During solution ion exchange, different SAPO-34 samples undergo different extent of structural damage via irreversible hydrolysis. Si content within the samples (i.e., Al-O-Si bond density) and framework stress are key factors that affect irreversible hydrolysis. Even using very dilute Cu acetate solutions, it is not possible to generate Cu-SAPO-34 samples with only isolated Cu2+ ions. Small amounts of CuOx species always coexist with isolated Cu2+ ions. Highly active and selective Cu-SAPO-34 catalysts for NH3-SCR are readily generated using this synthesis protocol, even for SAPO-34 samples that degrade substantially during solution ion exchange. High-temperature aging is found to improve the catalytic performance. This is likely due to reduction of intracrystalline mass-transfer limitations via formation of additional porosity in the highly defective SAPO-34 particles formed after ion exchange. The authors gratefully acknowledge the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of Vehicle Technologies for the support of this work. The research described in this paper was performed at the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the DOEs Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is operated for the US DOE by Battelle Memorial Institute under contract number DE-AC05-76RL01830.

  9. Fundamental study of ammonia-sulfur dioxide reactions to form solid particles. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, P.; Bai, H.

    1994-01-18

    The effects of reaction residence time, presence of inert particles and moisture content on the SO{sub 2} removal and the product particle size distributions have been determined. Results indicated that both gas phase and particle phase reach equilibria in a very short time. The presence of inert particles increases the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency slightly, with a greater increase in removal efficiency at higher surface areas. Moisture content is the most important parameter affecting SO{sub 2} removal. Increasing the moisture content from 1.6% to 6.4% by volume results in a 30% increase of the SO{sub 2} removal at a reaction temperature of 51{degree}C. The products at near anhydrous conditions were concluded to be NH{sub 3}SO{sub 2}, (NH{sub 3}){sub 2}SO{sub 2} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}. While the products at humid conditions could be either the 1:1 sulfites, NH{sub 4}HSO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 5}, or the 2:1 sulfites, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 3} {minus}H{sub 2}O, or a mixture of the 1:1 and 2:1 sulfite. Those sulfite particles could subsequently oxidize to form the more stable sulfate particles. A gas-to-particle formation model has been developed to simulate the NH{sub 3}-SO{sub 2} system in the presence and absence of seed aerosols at trace water conditions. This model accounts for simultaneous nucleation, coagulation, condensation and chemical reaction. The applicability of utilizing ammonia injection to a flue gas system has been discussed in terms of two possible removal schemes. One utilizes ammonia injection alone and the other is in conjunction with the injection of Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry in a spray dryer system. Both schemes have the potential of achieving over 90% SO{sub 2} removal from power plants burning high-sulfur coals.

  10. Synthesis of d- and l-Phenylalanine Derivatives by Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyases: A Multienzymatic Cascade Process**

    PubMed Central

    Parmeggiani, Fabio; Lovelock, Sarah L; Weise, Nicholas J; Ahmed, Syed T; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of substituted d-phenylalanines in high yield and excellent optical purity, starting from inexpensive cinnamic acids, has been achieved with a novel one-pot approach by coupling phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) amination with a chemoenzymatic deracemization (based on stereoselective oxidation and nonselective reduction). A simple high-throughput solid-phase screening method has also been developed to identify PALs with higher rates of formation of non-natural d-phenylalanines. The best variants were exploited in the chemoenzymatic cascade, thus increasing the yield and ee value of the d-configured product. Furthermore, the system was extended to the preparation of those l-phenylalanines which are obtained with a low ee value using PAL amination. PMID:25728350

  11. Rapid gas-phase reactions - The reaction of ammonia and the methylamines with boron trifluoride. III - Pressure dependence of rate constant.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicker, S.

    1973-01-01

    A steady-state flow apparatus, shown earlier to be suitable for the study of rapid gas reactions, has been used to determine the pressure dependence of the relative quasi-bimolecular rate constants for the reactant pairs ammonia (AM)-trimethylamine (TMA) and dimethylamine (DMA)-trimethylamine in reaction with boron trifluoride. The pressure dependence of the former was determined in the range 0.03-75 torr and that of the latter in the range 0.02-720 torr.

  12. Superheavy Elements -- Synthesis, Structure and Reaction Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, Dieter

    2006-08-14

    The exciting results search for superheavy elements which have been achieved in the recent years have triggered a broad range of activities. Apart from experiments to attempt the synthesis of new elements, nuclear structure investigations in the transactinide region has become possibly for Z up to 108 or 110. Heavy element chemistry has successfully placed Hs in the periodic table and is no attacking element 112. The development of accelerators and experimental methods promises advances to enable the extension of these investigations in regions closer to the ''island of stability''. Mass measurements using ion traps and neutron rich unstable beam species for the systematic investigation of nuclear structure and reaction mechanisms for heavy neutron rich system are believed to complete the variety of tools in future.

  13. Product distributions and rate constants for ion-molecule reactions in water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntress, W. T., Jr.; Pinizzotto, R. F., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The thermal energy, bimolecular ion-molecule reactions occurring in gaseous water, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, and methane have been identified and their rate constants determined using ion cyclotron resonance methods. Absolute rate constants were determined for the disappearance of the primary ions by using the trapped ion method, and product distributions were determined for these reactions by using the cyclotron ejection method. Previous measurements are reviewed and compared with the results using the present methods. The relative rate constants for hydrogen-atom abstraction, proton transfer, and charge transfer are also determined for reactions of the parent ions.

  14. GREEN CHEMICAL SYNTHESIS THROUGH CATALYSIS AND ALTERNATE REACTION CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green chemical synthesis through catalysis and alternate reaction conditions

    Encompassing green chemistry techniques and methodologies, we have initiated several projects at the National Risk Management Research laboratory that focus on the design and development of chemic...

  15. Reactions of synthesis of heavy nuclei: Brief summary and outlook

    SciTech Connect

    Oganessian, Yu. Ts.

    2006-06-15

    The possible reactions of synthesis of extremely heavy nuclei with almost closed proton and neutron shells are analyzed on the basis of current experimental and theoretical data on the properties of the isotopes of superheavy elements. It has been shown that advances in obtaining extremely heavy nuclei for which microscopic models predict an increase in stability require further investigations of the mechanism of synthesis reactions. Direct and model experiments aimed at solving this problem are discussed.

  16. Microstructure and electrical-optical properties of cesium tungsten oxides synthesized by solvothermal reaction followed by ammonia annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jing-Xiao; Ando, Yoshihiko; Dong, Xiao-Li; Shi, Fei; Yin, Shu; Adachi, Kenji; Chonan, Takeshi; Tanaka, Akikazu; Sato, Tsugio

    2010-10-01

    Cesium tungsten oxides (Cs xWO 3) were synthesized by solvothermal reactions using ethanol and 57.1 vol% ethanol aqueous solution at 200 C for 12 h, and the effects of post annealing in ammonia atmosphere on the microstructure and electrical-optical properties were investigated. Agglomerated particles consisting of disk-like nanoparticles and nanorods of Cs xWO 3 were formed in the pure ethanol and ethanol aqueous solutions, respectively. The samples retained the original morphology and crystallinity after annealing in ammonia atmosphere up to 500 C, while a small amount of nitrogen ion were incorporated in the lattice. The as-prepared Cs xWO 3 sample showed excellent near infrared (NIR) light shielding ability as well as high transparency in the visible light region. The electrical resistivity of the pressed pellets of the powders prepared in pure ethanol and 57.1 vol% ethanol aqueous solution greatly decreased after ammonia annealing at 500 C, i.e., from 734 to 31.5 and 231 to 3.58 ? cm, respectively.

  17. Influence of Solvation and Dynamics on the Mechanism and Kinetics of Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions in Liquid Ammonia.

    PubMed

    Moors, Samuel L C; Brigou, Ben; Hertsen, Dietmar; Pinter, Balazs; Geerlings, Paul; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; Catak, Saron; De Proft, Frank

    2016-02-19

    The role of the solvent and the influence of dynamics on the kinetics and mechanism of the SNAr reaction of several halonitrobenzenes in liquid ammonia, using both static calculations and dynamic ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, are investigated. A combination of metadynamics and committor analysis methods reveals how this reaction can change from a concerted, one-step mechanism in gas phase to a stepwise pathway, involving a metastable Meisenheimer complex, in liquid ammonia. This clearly establishes, among others, the important role of the solvent and highlights the fact that accurately treating solvation is of crucial importance to correctly unravel the reaction mechanism. It is indeed shown that H-bond formation of the reacting NH3 with the solvent drastically reduces the barrier of NH3 addition. The halide elimination step, however, is greatly facilitated by proton transfer from the reacting NH3 to the solvent. Furthermore, the free energy surface strongly depends on the halide substituent and the number of electron-withdrawing nitro substituents. PMID:26800020

  18. Organocatalytic cascade reactions as a new tool in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Grondal, Christoph; Jeanty, Matthieu; Enders, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    The total synthesis of natural products and biologically active compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, has reached an extraordinary level of sophistication. We are, however, still far away from the 'ideal synthesis' and the state of the art is still frequently hampered by lengthy protecting-group strategies and costly purification procedures derived from the step-by-step protocols. In recent years several new criteria have been brought forward to solve these problems and to improve total synthesis: atom, step and redox economy or protecting-group-free synthesis. Over the past decade the research area of organocatalysis has rapidly grown to become a third pillar of asymmetric catalysis standing next to metal and biocatalysis, thus paving the way for a new and powerful strategy that can help to address these issues - organocatalytic cascade reactions. In this Review we present the first applications of such asymmetric organocascade reactions to the total synthesis of natural products. PMID:21124474

  19. Organocatalytic cascade reactions as a new tool in total synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grondal, Christoph; Jeanty, Matthieu; Enders, Dieter

    2010-03-01

    The total synthesis of natural products and biologically active compounds, such as pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals, has reached an extraordinary level of sophistication. We are, however, still far away from the 'ideal synthesis' and the state of the art is still frequently hampered by lengthy protecting-group strategies and costly purification procedures derived from the step-by-step protocols. In recent years several new criteria have been brought forward to solve these problems and to improve total synthesis: atom, step and redox economy or protecting-group-free synthesis. Over the past decade the research area of organocatalysis has rapidly grown to become a third pillar of asymmetric catalysis standing next to metal and biocatalysis, thus paving the way for a new and powerful strategy that can help to address these issues - organocatalytic cascade reactions. In this Review we present the first applications of such asymmetric organocascade reactions to the total synthesis of natural products.

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly nitrogen-doped few-layer graphene via solidgas reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Xianqing; Zhong, Jun; Shi, Yalin; Guo, Jin; Huang, Guolong; Hong, Caihao; Zhao, Yidong

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: A novel approach to synthesis of N-doped few-layer graphene has been developed. The high doping levels of N in products are achieved. XPS and XANES results reveal a thermal transformation of N bonding configurations. The developed method is cost-effective and eco-friendly. - Abstract: Nitrogen-doped (N-doped) graphene sheets with high doping concentration were facilely synthesized through solidgas reaction of graphene oxide (GO) with ammonia vapor in a self-designed hydrothermal system. The morphology, surface chemistry and electronic structure of N-doped graphene sheets were investigated by TEM, AFM, XRD, XPS, XANES and Raman characterizations. Upon hydrothermal treatment, up to 13.22 at% of nitrogen could be introduced into the crumpled few-layer graphene sheets. Both XPS and XANES analysis reveal that the reaction between oxygen functional groups in GO and ammonia vapor produces amide and amine species in hydrothermally treated GO (HTGO). Subsequent thermal annealing of the resultant HTGO introduces a gradual transformation of nitrogen bonding configurations in graphene sheets from amine N to pyridinic and graphitic N with the increase of annealing temperature. This study provides a simple but cost-effective and eco-friendly method to prepare N-doped graphene materials in large-scale for potential applications.

  1. Reaction mechanisms for on-surface synthesis of covalent nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Bjrk, J

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, on-surface synthesis has become an increasingly popular strategy to form covalent nanostructures. The approach has great prospects for facilitating the manufacture of a range of fascinating materials with atomic precision. However, the on-surface reactions are enigmatic to control, currently restricting its bright perspectives and there is a great need to explore how the reactions are governed. The objective of this topical review is to summarize theoretical work that has focused on comprehending on-surface synthesis protocols through studies of reaction mechanisms. PMID:26836411

  2. Reaction mechanisms for on-surface synthesis of covalent nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjrk, J.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, on-surface synthesis has become an increasingly popular strategy to form covalent nanostructures. The approach has great prospects for facilitating the manufacture of a range of fascinating materials with atomic precision. However, the on-surface reactions are enigmatic to control, currently restricting its bright perspectives and there is a great need to explore how the reactions are governed. The objective of this topical review is to summarize theoretical work that has focused on comprehending on-surface synthesis protocols through studies of reaction mechanisms.

  3. Detection of nerve agents using proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry with ammonia as reagent gas.

    PubMed

    Ringer, Joachim M

    2013-01-01

    The chemical warfare agents (CWA) Sarin, Soman, Cyclosarin and Tabun were characterised by proton transfer mass spectrometry (PTRMS). It was found that PTRMS is a suitable technique to detect nerve agents highly sensitively, highly selectively and in near real-time. Methods were found to suppress molecule fragmentation which is significant under PTRMS hollow cathode ionisation conditions. In this context, the drift voltage (as one of the most important system parameters) was varied and ammonia was introduced as an additional chemical reagent gas. Auxiliary chemicals such as ammonia affect ionisation processes and are quite common in context with detectors for CWAs based on ion mobility spectrometry (IMS). With both, variation of drift voltage and ammonia as the reagent gas, fragmentation can be suppressed effectively. Suppression of fragmentation is crucial particularly concerning the implementation of an algorithm for automated agent identification in field applications. On the other hand, appearance of particular fragments might deliver additional information. Degradation and rearrangement products of nerve agents are not distinctive for the particular agent but for the chemical class they belong to. It was found that switching between ammonia doped and ordinary water ionisation chemistry can easily be performed within a few seconds. Making use of this effect it is possible to switch between fragment and molecular ion peak spectra. Thus, targeted fragmentation can be used to confirm identification based only on single peak detection. PTRMS turned out to be a promising technique for future CWA detectors. In terms of sensitivity, response time and selectivity (or confidence of identification, respectively) PTRMS performs as a bridging technique between IMS and GC-MS. PMID:24308198

  4. Multicomponent reactions of isocyanides in the synthesis of heterocycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivachtchenko, Aleksandr V.; Ivanenkov, Ya A.; Kysil, Vladimir M.; Krasavin, Mikhail Yu; Ilyin, Aleksei P.

    2010-11-01

    The latest achievements in the field of isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of heterocycles are generalized. The attention is focused on the intramolecular Ugi reactions of oxocarboxylic acids and the reactions of diaza nucleophiles developed in recent years. The data on the biological activities of the products are presented and the advantages of this method as a convenient and effective tool of medicinal chemistry are demonstrated.

  5. Experimental investigation of aminoacetonitrile formation through the Strecker synthesis in astrophysical-like conditions: reactivity of methanimine (CH2NH), ammonia (NH3), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danger, G.; Borget, F.; Chomat, M.; Duvernay, F.; Theulé, P.; Guillemin, J.-C.; Le Sergeant D'Hendecourt, L.; Chiavassa, T.

    2011-11-01

    Context. Studing chemical reactivity in astrophysical environments is an important means for improving our understanding of the origin of the organic matter in molecular clouds, in protoplanetary disks, and possibly, as a final destination, in our solar system. Laboratory simulations of the reactivity of ice analogs provide important insight into the reactivity in these environments. Here, we use these experimental simulations to investigate the Strecker synthesis leading to the formation of aminoacetonitrile in astrophysical-like conditions. The aminoacetonitrile is an interesting compound because it was detected in SgrB2, hence could be a precursor of the smallest amino acid molecule, glycine, in astrophysical environments. Aims: We present the first experimental investigation of the formation of aminoacetonitrile NH2CH2CN from the thermal processing of ices including methanimine (CH2NH), ammonia (NH3), and hydrogen cyanide (HCN) in interstellar-like conditions without VUV photons or particules. Methods: We use Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectroscopy to monitor the ice evolution during its warming. Infrared spectroscopy and mass spectroscopy are then used to identify the aminoacetonitrile formation. Results: We demonstrate that methanimine can react with -CN during the warming of ice analogs containing at 20 K methanimine, ammonia, and [NH4+ -CN] salt. During the ice warming, this reaction leads to the formation of poly(methylene-imine) polymers. The polymer length depend on the initial ratio of mass contained in methanimine to that in the [NH4+ -CN] salt. In a methanimine excess, long polymers are formed. As the methanimine is progressively diluted in the [NH4+ -CN] salt, the polymer length decreases until the aminoacetonitrile formation at 135 K. Therefore, these results demonstrate that aminoacetonitrile can be formed through the second step of the Strecker synthesis in astrophysical-like conditions.

  6. The Role of Glutamine Synthetase and Glutamate Dehydrogenase in Cerebral Ammonia Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Arthur J. L.

    2012-01-01

    In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS), which is located predominantly in astrocytes, is largely responsible for the removal of both blood-derived and metabolically generated ammonia. Thus, studies with [13N]ammonia have shown that about 25% of blood-derived ammonia is removed in a single pass through the rat brain and that this ammonia is incorporated primarily into glutamine (amide) in astrocytes. Major pathways for cerebral ammonia generation include the glutaminase reaction and the glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) reaction. The equilibrium position of the GDH-catalyzed reaction in vitro favors reductive amination of ?-ketoglutarate at pH 7.4. Nevertheless, only a small amount of label derived from [13N]ammonia in rat brain is incorporated into glutamate and the ?-amine of glutamine in vivo. Most likely the cerebral GDH reaction is drawn normally in the direction of glutamate oxidation (ammonia production) by rapid removal of ammonia as glutamine. Linkage of glutamate/?-ketoglutarate-utilizing aminotransferases with the GDH reaction channels excess amino acid nitrogen toward ammonia for glutamine synthesis. At high ammonia levels and/or when GS is inhibited the GDH reaction coupled with glutamate/?-ketoglutarate-linked aminotransferases may, however, promote the flow of ammonia nitrogen toward synthesis of amino acids. Preliminary evidence suggests an important role for the purine nucleotide cycle (PNC) as an additional source of ammonia in neurons (Net reaction: L-Aspartate + GTP + H2O ? Fumarate + GDP + Pi + NH3) and in the beat cycle of ependyma cilia. The link of the PNC to aminotransferases and GDH/GS and its role in cerebral nitrogen metabolism under both normal and pathological (e.g. hyperammonemic encephalopathy) conditions should be a productive area for future research. PMID:22618691

  7. Study of the temperature-programmed reaction synthesis of early transition metal carbide and nitride catalyst materials from oxide precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Claridge, J.B.; York, A.P.E.; Brungs, A.J.; Green, M.L.H.

    2000-01-01

    The synthesis of high surface area carbide and nitride materials from binary and ternary oxides of vanadium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten, suitable for use as catalysts for a wide range of reactions, has been investigated via the temperature-programmed reaction (TPRe) method, in various gas mixtures. TPRe of oxides in CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6}/H{sub 2}, or NH{sub 3} yield materials with surface areas > 40 m{sup 2}/g. For the reaction with ethane or ammonia the reaction appears to proceed topotactically while that with methane does not; however, the conversion of nitrides to carbides in CH{sub 4}/H{sub 2} does appear to proceed topotactically.

  8. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: SYNTHETIC AMMONIA PRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report describes a study of air emissions from the production of synthetic ammonia. In 1976, 90 synthetic ammonia plants in 30 states produced 15.2 million metric tons of anhydrous ammonia. Ammonia is synthesized by the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen. Most plants produce h...

  9. Synthesis of dendritic iridium nanostructures based on the oriented attachment mechanism and their enhanced CO and ammonia catalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chao; Xiao, Guanjun; Sui, Yongming; Yang, Xinyi; Liu, Gang; Jia, Mingjun; Han, Wei; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Bo

    2014-11-01

    Branched iridium nanodendrites (Ir NDs) have been synthesized by a simple method based on the oriented attachment mechanism. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal the temporal growth process from small particles to NDs. Precursor concentrations and reaction temperatures have a limited effect on the morphology of Ir NDs. Metal oxide and hydroxide-supported Ir NDs exhibit enhanced activity for catalytic CO oxidation. Particularly, the Fe(OH)x-supported Ir NDs catalyst with a 4 wt% Ir loading show superior CO oxidation catalytic activity with a full conversion of CO at 120 C. Furthermore, compared with Ir NPs and commercial Ir black, Ir NDs exhibit higher activity and stability for ammonia oxidation. The specific activity and mass activity of Ir NDs for ammonia oxidation are 1.7 and 7 times higher than that of Ir NPs. The improved catalytic activities of Ir NDs are attributed not only to their large specific surface area, but also to their considerably high index facets and rich edge and corner atoms. Hence, the obtained Ir NDs provide a promising alternative for direct ammonia fuel cells and proton-exchange membrane fuel cells.Branched iridium nanodendrites (Ir NDs) have been synthesized by a simple method based on the oriented attachment mechanism. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal the temporal growth process from small particles to NDs. Precursor concentrations and reaction temperatures have a limited effect on the morphology of Ir NDs. Metal oxide and hydroxide-supported Ir NDs exhibit enhanced activity for catalytic CO oxidation. Particularly, the Fe(OH)x-supported Ir NDs catalyst with a 4 wt% Ir loading show superior CO oxidation catalytic activity with a full conversion of CO at 120 C. Furthermore, compared with Ir NPs and commercial Ir black, Ir NDs exhibit higher activity and stability for ammonia oxidation. The specific activity and mass activity of Ir NDs for ammonia oxidation are 1.7 and 7 times higher than that of Ir NPs. The improved catalytic activities of Ir NDs are attributed not only to their large specific surface area, but also to their considerably high index facets and rich edge and corner atoms. Hence, the obtained Ir NDs provide a promising alternative for direct ammonia fuel cells and proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04072d

  10. The synthesis of higher oxygenates from CO related reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, S.S.C.; Krishnamurthy, R.; Lee, S.

    1994-12-31

    Higher oxygenate synthesis over Rh/SiO{sub 2} catalyst from CO hydrogenation, ethylene addition, and methylene chloride addition to syngas has been studied. The insertion of linear CO into the adsorbed alkyl intermediates is the key step in the formation of higher oxygenates from CO related reaction. A good understanding of the reactivity of alkyl group towards hydrogenation and CO insertion reaction steps is required for the design of a selective catalyst for C{sub 2+} oxygenate synthesis. This paper reports the use of in situ IR and dynamic approach to study the nature of active sites and elementary steps involved in the higher oxygenate synthesis from CO/H{sub 2} and CO/H{sub 2}/CH{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} reactions.

  11. Reactions of Synthesis of Heavy Nuclei Results and Perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Oganessian, Yu.

    2006-08-14

    The experimental and theoretical results on the properties of the isotopes of superheavy elements, obtained up to now, have made it possible to consider different reactions for the synthesis of heavier nuclei located in the vicinity of the closed proton and neutron shells. It is shown that the advance to the heaviest possible nuclei, for which the microscopic models predict further rise of stability, is inseparably linked to the future investigation of the mechanism of synthesis reactions. Direct and model experiments, aimed at solving this problem, are also discussed.

  12. Shock-induced reaction synthesis (SRS) of nickel aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Thadhani, N.N.; Work, S. , New Mexico Tech, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 ); Graham, R.A.; Hammetter, W.F. )

    1992-05-01

    Shock-induced chemical reactions between nickel and aluminum powders (mixed in Ni{sub 3}Al stoichiometry) are used for the synthesis of nickel aluminides. It is shown that the extent of shock-induced chemical reactions and the nature of the shock-synthesized products are influenced by the morphology of the starting powders. Irregular (flaky type) and fine morphologies of the powders undergo complete reactions in contrast to partial reactions occurring in coarse and uniform morphology powders under identical shock loading conditions. Furthermore, irregular morphology powders result in the formation of the equiatomic (B2 phase) NiAl compound while the Ni{sub 3}Al (L1{sub 2} phase) compound is the reaction product with coarse and regular morphology powders. Shock-induced reaction synthesis can be characterized as a bulk reaction process involving an intense mechanochemical'' mechanism. It is a process in which shock compression induces fluid-like plastic flow and mixing, and enhances the reactivity due to the introduction of defects and cleansing of particle surfaces, which strongly influence the synthesis process.

  13. Model Catalysis of Ammonia Synthesis ad Iron-Water Interfaces - ASum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopic Study of Solid-GasInterfaces and Anion Photoelectron Spectroscopic Study of Selected Anionclusters

    SciTech Connect

    Ferguson, Michael James

    2005-12-15

    The ammonia synthesis reaction has been studied using single crystal model catalysis combined with sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy. The adsorption of gases N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and NH{sub 3} that play a role in ammonia synthesis have been studied on the Fe(111) crystal surface by sum frequency generation vibrational spectroscopy using an integrated Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV)/high-pressure system. SFG spectra are presented for the dissociation intermediates, NH{sub 2} ({approx}3325 cm{sup -1}) and NH ({approx}3235 cm{sup -1}) under high pressure of ammonia or equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products on Fe(111) surfaces. Special attention was paid to understand how potassium promotion of the iron catalyst affects the intermediates of ammonia synthesis. An Fe(111) surface promoted with 0.2 monolayers of potassium red shifts the vibrational frequencies of the reactive surface intermediates, NH and NH{sub 2}, providing evidence for weakened the nitrogen-hydrogen bonds relative to clean Fe(111). Spectral features of these surface intermediates persisted to higher temperatures for promoted iron surfaces than for clean Fe(111) surfaces implying that nitrogen-iron bonds are stronger for the promoted surface. The ratio of the NH to NH{sub 2} signal changed for promoted surfaces in the presence of equilibrium concentrations of reactants and products. The order of adding oxygen and potassium to promoted surfaces does not alter the spectra indicating that ammonia induces surface reconstruction of the catalyst to produce the same surface morphology. When oxygen is co-adsorbed with nitrogen, hydrogen, ammonia or potassium on Fe(111), a relative phase shift of the spectra occurs as compared to the presence of adsorbates on clean iron surfaces. Water adsorption on iron was also probed using SFG vibrational spectroscopy. For both H{sub 2}O and D{sub 2}O, the only spectral feature was in the range of the free OH or free OD. From the absence of SFG spectra of ice-like structure we conclude that surface hydroxides are formed and no liquid water is present on the surface. Other than model catalysis, gas phase anion photoelectron spectroscopy of the Cl + H{sub 2} van der Waals well, silicon clusters, germanium clusters, aluminum oxide clusters and indium phosphide clusters were studied. The spectra help to map out the neutral potential energy surfaces of the clusters. For aluminum oxide, the structures of the anions and neutrals were explored and for silicon, germanium and indium phosphide the electronic structure of larger clusters was mapped out.

  14. A photochemical study of the kinetics of the reactions of NH2 with phosphine, ethylene, and acetylene using flash photolysis-laser induced fluorescence. Ph.D. Thesis Catholic Univ. of America; [ammonia in the atmosphere of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosco, S. R.

    1982-01-01

    The photochemistry of the reactions of NH2 was investigated in an attempt to explain the existence of an abundance of ammonia in the Jovian atmosphere. The production of ammonia reservoirs from the coupling of ammonia with other atmospheric constituents was considered. The rate constants for the reactions of NH2 radicals with phosphine, acetylene, and ethylene were measured. Flash photolysis was used for the production of NH2 radicals and laser induced fluorescence was employed for radical detection. It was determined that the rates of the reactions were too slow to be significant as a source of ammonia reservoirs in the Jovian atmosphere.

  15. Synthesis of 3-heteroarylchromones via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; He, Yun; Wang, Tao; Zeng, Lingyu; Zhang, Zunting

    2016-02-01

    The direct coupling of 3-iodochromen-4-ones with heteroaromatics has been achieved via a photochemical reaction. A variety of 3-heteroarylchromones was obtained in moderate to good yields from the corresponding 3-iodochromen-4-ones and heteroaromatics, such as pyrrole, furan, thiophene, and benzofuran. The reaction worked smoothly in acetonitrile under a mercury lamp without any additives, providing a catalyst- and base-free approach for the synthesis of 3-heteroarylchromones. PMID:26197992

  16. Synthesis of porous gold nanoshells by controlled transmetallation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattabi, Manjunatha; M, Krishnaprabha

    2015-06-01

    Aqueous synthesis of porous gold nanoshells in one step is carried out through controlled transmetallation (TM) reaction using a naturally available egg shell membrane (ESM) as a barrier between the sacrificial silver particles (AgNPs) and the gold precursor solution (HAuCl4). The formation of porous gold nanoshells via TM reaction is inferred from UV-Vis spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies.

  17. Synthesis of polyfluorene derivatives through polymer reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bin; Yu, Wang-Lin; Lai, Yee-Hing; Huang, Wei

    2003-01-01

    A polyfluorene derivative with ester functional groups was synthesized with a high molecular weight and good solubility in common organic solvents through the Suzuki reaction. Efficient blue light emission and good electrochemical properties were demonstrated for this polymer with a decomposition temperature of 331 °C and a glass transition temperature of 111 °C. Due to the ester functional groups, the polymer could be further modified through polymer reactions. Hydrolysis of the polymer afforded a water-soluble carbonate functional polyfluorene derivative. While it underwent a reduction, a new polyfluorene derivative with hydroxy functional groups was obtained. Thermal and optical properties of the derivatives were also studied.

  18. Synthesis of dendritic iridium nanostructures based on the oriented attachment mechanism and their enhanced CO and ammonia catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xiao, Guanjun; Sui, Yongming; Yang, Xinyi; Liu, Gang; Jia, Mingjun; Han, Wei; Liu, Bingbing; Zou, Bo

    2014-12-21

    Branched iridium nanodendrites (Ir NDs) have been synthesized by a simple method based on the oriented attachment mechanism. Transmission electron microscopy images reveal the temporal growth process from small particles to NDs. Precursor concentrations and reaction temperatures have a limited effect on the morphology of Ir NDs. Metal oxide and hydroxide-supported Ir NDs exhibit enhanced activity for catalytic CO oxidation. Particularly, the Fe(OH)x-supported Ir NDs catalyst with a 4 wt% Ir loading show superior CO oxidation catalytic activity with a full conversion of CO at 120 C. Furthermore, compared with Ir NPs and commercial Ir black, Ir NDs exhibit higher activity and stability for ammonia oxidation. The specific activity and mass activity of Ir NDs for ammonia oxidation are 1.7 and 7 times higher than that of Ir NPs. The improved catalytic activities of Ir NDs are attributed not only to their large specific surface area, but also to their considerably high index facets and rich edge and corner atoms. Hence, the obtained Ir NDs provide a promising alternative for direct ammonia fuel cells and proton-exchange membrane fuel cells. PMID:25366566

  19. Kinetic study of the indomethacin synthesis and thermal decomposition reactions.

    PubMed

    Rusu, M; Olea, M; Rusu, D

    2000-12-01

    The kinetics of indomethacin synthesis (achieved through a new method) was studied at 80 degrees C. The reaction proceeds in four steps. In the first step, by the condensation of levulinic acid with p-chlorobenzoyl-p-methoxy-phenyl-hydrazine in homogeneous acidic catalysis an intermediate is formed. In the second step, by the isomerisation of this intermediate a hydrazo compound is formed. In the third step, the isomerisation is followed by the o-benzydinic transposition of the reaction product mentioned above. In the fourth step, indomethacin is formed through a cyclization reaction. The rate constant of the indomethacin synthesis reaction was determined assuming that the cyclization reaction constitutes the rate-determining step. Spectrophotometric methods were used both in order to investigate the kinetics of the synthesis reaction and to verify the proposed mechanism. Then, a thermogravimetric study was performed on the purpose of finding out the temperature range in which indomethacin is stable. From the thermogravimetric curve kinetic parameters have been derived, using different calculation techniques. PMID:11108535

  20. Quaternary ammonium salts in alkylation reactions (synthesis of formaldehyde acetals)

    SciTech Connect

    Nazaretyan, A.Kh.; Torosyan, G.O.; Babayan, A.T.

    1986-05-10

    The conditions for obtaining formaldehyde accetals in high yields have been found. The most active of the dihalomethanes (in synthesis of acetals) is dibromomethane; dichloromethane can be activated by addition of a catalytic amount of potassium iodide to the reaction mixture. Formaldehyde bis(US -methoxyethyl) acetyl can be used as a phase-transfer catalyst.

  1. High yield shock synthesis of ammonia from iron, water and nitrogen available on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Sekine, Toshimori; Kakegawa, Takeshi; Nakazawa, Satoru

    2005-06-01

    Ammonia is a necessary precursor of amino acids in terms of the origin of life on the early Earth. However, the formation of ammonia is problematic in the non-reducing atmosphere that presently believed on the early Earth. The abiotic reduction of nitrogen is, therefore, debated currently in the oceanic and hydrothermal conditions [[J.A. Brandes, N.Z. Boctor, G.D. Cody, B.A. Cooper, R.M. Hazen, H.S. Yoder Jr., Abiotic nitrogen reduction on the early Earth, Nature 395 (1998), 365-367; D.P. Summers, S. Chang, Prebiotic ammonia from reduction of nitrite by iron (II) on the early Earth, Nature 365 (1993), 630-633; M. Drr, J. Kaessbohrer, R. Grunert, G. Kreisel, W.A. Brand, R.A. Werner, H. Geilmann, C. Apfel, C. Robl, W. Weigand, A possible prebiotic formation of ammonia from dinitrogen on iron sulfide surfaces, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 42 ( 2003), 1540-1543 [1-3

  2. Achieving Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Imposed Conditions in the Ammonia Formation Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Under conditions of constant temperature T and pressure P, chemical equilibrium occurs in a closed system (fixed mass) when the Gibbs free energy G of the reaction mixture is minimized. However, when chemical reactions occur under other conditions, other thermodynamic functions are minimized or maximized. For processes at constant T and volume V,

  3. Achieving Chemical Equilibrium: The Role of Imposed Conditions in the Ammonia Formation Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellinghuisen, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Under conditions of constant temperature T and pressure P, chemical equilibrium occurs in a closed system (fixed mass) when the Gibbs free energy G of the reaction mixture is minimized. However, when chemical reactions occur under other conditions, other thermodynamic functions are minimized or maximized. For processes at constant T and volume V,…

  4. The Diels--Alder reaction in total synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, K C; Snyder, Scott A; Montagnon, Tamsyn; Vassilikogiannakis, Georgios

    2002-05-17

    The Diels-Alder reaction has both enabled and shaped the art and science of total synthesis over the last few decades to an extent which, arguably, has yet to be eclipsed by any other transformation in the current synthetic repertoire. With myriad applications of this magnificent pericyclic reaction, often as a crucial element in elegant and programmed cascade sequences facilitating complex molecule construction, the Diels-Alder cycloaddition has afforded numerous and unparalleled solutions to a diverse range of synthetic puzzles provided by nature in the form of natural products. In celebration of the 100th anniversary of Alder's birth, selected examples of the awesome power of the reaction he helped to discover are discussed in this review in the context of total synthesis to illustrate its overall versatility and underscore its vast potential which has yet to be fully realized. PMID:19750686

  5. The Chemistry of Liquid Ammonia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagowski, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The solvent and chemical properties of liquid ammonia are presented. In a certain sense, ammonia is a more versatile solvent than is water because of its ability to solubilize, without reaction, highly negative or reducing species. (Author/BB)

  6. Metal composite membranes: Synthesis, characterization and reaction studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, K.L.; Aravind, R. Szegner, J.; Varma, A.

    1996-12-31

    Dense Pd/SS-316L composite membranes were prepared using conventional electroless plating and a new synthesis procedure based on electroless plating with osmosis. Membranes from the new synthesis technique have about five times higher hydrogen permeation rate and exhibit better thermal stability. Ethane dehydrogenation reaction was conducted in a packed bed membrane reactor (PBMR) with Pd/SS-316L membrane and Pt-Sn/alumina catalyst pellets. Supra-equilibrium conversions were obtained with a better than 95% selectivity towards ethylene. The effect of non-uniform distribution of catalyst in pellets was also investigated.

  7. Facile and controllable synthesis of hydroxyapatite/graphene hybrid materials with enhanced sensing performance towards ammonia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Ying; Li, Huixia; Tan, Yanni; Luo, Lanlan; Duan, Junhao; Li, Kaiyang; Banks, Craig E

    2015-08-01

    In this work, needle-like and micro-spherical agglomerates of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite (HA) were successfully assembled on the surface of graphene sheets with the aid of dopamine having two roles, as a template and a reductant for graphite oxide during the process of self-polymerization. The crystalline structure and micromorphology of HA can be conveniently regulated by controlling the mineralization route either with a precipitation (cHA/GR) or biomimetic methodology (bHA/GR). Both the composites exhibit improvements of ?150% and ?250% in sensitivity towards the sensing of ammonia at room temperature, compared with that of bare graphene. The combination of the multi-adsorption capability of HA and the electric conductivity of graphene is proposed to be the major reason for the observed enhancements. Gas sensing tests demonstrated that the HA/GR composites exhibit excellent selectivity, high sensitivity and repeatable stability towards the analytical sensing of ammonia. PMID:26066071

  8. Modeling and simulation of ammonia removal from purge gases of ammonia plants using a catalytic Pd-Ag membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Rahimpour, M R; Asgari, A

    2008-05-01

    In this work, the removal of ammonia from synthesis purge gas of an ammonia plant has been investigated. Since the ammonia decomposition is thermodynamically limited, a membrane reactor is used for complete decomposition. A double pipe catalytic membrane reactor is used to remove ammonia from purge gas. The purge gas is flowing in the reaction side and is converted to hydrogen and nitrogen over nickel-alumina catalyst. The hydrogen is transferred through the Pd-Ag membrane of tube side to the shell side. A mathematical model including conservation of mass in the tube and shell side of reactor is proposed. The proposed model was solved numerically and the effects of different parameters on the rector performance were investigated. The effects of pressure, temperature, flow rate (sweep ratio), membrane thickness and reactor diameter have been investigated in the present study. Increasing ammonia conversion was observed by raising the temperature, sweep ratio and reducing membrane thickness. When the pressure increases, the decomposition is gone toward completion but, at low pressure the ammonia conversion in the outset of reactor is higher than other pressures, but complete destruction of the ammonia cannot be achieved. The proposed model can be used for design of an industrial catalytic membrane reactor for removal of ammonia from ammonia plant and reducing NO(x) emissions. PMID:17936505

  9. Ammonia assimilation and synthesis of alanine, aspartate, and glutamate in Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum.

    PubMed Central

    Kenealy, W R; Thompson, T E; Schubert, K R; Zeikus, J G

    1982-01-01

    The mechanism of ammonia assimilation in Methanosarcina barkeri and Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum was documented by analysis of enzyme activities, 13NH3 incorporation studies, and comparison of growth and enzyme activity levels in continuous culture. Glutamate accounted for 65 and 52% of the total amino acids in the soluble pools of M. barkeri and M. thermoautotrophicum. Both organisms contained significant activities of glutamine synthetase, glutamate synthase, glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase. Hydrogen-reduced deazaflavin-factor 420 or flavin mononucleotide but not NAD, NADP, or ferredoxin was used as the electron donor for glutamate synthase in M. barkeri. Glutamate dehydrogenase activity was not detected in either organism, but alanine dehydrogenase activity was present in M. thermoautotrophicum. The in vivo activity of the glutamine synthetase was verified in M. thermoautotrophicum by analysis of 13NH3 incorporation into glutamine, glutamate, and alanine. Alanine dehydrogenase and glutamine synthetase activity varied in response to [NH4+] when M. thermoautotrophicum was cultured in a chemostat with cysteine as the sulfur source. Alanine dehydrogenase activity and growth yield (grams of cells/mole of methane) were highest when the organism was cultured with excess ammonia, whereas growth yield was lower and glutamine synthetase was maximal when ammonia was limiting. PMID:6122678

  10. Formation of brown carbon via reactions of ammonia with secondary organic aerosols from biogenic and anthropogenic precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Updyke, Katelyn M.; Nguyen, Tran B.; Nizkorodov, Sergey A.

    2012-12-01

    Filter samples of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) generated from the ozone (O3)- and hydroxyl radical (OH)-initiated oxidation of various biogenic (isoprene, ?-pinene, limonene, ?-cedrene, ?-humulene, farnesene, pine leaf essential oils, cedar leaf essential oils) and anthropogenic (tetradecane, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, naphthalene) precursors were exposed to humid air containing approximately 100 ppb of gaseous ammonia (NH3). Reactions of SOA compounds with NH3 resulted in production of light-absorbing "brown carbon" compounds, with the extent of browning ranging from no observable change (isoprene SOA) to visible change in color (limonene SOA). The aqueous phase reactions with dissolved ammonium (NH4+) salts, such as ammonium sulfate, were equally efficient in producing brown carbon. Wavelength-dependent mass absorption coefficients (MAC) of the aged SOA were quantified by extracting known amounts of SOA material in methanol and recording its UV/Vis absorption spectra. For a given precursor, the OH-generated SOA had systematically lower MAC compared to the O3-generated SOA. The highest MAC values, for brown carbon from SOA resulting from O3 oxidation of limonene and sesquiterpenes, were comparable to MAC values for biomass burning particles but considerably smaller than MAC values for black carbon aerosols. The NH3/NH4+ + SOA brown carbon aerosol may contribute to aerosol optical density in regions with elevated concentrations of NH3 or ammonium sulfate and high photochemical activity.

  11. Measurement and estimation of ammonia emissions from lagoon-atmosphere interface using a coupled mass transfer and chemical reactions model, and an equilibrium model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajwa, Kanwardeep S.; Aneja, Viney P.; Pal Arya, S.

    Ammonia has recently gained importance for its increasing atmospheric concentrations and its role in the formation of aerosols. The anaerobic lagoon and spray method, commonly used for waste storage and disposal in confined animal feeding operations (CAFO), is a significant source of ammonia emissions. An accurate emission model for ammonia from aqueous surfaces can help in the development of emission factors. Data collected from field measurements made at hog waste lagoons in south eastern North Carolina, using the flow through dynamic chamber technique, were used to evaluate the Coupled mass transfer and Chemical reactions model and Equilibrium model developed by Aneja et al. [2001a. Measurement and modeling of ammonia emissions at waste treatment lagoon-Atmospheric Interface. Water, Air and Soil pollution: Focus 1, 177-188]. Sensitivity analysis shows that ammonia flux increases exponentially with lagoon temperature and pH, but a linear increase was observed with an increase in total ammoniacal nitrogen (TAN). Ammonia flux also shows a nonlinear increase with increasing wind speed. Observed ammonia fluxes were generally lower in the cold season than in the warm season when lagoon temperatures are higher. About 41% of the equilibrium model predictions and 43% of the Coupled model predictions are found to be within a factor of two of the observed fluxes. Several model performance statistics were used to evaluate the performance of the two models against the observed flux data. These indicate that the simpler Equilibrium model does as well as the Coupled model. The possible effects of the "artificial" environment within the chamber, which is different from that in the ambient atmospheric conditions above the open lagoon surface, on the measured fluxes are also recognized.

  12. Nuclear reactions and synthesis of new transuranium species

    SciTech Connect

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1983-01-01

    In this short review, I shall describe the special aspects of heavy ion nuclear reaction mechanisms operative in the transuranium region, the role of new techniques, possible nuclear reactions for the production of additional transuranium elements and nuclear species and the importance of work in this region for the development of nuclear models and theoretical concepts. This discussion should make it clear that a continuing supply of leements and isotopes, some fo them relatively short-lived, produced by the HFIR-TRU facilities, will be a requirement for future synthesis of new elements and isotopes.

  13. Synthesis of heterocycles by the aza-Wittig reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusar, N. I.

    1991-02-01

    This review is devoted to the synthesis of N-heterocycles by the interaction of phosphazo groups (either preformed or prepared in situ) with carbonyl or thiocarbonyl groups. Examples are presented systematically for syntheses by an intramolecular aza-Wittig reaction or where the latter is incorporated in a multi-step route. The feasibility of preparing various types of heterocycle by this method has been examined. The bibliography contains 73 references.

  14. Flexible synthesis of anthracycline aglycone mimics via domino carbopalladation reactions

    PubMed Central

    Leibeling, Markus

    2013-01-01

    Summary A synthesis of anthracycline aglycone derivatives is described. The key step utilizes a powerful domino carbopalladation approach and subsequent ring closure. During this process two of the four rings of the anthracycline scaffold are formed. Differently substituted carbohydrates and dialkyne chains serve as versatile and simple starting materials for the reaction sequence. Diverse building blocks lead to a variety of different products and a broad range of structural diversity. PMID:24204433

  15. A Four-Component Reaction for the Synthesis of Dioxadiazaborocines.

    PubMed

    Flagstad, Thomas; Petersen, Mette T; Nielsen, Thomas E

    2015-07-13

    A four-component reaction for the synthesis of heterocyclic boronates is reported. Readily available hydrazides, ?-hydroxy aldehydes, and two orthogonally reactive boronic acids are combined in a single step to give structurally distinct bicyclic boronates, termed dioxadiazaborocines (DODA borocines). In this remarkable process, one boronic acid reacts as a carbon nucleophile and the other as a boron electrophile to provide enantio- and diastereomerically pure heterocyclic boronates with multiple stereocenters in high yields. PMID:26068978

  16. Intermediate Compounds and Intermediate Reactions in the Synthesis of Oligonucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarytova, V. F.; Knorre, Dmitrii G.

    1985-02-01

    The principal features of the phosphorylation of nucleosides and other alcohols by phosphoric acid monoesters and diesters in the presence of the most widely used condensing agents (arenesulphonyl chlorides, arenesulphonyl azolides, carbodiimides, mixtures of arenesulphonyl chlorides with azoles and pyridines) are described. Data concerning the intermediate compounds and intermediate reactions in the oligonucleotides synthesis as well as model processes, obtained mainly with the aid of 31P NMR, are discussed. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  17. One-Pot Synthesis of Glycosyl-?-azido Ester via Diazotransfer Reaction Toward Access of Glycosyl-?-triazolyl Ester.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amrita; Tiwari, Vinod K

    2015-05-15

    A concise and efficacious one-pot protocol for the synthesis of novel glycosyl-?-azido ester 3 from glycosyl olefinic ester 1 under mild conditions has been devised. The ?-aminoester, formed by the conjugate addition of ammonia on olefinic ester, undergoes a metal-catalyzed diazotransfer reaction to furnish glycosyl-?-azido ester. The optimized conditions for diazotransfer reaction indicate that imidazole-1-sulphonyl azide and K2CO3 give the best results in the presence of ZnCl2. A diverse range of novel regioselective triazolyl glycoconjugates 6a-u have been achieved in high yields via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of compound 3 with various alkynes in the presence of CuI/DIPEA. Structures of all the compounds have been elucidated using IR, NMR, MS, and elemental analysis, and four of them (3a, 3b, 4b, and 6a) have also been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. PMID:25894942

  18. Controllable synthesis of silver nanoparticle-decorated reduced graphene oxide hybrids for ammonia detection.

    PubMed

    Cui, Shumao; Mao, Shun; Wen, Zhenhai; Chang, Jingbo; Zhang, Yang; Chen, Junhong

    2013-05-21

    We demonstrate controllable fabrication of Ag nanoparticle (NP)-decorated reduced graphene oxide (RGO/Ag) hybrids and their application for fast and selective detection of ammonia at room temperature. Ag NPs greatly improved the sensitivity of RGO. The response time (6 s) and recovery time (10 s) are comparable with our previous Ag NP-decorated multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT/Ag) NH3 sensors; however, the sensitivity is about twice that of MWCNT/Ag hybrids. We found that the loading density of NPs greatly affects the sensing performance of RGO/Ag hybrids and a proper NP loading leads to maximum sensitivity. PMID:23527378

  19. Reactions of Methanesulfonic Acid with Amines and Ammonia as a Source of New Particles in Air.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haihan; Varner, Mychel E; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    New particle formation (NPF) from gaseous precursors as a significant source of aerosol needs to be better understood to accurately predict the impacts on visibility, climate change, and human health. While ternary nucleation of sulfuric acid, amines/NH3, and water is recognized as a significant driver for NPF, increasing evidence suggests a contribution from methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and amines under certain conditions. Here we report the formation of particles 2.5-10 nm in diameter from the reactions of MSA with methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and NH3 at reaction times of 2.3-7.8 s in a flow reactor and compare these particles with those previously reported to be formed from reaction with trimethylamine (TMA). The effects of water vapor and concentrations of gaseous precursors on the particle number concentration and particle size were studied. The presence of water significantly enhances particle formation and growth. Under similar experimental conditions, particle number concentrations decrease in the order MA ≫ TMA ≈ DMA ≫ NH3, where NH3 is 2-3 orders of magnitude less efficient than DMA. Quantum chemical calculations of likely intermediate clusters were carried out to provide insights into the role of water and the different capacities of amines/NH3 in particle formation. Both gas-phase basicity and hydrogen-bonding capacity of amines/NH3 contribute to the potential for particles to form and grow. Our results indicate that, although amines typically have concentrations 1-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of NH3 in the atmosphere, they still play an important role in driving NPF. PMID:26379061

  20. Optimal reaction for synthesis of superheavy element 117

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. H.; Bao Jingdong

    2009-09-15

    Fusion reactions leading to the formation of superheavy element 117 are systematically analyzed. Among the reactions considered, the {sup 250}Bk({sup 48}Ca,4n){sup 294}117 reaction has the largest evaporation residue (ER) cross section of about 2 pb. However, this reaction is hard to realize experimentally because it is difficult to accumulate sufficient amount of target material due to the short lifetime of {sup 250}Bk nucleus. For the reaction {sup 48}Ca+{sup 249}Bk, our estimation shows that the ER cross sections in 3n and 4n channels may be expected to be greater than 1 pb. Therefore, {sup 48}Ca and {sup 249}Bk should be the optimal projectile-target combination for synthesis of superheavy element 117 in practice. In addition, as a main result of systematic analysis, we find that the ER cross section exponentially depends on the mass difference (in unit of temperature) of fission and neutron emission saddle points. Therefore, it is of essential importance for the successful synthesis of superheavy nuclei to select the isotopic composition of projectile and/or target so as the mass difference of fission and neutron emission saddle points as large as possible. Entrance channel effects are examined by means of a comparison of the reactions {sup 48}Ca+{sup 245}Bk, {sup 50}Ti+{sup 243}Am, and {sup 55}Mn+{sup 238}U leading to the same compound nucleus {sup 293}117. The ER cross sections of the reactions {sup 50}Ti+{sup 243}Am and {sup 55}Mn+{sup 238}U are much smaller than that of {sup 48}Ca+{sup 245}Bk.

  1. Synthesis of superheavy nuclei: A search for new production reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Zagrebaev, Valery; Greiner, Walter

    2008-09-15

    Nuclear reactions leading to the formation of new superheavy (SH) elements and isotopes are discussed in the paper. 'Cold' and 'hot' synthesis, fusion of fission fragments, transfer reactions, and reactions with radioactive ion beams are analyzed along with their abilities and limitations. If the possibility of increasing the beam intensity and the detection efficiency (by a total of one order of magnitude) is found, then several isotopes of new elements with Z=120-124 could be synthesized in fusion reactions of titanium, chromium, and iron beams with actinide targets. The use of light- and medium-mass neutron-rich radioactive beams may help us fill the gap between the SH nuclei produced in the hot fusion reactions and the mainland. In these reactions, we may really approach the 'island of stability.' Such a possibility is also provided by the multinucleon transfer processes in low-energy damped collisions of heavy actinide nuclei. The production of SH elements in fusion reactions with accelerated fission fragments looks less encouraging.

  2. Rational design of metal nitride redox materials for solar-driven ammonia synthesis.

    PubMed

    Michalsky, Ronald; Pfromm, Peter H; Steinfeld, Aldo

    2015-06-01

    Fixed nitrogen is an essential chemical building block for plant and animal protein, which makes ammonia (NH3) a central component of synthetic fertilizer for the global production of food and biofuels. A global project on artificial photosynthesis may foster the development of production technologies for renewable NH3 fertilizer, hydrogen carrier and combustion fuel. This article presents an alternative path for the production of NH3 from nitrogen, water and solar energy. The process is based on a thermochemical redox cycle driven by concentrated solar process heat at 700-1200°C that yields NH3 via the oxidation of a metal nitride with water. The metal nitride is recycled via solar-driven reduction of the oxidized redox material with nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. We employ electronic structure theory for the rational high-throughput design of novel metal nitride redox materials and to show how transition-metal doping controls the formation and consumption of nitrogen vacancies in metal nitrides. We confirm experimentally that iron doping of manganese nitride increases the concentration of nitrogen vacancies compared with no doping. The experiments are rationalized through the average energy of the dopant d-states, a descriptor for the theory-based design of advanced metal nitride redox materials to produce sustainable solar thermochemical ammonia. PMID:26052421

  3. A Theoretical Investigation of the Plausibility of Reactions Between Ammonia and Carbonyl Species (Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, and Acetone) in Interstellar Ice Analogs at Ultracold Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Lina; Woon, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We have reexamined the reaction between formaldehyde and ammonia, which was previously studied by us and other workers in modestly sized cluster calculations. Larger model systems with up to 12H2O were employed, and reactions of two more carbonyl species, acetaldehyde and acetone, were also carried out. Calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level with bulk solvent effects treated with a polarizable continuum model; limited MP2/6-31+G** calculations were also performed. We found that while the barrier for the concerted proton relay mechanism described in previous work remains modest, it is still prohibitively high for the reaction to occur under the ultracold conditions that prevail in dense interstellar clouds. However, a new pathway emerged in more realistic clusters that involves at least one barrierless step for two of the carbonyl species considered here: ammonia reacts with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to form a partial charge transfer species in small clusters (4H2O) and a protonated hydroxyamino intermediate species in large clusters (9H2O, 12H2O); modest barriers that decrease sharply with cluster size are found for the analogous processes for the acetone-NH3 reaction. Furthermore, if a second ammonia replaces one of the water molecules in calculations in the 9H2O clusters, deprotonation can occur to yield the same neutral hydroxyamino species that is formed via the original concerted proton relay mechanism. In at least one position, deprotonation is barrierless when zero-point energy is included. In addition to describing the structures and energetics of the reactions between formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone with ammonia, we report spectroscopic predictions of the observable vibrational features that are expected to be present in ice mixtures of different composition.

  4. Shock-consolidation and reaction synthesis of nickel titanium intermetallic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiao

    The shock synthesis of nanocrystalline NiTi (NITINOL) and the reaction behavior of Ni + Ti as-blended and ball-milled powder mixtures were investigated in this research. Nanocrystalline NiTi intermetallic, synthesized by shock consolidation of pre-alloyed amorphous NITINOL powder revealed an increase in MS temperature and a 40--80% higher compression strength than that of conventional NITINOL alloys, with recoverable elastic strains of as much as about 11%. The reaction behavior of as-blended Ni + Ti powder mixtures, studied using shock recovery experiments, showed localized region-specific reactions occurring due to thermal effects of shock compression and forming products typical of those produced due to thermally-initiated combustion type reactions. The Ni + Ti powder mixtures ball-milled prior to shock compression showed complete reaction forming products, which were predominately NiTi and Ti2Ni phases, via shock-induced amorphization and subsequent crystallization. Time-resolved stress measurements performed on the as-blended powder mixtures in the range of 522 m/s to 1046 m/s, showed characteristics of powder densification at input stress of 1.12 GPa, and shock-induced reaction indicated by volume expansion and wave speed increase at stress of 3.22 GPa. Ball-milled powder mixtures also showed similar evidence of reaction at stresses exceeding 3 GPa, with expanded states approaching those calculated using a thermodynamic model for shock-induced formation of reaction products. These results provide clear evidence of shock-induced reactions and possible mechanism of reaction initiation.

  5. Ammonia-treated Ordered Mesoporous Carbons as Catalytic Materials for Oxygen Reduction Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xiqing; Lee, Je Seung; Zhu, Qing; Liu, Jun; Wang, Yong; Dai, Sheng

    2010-04-13

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been considered as promising alternative power sources for many mobile and stationary applications. Compared to the fast hydrogen oxidation at the anode, the sluggish oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the cathode requires high-performance catalysts. Currently, platium (Pt) nanoparticles supported on high surface area carbons remain the best catalysts for ORR. However, both instability and high cost of Pt-based catalysts represent two main obstacles limiting the commercial applications of PEMFCs. The instability of supported Pt catalysts is mainly due to the corrosion of carbon support under operation conditions and the agglomation and detachment of Pt particles, leading to a decrease in catalytic surface areas. Development of corrosion resistant supports and enhancement of the interactions between Pt and supports are two strategies to improve the cathode long-term activity.

  6. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, B.

    1995-05-01

    The goal of the proposed research is to develop novel reactor operating strategies for the catalytic conversion of syngas to transportation grade fuels and oxygenates using near-critical (nc) fluids as reaction media. This will be achieved through systematic investigations aimed at a better fundamental understanding of the physical and chemical rate processes underlying catalytic syngas conversion in nc reaction media. Syngas conversion to fuels and fuel additives on Fe catalysts (Fischer-Tropsch synthesis) was investigated. Specific objectives are to investigate the effects of various nc media, their flow rates and operating pressure on syngas conversion, reactor temperature profiles, product selectivity and catalyst activity in trickle-bed reactors. Solvents that exhibit gas to liquid-like densities with relatively moderate pressure changes (from 25 to 60 bars) at typical syngas conversion temperatures (in the 220-280{degree}C range) will be chosen as reaction media.

  7. Thermodynamics of Strecker Synthesis Reactions During Aqueous Alteration of Carbonaceous Chondrite Parent Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, M. D.; Shock, E. L.

    1992-07-01

    The wide acceptance of the parent body aqueous alteration hypothesis to explain the presence of hydrated silicate minerals on carbonaceous chondrite meteorites has led a number of researchers to investigate the suggestion that some of the organic compounds in these meteorites were produced during the silicate mineral alteration event (Bunch and Chang, 1980; Peltzer et al., 1984; Cronin, 1989; Shock and Schulte, 1990). Much of the interest has focused on the mechanisms of amino acid formation, the most favored of which is Strecker synthesis (Peltzer et al., 1984; Cronin, 1989; Kerridge, 1990). The observation of ammonium-bearing minerals in several carbonaceous chondrites (Zolensky and McSween, 1988), as well as the possible detection of the same minerals on asteroids (King et al., 1992), may allow explicit coupling of Strecker synthesis reactions with mineral alteration by aqueous fluids on meteorite parent bodies. In one path of Strecker synthesis, aldehydes or ketones react with HCN and ammonia in aqueous solution to produce amino acids. In the absence of ammonia in the initial reaction step, Strecker synthesis will produce hydroxy acids. This process has also been invoked to explain the presence of hydroxy acids on carbonaceous chondrites (Peltzer et al., 1984). The potential for Strecker synthesis of amino and hydroxy acids can be evaluated from values of the Gibbs free energy of the overall reactions deltaG (sub)r degrees. At 25 degrees C and 1 bar, calculated values of deltaG (sub)r degrees are negative for many examples of overall Strecker synthesis reactions, indicating that these reactions are energetically favored at these conditions. Oxygen isotope systematics indicate that aqueous alteration of carbonaceous chondrites occurred at temperatures from 0 degrees to ~150 degrees C (Clayton and Mayeda, 1984). Values of deltaG (sub)r degrees for reactions involving aqueous organic compounds can be calculated at elevated temperature using standard state properties from the literature together with equations, data and parameters provided by Shock and Helgeson (1990) and Shock (1992). We have used correlation algorithms developed by Shock and Helgeson (1990) to estimate equation-of-state parameters for aqueous aldehydes and HCN. These data and parameters, together with those for aqueous amino acids from Shock and Helgeson (1990), hydroxy acids from Shock (1992) and NH(sub)3 (aq) from Shock et al. (1989) were used to calculate values of deltaG (sub)r degrees for Strecker synthesis reactions at elevated temperatures. All the reactions we have investigated thus far are energetically favored over the entire range of temperatures considered. These preliminary results suggest that Strecker synthesis during aqueous alteration may account for the amino acids and hydroxy acids observed in carbonaceous chondrites. Testing this hypothesis, however, requires simultaneous solution of mass-action and mass-balance equations, together with constraints on initial activities of aldehydes and HCN in the aqueous phase. The presence of these compounds in interstellar space (Turner, 1989) and their inferred concentrations in comets provide constraints on these variables. Additionally, the coupled equilibria between the amino and hydroxy acids produced by Strecker synethesis allow evaluation of the activity of NH(sub)3 (ag). References: Bunch T. E. and Chang S. (1980) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 44, 1543-1577; Clayton R. N. and Mayeda T. K. (1984) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 67, 151-161; Cronin J. R. (1989) Adv. Space Res. 9, 5964; Kerridge J. F. (1991) Origins of Life 21, 19-29; King T. V. V., Clark R. N., Calvin W. M., Sherman D. M., and Brown R. H. (1992) Science 255, 1551-1553; Peltzer E. T., Bada J. L., Schlesinger G., and Miller S. L. (1984) Adv. Space Res. 4, 69-74; Shock E. L. (1992) Amer. J. Sci., submitted; Shock E. L. and Helgeson H. C. (1990) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 54, 2009-2036; Shock E. L., Helgeson H. C., and Sverjensky D. A. (1989) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 53, 2157-2183; Shock E. L and Schulte M. D. (1990) Nature 343, 728-731; Turner B. E. (1989) Space Sci. Rev. 51, 235-337; Zolensky M. E. and McSween H. Y. (1988) In Meteorites and the Early Solar System (eds J. F. Kerridge and M. S. Matthews), pp. 114-143. Univ. Arizona Press, Arizona.

  8. [Synthesis of carbohydrate related compounds by using aldolase catalyzed reaction].

    PubMed

    Kajimoto, T

    2000-01-01

    Enzymes proceed the reaction with high regio- and stereoselectivity under mild conditions, i.e. in an aqueous medium at room temperature. However, enzymatic reactions that catalyze carbon-carbon bond formation have not been utilized in organic synthesis until recently. We had an interest in an aldolase-catalyzed reaction which proceed carbon-carbon bond formation referred to aldol condensation, by which many bioactive compounds have been rationally synthesized. On the other hand, recent biological studies on cell recognition (cell adhesion) have disclosed the important roles of oligosaccharides on cell surfaces, especially which include glucuronic acid, 3-deoxy-D-manno-oct-2-ulosonic acid (KDO), and sialic acid in the structures e.g., sialyl Lewis X and endotoxins, in differentiation, induction, viral and bacterial infections, and immune response. As well as acidic oligosaccharides, basic ones have been utilized as practical medicines in the clinical level, like acarbose that acts as an amylase inhibitor. Based on these background, we embarked the synthesis of carbohydrate related compounds which can control the interaction between carbohydrates and carbohydrate recognition protein by the use of several aldolases. Azasugars, potent inhibitors toward glycosidases, were synthesized using fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP)-aldolase and other dihdroxyacetonephosphate (DHAP)-dependent aldolases in the key step. Sialyl Lewis X mimetic, peptidic mimetic of RNA having anti-Vero toxin activity, mycestericin D, and aza-idulonic acid were prepared by taking advantage of L-threonine aldolase catalyzed reaction, which afford beta-hydroxy-alpha-L-amino acids. A precursor of KDO, featured acidic sugar of endotoxins was provided by the reaction catalyzed with kynureninase, which generates beta-anion of L-alanine in its active site during the metabolic reaction from kynurenine to anthranilic acid. PMID:10655781

  9. Structure Determination and Excited State Proton Transfer Reaction of 1-NAPHTHOL-AMMONIA Clusters in the S_{1} State Studied by Uv-Ir Mid-Ir Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Shunpei; Miyazaki, Mitsuhiko; Martin, Weiler; Ishikawa, Haruki; Fujii, Masaaki

    2013-06-01

    1-naphthol ammonia clusters have been studied long time as a benchmark system of the excited state proton transfer (ESPT) reactions. Understanding the ESPT reaction in this system has still not been fully established. To detect the cluster size dependence of the S_{1} state properties, many researcher extensively investigated such as emission spectra, lifetime, solvents (ammonia) evaporation pattern. Curiously, cluster structure that is fundamental to discuss the reaction has not been determined for the system. Thus we applied an IR spectroscopy to the S_{1} states of the system to determine the cluster structure and to discuss the minimum size inducing the ionic dissociation of the O-H bond in the S_{1} state. IR spectra were recorded not only the O-H and N-H stretching region (3 {μ}m) but also the skeletal vibrational region (5.5-10 {μ}m). Though O-H and N-H stretching vibrations do not provide useful structural information due to the broadness, the skeletal vibrations hold the sharpness even in the S_{1} states. Changes in the skeletal vibrations due to the ammonia solvation, e.g. C-O stretching and C-O-H bending, will be discussed based on a comparison with theoretical calculations. O. Cheshnovsky and S. Leutwylar, J. Chem. Phys. 1, 4127 (1988). S. K. Kim et al., Chem. Phys. lett. 228, 369 (1994). C. Dedonder-Lardeux et al., Phys. Chem, Chem, Phys. 3, 4316 (2001).

  10. Chitosan nanoparticles synthesis caught in action using microdroplet reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kamat, Vivek; Bodas, Dhananjay; Paknikar, Kishore

    2016-01-01

    The ionic gelation process for the synthesis of chitosan nanoparticles was carried out in microdroplet reactions. The synthesis could be stopped instantaneously at different time points by fast dilution of the reaction mixture with DI water. Using this simple technique, the effect of temperature and reactant concentrations on the size and distribution of the nanoparticles formed, as a function of time, could be investigated by DLS and SEM. Results obtained indicated very early (1–5 s) nucleation of the particles followed by growth. The concentration of reactants, reaction temperature as well as time, were found to (severally and collectively) determine the size of nanoparticles and their distribution. Nanoparticles obtained at 4 °C were smaller (60–80 nm) with narrower size distribution. Simulation experiments using Comsol software showed that at 4 °C ‘droplet synthesis’ of nanoparticles gets miniaturised to ‘droplet-core synthesis’, which is being reported for the first time. PMID:26924801

  11. Facet-dependent solar ammonia synthesis of BiOCl nanosheets via a proton-assisted electron transfer pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Shang, Jian; Shi, Jingu; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-01-01

    Under the pressure of a fossil fuels shortage and global climate change, solar ammonia synthesis and the need to develop N2 fixation under mild conditions is becoming more urgent need; however, their intrinsic mechanisms still remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that the kinetic inertia of N2 can be overcome using oxygen vacancies (OVs) of BiOCl as the catalytic centers to create lower energy molecular steps, which are amendable for the solar light driven N-N triple bond cleavage via a proton-assisted electron transfer pathway. Moreover, the distinct structures of OVs on different BiOCl facets strongly determine the N2 fixation pathways by influencing both the adsorption structure and the activation level of N2. The fixation of terminal end-on bound N2 on the OVs of BiOCl {001} facets follows an asymmetric distal mode by selectively generating NH3, while the reduction of side-on bridging N2 on the OVs of BiOCl {010} facets is more energetically favorable in a symmetric alternating mode to produce N2H4 as the main intermediate.Under the pressure of a fossil fuels shortage and global climate change, solar ammonia synthesis and the need to develop N2 fixation under mild conditions is becoming more urgent need; however, their intrinsic mechanisms still remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that the kinetic inertia of N2 can be overcome using oxygen vacancies (OVs) of BiOCl as the catalytic centers to create lower energy molecular steps, which are amendable for the solar light driven N-N triple bond cleavage via a proton-assisted electron transfer pathway. Moreover, the distinct structures of OVs on different BiOCl facets strongly determine the N2 fixation pathways by influencing both the adsorption structure and the activation level of N2. The fixation of terminal end-on bound N2 on the OVs of BiOCl {001} facets follows an asymmetric distal mode by selectively generating NH3, while the reduction of side-on bridging N2 on the OVs of BiOCl {010} facets is more energetically favorable in a symmetric alternating mode to produce N2H4 as the main intermediate. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Other experimental details, additional SEM and TEM images, X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), and additional data. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr07380d

  12. Synthesis of ammonia directly from wet air using Sm0.6Ba0.4Fe0.8Cu0.2O3-? as the catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lan, Rong; Alkhazmi, Khaled A; Amar, Ibrahim A; Tao, Shanwen

    2015-10-10

    Ammonia was directly synthesised from wet air at 400 C at atmospheric pressure. A new perovskite Sm0.6Ba0.4Fe0.8Cu0.2O3-? was used as the electrocatalyst for electrochemical synthesis of ammonia. Ammonia formation rates of 9.19 10(-7) mol s(-1) m(-2) and 1.53 10(-6) mol s(-1) m(-2) were obtained at 400 C when wet air and wet N2 were introduced into a simple single chamber reactor, respectively. The perovskite catalyst is low cost compared to the previously reported Ru/MgO and Pt/C catalysts. This experiment indicates that ammonia can be directly synthesised from wet air, a very promising simple technology for sustainable synthesis of ammonia in the future. PMID:26212655

  13. Pressure-reaction synthesis of titanium composite materials

    DOEpatents

    Oden, Laurance L.; Ochs, Thomas L.; Turner, Paul C.

    1993-01-01

    A pressure-reaction synthesis process for producing increased stiffness and improved strength-to-weight ratio titanium metal matrix composite materials comprising exothermically reacting a titanium powder or titanium powder alloys with non-metal powders or gas selected from the group consisting of C, B, N, BN, B.sub.4 C, SiC and Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 at temperatures from about 900.degree. to about 1300.degree. C., for about 5 to about 30 minutes in a forming die under pressures of from about 1000 to 5000 psi.

  14. Photosynthesis of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Mallow, W.A.

    1984-09-24

    This study has demonstrated the technical feasibility of producing ammonia using an innovative technique of combining air, water and sunlight. The technique involves passing moist air over a catalyst-doped, open-celled silica foam bed illuminated by concentrated sunlight. A catalytic reaction results in tounts of ammonia. The work summarized in this report included testing of a pilot (small scale) ammonia production system located on the roof of a Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) Laboratory located in San Antonio, Texas. The system consisted of a catalyst foam bed located in a glass tube about three meters long and 5 centimeters in diameter and mounted on the focal line of a parabolic trough solar collector focused at the sun. The primary active ingredient in the catalyst was titanium dioxide. Moist air was blown through the glass tube, over illuminated catalyst foam bed. A catalytic reaction took place in the foam bed resulting in the production of ammonia gas. The ammonia gas was bubbled through a water scrubber where the ammonia was dissolved. The ammonia concentration in the scrubber water was then measured using chemiluminescence and spectrophotometry techniques to determine the ammonia production rate. Thirty-one tests were conducted in the roof top facility. A number of important process parameters were evaluated. The ammonia production rate from these tests varied from several milligrams per hour to a few micrograms per hour. The tests showed that ammonia production was possible although the yields were relatively low. Several aspects of the process could be improved to increase the yield rates. Specifically, better techniques for illuminating the catalyst with concentrated sunlight and for providing moisture at the catalyst surface should enhance the ammonia production rate. 13 references, 7 figures, 1 table.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization and Reactions of (Azidoethynyl)trimethylsilane.

    PubMed

    Banert, Klaus; Hagedorn, Manfred; Wu, Zhuang; Zeng, Xiaoqing

    2015-01-01

    Synthesis of azido(trimethylsilyl)acetylene (6) was performed by treating the iodonium salt 5 with highly soluble hexadecyltributylphosphonium azide (QN?) at -40 C. Although this product is very unstable, it can nevertheless be trapped by the click reaction with cyclooctyne to give the corresponding 1,2,3-triazole, and also directly characterized by H- and (13)C-NMR data as well as IR-spectra, which were measured in solution at low temperature and in the gas phase. The thermal or photochemical decay of azide 6 leads to cyano(trimethylsilyl)carbene. This is demonstrated not only by quantum chemical calculations, but also by the trapping reactions with the help of isobutene. PMID:26633330

  16. Synthesis and reactions of C-phosphanylated thiazol-2-thiones.

    PubMed

    Begum, I; Schnakenburg, G; Streubel, R

    2016-02-21

    The facile regioselective synthesis of the P(iii) substituted thiazol-2-thione 2 is presented. Reaction of 2 with hydrogenperoxide-urea, elemental sulfur and selenium resulted in P(v) chalcogenide thiazol-2-thiones 3-5. All compounds were characterized using (31)P, (1)H, (13)C NMR, IR and elemental analyses and, additionally, by the single-crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Oxidative desulfurization of the 5-phosphinoylated thiazol-2-thione 3 using hydrogenperoxide led to the first C-phosphanoyl substituted thiazolium salt (6). Deprotonation of 6 and in situ reaction with the cyclooctadiene rhodium(i) chloride dimer yielded thiazol-2-ylidene rhodium(i) complex 7 which was confirmed by NMR spectroscopy and ESI-MS spectrometry. PMID:26752502

  17. Isocyanide-Based Multicomponent Reactions for the Synthesis of Heterocycles.

    PubMed

    Vradi, Andrs; Palmer, Travis C; Notis Dardashti, Rebecca; Majumdar, Susruta

    2015-01-01

    Multicomponent reactions (MCRs) are extremely popular owing to their facile execution, high atom-efficiency and the high diversity of products. MCRs can be used to access various heterocycles and highly functionalized scaffolds, and thus have been invaluable tools in total synthesis, drug discovery and bioconjugation. Traditional isocyanide-based MCRs utilize an external nucleophile attacking the reactive nitrilium ion, the key intermediate formed in the reaction of the imine and the isocyanide. However, when reactants with multiple nucleophilic groups (bisfunctional reactants) are used in the MCR, the nitrilium intermediate can be trapped by an intramolecular nucleophilic attack to form various heterocycles. The implications of nitrilium trapping along with widely applied conventional isocyanide-based MCRs in drug design are discussed in this review. PMID:26703561

  18. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low pressure sodium lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, D.; Anderson, A. J.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Fremont) grown in hydroponic culture under 24-hour continuous irradiation at 560 to 580 micromoles per square meter per second from either metalhalide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), or low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps reached maturity in 70 days. Grain yields were similar under all three lamps, although LPS-grown plants lodged at maturity. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) with lesser activity were detected in all extracts of leaf, inflorescence, and stem. Ammonia-lyase activities increased with age of the plant, and plants grown under the LPS lamp displayed PAL and TAL activities lower than wheat cultured under MH and HPS radiation. Greenhouse solar-grown wheat had the highest PAL and TAL activities. Lignin content of LPS-grown wheat was also significantly reduced from that of plants grown under MH or HPS lamps or in the greenhouse, showing a correlation with the reduced PAL and TAL activities. Ratios of far red-absorbing phytochrome to total phytochrome were similar for all three lamps, but the data do not yet warrant a conclusion about specific wavelengths missing from the LPS lamps that might have induced PAL and TAL activities in plants under the other lamps.

  19. Ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders prepared by sol-gel synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazio, E.; Hjiri, M.; Dhahri, R.; El Mir, L.; Sabatino, G.; Barreca, F.; Neri, F.; Leonardi, S. G.; Pistone, A.; Neri, G.

    2015-03-01

    V-doped ZnO:Ca nanopowders with different V loading were prepared by sol-gel synthesis and successive drying in ethanol under supercritical conditions. Characterization data of nanopowders annealed at 700 °C in air, revealed that they have the wurtzite structure. Raman features of V-doped ZnO:Ca samples were found to be substantially modified with respect to pure ZnO or binary ZnO:Ca samples, which indicate the substitution of vanadium ions in the ZnO lattice. The ammonia sensing properties of V-doped ZnO:Ca thick films were also investigated. The results obtained demonstrate the possibility of a fine tuning of the sensing characteristics of ZnO-based sensors by Ca and V doping. In particular, their combined effect has brought to an enhanced response towards NH3 compared to bare ZnO and binary V-ZnO and Ca-ZnO samples. Raman investigation suggested that the presence of Ca play a key role in enhancing the sensor response in these ternary composite nanomaterials.

  20. Facet-dependent solar ammonia synthesis of BiOCl nanosheets via a proton-assisted electron transfer pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Hao; Shang, Jian; Shi, Jingu; Zhao, Kun; Zhang, Lizhi

    2016-01-21

    Under the pressure of a fossil fuels shortage and global climate change, solar ammonia synthesis and the need to develop N2 fixation under mild conditions is becoming more urgent need; however, their intrinsic mechanisms still remain unclear. Herein, we demonstrate that the kinetic inertia of N2 can be overcome using oxygen vacancies (OVs) of BiOCl as the catalytic centers to create lower energy molecular steps, which are amendable for the solar light driven N-N triple bond cleavage via a proton-assisted electron transfer pathway. Moreover, the distinct structures of OVs on different BiOCl facets strongly determine the N2 fixation pathways by influencing both the adsorption structure and the activation level of N2. The fixation of terminal end-on bound N2 on the OVs of BiOCl {001} facets follows an asymmetric distal mode by selectively generating NH3, while the reduction of side-on bridging N2 on the OVs of BiOCl {010} facets is more energetically favorable in a symmetric alternating mode to produce N2H4 as the main intermediate. PMID:26701815

  1. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weydert, M.

    1993-04-01

    Compounds (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me[sub 3]Si). Reactions of (MeC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 3]U with (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 2]Hg results in formation of (RC[sub 5]H[sub 4])[sub 4]U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  2. Tris(Cyclopentadienyl)Uranium-t-Butyl: Synthesis, reactions, and mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Weydert, M.

    1993-04-01

    Compounds (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(t-Bu) were prepared for R = H, Me, Et. Their decomposition products in aromatic solvents are consistent with a radical decomposition pathway induced by solvent-assisted U-C bond homolysis. NMR was used to study the reactions of (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}UCl with t-BuLi (R = t-Bu, Me{sub 3}Si). Reactions of (MeC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U(t-Bu) with Lewis bases and fluorocarbons were studied. Analogous reaction chemistry between (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}ThX systems and t-BuLi was also studied, and reactivity differences between U and Th are discussed. Synthesis of sterically crowded (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 4}U compounds is next considered. Reaction of the trivalent (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 3}U with (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 2}Hg results in formation of (RC{sub 5}H{sub 4}){sub 4}U. Steric congestion, cyclopentadienyl ligand exchange, and electron transfer are discussed. (DLC)

  3. Synthesis of DiamidoPyrrolyl Molybdenum Complexes Relevant to Reduction of Dinitrogen to Ammonia

    PubMed Central

    Chin, J. M.; Mller, P.

    2010-01-01

    A potentially useful trianionic ligand for the reduction of dinitrogen catalytically by molybdenum complexes is one in which one of the arms in a [(RNCH2CH2)3N]3? ligand is replaced by a 2-mesitylpyrrolyl-?-methyl arm, i.e., [(RNCH2CH2)2NCH2(2-MesitylPyrrolyl)]3? (R = C6F5, 3,5-Me2C6H3, or 3,5-t-Bu2C6H3). Compounds have been prepared that contain the ligand in which R = C6F5 ([C6F5N)2Pyr]3?); they include [(C6F5N)2Pyr]Mo(NMe2), [(C6F5N)2Pyr]MoCl, [(C6F5N)2Pyr]MoOTf, and [(C6F5N)2Pyr]MoN. Compounds that contain the ligand in which R = 3,5-t-Bu2C6H3 ([Art-BuN)2Pyr]3?) include {[(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo(N2)}Na(15-crown-5), {[(Art-Bu N)2Pyr]Mo(N2)}[NBu4], [(Art-Bu N)2Pyr]Mo(N2) (?NN = 2012 cm?1 in C6D6), {[(Art-Bu N)2Pyr]Mo(NH3)}BPh4, and [(Art-Bu N)2Pyr]Mo(CO). X-ray studies are reported for [(C6F5N)2Pyr]Mo(NMe2), [(C6F5N)2Pyr]MoCl, and [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]MoN. The [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo(N2)0/? reversible couple is found at ?1.96 V (in PhF versus Cp2Fe+/0), but the [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo(N2)+/0 couple is irreversible. Reduction of {[(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo(NH3)}BPh4 under Ar at approximately ?1.68 V at a scan rate of 900 mV/sec is not reversible. Ammonia in [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo(NH3) can be substituted for dinitrogen in about 2 hours if 10 equivalents of BPh3 are present to trap the ammonia that is released. [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo-N=NH is a key intermediate in the proposed catalytic reduction of dinitrogen that could not be prepared. Dinitrogen exchange studies in [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo(N2) suggest that steric hindrance by the ligand may be insufficient to protect decomposition of [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo-N=NH through a variety of pathways. Three attempts to reduce dinitrogen catalytically with [(Art-BuN)2Pyr]Mo(N) as a catalyst yielded an average of 1.02 0.12 equivalents of NH3. PMID:20799738

  4. Synthesis of 2-aminoquinoline-3-carboamides and pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolin-4-ones through copper-catalyzed one-pot multicomponent reactions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Ying; Guo, Xiao-Jie; Fan, Xue-Sen

    2015-01-01

    Pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolinones have attracted considerable interest from both chemical and medicinal scientists as these compounds display remarkable antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antiallergy, analgesic, and antioxidant activities. The importance of pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolinones has stimulated enormous efforts to develop efficient methodologies for their synthesis. Herein, we disclose a novel synthetic protocol toward pyrimido[4,5-b]quinolin-4-ones through Cu(OAc)2 -catalyzed one-pot four-component reactions of 2-bromobenzaldehydes, aqueous ammonia, cyanoacetamides and aldehydes. The synthetic procedure combines amination/condensation/cyclization/dehydrogenation reactions in one pot, allowing synthesis of complex compounds in a simple and practical manner. Compared with literature procedures, the synthetic strategies developed herein showed advantages such as readily available and economically sustainable starting materials, structural diversity of products, good functional group tolerance, and a remarkably simple operation process. PMID:25318983

  5. Production of N-13 ammonia using a solid graphite target and the {sup 12}C (d,n) {sup 13}N nuclear reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Hughey, B.J.; Shefer, R.E.; Klinkowstein, R.E.

    1994-12-31

    With the appearance of new low energy accelerators dedicated to the production of short-lived isotopes, comes new approaches to the production of radiopharmaceuticals. The nuclear reaction {sup 12}C(d,n){sup 13}N was chosen for this study because of its low energy threshold (0.33 MeV) and therefore compatibility with these low energy accelerators. Low porosity graphite was chosen as the target material; irradiated graphite has been used since 1940 to extract N-13 for biological studies (4-8) but in most cases the activity was obtained as N-13 nitrogen. Kjeldahl digestion and microwave irradiation have also been applied to obtain N-13 ammonia. The authors studied the extraction of N-13 nitrogen from a solid graphite target after deuteron beam irradiation and heated in an atmosphere of pure oxygen, the authors identified the species formed and converted them to N-13 ammonia.

  6. Stimulation of natriuretic peptide receptor C attenuates accumulation of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide synthesis in ammonia-treated astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Skowro?ska, Marta; Zieli?ska, Magdalena; Albrecht, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Oxidative and nitrosative stress contribute to ammonia-induced astrocytic dysfunction in hepatic encephalopathy. Treatment of cultured astrocytes with 5 mmol/L ammonium chloride ('ammonia') increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including the toxic NADPH oxidase reaction product, O(2)(-). Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), natriuretic peptide C and a selective natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-C ligand, cANP((4-23),) each decreased the total ROS content both in control cells and cells treated with ammonia. However, attenuation of O(2)(-) accumulation by ANP and cANP((4-23),) was observed in ammonia-treated cells only and the effect of cANP((4-23)) was decreased when the NADPH oxidase-regulatory protein G(i?-2) was blocked with a specific anti-G(i?-2) antibody. Although in contrast to ANP, cANP((4-23)) did not elevate the cGMP content in control astrocytes, it decreased cAMP content and reduced the expression of G(i?-2), the NADPH oxidase-regulatory protein. The results show the presence of functional NPR-C in astrocytes, activation of which (i) attenuates basal ROS production, and (ii) prevents excessive accumulation of the toxic ROS species, O(2)(-) by ammonia. Ammonia, ANP and cANP((4-23)) added separately, each stimulated formation of NO(x) (nitrates + nitrites) which was associated with up-regulation of the activity [cANP((4-23))] or/and expression (ammonia) of the endothelial isoform of nitric oxide synthase. However, the ammonia-induced increase of NO(x) was not augmented by co-addition of ANP, and was reduced to the control level by co-addition of cANP((4-23)) , indicating that activation of NPR-C may also reduce nitrosative stress. Future hepatic encephalopathy therapy might include the use of cANP((4-23)) or other NPR-C agonists to control oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by ammonia. PMID:20854429

  7. Ammonia causes decreased brain monoamines in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ronan, P.J.; Gaikowski, M.P.; Hamilton, S.J.; Buhl, K.J.; Summers, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Hyperammonemia, arising from variety of disorders, leads to severe neurological dysfunction. The mechanisms of ammonia toxicity in brain are not completely understood. This study investigated the effects of ammonia on monoaminergic systems in brains of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas). Fish serve as a good model system to investigate hyperammonemic effects on brain function since no liver manipulations are necessary to increase endogenous ammonia concentrations. Using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, monoamines and some associated metabolites were measured from whole brain homogenate. Adult males were exposed for 48??h to six different concentrations of ammonia (0.01-2.36??mg/l unionized) which bracketed the 96-h LC50 for this species. Ammonia concentration-dependent decreases were found for the catecholamines (norepinephrine and dopamine) and the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT). After an initial increase in the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan it too decreased with increasing ammonia concentrations. There were also significant increases in the 5-HIAA/5-HT and DOPAC/DA ratios, often used as measures of turnover. There were no changes in epinephrine (Epi) or monoamine catabolites (DOPAC, 5-HIAA) at any ammonia concentrations tested. Results suggest that ammonia causes decreased synthesis while also causing increased release and degradation. Increased release may underlie behavioral reactions to ammonia exposure in fish. This study adds weight to a growing body of evidence demonstrating that ammonia leads to dysfunctional monoaminergic systems in brain which may underlie neurological symptoms associated with human disorders such as hepatic encephalopathy. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Reactions of coordinated dinitrogen. 8. Formation of ammonia by protonation of a molybdenum-dinitrogen complex and isolation and characterization of the molybdenum-containing product

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, J.A.; George, T.A.

    1980-09-10

    This is the first reported conversion of metal-coordinated dinitrogen into ammonia in which the fate of the metal has been determined. This reaction is shown in the following equation, where triphos = PhP(CH/sub 2/CH/sub 2/PPh/sub 2/)/sub 2/ and L = PPh/sub 3/:2Mo(N/sub 2/)/sub 2/(triphos)(L) + 8HBr ..-->.. 2NH/sub 4/Br + 2MoBr/sub 3/(triphos) + 3N/sub 2/ + 2L. The metal complex which is a new subclass of bis(dinitrogen) complexes of molybdenum, reacted in tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution with anhydrous hydrogen bromide to produce ammonium bromide. No hydrazine or hydrazinium bromide was detected among the reaction products. Ammonium bromide was detected by infrared spectroscopy among the reaction products after solvent and excess HBr had been removed in vacuo. The yield of ammonia was determined quantitatively by the indophenol method after either aqueous, nonaqueous (ethanol), or two-phase (dichloromethane-water) extraction of ammonium bromide from the residue. The molybdenum-containing product slowly decomposed during the dichloromethane-water extraction step. Isolation of pure MoBr/sub 3/(triphos) was carried out in a separate experiment in which only N/sub 2/ evolution was measured. All volatiles were removed from the reaction vessel and the resulting yellow solid was washed with ethanol and dried. Its identity was confirmed by elemental analysis.

  9. Peptide Bond Synthesis by a Mechanism Involving an Enzymatic Reaction and a Subsequent Chemical Reaction.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tomoko; Hashimoto, Yoshiteru; Zhuang, Ye; Ge, Yin; Kumano, Takuto; Kobayashi, Michihiko

    2016-01-22

    We recently reported that an amide bond is unexpectedly formed by an acyl-CoA synthetase (which catalyzes the formation of a carbon-sulfur bond) when a suitable acid and l-cysteine are used as substrates. DltA, which is homologous to the adenylation domain of nonribosomal peptide synthetase, belongs to the same superfamily of adenylate-forming enzymes, which includes many kinds of enzymes, including the acyl-CoA synthetases. Here, we demonstrate that DltA synthesizes not only N-(d-alanyl)-l-cysteine (a dipeptide) but also various oligopeptides. We propose that this enzyme catalyzes peptide synthesis by the following unprecedented mechanism: (i) the formation of S-acyl-l-cysteine as an intermediate via its "enzymatic activity" and (ii) subsequent "chemical" S ? N acyl transfer in the intermediate, resulting in peptide formation. Step ii is identical to the corresponding reaction in native chemical ligation, a method of chemical peptide synthesis, whereas step i is not. To the best of our knowledge, our discovery of this peptide synthesis mechanism involving an enzymatic reaction and a subsequent chemical reaction is the first such one to be reported. This new process yields peptides without the use of a thioesterified fragment, which is required in native chemical ligation. Together with these findings, the same mechanism-dependent formation of N-acyl compounds by other members of the above-mentioned superfamily demonstrated that all members most likely form peptide/amide compounds by using this novel mechanism. Each member enzyme acts on a specific substrate; thus, not only the corresponding peptides but also new types of amide compounds can be formed. PMID:26586916

  10. Synthesis and evaluation of novel biochar-based and metal oxide-based catalysts for removal of model tar (toluene), ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from simulated producer gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhandari, Pushpak

    Gasification is a thermochemical conversion process in which carbonaceous feedstock is gasified in a controlled atmosphere to generate producer gas. The producer gas is used for production of heat, power, fuels and chemicals. Various contaminants such as tars, NH3, and H2S in producer gas possess many problems due to their corrosive nature and their ability to clog and deactivate catalysts. In this study, several catalysts were synthesized, characterized, and tested for removal of three contaminants (toluene (model tar), NH3, and H2S) from the biomass-generated producer gas. Biochar, a catalyst, was generated from gasification of switchgrass. Activated carbon and acidic surface activated carbon were synthesized using ultrasonication method from biochar. Acidic surface was synthesized by coating activated carbon with dilute acid. Mixed metal oxide catalysts were synthesized from hydrotalcite precursors using novel synthesis technique using microwave and ultrasonication. Surface area of activated carbon (900 m2/g) was significantly higher than that of its precursor biochar (60 m2/g). Surface area of metal oxide catalyst was approximately 180 m2/g after calcination. Biochar, activated carbon, and acidic surface activated carbon showed toluene removal efficiencies of approximately 78, 88, and 88 %, respectively, when the catalysts were tested individually with toluene in the presence of producer gas at 800 C. The toluene removal efficiencies increased to 86, 91, and 97 % using biochar, activated carbon and acidic surface activated carbon, respectively in the presence of NH3 and H2S in the producer gas. Increase in toluene removal efficiencies in presence of NH3 and H2S indicates that NH3 and H 2S play a role in toluene reforming reactions during simultaneous removal of contaminants. Toluene removal efficiency for mixed metal oxide was approximately 83%. Ammonia adsorption capacities were 0.008 g NH3/g catalyst for biochar and 0.03g NH3/g catalyst for activated carbon, acidic surface activated carbon, and mixed metal oxide catalyst. H2S adsorption capacities were 0.008 g H2S/g catalyst for all biochar-based catalysts and 0.01g H2S/g catalyst for mixed metal oxide. Thus, ultrasonication and microwave technology offer improved benefits for synthesis of high-performance catalysts intended for use in biomass-generated producer gas upgrading. High surface area biochar-based and metal-oxide based catalysts have high efficiencies for simultaneous removal of toluene, NH3, and H2S.

  11. Ammonia from iron(II) reduction of nitrite and the Strecker synthesis: do iron(II) and cyanide interfere with each other?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Summers, D. P.; Lerner, N.

    1998-01-01

    The question of whether the production of ammonia, from the reduction of nitrite by iron(II), is compatible with its use in the Strecker synthesis of amino acids, or whether the iron and the cyanide needed for the Strecker synthesis interfere with each other, is addressed. Results show that the presence of iron(II) appears to have little, or no, effect on the Strecker synthesis. The presence of cyanide does interfere with reduction of nitrite, but the reduction proceeds at cyanide/iron ratios of less than 4:1. At ratios of about 2:1 and less there is only a small effect. The reduction of nitrite and the Strecker can be combined to proceed in each other's presence, to yield glycine from a mixture of nitrite, Fe+2, formaldehyde, and cyanide.

  12. Diastereoselective multicomponent reaction in water: synthesis of 2-azapyrrolizidine alkaloid analogues.

    PubMed

    Rajarathinam, Balakrishnan; Vasuki, Gnanasambandam

    2012-10-19

    Synthesis of the 2-aza analogues of the pyrrolizidine alkaloid motif with two contiguous stereocenters has been achieved with high regio-, chemo-, and diastereoselectivity by an innovative multicomponent reaction in water. This elegant tactic has integrated the principles of privileged substructure-based Diversity Oriented Synthesis (pDOS) and Biology Oriented Synthesis (BIOS) to access a biologically relevant scaffold. PMID:23025468

  13. Synthesis of Ethers via Reaction of Carbanions and Monoperoxyacetals

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Although transfer of electrophilic alkoxyl (“RO+”) from organic peroxides to organometallics offers a complement to traditional methods for etherification, application has been limited by constraints associated with peroxide reactivity and stability. We now demonstrate that readily prepared tetrahydropyranyl monoperoxyacetals react with sp3 and sp2 organolithium and organomagnesium reagents to furnish moderate to high yields of ethers. The method is successfully applied to the synthesis of alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and cyclopropyl ethers, mixed O,O-acetals, and S,S,O-orthoesters. In contrast to reactions of dialkyl and alkyl/silyl peroxides, the displacements of monoperoxyacetals provide no evidence for alkoxy radical intermediates. At the same time, the high yields observed for transfer of primary, secondary, or tertiary alkoxides, the latter involving attack on neopentyl oxygen, are inconsistent with an SN2 mechanism. Theoretical studies suggest a mechanism involving Lewis acid promoted insertion of organometallics into the O–O bond. PMID:26560686

  14. Mechanism of a chemical classic: quantum chemical investigation of the autocatalyzed reaction of the serendipitous whler synthesis of urea.

    PubMed

    Tsipis, Constantinos A; Karipidis, Paraskevas A

    2003-02-26

    The detailed reaction pathways for the ammonium cyanate transformation into urea (Whler's reaction) in the gas phase, in solution, and in the solid state have exhaustively been explored by means of first-principles quantum chemical calculations at the B3LYP level of theory using the 6-31G(d,p) basis set. This serendipitous synthesis of urea is predicted to proceed in two steps; the first step involves the decomposition of the ammonium cyanate to ammonia and isocyanic or cyanic acid, and the second one, which is the main reaction step (and probably the rate-determining step), involves the interaction of NH(3) with either isocyanic or cyanic acid. Several alternative pathways were envisaged for the main reaction step of Whler's reaction in a vacuum involving the formation of "four-center" transition states. Modeling Whler's reaction in aqueous solution and in the solid state, it was found that the addition of NH(3) to both acids is assisted (autocatalyzed) by the active participation of extra H(2)O and/or NH(3) molecules, through a preassociative, cooperative, and hydrogen-transfer relay mechanism involving the formation of "six-center" or even "eight-center" transition states. The most energetically economic path of the rate-determining step of Whler's reaction is that of the addition of NH(3) to the C=N double bond of isocyanic acid, directly affording urea. An alternative pathway corresponding to the anti-addition of ammonia to the Ctbd1;N triple bond of cyanic acid, yielding urea's tautomer HN=C(OH)NH(2), seems to be another possibility. In the last case, urea is formed through a prototropic tautomerization of its enolic form. The energies of the reactants, products, and all intermediates along with the barrier heights for each reaction path have been calculated at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory. The geometry optimization and characterization of all of the stationary points found on the potential energy hypersurfaces was performed at the same level of theory. PMID:12590561

  15. A stereoselective synthesis of (-)-viridiofungin A utilizing a TiCl(4)-promoted asymmetric multicomponent reaction.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arun K; Kass, Jorden

    2012-01-20

    A stereoselective synthesis of (-)-viridiofungin A is described. The convergent synthesis utilized a unique highly diastereoselective multicomponent reaction between optically active phenyldihydrofuran and an ?-ketoester to provide two chiral centers including a quarternary carbon center in a single step. Other key steps include an acyloxycarbonium ion-mediated tetrahydrofuran ring-opening reaction and a Julia-Kocienski olefination. PMID:22195730

  16. A Stereoselective Synthesis of (?)-Viridiofungin A Utilizing a TiCl4-Promoted Asymmetric Multicomponent Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arun K.; Kass, Jorden

    2012-01-01

    A stereoselective synthesis of (?)-Viridiofungin A is described. The convergent synthesis utilized a unique highly diastereoselective multicomponent reaction between optically active phenyldihydrofuran and an ?-ketoester to provide two chiral centers including a quarternary carbon center in a single step. Other key steps include an acyloxycarbonum ion-mediated tetrahydrofuran ring-opening reaction and a Julia-Kocienski olefination. PMID:22195730

  17. Enantioselective and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reactions of vinyl sulfones: total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Beaudry, Christopher M

    2014-09-22

    The total synthesis of (+)-cavicularin is described. The synthesis features an enantio- and regioselective pyrone Diels-Alder reaction of a vinyl sulfone to construct the cyclophane architecture of the natural product. The Diels-Alder substrate was prepared by a regioselective one-pot three-component Suzuki reaction of a non-symmetric dibromoarene. PMID:25082270

  18. Computational studies of ammonia channel function in glutamine 5'-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang S; Roitberg, Adrian E; Richards, Nigel G J

    2009-12-29

    Glutamine 5'-phosphoribosylpyrophosphate amidotransferase (GPATase) catalyzes the synthesis of 5'-phosphoribosylamine in a reaction that involves the translocation of ammonia along an intramolecular tunnel linking the two active sites of the enzyme. We now report a locally enhanced sampling (LES) strategy for modeling ammonia transfer between the active sites of Escherichia coli GPATase in its active conformation. Our calculations demonstrate that the ammonia channel in GPATase is best regarded as a "pipe" through which ammonia travels in the absence of an external "driving" potential. This combined LES/PMF computational approach, which offers a straightforward alternative to steered molecular dynamics simulations in studies of substrate channeling, also provides new insights into the molecular basis of the reduced ammonia transfer efficiency exhibited by the L415A GPATase mutant. PMID:19921932

  19. Method for polymer synthesis in a reaction well

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, Thomas M.

    1998-01-01

    A method of synthesis for building a polymer chain, oligonucleotides in particular, by sequentially adding monomer units to at least one solid support for growing and immobilizing a polymer chain thereon in a liquid reagent solution. The method includes the step of: A) depositing a liquid reagent in a reaction well (26) in contact with at least one solid support and at least one monomer unit of the polymer chain affixed to the solid support. The well (26) includes at least one orifice (74) extending into the well (26), and is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution in the well (26) to enable polymer chain growth on the solid support. The method further includes the step of B) expelling the reagent solution from the well (26), while retaining the polymer chain therein. This is accomplished by applying a first gas pressure to the reaction well such that a pressure differential between the first gas pressure and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit (80) of the orifice (74) exceeds a predetermined amount sufficient to overcome the capillary liquid seal and expel the reagent solution from the well (26) through the orifice exit (80).

  20. Method for polymer synthesis in a reaction well

    DOEpatents

    Brennan, T.M.

    1998-09-29

    A method of synthesis is described for building a polymer chain, oligonucleotides in particular, by sequentially adding monomer units to at least one solid support for growing and immobilizing a polymer chain thereon in a liquid reagent solution. The method includes the step of: (A) depositing a liquid reagent in a reaction well in contact with at least one solid support and at least one monomer unit of the polymer chain affixed to the solid support. The well includes at least one orifice extending into the well, and is of a size and dimension to form a capillary liquid seal to retain the reagent solution in the well to enable polymer chain growth on the solid support. The method further includes the step of (B) expelling the reagent solution from the well, while retaining the polymer chain therein. This is accomplished by applying a first gas pressure to the reaction well such that a pressure differential between the first gas pressure and a second gas pressure exerted on an exit of the orifice exceeds a predetermined amount sufficient to overcome the capillary liquid seal and expel the reagent solution from the well through the orifice exit. 9 figs.

  1. Solid-state reaction synthesis of boron carbonitride nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Libin; Chen, Yongjun; Luo, Lijie

    2010-07-01

    In this study, a simple route for synthesis of ternary boron carbonitride (B-C-N) nanotubes was demonstrated, by heating ball-milled mixture powders of amorphous boron and activated charcoal with a small amount of iron oxide (Fe2O3) at 1000-1200C under a mixture gas flow of nitrogen (N2) and hydrogen (H2). The reduction of Fe2O3 by H2 at 650C produced Fe nanoparticles, playing the role of a catalyst during the nanotube growth. The nanotubes synthesized at 1100C exhibit two morphologies. One is a bamboo-like structure with thick compartments. The other is a quasi-cylindrical structure with thin or disappearing compartments. The average diameter of the nanotubes is about 80 nm. It is found that the reaction temperature has a great influence on the morphology, diameter and yield of the B-C-N nanotubes. Higher temperature (1200C) is favorable for the formation of quasi-cylindrical nanotubes with larger diameters, while lower temperature (1000C) enhances the formation of bamboo-like nanotubes with smaller diameters; the yield of nanotubes decreases with the rise of reaction temperature. The nanotubes grow via a combination mechanism of solid-liquid-solid (SLS) and vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) models.

  2. Reaction synthesis of Ni-Al based particle composite coatings

    SciTech Connect

    SUSAN,DONALD F.; MISIOLEK,WOICECK Z.; MARDER,ARNOLD R.

    2000-02-11

    Electrodeposited metal matrix/metal particle composite (EMMC) coatings were produced with a nickel matrix and aluminum particles. By optimizing the process parameters, coatings were deposited with 20 volume percent aluminum particles. Coating morphology and composition were characterized using light optical microscopy (LOM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA). Differential thermal analysis (DTA) was employed to study reactive phase formation. The effect of heat treatment on coating phase formation was studied in the temperature range 415 to 1,000 C. Long-time exposure at low temperature results in the formation of several intermetallic phases at the Ni matrix/Al particle interfaces and concentrically around the original Al particles. Upon heating to the 500--600 C range, the aluminum particles react with the nickel matrix to form NiAl islands within the Ni matrix. When exposed to higher temperatures (600--1,000 C), diffusional reaction between NiAl and nickel produces ({gamma})Ni{sub 3}Al. The final equilibrium microstructure consists of blocks of ({gamma}{prime})Ni{sub 3}Al in a {gamma}(Ni) solid solution matrix, with small pores also present. Pore formation is explained based on local density changes during intermetallic phase formation and microstructural development is discussed with reference to reaction synthesis of bulk nickel aluminides.

  3. On the mechanism of electrochemical ammonia synthesis on the Ru catalyst.

    PubMed

    Back, Seoin; Jung, Yousung

    2016-03-23

    We theoretically investigate the electrochemical N2 reduction reaction (NRR) mechanism to produce NH3 on the Ru catalyst. All possible N-N dissociation steps during the reduction processes were evaluated along with the conventional associative and dissociative pathways. Based on the calculated free energy diagrams, it is revealed that the kinetically facile intermediate dissociative pathways during the NRR require a thermodynamic limiting potential (-0.71 V) similar to the associative pathway (-0.68 V), although the initial dissociative pathway as in the Haber-Bosch process has a substantial kinetic barrier for the N-N bond dissociation. The competitive hydrogen evolution is found to be a major hurdle for achieving a high efficiency for the electrochemical nitrogen reduction. In the low overpotential region, the hydrogen adsorption is thermodynamically more favorable than the protonation of N2, thereby reducing the number of active sites for the N2 activation. A comparison of free energies in the presence of different H-coverages on the Ru further demonstrates that the H-coverage can significantly increase the energy barrier for the first protonation of N2, resulting in a change of the potential determining step and an increase in the overpotentials. PMID:26974401

  4. Catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia as a putative way of their prebiotic emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, Irina; Taran, Oxana; Simonov, Alexander; Parmon, Valentin

    The modern `RNA-world' theory considering the primary life as a system of self-replicating informational and catalytic oligomers is the most widespread hypothesis of life's origin. At the same time an alternative major theory antithetic to the genetic one exists. It is based on the primary formation of important metabolites and building blocks of biopolymers and appearance of the primordial autocatalytic cycles in geochemical environment. [1]. Encouraged by this theory, we suggest the putative emergence pathways to biologically relevant metabolites from simple precursors: formaldehyde (FA) and ammonia, which are known to be present in the interstellar space [2]. Based on our earlier [3, 4] and novel findings as well as on the literature data [5, 6] the scheme of conjugate autocatalytic processes including photochemical condensation of FA yielding C-C bond and catalytic formation of pyruvaldehyde, pyruvic acid, sugars, aminoacids catalyzed by minerals (aluminum silicate, phoshates) and by aminoacids themselves is proposed. Acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycol-and glyceraldehydes (GA and GCA) were identified in this work as products of photolysis of FA aqueous solution with summary selectivity up to 20% and can serve as substrates for the synthesis of more complex organic compounds. In turn, alanine and pyruvic acid are formed during UV-irradiation of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate [6]. Pyruvaldehyde formation from GCA and FA in presence of amino acids was observed by A. Weber [5]. Finally, we revealed the catalytic activity of zeolite HZSM-5-17 in acid form towards formation of pyruvaldehyde from GA and GCA in presence of alanine with the yield about 5%. This observation indicates that the assumption of catalytic activity of silica-alumina towards the synthesis of metabolites could be realistic. Prebiotic synthesis of sugars from lower monosacharides, as we showed earlier, could take place over phosphate catalysts [4]. The substrates and the products of the proposed scheme were detected in the interstellar space and meteorites [7, 8], evidencing of the possibility of its realization either on the Protoeath or in the protoplanet disk supplying the initial compounds for contemporary metabolism. Acknowledgements. The financial support of Program RAS, IP SB RAS N 10 is gratefully acknowledged. References 1. A. Eschenmoser, in "Origin of life. Chemical approach", Eds. P. Herdewijn, M.V. Kisakurek, Wiley-VCH, placeCityZurich, 2008 and refs therein. 2. D.A. Williams, J. Phys. Conf. 6, 1-17, 2005. 3. Pestunova, O., Simonov, A., Snytnikov, V., et al., Adv. Space Res. 36/2, 214-219, 2005. 4. Simonov, A., Pestunova, O., Matvienko, L., et al., Adv. Space Res. 40, 1634-1640, 2007. 5. A.L. Weber, Orig. Life Evol. Biosph. 31, 71-86, 2001. 6. T.A. Telegina, et. al., Journ. Evol. Biochim. i Fiziol. (Rus). 4/8, 429-434, 1977. 7. Hollis, J., Jewell, P., Lovas, F., et al., The Astrophysical Journal 613, L45-L48, 2004 8. Cooper, G., Kimmich, N., Belisle, W., et al., Nature 414(6866), 879, 2001.

  5. Heme-bound nitroxyl, hydroxylamine, and ammonia ligands as intermediates in the reaction cycle of cytochrome c nitrite reductase: a theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Bykov, Dmytro; Plog, Matthias; Neese, Frank

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we consider, in detail, the second half-cycle of the six-electron nitrite reduction mechanism catalyzed by cytochrome c nitrite reductase. In total, three electrons and four protons must be provided to reach the final product, ammonia, starting from the HNO intermediate. According to our results, the first event in this half-cycle is the reduction of the HNO intermediate, which is accomplished by two PCET reactions. Two isomeric radical intermediates, HNOH() and H2NO(), are formed. Both intermediates are readily transformed into hydroxylamine, most likely through intramolecular proton transfer from either Arg114 or His277. An extra proton must enter the active site of the enzyme to initiate heterolytic cleavage of the N-O bond. As a result of N-O bond cleavage, the H2N(+) intermediate is formed. The latter readily picks up an electron, forming H2N(+), which in turn reacts with Tyr218. Interestingly, evidence for Tyr218 activity was provided by the mutational studies of Lukat (Biochemistry 47:2080, 2008), but this has never been observed in the initial stages of the overall reduction process. According to our results, an intramolecular reaction with Tyr218 in the final step of the nitrite reduction process leads directly to the final product, ammonia. Dissociation of the final product proceeds concomitantly with a change in spin state, which was also observed in the resonance Raman investigations of Martins et al. (J Phys Chem B 114:5563, 2010). PMID:24271207

  6. Solution-based routes to ammine metal borohydrides: formation of ammonia-borane.

    PubMed

    Mostajeran, Mehdi; Wolstenholme, David J; Frazee, Chris; McGrady, G Sean; Baker, R Tom

    2016-02-11

    Ammine metal borohydrides (AMBs) have recently commanded attention as low-temperature hydrogen sources. As an alternative to widely used mechanochemical synthesis that affords mixtures with salt co-products, we have been investigating solution synthesis routes to obtain pure AMBs. Here we show that reactions of MCln + nNaBH4 with ammonia in thf afford ammonia-borane (AB) via borane abstraction from M-coordinated borohydride. The amount of AB formed correlates roughly with the metal ion electronegativity and AMB thermal stability, except for reducible metals such as Ti, which affords nearly 3 equiv. of AB per Ti. PMID:26750101

  7. Levoglucosenone: the properties, reactions, and use in fine organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miftakhov, Mansur S.; Valeev, Farid A.; Gaisina, Irina N.

    1994-10-01

    The review deals with the synthesis, structure, chemical properties, and use of 1,6-anhydro-3,4-dideoxy-β-D-pyranosen-2-one (levoglucosenone) in the synthesis of natural products. The bibliography includes 67 references.

  8. Ammonia Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauer, Richard L. (Inventor); Akse, James R. (Inventor); Thompson, John O. (Inventor); Atwater, James E. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    Ammonia monitor and method of use are disclosed. A continuous, real-time determination of the concentration of ammonia in an aqueous process stream is possible over a wide dynamic range of concentrations. No reagents are required because pH is controlled by an in-line solid-phase base. Ammonia is selectively transported across a membrane from the process stream to an analytical stream to an analytical stream under pH control. The specific electrical conductance of the analytical stream is measured and used to determine the concentration of ammonia.

  9. Synthesis of ?-alkylated ?-ketoesters by alkoxycarbonylation/Michael addition domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Wahl, Benoit; Philipson, Yann; Bonin, Hlne; Mortreux, Andr; Sauthier, Mathieu

    2013-02-15

    The palladium-catalyzed alkoxycarbonylation of an ?-chloro ketone can be efficiently combined to a Michael addition reaction in a new two-step domino reaction, allowing the synthesis of original highly functionalized ?-alkylated ?-ketoesters. The scope of the reaction was extended to several ?-chloro ketones and Michael acceptors with moderate to very good yields. PMID:23351142

  10. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl ethers: enantioselective synthesis of diarylethanes.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Buck L H; Swift, Elizabeth C; Waetzig, Joshua D; Jarvo, Elizabeth R

    2011-01-26

    Secondary benzylic ethers undergo stereospecific substitution reactions with Grignard reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. Reactions proceed with inversion of configuration and high stereochemical fidelity. This reaction allows for facile enantioselective synthesis of biologically active diarylethanes from readily available optically enriched carbinols. PMID:21155567

  11. Facile and fast synthesis of single-crystalline fractal zinc structures through a solution phase reaction and their conversion to zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Cho, Seungho; Kim, Semi; Kim, Hye-Jin; Lee, Bo Ram; Lee, Kun-Hong

    2009-09-01

    We report a novel method for the synthesis of fractal Zn structures through a solution phase reaction. An Al-film-deposited substrate was immersed in an aqueous ammonia solution containing Zn ions and maintained at 95 degrees C for 5 min. After the reaction, the Al-deposited side of the substrate was found to be covered with fractal Zn structures. These Zn structures are highly oriented, and the Zn(002) planes are parallel to the substrate. They are single-crystalline and the average thickness of the plates is approximately 50 nm. On the basis of our results, we propose a mechanism for the spontaneous growth of such fractal Zn structures. Single-crystalline fractal ZnO structures can also be obtained by calcination of the as-synthesized fractal Zn crystals at 500 degrees C for 5 h in air. These fractal ZnO structures are highly oriented and inherit their morphologies from the Zn structures. PMID:19453111

  12. [UO2(NH3)5]Br2NH3: synthesis, crystal structure, and speciation in liquid ammonia solution by first-principles molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Woidy, Patrick; Bhl, Michael; Kraus, Florian

    2015-04-28

    Pentaammine dioxido uranium(VI) dibromide ammonia (1/1), [UO2(NH3)5]Br2NH3, was synthesized in the form of yellow crystals by the reaction of uranyl bromide, UO2Br2, with dry liquid ammonia. The compound crystallizes orthorhombic in space group Cmcm and is isotypic to [UO2(NH3)5]Cl2NH3 with a = 13.2499(2), b = 10.5536(1), c = 8.9126(1) , V = 1246.29(3) (3) and Z = 4 at 123 K. The UO2(2+) cation is coordinated by five ammine ligands and the coordination polyhedron can be best described as pentagonal bipyramid. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations are reported for [UO2(NH3)5](2+) in the gas phase and in liquid NH3 solution (using the BLYP density functional). According to free-energy simulations, solvation by ammonia has only a small effect on the uranyl-NH3 bond strength. PMID:25797497

  13. Thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving nitrous oxide, hydrogen, nitrogen, and ammonia in contact with tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste

    SciTech Connect

    Bryan, S.A.; Pederson, L.R.

    1996-02-01

    Work described in this report was conducted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the Flammable Gas Safety Project, the purpose of which is to develop information needed to support Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) in their efforts to ensure the safe interim storage of wastes at the Hanford Site. Described in this report are the results of tests to evaluate the rates of thermal and combined thermal and radiolytic reactions involving flammable gases in the presence of Tank 241-SY-101 simulated waste. Flammable gases generated by the radiolysis of water and by the thermal and radiolytic decomposition of organic waste constituents may themselves participate in further reactions. Examples include the decomposition of nitrous oxide to yield nitrogen and oxygen, the reaction of nitrous oxide and hydrogen to produce nitrogen and water, and the reaction of nitrogen and hydrogen to produce ammonia. The composition of the gases trapped in bubbles in the wastes might therefore change continuously as a function of the time that the gas bubbles are retained.

  14. Synthesis of Quinoxaline Derivatives via Tandem Oxidative Azidation/Cyclization Reaction of N-Arylenamines.

    PubMed

    Ma, Haichao; Li, Dianjun; Yu, Wei

    2016-02-19

    A new method was developed for the synthesis of quinoxalines. This method employs N-arylenamines and TMSN3 as the starting materials and implements two oxidative C-N bond-forming processes in a tandem pattern by using (diacetoxyiodo)benzene as the common oxidant. The present reaction conditions are mild and simple and thus are useful in practical synthesis. PMID:26863185

  15. Direct Analysis of Gene Synthesis Reactions Using Solid-State Nanopores.

    PubMed

    Carson, Spencer; Wick, Scott T; Carr, Peter A; Wanunu, Meni; Aguilar, Carlos A

    2015-12-22

    Synthetic nucleic acids offer rich potential to understand and engineer new cellular functions, yet an unresolved limitation in their production and usage is deleterious products, which restrict design complexity and add cost. Herein, we employ a solid-state nanopore to differentiate molecules of a gene synthesis reaction into categories of correct and incorrect assemblies. This new method offers a solution that provides information on gene synthesis reactions in near-real time with higher complexity and lower costs. This advance can permit insights into gene synthesis reactions such as kinetics monitoring, real-time tuning, and optimization of factors that drive reaction-to-reaction variations as well as open venues between nanopore-sensing, synthetic biology, and DNA nanotechnology. PMID:26580227

  16. Effect of sodium benzoate on ammonia toxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Maswoswe, S.M.; Cyr, D.M.; Griffith, A.D.; Tremblay, G.C.

    1986-07-16

    At 9.5 mmoles/kg body weight, sodium benzoate sharply increased mortality in rats subsequently challenged with ammonia. Fasted animals were less sensitive to potentiation of ammonia toxicity by benzoate than were fed animals. At 2.5 mmoles/kg body weight, benzoate was observed to protect fasted animals against ammonia toxicity. Measurements of ammonia disappearance, urea formation, and hippurate synthesis in suspensions of isolated hepatocytes indicate that benzoate potentiates ammonia toxicity by inhibiting the urea cycle.

  17. Ammonia synthons for the multicomponent assembly of complex ?-lactams

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Darlene Q.; Martin, Kevin S.; Fettinger, James C.; Shaw, Jared T.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of ?-lactams that are unsubstituted at the 1-position (nitrogen) as well as their subsequent N-functionalization is reported. A recently discovered four-component reaction (4CR) is employed with either an ammonia precursor or a protected form of ammonia that can be deprotected in a subsequent synthetic step. These methods represent the first multicomponent assembly of complex lactam structures that are unsubstituted at nitrogen. In addition, two methods for the introduction of nitrogen substituents that are not possible through the original 4CR are reported. X-ray crystallographic analysis of representative structures reveals conformational changes in the core structure that will enable future deployment of this chemistry in the design and synthesis of diverse collections of lactams suitable for the discovery of new biological probes. PMID:21289284

  18. Microwave-assisted organic synthesis and transformations using benign reaction media.

    PubMed

    Polshettiwar, Vivek; Varma, Rajender S

    2008-05-01

    A nonclassical heating technique using microwaves, termed "Bunsen burner of the 21st century", is rapidly becoming popular and is dramatically reducing reaction times. The significant outcomes of microwave (MW)-assisted green chemistry endeavors, which have resulted in the development of synthetic protocols for drugs and fine chemicals synthesis that are relatively more sustainable, are summarized. The use of emerging microwave-assisted chemistry techniques in conjunction with greener reaction media is dramatically reducing chemical waste and reaction times in several organic syntheses and chemical transformations. A brief historic account of our own experiences in developing MW-assisted organic transformations, which involve various benign alternatives, such as solid-supported reagents, and greener reaction media, namely, aqueous, ionic liquid, and solvent-free, for the synthesis of various heterocycles, coupling reactions, oxidation-reduction reactions, and some name reactions are described. Synthesis of Heterocycles. The synthetic chemistry community has been under increased pressure to produce, in an environmentally benign fashion, the myriad of heterocyclic systems required by society in a short span of time, and one of the best options to accelerate these synthetic processes is to use MW technology. The efficient use of the MW heating approach for the synthesis of various heterocyclic compounds in aqueous and solvent-free medium is discussed. Organic Named Reactions. The application of MW chemistry for various named reaction such as the Prins reaction, the Suzuki reaction, the Heck reaction, the Aza-Michael reaction, Trost's gamma-addition, and the Cannizzaro reaction are summarized. Synthesis and Application of Ionic Liquids. Ionic liquids (ILs), being polar and ionic, in character couple with MW irradiation very efficiently and are, therefore, ideal MW-absorbing candidates for expediting chemical reactions. MW-assisted solvent-free synthesis and application of ILs are discussed. Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. MW protocols using mineral oxides such as alumina, silica, and clay to immobilize reagents on such solid supports have been extensively explored under "dry" media conditions. Various solvent-free examples of oxidation reactions are discussed that involve mixing of neat substrates with clay-supported iron(III) nitrate (clayfen) or iodobenzene diacetate (IBD) as an oxidant; some interesting MW reduction protocols using borohydrides are also discussed. Protection-Deprotection Reactions. The protection and deprotection of alcohols and amines are common events in multistep organic syntheses. Various protection and deprotection protocols under MW irradiation are discussed, including tetrahydropyranylation and (benzyloxycarbonyl) (Cbz)-protection, which are the most frequently employed methods. PMID:18419142

  19. Samarium Diiodide-Mediated Reactions in Total Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaou, K. C.; Ellery, Shelby P.; Chen, Jason S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduced by Henri Kagan more than three decades ago, samarium diiodide (SmI2) has found increasing applications in chemical synthesis. This single-electron reducing agent has been particularly useful in CC bond formations, including those found in total synthesis endeavors. This Review highlights selected applications of SmI2 in total synthesis, with special emphasis on novel transformations and mechanistic considerations. The examples discussed are both illustrative of the power of this reagent in complex molecule construction and inspirational for the design of synthetic strategies toward such targets, both natural and designed. PMID:19714695

  20. Ammonia poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... a strong, colorless gas. If the gas is dissolved in water, it is called liquid ammonia. Poisoning ... person may receive: Airway and breathing support, including oxygen. In extreme cases, a tube may be passed ...

  1. Organophosphorus-catalyzed diaza-Wittig reaction: application to the synthesis of pyridazines.

    PubMed

    Bel Abed, Hassen; Mammoliti, Oscar; Bande, Omprakash; Van Lommen, Guy; Herdewijn, Piet

    2014-09-28

    The elaboration of the first organophosphorus-catalyzed diaza-Wittig reaction is reported. This catalytic reaction is applied to the synthesis of substituted pyridazine and phthalazine derivatives bearing electron-withdrawing groups with good to excellent yields from substrates containing a diazo functionality as the starting material and a phospholene oxide as the catalyst. PMID:25101802

  2. Synthesis of Triarylmethane and Xanthene Dyes Using Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullagh, James V.; Daggett, Kelly A.

    2007-01-01

    The synthesis of dyes has long been a popular topic in organic chemistry laboratory experiments because it allows students to see first hand that reactions learned in class can be used to make compounds with useful applications. In this experiment electrophilic aromatic substitution reactions are used to synthesize several triarylmethane and

  3. Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular ?-arylation of sulfones: domino reactions in the synthesis of functionalized tetrahydroisoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Sol, Daniel; Prez-Janer, Ferran; Mancuso, Raffaella

    2015-03-16

    A new strategy for the synthesis of tetrahydroisoquinolines based on the Pd(0)-catalyzed intramolecular ?-arylation of sulfones is reported. The combination of this Pd-catalyzed reaction with intermolecular Michael and aza-Michael reactions allows the development of two- and three-step domino processes to synthesize diversely functionalized scaffolds from readily available starting materials. PMID:25677083

  4. A multicomponent cascade reaction for the synthesis of novel chromenopyranpyrazole scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Bakthadoss, Manickam; Kannan, Damodharan; Selvakumar, Raman

    2013-12-01

    A catalyst, solvent, work-up and column free synthesis of chromenopyranpyrazoles via multicomponent cascade reaction has been achieved with high stereoselectivity. This novel reaction creates two N-C, two C-C and one O-C bonds through a domino process for the construction of three new rings and three contiguous stereogenic centers. PMID:24129404

  5. Combustion Synthesis Reactions in Cold-Rolled Ni/Al and Ti/Al Multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Xiaotun; Liu, Ranran; Guo, Shengmin; Graeter, Jesse Harris; Kecskes, Laszlo; Wang, Jiaping

    2009-07-01

    In this article, a cold rolling method was developed to fabricate Ni/Al and Ti/Al multilayer foils, and the combustion synthesis reactions in the cold-rolled foils were investigated. Combustion synthesis reactions were initiated by heating one end of the cold-rolled foil in a flame for several seconds. The Ni/Al foils went through three reaction stages. The first reaction stage was a displacement of reaction zone with Al3Ni as the reaction product. During the second stage, the part of the foil in the flame underwent thermal explosion. In the last stage, the heat released by thermal explosion triggered a self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) reaction across the foil that resulted in the formation of AlNi. In contrast, the Ti/Al foils experienced only two reaction stages. First, a displacement of the reaction zone propagated across the foil with formation of Al3Ti at the Ti/Al interface. Then a thermal explosion reaction occurred in the part of foil that was heated in the flame, resulting in many different phases in the reacted foil.

  6. Synthesis of 1,4:3,6-dianhydrohexitols diesters from the palladium-catalyzed hydroesterification reaction.

    PubMed

    Pruvost, Romain; Boulanger, Jrme; Lger, Bastien; Ponchel, Anne; Monflier, Eric; Ibert, Mathias; Mortreux, Andr; Chenal, Thomas; Sauthier, Mathieu

    2014-11-01

    The hydroesterification of alpha olefins has been used to synthesize diesters from bio-based secondary diols: isosorbide, isomannide, and isoidide. The reaction was promoted by 0.2% palladium catalyst generated in?situ from palladium acetate/triphenylphosphine/para-toluene sulfonic acid. Optimized reaction conditions allowed the selective synthesis of the diesters with high yields and the reaction conditions could be scaled up to the synthesis of hundred grams of diesters from isosorbide and 1-octene with solvent-free conditions. PMID:25209303

  7. Effect of incremental urea supplementation of a conventional corn silage-based diet on ruminal ammonia concentration and synthesis of microbial protein.

    PubMed

    Boucher, S E; Ordway, R S; Whitehouse, N L; Lundy, F P; Kononoff, P J; Schwab, C G

    2007-12-01

    One primiparous and 3 multiparous lactating Holstein cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulas were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design to determine the efficacy of adding urea to a corn silage-based diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. Dietary treatments were 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% urea in diet dry matter (DM); urea was manually top dressed and incorporated into the ration. The basal diet contained (DM basis) 52% forage (with 61% of forage provided as corn silage) and 48% concentrate ingredients. The basal diet was formulated to meet National Research Council (NRC, 2001) requirements for energy and all nutrients except rumen-degradable protein (RDP) and metabolizable protein. Experimental periods lasted 14 d with the first 9 d for adaptation. The basal diet, without urea addition, contained 9.2% RDP in DM and had a predicted RDP balance of -167 g/d (NRC, 2001). There were no effects of dietary treatment on ruminal true digestibility of organic matter or ruminal apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber. Total ruminal volatile fatty acid concentrations increased linearly with increasing urea level. Feeding increasing amounts of urea quadratically increased rumen ammonia N concentrations (9.0, 11.9, 12.8, and 17.4 mg/dL at 0, 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9% urea supplementation, respectively), passage of microbial N, and microbial N in duodenal digesta as a percentage of nonammonia N. The results of this study indicate that there were some positive effects of adding urea to the described lactating dairy cow diet, and that microbial protein synthesis was maximized at an average ruminal ammonia N concentration of 12.8 mg/dL when urea was added at 0.6% in diet DM. PMID:18024754

  8. Total Synthesis of (+)-Cytosporolide A via a Biomimetic Hetero-Diels-Alder Reaction.

    PubMed

    Takao, Ken-Ichi; Noguchi, Shuji; Sakamoto, Shu; Kimura, Mizuki; Yoshida, Keisuke; Tadano, Kin-Ichi

    2015-12-23

    The first total synthesis of (+)-cytosporolide A was achieved by a biomimetic hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of (-)-fuscoatrol A with o-quinone methide generated from (+)-CJ-12,373. The dienophile, highly oxygenated caryophyllene sesquiterpenoid (-)-fuscoatrol A, was synthesized from the synthetic intermediate in our previous total synthesis of (+)-pestalotiopsin A. The o-quinone methide precursor, isochroman carboxylic acid (+)-CJ-12,373, was synthesized through a Kolbe-Schmitt reaction and an oxa-Pictet-Spengler reaction. The hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of these two compounds proceeded with complete chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity to produce the complicated pentacyclic ring system of the cytosporolide skeleton. This total synthesis unambiguously demonstrates that natural cytosporolide A has the structure previously suggested. PMID:26633257

  9. Synthesis of tetrasubstituted 1-silyloxy-3-aminobutadienes and chemistry beyond DielsAlder reactions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xijian; Peng, Siyu; Li, Li; Huang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Electron-rich dienes have revolutionized the synthesis of complex compounds since the discovery of the legendary DielsAlder cycloaddition reaction. This highly efficient bond-forming process has served as a fundamental strategy to assemble many structurally formidable molecules. Amino silyloxy butadienes are arguably the most reactive diene species that are isolable and bottleable. Since the pioneering discovery by Rawal, 1-amino-3-silyloxybutadienes have been found to undergo cycloaddition reactions with unparalleled mildness, leading to significant advances in both asymmetric catalysis and total synthesis of biologically active natural products. In sharp contrast, this class of highly electron-rich conjugated olefins has not been studied in non-cycloaddition reactions. Here we report a simple synthesis of tetrasubstituted 1-silyloxy-3-aminobutadienes, a complementarily substituted Rawal's diene. This family of molecules is found to undergo a series of intriguing chemical transformations orthogonal to cycloaddition reactions. Structurally diverse polysubstituted ring architectures are established in one step from these dienes. PMID:25898310

  10. Synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions using radioactive beams

    SciTech Connect

    Smolanczuk, Robert

    2010-06-15

    Chances of synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out reactions) using radioactive beams are evaluated. Because in most of the cases intensities of radioactive beams are significantly less than those of the stable beams, reactions with the greatest radioactive-beam intensities for the particular elements are considered. The results are compared with the recent ones obtained by Loveland [Phys. Rev. C 76, 014612 (2007)], who investigated the same nuclei.

  11. C-N coupling in the gas-phase reactions of ammonia and [M(CH)]+ (M = Ni, Pd, Pt): a combined experimental/computational exercise.

    PubMed

    Kretschmer, Robert; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2013-03-28

    Electrospray ionization (ESI) of methanolic solutions of monomeric nickel(II) acetate, [Ni(CH(3)COO)(2)], and tetrameric platinum(II) acetate, [Pt(4)(CH(3)COO)(8)], leads to the formation of the corresponding methylidyne complexes [M(CH)](+) (M = Ni, Pt), which react with ammonia under C-N coupling. While the product couples M/[CH(4)N](+) and [M(CH(2)N)](+)/H(2) are observed for both metals, hydrogen-atom expulsion to generate [M(CHNH(2))](+)/H is only observed in the case of the nickel-containing system, and the proton transfer leading to M/[NH(4)](+) is limited to platinum. Attempts to conduct related experiments with [Pd(CH)](+)/NH(3) failed. The mechanisms that explain the experimentally observed reaction channels have been investigated computationally using the B3LYP functional for all metals of the nickel group (M = Ni, Pd, Pt). In line with labeling experiments using the reaction pairs [M(CD)](+)/NH(3) and [M(CH)](+)/ND(3) (M = Ni, Pt), two different mechanistic scenarios of the dehydrogenation process are operative for the Ni and Pt systems, respectively. PMID:23348512

  12. Addition of water, methanol, and ammonia to Al3O3- clusters: reaction products, transition states, and electron detachment energies.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Garca, Alfredo; Martnez, Ana; Ortiz, J V

    2005-06-01

    Products of reactions between the book and kite isomers of Al3O3- and three important molecules are studied with electronic structure calculations. Dissociative adsorption of H2O or CH3OH is highly exothermic and proton-transfer barriers between anion-molecule complexes and the products of these reactions are low. For NH3, the reaction energies are less exothermic and the corresponding barriers are higher. Depending on experimental conditions, Al3O3- (NH3) coordination complexes or products of dissociative adsorption may be prepared. Vertical electron detachment energies of stable anions are predicted with ab initio electron propagator calculations and are in close agreement with experiments on Al3O3- and its products with H2O and CH3OH. Changes in the localization properties of two Al-centered Dyson orbitals account for the differences between the photoelectron spectra of Al3O3- and those of the product anions. PMID:15974740

  13. Sub-2 nm SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals: A reduction/oxidation chemical reaction synthesis and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Hui; Du Ning; Chen Bindi; Cui Tianfeng; Yang Deren

    2008-11-03

    A simple reduction/oxidation chemical solution approach at room temperature has been developed to synthesize ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals, in which NaBH{sub 4} is used as a reducing agent instead of mineralizers such as sodium hydroxide, ammonia, and alcohol. The morphology, structure, and optical property of the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals have been characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis (DSC-TGA), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. It is indicated that the uniform tetragonal ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals with the size below 2 nm have been fabricated at room temperature. The band gap of the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals is about 4.1 eV, exhibiting 0.5 eV blue shift from that of the bulk SnO{sub 2} (3.6 eV). Furthermore, the mechanism for the reduction/oxidation chemical reaction synthesis of the ultrafine SnO{sub 2} nanocrystals has been preliminary presented.

  14. Synthesis of bis(imino)pyridine iron amide and ammonia compounds from an N-H transfer agent.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Amanda C; Bart, Suzanne C; Heinemann, Frank W; Meyer, Karsten; Chirik, Paul J

    2009-07-01

    Addition of the [NH] transfer reagent Hdbabh (dbabh = 2,3:5,6-dibenzo-7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]hepta-2,5-diene) to the bis(imino)pyridine iron bis(dinitrogen) complex, (((i)Pr)PDI)Fe(N(2))(2) (((i)Pr)PDI = 2,6-(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3)N horizontal lineCMe)(2)C(5)H(3)N), furnished the corresponding iron amide and ammonia compounds, resulting from cleavage of the strained amine. Isotopic labeling studies support N-H bond activation by a transient, parent imide, [(((i)Pr)PDI)FeNH]. PMID:19361163

  15. Chemical Synthesis Accelerated by Paper Spray: The Haloform Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory, students perform a synthetic reaction in two ways: (i) by traditional bulk-phase reaction and (ii) in the course of reactive paper spray ionization. Mass spectrometry (MS) is used both as an analytical method and a means of accelerating organic syntheses. The main focus of this laboratory exercise is that the same ionization

  16. Chemical Synthesis Accelerated by Paper Spray: The Haloform Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bain, Ryan M.; Pulliam, Christopher J.; Raab, Shannon A.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this laboratory, students perform a synthetic reaction in two ways: (i) by traditional bulk-phase reaction and (ii) in the course of reactive paper spray ionization. Mass spectrometry (MS) is used both as an analytical method and a means of accelerating organic syntheses. The main focus of this laboratory exercise is that the same ionization…

  17. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical reaction media

    SciTech Connect

    Subramaniam, B.; Bochniak, D.; Snavely, K.

    1993-01-01

    Our goals for this quarter were to complete construction of the reactor and analytical units for carrying out Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis in liquid (n-hexadecane) and in supercritical n-hexane phases. Progress during this quarter was slower than expected.

  18. Advances in understanding the mechanism and improved stability of the synthesis of ammonia from air and water in hydroxide suspensions of nanoscale Fe₂O₃.

    PubMed

    Li, Fang-Fang; Licht, Stuart

    2014-10-01

    We report a mechanism of electrochemical ammonia (NH3) production via an iron intermediate in which H2 and NH3 are cogenerated by different electron-transfer pathways. Solar thermal can contribute to the energy to drive this synthesis, resulting in a STEP, solar thermal electrochemical process, for NH3. Enhancements are presented to this carbon dioxide (CO2)-free synthesis, which uses suspensions of nano-Fe2O3 in high-temperature hydroxide electrolytes at nickel and Monel electrodes. In a 200 °C molten eutectic Na(0.5)K(0.5)OH electrolyte, the 3 Faraday efficiency per mole of synthesized NH3, η(NH3), increases with decreasing current density, and at j(electrolysis) = 200, 25, 2, and 0.7 mA cm(-2), η(NH3) = 1%, 7%, 37%, and 71%, respectively. At 200 mA cm(-2), over 90% of applied current drives H2, rather than NH3, formation. Lower temperature supports greater electrolyte hydration. At 105 °C in the hydrated Na(0.5)K(0.5)OH electrolyte, η(NH3) increases and then is observed to be highly stable at η(NH3) = 24(+2)%. PMID:25247873

  19. Ammonia formation from NO reaction with surface hydroxyls on rutile TiO2 (110) - 1×1

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Boseong; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek; Kim, Yu Kwon

    2015-01-15

    The reaction of NO with hydroxylated rutile TiO2(110)-1×1 surface (h-TiO2) was investigated as a function of NO coverage using temperature-programmed desorption. Our results show that NO reaction with h-TiO2 leads to formation of NH3 which is observed to desorb at ~ 400 K. Interestingly, the amount of NH3 produced depends nonlinearly on the coverage of NO. The yield increases up to a saturation value of ~1.3×1013 NH3/cm2 at a NO dose of 5×1013 NO/cm2, but subsequently decreases at higher NO doses. Preadsorbed H2O is found to have a negligible effect on the NH3 desorption yield. Additionally, no NH3 is formed in the absence of surface hydroxyls (HOb’s) upon coadsorption of NO and H2O on a stoichiometric TiO2(110) (s-TiO2(110)). Based on these observations, we conclude that nitrogen from NO has a strong preference to react with HOb’s on the bridge-bonded oxygen rows (but not with H2O) to form NH3. The absolute NH3 yield is limited by competing reactions of HOb species with titanium-bound oxygen adatoms to form H2O. Our results provide new mechanistic insight about the interactions of NO with hydroxyl groups on TiO2(110) .

  20. A detailed investigation of proposed gas-phase syntheses of ammonia in dense interstellar clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herbst, Eric; Defrees, D. J.; Mclean, A. D.

    1987-01-01

    The initial reactions of the Herbst and Klemperer (1973) and the Dalgarno (1974) schemes (I and II, respectively) for the gas-phase synthesis of ammonia in dense interstellar clouds were investigated. The rate of the slightly endothermic reaction between N(+) and H2 to yield NH(+) and H (scheme I) under interstellar conditions was reinvestigated under thermal and nonthermal conditions based on laboratory data. It was found that the relative importance of this reaction in synthesizing ammonia is determined by how the laboratory data at low temperature are interpreted. On the other hand, the exothermic reaction between N and H3(+) to form NH2(+) + H (scheme II) was calculated to possess significant activation energy and, therefore, to have a negligible rate coefficient under interstellar conditions. Consequently, this reaction cannot take place appreciably in interstellar clouds.

  1. Divergent dendrimer synthesis via the Passerini three-component reaction and olefin cross-metathesis.

    PubMed

    Kreye, Oliver; Kugele, Dennis; Faust, Lorenz; Meier, Michael A R

    2014-02-01

    The combination of the Passerini reaction and olefin cross-metathesis is shown to be a very useful approach for the divergent synthesis of dendrimers. Castor oil-derived platform chemicals, such as 10-undecenoic acid and 10-undecenal, are reacted in a Passerini reaction with an unsaturated isocyanide to obtain a core unit having three terminal double bonds. Subsequent olefin cross-metathesis with tert-butyl acrylate, followed by hydrogenation of the double bonds and hydrolysis of the tert-butyl ester, leads to an active core unit bearing three carboxylic acid groups as reactive sites. Iterative steps of the Passerini reaction with 10-undecenal and 10-isocyanodec-1-ene for branching, and olefin cross-metathesis with tert-butyl acrylate, followed by hydrogenation and hydrolysis allow the synthesis of a third-generation dendrimer. All steps of the synthesis are carefully characterized by NMR, GPC, MS, and IR. PMID:24356926

  2. Microwave assisted rapid synthesis of N-methylene phosphonic chitosan via Mannich-type reaction.

    PubMed

    Dadhich, Prabhash; Das, Bodhisatwa; Dhara, Santanu

    2015-11-20

    Bio-conjugation or functional group substitutions are well-explored methods to enhance the physico-chemical and biochemical functionality of chitosan. N-Methylene phosphonic chitosan (NMPC) is one of the major substituted forms of chitosan, which has significant bioactivity and promising biomedical application. However, the reported synthesis methods of NMPC have limitations alike poor yield, higher degradation rate and most importantly long synthesis time (∼14h). In the current study, rapid synthesis of NMPC via a Mannich type reaction route using microwave irradiation has been reported. This method of NMPC synthesis offers significantly less synthesis time with competitive product yield. Synthesized NMPC was characterized via NMR, FTIR, EDS, XRD and thermal analysis. Further, viscosity average molecular weight, solubility, and conductivity of the substituted polymer were measured. Preliminary cyto-compatibility results of synthesized NMPC were promising for further exploration in biomedical applications. PMID:26344290

  3. Ammonia formation by metal-ligand cooperative hydrogenolysis of a nitrido ligand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askevold, Bjorn; Nieto, Jorge Torres; Tussupbayev, Samat; Diefenbach, Martin; Herdtweck, Eberhardt; Holthausen, Max C.; Schneider, Sven

    2011-07-01

    Bioinspired hydrogenation of N2 to ammonia at ambient conditions by stepwise nitrogen protonation/reduction with metal complexes in solution has experienced remarkable progress. In contrast, the highly desirable direct hydrogenation with H2 remains difficult. In analogy to the heterogeneously catalysed Haber-Bosch process, such a reaction is conceivable via metal-centred N2 splitting and unprecedented hydrogenolysis of the nitrido ligands to ammonia. We report the synthesis of a ruthenium(IV) nitrido complex. The high nucleophilicity of the nitrido ligand is demonstrated by unusual N-C coupling with π-acidic CO. Furthermore, the terminal nitrido ligand undergoes facile hydrogenolysis with H2 at ambient conditions to produce ammonia in high yield. Kinetic and quantum chemical examinations of this reaction suggest cooperative behaviour of a phosphorus-nitrogen-phosphorus pincer ligand in rate-determining heterolytic hydrogen splitting.

  4. Synthesis of Programmable Reaction-Diffusion Fronts Using DNA Catalyzers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorin, Anton S.; Rondelez, Yannick; Galas, Jean-Christophe; Estevez-Torres, André

    2015-02-01

    We introduce a DNA-based reaction-diffusion (RD) system in which reaction and diffusion terms can be precisely and independently controlled. The effective diffusion coefficient of an individual reaction component, as we demonstrate on a traveling wave, can be reduced up to 2.7-fold using a self-assembled hydrodynamic drag. The intrinsic programmability of this RD system allows us to engineer, for the first time, orthogonal autocatalysts that counterpropagate with minimal interaction. Our results are in excellent quantitative agreement with predictions of the Fisher-Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piscunov model. These advances open the way for the rational engineering of pattern formation in pure chemical RD systems.

  5. Synthesis of conjugated polymer by the Stille coupling reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Bao, Z.; Chan, W.; Yu, L. )

    1993-01-01

    Reported on is the feasibility of a coupling reaction between dihalide and ditin compounds, catalyzed by a palladium compound, to synthesize conjugated polymers. As 2,5-dialkoxy-1,4-diiodobenzene was coupled with 2,5-bis(tri-n-butyltin)-thiophene, a soluble and fusible polymer, poly(2,5-alkoxy-p-phenylene-co-2,5-thiophene), was obtained. The rich assess to monomers, the mild reaction conditions, and the tolerance to different substituents make this reaction versatile in synthesizing new conjugated polymers. 16 refs., 1 fig.

  6. Enhanced chemical synthesis at soft interfaces: a universal reaction-adsorption mechanism in microcompartments.

    PubMed

    Fallah-Araghi, Ali; Meguellati, Kamel; Baret, Jean-Christophe; El Harrak, Abdeslam; Mangeat, Thomas; Karplus, Martin; Ladame, Sylvain; Marques, Carlos M; Griffiths, Andrew D

    2014-01-17

    A bimolecular synthetic reaction (imine synthesis) was performed compartmentalized in micrometer-diameter emulsion droplets. The apparent equilibrium constant (Keq) and apparent forward rate constant (k1) were both inversely proportional to the droplet radius. The results are explained by a noncatalytic reaction-adsorption model in which reactants adsorb to the droplet interface with relatively low binding energies of a few kBT, react and diffuse back to the bulk. Reaction thermodynamics is therefore modified by compartmentalization at the mesoscale--without confinement on the molecular scale--leading to a universal mechanism for improving unfavorable reactions. PMID:24484045

  7. Synthesis of branched iminosugars through a hypervalent iodine(III)-mediated radical-polar crossover reaction.

    PubMed

    Santana, Andrs G; Paz, Nieves R; Francisco, Cosme G; Surez, Ernesto; Gonzlez, Concepcin C

    2013-08-01

    The synthesis of a novel type of branched iminosugars is described. This synthetic strategy is based on two key reactions: first, an aldol reaction with formaldehyde in order to introduce selectively the hydroxymethyl branch, and second, a tandem ?-fragmentation-intramolecular cyclization reaction. The combination of both reactions afforded a battery of compounds exhibiting a great structural complexity, with the concomitant formation of a quaternary center, starting from readily available aldoses. With this approach we have demonstrated the usefulness of the fragmentation of anomeric alkoxyl radicals (ARF) promoted by the PhIO/I2 system for the preparation of new compounds with potential interest for both medicinal and synthetic chemists. PMID:23834195

  8. Observation of cyanate and isocyanate surface species during the reaction of ammonia and carbon monoxide over supported rhodium

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, D.K.; McKee, M.L.; Worley, S.D. ); Hoffman, N.W. ); Ash, D.H.; Gautney, J. )

    1989-06-01

    The reaction of CO with NH{sub 3} over preoxidized Rh/SiO{sub 2} has been studied by infrared spectroscopy to detect surface intermediates. Two of the surface species having infrared bands at 2172 and 2225 cm{sup {minus}1} have been identified as RhNCO and RhOCN, respectively. This is likely the first observation of these two surface species simultaneously on a supported transition-metal catalyst. High-quality ab initio computations have been employed to aid in the band assignments.

  9. Efficient synthesis and reactions of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes

    PubMed Central

    Tanui, Hillary K.; Hao, Erhong; Ihachi, Moses I.; Fronczek, Frank R.; Smith, Kevin M.; Vicente, M. Graça H.

    2011-01-01

    Various dipyrroles possess important motifs for construction of pyrrole-containing pigments. A series of 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes (4a–d) has been efficiently synthesized using an improved one-pot double Sonagashira coupling from trimethylsilylethyne and various 2-iodopyrroles. The resulting 1,2-dipyrrolylethynes were further transformed into novel indolyl-, ethenyl- and carboranyl-dipyrroles (5–7) using the Larock indole synthesis, stereoselective catalytic hydrogenation, or B10H14. Indolyl-dipyrroles were found to selectively bind fluoride ions using one pyrrolic and the indolyl NHs, whereas the carboranyl- and ethenyl-dipyrroles are potentially valuable precursors for the synthesis of porphyrin isomers and expanded pigments. PMID:21822371

  10. Iron-catalyzed synthesis of arylsulfinates through radical coupling reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weixi; Luo, Meiming

    2016-02-01

    A novel strategy for installation of a sulfonyl fragment into arenes has been accomplished via an iron-catalyzed radical coupling reaction. Arene radicals derived from diaryliodoniums via single electron transfer reaction combine with sulfoxylate anion radicals readily generated from commercially available rongalite (HOCH2SO2Na2H2O) to afford arylsulfinates efficiently at room temperature. In this protocol, a broad range of functional groups are tolerated to give products in good yields. PMID:26781163

  11. (A study of catalysts and mechanisms in synthesis reactions)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Recent interest in the partial oxidation of alkanes has focused attention on the role of surface-generated gas-phase radicals in catalysis. During the oxidative coupling of methane the importance of gas phase CH{sub 3}{center dot} radicals has been demonstrated using a matrix-isolation electron spin resonance (MIESR) system. This technique will be employed to study several important problems associated with the formation and reactions of hydrocarbon radicals. The production of gas phase propyl radicals over a V-MgO-O catalyst will be investigated to determine the intermediate that is responsible for the observed heterogeneous-homogeneous reaction. The nonoxidative formation of hydrocarbon radicals over supported CrO will be explored to establish whether radical reactions over this catalyst involve gas phase intermediates. In the proposed experiments the cross coupling of methyl radicals with benzyl, allyl, 1-methylallyl and 2-methylallyl radicals will be investigated, again to determine the role of surface-generated gas-phase radicals in these reactions. Secondary reactions of radicals with metal oxide surfaces often dictate product selectivity, therefore reactive sticking coefficients for methyl and allyl radicals colliding with metal oxides will be determined. Such quantitative information is essential for modeling complex heterogeneous-homogeneous reactions. A newly constructed laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectrometer will be used to complement the data obtained using the MIESR technique. An initial LIF investigation will focus on the OH{center dot} radical, which is a key intermediate in hydrocarbon oxidation reactions. The research will be extended to include CH and possibly CH{sub 2} radicals. The proposed projects will provide conceptual information and quantitative data on an important class of catalytic reactions. 29 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Mycothiol synthesis by an anomerization reaction through endocyclic cleavage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mycothiol is found in Gram-positive bacteria, where it helps in maintaining a reducing intracellular environment and it plays an important role in protecting the cell from toxic chemicals. The inhibition of the mycothiol biosynthesis is considered as a treatment for tuberculosis. Mycothiol contains an α-aminoglycoside, which is difficult to prepare stereoselectively by a conventional glycosylation reaction. In this study, mycothiol was synthesized by an anomerization reaction from an easily prepared β-aminoglycoside through endocyclic cleavage.

  13. Dynamics of ammonia exchange with cut grassland: synthesis of results and conclusions of the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Milford, C.; Campbell, C.; Erisman, J. W.; Hensen, A.; Cellier, P.; David, M.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Schjoerring, J. K.; Mattsson, M.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Horvath, L.; Weidinger, T.; Meszaros, R.; Dmmgen, U.; Neftel, A.; Herrmann, B.; Lehman, B. E.; Flechard, C.; Burkhardt, J.

    2009-12-01

    Improved data on biosphere-atmosphere exchange are fundamental to understanding the production and fate of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. The GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment combined novel measurement and modelling approaches to provide the most comprehensive analysis of the interactions to date. Major inter-comparisons of micrometeorological parameters and NH3 flux measurements using the aerodynamic gradient method and relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) were conducted. These showed close agreement, though the REA systems proved insufficiently precise to investigate vertical flux divergence. Grassland management had a large effect on fluxes: emissions increased after grass cutting (-50 to 700 ng m-2 s-1 NH3) and after N-fertilization (0 to 3800 ng m-2 s-1) compared with before the cut (-60 to 40 ng m-2 s-1). Effects of advection and air chemistry were investigated using horizontal NH3 profiles, acid gas and particle flux measurements. Inverse modelling of NH3 emission from an experimental farm agreed closely with inventory estimates, while advection errors were used to correct measured grassland fluxes. Advection effects were caused both by the farm and by emissions from the field, with an inverse dispersion-deposition model providing a reliable new approach to estimate net NH3 fluxes. Effects of aerosol chemistry on net NH3 fluxes were small, while the measurements allowed NH3-induced particle growth rates to be calculated and aerosol fluxes to be corrected. Bioassays estimated the emission potential ? = [NH4+]/[H+] for different plant pools, with the apoplast having the smallest values (30-1000). The main within-canopy sources of NH3 emission appeared to be leaf litter and the soil surface, with ? up to 3 million and 300 000, respectively. Cuvette and within-canopy analyses confirmed the role of leaf litter NH3 emission, which, prior to cutting, was mostly recaptured within the canopy. Measured ammonia fluxes were compared with three models: an ecosystem model (PaSim), a soil vegetation atmosphere transfer model (SURFATM-NH3) and a dynamic leaf chemistry model (DCC model). The different models each reproduced the main temporal dynamics in the flux, highlighting the importance of canopy temperature dynamics (Surfatm-NH3), interactions with ecosystem nitrogen cycling (PaSim) and the role of leaf surface chemistry (DCC model). Overall, net above-canopy fluxes were mostly determined by stomatal and cuticular uptake (before the cut), leaf litter emissions (after the cut) and fertilizer and litter emissions (after fertilization). The dynamics of ammonia emission from leaf litter are identified as a priority for future research.

  14. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase in tobacco. Molecular cloning and gene expression during the hypersensitive reaction to tobacco mosaic virus and the response to a fungal elicitor.

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, L; Rohfritsch, O; Fritig, B; Legrand, M

    1994-01-01

    A tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Samsun NN) cDNA clone coding the enzyme phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) was isolated from a cDNA library made from polyadenylated RNA purified from tobacco mosaic virus (TMV)-infected leaves. Southern analysis indicated that, in tobacco, PAL is encoded by a small family of two to four unclustered genes. Northern analysis showed that PAL genes are weakly expressed under normal physiological conditions, they are moderately and transiently expressed after wounding, but they are strongly induced during the hypersensitive reaction to TMV or to a fungal elicitor. Ribonuclease protection experiments confirmed this evidence and showed the occurrence of two highly homologous PAL messengers originating from a single gene or from two tightly co-regulated genes. By in situ RNA-RNA hybridization PAL transcripts were shown to accumulate in a narrow zone of leaf tissue surrounding necrotic lesions caused by TMV infection or treatment with the fungal elicitor. In this zone, no cell specificity was observed and there was a decreasing gradient of labeling from the edge of necrosis. Some labeling was also found in various cell types of young, healthy stems and was shown to accumulate in large amounts in the same cell types after the deposition of an elicitor solution at the top of the decapitated plant. PMID:7824656

  15. Synthesis of highly ordered CdSe nanowire arrays embedded in anodic alumina membrane by electrodeposition in ammonia alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, X. S.; Zhang, J.; Wang, X. F.; Wang, Y. W.; Zhao, L. X.; Meng, G. W.; Zhang, L. D.

    2001-08-01

    Highly ordered polycrystalline CdSe nanowire arrays have been synthesized by direct current (dc) electrodeposition in anodic alumina membrane (AAM) from ammonia alkaline solution containing CdCl 2 and SeO 2. These nanowires have uniform diameters of about 60 nm, which correspond to the pore sizes of the membranes used. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns indicate that the CdSe nanowires crystallize in a wurtzite structure. The X-ray photoelectron energy spectroscopy and the energy dispersing analysis spectroscopy investigations demonstrate that stoichiometric CdSe is formed, and the ratio of selenium to cadmium depends on the pH of the deposition bath. A mechanism for the nanowires growth is suggested.

  16. Ammonia Transport.

    PubMed

    Wingreen, Ned S

    2004-12-01

    This review reviews the ammonium/methylammonium transport (Amt) proteins of Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The Amt proteins and their homologs, the methylammonium/ammonium permease proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, constitute a distinct class of membrane-associated ammonia transporters. Members of the Amt family are found in archaea, bacteria, fungi, plants, and invertebrate animals. In E. coli and serovar Typhimurium, the Amt proteins are essential to maintain maximal growth at low concentrations of ammonia, the preferred nitrogen source. Soupene and coworkers showed that a mutant of E. coli with only the low-affinity glutamate dehydrogenase pathway for assimilation of ammonia, which therefore grows slowly at low ammonia concentrations, is not relieved of its growth defect by overexpression of AmtB. A recent study on an Amt protein from tomato concluded that it was a specific transporter for NH4+. A trimeric stoichiometry for AmtB is supported by the observation of a direct interaction between AmtB and the trimeric signal-transduction protein GlnK. In E. coli, GlnK has been observed to associate with the membrane in an AmtB-dependent fashion. Both GlnK and GlnB are sensors of nitrogen status. Their interaction with AmtB suggests a role for AmtB in nitrogen regulation. In summary, AmtB is a membrane-associated ammonia transporter that is important for growth at external concentrations of the uncharged species (NH3) below about 50 nM. The preponderance of evidence suggests that AmtB specifically transports the charged species (NH4+) and that this transport is passive and, hence, bidirectional. PMID:26443371

  17. Rhodotorula glutinis Phenylalanine/Tyrosine Ammonia Lyase Enzyme Catalyzed Synthesis of the Methyl Ester of para-Hydroxycinnamic Acid and its Potential Antibacterial Activity

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Marybeth C.; Arivalagan, Pugazhendhi; Barre, Douglas E.; MacInnis, Judith A.; D’Cunha, Godwin B.

    2016-01-01

    Biotransformation of L-tyrosine methyl ester (L-TM) to the methyl ester of para- hydroxycinnamic acid (p-HCAM) using Rhodotorula glutinis yeast phenylalanine/tyrosine ammonia lyase (PTAL; EC 4.3.1.26) enzyme was successfully demonstrated for the first time; progress of the reaction was followed by spectrophotometric determination at 315 nm. The following conditions were optimized for maximal formation of p-HCAM: pH (8.5), temperature (37°C), speed of agitation (50 rpm), enzyme concentration (0.080 μM), and substrate concentration (0.50 mM). Under these conditions, the yield of the reaction was ∼15% in 1 h incubation period and ∼63% after an overnight (∼18 h) incubation period. The product (p-HCAM) of the reaction of PTAL with L-TM was confirmed using Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR). Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy (FTIR) was carried out to rule out potential hydrolysis of p-HCAM during overnight incubation. Potential antibacterial activity of p-HCAM was tested against several strains of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. This study describes a synthetically useful transformation, and could have future clinical and industrial applications. PMID:27014206

  18. Lewis Acid Catalyzed Asymmetric Three-Component Coupling Reaction: Facile Synthesis of ?-Fluoromethylated Tertiary Alcohols.

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Kohsuke; Kondo, Daisuke; Honda, Kazuya; Mikami, Koichi

    2015-12-01

    A chiral dicationic palladium complex is found to be an efficient Lewis acid catalyst for the synthesis of ?-fluoromethyl-substituted tertiary alcohols using a three-component coupling reaction. The reaction transforms three simple and readily available components (terminal alkyne, arene, and fluoromethylpyruvate) to valuable chiral organofluorine compounds. This strategy is completely atom-economical and results in perfect regioselectivities and high enantioselectivities of the corresponding tertiary allylic alcohols in good to excellent yields. PMID:26486488

  19. Ir-Cu nanoframes: one-pot synthesis and efficient electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Pei, Jiajing; Mao, Junjie; Liang, Xin; Chen, Chen; Peng, Qing; Wang, Dingsheng; Li, Yadong

    2016-02-25

    Herein, we achieved successful synthesis of uniform Ir-Cu nanoframes with highly open structures by a facile one-pot strategy. The key to obtain alloy nanoframes was the careful control over the reduction and galvanic replacement reactions between different metals. The as-prepared Ir-Cu was proved to be an effective template for constructing trimetallic nanoframes. Furthermore, these highly open nanostructures exhibited excellent electrocatalytic performance toward oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline media. PMID:26864283

  20. Fiber-optic ammonia sensor using Ag/SnO(2) thin films: optimization of thickness of SnO(2) film using electric field distribution and reaction factor.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Anisha; Mishra, Satyendra K; Gupta, Banshi D

    2015-10-10

    A highly sensitive ammonia gas sensor exploiting the gas sensing characteristics of tin oxide (SnO2) has been reported. The methodology of the sensor is based on the phenomenon of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) with a fiber-optic probe consisting of coatings of silver as a plasmonic material and SnO2 as the sensing layer. The sensing principle relies on the change in refractive index of SnO2 upon its reaction with ammonia gas. The capability of the sensor has been tested for a 10 to 100ppm concentration range of ammonia gas. To enhance the sensitivity, probes with different thicknesses of SnO2 have been fabricated and characterized for ammonia sensing. It has been found that at a particular thickness the sensitivity is highest. The reason for the highest sensitivity at a particular thickness has been evinced theoretically. The electromagnetic field distribution for the multilayer structure of the probe reveals the enhancement of the evanescent field at the tin oxide-ammonia gas interface, which in turn manifests the highest shift in resonance wavelength at a particular thickness. The selectivity of the probe has been tested for various gases, and it has been found to be most accurate for the sensing of ammonia. A sensor utilizing optical fiber, the SPR technique, and metal oxide as sensing element combines the advantages of a miniaturized probe, online monitoring, and remote sensing on one hand and stability, high sensitivity and selectivity, ruggedness, and low cost on the other. PMID:26479808

  1. Modular Synthesis of Pyrazolones Using an Alkene Aminocarbonylation Reaction.

    PubMed

    Lavergne, Kaitlyn; Bongers, Amanda; Betit, Lyanne; Beauchemin, Andr M

    2015-07-17

    A variety of pyrazolones were synthesized from enol ethers and hydrazones using a reaction sequence involving aminocarbonylation of enol ethers followed by nucleophile-induced aromatization of the azomethine imines intermediates. Using bases to catalyze the in situ formation of imino isocyanates allowed alkene aminocarbonylation to proceed under milder conditions with reactive substrates and enabled aminocarbonylation reactions of sensitive enol ethers. Aromatization of the azomethine imines could be induced by reduction using NaBH4, or by addition of NH2OH to afford the parent (?)N-H products. PMID:26126788

  2. Synthesis of Phenyl-Adducted Cyclodextrin through the Click Reaction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new derivative of ß-cyclodextrin (CD) has been made incorporating the phenyl group through the use of click reaction. The resulting product exhibits a self-association phenomenon through the formation of inclusion compound between the phenyl group and CD. The product has been characterized by 1H...

  3. MICROWAVE EFFECTS IN ORGANIC SYNTHESIS: MECHANISTIC AND REACTION MEDIUM CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The scope of applications of microwave irradiation relates to a wide spectrum of organic syntheses with numerous benefits (reduction in reaction times, improved purity of products and better yields) encompassing advantages of both thermal and (or) specific non-purely thermal effe...

  4. Chemoselective intramolecular Wittig reactions for the synthesis of oxazoles and benzofurans.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yu-Shiou; Das, Utpal; Hsiao, Ming-Yu; Liu, Meng-Hsien; Lin, Wenwei

    2014-12-01

    A chemoselective approach was developed for the synthesis of highly functionalized oxazoles and benzofurans using an intramolecular Wittig reaction as the key step. By choosing proper trapping reagent or method of addition of reagents, chemoselectivity can be controlled toward either oxazole or benzofuran derivatives. PMID:25405811

  5. Total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester via Diels-Alder reaction.

    PubMed

    Koprowski, Marek; Bałczewski, Piotr; Owsianik, Krzysztof; Różycka-Sokołowska, Ewa; Marciniak, Bernard

    2016-01-27

    In this paper, we have described the first total synthesis of (±)-epithuriferic acid methyl ester from non-natural sources, in four steps (20% overall yield). The key step involves the Diels-Alder reaction of isobenzofuran with methyl 3-(dimethoxyphosphoryl)acrylate which is controlled by "ortho" regio- and endo stereoselectivities due to the COOMe group. PMID:26750755

  6. ?-Fluoroallenoate Synthesis via N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Fluorination Reaction of Alkynals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Wu, Zijun; Wang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    The first catalytic ?-fluoroallenoate synthesis is described. With a suitable combination of N-heterocyclic carbene precatalyst, base, and fluorine reagent, the reaction proceeded smoothly to yield a wide range of ?-fluoroallenoates with excellent chemoselectivity. These substituted ?-fluorinated allenoates have been synthesized for the first time, and they are versatile synthetic intermediates toward other useful fluorine-containing building blocks. PMID:26771540

  7. Synthesis of Terminal Allenes via a Copper-Catalyzed Decarboxylative Coupling Reaction of Alkynyl Carboxylic Acids.

    PubMed

    Lim, Jeongah; Choi, Jinseop; Kim, Han-Sung; Kim, In Seon; Nam, Kye Chun; Kim, Jimin; Lee, Sunwoo

    2016-01-01

    Synthesis of terminal allenes via a copper-catalyzed decarboxylative coupling reaction was developed. Aryl alkynyl carboxylic acid, paraformaldehyde, and dicyclohexylamine were reacted with CuI (20 mol %) in diglyme at 100 C for 2 h to produce the terminal allene in moderate to good yields. The method showed good functional group tolerance. PMID:26618610

  8. Dynamics of ammonia exchange with cut grassland: synthesis of results and conclusions of the GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, M. A.; Nemitz, E.; Milford, C.; Campbell, C.; Erisman, J. W.; Hensen, A.; Cellier, P.; David, M.; Loubet, B.; Personne, E.; Schjoerring, J. K.; Mattsson, M.; Dorsey, J. R.; Gallagher, M. W.; Horvath, L.; Weidinger, T.; Meszaros, R.; Dmmgen, U.; Neftel, A.; Herrmann, B.; Lehman, B. E.; Flechard, C.; Burkhardt, J.

    2009-01-01

    Improved data on biosphere-atmosphere exchange are fundamental to understanding the production and fate of ammonia (NH3) in the atmosphere. The GRAMINAE Integrated Experiment combined novel measurement and modelling approaches to provide the most comprehensive analysis of the interactions to date. Major inter-comparisons of micrometeorological parameters and NH3 flux measurements using the aerodynamic gradient method and relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) were conducted. These showed close agreement, though the REA systems proved insufficiently precise to investigate vertical flux divergence. Grassland management had a large effect on fluxes: Emissions increased after grass cutting (-50 to 700 ng m-2 s-1 NH3) and after N-fertilization (0 to 3800 ng m-2 sammonia emission from leaf litter are identified as a priority for future research.

  9. Formation of ammonia from dinitrogen under primordial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weigand, W.; Dörr, M.; Robl, C.; Kreisel, G.; Grunert, R.; Käßbohrer, J.; Brand, W.; Werner, R.; Popp, J.; Tarcea, N.

    2002-11-01

    Ammonia is one of the most largely industrially produced basic compounds, leading to a variety of important secondary products. In the chemical industry, ammonia is produced in large amounts via the HABER-BOSCH-process. In contrast to the industrial process, the nitrogenase enzyme operates in organisms under very mild conditions at atmospheric pressure and ambient temperature. In this article, we describe a method for the synthesis of ammonia from molecular nitrogen using H2S and freshly precipitated iron sulfide as a mediator thus serving as a primordial inorganic substitute for the enzyme nitrogenase. The reductand, as well as the reaction conditions (atmospheric nitrogen pressure and temperatures on the order of 70 - 80°C) are rather mild and therefore comparable to the biological processes. The driving force of the overall reaction is believed to be the oxidation of iron sulfide to iron disulfide, and the formation of hydrogen from H2S. The reactions reported in this article may support the theory of an archaic nitrogen-fixing Fe-S cluster.

  10. Process for manufacture of ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, R.W.

    1986-06-10

    An improved process is described for making synthetic ammonia wherein a make-up synthesis gas is added to recycled unreacted gas from the catalytic conversion loop including the steps of introducing a volatile anti-icing compound into the hot make-up gas to vaporize the compound, cooling the gas and vaporized anti-icing compound to condense part of the anti-icing compound, separating the condensed anti-icing compound and dissolved impurities from the make-up gas. Further cooling the make-up gas to a temperature at which the remaining anti-icing compound condenses essentially completely, separating the condensing remaining anti-icing compound from the make-up gas, mixing the resulting make-up gas at the low temperature with liquid ammonia to saturate the make-up gas with ammonia, separating unvaporized liquid ammonia from the saturated make-up gas, mixing the saturated make-up gas with recycle and passing the mixed gases directly to the catalytic ammonia synthesis converter.

  11. Synthesis of nanosized silicon particles by a rapid metathesis reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Won, C.W.; Nersisyan, H.H.; Won, H.I.; Lee, H.H.

    2009-11-15

    A solid-state rapid metathesis reaction was performed in a bed of sodium silicofluoride (Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}) and sodium azide (NaN{sub 3}) powders diluted with sodium fluoride (NaF), to produce silicon nanoparticles. After a local ignition of Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}+4NaN{sub 3}+kNaF mixture (here k is mole number of NaF), the reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining combustion mode developing high temperatures (950-1000 deg. C) on very short time scales (a few seconds). Silicon nanoparticles prepared by the combustion process was easily separated from the salt byproducts by simple washing with distilled water. The structural and morphological studies on the nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The mean size of silicon particles calculated from the FESEM image was about 37.75 nm. FESEM analysis also shows that the final purified product contains a noticeable amount of silicon fibers, dendrites and blocks, along with nanoparticles. The mechanism of Si nanostructures formation is discussed and a simple model for interpretation of experimental results is proposed. - Graphical abstract: Silicon nanoparticles 37.75 nm in mean diameter was obtained by rapid metathesis reaction performed in Na{sub 2}SiF{sub 6}+4NaN{sub 3} powder bed diluted with NaF.

  12. Synthesis and reaction of the first 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes.

    PubMed

    Kyri, Andreas Wolfgang; Nesterov, Vitaly; Schnakenburg, Gregor; Streubel, Rainer

    2014-09-26

    While P(V) 1,2-oxaphosphetanes are well known from the Wittig reaction, their P(III) analogues are still unexplored. Herein, the synthesis and reactions of the first 1,2-oxaphosphetane complexes are presented, which were achieved by reaction of the phosphinidenoid complex [Li(12-crown-4)(solv)][(OC)5W{(Me3Si)2HCPCl}] with different epoxides. The title compounds appeared to be stable in toluene up to 100?C, before unselective decomposition started. Acid-induced ring expansion with benzonitrile resulted in selective formation of the first complex bearing a 1,3,4-oxazaphosphacyclohex-2-ene ligand. PMID:25164241

  13. Organocatalytic Michael and Friedel-Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maltsev, O. V.; Beletskaya, Irina P.; Zlotin, Sergei G.

    2011-11-01

    Recent applications of organocatalytic Michael and Friedel-Crafts reactions in enantioselective synthesis of biologically active compounds: natural products, pharmaceutical agents and plant protection agents are reviewed. The key mechanisms of stereoinduction, types of organocatalysts and reagents used in these reactions are considered. The material is classified according to the type of newly formed bonds incorporating the asymmetric carbon atom, and the information for the most numerous C-C coupling reactions is systematized according to the natures of the electrophile and the nucleophile. The bibliography includes 433 references. Dedicated to Academician O M Nefedov on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

  14. Synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions using radioactive beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smolańczuk, Robert

    2010-06-01

    Chances of synthesis of transactinide nuclei in cold fusion reactions (one-neutron-out reactions) using radioactive beams are evaluated. Because in most of the cases intensities of radioactive beams are significantly less than those of the stable beams, reactions with the greatest radioactive-beam intensities for the particular elements are considered. The results are compared with the recent ones obtained by Loveland [Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.76.014612 76, 014612 (2007)], who investigated the same nuclei.

  15. Synthesis and reactions of the oxides of hexafluoropropylene trimers

    SciTech Connect

    Zapevalov, A.Ya.; Filyakova, T.I.; Peschanskii, N.V.; Kodess, M.I.; Kolenko, I.P.

    1986-03-10

    By the oxidation of the hexafluoropropylene trimers with an aqueous solution of sodium hypochlorite in the presence of acetonitrile the following ..cap alpha..-oxides were obtained: 2,3-Epoxyperfluoro-3-isopropyl-4-methylpentane and 2,3-epoxyperfluoro-3-ethyl-2,4-dimethylpentane. According to the /sup 19/F NMR data, the epoxidation takes place stereoselectively with the formation of only one conformer of the ..cap alpha..-oxide in each case. The determining effect of the steric factors on the reactivity of the oxides of hexafluoropropylene trimers in reaction with nucleophiles was demonstrated.

  16. Silicon-modified metal-ammonia reduction of fluorene

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, W.K.; Hardin, J.N.; Rabideau, P.W. )

    1990-08-31

    The metal-ammonia reduction of aromatic and polynuclear aromatic compounds, known as the Birch reduction when alcohols are employed as proton sources, represents an important method for the synthesis of hydroaromatic compounds. The regiochemistry of this reduction is dictated primarily by the electron density distribution in the anionic intermediates. The authors have been exploring methods for regiochemical control in this reaction and have shown that a trimethylsilyl group can be used to alter regiochemistry, and, after its subsequent removal, afford a misoriented Birch reduction product.

  17. Synthesis of nanosized silicon particles by a rapid metathesis reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, C. W.; Nersisyan, H. H.; Won, H. I.; Lee, H. H.

    2009-11-01

    A solid-state rapid metathesis reaction was performed in a bed of sodium silicofluoride (Na 2SiF 6) and sodium azide (NaN 3) powders diluted with sodium fluoride (NaF), to produce silicon nanoparticles. After a local ignition of Na 2SiF 6+4NaN 3+ kNaF mixture (here k is mole number of NaF), the reaction proceeded in a self-sustaining combustion mode developing high temperatures (950-1000 C) on very short time scales (a few seconds). Silicon nanoparticles prepared by the combustion process was easily separated from the salt byproducts by simple washing with distilled water. The structural and morphological studies on the nanoparticles were carried out using X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM). The mean size of silicon particles calculated from the FESEM image was about 37.75 nm. FESEM analysis also shows that the final purified product contains a noticeable amount of silicon fibers, dendrites and blocks, along with nanoparticles. The mechanism of Si nanostructures formation is discussed and a simple model for interpretation of experimental results is proposed.

  18. Reaction synthesis and processing of nickel and iron aluminides

    SciTech Connect

    Deevi, S.C.; Sikka, V.K.

    1996-12-31

    Composites of Ni and Fe aluminides were obtained by hot pressing and hot extrusion of a blended mixture of Ni and Al or Fe and Al with ceramic phases such as TiC, ZrO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Aluminides were analyzed by XRD to determine the phase structures, and optical and scanning electron microscopies were used to determine the grain sizes of the aluminides and dispersion of ceramics. Tensile properties (0.2% YS, UTS, total elong., RIA) were measured on buttonhead and sheet specimens of Ni and Fe aluminides and their composites at room and high temperatures in air at a strain rate of 1. 2x10{sup -3}/s. Tensile properties of Fe-8 wt% Al from partial mechanical alloying and then combustion synthesis compare very well with oxide-dispersed alloys of Fe. Fe aluminides of FeAl and their composites, based on Fe-24 wt% Al from hot pressing of Fe and Al powders with or without ceramic phases, exhibited full densities and uniform grain sizes. Tensile properties of FeAl and composites (hot pressing of elemental powders) were excellent compared to those of FeAl alloys from hot extrusion of water-atomized powders. Fe aluminides were also obtained by hot extrusion of Fe and Al powders at 950, 1000, and 1100 C.

  19. Asymmetric synthesis of trisubstituted oxazolidinones by the thiourea-catalyzed aldol reaction of 2-isocyanatomalonate diester.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Shota; Kazumi, Naoya; Kobayashi, Yusuke; Tsukano, Chihiro; Takemoto, Yoshiji

    2014-09-19

    A new method has been developed for the synthesis of chiral 4-carboxyl oxazolidinones by the catalytic asymmetric aldol reaction of an isocyanatomalonate diester with an aldehyde in the presence of a thiourea catalyst. The resulting chiral 4-carboxyl oxazolidinones are the equivalent of ?-hydroxy-?-amino acids bearing a tri- or tetrasubstituted carbon center at their ? position. With this in mind, this procedure was successfully applied to the first total synthesis of mycestericin C, which was completed in 12 steps and represents one of the shortest reported sequences for the construction of natural products of this type. PMID:25203516

  20. Reaction Pairing: A Diversity-Oriented Synthesis Strategy for the Synthesis of Diverse Benzofused Sultams

    PubMed Central

    Samarakoon, Thiwanka B.; Loh, Joanna K.; Rolfe, Alan; Le, Lisa S.; Yoon, Sun Young; Lushington, Gerald H.; Hanson, Paul. R.

    2011-01-01

    A reaction pairing strategy centered on utilization of a reaction triad (sulfonylation, SNAr addition and Mitsunobu alkylation) generating skeletally diverse benzofused tricyclic and bicyclic sultams is reported. Pairing sulfonylation and SNAr reactions yields bridged, tricyclic and bicyclic benzofused sultams. Application of the Mitsunobu reaction in a sulfonylationMitsunobuSNAr pairing allows access to benzo-oxathiazocine-1,1-dioxides, while a simple change in the order of pairing to sulfonylationSNArMitsunobu affords structurally different, benzofused bridged tricyclic sultams. PMID:21899284

  1. Phosphorylated aminosugars: Synthesis, properties, and reactivity in enzymatic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Sem, D.S.; Cleland, W.W. )

    1991-05-21

    A number of phosphorylated aminosugars have been prepared and tested as substrates for metabolic reactions. 6-Aminoglucose is a slow substrate for yeast hexokinase with a V{sub max} that is only 0.012% that of glucose. While V{sub max} is pH independent, V/K decreases below the pK of 9.0 of the amino group. 6-Aminoglucose is a competitive inhibitor vs glucose with a K{sub i} value increasing below the pK of 9 but leveling off at 33 mM below pH 7.16. Thus, protonation decreases binding affinity by 2.4 kcal/mol and only the neutral amine is catalytically competent. 6-Aminoglucose-6-P was synthesized enzymatically with hexokinase. Its pK's determined by {sup 31}P NMR were 2.46 and 8.02 ({alpha} anomer) and 2.34 and 7.85 ({beta} anomer), with a {beta}:{alpha} ratio of 3.0. It is most stable at pH 12, while as a monoanion its half-life is 3 h. The {sup 31}P NMR chemical shifts of the analogues are 8-8.5 ppm at pH 9.5. Their relative stability is 6-aminogluconate-6-P > 3-aminoglyceraldehyde-3-P > 6-aminoglucose-6-P > 6-aminofructose-1,6-bis-P{approx equal}6-aminofructose-6-P > 5-aminoribulose-5-P. These analogues were tested as substrates for their respective enzymes. Phosphorylated aminosugars are thus excellent isosteric analogues of normal metabolic intermediates, except for reactions catalyzed by kinases.

  2. Synthesis of the heaviest nuclei in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenberg, G.; Morita, K.

    2015-12-01

    Cold fusion of heavy ions paved the way to superheavy elements. It was proposed by Yu.Ts. Oganessian more than forty years ago in 1974 [1,2]. First experiments were carried out at JINR Dubna, starting with the reaction 40Ar + 208Pb → 248Fm* where several hundreds to thousand atoms were produced on one day. The large production rate indicating an enhancement of the fusion cross section, especially for the evaporation of two or three neutrons, proved the concept of cold-fusion with the use of the doubly magic nucleus 208Pb as a target. The Dubna experiments were extended to the transactinide region beyond rutherfordium. The breakthrough came with the separation in-flight. Two different approaches were used: kinematic separation with the velocity filter SHIP [3] at GSI Darmstadt, and with the gasfilled separator GARIS [4,5] at RIKEN. With SHIP the concept of cold fusion of massive nuclear systems was convincingly confirmed by the observation of the one-neutron evaporation channel in the production of 247Rf in an irradiation of 208Pb with 50Ti [6] in 1981 which opened the way to the transactinide region. At SHIP the elements bohrium (107) to copernicium (112) were discovered [7]. A new closed shell region around hassium was found. The RIKEN experiments started in 2002. They confirmed the GSI results and in addition improved the data on structure and production of elements hassium to copernicium significantly. The heaviest element ever created in a cold fusion reaction, Z = 113, was observed at GARIS [8,9].

  3. Development of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay to target a novel group of ammonia-producing bacteria found in poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Rothrock, M J; Cook, K L; Lovanh, N; Warren, J G; Sistani, K

    2008-06-01

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. In poultry litter, the conversion of organic N (uric acid and urea) to NH(4)-N is a microbially mediated process. The urease enzyme is responsible for the final step in the conversion of urea to NH(4)-N. Cloning and analysis of 168 urease sequences from extracted genomic DNA from poultry litter samples revealed the presence of a novel, dominant group of ureolytic microbes (representing 90% of the urease clone library). Specific primers and a probe were designed to target this novel poultry litter urease producer (PLUP) group, and a new quantitative real-time PCR assay was developed. The assay allowed for the detection of 10(2) copies of target urease sequences per PCR reaction (approximately 1 x 10(4) cells per gram of poultry litter), and the reaction was linear over 8 orders of magnitude. Our PLUP group was present only in poultry litter and was not present in environmental samples from diverse agricultural settings. This novel PLUP group represented between 0.1 to 3.1% of the total microbial populations (6.0 x 10(6) to 2.4 x 10(8) PLUP cells per gram of litter) from diverse poultry litter types. The PLUP cell concentrations were directly correlated to the total cell concentrations in the poultry litter and were found to be influenced by the physical parameters of the litters (bedding material, moisture content, pH), as well as the NH(4)-N content of the litters, based on principal component analysis. Chemical parameters (organic N, total N, total C) were not found to be influential in the concentrations of our PLUP group in the diverse poultry litters Future applications of this assay could include determining the efficacy of current NH(4)-N-reducing litter amendments or in designing more efficient treatment protocols. PMID:18492992

  4. A new direct single-molecule observation method for DNA synthesis reaction using fluorescent replication protein A.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Shunsuke; Kawasaki, Shohei; Miyata, Hidefumi; Kurita, Hirofumi; Mizuno, Takeshi; Matsuura, Shun-ichi; Mizuno, Akira; Oshige, Masahiko; Katsura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    Using a single-stranded region tracing system, single-molecule DNA synthesis reactions were directly observed in microflow channels. The direct single-molecule observations of DNA synthesis were labeled with a fusion protein consisting of the ssDNA-binding domain of a 70-kDa subunit of replication protein A and enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (RPA-YFP). Our method was suitable for measurement of DNA synthesis reaction rates with control of the ss?DNA form as stretched ss?DNA (+flow) and random coiled ss?DNA (-flow) via buffer flow. Sequentially captured photographs demonstrated that the synthesized region of an ss?DNA molecule monotonously increased with the reaction time. The DNA synthesis reaction rate of random coiled ss?DNA (-flow) was nearly the same as that measured in a previous ensemble molecule experiment (52 vs. 50 bases/s). This suggested that the random coiled form of DNA (-flow) reflected the DNA form in the bulk experiment in the case of DNA synthesis reactions. In addition, the DNA synthesis reaction rate of stretched ss?DNA (+flow) was approximately 75% higher than that of random coiled ss?DNA (-flow) (91 vs. 52 bases/s). The DNA synthesis reaction rate of the Klenow fragment (3'-5'exo-) was promoted by DNA stretching with buffer flow. PMID:24625741

  5. Basic distinctions between cold- and hot-fusion reactions in the synthesis of superheavy elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasirov, A. K.; Muminov, A. I.; Giardina, G.; Mandaglio, G.

    2014-07-01

    Superheavy elements (SHE) of charge number in the range of Z = 106-112 were synthesized in so-called cold-fusion reactions. The smallness of the excitation energy of compound nuclei is the main advantage of cold-fusion reactions. However, the synthesis of SHEs of charge number in the region of Z ≥ 112 is strongly complicated in cold-fusion reactions by a sharp decrease in the cross section of a compound nucleus formation in the entrance channel because of superiority of quasifission in the competition with complete fusion. Two favorable circumstances contributed to the success of the experiments aimed at the synthesis of the Z = 113-118 elements and performed at the Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research: large cross sections for the production of a compound nucleus, which are characteristic of hot-fusion reactions, and an increase in the fission barrier for nuclei toward the stability island. The factor that complicates the formation of a compound nucleus in cold-fusion reactions is discussed.

  6. Ammonia Production Using Pressure Swing Adsorption

    SciTech Connect

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose overall objective is to develop and demonstrate a technically feasible and commercially viable system that integrates reaction to produce ammonia along with recovery of the products by adsorption separation methods and significantly decrease the energy requirement in ammonia production.

  7. Regeneration of ammonia borane from polyborazylene

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, Andrew; Gordon, John C; Ott, Kevin C; Burrell, Anthony K

    2013-02-05

    Method of producing ammonia borane, comprising providing a reagent comprising a dehydrogenated material in a suitable solvent; and combining the reagent with a reducing agent comprising hydrazine, a hydrazine derivative, or combinations thereof, in a reaction which produces a mixture comprising ammonia borane.

  8. Dichlorocarbene-Functionalized Fluorographene: Synthesis and Reaction Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lazar, Petr; Chua, Chun Kiang; Holá, Kateřina; Zbořil, Radek; Otyepka, Michal; Pumera, Martin

    2015-08-01

    Halogen functionalization of graphene is an important branch of graphene research as it provides opportunities to tailor the band gap and catalytic properties of graphene. Monovalent C-X bond obviates pitfalls of functionalization with atoms of groups 13, 15, and 16, which can introduce various poorly defined groups. Here, the preparation of functionalized graphene containing both fluorine and chlorine atoms is shown. The starting material, fluorographite, undergoes a reaction with dichlorocarbene to provide dichlorocarbene-functionalized fluorographene (DCC-FG). The material is characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy with X-ray dispersive spectroscopy. It is found that the chlorine atoms in DCC-FG are distributed homogeneously over the entire area of the fluorographene sheet. Further density functional theory calculations show that the mechanism of dichlorocarbene attack on fluorographene sheet is a two-step process. Dichlorocarbene detaches fluorine atoms from fluorographene sheet and subsequently adds to the newly formed sp(2) carbons. Halogenated graphene consisting of two (or eventually three) types of halogen atoms is envisioned to find its way as new graphene materials with tailored properties. PMID:25939616

  9. Synthesis of new cytotoxic aminoanthraquinone derivatives via nucleophilic substitution reactions.

    PubMed

    Nor, Siti Mariam Mohd; Sukari, Mohd Aspollah Hj Md; Azziz, Saripah Salbiah Syed Abdul; Fah, Wong Chee; Alimon, Hasimah; Juhan, Siti Fadilah

    2013-01-01

    Aminoanthraquinones were successfully synthesized via two reaction steps. 1,4-Dihydroxyanthraquinone (1) was first subjected to methylation, reduction and acylation to give an excellent yield of anthracene-1,4-dione (3), 1,4-dimethoxyanthracene-9,10-dione (5) and 9,10-dioxo-9,10-dihydroanthracene-1,4-diyl diacetate (7). Treatment of 1, 3, 5 and 7 with BuNH2 in the presence of PhI(OAc)2 as catalyst produced seven aminoanthraquinone derivatives 1a, b, 3a, and 5a-d. Amination of 3 and 5 afforded three new aminoanthraquinones, namely 2-(butylamino)anthracene-1,4-dione (3a), 2-(butylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione (5a) and 2,3-(dibutylamino)anthracene-9,10-dione (5b). All newly synthesised aminoanthraquinones were examined for their cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive human breast) and Hep-G2 (human hepatocellular liver carcinoma) cancer cells using MTT assay. Aminoanthraquinones 3a, 5a and 5b exhibited strong cytotoxicity towards both cancer cell lines (IC50 1.1-13.0 µg/mL). PMID:23884135

  10. Polymerase chain reaction-mediated gene synthesis: synthesis of a gene coding for isozyme c of horseradish peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Jayaraman, K; Fingar, S A; Shah, J; Fyles, J

    1991-01-01

    The synthesis of a gene coding for horseradish peroxidase (HRP, isozyme c; EC 1.11.1.7) is described using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-mediated gene synthesis approach developed in our laboratory. In this approach, all the oligonucleotides making up the gene are ligated in a single step by using the two outer oligonucleotides as PCR primers and the crude ligation mixture as the target. The PCR facilitates synthesis and purification of the gene simultaneously. The gene for HRP was synthesized by ligating all 40 oligonucleotides in a single step followed by PCR amplification. The gene was also synthesized from its fragments by using an overlap extension method similar to the procedure as described [Horton, R. M., Hunt, H. D., Ho, S. N., Pullen, J. K. & Pease, L. R. (1989) Gene 77, 61-68]. A method for combining different DNA fragments, in-frame, by using the PCR was also developed and used to synthesize the HRP gene from its gene fragments. This method is applicable to the synthesis of even larger genes and to combine any DNA fragments in-frame. After the synthesis, preliminary characterization of the HRP gene was also carried out by the PCR to confirm the arrangement of oligonucleotides in the gene. This was done by carrying out the PCR with several sets of primers along the gene and comparing the product sizes with the expected sizes. The gene and the fragments generated by PCR were cloned in Escherichia coli and the sequence was confirmed by manual and automated DNA sequencing. Images PMID:1851991

  11. Template Synthesis and Reactions of Tricarbonylmolybdenum Phosphadithiamacrocycle Complexes.

    PubMed

    Blower, Philip J.; Jeffery, John C.; Miller, John R.; Salek, Spencer N.; Schmaljohann, Dirk; Smith, Raymond J.; Went, Michael J.

    1997-04-01

    Treatment of [Me(4)N](2)[PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)] with [Mo(CO)(3)(NCMe)(3)] affords the reactive intermediate [Me(4)N](2)[Mo(CO)(3){PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)}] (1), which undergoes oxidation to afford [Mo{PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)}(2)] (2). Reaction of 1 with a variety of dichloroalkanes produces [Mo(CO)(3){c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)X}] (X = CH(2)CH(2), CH(2)CH(2)CH(2), CH(2)CHMe or CH(2)CH(OH)CH(2)). The structure of [Mo(CO)(3){c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2)}] (3) has been established by X-ray crystallography and consists of a Mo(CO)(3) fragment facially coordinated by the tridentate c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2) ligand. Reaction of 3 with bromine affords seven-coordinate [Mo(CO)(2){c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2)}Br(2)] (7), the X-ray crystal structure of which reveals a carbonyl-capped octahedral geometry. Treatment of 3 with sulfur results in loss of the Mo(CO)(3) fragment and isolation of c-PhPS(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2) (8), the X-ray structure of which shows a nine-membered ring with the phosphorus center bearing phenyl and sulfide substituents. Reduction of 8 with sodium naphthalenide affords the parent ligand c-PhP(CH(2)CH(2)S)(2)CH(2)CH(2). Crystal data: 2, C(20)H(26)MoP(2)S(4), triclinic P&onemacr;, a = 8.105(3) , b = 8.263(3) , c = 17.663(4) , alpha = 100.29(2) degrees, beta = 99.78(2) degrees, gamma = 98.81(2) degrees, Z = 2; 3, C(15)H(17)MoO(3)PS(2), monoclinic P2(1)/n, a = 9.600(3) , b = 15.594(5) , c = 11.335(3) , beta = 93.01(2) degrees, Z = 4; 7, C(14)H(17)Br(2)MoO(2)PS(2), monoclinic P2(1)/c, a = 17.039(3) , b = 8.686(2) , c = 12.466(3) , beta = 100.52(2) degrees, Z = 4; 8, C(12)H(17)PS(3), monoclinic P2(1), a = 6.651(4) , b = 7.313(2) , c = 14.687(9) , beta = 101.62(3) degrees, Z = 2. PMID:11669745

  12. Reaction design, discovery, and development as a foundation to function-oriented synthesis.

    PubMed

    Micalizio, Glenn C; Hale, Sarah B

    2015-03-17

    Convergent C-C bond-forming reactions define the fabric of organic synthesis and, when applied in complex molecule synthesis, can have a profound impact on efficiency by decreasing the longest linear sequence of transformations required to convert simple starting materials to complex targets. Despite their well-appreciated strategic significance, campaigns in natural product synthesis typically embrace only a small suite of reactivity to achieve such bond construction (i.e., nucleophilic addition to polarized ?-bonds, nucleophilic substitution, cycloaddition, and metal-catalyzed "cross-coupling"), therefore limiting the sites at which convergent coupling chemistry can be strategically employed. In our opinion, it is far too often that triumphs in the field are defined by chemical sequences that do not address the challenges associated with discovery, development, and production of natural product-inspired agents. We speculated that advancing an area of chemical reactivity not represented in the few well-established strategies for convergent C-C bond formation may lead to powerful new retrosynthetic relationships that could simplify approaches to the syntheses of a variety of different classes of natural products. Our studies ultimately embraced the pursuit of strategies to control the course of metallacycle-mediated "cross-coupling" between substrates containing sites of simple ?-unsaturation (ubiquitous functionality in organic chemistry including alkenes, alkynes, allenes, aldehydes, and imines, among others). In just eight years since our initial publication in this area, we have defined over 20 stereoselective intermolecular C-C bond-forming reactions that provide access to structural motifs of relevance for the synthesis of polyketides, fatty acids, alkaloids, and terpenes, while doing so in a direct and stereoselective fashion. These achievements continue to serve as the foundation of my group's activity in natural product and function-oriented synthesis, where our achievements in reaction development are challenged in the context of complex targets. Among our early efforts, we achieved the most concise synthesis of a benzoquinone ansamycin ever described (macbecin I), and moved beyond this achievement to explore the role of our chemistry in function-oriented synthesis targeting the discovery of natural product-inspired Hsp90 inhibitors. These later efforts have led to the discovery of a uniquely selective benzoquinone ansamycin-inspired Hsp90 inhibitor that lacks the problematic quinone present in the natural series. This achievement was made possible by a concise chemical synthesis pathway that had at its core the application of metallacycle-mediated cross-coupling chemistry. PMID:25668752

  13. Gold catalysis: one-pot alkylideneoxazoline synthesis/Alder-ene reaction.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, A Stephen K; Littmann, Anna

    2012-06-01

    Based on the gold-catalyzed synthesis of methyleneoxazolines, a one-pot combination with an Alder-ene reaction was developed. For azodicarboxylates, good to very good yields (51-99%) of the oxazolemethylhydrazinedicarboxylates were achieved with 3 mol% of the Gagosz catalyst, [Ph(3)PAuNTf(3)]. In a less-selective reaction, 4-phenyl-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3,5(4H)-dione gave lower yields (41-49%) of the corresponding oxazolemethylphenyltriazolidinediones. Overall, five new bonds were formed. Tetracyanoethylene afforded a cyclobutane derivative through a [2+2] cycloaddition reaction at -40 C, but only 45% of the spiro compound was obtained. The less-readily available KITPHOS ligands on gold gave even higher yields at lower catalyst loadings (2 mol%), but longer reaction times were required. PMID:22434782

  14. Synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles through a photomediated reaction in an aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Banasiuk, Rafa?; Frackowiak, Joanna E; Krychowiak, Marta; Matuszewska, Marta; Kawiak, Anna; Ziabka, Magdalena; Lendzion-Bielun, Zofia; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Krolicka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    A fast, economical, and reproducible method for nanoparticle synthesis has been developed in our laboratory. The reaction is performed in an aqueous environment and utilizes light emitted by commercially available 1 W light-emitting diodes (? =420 nm) as the catalyst. This method does not require nanoparticle seeds or toxic chemicals. The irradiation process is carried out for a period of up to 10 minutes, significantly reducing the time required for synthesis as well as environmental impact. By modulating various reaction parameters silver nanoparticles were obtained, which were predominantly either spherical or cubic. The produced nanoparticles demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity toward the examined bacterial strains. Additionally, testing the effect of silver nanoparticles on the human keratinocyte cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that their cytotoxicity may be limited by modulating the employed concentrations of nanoparticles. PMID:26855570

  15. Synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles through a photomediated reaction in an aqueous environment

    PubMed Central

    Banasiuk, Rafał; Frackowiak, Joanna E; Krychowiak, Marta; Matuszewska, Marta; Kawiak, Anna; Ziabka, Magdalena; Lendzion-Bielun, Zofia; Narajczyk, Magdalena; Krolicka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    A fast, economical, and reproducible method for nanoparticle synthesis has been developed in our laboratory. The reaction is performed in an aqueous environment and utilizes light emitted by commercially available 1 W light-emitting diodes (λ =420 nm) as the catalyst. This method does not require nanoparticle seeds or toxic chemicals. The irradiation process is carried out for a period of up to 10 minutes, significantly reducing the time required for synthesis as well as environmental impact. By modulating various reaction parameters silver nanoparticles were obtained, which were predominantly either spherical or cubic. The produced nanoparticles demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity toward the examined bacterial strains. Additionally, testing the effect of silver nanoparticles on the human keratinocyte cell line and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells revealed that their cytotoxicity may be limited by modulating the employed concentrations of nanoparticles. PMID:26855570

  16. Synthesis of most polyene natural product motifs using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woerly, Eric M.; Roy, Jahnabi; Burke, Martin D.

    2014-06-01

    The inherent modularity of polypeptides, oligonucleotides and oligosaccharides has been harnessed to achieve generalized synthesis platforms. Importantly, like these other targets, most small-molecule natural products are biosynthesized via iterative coupling of bifunctional building blocks. This suggests that many small molecules also possess inherent modularity commensurate with systematic building block-based construction. Supporting this hypothesis, here we report that the polyene motifs found in >75% of all known polyene natural products can be synthesized using just 12 building blocks and one coupling reaction. Using the same general retrosynthetic algorithm and reaction conditions, this platform enabled both the synthesis of a wide range of polyene frameworks that covered all of this natural-product chemical space and the first total syntheses of the polyene natural products asnipyrone B, physarigin A and neurosporaxanthin β-D-glucopyranoside. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for a more generalized approach to making small molecules in the laboratory.

  17. Semibullvalene and diazasemibullvalene: recent advances in the synthesis, reaction chemistry, and synthetic applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaoguang; Zhang, Wen-Xiong; Xi, Zhenfeng

    2015-07-21

    Semibullvalene (SBV) and its aza analogue 2,6-diazasemibullvalene (NSBV) are theoretically interesting and experimentally challenging organic molecules because of four unique features: highly strained ring systems, intramolecular skeletal rearrangement, extremely rapid degenerate (aza-)Cope rearrangement, and the predicted existence of neutral homoaromatic delocalized structures. SBV has received much attention in the past 50 years. In contrast, after NSBV was predicted in 1971 and the first in situ synthesis was realized in 1982, no progress on NSBV chemistry was made until our results in 2012. We have been interested in the reaction chemistry of 1,4-dilithio-1,3-butadienes (dilithio reagents for short), especially for their applications in the synthesis of SBV and NSBV, because (i) the cyclodimerization of dilithio reagents could provide the potential eight-carbon skeleton of SBV from four-carbon butadiene units and (ii) the insertion reaction of dilithio reagents with C?N bonds of two nitriles could provide a 6C + 2N skeleton that might be a good precursor for the synthesis of NSBV. Therefore, we initiated a journey into the synthesis and reaction chemistry of SBV and NSBV starting from dilithio reagents that has been ongoing since 2006. In this Account, we outline mainly our recent achievements in the synthesis, structural characterization, reaction chemistry, synthetic application, and theoretical/computational analysis of NSBV. Two efficient strategies for the synthesis of NSBV from dilithio reagents and nitriles via oxidant-induced C-N bond formation are described. Structural investigations of NSBV, including X-ray crystal structure analysis, determination of the activation barrier for the aza-Cope rearrangement, and theoretical analysis, show that the localized structure of NSBV is the predominant form and that the homoaromatic delocalized structure exists as a minor component in the equilibrium. We also discuss the reaction chemistry and synthetic applications of NSBV. Several novel reaction patterns have been explored, including thermolysis, C-N bond insertion, rearrangement-cycloaddition, oxidation, and nucleophilic ring-opening reactions. Diverse and interesting N-containing polycyclic skeletons can be constructed, such as nickelaazetidine, 1,5-diazatriquinacenes, and triazabrexadienes, which are not available by other means. Our results show that NSBV not only features a rapid aza-Cope rearrangement with a low activation barrier but also acts as unique synthetic reagent that is significantly different from aziridine. The strained rigid ring systems as a whole can be involved in the reactions. Our achievements highlight two significant advances: (i) the well-established efficient synthesis and isolation of NSBV has greatly accelerated the development of NSBV chemistry, and (ii) the previously unattainable molecules have become "normal" and routine starting materials for the synthesis of otherwise unavailable but interesting structures. We expect that our pursuits will inspire and help direct future chemical and physical research on NSBV. PMID:26061608

  18. One-pot synthesis of core-shell Cu@SiO2 nanospheres and their catalysis for hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane and hydrazine borane

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Qilu; Lu, Zhang-Hui; Zhang, Zhujun; Chen, Xiangshu; Lan, Yaqian

    2014-01-01

    Ultrafine copper nanoparticles (Cu NPs) within porous silica nanospheres (Cu@SiO2) were prepared via a simple one-pot synthetic route in a reverse micelle system and characterized by SEM, TEM, EDX, XRD, N2 adsorption-desorption, CO-TPD, XPS, and ICP methods. The characterized results show that ultrafine Cu NPs with diameter of around 2?nm are effectively embedded in the center of well-proportioned spherical SiO2 NPs of about 25?nm in diameter. Compared to commercial SiO2 supported Cu NPs, SiO2 nanospheres supported Cu NPs, and free Cu NPs, the synthesized core-shell nanospheres Cu@SiO2 exhibit a superior catalytic activity for the hydrolytic dehydrogenation of ammonia borane (AB, NH3BH3) and hydrazine borane (HB, N2H4BH3) under ambient atmosphere at room temperature. The turnover frequencies (TOF) for the hydrolysis of AB and HB in the presence of Cu@SiO2 nanospheres were measured to be 3.24 and 7.58?mol H2 (mol Cu min)?1, respectively, relatively high values for Cu nanocatalysts in the same reaction. In addition, the recycle tests show that the Cu@SiO2 nanospheres are still highly active in the hydrolysis of AB and HB, preserving 90 and 85% of their initial catalytic activity even after ten recycles, respectively. PMID:25534772

  19. Synthesis of o-Aminophenols via a Formal Insertion Reaction of Arynes into Hydroxyindolinones.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhilong; Wang, Qiu

    2015-12-18

    A novel approach toward the synthesis of sterically hindered o-aminophenols has been achieved by a formal aryne insertion into hydroxyindolinones. This transformation offers a rapid and efficient entry to diverse o-aminophenol scaffolds under mild transition-metal-free conditions. The reaction involves the addition of hydroxyindolinones to arynes followed by a chemo- and regioselective [1,3]-rearrangement. Furthermore, the reactions of N-hydroxyindoles and arynes were found to provide the C3-aryl indole products via an alternative [3,3]-rearrangement pathway. PMID:26646410

  20. Photocatalytic synthesis of anilides from nitrobenzenes under visible light irradiation: 2 in 1 reaction.

    PubMed

    Zand, Zahra; Kazemi, Foad; Partovi, Adel

    2015-11-01

    An efficient method has been developed for the synthesis of a series of anilides via a two in one reaction of nitrobenzenes with anhydride in the presence of TiO2 as a nanocatalyst and photocatalyst under sunlight or blue LED irradiation. In this method simultaneously, nitrobenzenes convert to the corresponding anilines via photocatalytic reduction on the TiO2 surface, and a condensation of aniline with the anhydride performed on the Lewis acid site of the TiO2 surface. Interestingly amidation step leads to the promotion of better reaction and good selectivity in reduction of nitrocompounds. This method is simple, rapid, high yield, and green. PMID:25744492

  1. Synthesis of novel N-cyclopentenyl-lactams using the Aub reaction

    PubMed Central

    Shinde, Madhuri V; Ople, Rohini S; Sangtani, Ekta; Gonnade, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    Summary A novel and convenient method utilizing the Aub reaction to access a new class of compounds that are similar to carbocyclic nucleosides is reported. The azido alcohol derived from Vince lactam undergoes the Aub reaction with various cyclic ketones to give cyclopentenyl-substituted lactams. Upon dihydroxylation, this affords the N-cyclopentenyl-lactam compounds in racemic form. Given the numerous uses of nucleosides and related compounds, we were interested in the synthesis of carbocylic nucleoside mimics. The attempts and results are described herein. PMID:26199661

  2. Synthesis of novel N-cyclopentenyl-lactams using the Aub reaction.

    PubMed

    Shinde, Madhuri V; Ople, Rohini S; Sangtani, Ekta; Gonnade, Rajesh; Reddy, D Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    A novel and convenient method utilizing the Aub reaction to access a new class of compounds that are similar to carbocyclic nucleosides is reported. The azido alcohol derived from Vince lactam undergoes the Aub reaction with various cyclic ketones to give cyclopentenyl-substituted lactams. Upon dihydroxylation, this affords the N-cyclopentenyl-lactam compounds in racemic form. Given the numerous uses of nucleosides and related compounds, we were interested in the synthesis of carbocylic nucleoside mimics. The attempts and results are described herein. PMID:26199661

  3. Low-Temperature Synthesis of Actinide Tetraborides by Solid-State Metathesis Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lupinetti, Anthony J.; Garcia, Eduardo; Abney, Kent D.

    2004-12-14

    The synthesis of actinide tetraborides including uranium tetraboride (UB,), plutonium tetraboride (PUB,) and thorium tetraboride (ThB{sub 4}) by a solid-state metathesis reaction are demonstrated. The present method significantly lowers the temperature required to {approx_equal}850 C. As an example, when UCl{sub 4}, is reacted with an excess of MgB{sub 2}, at 850 C, crystalline UB, is formed. Powder X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES data support the reduction of UCl{sub 3}, as the initial step in the reaction. The UB, product is purified by washing water and drying.

  4. Asymmetric synthesis of fully substituted cyclopentane-oxindoles through an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Zou, Liang-Hua; Philipps, Arne R; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-12

    An efficient, highly stereoselective asymmetric synthesis of fully functionalized cyclopentanes bearing an oxindole moiety and several other functional groups in one pot has been developed. Key step is an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction forming three C-C bonds and six stereocenters, including a quaternary one. Starting from equimolar amounts of simple substrates, a high molecular complexity can be reached after a Wittig olefination in one pot. The new protocol can easily be scaled up to gram amounts. PMID:25470781

  5. Asymmetric Synthesis of Fully Substituted Cyclopentane-Oxindoles through an Organocatalytic Triple Michael Domino Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Liang-Hua; Philipps, Arne R; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    An efficient, highly stereoselective asymmetric synthesis of fully functionalized cyclopentanes bearing an oxindole moiety and several other functional groups in one pot has been developed. Key step is an organocatalytic triple Michael domino reaction forming three C–C bonds and six stereocenters, including a quaternary one. Starting from equimolar amounts of simple substrates, a high molecular complexity can be reached after a Wittig olefination in one pot. The new protocol can easily be scaled up to gram amounts. PMID:25470781

  6. A Review of Study on Thermal Energy Transport System by Synthesis and Decomposition Reactions of Methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Qiusheng; Yabe, Akira; Kajiyama, Shiro; Fukuda, Katsuya

    The study on thermal energy transport system by synthesis and decomposition reactions of methanol was reviewed. To promote energy conservation and global environment protection, a two-step liquid-phase methanol synthesis process, which starts with carbonylation of methanol to methyl formate, then followed by the hydrogenolysis of the formate, was studied to recover wasted or unused discharged heat from industrial sources for the thermal energy demands of residential and commercial areas by chemical reactions. The research and development of the system were focused on the following three points. (1) Development of low-temperature decomposition and synthetic catalysts, (2) Development of liquid phase reactor (heat exchanger accompanying chemical reaction), (3) Simulation of the energy transport efficiency of entire system which contains heat recovery and supply sections. As the result of the development of catalyst, promising catalysts which agree with the development purposes for the methyl formate decomposition reaction and the synthetic reaction are being developed though some studies remain for the methanol decomposition and synthetic reactions. In the fundamental development of liquid phase reactor, the solubilities of CO and H2 gases in methanol and methyl formate were measured by the method of total pressure decrease due to absorption under pressures up to 1500kPa and temperatures up to 140°C. The diffusivity of CO gas in methanol was determined by measuring the diameter and solution time of single CO bubbles in methanol. The chemical reaction rate of methanol synthesis by hydrogenolysis of methyl formate was measured using a plate-type of Raney copper catalyst in a reactor with rectangular channel and in an autoclave reactor. The reaction characteristics were investigated by carrying out the experiments at various temperatures, flow rates and at various catalyst development conditions. We focused on the effect of Raney copper catalyst thickness on the liquid-phase chemical reaction by varying the development time of the catalyst. Investigation results of the catalyst such as surface area, pore radius, lattice size, and photographs of scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also given. In the simulation of energy transport efficiency of this system, by simulating the energy transfer system using two-step liquid phase methanol decomposition and synthetic reactions, and comparing with the technology so far, it can be expected that an innovative energy transfer system is possible to realize.

  7. RETRACTED: Ammonia-free method for synthesis of CdS nanocrystalline thin films through chemical bath deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, M.; Rabiee, M.; Moztarzadeh, F.; Bodaghi, M.; Tahriri, M.

    2009-11-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief of Solid State Communications as the authors have plagiarized part of a paper that has also appeared in Current Applied Physics: Controlled synthesis, characterization and optical properties of CdS nanocrystalline thin films via chemical bath deposition (CBD) route Meysam Karimi, Mohammad Rabiee, Fathollah Moztarzadeh, Mohammadreza Tahriri and Masoud Bodaghi; Curr. Appl. Phys., 9 (2009) 1263-1268, doi: 10.1016/j.cap.2009.02.006. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and apologies are offered to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  8. Applications of Skyrme energy-density functional to fusion reactions for synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ning; Wu, Xizhen; Li, Zhuxia; Liu, Min; Scheid, Werner

    2006-10-01

    The Skyrme energy-density functional approach has been extended to study massive heavy-ion fusion reactions. Based on the potential barrier obtained and the parametrized barrier distribution the fusion (capture) excitation functions of a lot of heavy-ion fusion reactions are studied systematically. The average deviations of fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barriers from experimental data are less than 0.05 for 92% of 76 fusion reactions with Z1Z2<1200. For the massive fusion reactions, for example, the U238-induced reactions and Ca48+Pb208, the capture excitation functions have been reproduced remarkably well. The influence of structure effects in the reaction partners on the capture cross sections is studied with our parametrized barrier distribution. By comparing the reactions induced by double-magic nucleus Ca48 and by S32 and Cl35, the “threshold-like” behavior in the capture excitation function for Ca48-induced reactions is explored and an optimal balance between the capture cross section and the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is studied. Finally, the fusion reactions with S36, Cl37, Ca48, and Ti50 bombarding Cm248, Bk247,249, Cf250,252,254, and Es252,254, as well as the reactions leading to the same compound nucleus with Z=120 and N=182, are studied further. The calculation results for these reactions are useful for searching for the optimal fusion configuration and suitable incident energy in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei.

  9. Applications of Skyrme energy-density functional to fusion reactions for synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Ning; Scheid, Werner; Wu Xizhen; Liu Min; Li Zhuxia

    2006-10-15

    The Skyrme energy-density functional approach has been extended to study massive heavy-ion fusion reactions. Based on the potential barrier obtained and the parametrized barrier distribution the fusion (capture) excitation functions of a lot of heavy-ion fusion reactions are studied systematically. The average deviations of fusion cross sections at energies near and above the barriers from experimental data are less than 0.05 for 92% of 76 fusion reactions with Z{sub 1}Z{sub 2}<1200. For the massive fusion reactions, for example, the {sup 238}U-induced reactions and {sup 48}Ca+{sup 208}Pb, the capture excitation functions have been reproduced remarkably well. The influence of structure effects in the reaction partners on the capture cross sections is studied with our parametrized barrier distribution. By comparing the reactions induced by double-magic nucleus {sup 48}Ca and by {sup 32}S and {sup 35}Cl, the ''threshold-like'' behavior in the capture excitation function for {sup 48}Ca-induced reactions is explored and an optimal balance between the capture cross section and the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is studied. Finally, the fusion reactions with {sup 36}S, {sup 37}Cl, {sup 48}Ca, and {sup 50}Ti bombarding {sup 248}Cm, {sup 247,249}Bk, {sup 250,252,254}Cf, and {sup 252,254}Es, as well as the reactions leading to the same compound nucleus with Z=120 and N=182, are studied further. The calculation results for these reactions are useful for searching for the optimal fusion configuration and suitable incident energy in the synthesis of superheavy nuclei.

  10. Treatment of ammonia contaminated water by ozone and hydrogen peroxide

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, F.; Hill, D.O.; Kuo, C.H.

    1995-12-31

    The present research concerns kinetics of oxidation of ammonia by ozone and ozone-hydrogen peroxide mixtures in alkaline solutions. Experiments were carried out at 15 to 35{degrees}C in solutions with pH values varying from 8 to 10 utilizing a stopped-flow spectrophotometer system. Fractions of free ammonia present in acidic and neutral solutions are negligible, and the reaction is very slow. This confirms that only free ammonia can react with ozone in the aqueous phase. The reaction proceeds at moderate rates in the alkaline solutions requiring four moles of ozone to react with each mole of ammonia. The free ammonia is oxidized and converted completely to nitrate in the solutions. The overall reaction between ammonia and ozone is second order with first order in each reactant. The reaction rate constant increases with temperature and pH value of the solution. The average activation energy is 59 Kcal/gmol for all systems investigated at different pH values. The results of the kinetic experiments suggest that the reaction is predominated by the direct oxidation between ammonia and ozone molecules, and that the hydroxyl radical reactions play insignificant roles in the ozonation process. The oxidation rate of ammonia is enhanced considerably in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and ozone mixtures. The formation of hydroxyl radical from interactions between ozone and hydrogen peroxide and the subsequent free radical reactions of ammonia seem important in controlling the destruction rate of free ammonia, as suggested by the results of this study.

  11. Ruthenium-catalyzed decarbonylative addition reaction of anhydrides with alkynes: a facile synthesis of isocoumarins and α-pyrones.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Rashmi; Shekarrao, Kommuri; Gogoi, Sanjib; Boruah, Romesh C

    2015-06-21

    A novel ruthenium catalyzed straightforward and efficient synthesis of isocoumarin and α-pyrone derivatives has been accomplished by the decarbonylative addition reaction of anhydrides with alkynes under thermal conditions. PMID:25997656

  12. Phosphoric Acid-Mediated Synthesis of Vinyl Sulfones through Decarboxylative Coupling Reactions of Sodium Sulfinates with Phenylpropiolic Acids.

    PubMed

    Rong, Guangwei; Mao, Jincheng; Yan, Hong; Zheng, Yang; Zhang, Guoqi

    2015-08-01

    A novel phosphoric acid -mediated synthesis of vinyl sulfones through decarboxylative coupling reactions of sodium sulfinates with phenylpropiolic acids is described. This transformation is efficient and environmentally friendly. PMID:26207418

  13. A simple synthesis of urchin-like Pt-Ni bimetallic nanostructures as enhanced electrocatalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kwang-Hyun; Jang, Youngjin; Chung, Dong Young; Seo, Pilseon; Jun, Samuel Woojoo; Lee, Ji Eun; Oh, Myoung Hwan; Shokouhimehr, Mohammadreza; Jung, Namgee; Yoo, Sung Jong; Sung, Yung-Eun; Hyeon, Taeghwan

    2016-01-11

    The synthesis of urchin-like Pt-Ni bimetallic nanostructures is achieved by a controlled one-pot synthesis. Pt-Ni nanostructures have superior oxygen reduction reaction activities in both with and without specific anion adsorption electrolytes due to the geometric and alloying effects. PMID:26553584

  14. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly

  15. Witting Reaction Using a Stabilized Phosphorus Ylid: An Efficient and Stereoselective Synthesis of Ethyl Trans-Cinnamate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speed, Traci J.; Mclntyre, Jean P.; Thamattoor, Dasan M.

    2004-01-01

    An instructive experiment for the synthesis of ethyl trans-cinnamate, a pleasant smelling ester used in perfumery and flavoring by the reaction of benzaldehyde with the stable ylid triphenylphosphorane is described. The synthesis, workup and characterization of trans-cinnamate may be accomplished in a single laboratory session with commonly…

  16. Samarium Iodide-Mediated Reformatsky Reactions for the Stereoselective Preparation of ?-hydroxy-?-amino Acids: Synthesis of Isostatine and Dolaisoleucine

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Christopher G.; Burke, Terrence R.

    2011-01-01

    The synthesis of ?-hydroxy-?-amino acids via SmI2-mediated Reformatsky reactions of ?-chloroacetyloxazolidinones with aminoaldehydes is reported. Diastereoselective coupling is demonstrated to depend on the absolute configuration of the Evans chiral auxiliary employed in the reaction, allowing erythro or threo products to be obtained selectively. The potential utility of the methodology is exemplified by the facile synthesis of biologically relevant N-Boc-isostatine (2b) and N-Boc-dolaisoleucine (3c). PMID:22136325

  17. Samarium iodide-mediated Reformatsky reactions for the stereoselective preparation of ?-hydroxy-?-amino acids: synthesis of isostatine and dolaisoleucine.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Christopher G; Burke, Terrence R

    2012-01-01

    The synthesis of ?-hydroxy-?-amino acids via SmI(2)-mediated Reformatsky reactions of ?-chloroacetyloxazolidinones with aminoaldehydes is reported. Diastereoselective coupling is demonstrated to depend on the absolute configuration of the Evans chiral auxiliary employed in the reaction, allowing erythro or threo products to be obtained selectively. The potential utility of the methodology is exemplified by the facile synthesis of biologically relevant N-Boc-isostatine (2b) and N-Boc-dolaisoleucine (3c). PMID:22136325

  18. Development of a Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assay to Target a Novel Group of Ammonia-Producing Bacteria Found in Poultry Litter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonia production in poultry houses has serious implications for flock health and performance, nutrient value of poultry litter, and energy costs for running poultry operations. The urease enzyme is responsible for the final step in the conversion of organic N (specifically uric acid and urea) to ...

  19. Porous silicon ammonia gas sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaillou, A.; Charrier, J.; Lorrain, N.; Sarret, M.; Haji, L.

    2006-04-01

    A planar optical waveguide is manufactured by the functionnalisation of oxidised mesoporous silicon with Bromothymol Blue to achieve a sensitive ammonia sensor suitable for low gas concentrations. The propagated light intensity is measured at the output of the waveguide. The sensitivity at low concentrations and the short time of reaction of the sensor are enhanced by a confinement effect of the gas molecules inside the pores. The dependence of the output signal with gas concentration is demonstrated. When the ammonia flow is stopped, the reversibility of the initial characteristics of the propagated light is naturally obtained with the disappearance of the gas molecules.

  20. Synthesis and reactions of a nucleoside derivative of phosphoric sulfonic anhydride. Studies related to the mechanisms of coupling reactions in the chemical synthesis of oligodeoxyribonucleotides by phosphotriester procedures.

    PubMed Central

    Dabkowski, W; Skrzypczynski, Z; Michalski, J; Piel, N; McLaughlin, L W; Cramer, F

    1984-01-01

    The synthesis of a model compound, diphenylphosphoric toluene-p-sulfonic anhydride, an arylsubstituted phosphoric sulfonic mixed anhydride, is described. Using the same procedure a thymidyl substituted derivative was prepared. The phosphoric sulfonic anhydride is the presumed intermediate in oligonucleotide coupling reactions involving phosphodiester activation by arenesulfonyl derivatives. This mixed anhydride reacts with a variety of nucleophiles. It can be converted to phophotriester derivatives in the presence of simple alcohols. Phosphotriester formation using the 5'-hydroxyl of a thymidine derivative requires additionally a catalyst such as N-methylimidazole. The reactive intermediate produced upon the addition of N-methylimidazole to the phosphoric sulfonic anhydride has been observed spectroscopically using 31P-NMR. PMID:6549065

  1. Prebiotic synthesis of histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, C.; Yang, L.; Miller, S. L.; Oro, J.

    1990-01-01

    The prebiotic formation of histidine (His) has been accomplished experimentally by the reaction of erythrose with formamidine followed by a Strecker synthesis. In the first step of this reaction sequence, the formation of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde took place by the condensation of erythrose and formamidine, two compounds that are known to be formed under prebiotic conditions. In a second step, the imidazole-4-acetaldehyde was converted to His, without isolation of the reaction products by adding HCN and ammonia to the reaction mixture. LC, HPLC, thermospray liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and tandem mass spectrometry were used to identify the product, which was obtained in a yield of 3.5% based on the ratio of His/erythrose. This is a new chemical synthesis of one of the basic amino acids which had not been synthesized prebiotically until now.

  2. Dearomative Indole (3 + 2) Reactions with Azaoxyallyl Cations New Method for the Synthesis of Pyrroloindolines

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report the first examples of the synthesis of pyrroloindolines by means of (3 + 2) dearomative annulation reactions between 3-substituted indoles and highly reactive azaoxyallyl cations. Computational studies using density functional theory (DFT) (B3LYP-D3/6-311G**++) support a stepwise reaction pathway in which initial CC bond formation takes place at C3 of indole, followed by ring closure to give the observed products. Insights gleaned from these calculations indicate that the solvent, either TFE or HFIP, can stabilize the transition state through H-bonding interactions with oxygen of the azaoxyallyl cation and other relevant intermediates, thereby increasing the rates of these reactions. PMID:26562355

  3. Advanced Solution Methods for Microkinetic Models of Catalytic Reactions: A Methanol Synthesis Case Study

    SciTech Connect

    Rubert-Nason, Patricia; Mavrikakis, Manos; Maravelias, Christos T.; Grabow, Lars C.; Biegler, Lorenz T.

    2014-04-01

    Microkinetic models, combined with experimentally measured reaction rates and orders, play a key role in elucidating detailed reaction mechanisms in heterogeneous catalysis and have typically been solved as systems of ordinary differential equations. In this work, we demonstrate a new approach to fitting those models to experimental data. For the specific example treated here, by reformulating a typical microkinetic model for a continuous stirred tank reactor to a system of nonlinear equations, we achieved a 1000-fold increase in solution speed. The reduced computational cost allows a more systematic search of the parameter space, leading to better fits to the available experimental data. We applied this approach to the problem of methanol synthesis by CO/CO2 hydrogenation over a supported-Cu catalyst, an important catalytic reaction with a large industrial interest and potential for large-scale CO2 chemical fixation.

  4. Methanol synthesis on ZnO(0001{sup }). IV. Reaction mechanisms and electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Frenzel, Johannes Marx, Dominik

    2014-09-28

    Methanol synthesis from CO and H{sub 2} over ZnO, which requires high temperatures and high pressures giving rise to a complex interplay of physical and chemical processes over this heterogeneous catalyst surface, is investigated using ab initio simulations. The redox properties of the surrounding gas phase are known to directly impact on the catalyst properties and thus, set the overall catalytic reactivity of this easily reducible oxide material. In Paper III of our series [J. Kiss, J. Frenzel, N. N. Nair, B. Meyer, and D. Marx, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064710 (2011)] we have qualitatively shown that for the partially hydroxylated and defective ZnO(0001{sup }) surface there exists an intricate network of surface chemical reactions. In the present study, we employ advanced molecular dynamics techniques to resolve in detail this reaction network in terms of elementary steps on the defective surface, which is in stepwise equilibrium with the gas phase. The two individual reduction steps were investigated by ab initio metadynamics sampling of free energy landscapes in three-dimensional reaction subspaces. By also sampling adsorption and desorption processes and thus molecular species that are in the gas phase but close to the surface, our approach successfully generated several alternative pathways of methanol synthesis. The obtained results suggest an Eley-Rideal mechanism for both reduction steps, thus involving near-surface molecules from the gas phase, to give methanol preferentially over a strongly reduced catalyst surface, while important side reactions are of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Catalyst re-reduction by H{sub 2} stemming from the gas phase is a crucial process after each reduction step in order to maintain the catalyst's activity toward methanol formation and to close the catalytic cycle in some reaction channels. Furthermore, the role of oxygen vacancies, side reactions, and spectator species is investigated and mechanistic details are discussed based on extensive electronic structure analysis.

  5. Methanol synthesis on ZnO(000overline{1}). IV. Reaction mechanisms and electronic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenzel, Johannes; Marx, Dominik

    2014-09-01

    Methanol synthesis from CO and H2 over ZnO, which requires high temperatures and high pressures giving rise to a complex interplay of physical and chemical processes over this heterogeneous catalyst surface, is investigated using ab initio simulations. The redox properties of the surrounding gas phase are known to directly impact on the catalyst properties and thus, set the overall catalytic reactivity of this easily reducible oxide material. In Paper III of our series [J. Kiss, J. Frenzel, N. N. Nair, B. Meyer, and D. Marx, J. Chem. Phys. 134, 064710 (2011)] we have qualitatively shown that for the partially hydroxylated and defective ZnO(000overline{1}) surface there exists an intricate network of surface chemical reactions. In the present study, we employ advanced molecular dynamics techniques to resolve in detail this reaction network in terms of elementary steps on the defective surface, which is in stepwise equilibrium with the gas phase. The two individual reduction steps were investigated by ab initio metadynamics sampling of free energy landscapes in three-dimensional reaction subspaces. By also sampling adsorption and desorption processes and thus molecular species that are in the gas phase but close to the surface, our approach successfully generated several alternative pathways of methanol synthesis. The obtained results suggest an Eley-Rideal mechanism for both reduction steps, thus involving "near-surface" molecules from the gas phase, to give methanol preferentially over a strongly reduced catalyst surface, while important side reactions are of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type. Catalyst re-reduction by H2 stemming from the gas phase is a crucial process after each reduction step in order to maintain the catalyst's activity toward methanol formation and to close the catalytic cycle in some reaction channels. Furthermore, the role of oxygen vacancies, side reactions, and spectator species is investigated and mechanistic details are discussed based on extensive electronic structure analysis.

  6. Non-ASF product distributions due to secondary reactions during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Kuipers, E.W.; Scheper, C.; Wilson, J.H.

    1996-01-01

    Since Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis is a chain growth reaction, its total product yield decreases exponentially with chain length forming a so-called Anderson-Schulz-Flory (ASF) distribution. Such a distribution is unselective toward middle distillates for all possible chain growth probabilities. Chain-length-dependent secondary reactions, however, cause deviations from the ASF-type distribution and can thus be used to improve the selectivity to the desired product range. To investigate secondary reactions the authors set out to study FT synthesis on flat model catalysts, a cobalt foil and cobalt particles on a SiO{sub 2} wafer, allowing a much better definition of the experiments than porous ones. On a Co foil olefin hydrogenation is the main chain-length-dependent secondary reaction, causing an exponential increase in the paraffin-to-olefin ratio with carbon number, but not resulting in a deviation from the ASF distribution. On Co/SiO{sub 2} model catalysts chain-length-dependent reinsertion of {alpha}-olefins into the chain growth process is the main secondary reaction, causing an increase of the growth probability with chain length. To a lesser extent, hydrogenolysis also plays a role, shortening long hydrocarbons by successive demethylation. On Co/SiO{sub 2} the interplay of chain-length-dependent reinsertion and hydrogenolysis results in sigmoid product distributions with a high selectivity to middle distillates. These product distributions can be fitted with a simple model in which a chain growth reaction is combined with chain-length-dependent secondary hydrogenation, reinsertion, and hydrogenolysis. 95 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Evaluating reaction pathways of hydrothermal abiotic organic synthesis at elevated temperatures and pressures using carbon isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Qi; Socki, Richard A.; Niles, Paul B.

    2015-04-01

    Experiments were performed to better understand the role of environmental factors on reaction pathways and corresponding carbon isotope fractionations during abiotic hydrothermal synthesis of organic compounds using piston cylinder apparatus at 750 °C and 5.5 kbars. Chemical compositions of experimental products and corresponding carbon isotopic values were obtained by a Pyrolysis-GC-MS-IRMS system. Alkanes (methane and ethane), straight-chain saturated alcohols (ethanol and n-butanol) and monocarboxylic acids (formic and acetic acids) were generated with ethanol being the only organic compound with higher δ13C than CO2. CO was not detected in experimental products owing to the favorable water-gas shift reaction under high water pressure conditions. The pattern of δ13C values of CO2, carboxylic acids and alkanes are consistent with their equilibrium isotope relationships: CO2 > carboxylic acids > alkanes, but the magnitude of the fractionation among them is higher than predicted isotope equilibrium values. In particular, the isotopic fractionation between CO2 and CH4 remained constant at ∼31‰, indicating a kinetic effect during CO2 reduction processes. No "isotope reversal" of δ13C values for alkanes or carboxylic acids was observed, which indicates a different reaction pathway than what is typically observed during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis under gas phase conditions. Under constraints imposed in experiments, the anomalous 13C isotope enrichment in ethanol suggests that hydroxymethylene is the organic intermediate, and that the generation of other organic compounds enriched in 12C were facilitated by subsequent Rayleigh fractionation of hydroxymethylene reacting with H2 and/or H2O. Carbon isotope fractionation data obtained in this study are instrumental in assessing the controlling factors on abiotic formation of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems. Knowledge on how environmental conditions affect reaction pathways of abiotic synthesis of organic compounds is critical for understanding deep subsurface ecosystems and the origin of organic compounds on Mars and other planets.

  8. Reaction parameters for the synthesis of N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides from oil.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Norashikin; Azizul Hasan, Zafarizal Aldrin; Hassan, Hazimah Abu; Ahmad, Mansor; Zin Wan Yunus, Wan Md

    2015-01-01

    Hydrazide derivatives have been synthesized from methyl esters, hydrazones and vegetable oils. They are important due to their diverse applications in pharmaceutical products, detergents as well as in oil and gas industries. The chemical synthesis of fatty hydrazides is well-established; however, only a few publications described the synthesis of fatty hydrazide derivatives, particularly, when produced from refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein. Here, the synthesis and characterization of N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides are reported. The N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides was successfully synthesized from fatty hydrazides and dimethyl sulfate in the presence of potassium hydroxide with the molar ratio of 1:1:1, 6 hours reaction time and 80℃ reaction temperature in ethanol. The product yield and purity were 22% and 89%, respectively. The fatty hydrazides used were synthesized from refined, bleached and deodorized palm olein with hydrazine monohydrate at pH 12 by enzymatic route. Fourier transform infrared, gas chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy techniques were used to determine the chemical composition of N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides. Proton NMR confirmed the product obtained were N,N-dimethyl fatty hydrazides. PMID:25519290

  9. Synthesis of chemically-modified single-walled carbon nanotubes by counter-current ammonia gas injection into the induction thermal plasma process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahverdi, Ali

    Pristine single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are poorly dispersible and insoluble in many solvents and need to be chemically modified prior to their use in many applications. This work is focused on the investigation of the synthesis of chemically modified SWCNTs material through an in situ approach. The main objectives of the presented research are: 1) to explore the in situ chemical process during the synthesis of SWCNT and 2) to closely examine the effect of a reactive environment on SWCNTs. Effects of the catalyst type and content on the SWCNTs final product, synthesized by induction thermal plasma (ITP), were studied to replace toxic cobalt (Co) in the feedstock. In this regard, three different catalyst mixtures (i.e. Ni-Y2O3, Ni-Co-Y2O3, and Ni-Mo-Y2O3) were used. Experimental results showed that the catalyst type affects the quality of the SWCNT final product. Similar quality SWCNTs can be produced when the same amount of Co was replaced by Ni. Moreover, the results observed in this experimental work were further explained by thermodynamic calculation results. Thermogravimetry (TG) was used throughout the work to characterize the SWCNTs product. TG was firstly standardized by studying the effects of three main instrumental parameters (temperature ramp, TR, initial mass of the sample, IM, and gas flow rate, FR) on the Tonset and full-width half maximum (FWHM) obtained from TG and derivative TG graphs of carbon black, respectively. Therefore, a two-level factorial statistical design was performed. The statistical analysis showed that the effect of TR, IM, and to a lower extent, FR, is significant on FWHM and insignificant on Tonset. A methodology was then developed based upon the SWCNTs synthesis using the ITP system, through an in situ chemistry approach. Ammonia (NH3) was selected and counter-currently injected into the ITP reactor at three different flow rates and by four different nozzle designs. Numerical simulation indicated a better mixing of NH3 in the ITP reactor when a certain nozzle was used. The experimental results showed the increase of D-band intensity in the Raman spectra of SWCNT samples upon the NH3 injection. NH3 could increase the nitrogen content of the SWCNTs final product up to 10 times. The SWCNTs sample treated with 15 vol% NH3 showed an enhanced dispersibility in Dimethylformamide and Isopropanol. Onion-like and planar carbon nanostructures were also observed. Complementary characterization on the SWCNT samples treated by 15 vol% NH3 indicated the surface modification of nanotubes. Metallic tubes showed a higher reactivity with NH3 than semiconducting ones. The model including the reactor thermo-flow field and NH3 thermal decomposition kinetics suggested a two-step SWCNT surface modification in which nanotubes firstly react with H and NH2 intermediates and later, NH3 chemisorbs on the nanotubes. The model also suggested that the intermediate species, like NNH and N2H2, play a role primarily in driving the NH3 decomposition rather than the chemical modification of SWCNTs. Keywords: Single-walled carbon nanotube, Induction thermal plasma, Thermogravimetry, Kinetic, Computational fluid dynamic, Thermodynamic, modification, Functionalization

  10. Lipid synthesis under hydrothermal conditions by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Ritter, G.; Simoneit, B. R.

    1999-01-01

    Ever since their discovery in the late 1970's, mid-ocean-ridge hydrothermal systems have received a great deal of attention as a possible site for the origin of life on Earth (and environments analogous to mid-ocean-ridge hydrothermal systems are postulated to have been sites where life could have originated or Mars and elsewhere as well). Because no modern-day terrestrial hydrothermal systems are free from the influence of organic compounds derived from biologic processes, laboratory experiments provide the best opportunity for confirmation of the potential for organic synthesis in hydrothermal systems. Here we report on the formation of lipid compounds during Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis from aqueous solutions of formic acid or oxalic acid. Optimum synthesis occurs in stainless steel vessels by heating at 175 degrees C for 2-3 days and produces lipid compounds ranging from C2 to > C35 which consist of n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenes, n-alkanes and alkanones. The precursor carbon sources used are either formic acid or oxalic acid, which disproportionate to H2, CO2 and probably CO. Both carbon sources yield the same lipid classes with essentially the same ranges of compounds. The synthesis reactions were confirmed by using 13C labeled precursor acids.

  11. Lipid synthesis under hydrothermal conditions by Fischer-Tropsch-type reactions.

    PubMed

    McCollom, T M; Ritter, G; Simoneit, B R

    1999-03-01

    Ever since their discovery in the late 1970's, mid-ocean-ridge hydrothermal systems have received a great deal of attention as a possible site for the origin of life on Earth (and environments analogous to mid-ocean-ridge hydrothermal systems are postulated to have been sites where life could have originated or Mars and elsewhere as well). Because no modern-day terrestrial hydrothermal systems are free from the influence of organic compounds derived from biologic processes, laboratory experiments provide the best opportunity for confirmation of the potential for organic synthesis in hydrothermal systems. Here we report on the formation of lipid compounds during Fischer-Tropsch-type synthesis from aqueous solutions of formic acid or oxalic acid. Optimum synthesis occurs in stainless steel vessels by heating at 175 degrees C for 2-3 days and produces lipid compounds ranging from C2 to > C35 which consist of n-alkanols, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkenes, n-alkanes and alkanones. The precursor carbon sources used are either formic acid or oxalic acid, which disproportionate to H2, CO2 and probably CO. Both carbon sources yield the same lipid classes with essentially the same ranges of compounds. The synthesis reactions were confirmed by using 13C labeled precursor acids. PMID:10227201

  12. Synthesis of Well-defined Iron Nanoparticles on a Spherical Model Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabidi, N. A. Mohd.; Moodley, P.; Thüne, P. C.; Niemantsverdriet, J. W.

    2009-06-01

    Spherical model catalysts consisting of SiO2-sphere-supported iron nanoparticles were prepared using the colloidal synthesis approach, the reverse microemulsion and the ammonia deposition methods. Amongst these synthesis methods, the colloidal synthesis approach was found to be the most promising synthesis route for the Fe/SiO2 model catalysts. The modified colloidal synthesis method produced nearly monodisperse spherical-shaped iron oxide nanoparticles with average diameters of 6.2±0.9 nm on the SiO2 spheres. Morphological changes were observed on the spherical Fe/SiO2 model catalysts after the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reaction.

  13. A General Strategy for Nanohybrids Synthesis via Coupled Competitive Reactions Controlled in a Hybrid Process

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission). PMID:25818342

  14. A General Strategy for Nanohybrids Synthesis via Coupled Competitive Reactions Controlled in a Hybrid Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Rongming; Yang, Wantai; Song, Yuanjun; Shen, Xiaomiao; Wang, Junmei; Zhong, Xiaodi; Li, Shuai; Song, Yujun

    2015-03-01

    A new methodology based on core alloying and shell gradient-doping are developed for the synthesis of nanohybrids, realized by coupled competitive reactions, or sequenced reducing-nucleation and co-precipitation reaction of mixed metal salts in a microfluidic and batch-cooling process. The latent time of nucleation and the growth of nanohybrids can be well controlled due to the formation of controllable intermediates in the coupled competitive reactions. Thus, spatiotemporal-resolved synthesis can be realized by the hybrid process, which enables us to investigate nanohybrid formation at each stage through their solution color changes and TEM images. By adjusting the bi-channel solvents and kinetic parameters of each stage, the primary components of alloyed cores and the second components of transition metal doping ZnO or Al2O3 as surface coatings can be successively formed. The core alloying and shell gradient-doping strategy can efficiently eliminate the crystal lattice mismatch in different components. Consequently, varieties of gradient core-shell nanohybrids can be synthesized using CoM, FeM, AuM, AgM (M = Zn or Al) alloys as cores and transition metal gradient-doping ZnO or Al2O3 as shells, endowing these nanohybrids with unique magnetic and optical properties (e.g., high temperature ferromagnetic property and enhanced blue emission).

  15. Palladium- and copper-mediated N-aryl bond formation reactions for the synthesis of biological active compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Carolin

    2011-01-01

    Summary N-Arylated aliphatic and aromatic amines are important substituents in many biologically active compounds. In the last few years, transition-metal-mediated N-aryl bond formation has become a standard procedure for the introduction of amines into aromatic systems. While N-arylation of simple aromatic halides by simple amines works with many of the described methods in high yield, the reactions may require detailed optimization if applied to the synthesis of complex molecules with additional functional groups, such as natural products or drugs. We discuss and compare in this review the three main N-arylation methods in their application to the synthesis of biologically active compounds: Palladium-catalysed BuchwaldHartwig-type reactions, copper-mediated Ullmann-type and ChanLam-type N-arylation reactions. The discussed examples show that palladium-catalysed reactions are favoured for large-scale applications and tolerate sterically demanding substituents on the coupling partners better than ChanLam reactions. ChanLam N-arylations are particularly mild and do not require additional ligands, which facilitates the work-up. However, reaction times can be very long. Ullmann- and BuchwaldHartwig-type methods have been used in intramolecular reactions, giving access to complex ring structures. All three N-arylation methods have specific advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when selecting the reaction conditions for a desired CN bond formation in the course of a total synthesis or drug synthesis. PMID:21286396

  16. Synthesis of 1,1-Diphenylethylene (DPE): The Marriage of a Grignard Reaction and a Column Chromatography Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.; France, Marcia B.; Alty, Isaac G.; Saber, Christine A.; Smith, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE) via a Grignard reaction, followed by an acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction, yields a mixture of compounds. DPE is a high boiling liquid that cannot be purified using simple distillation. However, it is easily separated from the more polar starting material and intermediate alcohol using both thin layer…

  17. Synthesis of 1,1-Diphenylethylene (DPE): The Marriage of a Grignard Reaction and a Column Chromatography Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alty, Lisa T.; France, Marcia B.; Alty, Isaac G.; Saber, Christine A.; Smith, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of 1,1-diphenylethylene (DPE) via a Grignard reaction, followed by an acid-catalyzed dehydration reaction, yields a mixture of compounds. DPE is a high boiling liquid that cannot be purified using simple distillation. However, it is easily separated from the more polar starting material and intermediate alcohol using both thin layer

  18. Friedel-Crafts-type mechanism for the enzymatic elimination of ammonia from histidine and phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Poppe, Lszl; Rtey, Jnos

    2005-06-13

    The surprisingly high catalytic activity and selectivity of enzymes stem from their ability to both accelerate the target reaction and suppress competitive reaction pathways that may even be dominant in the absence of enzymes. For example, histidine and phenylalanine ammonia-lyases (HAL and PAL) trigger the abstraction of the nonacidic beta protons of these amino acids while leaving the much more acidic ammonium hydrogen atoms untouched. Both ammonia-lyases have a catalytically important electrophilic group, which was believed to be dehydroalanine for 30 years but has now been revealed by X-ray crystallography and UV spectroscopy to be a highly electrophilic 5-methylene-3,5-dihydroimidazol-4-one (MIO) group. Experiments suggest that the reaction is initiated by the electrophilic attack of MIO on the aromatic ring of the substrate. This incomplete Friedel-Crafts-type reaction leads to the activation of a beta proton and its stereospecific abstraction, followed by the elimination of ammonia and regeneration of the MIO group. The plausibility of such a mechanism is supported by a synthetic model. The application of the PAL reaction in the biocatalytic synthesis of enantiomerically pure alpha-amino beta-aryl propionates from aryl acrylates is also discussed. PMID:15906398

  19. A novel ammonia-assisted method for the direct synthesis of Mn3O4 nanoparticles at room temperature and their catalytic activity during the rapid degradation of azo dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansournia, Mohammadreza; Azizi, Fatemeh; Rakhshan, Narges

    2015-05-01

    In this study, we prepared trimanganese tetroxide nanoparticles from MnCl2 solution in an ammonia atmosphere using a new surfactant-free method at room temperature. We analyzed and characterized the effects of different processing conditions, such as the concentrations of manganese and the ammonia source, as well as the reaction time, on the structure, purity, and morphology of the products using powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) techniques. The XRD and FTIR analyses confirmed that the prepared products comprised single phase Mn3O4. At room temperature, the paramagnetic characteristics were also verified by vibrating sample magnetometry. Furthermore, we tested the catalytic activity of the nanoparticles during the degradation of methyl orange and Congo red, which are organic pollutants. Our experiments demonstrated the rapid color removal and reduction in the chemical oxygen demand (>70% and >50% within 10 min, respectively) using aqueous solutions of azo dyes.

  20. Neutral and Cationic Alkyl Tantalum Imido Complexes: Synthesis and Migratory Insertion Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Laura L.; Schmidt, Joseph A. R.; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G.

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis and reactivity of dibenzyl cationic tantalum imido complexes is described. The trialkyl tantalum imido compounds Bn3Ta=NCMe3 (1) and Np3Ta=NCMe3 (2) were synthesized as starting materials for the study of dialkyl cationic tantalum imido complexes. Compound 1 undergoes insertion reactions with diisopropylcarbodiimide and 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide to give (bisamidinate)imido complex 5 and (bisimino-acyl)imido complex 6, respectively. Treatment of compound 1 with B(C6F5)3 gives the zwitterionic tantalum complex [Bn2Ta=NCMe3][BnB(C6F5)3] (7) which is stabilized by η6-coordination of the benzyl triaryl borate anion. Coordination of the aryl anion can be displaced by three equivalents of pyridine to give the Lewis base complex 8. Treatment of compound 1 with [Ph3C][B(C6F5)4] gives the cationic tantalum imido complex [Bn2Ta=NCMe3][B(C6F5)4] (3). This salt forms insoluble aggregates unless trapped by THF coordination or an insertion reaction with an alkyne or an alkene. Cation 3 undergoes migratory insertion reactions with diphenylacetylene, phenylacetylene, norbornene, and cis-cyclooctene to give the corresponding alkenyl or modified alkyl imido complexes. The characterization of these products and the significance of these insertion reactions with respect to Ziegler-Natta polymerizations and hydroamination reactions are described. PMID:19079787

  1. Neutral and Cationic Alkyl Tantalum Imido Complexes: Synthesis and Migratory Insertion Reactions.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Laura L; Schmidt, Joseph A R; Arnold, John; Bergman, Robert G

    2006-07-01

    The synthesis and reactivity of dibenzyl cationic tantalum imido complexes is described. The trialkyl tantalum imido compounds Bn(3)Ta=NCMe(3) (1) and Np(3)Ta=NCMe(3) (2) were synthesized as starting materials for the study of dialkyl cationic tantalum imido complexes. Compound 1 undergoes insertion reactions with diisopropylcarbodiimide and 2,6-dimethylphenylisocyanide to give (bisamidinate)imido complex 5 and (bisimino-acyl)imido complex 6, respectively. Treatment of compound 1 with B(C(6)F(5))(3) gives the zwitterionic tantalum complex [Bn(2)Ta=NCMe(3)][BnB(C(6)F(5))(3)] (7) which is stabilized by eta(6)-coordination of the benzyl triaryl borate anion. Coordination of the aryl anion can be displaced by three equivalents of pyridine to give the Lewis base complex 8. Treatment of compound 1 with [Ph(3)C][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] gives the cationic tantalum imido complex [Bn(2)Ta=NCMe(3)][B(C(6)F(5))(4)] (3). This salt forms insoluble aggregates unless trapped by THF coordination or an insertion reaction with an alkyne or an alkene. Cation 3 undergoes migratory insertion reactions with diphenylacetylene, phenylacetylene, norbornene, and cis-cyclooctene to give the corresponding alkenyl or modified alkyl imido complexes. The characterization of these products and the significance of these insertion reactions with respect to Ziegler-Natta polymerizations and hydroamination reactions are described. PMID:19079787

  2. Radical Coupling Reactions in Lignin Synthesis: A Density Functional Theory Study

    SciTech Connect

    Sangha, A. K.; Parks, J. M.; Standaert, R. F.; Ziebell, A.; Davis, M.; Smith, J. C.

    2012-04-26

    Lignin is a complex, heterogeneous polymer in plant cell walls that provides mechanical strength to the plant stem and confers resistance to degrading microbes, enzymes, and chemicals. Lignin synthesis initiates through oxidative radical-radical coupling of monolignols, the most common of which are p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols. Here, we use density functional theory to characterize radical-radical coupling reactions involved in monolignol dimerization. We compute reaction enthalpies for the initial self- and cross-coupling reactions of these monolignol radicals to form dimeric intermediates via six major linkages observed in natural lignin. The 8-O-4, 8-8, and 8-5 coupling are computed to be the most favorable, whereas the 5-O-4, 5-5, and 8-1 linkages are less favorable. Overall, p-coumaryl self- and cross-coupling reactions are calculated to be the most favorable. For cross-coupling reactions, in which each radical can couple via either of the two sites involved in dimer formation, the more reactive of the two radicals is found to undergo coupling at its site with the highest spin density.

  3. Radical coupling reactions in lignin synthesis: a density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Sangha, Amandeep K; Parks, Jerry M; Standaert, Robert F; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark; Smith, Jeremy C

    2012-04-26

    Lignin is a complex, heterogeneous polymer in plant cell walls that provides mechanical strength to the plant stem and confers resistance to degrading microbes, enzymes, and chemicals. Lignin synthesis initiates through oxidative radical-radical coupling of monolignols, the most common of which are p-coumaryl, coniferyl, and sinapyl alcohols. Here, we use density functional theory to characterize radical-radical coupling reactions involved in monolignol dimerization. We compute reaction enthalpies for the initial self- and cross-coupling reactions of these monolignol radicals to form dimeric intermediates via six major linkages observed in natural lignin. The 8-O-4, 8-8, and 8-5 coupling are computed to be the most favorable, whereas the 5-O-4, 5-5, and 8-1 linkages are less favorable. Overall, p-coumaryl self- and cross-coupling reactions are calculated to be the most favorable. For cross-coupling reactions, in which each radical can couple via either of the two sites involved in dimer formation, the more reactive of the two radicals is found to undergo coupling at its site with the highest spin density. PMID:22475051

  4. Fusion reactions and experimental approaches to the synthesis of superheavy nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremin, A. V.; Utyonkov, V. K.; Oganessian, Yu. Ts.

    1998-02-15

    The question whether the asymmetric actinide based heavy ion reactions could be used for the synthesis of heavy (Z{>=}106) nuclides is essential from the point of view of the study of limitation on fusion, it is also important in such reactions new nuclides close to the magic number N=162 can be produced. Thus as the problem of a hindrance to fusion still remains unsolved the high excitation energy of the compound nucleus looks to be an obvious obstacle to using these reactions. Using the gas-filled recoil separator and electrostatic recoil separator VAS-SILISSA installed at the beam lines of the U-400 heavy ion cyclotron of the FLNR JINR we investigated the fusion reactions leading to 102, 103, 104, 105 and heaviest isotopes of the 106, 108 and 110 elements. The analysis of the measured cross-sections did not reveal any evidence of a hindrance to fusion at the ion bombarding energy close to the Coulomb barrier. {sup 48}Ca+{sup 232}Th{yields}{sup 280}110*, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 238}U{yields}{sup 286}112*, {sup 48}Ca+{sup 244}Pu{yields}{sup 292}114* appear to be the best reactions from the point of view of their cross-sections.

  5. Formal Synthesis of (+)-Brefeldin A: Application of a Zinc-mediated Ring Expansion Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Weimin; Zercher, Charles K.

    2008-01-01

    An efficient formal synthesis of (+)-brefeldin A was accomplished through a synthetic approach that relied upon three keys steps. The five-membered ring was generated in a stereocontrolled fashion through application of a tandem conjugate addition-intramolecular cyclization method developed by Toru. Ring-closing metathesis provided access to a twelve-membered ?-keto lactone, which was ring-expanded to the ?,?-unsaturated-?-keto lactone through a zinc carbenoid-mediated reaction. Conversion of this lactone to (+)-brefeldin A has been reported previously. PMID:17497923

  6. Precision synthesis of functional materials via RAFT polymerization and click-type chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Joel Diez

    2011-12-01

    The need to tailor polymeric architectures with specific physico-chemical properties via the simplest, cleanest, and most efficient synthetic route possible has become the ultimate goal in polymer synthesis. Recent progress in macromolecular science, such as the discoveries of controlled/"living" free radical polymerization (CRP) methods, has brought about synthetic capabilities to prepare (co)polymers with advanced topologies, predetermined molecular weights, narrow molecular weight distributions, and precisely located functional groups. In addition, the establishment of click chemistry has redefined the selected few highly efficient chemical reactions that become highly useful in post-polymerization modification strategies. Hence, the ability to make well-defined topologies afforded by controlled polymerization techniques and the facile incorporation of functionalities along the chain via click-type reactions have yielded complex architectures, allowing the investigation of physical phenomena which otherwise could not be studied with systems prepared via conventional methods. The overarching theme of the research work described in this dissertation is the fusion of the excellent attributes of reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization method, which is one of the CRP techniques, and click-type chemical reactions in the precision of synthesis of advanced functional materials. Chapter IV is divided into three sections. In Section I, the direct RAFT homopolymerization of 2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl isocyanate (AOI) and subsequent post-polymerization modifications are described. The polymerization conditions were optimized in terms of the choice of RAFT chain transfer agent (CTA), polymerization temperature and the reaction medium. Direct RAFT polymerization of AOI requires a neutral CTA, and relatively low reaction temperature to yield AOI homopolymers with low polydispersities. Efficient side-chain functionalization of PAOI homopolymers was achieved via reaction with model amine, thiol and alcohol compounds yielding urea, thiourethane and urethane derivatives, respectively. Reactions with amines and thiols (in the presence of base) were rapid, quantitative and efficient. However, the reaction with alcohols catalyzed by dibutyltin dilaurate (DBTDL) was relatively slow but proceeded to completion. Selective reaction pathways for the addition of difunctional ethanolamine and mercaptoethanol were also investigated. A related strategy is described in Section II wherein a hydroxyl-containing diblock copolymer precursor was transformed into a library of functional copolymers via two sequential post-polymerization modification reactions. A diblock copolymer scaffold, poly[(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)-b-( N-(2-hydroxyethyl)acrylamide] (PDMA-b-PHEA) was first prepared. The hydroxyl groups of the HEA block were then reacted with 2-(acryloyloxy)ethylisocyanate (AOI) and allylisocyanate (AI) resulting in acrylate- and allyl-functionalized copolymer precursors, respectively. The efficiencies of Michael-type and free radical thiol addition reactions were investigated using selected thiols having alkyl, aryl, hydroxyl, carboxylic acid, amine and amino acid functionalities. The steps of RAFT polymerization, isocyanate-hydroxyl coupling and thiol-ene addition are accomplished under mild conditions, thus offering facile and modular routes to synthesize functional copolymers. The synthesis and solution studies of pH- and salt-responsive triblock copolymer are described in Section III. This system is capable of forming self-locked micellar structures which may be controlled by changing solution pH as well as ionic strength. A triblock copolymer containing a permanently hydrophilic poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide) (PDMA) outer block, a salt-sensitive zwitterionic poly(3[2-(N-methylacrylamido)ethyl dimethylammonio]propanesulfonate) (PMAEDAPS) middle block and a pH-responsive 3-acrylamido-3-methylbutanoic acid (PAMBA) core block was synthesized using aqueous RAFT polymerization. A facile formation of "self-locking" shell cross-linked micelles is achieved by changing solution pH and salt concentration. The reversible "self-locking" is attained from the interactions of zwitterionic groups in the middle block that constitutes the shell of the micelles. The structure slowly dissociates into unimers in 2-3 days at pH above the pKa of the PAMBA block.

  7. Synthesis of 2,5-asymmetrically substituted 3,4-diaminothieno[2,3-b]thiophenes by domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Zubarev, Andrey A; Larionova, Natalia A; Rodinovskaya, Lyudmila A; Mortikov, Valery Yu; Shestopalov, Anatoliy M

    2013-10-14

    A convenient one pot synthesis of 2,5-asymmetrically substituted thieno[2,3-b]thiophenes is developed. The method is based on consecutive domino reactions (SN2 reaction ? Thorpe-Ziegler reaction) using malononitrile and carbon disulfide as starting materials with the generation of potassium 2,2-dicyanoethene-1,1-bis(thiolate) in a solution. The high yield of the target thienothiophenes was achieved using the Ziegler dilution effect. PMID:24028177

  8. Boron-selective reactions as powerful tools for modular synthesis of diverse complex molecules.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liang; Zhang, Shuai; Li, Pengfei

    2015-12-21

    In the context of modular and rapid construction of molecular diversity and complexity for applications in organic synthesis, biomedical and materials sciences, a generally useful strategy has emerged based on boron-selective chemical transformations. In the last decade, these types of reactions have evolved from proof-of-concept to some advanced applications in the efficient preparation of complex natural products and even automated precise manufacturing on the molecular level. These advances have shown the great potential of boron-selective reactions in simplifying synthetic design and experimental operations, and should inspire new developments in related chemical and technological areas. This tutorial review will highlight the original contributions and representative advances in this emerging field. PMID:26393673

  9. Hydrophobic Encapsulated Phosphonium Salts-Synthesis of Weakly Coordinating Cations and their Application in Wittig Reactions.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Ralf; Wagner, Manfred; Schollmeyer, Dieter; Baumgarten, Martin; Mllen, Klaus

    2015-06-15

    Large and rigid tetraarylphosphonium tetrafluoroborate salts have been synthesized representing weakly coordinating cations with diameters of several nanometers. Divergent dendritic growth by means of thermal Diels-Alder cycloaddition was employed for the construction of the hydrophobic polyphenylene framework up to the third generation. X-ray crystal structure analysis of first-generation phosphonium tetrafluoroborate supported the rigidity of the non-collapsible shell around the phosphorus center and gave insight into solid-state packing and cation-anion distances. Copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne ligation served as reliable method for the preparation of a first-generation triazolylphenyl hybrid phosphonium cation under mild reaction conditions. Furthermore, from the synthesis of triarylbenzylphosphonium bromides, Wittig precursors with unprecedented bulky substituents in the ?-position were accessible. Employment of these precursors under Wittig conditions by treatment with base and subsequent reaction with aldehydes preferentially provided (Z)-olefins with bulky polyphenylene substituents. PMID:25965029

  10. Multicomponent Synthesis of Cyclic Depsipeptide Mimics by Ugi Reaction Including Cyclic Hemiacetals Derived from Asymmetric Organocatalysis.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Alexander F; Rivera, Daniel G; Concepción, Odette; Echemendia, Radell; Correa, Arlene G; Paixão, Márcio W

    2016-02-01

    The synthesis of novel cyclic depsipeptide mimics by means of an organocatalytic conjugate addition, leading to chiral cyclic hemiacetals, followed by a multicomponent reaction with α-amino acids and isocyanides, is described. The initial organocatalytic step is employed for the asymmetric derivatization of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes to 4,5-disubstituted 2-hydroxytetrahydropyrans, which are next used as chiral bifunctional substrates on the Ugi five-center three-component reaction, giving rise to nine-membered-ring lactones. This sequential approach proved to be suitable for the rapid generation of molecular complexity through the combination of aliphatic, dipeptidic, glucosidic, and lipidic isocyanides with several amino acids, thus giving access to amido-, glyco-, and lipo-depsipeptide scaffolds featuring natural product-like structures. PMID:26720907

  11. Vulcanism, mercury-sensitized photo-reactions and abiogenetic synthesis - A theoretical treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1976-01-01

    Attention is called to the photodynamic and thermodynamic properties of Periodic Group IIb elements, most notably Hg, as they relate to ultra-violet sensitization in organic chemical reactions. The energy levels of 6 1P1 and 6 3P1 resonance states and the high vapor pressure (greater than 0.001 mm) of the metal at temperatures as low as 293 K bring Hg with the range of bond dissociation energies in most organic molecules and many inorganics. These capabilities considered together with recent evidence for Hg emission as a regular part of volcanic and geothermal processes provide the basis for a proposal that Hg-sensitized ultraviolet photo-reactions may have played a significant part in abiogenetic organic synthesis on the primative earth.

  12. Total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin and (-)-o-quinogeldanamycin: asymmetric glycolate aldol reactions and biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Merritt B; Meredith, Erik L; Hicken, Erik J; Simmons, Bryon L; Glancey, Russell R; Ma, Wei

    2003-10-17

    The total synthesis of (+)-geldanamycin (GA), following a linear route, has been completed using a demethylative quinone-forming reaction as the last step. Key steps include the use of two new asymmetric boron glycolate aldol reactions. To set the anti-C11,12 hydroxymethoxy functionality, (S,S)-5,6-bis-4-methoxyphenyldioxanone 8 was used. Methylglycolate derived from norephedrine 5 set the C6,7 methoxyurethane stereochemistry. The quinone formation step using nitric acid gave the non-natural o-quino-GA product 55 10:1 over geldanamycin. Other known oxidants gave an unusual azaquinone product 49. o-Quino-GA 55 binds Hsp90 with good affinity but is less cytotoxic compared to GA. PMID:14535799

  13. Low-temperature synthesis of actinide tetraborides by solid-state metathesis reactions

    DOEpatents

    Lupinetti, Anthony J. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Eduardo (Los Alamos, NM); Abney, Kent D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2004-12-14

    The synthesis of actinide tetraborides including uranium tetraboride (UB.sub.4), plutonium tetraboride (PuB.sub.4) and thorium tetraboride (ThB.sub.4) by a solid-state metathesis reaction are demonstrated. The present method significantly lowers the temperature required to .ltoreq.850.degree. C. As an example, when UCl.sub.4 is reacted with an excess of MgB.sub.2, at 850.degree. C., crystalline UB.sub.4 is formed. Powder X-ray diffraction and ICP-AES data support the reduction of UCl.sub.3 as the initial step in the reaction. The UB.sub.4 product is purified by washing water and drying.

  14. Synthesis of Shape-Anisotropic Nanomaterials using Spontaneous Galvanic Displacement Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, G. J.; Strand, M.; Schulze, M.; Maloney, D.; Larson, D.; Alia, S.; Perry, K.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Pivovar, B.; Wise, A. M.; Toney, M.; Richards, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The direct synthesis of nanostructures using wet chemical reduction methods has had a major impact on catalysis and materials design. However, no mechanism has yet been reported that explicitly provides growth parameters for shapes and sizes as a function of desired metals, making it difficult to directly synthesize shaped particles from specific metals. There have been reports in the literature using this method to obtain core-shell, porous cage-like and irregular structures, however only one report proposing a mechanism of the displacement process exists, which does not explain surface and bulk morphology changes as a function of reaction condition. Here, we demonstrate the use of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and microscopy to study the Ag-to-Pt displacement process of nanoparticles, nanowires and nanoplates at known intervals throughout the reaction. Obtaining a fundamental understanding of the displacement process will allow us to tune composition, morphology, and thus electronic properties of novel materials.

  15. Origin of fatty acid synthesis - Thermodynamics and kinetics of reaction pathways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Arthur L.

    1991-01-01

    The primitiveness of contemporary fatty acid biosynthesis was evaluated by using the thermodynamics and kinetics of its component reactions to estimate the extent of its dependence on powerful and selective catalysis by enzymes. Since this analysis indicated that the modern pathway is not primitive because it requires sophisticated enzymatic catalysis, an alternative pathway of primitive fatty acid synthesis is proposed that uses glycolaldehyde as a substrate. In contrast to the modern pathway, this primitive pathway is not dependent on an exogenous source of phosphoanhydride energy. Furthermore, the chemical spontaneity of its reactions suggests that it could have been readily catalyzed by the rudimentary biocatalysts available at an early stage in the origin of life.

  16. The design and synthesis of artificial photosynthetic antennas, reaction centres and membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, T A; Moore, A L; Gust, D

    2002-01-01

    Artificial antenna systems and reaction centres synthesized in our laboratory are used to illustrate that structural and thermodynamic factors controlling energy and electron transfer in these constructs can be modified to optimize performance. Artificial reaction centres have been incorporated into liposomal membranes where they convert light energy to vectorial redox potential. This redox potential drives a Mitchellian, quinone-based, proton-transporting redox loop that generates a Deltamu H(+) of ca. 4.4 kcal mol(-1) comprising DeltapH ca. 2.1 and Deltapsi ca. 70 mV. In liposomes containing CF(0)F(1)-ATP synthase, this system drives ATP synthesis against an ATP chemical potential similar to that observed in natural systems. PMID:12437888

  17. Facile synthesis of ultrathin magnetic iron oxide nanoplates by Schikorr reaction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this work, a very facile one-pot hydrothermal synthesis approach has been developed for the preparation of ultrathin magnetite nanoplates. The hydrothermal procedure was performed by aging ferrous hydroxide under anaerobic conditions, which is known as Schikorr reaction. Ethylene glycol (EG), which was introduced to the reaction as another solvent, played a critical role in the formation process of these nanoplates. Typically, hexagonal Fe3O4 nanoplates with a thickness of 10 to 15 nm and a side length of 150 to 200 nm have been synthesized with EG/H2O = 1:1 in experiments. Our data suggest that the thickness of Fe3O4 nanoplates decreases, and the shape of the nanoplate becomes more irregular when the concentration of EG increases. The as-prepared Fe3O4 nanoplates were highly crystallized single crystals and exhibited large coercivity and specific absorption rate coefficient. PMID:23294626

  18. Effect of cesium on alcohol synthesis, water-gas shift reaction, and ester hydrogenolysis over copper-zinc oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Young, C.W.

    1987-01-01

    This study comprises three subjects: (1) the effects of cesium doping and water concentration in the synthesis gas on methanol synthesis rate and the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction; (2) the hydrogenolysis of alkyl esters; and (3) the effect of cesium on higher alcohol synthesis, as well as the investigation of the chain growth reaction in higher alcohol synthesis over the Cu/ZnO catalysts. A two-parameter kinetic model quantitatively demonstrated that the maximum rate of methanol synthesis is determined by the balance between the promotional effect of cesium and the retarding effect stemming from the blockage of hydrogen activing sites. Another six-parameter kinetic model, in which the methanol and WGS reactions were considered simultaneously, can account for methanol activity in the water dependence study. At higher water concentrations, the cesium-doped catalysts were more active than the undoped catalyst for methanol synthesis, which was quantitatively shown to be due to the promotion of the WGS reaction by the cesium doping. The inhibition effect that occurred at high water concentrations in methyl acetate hydrogenolysis is due to the blockage of hydrogen activating sites. In addition, the kinetics of hydrogenolysis of n-propyl acetate resulted in a -0.49 order with respect to n-propyl acetate and a +1.83 order to hydrogen, which are in fair agreement with those derived in terms of Langmuir-Hinshelwood type kinetics. The aldehydic species involved in the hydrogenolysis of esters was evidence by a isopropylamine trapping experiment.

  19. The densities and reaction heat of methanol synthesis System from cornstalk syngas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling-feng; Zhao, Qing-ling; Chen, Jing; Zhang, Le; Zhang, Run-tao; Liu, Li-li; Zhang, Zhao-yue

    2010-11-01

    Methanol can be used as possibole replacement for conventional gasoline and Diesel fuel. In order to produce methanol, it is necessary to decompose biomass, including cornstalks, which is a raw material from agricultural residues. A promising route for processing cornstals is made cornstalks gasficated with thermochemical method to prepare the syngas, which has been conducted under a down-flow fixed bed gasifier. While the low-heat-value cornstalk gas produced in the down-flow fixed bed gasifier needs purified and a variety of technical procedures such as deoxygenation, desulfurization, catalytic cracking of tar and hydrogenation. In this paper, the catalytic experiments of methanol synthesis with cornstalk syngas were carried out in a tubular-flow integral and isothermal reactor. The effect of reaction temperature, pressure, catalyst types, catalyst particle size, syngas flow at entering end and composition of syngas was determind. The experimental results indicated that the proper catalyst of the synthetic reaction was C301 and the optimum catalyst size (φ) was 0.833 mm×0.351 mm. The optimal operating temperature and pressure were found to be 235° C and 5 MPa, respectively. The suitable syngas flow 0.9-1.10 mol/h at entering end was selected and the suitable composition of syngas were CO 10.49%, CO28.8%, N237.32%, CnHm0.95% and H240.49%. The methanol yield is 0.418 g/g cornstalk. Moreover, the densities, state equation parameters and the total reaction heat ΔHT,P, of methanol reacting system was calculated by SHBWR state equation under givern reaction pressure. The calculation results provided basic data for the design of the industrial equipments in which catalyzed synthesis of methanol from cornstalk gases is operated.

  20. Synthesis and biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from betti-type reaction.

    PubMed

    Mohanram, Ipsita; Meshram, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from a three-component Betti reaction. The synthesis was initiated by the condensation of aromatic aldehyde, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline in presence of fluorite as catalyst in a simple one-step protocol. The reactions were stirred at room temperature for 10-15?min achieving 92-95% yield. The structures of synthesized derivatives were established on the basis of spectroscopic and elemental analysis. All derivatives 4(a-h) were screened in vivo and in vitro for anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activity against a reference drug, Diclofenac and Albendazole, respectively. The screening results show that compounds 4c, 4d, 4f, and 4h were found to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity while compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, and 4g are potent anthelmintic agents when compared with reference drugs, respectively. The bioactivity of these derivatives has also been evaluated with respect to Lipinski's rule of five using molinspiration cheminformatics software. PMID:24955256

  1. Synthesis and Biological Activities of 4-Aminoantipyrine Derivatives Derived from Betti-Type Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Jyotsna

    2014-01-01

    The present work deals with the synthesis and evaluation of biological activities of 4-aminoantipyrine derivatives derived from a three-component Betti reaction. The synthesis was initiated by the condensation of aromatic aldehyde, 4-aminoantipyrine, and 8-hydroxyquinoline in presence of fluorite as catalyst in a simple one-step protocol. The reactions were stirred at room temperature for 1015?min achieving 9295% yield. The structures of synthesized derivatives were established on the basis of spectroscopic and elemental analysis. All derivatives 4(ah) were screened in vivo and in vitro for anti-inflammatory and anthelmintic activity against a reference drug, Diclofenac and Albendazole, respectively. The screening results show that compounds 4c, 4d, 4f, and 4h were found to possess potential anti-inflammatory activity while compounds 4a, 4b, 4e, and 4g are potent anthelmintic agents when compared with reference drugs, respectively. The bioactivity of these derivatives has also been evaluated with respect to Lipinski's rule of five using molinspiration cheminformatics software. PMID:24955256

  2. Synthesis of 4H/fcc Noble Multimetallic Nanoribbons for Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Evolution Reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhanxi; Luo, Zhimin; Huang, Xiao; Li, Bing; Chen, Ye; Wang, Jie; Hu, Yanling; Zhang, Hua

    2016-02-01

    Noble multimetallic nanomaterials, if only consisting of Au, Ag, Pt, and Pd, typically adopt the high-symmetry face-centered cubic (fcc) structure. Here for the first time, by using the 4H/fcc Au@Ag nanoribbons (NRBs) as seeds, we report the synthesis of 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PdAg core-shell NRBs via the galvanic reaction method under ambient conditions. Moreover, this strategy can also be used to synthesize 4H/fcc trimetallic Au@PtAg and quatermetallic Au@PtPdAg core-shell NRBs. Impressively, for the first time, these alloy shells, i.e., PdAg, PtAg, and PtPdAg, epitaxially grown on the 4H/fcc Au core with novel 4H hexagonal phase were successfully synthesized. Remarkably, the obtained 4H/fcc Au@PdAg NRBs exhibit excellent electrocatalytic activity toward the hydrogen evolution reaction, which is even quite close to that of the commercial Pt black. We believe that our findings here may provide a novel strategy for the crystal-structure-controlled synthesis of advanced functional noble multimetallic nanomaterials with various promising applications. PMID:26752521

  3. Synthesis of nanocrystalline yttrium iron garnet by low temperature solid state reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Hongtao Zeng Liwen; Lu Chao; Zhang Wenbo; Xu Guangliang

    2011-04-15

    In this work, nanocrystalline yttrium iron garnet powders were produced by low temperature solid state reaction. The phase evolution during the procedure was determined from the thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis, and the x-ray diffraction patterns. The results of transmission electron microscopy indicated that the prepared powders exhibited grain size at the nano-level of 20 {approx} 40 nm. Dense ceramics with a theoretical density of around 98% were obtained from the prepared powders after sintering at 1280 deg. C, a relative low sintering temperature compared with conventional ceramic processes, and the saturation magnetizations of sintered samples were also determined. - Research Highlights: {yields}No sol or gel form during the synthesis processing using nitrates and citric acid as raw materials. {yields}The synthesis method needs a low heating temperature (700 deg. C) compared with conventional solid state reaction. {yields}The product is a single phase with homogeneous size distribution and nano grains (20 {approx} 40 nm) confirmed by TEM. {yields}Dense YIG ceramic can be sintered at a low temperature (1280 deg. C) compared with that in conventional processing.

  4. Low-cost anodes for ammonia electrooxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selverston, Steven M.

    This research focused on the development of low-cost electrodes for the electrochemical oxidation of ammonia to nitrogen, a reaction that has possible applications in hydrogen generation, direct ammonia fuel cells, water treatment, and sensors. Statistical design of experiments was used to help develop an efficient and scalable process for electrodeposition of platinum with a specific electrochemical surface area of over 25 m2 /g. Catalyst surface area and activity were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry, and the material microstructure and morphology were investigated using x-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The synthesized electrodes were found to be active toward the ammonia electrooxidation reaction, particularly when supporting electrolyte was added. However, supporting electrolyte was not required in order to oxidize the ammonia. As proof of concept, a homemade direct ammonia fuel cell employing a commercial anion exchange membrane was tested at room temperature with gravity-fed fuel and without supporting electrolyte. At room temperature, with passive reactant supply and using dissolved oxygen at the cathode, the cell produced about one quarter the power of a direct methanol fuel cell that used active transport of humidified oxygen and preheated (50 C) methanol. With continued development of the membrane, cathode and membrane electrode assembly, the passive direct ammonia fuel cell using anion exchange membrane could have performance similar to the equivalent direct methanol fuel cell, and it could benefit from many advantages of ammonia over methanol such as lower cost, higher energy density, and reduced greenhouse gas emissions.

  5. Effects of water on reactions for waste treatment, organic synthesis, and bio-refinery in sub- and supercritical water.

    PubMed

    Akizuki, Makoto; Fujii, Tatsuya; Hayashi, Rumiko; Oshima, Yoshito

    2014-01-01

    Current research analyzing the effects of water in the field of homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions of organics in sub- and supercritical water are reviewed in this article. Since the physical properties of water (e.g., density, ion product and dielectric constants) can affect the reaction rates and mechanisms of various reactions, understanding the effects that water can have is important in controlling reactions. For homogeneous reactions, the effects of water on oxidation, hydrolysis, aldol condensation, Beckman rearrangement and biomass refining were introduced including recent experimental results up to 100 MPa using special pressure-resistance equipment. For heterogeneous reactions, the effects of ion product on acid/base-catalyzed reactions, such as hydrothermal conversion of biomass-related compounds, organic synthesis in the context of bio-refinery, and hydration of olefins were described and how the reaction paths are controlled by the concentration of water and hydrogen ions was summarized. PMID:23867097

  6. Ammonia Affects Astroglial Proliferation in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Bodega, Guillermo; Segura, Berta; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, Mara del Carmen; Lpez-Fernndez, Luis Andrs; Garca, Mara Isabel; Trabado, Isabel; Surez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Primary cultures of rat astroglial cells were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mM NH4Cl for up to 10 days. Dose- and time-dependent reductions in cell numbers were seen, plus an increase in the proportion of cells in the S phase. The DNA content was reduced in the treated cells, and BrdU incorporation diminished. However, neither ammonia nor ammonia plus glutamine had any effect on DNA polymerase activity. iTRAQ analysis showed that exposure to ammonia induced a significant reduction in histone and heterochromatin protein 1 expression. A reduction in cell viability was also noted. The ammonia-induced reduction of proliferative activity in these cultured astroglial cells seems to be due to a delay in the completion of the S phase provoked by the inhibition of chromatin protein synthesis. PMID:26421615

  7. Ammonia Affects Astroglial Proliferation in Culture.

    PubMed

    Bodega, Guillermo; Segura, Berta; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, Mara Del Carmen; Lpez-Fernndez, Luis Andrs; Garca, Mara Isabel; Trabado, Isabel; Surez, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Primary cultures of rat astroglial cells were exposed to 1, 3 and 5 mM NH4Cl for up to 10 days. Dose- and time-dependent reductions in cell numbers were seen, plus an increase in the proportion of cells in the S phase. The DNA content was reduced in the treated cells, and BrdU incorporation diminished. However, neither ammonia nor ammonia plus glutamine had any effect on DNA polymerase activity. iTRAQ analysis showed that exposure to ammonia induced a significant reduction in histone and heterochromatin protein 1 expression. A reduction in cell viability was also noted. The ammonia-induced reduction of proliferative activity in these cultured astroglial cells seems to be due to a delay in the completion of the S phase provoked by the inhibition of chromatin protein synthesis. PMID:26421615

  8. Prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Chun; Oro, J.; Yang, Lily; Miller, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose and formamidine has been demonstrated as well as the prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-ethanol and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose, formaldehyde, and ammonia. The maximum yields of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde, imidazole-4-ethanol, and imidazole-4-glycol obtained in these reactions are 1.6, 5.4, and 6.8 percent respectively, based on the erythrose. Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde would have been converted to histidine on the primitive earth by a Strecker synthesis, and several prebiotic reactions would convert imidazole-4-glycol and imidazole-4-ethanol to imidazole-4-acetaldehyde.

  9. Total Synthesis of ()-Englerin?A Using An Intermolecular [3+2] Cycloaddition Reaction of Platinum-Containing Carbonyl Ylide.

    PubMed

    Kusama, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Aoi; Ishida, Kento; Iwasawa, Nobuharu

    2016-01-01

    Total synthesis of ()-Englerin?A has been achieved starting from ?,?-ynone 5 in 14 steps. The key feature of this synthesis is the highly efficient and stereoselective preparation of 8-oxabicyclo[3.2.1]octane derivative 6, a core skeleton of Englerin?A, based on an inverse electron-demand [3+2] cycloaddition reaction of the platinum-containing carbonyl ylide, which was developed in our laboratory. PMID:26377511

  10. Two-Component Domino Reactions Initiated from Ketenes: Serendipitous Synthesis of Quinolizidinones Analogous to Chelated Lobeline's Conformation.

    PubMed

    Drge, Emmanuelle; Venot, Pierre-Etienne; Le Bideau, Franck; Retailleau, Pascal; Joseph, Delphine

    2015-10-16

    An original and efficient synthesis of quinolizidinones through a one-pot two-component cascade reaction of norlobelanine with in situ generated ketenes is reported. Functionalized fused azabicyclic scaffolds bearing multiple stereogenic centers were prepared with excellent diastereoselectivities. Mild optimized conditions involving a key "shuttle base" deprotonation strategy was applied to the synthesis, in a short sequence, of a constrained mimetic of the privileged H-bonded conformation of (-)-lobeline. PMID:26366609

  11. Elucidating the Reaction Pathways in the Synthesis of Organolead Trihalide Perovskite for High-Performance Solar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Baohua; Young Wong, King; Xiao, Xudong; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed unprecedentedly rapid development of organicinorganic halide perovskitebased solar cells. The solutionprocessability and high efficiency make this technology extraordinarily attractive. The intensive investigations have accumulated rich experiences in the perovskite fabrication; while the mechanism of the chemical synthesis still remains unresolved. Here, we set up the chemical equation of the synthesis and elucidate the reactions from both thermodynamic and kinetic perspectives. Our study shows that gaseous products thermodynamically favour the reaction, while the activation energy and collision probability synergistically determine the reaction rate. These understandings enable us to finely tune the crystal size for high-quality perovskite film, leading to a record fill factor among similar device structures in the literature. This investigation provides a general strategy to explore the mechanism of perovskite synthesis and benefits the fabrication of highefficiency perovskite photoactive layer. PMID:26020476

  12. Elucidating the reaction pathways in the synthesis of organolead trihalide perovskite for high-performance solar cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baohua; Young Wong, King; Xiao, Xudong; Chen, Tao

    2015-01-01

    The past two years have witnessed unprecedentedly rapid development of organic-inorganic halide perovskite-based solar cells. The solution-processability and high efficiency make this technology extraordinarily attractive. The intensive investigations have accumulated rich experiences in the perovskite fabrication; while the mechanism of the chemical synthesis still remains unresolved. Here, we set up the chemical equation of the synthesis and elucidate the reactions from both thermodynamic and kinetic perspectives. Our study shows that gaseous products thermodynamically favour the reaction, while the activation energy and "collision" probability synergistically determine the reaction rate. These understandings enable us to finely tune the crystal size for high-quality perovskite film, leading to a record fill factor among similar device structures in the literature. This investigation provides a general strategy to explore the mechanism of perovskite synthesis and benefits the fabrication of high-efficiency perovskite photoactive layer. PMID:26020476

  13. Journey on greener pathways: from the use of alternate energy inputs and benign reaction media to sustainable applications of nano-catalysts in synthesis and environmental remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. These processes include examples of coupling reactions, the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of reactio...

  14. The Synthesis of "N"-Benzyl-2-Azanorbornene via Aqueous Hetero Diels-Alder Reaction: An Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvage, Xavier; Delaude, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of "N"-benzyl-2-azanorbornene via aqueous hetero Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and benzyliminium chloride formed in situ from benzylamine hydrochloride and formaldehyde is described. Characterization of the product was achieved by IR and NMR spectroscopies. The spectral data acquired are thoroughly discussed. Numerous…

  15. The Synthesis of "N"-Benzyl-2-Azanorbornene via Aqueous Hetero Diels-Alder Reaction: An Undergraduate Project in Organic Synthesis and Structural Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauvage, Xavier; Delaude, Lionel

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of "N"-benzyl-2-azanorbornene via aqueous hetero Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and benzyliminium chloride formed in situ from benzylamine hydrochloride and formaldehyde is described. Characterization of the product was achieved by IR and NMR spectroscopies. The spectral data acquired are thoroughly discussed. Numerous

  16. Intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions using chiral ruthenium Lewis acids and application in the total synthesis of ent-ledol.

    PubMed

    Thamapipol, Sirinporn; Kündig, E Peter

    2011-11-01

    One-point binding chiral ruthenium Lewis acids incorporating the C(2)-symmetric electron-poor bidentate phosphinite ligand BIPHOP-F and a Cp or an indenyl 'roof' can efficiently catalyze asymmetric intramolecular Diels-Alder reactions of trienes to form bicyclic adducts with good to excellent asymmetric induction. This reaction forms the key step in a total synthesis of ent-ledol in 96% ee. The synthesis also helps to clarify the stereochemical assignment of ledol and inconsistencies in the measured optical rotation. PMID:21938305

  17. Rhodium(II) catalyzed synthesis of macrocycles incorporating oxindole via O-H/N-H insertion reactions.

    PubMed

    Muthusamy, Sengodagounder; Karikalan, Thangaraju

    2014-12-01

    A wide variety of 10- to 29-membered oxaza-macrocycles incorporating an oxindole unit were synthesized in good yield via rhodium(II) acetate dimer catalyzed intramolecular O-H/N-H insertion reactions. Interestingly, synthesis of C2-symmetric macrocycles in moderate yield was also demonstrated via head to tail dimerization involving double intermolecular O-H insertion when the spacer length was decreased. The synthesis of chiral macrocycles was also delineated. This study reveals the effect of spacer length on inter- or intramolecular insertion reactions with the remotely placed hydroxyl/amino group. PMID:25302664

  18. Possibilities for synthesis of new isotopes of superheavy elements in fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrebaev, V. I.; Karpov, A. V.; Greiner, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Background. In the “cold” fusion reactions based on the use of lead and bismuth targets, the proton-rich isotopes of superheavy (SH) elements up to Z=113 have been produced. More neutron-rich isotopes of SH elements (up to Z=118) have been synthesized in “hotter” fusion reactions of 48Ca with actinide targets. α-decay half-lives of different isotopes of the same SH elements (for example, 112) were found to vary by several orders of magnitude. This indicates strong shell effects in this area of the nuclear map. The understanding of these effects and other properties of SH nuclei is strongly impeded by the absence of experimental data on decay properties of the not-yet-synthesized isotopes of SH elements located between those produced in the “cold” fusion reactions and those produced in the “hot” fusion reactions and also by the yet missing neutron-enriched isotopes of these elements.Purpose. In this paper we search for the optimal fusion reactions which may be used to fill this gap of the nuclear map and significantly extend the area of known SH nuclei.Method. For the calculation of the cross sections we use the same approach which was employed earlier for successful predictions of all 48Ca induced fusion reactions.Results. Several fusion reactions of the stable projectiles 40Ar, 44Ca, and 48Ca with different isotopes of actinides (lighter and heavier than those that have been already utilized in the Dubna experiments) could be used for synthesis of new SH nuclei. Predicted cross sections for the production of new isotopes of SH nuclei were found to be quite large, and the corresponding experiments can be easily performed at existing facilities. For the first time a “narrow pathway” to the middle of the island of stability was found owing to possible β+ decay of SH nuclei 291115 and 291114 which could be formed in ordinary fusion reactions.

  19. Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-04-03

    Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a π-complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term “ring-walking”, and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent stereoregularity and molecular weight distributions with polydispersities that are consistent with a living polymerization sequence. Another important objective of this program concerned the use of these new catalysts and improved mechanistic insight for the synthesis of specific polymeric materials with prespecified properties.

  20. Oxydesulfurization of a Turkish hard lignite with ammonia solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yaman, S.; Kuecuekbayrak, S.

    1996-09-01

    In this study the desulfurization of a high pyritic and high organic sulfur lignite taken from the Gediz area (western Turkey) was investigated by the oxydesulfurization method using ammonia solutions. The influence of such parameters as the concentration of ammonia solution, partial pressure of oxygen, temperature, and reaction time were studied. The ranges of these parameters were selected as 0--10 M concentration of ammonia solution, 0--1.5 MPa partial pressure of oxygen, 403--473 K temperature, and 10--60 min reaction time. It was concluded that the use of ammonia solution as an extraction solution increased the efficiency of the oxydesulfurization process.

  1. Biotransformations Utilizing β-Oxidation Cycle Reactions in the Synthesis of Natural Compounds and Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Œwizdor, Alina; Panek, Anna; Milecka-Tronina, Natalia; Kołek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    β-Oxidation cycle reactions, which are key stages in the metabolism of fatty acids in eucaryotic cells and in processes with a significant role in the degradation of acids used by microbes as a carbon source, have also found application in biotransformations. One of the major advantages of biotransformations based on the β-oxidation cycle is the possibility to transform a substrate in a series of reactions catalyzed by a number of enzymes. It allows the use of sterols as a substrate base in the production of natural steroid compounds and their analogues. This route also leads to biologically active compounds of therapeutic significance. Transformations of natural substrates via β-oxidation are the core part of the synthetic routes of natural flavors used as food additives. Stereoselectivity of the enzymes catalyzing the stages of dehydrogenation and addition of a water molecule to the double bond also finds application in the synthesis of chiral biologically active compounds, including medicines. Recent advances in genetic, metabolic engineering, methods for the enhancement of bioprocess productivity and the selectivity of target reactions are also described. PMID:23443116

  2. Efficient Rhodium-Catalyzed Multicomponent Reaction for the Synthesis of Novel Propargylamines.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Prez, Laura; Iglesias, Manuel; Munrriz, Julen; Polo, Victor; Prez-Torrente, Jess J; Oro, Luis A

    2015-12-01

    [{Rh(?-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ] (IPr = 1,3-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazole-2-ylidene) was found to be an efficient catalyst for the synthesis of novel propargylamines by a one-pot three-component reaction between primary arylamines, aliphatic aldehydes, and triisopropylsilylacetylene. This methodology offers an efficient synthetic pathway for the preparation of secondary propargylamines derived from aliphatic aldehydes. The reactivity of [{Rh(?-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ] with amines and aldehydes was studied, leading to the identification of complexes [RhCl(CO)IPr(MesNH2 )] (MesNH2 = 2,4,6-trimethylaniline) and [RhCl(CO)2 IPr]. The latter shows a very low catalytic activity while the former brought about reaction rates similar to those obtained with [{Rh(?-Cl)(H)2 (IPr)}2 ]. Besides, complex [RhCl(CO)IPr(MesNH2 )] reacts with an excess of amine and aldehyde to give [RhCl(CO)IPr{MesN?CHCH2 CH(CH3 )2 }], which was postulated as the active species. A mechanism that clarifies the scarcely studied catalytic cycle of A3 -coupling reactions is proposed based on reactivity studies and DFT calculations. PMID:26490447

  3. Nonplanar aromatic compounds. 3. A proposed new strategy for the synthesis of Buckybowls. Synthesis, structure and reactions of

    PubMed

    Bodwell; Fleming; Mannion; Miller

    2000-08-25

    A new strategy for the synthesis of Buckybowls is presented and initial attempts to implement it are reported. This involves annulation of further rings onto polycyclic aromatic systems that prefer to be planar but have been "pre-bent" by the installation of a tether. Pyrenophane 2b reacts with TCNE and PTAD to give 1:1 and 1:2 adducts, respectively. The less strained pyrenophane 2c is unreactive toward TCNE but gives a 1:2 adduct with PTAD. Attempted electrophilic aromatic brominations of pyrenophane 2e under a variety of conditions were unsuccessful, as were attempts to brominate cyclophanediene 1c, the direct synthetic precursor of 2c. Tether cleavage and addition reactions occurred rather than substitution. In an effort to circumvent tether cleavage problems, [7]-, [8]- and [9](2,7)pyrenophanes 22b-d were prepared. However, attempted bromination and Friedel-Crafts acylations failed. Evidence for the fleeting existence of [6](2,7)pyrenophane 22a was also obtained. Comparison of structural data (X-ray and AM1 calculations) for the pyrenophanes 22a-d with their 1,n-dioxa analogues 2a-d indicates that the nature of the tether has a strong effect on the degree of bend in the pyrene moiety and this led to the identification of trioxapyrenophane 28 as the next target in the quest for increasingly bent pyrenes. PMID:10993367

  4. Indium Tribromide Catalyzed Coupling Reaction of Enol Ethers with Silyl Ketene Imines toward the Synthesis of ?,?-Unsaturated Nitriles.

    PubMed

    Nishimoto, Yoshihiro; Nishimura, Takashi; Yasuda, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a coupling reaction of enol ethers with silyl ketene imines in the presence of catalytic amounts of InBr3 and Me3 SiBr is described. Kinetic studies have revealed that an indium catalyst and Me3 SiBr accelerated the coupling process and the regeneration of the catalyst, respectively. Various types of enol ethers and silyl ketene imines are applicable. In addition, a formal synthesis of verapamil was achieved by using this novel coupling reaction. PMID:26515612

  5. Synthesis and chemical reactions of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone.

    PubMed

    El-Desoky, El-Sayed Ibrahim; Reyad, Mahmoud; Afsah, Elsayed Mohammed; Dawidar, Abdel-Aziz Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Structural modifications of natural products with complex structures like steroids require great synthetic effort. A review of literature is presented on the chemistry of the steroidal hormone 17α-methyltestosterone that is approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the United States as an androgen for estrogen-androgen hormone replacement therapy treatment. The analog also offers special possibilities for the prevention/treatment of hormone-sensitive cancers. The testosterone skeleton has important functionalities in the molecule that can act as a carbonyl component, an active methylene compound, α,β-unsaturated enone and tertiary hydroxyl group in various chemical reactions to access stereoisomeric steroidal compounds with potent activity. In addition, microbiological methods of synthesis and transformation of this hormone are presented. PMID:26639430

  6. Toward synthesis of third-generation spin-labeled podophyllotoxin derivatives using isocyanide multicomponent reactions.

    PubMed

    Kou, Liang; Wang, Mei-Juan; Wang, Li-Ting; Zhao, Xiao-Bo; Nan, Xiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ying-Qian; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-03-21

    Spin-labeled podophyllotoxins have elicited widespread interest due to their far superior antitumor activity compared to podophyllotoxin. To extend our prior studies in this research area, we synthesized a new generation of spin-labeled podophyllotoxin analogs via isocyanide multicomponent reactions and evaluated their cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (A-549, DU-145, KB and KBvin). Most of the compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against all four cell lines, notably against the drug resistant KBvin cancer cell line. Among the new analogs, compounds 12e (IC50: 0.60-0.75 μM) and 12h (IC50: 1.12-2.03 μM) showed superior potency to etoposide (IC50: 2.03 to >20 μM), a clinically available anticancer drug. With a concise efficient synthesis and potent cytotoxic profiles, compounds 12e and 12h merit further development as a new generation of epipodophyllotoxin-derived antitumor clinical trial candidates. PMID:24553146

  7. Synthesis of Iron Nanometallic Glasses and Their Application in Cancer Therapy by a Localized Fenton Reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen; Bu, Wenbo; Ni, Dalong; Zhang, Shenjian; Li, Qing; Yao, Zhenwei; Zhang, Jiawen; Yao, Heliang; Wang, Zheng; Shi, Jianlin

    2016-02-01

    Metallic glasses and cancer theranostics are emerging fields that do not seem to be related to each other. Herein, we report the facile synthesis of amorphous iron nanoparticles (AFeNPs) and their superior physicochemical properties compared to their crystalline counterpart, iron nanocrystals (FeNCs). The AFeNPs can be used for cancer theranostics by inducing a Fenton reaction in the tumor by taking advantage of the mild acidity and the overproduced H2 O2 in a tumor microenvironment: Ionization of the AFeNPs enables on-demand ferrous ion release in the tumor, and subsequent H2 O2 disproportionation leads to efficient (.) OH generation. The endogenous stimuli-responsive (.) OH generation in the presence AFeNPs enables a highly specific cancer therapy without the need for external energy input. PMID:26836344

  8. Construction materials for reaction unit in the liquid-phase synthesis of propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zaritskii, V.I.D.

    1987-09-01

    The main components of the reaction medium in equipment for the synthesis of propylene oxide by liquid-phase oxidation of gaseous propylene with peracetic acid are propylene, peracetic acid, ethyl acetate, acetic acid, propylene oxide, carbon dioxide, oxygen, methane, and propylene glycol acetates. The operating conditions of the equipment and content of the main components of the medium are shown. Results are given for the investigation of the corrosion behavior of 12Kh18N10T, 10Kh17N13M2T, 08Kh22N6T, and 08Kh21N6M2T steels, AD0 and AD1 aluminum, and VT1-0 titanium. VSt3 carbon steel was tested for comparison.

  9. Fast solution precursor synthesis of the 2223 phase: The role of lead in the reaction pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Miao, H.; Primo, V.; Ibanez, R.; Sapina, F.; Beltran, A.; Beltran, D.

    1994-12-31

    Valuable mechanistic information, about the reaction pathway in the formation of the 2223 phase, has been obtained by the use of a solution synthesis route. The presence of lead in the starting mixture has remarkable effects on the nature and stability of the different intermediates: (1) the grain size and morphology of Bi{sub 2}CUO{sub 4} is severely changed, (2) calcium carbonate is partially decomposed to yield the calcium plumbate, (3) the 2201 phase results stabilized against the formation of the collapsed phase Bi{sub 17}Sr{sub 16}Cu{sub 7}O{sub 49{minus}{delta}}, (4) the melting point of the intermediate 2212 is lowered by about 10 C. All these effects, due to lead substitution, contribute to promote the formation of the 2223 phase, controlling also the morphology and properties of the final product.

  10. Palladium-catalyzed reactions in the synthesis of 3- and 4-substituted indoles. 4

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, L.S.; Sestrick, M.R.; Michaelson, E.T.; Harrington, P.J. )

    1989-08-18

    4-Bromo-1-tosylindole (1) was converted to tricyclic indole enone 11, a potential intermediate in the synthesis of tetracyclic ergot alkaloids, by a series of palladium-catalyzed processes. Attempts to construct the ergot D ring by the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of enone 11 and 1-azabutadiene 12 produced not the expected (4 + 2) adduct 13 but the benz(cd)indoline derivative 14 resulting from attack of the aza diene at the indole 2-position. The thermodynamic stability of the naphthol nucleus makes enone 11 generally susceptible to attack at the indole 2-position, as evidenced by the attack of hydride and methyl cuprate nucleophiles at this portion forming indolines 16 and 17, respectively.

  11. A new synthesis of TATB using inexpensive starting materials and mild reaction conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, A.R.; Pagoria, P.F.; Schmidt, R.D.

    1996-04-01

    TATB is currently manufactured in US by nitration of the expensive TCB to give 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-trinitrobenzene which is then aminated to yield TATB. Elevated temperatures (150 C) are required for both reactions. There is a need for a more economical synthesis of TATB that also addresses current environmental issues. We have recently found that 1,1,1-trimethylhydrazinium iodide (TMHI) allows the amination of nitroarenes at ambient temperature via Vicarious Nucleophilic Substitution of hydrogen. TMHI reacts with picramide in presence of strong base (NaOMe or t-BuOK) to give TATB in over 95% yield. TMHI and picramide can be obtained from either inexpensive starting materials or surplus energetic materials from demilitarization activities, such as the 30,000 metric tons of UDMH (surplus rocket propellant) from the former Soviet Union.

  12. Applications of Click Chemistry Reactions to the Synthesis of Functional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Accurso, Adrian A.

    This body of work focuses on the production of functional materials using the most reliable carbon-hetoratom bond-forming processes available, which are widely termed "click chemistry" reactions in the literature. This focus on function is enabled by a basis in synthetic chemistry, and where appropriate, brings in techniques from the related fields of materials science and biology to address current needs in those areas. Chapter 1 concerns the in situ production of azide and alkyne-based click chemistry adhesive polymers. Screening of a library of multivalent azides and alkynes was accomplished on a custom-built highthroughput instrument and followed up on a lap-shear testing apparatus. The conductivity of composites made of the adhesive was also explored according to standard methods. The second and third chapters explore the synthesis and function of a family of related [3.3.1]-bicyclononane dichlorides, which we have termed "WCL" electrophiles, and their potential applications for surface functionalization, the synthesis of polycations, and candidate membrane disruptive compounds. The rates of consumption of dichlorides and hydrolysis of model compounds were also explored using NMR, GC-MS, and HPLC-based methods.

  13. Powder lemon juice containing oligosaccharides obtained by dextransucrase acceptor reaction synthesis and dehydrated in sprouted bed.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Raquel Macedo Dantas; Arajo, Antnia Daiana Andrade; Fontes, Cludia Patrcia Mouro Lima; da Silva, Ana Raquel Araujo; da Costa, Jos Maria Correia; Rodrigues, Sueli

    2015-09-01

    Oligosaccharides can be synthesized using the sugars present in the fruit juices through the dextransucrase acceptor reaction. In the present work, the effect of reducing sugar and sucrose concentration on oligosaccharide formation in lemon juice was evaluated through response surface methodology. The oligosaccharide formation in lemon juice was favored at high concentrations of sucrose (75g/L) and reducing sugar (75g/L). At this synthesis conditions, an oligosaccharide concentration of 94.81g/L was obtained with a conversion of 63.21% of the initial sugars into the target product. Oligosaccharides with degree of polymerization up to 11 were obtained. The lemon juice was dehydrated in spouted bed using maltodextrin as drying adjuvant. The powder obtained at 60C with 20% maltodextrin presented low moisture (2.24%), low water activity (Aw?=?0.18) and the lowest reconstitution time (~46s). The results showed that lemon juice is suitable for oligosaccharides enzyme synthesis and can be dehydrated in spouted bed. PMID:26345014

  14. Secondary reactions on metal-zeolite catalysts used in synthesis gas conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Gormley, R.J.; Rao, V.U.S.; Anderson, R.R.; Schehl, R.R.; Chi, R.D.H.

    1988-09-01

    The mechanism of synthesis gas conversion over cobalt-ZSM-5 catalysts to gasoline-range hydrocarbons has been examined. A correlation exists between the methane yield and the percentage aromatics in the liquid hydrocarbon product. This could be due to heat transfer effects or to the hydrogenolysis of propane and butane over cobalt, leading to the formation of additional methane. The formation of additional alkanes (propane and butane) is known to accompany the aromatization process. The percentage of methane made by the bifunctional catalyst 4.2% Co/SiO{sub 2} + ZSM-5 was 1.7 times that made by the Co/SiO{sub 2} catalyst with a feed of H{sub 2}/CO = 1 at 280{degree}C, 21 atm, and WHSV = 0.77. An attempt was made to inhibit secondary hydrogenolysis reactions by the addition of copper to the cobalt catalyst. Under similar process conditions, this provided a very small help in keeping down the increase in percentage of methane upon the addition of ZSM-5. Addition of 5 and 10% propane to the synthesis gas showed no additional methane made by hydrogenolysis. If needed some of the methane produced over cobalt-ZSM-5 catalysts is coming from hydrogenolysis of light alkanes, it is a small amount.

  15. Molecular Synthesis in Interstellar Clouds: Recent Laboratory Studies of Ionic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D.; Adams, N. G.

    The existence of complex molecules in the harsh environment of interstellar diffuse and dense clouds presents the challenging problem as to their mode of synthesis. Currently, this is believed to be predominantly via many parallel and sequential gas phase ion-neutral reactions which build-up large molecular ions which are then neutralized to give the observed molecules. The obJ.ctive of this paper is to review the current ideas of the most important ion-chemical routes to the observed molecules and to discuss the most recent laboratory data which have supplemented and extended earlier ideas. To this end, the physical conditions within the various types of interstellar clouds and their chemical compositions are first described. The basic ion-chemical models and some of the more important ionic reactions involved in them are then described as they variously apply to both dense and diffuse clouds. Reference is then made to the data obtained recently for the rate coefficients and product ion distributions for a large number of relevant exoergic binary ion-molecule and ion-atom reactions. Attention is then directed towards the process of ion-molecule radiative association which for some time was thought to occur only between C+ ions and H atoms and H2 molecules, but which is now thought to occur in many more ion-molecule interactions, including many involving minority neutral species. The very interesting process of isotope exchange in near-thermoneutral ion-molecule reactions is then considered since it has been invoked to explain the apparent fractionation of rare isotopes into some of the interstellar molecules. Finally, the various neutralization processes which are required to convert product ions into neutral molecules are discussed briefly, and the paper is ended with some concluding remarks.

  16. Efficient synthesis of ?- and ?-carbolines by sequential Pd-catalyzed site-selective C-C and twofold C-N coupling reactions.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tran Quang; Dang, Tuan Thanh; Janke, Julia; Villinger, Alexander; Langer, Peter

    2015-02-01

    Two concise and efficient approaches were developed for the synthesis of ?- and ?-carboline derivatives. The success of the synthesis relies on site-selective Suzuki-Miyaura reactions of 1-chloro-2-bromopyridine or 2,3-dibromopyridine with 2-bromophenylboronic acid and subsequent cyclization with amines which proceeds by twofold Pd-catalyzed C-N coupling reactions. PMID:25464277

  17. Synthesis of indolo[1,2-f]phenanthridines by Pd-catalyzed domino C-N coupling/hydroamination/C-H arylation reactions.

    PubMed

    Ngo, Thang Ngoc; Ehlers, Peter; Dang, Tuan Thanh; Villinger, Alexander; Langer, Peter

    2015-03-21

    A new and convenient method for the synthesis of indolo[1,2-f]phenanthridines via palladium-catalyzed domino C-N coupling/hydroamination/C-H arylation reactions was developed. The reactions allow for the synthesis of various phenanthridines in good yields from easily accessible starting materials using a single palladium catalyst. PMID:25644637

  18. In situ formation of the amino sugars 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and 2-amino-2-deoxy-glucose under Maillard reaction conditions in the absence of ammonia.

    PubMed

    Nashalian, Ossanna; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2016-04-15

    Replacing amino acids with their binary metal complexes during the Maillard reaction can initiate various processes, including the oxidative degradation of their glucose conjugates, generating 1-amino-1-deoxy-fructose and its derivatives. These reactive amino sugars are not easily accessible under Maillard reaction conditions and are only formed in the presence of ammonia. To explore the generality of this observation and to study in particular the ability of fructose to generate glucosamine, the amino acid-metal complexes were heated in aqueous solutions with three aldohexoses and two ketohexoses at 110°C for 2 h and the dry residues were analysed by ESI/qTOF/MS/MS. All the sugars generated relatively intense ions at [M+H](+) 180 (C6H14NO5); those ions originating from ketohexoses exhibited MS/MS fragmentations identical to glucosamine and those originating form aldohexoses showed ions identical to fructosamine. Furthermore, the amino sugars were found to form fructosazine, react with other sugars and undergo dehydration reactions. PMID:26616979

  19. Sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate-assisted synthesis through a hydrothermal reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Sobhani, Azam; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, P.O. Box 8731751167, Islamic Republic of Iran

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Reaction of a SeCl{sub 4} aqueous solution with a NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as capping agent and hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant, produces nanosized nickel selenide through a hydrothermal method. The effect of temperature, reaction time and amounts of reductant on the morphology, particle sizes of NiSe nanostructures has been investigated. Highlights: ? NiSe nanostructures were synthesized by hydrothermal method. ? A novel Se source was used to synthesize NiSe. ? SDBS as capping agent plays a crucial role on the morphology of products. ? A mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe was prepared in the presence of 2 ml hydrazine. ? A pure phase of NiSe was prepared in the presence of 4 or 6 ml hydrazine. -- Abstract: The effects of the anionic surfactant on the morphology, size and crystallization of NiSe precipitated from NiCl{sub 2}6H{sub 2}O and SeCl{sub 4} in presence of hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}H{sub 2}O) as reductant were investigated. The products have been successfully synthesized in presence of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) as surfactant via an improved hydrothermal route. A variety of synthesis parameters, such as reaction time and temperature, capping agent and amount of reducing agent have a significant effect on the particle size, phase purity and morphology of the obtained products. The sample size became bigger with decreasing reaction temperature and increasing reaction time. In the presence of 2 ml hydrazine, the samples were found to be the mixture of Ni{sub 3}Se{sub 2} and NiSe. With increasing the reaction time and amount of hydrazine a pure phase of hexagonal NiSe was obtained. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images indicate phase, particle size and morphology of the products. Chemical composition and purity of the products were characterized by X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Photoluminescence (PL) was used to study the optical properties of NiSe samples.

  20. Photochemical Synthesis and Ligand Exchange Reactions of Ru(CO)[subscript 4] (Eta[superscript 2]-Alkene) Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Berry, David E.; Fawkes, Kelli L.

    2007-01-01

    The photochemical synthesis and subsequent ligand exchange reactions of Ru(CO)[subscript 4] (eta[superscript2]-alkene) compounds has provided a novel experiment for upper-level inorganic chemistry laboratory courses. The experiment is designed to provide a system in which the changing electronic properties of the alkene ligands could be easily

  1. Synthesis of a Biologically Active Oxazol-5-(4H)-One via an Erlenmeyer-Plo¨chl Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Catarina A. B.; Martinho, Jose´ M. G.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of (Z)-4-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-2- phenyloxazol-5(4"H")-one, which is a potent immunomodulator and tyrosinase inhibitor, is described as an experiment for an upper-division undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. This compound is produced via an Erlenmeyer-Plo¨chl reaction in the absence of any additional solvents…

  2. Enantioselective Synthesis of 3-Methyleneindan-1-ols via a One-Pot Allylboration-Heck Reaction of 2-Bromobenzaldehydes.

    PubMed

    Calder, Ewen D D; Sutherland, Andrew

    2015-05-15

    A novel, one-pot allylboration-Heck reaction of 2-bromobenzaldehydes has been developed for the general and efficient synthesis of 3-methyleneindan-1-ols. Modification of the one-pot procedure to include chiral Brnsted acid catalyzed allylation has allowed the preparation of these building blocks in high enantioselectivity and excellent yields. PMID:25933177

  3. Synthesis of phosphorus-doped graphene and its multifunctional applications for oxygen reduction reaction and lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chenzhen; Mahmood, Nasir; Yin, Han; Liu, Fei; Hou, Yanglong

    2013-09-20

    We develop a simple and economical thermal annealing method for the synthesis of phosphorus-doped graphene, which exhibits remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards the oxygen reduction reaction and enhances the electrochemical performance as an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The experimental results suggest the significant role of phosphorus atoms in graphene. PMID:23864555

  4. Nafion-catalyzed microwave-assisted Ritter reaction: An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides

    EPA Science Inventory

    An atom-economic solvent-free synthesis of amides by the Ritter reaction of alcohols and nitriles under microwave irradiation is reported. This green protocol is catalyzed by solid supported NafionNR50 with improved efficiency and reduced waste production.

  5. Intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions in the synthesis of complex annelated quinolines, α-carbolines and coumarins.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Swarup; Borah, Pallabi; Bhuyan, Pulak J

    2012-05-01

    In this study, we report the synthesis of several novel dihydroisoxazole-, tetrahydroisoxazole- and dihydropyrazole-fused pyrido[2,3-b]quinolines, α-carbolines, and pyrido[2,3-c]coumarins, respectively, from simple precursors and by exploring intramolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reactions involving nitrile oxides, nitrones, and nitrile imines as 1,3-dipoles. PMID:22374452

  6. Microwave-Enhanced Organic Syntheses for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Diels-Alder Cycloaddition, Wittig Reaction, and Williamson Ether Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Marsha R.; Falcone, Danielle; Gordon, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Microwave heating enhanced the rate of three reactions typically performed in our undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory: a Diels-Alder cycloaddition, a Wittig salt formation, and a Williamson ether synthesis. Ninety-minute refluxes were shortened to 10 min using a laboratory-grade microwave oven. In addition, yields improved for the Wittig…

  7. Asymmetric synthesis of cyclopentanes bearing four contiguous stereocenters via an NHC-catalyzed Michael/Michael/esterification domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Shu, Tao; Ni, Qijian; Song, Xiaoxiao; Zhao, Kun; Wu, Tianyu; Puttreddy, Rakesh; Rissanen, Kari; Enders, Dieter

    2016-02-11

    An NHC-catalyzed Michael/Michael/esterification domino reaction via homoenolate/enolate intermediates for the asymmetric synthesis of tetrasubstituted cyclopentanes bearing four contiguous stereocenters is described. A variety of ?,?-unsaturated aldehydes and 2-nitroallylic acetates react well with good domino yields and high stereoselectivities. PMID:26750327

  8. Synthesis of quinoline-3-carboxylates by a Rh(II)-catalyzed cyclopropanation-ring expansion reaction of indoles with halodiazoacetates

    PubMed Central

    Mortén, Magnus; Hennum, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this letter, we report a novel synthesis of ethyl quinoline-3-carboxylates from reactions between a series of indoles and halodiazoacetates. The formation of the quinoline structure is probably the result of a cyclopropanation at the 2- and 3-positions of the indole followed by ring-opening of the cyclopropane and elimination of H–X. PMID:26664614

  9. Microwave-Enhanced Organic Syntheses for the Undergraduate Laboratory: Diels-Alder Cycloaddition, Wittig Reaction, and Williamson Ether Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baar, Marsha R.; Falcone, Danielle; Gordon, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Microwave heating enhanced the rate of three reactions typically performed in our undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory: a Diels-Alder cycloaddition, a Wittig salt formation, and a Williamson ether synthesis. Ninety-minute refluxes were shortened to 10 min using a laboratory-grade microwave oven. In addition, yields improved for the Wittig

  10. Synthesis of a Biologically Active Oxazol-5-(4H)-One via an Erlenmeyer-Plochl Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodrigues, Catarina A. B.; Martinho, Jose M. G.; Afonso, Carlos A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis of (Z)-4-(4-nitrobenzylidene)-2- phenyloxazol-5(4"H")-one, which is a potent immunomodulator and tyrosinase inhibitor, is described as an experiment for an upper-division undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory course. This compound is produced via an Erlenmeyer-Plochl reaction in the absence of any additional solvents

  11. One-step synthesis of porous bimetallic PtCu nanocrystals with high electrocatalytic activity for methanol oxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eid, Kamel; Wang, Hongjing; He, Pei; Wang, Kunmiao; Ahamad, Tansir; Alshehri, Saad M.; Yamauchi, Yusuke; Wang, Liang

    2015-10-01

    The design of porous bimetallic nanocrystals (NCs) is very important for electrochemical energy conversion. Herein, we report an aqueous solution method for one-step fabrication of porous PtCu NCs assembled by spatially interconnected arms in high yield by a simple ultrasonic treatment of the reaction mixture at room temperature. The proposed method, without the need for multi-step synthesis, high temperatures, and organic solvents, shows an obvious advantage of simplicity for the feasible synthesis of bimetallic PtCu NCs with a porous structure. The as-made porous PtCu NCs are highly active and durable catalysts for the methanol oxidation reaction due to their porous structure and bimetallic composition.The design of porous bimetallic nanocrystals (NCs) is very important for electrochemical energy conversion. Herein, we report an aqueous solution method for one-step fabrication of porous PtCu NCs assembled by spatially interconnected arms in high yield by a simple ultrasonic treatment of the reaction mixture at room temperature. The proposed method, without the need for multi-step synthesis, high temperatures, and organic solvents, shows an obvious advantage of simplicity for the feasible synthesis of bimetallic PtCu NCs with a porous structure. The as-made porous PtCu NCs are highly active and durable catalysts for the methanol oxidation reaction due to their porous structure and bimetallic composition. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04557f

  12. Synthesis of heterogeneous catalysts with well shaped platinum particles to control reaction selectivity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ilkeun; Morales, Ricardo; Albiter, Manuel A.; Zaera, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Colloidal and sol-gel procedures have been used to prepare heterogeneous catalysts consisting of platinum metal particles with narrow size distributions and well defined shapes dispersed on high-surface-area silica supports. The overall procedure was developed in three stages. First, tetrahedral and cubic colloidal metal particles were prepared in solution by using a procedure derived from that reported by El-Sayed and coworkers [Ahmadi TS, Wang ZL, Green TC, Henglein A, El-Sayed MA (1996) Science 272:19241926]. This method allowed size and shape to be controlled independently. Next, the colloidal particles were dispersed onto high-surface-area solids. Three approaches were attempted: (i) in situ reduction of the colloidal mixture in the presence of the support, (ii) in situ sol-gel synthesis of the support in the presence of the colloidal particles, and (iii) direct impregnation of the particles onto the support. Finally, the resulting catalysts were activated and tested for the promotion of carboncarbon double-bond cis-trans isomerization reactions in olefins. Our results indicate that the selectivity of the reaction may be controlled by using supported catalysts with appropriate metal particle shapes. PMID:18832170

  13. Random POLY(2, 7-FLUORENYLENEVINYLENE) Copolymers Obtained by a Suzuki-Heck Reaction: Synthesis and Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grisorio, R.; Mastrorilli, P.; Nobile, C. F.; Romanazzi, G.; Suranna, G. P.; Gigli, G.; Piliego, C.; Ciccarella, G.; Cosma, P.; Acierno, D.; Amendola, E.

    2008-08-01

    The study reports on the synthesis of poly arylene vinylenes by use of a cascade Suzuki-Heck reaction polymerization. The reaction between suitable aryldibromides with potassium vinyltrifluoroborate in the presence of a Pd(0) catalyst permits the access to a series of poly(fluorenylenevinylene)s. The protocol is characterized by a great versatility, deriving from the use of easily attainable substrates, and yields polymers with low percentages of structural 1, 1-diarylenevinylene defects. Exploiting this procedure, a series of random poly(9, 9-dioctyl-2, 7-fluorenylenevinylene-co-N-octyl-3, 6-carbazolylenevinylene) copolymers at 20÷80% mol/mol of carbazole (PFV2-6) was achieved. Their properties have been investigated by 1H-NMR, IR, TGA, DSC, cyclic voltammetry, UV-Vis and photoluminescence, and compared to those of poly(9, 9-dioctyl-2, 7-fluorenylenevinylene) (PFV1) obtained by the same method. The electroluminescence properties of the materials were tested by constructing OLED devices of ITO/PEDOT-PSS/PFV1-6/Ca/Al configuration.

  14. Monodisperse metal nanoparticle catalysts on silica mesoporous supports: synthesis, characterizations, and catalytic reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Somorjai, G.A.

    2009-09-14

    The design of high performance catalyst achieving near 100% product selectivity at maximum activity is one of the most important goals in the modern catalytic science research. To this end, the preparation of model catalysts whose catalytic performances can be predicted in a systematic and rational manner is of significant importance, which thereby allows understanding of the molecular ingredients affecting the catalytic performances. We have designed novel 3-dimensional (3D) high surface area model catalysts by the integration of colloidal metal nanoparticles and mesoporous silica supports. Monodisperse colloidal metal NPs with controllable size and shape were synthesized using dendrimers, polymers, or surfactants as the surface stabilizers. The size of Pt, and Rh nanoparticles can be varied from sub 1 nm to 15 nm, while the shape of Pt can be controlled to cube, cuboctahedron, and octahedron. The 3D model catalysts were generated by the incorporation of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica supports via two methods: capillary inclusion (CI) and nanoparticle encapsulation (NE). The former method relies on the sonication-induced inclusion of metal nanoparticles into the pores of mesoporous silica, whereas the latter is performed by the encapsulation of metal nanoparticles during the hydrothermal synthesis of mesoporous silica. The 3D model catalysts were comprehensively characterized by a variety of physical and chemical methods. These catalysts were found to show structure sensitivity in hydrocarbon conversion reactions. The Pt NPs supported on mesoporous SBA-15 silica (Pt/SBA-15) displayed significant particle size sensitivity in ethane hydrogenolysis over the size range of 1-7 nm. The Pt/SBA-15 catalysts also exhibited particle size dependent product selectivity in cyclohexene hydrogenation, crotonaldehyde hydrogenation, and pyrrole hydrogenation. The Rh loaded SBA-15 silica catalyst showed structure sensitivity in CO oxidation reaction. In addition, Pt-mesoporous silica core-shell structured NPs (Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2}) were prepared, where the individual Pt NP is encapsulated by the mesoporous silica layer. The Pt{at}mSiO{sub 2} catalysts showed promising catalytic activity in high temperature CO oxidation. The design of catalytic structures with tunable parameters by rational synthetic methods presents a major advance in the field of catalyst synthesis, which would lead to uncover the structure-function relationships in heterogeneous catalytic reactions.

  15. Multicomponent versus domino reactions: One-pot free-radical synthesis of ?-amino-ethers and ?-amino-alcohols

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Bianca; Prosperini, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Summary Following an optimized multicomponent procedure, an aryl amine, a ketone, and a cyclic ether or an alcohol molecule are assembled in a one-pot synthesis by nucleophilic radical addition of ketyl radicals to ketimines generated in situ. The reaction occurs under mild conditions by mediation of the TiCl4/Zn/t-BuOOH system, leading to the formation of quaternary ?-amino-ethers and -alcohols. The new reaction conditions guarantee good selectivity by preventing the formation of secondary products. The secondary products are possibly derived from a competitive domino reaction, which involves further oxidation of the ketyl radicals. PMID:25670994

  16. Multicomponent versus domino reactions: One-pot free-radical synthesis of ?-amino-ethers and ?-amino-alcohols.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Bianca; Pastori, Nadia; Prosperini, Simona; Punta, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    Following an optimized multicomponent procedure, an aryl amine, a ketone, and a cyclic ether or an alcohol molecule are assembled in a one-pot synthesis by nucleophilic radical addition of ketyl radicals to ketimines generated in situ. The reaction occurs under mild conditions by mediation of the TiCl4/Zn/t-BuOOH system, leading to the formation of quaternary ?-amino-ethers and -alcohols. The new reaction conditions guarantee good selectivity by preventing the formation of secondary products. The secondary products are possibly derived from a competitive domino reaction, which involves further oxidation of the ketyl radicals. PMID:25670994

  17. Biochemistry of Ammonia Monoxygenase from Nitrosomonas

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Hooper

    2009-07-15

    Major results. 1. CytochromecM552, a protein in the electron transfer chain to ammonia monooxygenase. Purification, modeling of protein structure based on primary structure, characterization of 4 hemes by magnetic spectroscopy, potentiometry, ligand binding and turnover. Kim, H. J., ,Zatsman, et al. 2008). 2. Characterization of proteins which thought to be involved in the AMO reaction or to protect AMO from toxic nitrogenous intermediates such as NO. Nitrosocyanin is a protein present only in bacteria which catalyze the ammonia monoxygenase reaction (1). Cytochrome c P460 beta and cytochrome c’ beta.

  18. Tandem Allylboration-Prins Reaction for the Rapid Construction of Substituted Tetrahydropyrans: Application to the Total Synthesis of (-)-Clavosolide?A.

    PubMed

    Milln, Alba; Smith, James R; Chen, Jack L-Y; Aggarwal, Varinder K

    2016-02-01

    Tetrahydropyrans are common motifs in natural products and have now been constructed with high stereocontrol through a three-component allylboration-Prins reaction sequence. This methodology has been applied to a concise (13?steps) and efficient (14?% overall yield) synthesis of the macrolide (-)-clavosolide A. The synthesis also features an early stage glycosidation reaction to introduce the xylose moiety and a lithiation-borylation reaction to attach the cyclopropyl-containing side chain. PMID:26766494

  19. Expedient Synthesis of a 72-Membered Isoxazolino-?-ketoamide Library by a 23-Component Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, John M.; Zhu, Jie S.; Wood, Alex B.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    An efficient 23-component reaction (23CR; a 2-component reaction followed, in one pot, by a 3-component reaction) is presented for the synthesis of isoxazolino-?-ketoamides. This 23CR proceeds by (i) a Meldrum's acid-generated acyl ketene, which is trapped by an amine to form a ?-ketoamide intermediate in a 2CR followed, in one pot, by (ii) a Mannich reaction followed by elimination of dimethyl amineHCl to generate an ?,?-unsaturated ?-ketoamide dipolarophile that reacts in a nitrile oxide 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction. This one-pot 23CR process delivers the targeted isoxazolino-?-ketoamide product. A total of 72 compounds are presented, all of which have been submitted to the NIH Molecular Libraries Small Molecule Repository for high-throughput biological screening. PMID:22181856

  20. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved…

  1. Streamlined ammonia removal from wastewater using biological deammonification process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this work we evaluated biological deammonification process to more economically remove ammonia from livestock wastewater. The process combines partial nitritation (PN) and anammox. The anammox is a biologically mediated reaction that oxidizes ammonia (NH4+) and releases di-nitrogen gas (N2) unde...

  2. Determination of Ammonia in Household Cleaners: An Instrumental Analysis Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Richard C.; DePew, Steven

    1983-01-01

    Briefly discusses three techniques for assessing amount of ammonia present in household cleaners. Because of disadvantages with these methods, the thermometric titration technique is suggested in which students judge the best buy based on relative cost of ammonia present in samples. Laboratory procedures, typical results, and reactions involved

  3. Homochiral Selectivity in RNA Synthesis: Montmorillonite-catalyzed Quaternary Reactions of D, L-Purine with D, L- Pyrimidine Nucleotides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joshi, Prakash C.; Aldersley, Michael F.; Ferris, James P.

    2011-06-01

    Selective adsorption of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on the platelets of montmorillonite demonstrates an important reaction pathway for the origin of homochirality in RNA synthesis. Our earlier studies have shown that the individual reactions of D, L-ImpA or D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite catalyst produced oligomers which were only partially inhibited by the incorporation of both D- and L-enantiomers. Homochirality in these reactions was largely due to the formation of cyclic dimers that cannot elongate. We investigated the quaternary reactions of D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU on montmorillonite. The chain length of these oligomers increased from 9-mer to 11-mer as observed by HPLC, with a concominant increase in the yield of linear dimers and higher oligomers in the reactions involving D, L-ImpA with D, L-ImpU as compared to the similar reactions carried out with D-enantiomers only. The formation of cyclic dimers of U was completely inhibited in the quaternary reactions. The yield of cyclic dimers of A was reduced from 60% to 10% within the dimer fraction. 12 linear dimers and 3 cyclic dimers were isolated and characterized from the quaternary reaction. The homochirality and regioselectivity of dimers were 64.1% and 71.7%, respectively. Their sequence selectivity was shown by the formation of purine-pyrimidine (54-59%) linkages, followed by purine-purine (29-32%) linkages and pyrimidine-pyrimidine (9-13%) linkages. Of the 16 trimers detected, 10 were homochiral with an overall homochirality of 73-76%. In view of the greater homochirality, sequence- and regio- selectivity, the quaternary reactions on montmorillonite demonstrate an unexpectedly favorable route for the prebiotic synthesis of homochiral RNA compared with the separate reactions of enantiomeric activated mononucleotides.

  4. Concise diastereoselective synthesis of calcaripeptide C via asymmetric transfer hydrogenation/Pd-induced chiral allenylzinc as a key reaction.

    PubMed

    Kumaraswamy, Gullapalli; Narayanarao, Vykunthapu; Raju, Ragam

    2015-08-21

    Synthesis of the natural product calcaripeptide C derived from the fungal metabolite mycelium KF525 of Calcarisporium sp. has been achieved. This complementary approach avoids the use of a stoichiometric amount of chiral auxiliary reagents as commonly used to generate enantioenriched advanced precursors. The enantioselective synthesis of calcaripeptide C is remarkable in that using catalytic reactions sets the two stereogenic centers efficiently with good levels of enantioselectivity. Further diversification of the calcaripeptide C structures is possible by employing a complementary catalytic enantioenriched Ru-catalyst. PMID:26156428

  5. A general and scalable synthesis of aeruginosin marine natural products based on two strategic C(sp)-H activation reactions.

    PubMed

    Dailler, David; Danoun, Grgory; Baudoin, Olivier

    2015-04-13

    An efficient and scalable access to the aeruginosin family of marine natural products, which exhibit potent inhibitory activity against serine proteases, is reported. This synthesis was enabled by the strategic use of two different, recently implemented C(sp(3))-H activation reactions. The first method led to the common 2-carboxy-6-hydroxyoctahydroindole (Choi) core of the target molecules on a large scale, whereas the second one provided rapid and divergent access to the various hydroxyphenyllactic (Hpla) subunits. This strategy allowed the synthesis of the aeruginosins 98B and 298A, with the latter being obtained in unprecedentedly large quantities. PMID:25712875

  6. Fusion by diffusion. II. Synthesis of transfermium elements in cold fusion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?wi?tecki, W. J.; Siwek-Wilczy?ska, K.; Wilczy?ski, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a method of estimating cross sections for the synthesis of very heavy nuclei by the fusion of two lighter ones. The cross section is considered to be the product of three factors: the cross section for the projectile to overcome the Coulomb barrier, the probability that the resulting composite nucleus reaches the compound nucleus configuration by a shape fluctuation treated as a diffusion of probability in one dimension, and the probability that the excited compound nucleus survives fission. Semi-empirical formulas for the mean Coulomb barrier height and its distribution around the mean are constructed. After overcoming the Coulomb barrier the system is assumed to be injected into an asymmetric fission valley by a rapid growth of the neck between the target and projectile at approximately frozen asymmetry and elongation. Diffusion in the elongation coordinate in this valley can occasionally bring the system over the saddle separating the injection point from the compound nucleus configuration. This is the stage that accounts for the hindrance to fusion observed for very heavy reacting systems. The competition between deexcitation of the compound nucleus by neutron emission and fission is treated by standard methods, but an interesting insight allows one to predict in an elementary way the location of the maximum in the resulting excitation function. Adjusting one parameter in the theory causes the calculated peak cross sections to agree within about a factor of 2 or so with 12 measured or estimated values for cold one-neutron-out reactions where targets of 208Pb and 209Bi are bombarded with projectiles ranging from 48Ca to 70Zn. The centroids of the excitation functions agree with theory to within 1 or 2 MeV for the six cases where they have been determined, and their widths are reproduced. Hot fusion reactions, where several neutrons are emitted, are not treated, except that a comparison is made between the hindrance factors in cold and hot reactions to make elements with atomic numbers 112 to 118. The calculated diffusive hindrances in the hot reactions are less unfavorable by 4 to 5 orders of magnitude.

  7. Ammonia - Did it have a role in chemical evolution. [abiogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferris, J. P.; Nicodem, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    The significance of ammonia in the chemical evolution related to the origin of life is evaluated. A computer program was employed to calculate the time needed for the decomposition of ammonia by means of a photochemical reaction. Various possible protection mechanisms for ammonia are discussed, giving attention to hydrogen sulfide, hydrogen, ozone, and CO. It is concluded that in the absence of a sufficiently high pressure of hydrogen, any ammonia present in the primitive atmosphere would have been decomposed by photolysis in a million years.

  8. A Quantitative Study of the Synthesis of TiB2 Particles via Salts-Metal Reaction at Different Temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhiwei; Han, Qingyou; Huang, Zhifu; Xing, Jiandong

    2016-02-01

    This research quantitatively studied the effect of temperature on the synthesis of TiB2 particle reinforcement via a casing method in which a salts-metal reaction was involved. Experimental results showed that the yield of TiB2 reached 89.5 pct and most TiB2 particles ranged from 400 to 800 nm at 1173 K (900 °C) with a 10-minute reaction time; when the reaction time was 30 minutes, the TiB2 particles had similar yield and size distribution. At 973 K (700 °C) with a 10-minute reaction time, most TiB2 particles were less than 300 nm, whereas the yield was just 28.1 pct; as the time was prolonged to 30 minutes, some smaller-sized TiB2 particles were synthesized and the yield of TiB2 was 36.4 pct. At a higher temperature [1173 K (900 °C)], the synthesis of TiB2 mainly followed the precipitation-growth process at reaction interface. At a lower temperature [973 K (700 °C)], the precipitation-growth process and dissolution reaction between Al3Ti and AlB2 both contributed to the formation of TiB2.

  9. Application of the sila-Friedel-Crafts reaction to the synthesis of ?-extended silole derivatives and their properties.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Shunsuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kawashima, Takayuki

    2010-10-21

    The intramolecular sila-Friedel-Crafts reaction was developed as a new method for the construction of a dibenzosilole skeleton. This reaction proceeds under mild conditions to afford the target in relatively good yield, indicating its availability as a versatile synthetic method. This reaction can be applied to the synthesis of ?-extended silole derivatives such as ladder-type silafluorene 8 and spiro-type silabifluorene 9. Furthermore, the synthesis of two-dimensionally extended silole derivatives utilizing the sila-Friedel-Crafts reaction as the multiple intramolecular cyclization was achieved, including the first synthesis of trisilasumanene 18. The X-ray crystallographic analysis of trisilasumanene 18 demonstrated the planarity in the main ?-framework, in contrast to sumanene and its sulfur analogue, trithiasumanene, bearing the bowl-shaped structures. In the UV-vis absorption spectra, the absorption bands of triphenylenosiloles 18 and 19 were slightly red-shifted compared to that of hexabutoxytriphenylene 22. The weak absorption bands were also observed in the longer-wavelength region in 18 and 19, which is derived from ?*-?* conjugation of the silole skeletons. In addition, 18 and 19 showed the blue fluorescence in dichloromethane and in the solid state. PMID:20830392

  10. Method for forming ammonia

    SciTech Connect

    Kong; Peter C.; Pink, Robert J.; Zuck, Larry D.

    2008-08-19

    A method for forming ammonia is disclosed and which includes the steps of forming a plasma; providing a source of metal particles, and supplying the metal particles to the plasma to form metal nitride particles; and providing a substance, and reacting the metal nitride particles with the substance to produce ammonia, and an oxide byproduct.

  11. Assessing Ammonia Treatment Options

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is the second of three articles to help water system operators understand ammonia and how to monitor and control its effects at the plant and in the distribution system. The first article (Opflow, April 2012) provided an overview of ammonia's chemistry, origins, and water sy...

  12. Synthesis of ultrastable copper sulfide nanoclusters via trapping the reaction intermediate: potential anticancer and antibacterial applications.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Yin; Hua, Xian-Wu; Wu, Fu-Gen; Li, Bolin; Liu, Peidang; Gu, Ning; Wang, Zhifei; Chen, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Copper-based nanomaterials have broad applications in electronics, catalysts, solar energy conversion, antibiotics, tissue imaging, and photothermal cancer therapy. However, it is challenging to prepare ultrasmall and ultrastable CuS nanoclusters (NCs) at room temperature. In this article, a simple method to synthesize water-soluble, monodispersed CuS NCs is reported based on the strategy of trapping the reaction intermediate using thiol-terminated, alkyl-containing short-chain poly(ethylene glycol)s (HS-(CH2)11-(OCH2CH2)6-OH, abbreviated as MUH). The MUH-coated CuS NCs have superior stability in solutions with varied pH values and are stable in pure water for at least 10 months. The as-prepared CuS NCs were highly toxic to A549 cancer cells at a concentration of higher than 100 ?M (9.6 ?g/mL), making them be potentially applicable as anticancer drugs via intravenous administration by liposomal encapsulation or by direct intratumoral injection. Besides, for the first time, CuS NCs were used for antibacterial application, and 800 ?M (76.8 ?g/mL) CuS NCs could completely kill the E. coli cells through damaging the cell walls. Moreover, the NCs synthesized here have strong near-infrared (NIR) absorption and can be used as a candidate reagent for photothermal therapy and photoacoustic imaging. The method of trapping the reaction intermediate for simple and controlled synthesis of nanoclusters is generally applicable and can be widely used to synthesize many metal-based (such as Pt, Pd, Au, and Ag) nanoclusters and nanocrystals. PMID:25785786

  13. Reaction Routes for the Synthesis of CuInSe2 Using Bilayer Compound Precursors

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, Rangarajan; Wood, David; Chaudhari, Vaibhav U.; Payzant, E Andrew; Noufi, Rommel; Rozeveld, Steve; Kim, Woo Kyoung; Anderson, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    The reaction pathways and phase evolution during synthesis of CuInSe{sub 2} (CIS) by a novel bilayer approach were investigated using in situ high-temperature X-ray diffraction. Two bilayer precursor structures, glass/Mo/{gamma}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/{beta}-CuSe + {beta}-Cu{sub 2}Se/Se and glass/Mo/{gamma}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/{beta}-Cu{sub 2}Se/Se, were examined in this study. Temperature ramp experiments revealed that the phase transformation sequence for each bilayer precursor qualitatively follows that predicted by the phase diagram and that the onset temperatures for decomposition of the sub-binary compounds depend on the Se partial pressure. Measurement of the isothermal rate of formation of CuInSe{sub 2} at six temperatures in the range 260 to 310 C for the {gamma}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/{beta}-CuSe + {beta}-Cu{sub 2}Se/Se bilayer suggests relatively slow nucleation followed by diffusion-limited reaction with estimated activation energy of 162({+-}7) and 225 ({+-}16) kJ/mol from Avrami and parabolic models, respectively. Interestingly, the measured activation energy for the same precursor in a 4 mol % H{sub 2}/He ambient (108 ({+-}8) kJ/mol) was lower than that observed in pure N{sub 2} (158 ({+-}16) kJ/mol). The results of isothermal measurements in the temperature range 250 to 300 C for the {gamma}-In{sub 2}Se{sub 3}/{beta}-Cu{sub 2}Se/Se precursor film in an inert ambient are consistent with one-dimensional diffusion-limited growth with estimated activation energy from the Avrami and parabolic models of 194 ({+-}10) and 203 ({+-}12) kJ/mol, respectively.

  14. Ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xuefeng; Fuchsman, Clara A.; Jayakumar, Amal; Oleynik, Sergey; Martens-Habbena, Willm; Devol, Allan H.; Ward, Bess B.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrification plays a key role in the marine nitrogen (N) cycle, including in oceanic oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), which are hot spots for denitrification and anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox). Recent evidence suggests that nitrification links the source (remineralized organic matter) and sink (denitrification and anammox) of fixed N directly in the steep oxycline in the OMZs. We performed shipboard incubations with 15N tracers to characterize the depth distribution of nitrification in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific (ETNP). Additional experiments were conducted to investigate photoinhibition. Allylthiourea (ATU) was used to distinguish the contribution of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidation. The abundance of archaeal and β-proteobacterial ammonia monooxygenase gene subunit A (amoA) was determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The rates of ammonia and nitrite oxidation showed distinct subsurface maxima, with the latter slightly deeper than the former. The ammonia oxidation maximum coincided with the primary nitrite concentration maximum, archaeal amoA gene maximum, and the subsurface nitrous oxide maximum. Negligible rates of ammonia oxidation were found at anoxic depths, where high rates of nitrite oxidation were measured. Archaeal amoA gene abundance was generally 1 to 2 orders of magnitude higher than bacterial amoA gene abundance, and inhibition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria with 10 μM ATU did not affect ammonia oxidation rates, indicating the dominance of archaea in ammonia oxidation. These results depict highly dynamic activities of ammonia and nitrite oxidation in the oxycline of the ETNP OMZ.

  15. Development of a Suzuki Cross-Coupling Reaction between 2-Azidoarylboronic Pinacolate Esters and Vinyl Triflates To Enable the Synthesis of [2,3]-Fused Indole Heterocycles

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The scope and limitations of a Suzuki reaction between 2-azidoarylboronic acid pinacolate esters and vinyl triflates are reported. This cross-coupling reaction enables the regioselective synthesis of indoles after a subsequent RhII2-catalyzed sp2-CH bond amination reaction. PMID:24571492

  16. One-Pot Synthesis of (S)-Baclofen via Aldol Condensation of Acetaldehyde with Diphenylprolinol Silyl Ether Mediated Asymmetric Michael Reaction as a Key Step.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yujiro; Sakamoto, Daisuke; Okamura, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    An efficient asymmetric total synthesis of (S)-baclofen was accomplished via a one-pot operation from commercially available materials using sequential reactions, such as aldol condensation of acetaldehyde, diphenylprolinol silyl ether mediated asymmetric Michael reaction of nitromethane, Kraus-Pinnick oxidation, and Raney Ni reduction. Highly enantioenriched baclofen was obtained in one pot with a good yield over four reactions. PMID:26636719

  17. Prediction of Reaction Kinetic in Mechanically Activated Self-Propagating High-Temperature Synthesis Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, Mansour

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we have tried to develop a semi-empirical formula for estimation of starting time of reactions during mechanical alloying process according to self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS) mechanism. For this purpose, three SHS systems containing Ti-C, Mo-Si and Si-C were selected and their behaviors were observed. Aforementioned systems were milled in a planetary ball mill equipped with temperature sensor detector of cups. Samplings were done at different times of discontinuously milling. To change mills' energy, stainless steel and tungsten carbide balls were used. In order to detect the phases and characterizations of milled powder, XRD instrument was utilized. Results showed that all productions were synthesized after sudden increase in temperature. Maximum measured temperature and critical time had up and downtrends for production of TiC, MoSi2 and SiC, respectively. Crystalline size of milled powder had nano-meter scale. By using experimental data along with theoretical equations, a semi-empirical formula between critical time for transformation of raw materials to productions, type of milled system and ball mill parameter can be presented with high accuracy. According to calculated formula, critical time was related to ball mill energy and Gibbs free energy of milled system with direct and inverse proportionality, respectively.

  18. Synthesis of 4-Methylumbellifer-7-yl-?-D-Mannopyranoside: An Introduction to Modern Glycosylation Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penverne, Christophe; Ferrires, Vincent

    2002-11-01

    The present work is aimed at introducing fourth-year organic chemistry students to glycochemistry and in particular to the diastereocontrolled synthesis of glycosides. In this context, we have elaborated a hemisynthetic work starting from carbohydrates easily available as natural renewable resources using a modern approach to glycosylation. These reactions led the instructors to highlight how the anomeric center of a glycosyl donor is able to be activated and the role of protecting groups that stabilizes the cationic intermediate and so controls the formation of the new glycosidic linkage. In practice, students are induced to perform successively: (1) a selective deacetylation under mild conditions, (2) the activation of the resulting free hydroxyl that yields an anomeric trichloroacetimidate, (3) the mannosylation of a natural coumarin, and (4) a final deprotection step. This sequence leads to an aromatic glycoside which has potential for biological applications since some inhibition properties have already been established. Consequently, this experiment is suitable to demonstrate the connection between chemistry and life sciences.

  19. The hydroboration reaction as a key for a straightforward synthesis of new MRI-NCT agents.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Paolo; Toppino, Antonio; Geninatti Crich, Simonetta; Alberti, Diego; Marabello, Domenica; Medana, Claudio; Prandi, Cristina; Venturello, Paolo; Aime, Silvio; Deagostino, Annamaria

    2015-03-21

    In this study the hydroboration reaction has been exploited to produce in only four steps a new lipophilic GdBNCT/MRI agent (PB01). As a matter of fact, the formation of a new BC bond to link the decaborane with the lipophilic moiety greatly simplifies the synthesis of PB01 with respect to the previously reported dual agents. The complexes obtained (PB01a and PB01b) have been fully characterised from the relaxometric point of view and, after disaggregation with HP?CD, both isomers display high affinity for low density lipoproteins (LDLs) that can be exploited as specific carriers of these therapeutic and diagnostic agents for tumour cells. The LDL loading capacity is different for the two isomers. In fact, LDL can be loaded with 75 and 300 units of PB01a and PB01b, respectively, and for this reason, the isomer PB01b results to be the best candidate to perform MRI guided BNCT. PMID:25645198

  20. Toward synthesis of third-generation spin-labeled podophyllotoxin derivatives using isocyanide multicomponent reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kou, Liang; Wang, Mei-Juan; Wang, Li-Ting; Zhao, Xiao-Bo; Nan, Xiang; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ying-Qian; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    Spin-labeled podophyllotoxins have elicited widespread interest due to their far superior antitumor activity compared to podophyllotoxin. To extend our prior studies in this research area, we synthesized a new generation of spin-labeled podophyllotoxin analogs via isocyanide multicomponent reactions and evaluated their cytotoxicity against four human cancer cell lines (A-549, DU-145, KB and KBvin). Most of the compounds exhibited potent cytotoxic activity against all four cell lines, notably against the drug resistant KBvin cancer cell line. Among the new analogs, compounds 12e (IC50: 0.60–0.75 µM) and 12h (IC50: 1.12–2.03 µM) showed superior potency to etoposide (IC50: 2.03 – >20 µM), a clinically available anticancer drug. With a concise efficient synthesis and potent cytotoxic profiles, compounds 12e and 12h merit further development as a new generation of epipodophyllotoxin-derived antitumor clinical trial candidates. PMID:24553146

  1. Two competing reactions of tetrabutylammonium alginate in organic solvents: Amidation versus γ-lactone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Schleeh, Thomas; Madau, Mathieu; Roessner, Dierk

    2016-03-15

    Biocompatibility and thickening properties predetermine alginates as ingredients in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. Further chemical modifications are often desired for a product optimization. The introduction of hydrophobic groups can be realized by employing organic tetrabutylammonium alginate (TBA-Alg) solutions. The synthesis of alginic acid alkyl amides from TBA-Alg with 2-chloro-1-methylpyridinium iodide (CMPI) as a coupling agent, however, has so far not resulted in a high degree of amidation. The analysis of the coupling reaction revealed the formation of mannuronic acid γ-lactone structures, which required a conformation change from (1)C4 to (4)C1. The opening of the γ-lactone required a high excess of butylamine. In the case of CMPI, triethylamine had to be added prior to the coupling agent in order to suppress the assumed alginic acid formation. The degrees of amidation achieved were up to 0.8, and for propylphosphonic anhydride as the coupling agent up to 1. The molecular weights of the alginic acid butyl amide were ≥35kDa. PMID:26794759

  2. Cobalt- versus ruthenium-catalyzed Alder-ene reaction for the synthesis of credneramide A and B.

    PubMed

    Erver, Florian; Hilt, Gerhard

    2012-06-01

    The first synthesis of the natural products credneramide A and B was accomplished by utilizing Alder-ene reactions between a terminal alkene and an internal alkyne to generate the rather uncommon 1,4-diene substructure of these compounds. Moreover, two different short linear sequences toward these targets are evaluated using either a cobalt-catalyzed Alder-ene reaction of 1-chloropent-1-yne or a ruthenium-catalyzed Alder-ene reaction of 1-trimethylsilyl-1-pentyne with 5-hexenoic acid derivatives in the key step transformation. In addition, saponification of the primary Alder-ene product derived from the cobalt-catalyzed Alder-ene reaction led to credneric acid, the biological precursor of both natural products. PMID:22568728

  3. Asymmetric Mannich reaction of dicarbonyl compounds with alpha-amido sulfones catalyzed by cinchona alkaloids and synthesis of chiral dihydropyrimidones.

    PubMed

    Lou, Sha; Dai, Peng; Schaus, Scott E

    2007-12-21

    The highly enantioselective cinchona alkaloid-catalyzed Mannich reaction of dicarbonyl compounds with alpha-amido sulfones as acyl imine precursors is described. The reaction requires 10 mol % of the cinchona alkaloid catalyst, which serves as a general base to generate acyl imines in situ, and aqueous Na2CO3 to maintain the concentration of free alkaloid catalyst. The reaction products are obtained in good yields and high enantioselectivities, and in diastereoselectivities that range from 1:1 to >95:5. The cinchonine-catalyzed reactions provide practical access to highly functionalized building blocks which have been employed in the synthesis of chiral dihydropyrimidones, a class of compounds rich in diverse biological activity. Dihydropyrimidone modifications include a highly diastereoselective hydrogenation of the enamide moiety, using an H-Cube flow hydrogenator and a Rh(II)-mediated 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition to afford highly functionalized complex heterocycles. PMID:18047372

  4. Nonsymmetrical 3,4-dithienylmaleimides by cross-coupling reactions with indium organometallics: synthesis and photochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Angeles; Férnandez, M Isabel; Canle Lopez, Moisés; Pérez Sestelo, José; Sarandeses, Luis A

    2014-10-27

    The synthesis and photochemical study of novel nonsymmetrical 1,2-dithienylethenes (DTEs) with a maleimide bridge have been carried out. The synthetic approach to the DTEs was based on successive selective palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of 5-susbtituted-2-methyl-3-thiophenyl indium reagents with 3,4-dichloromaleimides. The required organoindium reagents were prepared from 2-methyl-3,5-dibromothiophene by a selective (C-5) coupling reaction with triorganoindium compounds (R3 In) and subsequent metal-halogen exchange. The coupling reactions usually gave good yields and have a high atom economy with substoichiometric amounts of R3 In. The results of photochemical studies show that these novel dithienylmaleimides undergo a photocyclization reaction upon irradiation in the UV region and a photocycloreversion after excitation in the visible region, thus they can be used as photochemical switches. ON-OFF operations can be repeated in successive cycles without appreciable loss of effectiveness in the process. PMID:25220815

  5. Activity-Directed Synthesis with Intermolecular Reactions: Development of a Fragment into a Range of Androgen Receptor Agonists.

    PubMed

    Karageorgis, George; Dow, Mark; Aimon, Anthony; Warriner, Stuart; Nelson, Adam

    2015-11-01

    Activity-directed synthesis (ADS), a novel discovery approach in which bioactive molecules emerge in parallel with associated syntheses, was exploited to develop a weakly binding fragment into novel androgen receptor agonists. Harnessing promiscuous intermolecular reactions of carbenoid compounds enabled highly efficient exploration of chemical space. Four substrates were prepared, yet exploited in 326 reactions to explore diverse chemical space; guided by bioactivity alone, the products of just nine of the reactions were purified to reveal diverse novel agonists with up to 125-fold improved activity. Remarkably, one agonist stemmed from a novel enantioselective transformation; this is the first time that an asymmetric reaction has been discovered solely on the basis of the biological activity of the product. It was shown that ADS is a significant addition to the lead generation toolkit, enabling the efficient and rapid discovery of novel, yet synthetically accessible, bioactive chemotypes. PMID:26358926

  6. Activity-Directed Synthesis with Intermolecular Reactions: Development of a Fragment into a Range of Androgen Receptor Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Karageorgis, George; Dow, Mark; Aimon, Anthony; Warriner, Stuart; Nelson, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Activity-directed synthesis (ADS), a novel discovery approach in which bioactive molecules emerge in parallel with associated syntheses, was exploited to develop a weakly binding fragment into novel androgen receptor agonists. Harnessing promiscuous intermolecular reactions of carbenoid compounds enabled highly efficient exploration of chemical space. Four substrates were prepared, yet exploited in 326 reactions to explore diverse chemical space; guided by bioactivity alone, the products of just nine of the reactions were purified to reveal diverse novel agonists with up to 125-fold improved activity. Remarkably, one agonist stemmed from a novel enantioselective transformation; this is the first time that an asymmetric reaction has been discovered solely on the basis of the biological activity of the product. It was shown that ADS is a significant addition to the lead generation toolkit, enabling the efficient and rapid discovery of novel, yet synthetically accessible, bioactive chemotypes. PMID:26358926

  7. Synthesis of Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals through sequential reduction induced by gradual increase of the reaction temperature.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sanghun; Shin, Dong-Hun; Yin, Zhenxing; Lee, Chaedong; Park, Si Yun; Yoo, Jeeyoung; Piao, Yuanzhe; Kim, Youn Sang

    2015-04-27

    Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals are synthesized by sequential reduction of Cu and Sn precursors through a gradual increase of the reaction temperature. By transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), UV/Vis spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses, the alloy formation mechanism of Cu3Sn nanocrystals has been studied. The incremental increase of the reaction temperature sequentially induces the reduction of Sn, the diffusion of Sn into the preformed Cu nanocrystals, resulting in the intermediate phase of Cu-Sn alloy nanocrystals, and then the formation of Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals. We anticipate that the synthesis of Cu3Sn alloy nanocrystals encourages studies toward the synthesis of various alloy nanomaterials. PMID:25777248

  8. Base-dependent stereodivergent intramolecular aza-Michael reaction: asymmetric synthesis of 1,3-disubstituted isoindolines.

    PubMed

    Fustero, Santos; Herrera, Lidia; Lzaro, Ruben; Rodrguez, Elsa; Maestro, Miguel A; Mateu, Natalia; Barrio, Pablo

    2013-08-26

    The nucleophilic addition (A(N)) / intramolecular aza-Michael reaction (IMAMR) process on Ellman's tert-butylsulfinyl imines, bearing a Michael acceptor in the ortho position, is studied. This reaction affords 1,3-disubstituted isoindolines with a wide range of substituents in good yields and diastereoselectivities. Interestingly, careful choice of the base for the aza-Michael step allows either the cis or the trans diastereoisomers to be exclusively obtained. This stereodivergent cyclization has enabled the synthesis of C2-symmetric bisacetate-substituted isoindolines. In addition, bisacetate isoindolines bearing two well-differentiated ester moieties are also noteworthy because they may allow for the orthogonal synthesis of ?,?'-dipeptides using a single nitrogen atom as a linchpin. PMID:23852920

  9. Reaction pathways and catalyst requirements in the synthesis of isobutanol from CO and H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, M.; Stephens, B.L.; Gines, M.J.L.; Iglesia, E.

    1996-12-31

    The synthesis of isobutanol and methanol from CO/H{sub 2} on K-Cu-Mg-CeO{sub x} catalysts is inhibited by CO{sub 2}, one of the reaction products. Alcohol coupling reactions show that CO{sub 2} decreases the rates of both alcohol dehydrogenation and base-catalyzed chain growth condensation reactions. Basic site density and reactivity were determined using a {sup 12}CO{sub 2}/{sup 13}CO{sub 2} isotopic transient technique. Addition of K to Cu-Mg-CeO{sub x} increases both basic site density and strength, but influences weakly the rate of base-catalyzed alcohol coupling reactions. Cu enhances the rates of alcohol dehydrogenation, and Ce increases Cu dispersion and stabilizes high surface area MgO. The cross-coupling reactions of acetaldehyde and {sup 13}C-labeled methanol produce singly-labeled propionaldehyde, suggesting that it forms by the condensation of acetaldehyde and a reactive intermediate derived from methanol. Isobutyraldehyde, a precursor to isobutanol, forms via the condensation of propionaldehyde and reactive C{sub 1} species resulting from methanol. Temperature-programmed surface reaction studies of preadsorbed ethanol have shown that CO decreases the rate of base-catalyzed self-condensation reactions of ethanol to acetone, possibly due to the poisoning of basic and metal sites by the CO{sub 2} formed from CO by water-gas shift or Boudouard reactions.

  10. Diastereoselective synthesis of pitavastatin calcium via bismuth-catalyzed two-component hemiacetal/oxa-Michael addition reaction.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Fangjun; Wang, Haifeng; Yan, Lingjie; Xu, Lingjun; Tao, Yuan; Wu, Yan; Chen, Fener

    2015-10-14

    An efficient and concise asymmetric synthesis of pitavastatin calcium (1) starting from commercially available (S)-epichlorohydrin is described. A convergent C1 + C6 route allowed for the assembly of the pitavastatin C7 side chain via a Wittig reaction between phosphonium salt 2 and the enantiomerically pure C6-formyl side chain 3. The 1,3-syn-diol acetal motif in 3 was established with excellent stereo control by a diastereoselective bismuth-promoted two-component hemiacetal/oxa-Michael addition reaction of (S)-?,?-unsaturated ketone 4 with acetaldehyde. PMID:26275074

  11. One-Pot Synthesis of N-(?-Peroxy)Indole/Carbazole via Chemoselective Three-Component Condensation Reaction in Open Atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinbo; Pan, Yupeng; Huang, Kuo-Wei; Lai, Zhiping

    2015-11-20

    A facile one-pot synthesis of N-(?-peroxy)indole and N-(?-peroxy)carbazole has been developed using metal-free, organo-acid-catalyzed three-component condensation reactions of indole/carbazole, aldehyde, and peroxide. Based on the reaction discovered, a new synthetic proposal for Fumitremorgin A and Verruculogen is introduced. Such a protocol could be easily handled and scaled up in an open atmosphere with a wide substrate scope, enabling the construction of a new molecule library. PMID:26541059

  12. Synthesis of 3-methoxyazetidines via an aziridine to azetidine rearrangement and theoretical rationalization of the reaction mechanism.

    PubMed

    Stanković, Sonja; Catak, Saron; D'hooghe, Matthias; Goossens, Hannelore; Abbaspour Tehrani, Kourosch; Bogaert, Piet; Waroquier, Michel; Van Speybroeck, Veronique; De Kimpe, Norbert

    2011-04-01

    The synthetic utility of N-alkylidene-(2,3-dibromo-2-methylpropyl)amines and N-(2,3-dibromo-2-methylpropylidene)benzylamines was demonstrated by the unexpected synthesis of 3-methoxy-3-methylazetidines upon treatment with sodium borohydride in methanol under reflux through a rare aziridine to azetidine rearrangement. These findings stand in contrast to the known reactivity of the closely related N-alkylidene-(2,3-dibromopropyl)amines, which are easily converted into 2-(bromomethyl)aziridines under the same reaction conditions. A thorough insight into the reaction mechanism was provided by both experimental study and theoretical rationalization. PMID:21388111

  13. Palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of oximes with allylic alcohols: synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Meifang; Chen, Pengquan; Wu, Wanqing; Jiang, Huanfeng

    2015-12-15

    We describe herein a palladium-catalyzed Heck-type reaction of O-acetyl ketoximes and allylic alcohols to synthesise pyridines. This protocol allows the robust synthesis of pyridines and azafluorenones in good to excellent yields with tolerance of various functional groups under mild conditions. The reaction is supposed to go through an oxidative addition of oximes to palladium(0) complexes, generating an alkylideneamino-palladium(ii) species, which is utilized as a key intermediate to capture the nonbiased alkenes for carbon-carbon bond formation. PMID:26496814

  14. Unusual regioselection in the Mitsunobu reactions of syn-2,3-dihydroxy esters: synthesis of statine and its diastereomer.

    PubMed

    Ko, Soo Y

    2002-04-19

    Mitsunobu reactions of syn-2,3-dihydroxy esters exhibit a complete regioselection for the beta-hydroxyl group. Benzoylation, azidation, and tosylation have been performed under these conditions. Beta-functionalizations of syn-2,3-dihydroxy esters are uncommon, and the Mitsunobu reactions are complementary to other diol chemistries in the regioselection. In addition, the configurational inversion accompanying the Mitsunobu protocol offers a means for diastereochemical diversity, as exemplified by a synthesis of statine and its anti diastereomer. These findings will further expand the synthetic utilities of the Sharpless AD process. PMID:11950319

  15. The mimic of type II aldolases chemistry: asymmetric synthesis of beta-hydroxy ketones by direct aldol reaction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhijin; Mei, Haibo; Han, Jianlin; Pan, Yi

    2010-08-01

    An efficient direct aldol reaction has been developed for the synthesis of chiral beta-hydroxy ketone using a combination of C(1)-symmetric chiral prolinamides based on o-phenylenediamine and zinc triflate as catalyst. The reaction was convenient to carry out in aqueous media with up to 98% chemical yields and up to 94% ee values. The current strategy can be regarded as the analogue of aldolase type II, which suggests a new pathway for the designing of new organocatalysts. PMID:20572810

  16. Biochemical aspects of renal ammonia formation in metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Hems, D A

    1975-01-01

    In omnivorous creatures, the diet is acidogenic, especially as a result of the meat content, which gives rise to phosphoric and sulphuric acids, i.e., to metabolic acidosis. In the short term, metabolic acids are buffered by tissue proteins and bicarbonate (the 'alkali reserve'). In the longer term, acid must be excreted, or neutralized with base which is also generated from the diet, by conversion of dietary amino-nitrogen to ammonia. The final steps of this process occur in the kidney, which converts circulating glutamine to ammonia, and to carbon products such as glucose and carbon dioxide, by metabolic reactions which adapt during acidosis to generate more ammonia and maintain an increased renal ammonia content. The complex mechanisms which govern the formation of ammonia, glucose and carbon dioxide from glutamine, involving the reactions of amino acids, the tricarboxylic acid cycle, and gluconeogenesis, are reviewed. PMID:231

  17. One-pot synthesis of a rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 nanocatalyst for Sonogashira coupling reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Hyunje; Lee, Kyoungho; Park, Ji Chan; Park, Kang Hyun

    2016-03-01

    A one-pot synthesis of rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 nanocomposites via the controlled thermal decomposition of Fe(CO)5 and reduction of Pd(OAc)2 is reported. This rose-like Pd-Fe3O4 composite structure has a high surface area owing to the individual Pd-Fe3O4 nanosheets, which imparted a high catalytic activity for Sonogashira coupling reactions. Moreover, the catalyst also demonstrated magnetic recyclability.

  18. One-pot synthesis of pentacyclic diamines from quinolines by a new Zn/AcOH-promoted cascade reaction.

    PubMed

    Gauffre, Jean-Christophe; Grignon-Dubois, Micheline; Rezzonico, Bernadette; Lger, Jean-Michel

    2002-07-12

    A simple and efficient method for the one-pot synthesis of pentacyclic diamines from quinolines is described. It involves a new Zn/AcOH-promoted cascade reaction, in which two C[bond]C bonds and four to five stereogenic centers are established under mild conditions. The regiochemistry of the dimerization and cyclization step is governed by substituent effects, allowing access to a head-to-head (2, 3) or head-to-tail skeleton (4, 5). PMID:12098277

  19. Site regeneration in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction: a synchronized CO dissociation and C-C coupling pathway.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sharan G; Ciobîcă, Ionel M; Hensen, Emiel J M; van Santen, Rutger A

    2011-09-21

    A critical issue in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis reaction is the blocking of the active sites for low barrier CO dissociation by the C(1) adsorbed species generated from CO dissociation, which can hinder the further steps in the FT process. Here, we propose a synchronized pathway for low barrier CO dissociation and C-C coupling on a corrugated Ru surface. PMID:21818499

  20. Regio- and stereoselective synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones via an NHC-catalyzed Mannich/lactamization domino reaction.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qijian; Song, Xiaoxiao; Xiong, Jiawen; Raabe, Gerhard; Enders, Dieter

    2015-01-25

    An NHC-catalyzed regio- and stereoselective Mannich/lactamization domino reaction of N-(benzothiazolyl)imines with ?-chloroaldehydes has been developed. This new protocol provides a facile approach for the asymmetric synthesis of benzothiazolo-pyrimidinones and a pyrrolo[1,2-a]indolone in moderate to good yields (34-78%) and excellent stereoselectivities (87-99% ee, up to >20?:?1 d.r.). PMID:25476422

  1. A divergent approach to the synthesis of simplexides and congeners via a late-stage olefin cross-metathesis reaction.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiakun; Li, Wei; Yu, Biao

    2013-08-14

    Simplexides constitute a unique group of immunosuppressive glycolipids that demonstrate antiproliferative activities against activated T-cell lymphocytes via a unique non-cytotoxic inhibition. To investigate the structure-activity relationship of the varied long-chain secondary alcohols on simplexides, we developed an efficient and divergent route to the synthesis of simplexides and congeners, taking advantage of a late-stage olefin cross-metathesis reaction. PMID:23774893

  2. One-pot stereoselective synthesis of ?,?-differentiated diamino esters via the sequence of aminochlorination, aziridination and intermolecular SN2 reaction.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yiwen; Qian, Ping; Cao, Chenhui; Mei, Haibo; Han, Jianlin; Li, Guigen; Pan, Yi

    2014-01-01

    We report here an efficient one-pot method for the synthesis of ?,?-differentiated diamino esters directly from cinnamate esters using N,N-dichloro-p-toluenesulfonamide and benzylamine as nitrogen sources. The key transformations include a Cu-catalyzed aminohalogenation and aziridination, followed by an intermolecular SN2 nucleophilic ring opening by benzylamine. The reactions feature a wide scope of substrates and proceed with excellent stereo- and regioselectivity (anti:syn >99:1) . PMID:25161740

  3. Total synthesis of peloruside A via kinetic lactonization and relay RCM cyclization reactions (and identification of iso-peloruside A)

    PubMed Central

    Hoye, Thomas R.; Jeon, Junha; Kopel, Lucas C.; Ryba, Troy D.; Tennakoon, Manomi A.; Wang, Yini

    2013-01-01

    A convergent total synthesis of peloruside A (1) is described. The key strategic features are a diastereoselective lactonization to generate a C5-C9 valerolactone from the C2-symmetric ketone 4, which comprises C1C9 of 1, and a relay ring closing metathesis (RRCM) reaction to produce a dehydrovalerolactone 20, which embodies C13C19. A new isomer of 1, the valerolactone iso-peloruside A (iso-1), was identified. PMID:20645374

  4. Process for the elimination of ammonia in coke plant waste waters

    SciTech Connect

    Wagener, D.; Laue, K.H.; Sander, Th.

    1984-05-08

    A process for the elimination of ammonia in waste waters from a coke oven battery wherein ammonia-containing waste water or ammonia-containing vapor obtained by means of ammonia separation from the waste water are mixed with flue gas from the coke oven battery and sprayed into a NO /SUB x/ reactor at an elevated temperature with the resulting mixture being subjected to a catalytic redox reaction.

  5. Ammonia Leak Locator Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodge, Franklin T.; Wuest, Martin P.; Deffenbaugh, Danny M.

    1995-01-01

    The thermal control system of International Space Station Alpha will use liquid ammonia as the heat exchange fluid. It is expected that small leaks (of the order perhaps of one pound of ammonia per day) may develop in the lines transporting the ammonia to the various facilities as well as in the heat exchange equipment. Such leaks must be detected and located before the supply of ammonia becomes critically low. For that reason, NASA-JSC has a program underway to evaluate instruments that can detect and locate ultra-small concentrations of ammonia in a high vacuum environment. To be useful, the instrument must be portable and small enough that an astronaut can easily handle it during extravehicular activity. An additional complication in the design of the instrument is that the environment immediately surrounding ISSA will contain small concentrations of many other gases from venting of onboard experiments as well as from other kinds of leaks. These other vapors include water, cabin air, CO2, CO, argon, N2, and ethylene glycol. Altogether, this local environment might have a pressure of the order of 10(exp -7) to 10(exp -6) torr. Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) was contracted by NASA-JSC to provide support to NASA-JSC and its prime contractors in evaluating ammonia-location instruments and to make a preliminary trade study of the advantages and limitations of potential instruments. The present effort builds upon an earlier SwRI study to evaluate ammonia leak detection instruments [Jolly and Deffenbaugh]. The objectives of the present effort include: (1) Estimate the characteristics of representative ammonia leaks; (2) Evaluate the baseline instrument in the light of the estimated ammonia leak characteristics; (3) Propose alternative instrument concepts; and (4) Conduct a trade study of the proposed alternative concepts and recommend promising instruments. The baseline leak-location instrument selected by NASA-JSC was an ion gauge.

  6. Fate of ammonia in the atmosphere--a review for applicability to hazardous releases.

    PubMed

    Renard, Jean J; Calidonna, Sheryl E; Henley, Michael V

    2004-04-30

    The physical and chemical mechanisms responsible for the removal of ammonia from the atmosphere have been reviewed. Capture by atmospheric moisture (clouds, rain, fog), surface water (rivers, lakes, seas), and deposition on vegetation and soil constitute the main pathways for ammonia removal from the troposphere. Ammonia catalyzes the atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfur trioxide and reacts rapidly with acidic components of the atmosphere (sulfuric, nitric, and hydrochloric acids). The ammonium salts formed are the main components of smog aerosols and thus affect the opacity of the atmosphere and the earth radiation budget. Slow oxidation of ammonia in the atmosphere plays only a minor role in its removal. The data obtained for ammonia reactions under normal atmospheric conditions are generally applicable to model chemical reactions occurring during massive release of ammonia in the atmosphere, provided the impact of high ammonia concentration on the mass transfer processes that control some of these reactions, are taken into account. PMID:15081162

  7. Modeling ammonia removal in aerated facultative lagoons.

    PubMed

    Houweling, C D; Kharoune, L; Escalas, A; Comeau, Y

    2005-01-01

    A mechanistic model has been developed to model ammonia removal in aerated facultative lagoons. Flow is modeled through the water column by a continuously stirred tank reactor and exchanges between the sludge layer and the water column are simulated by a solids separator. The biological model is based on an activated sludge model with reactions added for anaerobic bacterial growth and degradation of inert organic material. Results show that the model is able to predict seasonal variation in ammonia removal as well as sludge accumulation in the lagoons. PMID:16114676

  8. Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important). Reduction of nitrite ions is believed to be the most important source of ammonia. Whether by radiolytic or thermal routes, nitrite reduction reactions proceed through nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, the nitrosyl anion, and the hyponitrite anion. Nitrite ion is also converted into hydroxylamine, another important intermediate on the pathway to form ammonia. These reaction pathways additionally result in the formation of nitrous oxide and molecular nitrogen, whereas hydrogen formation is produced in a separate reaction sequence.

  9. Synthesis of 1,1-Diborylalkenes through a Brønsted Base Catalyzed Reaction between Terminal Alkynes and Bis(pinacolato)diboron.

    PubMed

    Morinaga, Akira; Nagao, Kazunori; Ohmiya, Hirohisa; Sawamura, Masaya

    2015-12-21

    A method for the synthesis of 1,1-diborylalkenes through a Brønsted base catalyzed reaction between terminal alkynes and bis(pinacolato)diboron has been developed. The procedure allows direct synthesis of functionalized 1,1-diborylalkenes from various terminal alkynes including propiolates, propiolamides, and 2-ethynylazoles. PMID:26564784

  10. Simultaneous synthesis of gold nanoparticle/graphene nanocomposite for enhanced oxygen reduction reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govindhan, Maduraiveeran; Chen, Aicheng

    2015-01-01

    We report here on a novel and facile technique for the simultaneous synthesis of a highly active and stable gold (Au) nanoparticle/reduced graphene oxide (rGO) sheet nanocomposite as an efficient electrocatalyst to facilitate the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and electrochemical methods were employed to characterize the Au and rGO nanocomposites formed on the electrode surface. The major advantage of the simultaneous synthetic method is the integration of the superb properties of both Au nanoparticles and graphene in a single-step with a 100% usage of the precursors. The Au/rGO nanocomposites exhibited pronounced electrocatalytic performance towards ORR with approximately three times higher than that of Au nanoparticles. The nanocomposites show the ORR onset peak potentials at 0.12 and -0.03 V (vs Ag/AgCl), with reduction peaks at -0.06 and -0.16 V (vs Ag/AgCl) in 0.1 M H2SO4 and KOH media, which is ?120-190 mV more positive than that of Au nanoparticles and a commercial Pt/C catalyst. Moreover, the nanocomposites exhibit excellent methanol tolerance and high durability in comparison with the commercial Pt/C. The new method demonstrated in this study provides an efficient route for the generation of ultrafine and highly dense Au nanoparticles that are homogeneously dispersed on rGO sheets for ORR.

  11. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  12. Ammonia Release on ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel

    2009-01-01

    Crew: Approximately 53% metabolic load Product of protein metabolism Limit production of ammonia by external regulation NOT possbile Payloads Potential source Scientific experiments Thorough safety review ensures sufficient levels of containment

  13. Applied reaction dynamics: Efficient synthesis gas production via single collision partial oxidation of methane to CO on Rh(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, K. D.; Viste, M.; Sibener, S. J.

    2006-10-01

    Supersonic molecular beams have been used to determine the yield of CO from the partial oxidation of CH4 on a Rh(111) catalytic substrate, CH4+(1/2)O2?CO +2H2, as a function of beam kinetic energy. These experiments were done under ultrahigh vacuum conditions with concurrent molecular beams of O2 and CH4, ensuring that there was only a single collision for the CH4 to react with the surface. The fraction of CH4 converted is strongly dependent on the normal component of the incident beam's translational energy, and approaches unity for energies greater than 1.3eV. Comparison with a simplified model of the methane-Rh(111) reactive potential gives insight into the barrier for methane dissociation. These results demonstrate the efficient conversion of methane to synthesis gas, CO +2H2, are of interest in hydrogen generation, and have the optimal stoichiometry for subsequent utilization in synthetic fuel production (Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis). Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i.e., the reaction proceeded with the production of very little, if any, unwanted greenhouse gas by-products. These findings demonstrate the efficacy of overcoming the limitations of purely thermal reaction mechanisms by coupling nonthermal mechanistic steps, leading to efficient C-H bond activation with subsequent thermal heterogeneous reactions.

  14. Titan's Ammonia Feature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smythe, W.; Nelson, R.; Boryta, M.; Choukroun, M.

    2011-01-01

    NH3 has long been considered an important component in the formation and evolution of the outer planet satellites. NH3 is particularly important for Titan, since it may serve as the reservoir for atmospheric nitrogen. A brightening seen on Titan starting in 2004 may arise from a transient low-lying fog or surface coating of ammonia. The spectral shape suggests the ammonia is anhydrous, a molecule that hydrates quickly in the presence of water.

  15. Ammonia Clouds on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for movie of Ammonia Ice Clouds on Jupiter

    In this movie, put together from false-color images taken by the New Horizons Ralph instrument as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in early 2007, show ammonia clouds (appearing as bright blue areas) as they form and disperse over five successive Jupiter 'days.' Scientists noted how the larger cloud travels along with a small, local deep hole.

  16. Ammonia and sediment toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Ogle, R.S.; Hansen, S.R.

    1994-12-31

    Ammonia toxicity to aquatic organisms has received considerable study, with most of these studies focusing on water column organisms. However, with the development and implementation of sediment (and pore water) toxicity tests, the toxicity of ammonia to benthic infauna and other sediment toxicity test organisms has become important, especially since sediment/porewater ammonia occurs at higher concentrations than in the water column. Unfortunately, there has been very little of this type information, especially for marine/estuarine organisms. This laboratory determined the toxicity of ammonia to three key marine/estuarine test organisms: the amphipod Eohaustorius estuarius, the bivalve Mytilus edulis, and the echinoderm Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. Because sediment/porewater pH can differ substantially from typical seawater pH, the toxicity evaluations covered a range of pH levels (6, 7, 8, and 9). Eohaustorius results indicate that while Total Ammonia increased in toxicity (measured as EC50) as pH increased (from 460 mg/L at pH 6, to 13 mg/L at pH 9), unionized ammonia toxicity decreased from 0.13 mg/L at pH 6 to 2.8 mg/L at pH 9. The amphipod was much less sensitive to ammonia than were the bivalve and echinoderm, with an unionized ammonia EC50 at pH 8 of 2.14 mg/L relative to 0.43 mg/L for the mussel and 0.13 mg/L for the purple urchin. These results are discussed with respect to design and interpretation of sediment toxicity test results, including an interpretation approach based on partitioning of Toxic Units (TU).

  17. Chemical pathways for the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.; Pederson, L.R.

    1997-12-01

    This report reviews chemical reactions leading to the formation of ammonia in Hanford wastes. The general features of the chemistry of the organic compounds in the Hanford wastes are briefly outlined. The radiolytic and thermal free radical reactions that are responsible for the initiation and propagation of the oxidative degradation reactions of the nitrogen-containing complexants, trisodium HEDTA and tetrasodium EDTA, are outlined. In addition, the roles played by three different ionic reaction pathways for the oxidation of the same compounds and their degradation products are described as a prelude to the discussion of the formation of ammonia. The reaction pathways postulated for its formation are based on tank observations, laboratory studies with simulated and actual wastes, and the review of the scientific literature. Ammonia derives from the reduction of nitrite ion (most important), from the conversion of organic nitrogen in the complexants and their degradation products, and from radiolytic reactions of nitrous oxide and nitrogen (least important).

  18. Synthesis of New Bimetallic Transition Metal Oxynitrides V- Me-O-N ( Me = Mo and W) by Temperature-Programmed Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, C. Charles; Oyama, S. Ted

    1995-04-01

    Transition metal carbides and nitrides have attracted attention as possible replacements for platinum group catalysts. Most of the work has been carried out with single-metal compounds. We report here the preparation of two new bimetallic compounds, V-Mo and V-W oxynitrides, obtained by nitriding oxide precursors with ammonia gas via a temperature-programmed reaction. The bimetallic oxide precursors are prepared by conventional solid state reaction using commercial V, Mo, and W oxides. The oxynitrides thus obtained adopt a face-centered cubic crystal structure. They have high specific surface areas (74 and 62 m2 g-1), and their pyrophoricity suggests high surface activity.

  19. Synthesis of the AB ring system of clifednamide utilizing Claisen rearrangement and Diels-Alder reaction as key steps.

    PubMed

    Loke, Inga; Bentzinger, Guillaume; Holz, Julia; Raja, Aruna; Bhasin, Aman; Sasse, Florenz; Köhn, Andreas; Schobert, Rainer; Laschat, Sabine

    2016-01-21

    In order to construct the functionalized AB ring system of clifednamide, member of the class of macrocyclic tetramic acid lactams, a synthesis was developed which utilized an Ireland-Claisen rearrangement and an intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction. Starting from di-O-isopropylidene-d-mannitol the allyl carboxylate precursor for the sigmatropic rearrangement was prepared. This rearrangement proceeded diastereoselectively only in the presence of an allyl silyl ether instead of the parent enone in the side chain, as suggested by deuteration experiments. A subsequent Diels-Alder reaction yielded the target ethyl hexahydro-1H-indene-carboxylate with high diastereoselectivity. Quantum-chemical investigations of this intramolecular Diels-Alder reaction support the proposed configuration of the final product. PMID:26599642

  20. Synthesis and x-ray characterization of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for the oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V.T.; Su, Dong; Zhang, Sen; Trigg, Edward B.; Agarwal, Rahul; Li, Jing; Winey, Karen I.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2015-07-14

    Low temperature fuel cells are clean, effective alternative fuel conversion technology. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the fuel cell cathode has required Pt as the electrocatalyst for high activity and selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway. Targeting a less expensive, earth abundant alternative, we have developed the synthesis of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for ORR. Characterization techniques that include total X-ray scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure revealed a deviation of the nanorods from bulk crystal structure with a contraction along the b orthorhombic lattice parameter. The carbon supported nanorods have comparable activity but are remarkably more stable thanmore » conventional Pt catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline environments.« less

  1. Synthesis and x-ray characterization of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for the oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Doan-Nguyen, Vicky V.T.; Su, Dong; Zhang, Sen; Trigg, Edward B.; Agarwal, Rahul; Li, Jing; Winey, Karen I.; Murray, Christopher B.

    2015-07-14

    Low temperature fuel cells are clean, effective alternative fuel conversion technology. Oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at the fuel cell cathode has required Pt as the electrocatalyst for high activity and selectivity of the four-electron reaction pathway. Targeting a less expensive, earth abundant alternative, we have developed the synthesis of cobalt phosphide (Co₂P) nanorods for ORR. Characterization techniques that include total X-ray scattering and extended X-ray absorption fine structure revealed a deviation of the nanorods from bulk crystal structure with a contraction along the b orthorhombic lattice parameter. The carbon supported nanorods have comparable activity but are remarkably more stable than conventional Pt catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline environments.

  2. Multistep Synthesis of a Terphenyl Derivative Showcasing the Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Elizabeth A. Colby

    2015-01-01

    An adaptable multistep synthesis project designed for the culmination of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The target compound is a terphenyl derivative that is an intermediate in the synthesis of compounds used in organic light-emitting devices. Students react a conjugated diene with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate…

  3. Multistep Synthesis of a Terphenyl Derivative Showcasing the Diels-Alder Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davie, Elizabeth A. Colby

    2015-01-01

    An adaptable multistep synthesis project designed for the culmination of a second-year organic chemistry laboratory course is described. The target compound is a terphenyl derivative that is an intermediate in the synthesis of compounds used in organic light-emitting devices. Students react a conjugated diene with dimethylacetylene dicarboxylate

  4. Palladium-catalyzed enolate arylation as a key C-C bond-forming reaction for the synthesis of isoquinolines.

    PubMed

    Pilgrim, Ben S; Gatland, Alice E; Esteves, Carlos H A; McTernan, Charlie T; Jones, Geraint R; Tatton, Matthew R; Procopiou, Panayiotis A; Donohoe, Timothy J

    2016-01-21

    The palladium-catalyzed coupling of an enolate with an ortho-functionalized aryl halide (an ?-arylation) furnishes a protected 1,5-dicarbonyl moiety that can be cyclized to an isoquinoline with a source of ammonia. This fully regioselective synthetic route tolerates a wide range of substituents, including those that give rise to the traditionally difficult to access electron-deficient isoquinoline skeletons. These two synthetic operations can be combined to give a three-component, one-pot isoquinoline synthesis. Alternatively, cyclization of the intermediates with hydroxylamine hydrochloride engenders direct access to isoquinoline N-oxides; and cyclization with methylamine, gives isoquinolinium salts. Significant diversity is available in the substituents at the C4 position in four-component, one-pot couplings, by either trapping the in situ intermediate after ?-arylation with carbon or heteroatom-based electrophiles, or by performing an ?,?-heterodiarylation to install aryl groups at this position. The ?-arylation of nitrile and ester enolates gives access to 3-amino and 3-hydroxyisoquinolines and the ?-arylation of tert-butyl cyanoacetate followed by electrophile trapping, decarboxylation and cyclization, C4-functionalized 3-aminoisoquinolines. An oxime directing group can be used to direct a C-H functionalization/bromination, which allows monofunctionalized rather than difunctionalized aryl precursors to be brought through this synthetic route. PMID:26632484

  5. Nitrogen and Hydrogen on a Palladium-covered proton conductor: a first principle study of Ammonia catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paulatto, Lorenzo; de Gironcoli, Stefano

    2009-03-01

    Being liquid at ambient conditions Ammonia would be an ideal Hydrogen vector. However, the industrial Haber process for Ammonia synthesis involves high pressures ( 100 bar) and temperatures (450-500 ^oC), making the process very expensive. Recently, ambient pressure Ammonia production, in the 570-750 ^oC temperature range, has been reported at the Palladium cathode of a proton conducting cell-reactor [1]. The rate limiting step in the Haber process is N2 dissociation, while the observed limiting factor in Ref. [1] appears to be the proton transfer through the conductor and it has been proposed that Nitrogen hydrogenation may in this case precede dissociation. We use first-principles techniques to study Nitrogen, Hydrogen and Ammonia interaction with flat and stepped Pd surfaces, in presence of external electric fields. Our aim is to study the effect of electrochemically provided protons on the catalysis of the reaction. [1]G. Marnellos and M. Stoukides, Science 282, 98 (1998); G. Marnellos, S. Zisekas, and M. Stoukides, J. of Catalysis 193, 80-87 (2000)

  6. Synthesis of quaternary stereogenic centres via stereoselective intermolecular Friedel-Crafts reactions.

    PubMed

    Ball, Jennifer C; Gleave, Robert; Jones, Simon

    2011-06-01

    Highly stereoselective Friedel-Crafts reactions have been performed using a chiral anthracene template to control the selectivity of the reaction. In the case of additions to fully substituted N-acyliminium ions, competitive elimination and condensation reactions were observed. Retro-Diels-Alder reaction of one of the reaction products led to a precursor that could be used for the construction of pyroglutamic acids bearing quaternary stereogenic centres. PMID:21505705

  7. Improving The Efficiency Of Ammonia Electrolysis For Hydrogen Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Ramasamy

    Given the abundance of ammonia in domestic and industrial wastes, ammonia electrolysis is a promising technology for remediation and distributed power generation in a clean and safe manner. Efficiency has been identified as one of the key issues that require improvement in order for the technology to enter the market phase. Therefore, this research was performed with the aim of improving the efficiency of hydrogen production by finding alternative materials for the cathode and electrolyte. 1. In the presence of ammonia the activity for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) followed the trend Rh>Pt>Ru>Ni. The addition of ammonia resulted in lower rates for HER for Pt, Ru, and Ni, which have been attributed to competition from the ammonia adsorption reaction. 2. The addition of ammonia offers insight into the role of metal-hydrogen underpotential deposition (M-Hupd) on HER kinetics. In addition to offering competition via ammonia adsorption it resulted in fewer and weaker M-Hupd bonds for all metals. This finding substantiates the theory that M-Hupd bonds favor HER on Pt electrocatalyst. However, for Rh results suggest that M-Hupd bond may hinder the HER. In addition, the presence of unpaired valence shell electrons is suggested to provide higher activity for HER in the presence of ammonia. 3. Bimetals PtxM1-x (M = Ir, Ru, Rh, and Ni) offered lower overpotentials for HER compared to the unalloyed metals in the presence of ammonia. The activity of HER in the presence of ammonia follows the trend Pt-Ir>Pt-Rh>Pt-Ru>Pt-Ni. The higher activity of HER is attributed to the synergistic effect of the alloy, where ammonia adsorbs onto the more electropositive alloying metal leaving Pt available for Hupd formation and HER to take place. Additionally, this supports the theory that the presence of a higher number of unpaired electrons favors the HER in the presence of ammonia. 4. Potassium polyacrylate (PAA-K) was successfully used as a substitute for aqueous KOH for ammonia electrolysis. PAA-K allowed for a wider operating potential for the electrolytic cell while increasing the rate for HER at lower cell voltages. The conversion of ammonia improved from 16 % to 25 %, while the current efficiency for the consumption of ammonia increased from 92 +/- 1 % to 97 +/- 2 % by using PAA-K in lieu of KOH. The use of PAA-K also prevented the crossover of the hydrogen produced to the anode side, unlike aqueous KOH.

  8. Ammonia diffusion through Nalophan bags.

    PubMed

    Sironi, Selena; Eusebio, Lidia; Dentoni, Licinia; Capelli, Laura; Del Rosso, Renato

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work is to verify the diffusion rate of ammonia through the Nalophan film that constitutes the sampling bag, considering storage times ranging from 1 to 26 h. The ammonia decay over time was evaluated using gas-chromatography for the quantification of ammonia concentration inside the bag. The research assesses the roles of both of ammonia and water concentration gradients at the polymeric film interface on the diffusion process. The results show that both the ammonia concentration gradient and, in a less pronounced way, the water concentration gradient are the main 'engines' of ammonia diffusion. Double bags seem to represent a simple solution for preventing ammonia losses during storage. Another interesting result concerns the role of the bag surface on the ammonia diffusion rate: the higher the surface/volume (S/V) ratio, the higher the ammonia diffusion rate through the polymeric film. PMID:24552718

  9. Rhodium-catalyzed [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes and CO: reaction design, development, application in natural product synthesis, and inspiration for developing new reactions for synthesis of eight-membered carbocycles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-08-18

    Practical syntheses of natural products and their analogues with eight-membered carbocyclic skeletons are important for medicinal and biological investigations. However, methods and strategies to construct the eight-membered carbocycles are limited. Therefore, developing new methods to synthesize the eight-membered carbocycles is highly desired. In this Account, we describe our development of three rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions for the construction of the eight-membered carbocycles, which have great potential in addressing the challenges in the synthesis of medium-sized ring systems. The first reaction described in this Account is our computationally designed rhodium-catalyzed two-component [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition of ene-vinylcyclopropanes (ene-VCPs) and CO for the diastereoselective construction of bi- and tricyclic cyclooctenones. The design of this reaction is based on the hypothesis that the C(sp(3))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination of the eight-membered rhodacycle intermediate generated from the rhodium-catalyzed cyclopropane cleavage and alkene insertion, giving Wender's [5 + 2] cycloadduct, is not easy. Under CO atmosphere, CO insertion may occur rapidly, converting the eight-membered rhodacycle into a nine-membered rhodacycle, which then undergoes an easy C(sp(2))-C(sp(3)) reductive elimination process and furnishes the [5 + 2 + 1] product. This hypothesis was supported by our preliminary DFT studies and also served as inspiration for the development of two [7 + 1] cycloadditions: the [7 + 1] cycloaddition of buta-1,3-dienylcyclopropanes (BDCPs) and CO for the construction of cyclooctadienones, and the benzo/[7 + 1] cycloaddition of cyclopropyl-benzocyclobutenes (CP-BCBs) and CO to synthesize the benzocyclooctenones. The efficiency of these rhodium-catalyzed cycloadditions can be revealed by the application in natural product synthesis. Two eight-membered ring-containing natural products, (±)-asterisca-3(15),6-diene and (+)-asteriscanolide, have been synthesized using the [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition as the key step. In the latter case, excellent asymmetric induction was obtained using a chiral substrate. The efficiency of the [5 + 2 + 1] reaction was further demonstrated by the synthesis of four sesquiterpene natural products, (±)-pentalenene, (+)-hirsutene, (±)-1-desoxyhypnophilin, and (±)-hirsutic acid C, containing linear or branched triquinane skeletons utilizing the tandem or stepwise [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition/aldol reaction strategy. With the success of [5 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition in natural product synthesis, application of the [7 + 1] and benzo/[7 + 1] cycloadditions in target- and function-oriented syntheses can be envisioned. PMID:26227886

  10. Toluene dioxygenase-catalyzed synthesis and reactions of cis-diol metabolites derived from 2- and 3-methoxyphenols.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Derek R; Sharma, Narain D; Malone, John F; McIntyre, Peter B A; McRoberts, Colin; Floyd, Stewart; Allen, Christopher C R; Gohil, Amit; Coles, Simon J; Horton, Peter N; Stevenson, Paul J

    2015-04-01

    Using toluene dioxygenase as biocatalyst, enantiopure cis-dihydrodiol and cis-tetrahydrodiol metabolites, isolated as their ketone tautomers, were obtained from meta and ortho methoxyphenols. Although these isomeric phenol substrates are structurally similar, the major bioproducts from each of these biotransformations were found at different oxidation levels. The relatively stable cyclohexenone cis-diol metabolite from meta methoxyphenol was isolated, while the corresponding metabolite from ortho methoxyphenol was rapidly bioreduced to a cyclohexanone cis-diol. The chemistry of the 3-methoxycyclohexenone cis-diol product was investigated and elimination, aromatization, hydrogenation, regioselective O-exchange, Stork-Danheiser transposition and O-methylation reactions were observed. An offshoot of this technology provided a two-step chemoenzymatic synthesis, from meta methoxyphenol, of a recently reported chiral fungal metabolite; this synthesis also established the previously unassigned absolute configuration. PMID:25756661

  11. Hydrothermal reactions: From the synthesis of ligand to new lanthanide 3D-coordination polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, Fausthon Fred da; Fernandes de Oliveira, Carlos Alberto; Lago Falco, Eduardo Henrique; Gatto, Claudia Cristina; Bezerra da Costa, Nivan; Oliveira Freire, Ricardo; Chojnacki, Jaros?aw; Alves Jnior, Severino

    2013-11-15

    The organic ligand 2,5-piperazinedione-1,4-diacetic acid (H{sub 2}PDA) was synthesized under hydrothermal conditions starting from the iminodiacetic acid and catalyzed by oxalic acid. The X-ray powder diffraction data indicates that the compound crystallizes in the P2{sub 1}/c monoclinic system as reported in the literature. The ligand was also characterized by elemental analysis, magnetic nuclear resonance, infrared spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Two new coordination networks based on lanthanide ions were obtained with this ligand using hydrothermal reaction. In addition to single-crystal X-ray diffraction, the compounds were characterized by infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and elemental analysis. Single-crystal XRD showed that the compounds are isostructural, crystallizing in P2{sub 1}/n monoclinic system with chemical formula [Ln(PDA){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (Ln=Gd{sup 3+}(1) and Eu{sup 3+}(2)).The luminescence properties of both compounds were studied. In the compound (1), a broad emission band was observed at 479 nm, redshifted by 70 nm in comparison of the free ligand. In (2), the typical ff transition was observed with a maximum peak at 618 nm, related with the red emission of the europium ions. Computational methods were performed to simulate the crystal structure of (2). The theoretical calculations of the intensity parameters are in good agreement with the experimental values. - Graphical abstract: Scheme of obtaining the ligand 2,5-piperazinedione-1,4-diacetic acid (H{sub 2}PDA) and two new isostructural 3D-coordination polymers [Ln(PDA){sub 1.5}(H{sub 2}O)](H{sub 2}O){sub 3} (Ln=Gd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+}) by hydrothermal synthesis. Display Omitted - Highlights: The ligand 2,5-piperazinedione-1,4-diacetic acid was synthetized using the hydrothermic method and characterized. Two new 3D-coordination polymers with this ligand containing Gd{sup 3+} and Eu{sup 3+} ions were also obtained. The compounds are isostructural and the typical luminescent properties were observed in both structures.

  12. Imaging and controlling intracellular reactions: Lysosome transport as a function of diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Payne, Christine

    2014-03-01

    Eukaryotic cells are the ultimate complex environment with intracellular chemical reactions regulated by the local cellular environment. For example, reactants are sequestered into specific organelles to control local concentration and pH, motor proteins transport reactants within the cell, and intracellular vesicles undergo fusion to bring reactants together. Current research in the Payne Lab in the School of Chemistry and Biochemistry at Georgia Tech is aimed at understanding and utilizing this complex environment to control intracellular chemical reactions. This will be illustrated using two examples, intracellular transport as a function of organelle diameter and the intracellular synthesis of conducting polymers. Using single particle tracking fluorescence microscopy, we measured the intracellular transport of lysosomes, membrane-bound organelles, as a function of diameter as they underwent transport in living cells. Both ATP-dependent active transport and diffusion were examined. As expected, diffusion scales with the diameter of the lysosome. However, active transport is unaffected suggesting that motor proteins are insensitive to cytosolic drag. In a second example, we utilize intracellular complexity, specifically the distinct micro-environments of different organelles, to carry out chemical reactions. We show that catalase, found in the peroxisomes of cells, can be used to catalyze the polymerization of the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS. More importantly, we have found that a range of iron-containing biomolecules are suitable catalysts with different iron-containing biomolecules leading to different polymer properties. These experiments illustrate the advantage of intracellular complexity for the synthesis of novel materials.

  13. M{prime}-RTaO{sub 4} synthesis: Activation of the precursor oxides by the reaction flux

    SciTech Connect

    Hedden, D.B.; Zegarski, W.; Torardi, C.C.

    1995-09-01

    Studies of the M{prime}-RTaO{sub 4} (R = Gd, Y, Lu) phosphor synthesis reaction show that, contrary to previous views, the flux (e.g., Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, LiCl, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) serves as in important reactant. Through a combination of techniques (DTA, TGA, XRPD, and mass balance), the authors find that close to its melting point, the flux reacts exothermically with the blended tantalum and yttrium oxides to give intermediate compounds. These reactive intermediates then combine to make M`-REaO{sub 4} and to regenerate the flux. Thus, the flux serves a dual purpose; it first activates the oxide reaction mixture and then serves as a classical flux in the growth of RTaO{sub 4} crystals. In light of this discovery, a more appropriate term for these flux compounds is catalyst or reactive flux because they facilitate the synthesis of RTaO{sub 4} through chemical reaction.

  14. DABCO-catalyzed unusual [4 + 2] cycloaddition reaction: non-substituted allenoate acts as a four-carbon synthon and facile synthesis of spirooxindoles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yufen; Du, Yanlong; Yu, Aimin; Mu, Haifeng; Meng, Xiangtai

    2016-01-28

    A DABCO-catalyzed domino reaction between methyleneoxindoles and allenoates which enables the direct synthesis of spirooxindoles is reported. This is the first example of a non-substituted allenoate to act as a four-carbon synthon in a tertiary amine-catalyzed reaction. PMID:26677052

  15. Alkaline Ammonia Electrolysis on Electrodeposited Platinum for Controllable Hydrogen Production.

    PubMed

    Gwak, Jieun; Choun, Myounghoon; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2016-02-01

    Ammonia is beginning to attract a great deal of attention as an alternative energy source carrier, because clean hydrogen can be produced through electrolytic processes without the emission of COx . In this study, we deposited various shapes of Pt catalysts under potentiostatic mode; the electrocatalytic oxidation behavior of ammonia using these catalysts was studied in alkaline media. The electrodeposited Pt was characterized by both qualitative and quantitative analysis. To discover the optimal structure and the effect of ammonia concentration, the bulk pH value, reaction temperature, and applied current of ammonia oxidation were investigated using potential sweep and galvanostatic methods. Finally, ammonia electrolysis was conducted using a zero-gap cell, producing highly pure hydrogen with an energy efficiency over 80 %. PMID:26530809

  16. The synthesis of methanol and the reverse water-gas shift reaction over Zn-deposited Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces: comparison with Zn/Cu(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, I.; Fujitani, T.; Uchijima, T.; Nakamura, J.

    1998-03-01

    The catalytic activity of Zn vapor-deposited Cu(100) and Cu(110) surfaces for methanol synthesis by the hydrogenation of CO 2 and the reverse water-gas shift reaction were studied using an XPS apparatus combined with a high-pressure flow reactor (18 atm). At a reaction temperature of 523 K, no promotional effect of Zn was observed for the methanol synthesis on both Zn/Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(110). The results were quite different from those for Zn/Cu(111), on which a significant promotion of methanol synthesis activity appeared to be due to the deposition of Zn, indicating that the promotional effect of Zn was sensitive to the surface structure of Cu. However, hysteresis was observed in the catalytic activity for methanol synthesis over the Zn/Cu(110) surface upon heating above 543 K in the reaction mixture. The activity became twice that measured before heating, which was close to the methanol synthesis activity of Zn/Cu(111) at the same Zn coverage. On the other hand, no such hysteresis was observed for the reverse water-gas shift reaction on Zn/Cu(110), indicating that the active site for methanol synthesis was not identical to that for the reverse water-gas shift reaction. In the post-reaction surface analysis, formate species was detected on both Zn/Cu(100) and Zn/Cu(110), whose coverage increased with increasing Zn coverage at 0< ΘZn<0.2. No correlation between the formate coverage and the methanol synthesis activity was obtained, which was in contrast to the results for Zn/Cu(111). Thus, the structure sensitivity observed in the catalytic activity of methanol synthesis over Zn-deposited Cu surfaces is ascribed to the significant difference in the reactivity of the formate intermediate.

  17. Synthesis of superheavy element 120 via {sup 50}Ti+{sup A}Cf hot fusion reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Z. H.; Bao Jingdong

    2009-11-15

    Synthesis of superheavy element 120 in terms of the {sup 50}Ti+{sup 249-252}Cf fusion-evaporation reactions is evaluated and discussed. It is found that the reactions of {sup 250,251}Cf({sup 50}Ti,3n){sup 297,298}120 and {sup 251,252}Cf({sup 50}Ti,4n){sup 297,298}120 are relatively favorable with the maximum evaporation-residue cross sections of 0.12, 0.09, 0.11, and 0.25 pb, respectively. However, {sup 252}Cf may be difficult to be target because its spontaneous fission will bring about serious background in the experiment. Fusion probabilities for different target-projectile combinations leading to the formation of surperheavy nucleus {sup 302}120 are estimated with the ''fusion-by-diffusion'' model and presented as a function of the Coulomb parameter Z{sub 1}Z{sub 2}/(A{sub 1}{sup 1/3}+A{sub 2}{sup 1/3}). Among the reactions {sup 50}Ti+{sup 252}Cf, {sup 54}Cr+{sup 248}Cm, {sup 58}Fe+{sup 244}Pu, and {sup 64}Ni+{sup 238}U, the reaction {sup 50}Ti+{sup 252}Cf has the largest fusion probability. Synthesis of superheavy element 120 is of essential importance for determining whether the magic proton shell should be at Z=114 or at higher proton numbers Z=120-126. Therefore, the experiment to produce isotopes with Z=120 in the fusion reactions {sup 50}Ti+{sup 250,251}Cf is of great interest.

  18. Asymmetric synthesis of (-)-indolizidine 209D via B-alkyl Suzuki coupling and amination reactions.

    PubMed

    Kim, G; Jung, S D; Kim, W J

    2001-09-20

    (-)-Indolizidine 209D has been synthesized using consecutive amination reactions of compound 11. The precursor was prepared concisely using B-alkyl Suzuki cross coupling of chiral homoallyl amine and vinyl iodide compounds. Reaction: see text. PMID:11554824

  19. Ammonia in comet P/Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, R.; Eberhardt, P.; Krankowsky, D.; Hodges, R. R.

    1994-01-01

    In comet P/Halley the abundances of ammonia relative to water reported in the literature differ by about one order of magnitude from roughly 0.1% up to 2%. Different observational techniques seem to have inherent systematic errors. Using the ion mass channels m/q = 19 amu/e, 18 amu/e and 17 amu/e of the Neutral Mass Spectrometer experiment aboard the spacecraft Giotto, we derive a production rate of ammonia of (1.5(sub -0.7)(sup +0.5))% relative to water. Inside the contact surface we can explain our data by a nuclear source only. The uncertainty in our abundance of ammonia is primarily a result of uncertainties in some key reaction coefficients. We discuss in detail these reactions and the range of error indicated results from extreme assumptions in the rate coefficients. From our data, even in the worst case, we can exclude the ammonia abundance to be only of the order of a few per mill.

  20. Rate equations of solid-catalyzed reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Mezaki, R.; Inoue, H.

    1991-01-01

    Rate Equations of Solid-Catalyzed Reactions, edited by Mezaki and Inoue, contains a comprehensive compilation of kinetic rate expressions for a large number of relevant catalytic reaction systems. Mezaki and Inoue should be commended for their effort. For the practicing catalytic engineer the book should serve as a quick reference guide for assessing the functional dependence of rate on various operating conditions for a catalytic reaction system of interest. Even in this age of computer-aid literature searches this book should reduce the typically large activation barrier and search time associated with locating kinetic rate expressions for a particular reaction system. It is a recommended reference book for all whom are involved in the business of catalytic reactions. However, its format is not amenable for teaching. The book is structured according to the reaction system type. Chapter (1) focuses on synthesis (e.g., of sulfur trioxide, ammonia, methanol), (2) on hydrogenations (e.g., of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, ethylene, cyclohexene), (3) on hydrogenolysis (of low molecular weight alkanes such as ethane and/or pentane), (4) on hydrocracking (of higher molecular weight components such as n-hexane and n-dodecane), (5) on dehydrogenation (e.g., of ethanol, ethane, cyclohexane), (6) on complete oxidation (e.g., of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, alkanes, and olefins), (7) on partial oxidation (e.g., of methanol, ethylene, xylenes, and ammonia), (8) on isomerization (e.g., of methane, ethane, and cyclohexane), (10) on decomposition of ammonia and nitric oxide, (11) on dehydration of various alcohols, (12) on cumene cracking, and (13) on other key reactions such as water-gas shift and nitric oxide reduction.

  1. Practical experiences with the synthesis of [11C]CH3I through gas phase iodination reaction using a TRACERlabFXC synthesis module.

    PubMed

    Kniess, Torsten; Rode, Katrin; Wuest, Frank

    2008-04-01

    The results of [(11)C]CH(3)I synthesis through hydrogen gas reduction of [(11)C]CO(2) on different nickel catalysts (HARSHAW-nickel, SHIMALITE-nickel, nickel on silica/alumina, nickel nanosize 99.99%) followed by gas phase iodination using a TRACERlab FX(C) synthesis unit are reported. Further reaction parameters such as furnace temperatures, flow rate of hydrogen gas and reduction time were optimized. It was found that reduction of [(11)C]CO(2) proceeded in 28-83% yield depending on the nickel catalyst and temperature. The gas phase iodination (methane conversion) gave 31-62% of [(11)C]CH(3)I depending on temperature and amount of iodine in the iodine furnace. [(11)C]CH(3)I was used for heteroatom methylation reactions exemplified by a piperazine and a phenol (1 and 3). The specific activity of the (11)C-labelled products 2 and 4 was determined after HPLC purification and solid-phase extraction. Compounds 2 and 4 were obtained in 8-14% radiochemical yield (decay-corrected, based upon trapped [(11)C]CH(4)) within 30 min. The specific activity was determined to be in the range of 20-30 GBq/mumol at the end-of-synthesis. Nickel catalyst nanosize was found to be superior compared with other Ni catalysts tested. The relatively low specific activity may be mainly due to carbon contaminations originating from the long copper tubing (500 m) between the cyclotron and the radiochemistry facility. PMID:17683943

  2. Design and Synthesis of Chiral Zn2+ Complexes Mimicking Natural Aldolases for Catalytic CC Bond Forming Reactions in Aqueous Solution

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Susumu; Sonoike, Shotaro; Kitamura, Masanori; Aoki, Shin

    2014-01-01

    Extending carbon frameworks via a series of CC bond forming reactions is essential for the synthesis of natural products, pharmaceutically active compounds, active agrochemical ingredients, and a variety of functional materials. The application of stereoselective CC bond forming reactions to the one-pot synthesis of biorelevant compounds is now emerging as a challenging and powerful strategy for improving the efficiency of a chemical reaction, in which some of the reactants are subjected to successive chemical reactions in just one reactor. However, organic reactions are generally conducted in organic solvents, as many organic molecules, reagents, and intermediates are not stable or soluble in water. In contrast, enzymatic reactions in living systems proceed in aqueous solvents, as most of enzymes generally function only within a narrow range of temperature and pH and are not so stable in less polar organic environments, which makes it difficult to conduct chemoenzymatic reactions in organic solvents. In this review, we describe the design and synthesis of chiral metal complexes with Zn2+ ions as a catalytic factor that mimic aldolases in stereoselective CC bond forming reactions, especially for enantioselective aldol reactions. Their application to chemoenzymatic reactions in aqueous solution is also presented. PMID:24481060

  3. Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    A greener, microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the second-semester organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this microwave technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been successfully synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields (41-68%). The reaction not only occurs under neat reaction conditions, but also employs

  4. Facile synthesis of functionalized tetrahydroquinolines via domino Povarov reactions of arylamines, methyl propiolate and aromatic aldehydes

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jing; Gao, Hong; Wu, Qun

    2012-01-01

    Summary In the presence of p-toluenesulfonic acid as catalyst the domino reaction of arylamines, methyl propiolates and aromatic aldehydes in ethanol proceeded smoothly to give polysubstituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines in moderate yields. The reaction is believed to involve the Povarov reaction of in situ generated ?-enamino ester with the in situ formed aromatic imine. PMID:23209520

  5. Microwave-Assisted Organic Synthesis in the Organic Teaching Lab: A Simple, Greener Wittig Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Eric; Kellen-Yuen, Cynthia

    2007-01-01

    A greener, microwave-assisted Wittig reaction has been developed for the second-semester organic teaching laboratory. Utilizing this microwave technique, a variety of styrene derivatives have been successfully synthesized from aromatic aldehydes in good yields (41-68%). The reaction not only occurs under neat reaction conditions, but also employs…

  6. A green synthesis of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate; lower temperature solid-state reaction and improved materials performance

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Makoto; Morita, Masashi; Igarashi, Shota; Sato, Soh

    2013-10-15

    A layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, with the size range from 0.1 to 30 m was prepared to show the effects of the particle size on the materials performance. The potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction as reported previously, where the reaction temperature was varied. The reported temperature for the titanate preparation was higher than 800 C, though 600 C is good enough to obtain single-phase potassium lithium titanate. The lower temperature synthesis is cost effective and the product exhibit better performance as photocatalysts due to surface reactivity. - Graphical abstract: Finite particle of a layered titanate, potassium lithium titanate, was prepared by solid-state reaction at lower temperature to show modified materials performance. Display Omitted - Highlights: Potassium lithium titanate was prepared by solid-state reaction. Lower temperature reaction resulted in smaller sized particles of titanate. 600 C was good enough to obtain single phased potassium lithium titanate. The product exhibited better performance as photocatalyst.

  7. Microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative Diels-Alder reactions for the synthesis of functionalized naphthalenes/solvatochromic dyes.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, Laura S; Benedetti, Erica; Brummond, Kay M

    2013-01-01

    Functionalized naphthalenes have applications in a variety of research fields ranging from the synthesis of natural or biologically active molecules to the preparation of new organic dyes. Although numerous strategies have been reported to access naphthalene scaffolds, many procedures still present limitations in terms of incorporating functionality, which in turn narrows the range of available substrates. The development of versatile methods for direct access to substituted naphthalenes is therefore highly desirable. The Diels-Alder (DA) cycloaddition reaction is a powerful and attractive method for the formation of saturated and unsaturated ring systems from readily available starting materials. A new microwave-assisted intramolecular dehydrogenative DA reaction of styrenyl derivatives described herein generates a variety of functionalized cyclopenta[b]naphthalenes that could not be prepared using existing synthetic methods. When compared to conventional heating, microwave irradiation accelerates reaction rates, enhances yields, and limits the formation of undesired byproducts. The utility of this protocol is further demonstrated by the conversion of a DA cycloadduct into a novel solvatochromic fluorescent dye via a Buchwald-Hartwig palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction. Fluorescence spectroscopy, as an informative and sensitive analytical technique, plays a key role in research fields including environmental science, medicine, pharmacology, and cellular biology. Access to a variety of new organic fluorophores provided by the microwave-assisted dehydrogenative DA reaction allows for further advancement in these fields. PMID:23609566

  8. Synthesis of peptide thioesters via an N-S acyl shift reaction under mild acidic conditions on an N-4,5-dimethoxy-2-mercaptobenzyl auxiliary group.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Ken'ichiroh; Kanao, Tomoki; Uesugi, Tomoya; Hara, Toshiaki; Sato, Takeshi; Kawakami, Toru; Aimoto, Saburo

    2009-11-01

    An efficient method of peptide thioester synthesis is described. The reaction is based on an N-4,5-dimethoxy-2-mercaptobenzyl (Dmmb) auxiliary-assisted N-S acyl shift reaction after assembling a peptide chain by Fmoc-solid phase peptide synthesis. The Dmmb-assisted N-S acyl shift reaction proceeded efficiently under mildly acidic conditions, and the peptide thioester was obtained by treating the resulting S-peptide with sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate. No detectable epimerization of the amino acid residue adjacent to the thioester moiety in the case of Leu was found. The reactions were also amenable to the on-resin preparation of peptide thioesters. The utility was demonstrated by the synthesis of a 41-mer peptide thioester, a phosphorylated peptide thioester and a 33-mer peptide thioester containing a trimethylated lysine residue. PMID:19735084

  9. Synthesis of diverse indole libraries on polystyrene resin – Scope and limitations of an organometallic reaction on solid supports

    PubMed Central

    Knepper, Kerstin; Vanderheiden, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Summary The synthesis of diverse substituted indole structures on solid supports is described. The immobilization of nitrobenzoic acid onto Merrifield resin and the subsequent treatment with alkenyl Grignard reagents delivered indole carboxylates bound to solid supports. In contrast to results in the liquid phase, ortho,ortho-unsubstituted nitroarenes also delivered indole moieties in good yields. Subsequent palladium-catalyzed reactions (Suzuki, Heck, Sonogashira, Stille) delivered, after cleavage, the desired molecules in moderate to good yields over four steps. The scope and limitations are presented. PMID:23019447

  10. In situ measurement of activation energy for pyrolysis of ethanol as a first reaction in the synthesis of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohga, Yosuke; Inoue, Shuhei; Matsumura, Yukihiko

    2015-10-01

    Using a quadrupole mass spectrometer we measured the activation energy of ethanol decomposition with various catalysts. In order to quantitatively evaluate the catalysts we subtracted their effect from that of the catalyst-free pyrolysis. As a result we derived the activation energies using iron, cobalt, nickel, and molybdenum catalysts. These metals are typical catalysts in carbon nanotube synthesis, with two of them usually mixed empirically. This empirical preparation and use of catalysts is consistent with our results. Among these catalysts, iron reduced the activation energy most. Conversely, cobalt achieved a reduction of only 0.3 eV compared to the catalyst-free reaction.

  11. Synthesis of pyrazole containing ?-amino acids via a highly regioselective condensation/aza-Michael reaction of ?-aryl ?,?-unsaturated ketones.

    PubMed

    Gilfillan, Lynne; Artschwager, Raik; Harkiss, Alexander H; Liskamp, Rob M J; Sutherland, Andrew

    2015-04-21

    A synthetic approach for the preparation of a new class of highly conjugated unnatural ?-amino acids bearing a 5-arylpyrazole side-chain has been developed. Horner-Wadsworth-Emmons reaction of an aspartic acid derived ?-keto phosphonate ester with a range of aromatic aldehydes gave ?-aryl ?,?-unsaturated ketones. Treatment of these with phenyl hydrazine followed by oxidation allowed the regioselective synthesis of pyrazole derived ?-amino acids. As well as evaluating the fluorescent properties of the ?-amino acids, their synthetic utility was also explored with the preparation of a sulfonyl fluoride derivative, a potential probe for serine proteases. PMID:25774874

  12. Core-structure-inspired asymmetric addition reactions: enantioselective synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents.

    PubMed

    Li, Shen; Ma, Jun-An

    2015-11-01

    Dihydrobenzoxazinones and dihydroquinazolinones are the core units present in many anti-HIV agents, such as Efavirenz, DPC 961, DPC 963, and DPC 083. All these molecules contain a trifluoromethyl moiety at the quaternary stereogenic carbon center with S configuration. The enantioselective addition of carbon nucleophiles to ketones or cyclic ketimines could serve as a key step to access these molecules. This tutorial review provides an overview of significant advances in the synthesis of dihydrobenzoxazinone- and dihydroquinazolinone-based anti-HIV agents and relative analogues, with an emphasis on asymmetric addition reactions for the establishment of the CF3-containing quaternary carbon centers. PMID:26177889

  13. Cu-catalyzed synthesis of diaryl thioethers and S-cycles by reaction of aryl iodides with carbon disulfide in the presence of DBU.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Yin, Hang; Gao, Hongxin; Xi, Chanjuan

    2013-05-17

    Diaryl thioethers and S-cycles were obtained on the basis of the copper-catalyzed reaction of carbon disulfide and aryl iodides in the presence of DBU. This reaction enables the one-pot synthesis of diaryl thioethers by employing cheap, available, and easy-to-handle carbon disulfide with aryl iodides. The reaction was successfully employed in the construction of sulfur-containing cyclic molecules. PMID:23611365

  14. Ultrasonics in isocyanide-based multicomponent reactions: a new, efficient and fast method for the synthesis of fully substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazole derivatives under ultrasound irradiation.

    PubMed

    Rouhani, Morteza; Ramazani, Ali; Joo, Sang Woo

    2015-01-01

    A fast and convenient approach to the synthesis of fully substituted 1,3,4-oxadiazoles via three-component reaction of aromatic carboxylic acids, acenaphthoquinone, and (N-isocyanimino)triphenylphosphorane under ultrasound irradiation is described. Furthermore, a series of compounds were synthesized and characterized by melting point, IR, NMR and MS. Utilization of easy reaction conditions, very high to excellent yields, and short reaction times makes this manipulation potentially very useful. PMID:25060117

  15. Povarov-type reaction using methyl as new input: direct synthesis of substituted quinolines by I2-mediated formal [3 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qinghe; Liu, Shan; Wu, Xia; Wu, Anxin

    2014-09-01

    A highly efficient molecular iodine mediated formal [3 + 2 + 1] cycloaddition reaction for the direct synthesis of substituted quinolines from methyl ketones, arylamines, and styrenes is developed. The methyl group of the methyl ketone represents uniquely reactive input in the Povarov reaction. A self-sequenced iodination/Kornblum oxidation/Povarov/aromatization mechanism has been proposed as a possible reaction sequence to account for the results observed in this study. PMID:25119142

  16. A novel oxy-oxonia(azonia)-cope reaction: serendipitous discovery and its application to the synthesis of macrocyclic musks.

    PubMed

    Zou, Yue; Zhou, Lijun; Ding, Changming; Wang, Quanrui; Kraft, Philip; Goeke, Andreas

    2014-10-01

    This brief review, including new experimental results, is the summary of a talk at the GDCh conference 'flavors & fragrances 2013' in Leipzig, Germany, 11th-13th September, 2013. Musk odorants are indispensable in perfumery to lend sensuality to fine fragrances, a nourishing effect to cosmetics, and a comforting feeling to laundry. We have recently found serendipitously a new oxy-oxonia-Cope rearrangement. In this account, we review the background of oxonia-sigmatropic rearrangements and the discovery of this novel reaction. Special attention is focused on the versatile lactone and lactam formation reactions via [n+4] ring enlargement and the macrocyclization in the synthesis of new macrocyclic musks. The synthesized structures provide new insights into the structure-odor relationships of musks. PMID:25329787

  17. Acid-Promoted Cyclization Reactions of Tetrahydroindolinones. Model Studies for Possible Application in a Synthesis of Selaginoidine

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Mickea D.; Cassidy, Michael P.; Rashatasakhon, Paitoon

    2008-01-01

    The synthesis of various substituted bicyclic lactams by an acid-induced Pictet-Spengler reaction of tetrahydroindolinones bearing tethered heteroaromatic rings is presented. The outcome of the cyclization depends on the position of the furan tether, tether length, nature of the tethered heteroaromatic ring and the substituent group present on the 5-position of the tethered heteroaryl group. A one-pot procedure was developed to efficiently prepare tetrahydroindolinones containing tethered furan rings. In a typical example, the reaction of furanyl azide 26 with n-Bu3P delivered iminophosphorane 27, which was allowed to react with a 1 -alkyl-(2-oxocyclohexyl)acetic acid to provide the desired furanyl substituted tetrahydroindolinone system 29. Treatment of 29 with trifluoroacetic acid afforded the tetracyclic lactam skeleton 30 found in the alkaloid ()-selaginoidine. PMID:17221972

  18. Ammonia production in nitrogen seeded plasma discharges in ASDEX Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, V.; Oberkofler, M.

    2015-08-01

    In present tokamaks nitrogen seeding is used to reduce the power load onto the divertor tiles. Some fraction of the seeded nitrogen reacts with hydrogen to form ammonia. The behaviour of ammonia in ASDEX Upgrade is studied by mass spectrometry. Injection without plasma shows strong absorption at the inner walls of the vessel and isotope exchange reactions. During nitrogen seeding in H-mode discharges the onset of a saturation of the nitrogen retention is observed. The residual gas consists of strongly deuterated methane and ammonia with almost equal amounts of deuterium and protium. This confirms the role of surface reactions in the ammonia formation. The results are consistent with findings in previous investigations. A numerical decomposition of mass spectra is under development and will be needed for quantitative evaluation of the results obtained.

  19. The Ammonia-Soda Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tingle, M.

    1979-01-01

    This article is a condensed version of a commentary written to accompany a set of slides which describes the ammonia-soda process used by the ammonia-soda plant at Northwich of the United Kingdom. (HM)

  20. Optimization of reaction parameters in hydrothermal synthesis: a strategy towards the formation of CuS hexagonal plates

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background For decades, copper sulphide has been renowned as the superior optical and semiconductor materials. Its potential applications can be ranged from solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, sensors, and catalyst systems. The synthesis methodologies of copper sulphide with different controlled morphology have been widely explored in the literature. Nevertheless, the understanding on the formation chemistry of CuS is still limited. The ultimate approach undertaking in this article is to investigate the formation of CuS hexagonal plates via the optimization of reaction parameters in hydrothermal reaction between copper (II) nitrate and sodium thiosulphate without appending any assistant agent. Results Covellite (CuS) hexagonal plates were formed at copper ion: thiosulphate ion (Cu2+:S2O32?) mole ratio of 1:2 under hydrothermal treatment of 155C for 12hours. For synthesis conducted at reaction temperature lower than 155C, copper sulphate (CuSO4), krohnite (NaCu2(SO4)(H2O)2] and cyclooctasulphur (S8) were present as main impurities with covellite (CuS). When Cu2+:S2O32? mole ratio was varied to 1: 1 and 1: 1.5, phase pure plate-like natrochalcite [NaCu2(SO4)(H2O)] and digenite (Cu9S5) were produced respectively. Meanwhile, mixed phases of covellite (CuS) and cyclooctasulphur (S8) were both identified when Cu2+:S2O32? mole ratio was varied to 1: 2.5, 1: 3 and 1: 5 as well as when reaction time was shortened to 1hour. Conclusions CuS hexagonal plates with a mean edge length of 1?m, thickness of 100nm and average crystallite size of approximately (45??2) nm (Scherrer estimation) were successfully synthesized via assisting agent- free hydrothermal method. Under a suitable Cu2+:S2O32? mole ratio, we evidenced that the formation of covellite (CuS) is feasible regardless of the reaction temperature applied. However, a series of impurities were attested with CuS if reaction temperature was not elevated high enough for the additional crystallite phase decomposition. It was also identified that Cu2+:S2O32? mole ratio plays a vital role in controlling the amount of cyclooctasulphur (S8) in the final powder obtained. Finally, reaction time was recognized as an important parameter in impurity decomposition as well as increasing the crystallite size and crystallinity of the CuS hexagonal plates formed. PMID:23575312

  1. Maximum production of fermentable sugars from barley straw using optimized soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) pretreatment was investigated to improve enzymatic digestibility and consequently to increase total fermentable sugar production from barley straw. Various effects of pretreatment process parameters, such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solid:liquid ratio, an...

  2. Optimization of dicarboxylic acid cellulose synthesis: reaction stoichiometry and role of hypochlorite scavengers.

    PubMed

    Sirvi, Juho Antti; Liimatainen, Henrikki; Visanko, Miikka; Niinimki, Jouko

    2014-12-19

    The reaction conditions in terms of reaction time, sodium chlorite stoichiometry, and the effect of hypochlorite scavengers on the chlorite oxidation of dialdehyde cellulose (DAC) was studied. The impact of storage on the reactivity of DAC fibers was also investigated. It was found that chlorite oxidation of DAC is a rapid reaction, resulting in oxidation of 71% of the aldehyde after only 8 min when 2.5 times excess of sodium chlorite compared to aldehyde groups was used. Reactivity of DAC was observed to decrease quickly during the storage and only 68% of the aldehyde groups reacted after two weeks storage compared to the reaction performed with freshly prepared DAC. Hydrogen peroxide and sulfamic acid were observed to increase the reaction efficiency of chlorite oxidation by reducing the amount of side-reactions between chlorite and hypochlorite. A minor amount of sulfamic acid can be used to replace acetic acid as a catalyst. PMID:25263866

  3. Computational Study of Field Initiated Surface Reactions for Synthesis of Diamond and Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musgrave, Charles Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This project involves using quantum chemistry to simulate surface chemical reactions in the presence of an electric field for nanofabrication of diamond and silicon. A field delivered by a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to a nanometer scale region of a surface affects chemical reaction potential energy surfaces (PES) to direct atomic scale surface modification to fabricate sub-nanometer structures. Our original hypothesis is that the applied voltage polarizes the charge distribution of the valence electrons and that these distorted molecular orbitals can be manipulated with the STM so as to change the relative stabilities of the electronic configurations over the reaction coordinates and thus the topology of the PES and reaction kinetics. Our objective is to investigate the effect of applied bias on surface reactions and the extent to which STM delivered fields can be used to direct surface chemical reactions on an atomic scale on diamond and silicon. To analyze the fundamentals of field induced chemistry and to investigate the application of this technique for the fabrication of nanostructures, we have employed methods capable of accurately describing molecular electronic structure. The methods we employ are density functional theory (DFT) quantum chemical (QC) methods. To determine the effect of applied bias on surface reactions we have calculated the QC PESs in various applied external fields for various reaction steps for depositing or etching diamond and silicon. We have chosen reactions which are thought to play a role in etching and the chemical vapor deposition growth of Si and diamond. The PESs of the elementary reaction steps involved are then calculated under the applied fields, which we vary in magnitude and configuration. We pay special attention to the change in the reaction barriers, and transition state locations, and search for low energy reaction channels which were inaccessible without the applied bias.

  4. Copper(I)-Catalyzed Interrupted Click Reaction: Synthesis of Diverse 5-Hetero-Functionalized Triazoles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiguo; Peng, Xianglong; Wei, Fang; Tung, Chen-Ho; Xu, Zhenghu

    2016-01-11

    The 5-heterofunctionalized triazoles are important scaffolds in bioactive compounds, but current click reactions (CuAAC) cannot produce these core structures. A copper(I)-catalyzed interrupted click reaction to access diverse 5-functionalized triazoles is reported. Various 5-amino-, thio-, and selenotriazoles were readily assembled in one step in high yields. The reaction proceeds under mild conditions with complete regioselectivity. It also features a broad substrate scope and good functional group compatibility. PMID:26610884

  5. Optical reaction cell and light source for [18F] fluoride radiotracer synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.; Becker, R.J.

    1998-09-15

    An apparatus is disclosed for performing organic synthetic reactions, particularly no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination reactions for PET radiotracer production. The apparatus includes an optical reaction cell and a source of broadband infrared radiant energy, which permits direct coupling of the emitted radiant energy with the reaction medium to heat the reaction medium. Preferably, the apparatus includes means for focusing the emitted radiant energy into the reaction cell, and the reaction cell itself is preferably configured to reflect transmitted radiant energy back into the reaction medium to further improve the efficiency of the apparatus. The apparatus is well suited to the production of high-yield syntheses of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-Dglucose. Also provided is a method for performing organic synthetic reactions, including the manufacture of [{sup 18}F]-labeled compounds useful as PET radiotracers, and particularly for the preparation of 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in higher yields than previously possible. 4 figs.

  6. Optical reaction cell and light source for ›18F! fluoride radiotracer synthesis

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A. (Patchogue, NY); Schlyer, David (Bellport, NY); Becker, Richard J. (Islip, NY)

    1998-09-15

    Apparatus for performing organic synthetic reactions, particularly no-carrier-added nucleophilic radiofluorination reactions for PET radiotracer production. The apparatus includes an optical reaction cell and a source of broadband infrared radiant energy, which permits direct coupling of the emitted radiant energy with the reaction medium to heat the reaction medium. Preferably, the apparatus includes means for focusing the emitted radiant energy into the reaction cell, and the reaction cell itself is preferably configured to reflect transmitted radiant energy back into the reaction medium to further improve the efficiency of the apparatus. The apparatus is well suited to the production of high-yield syntheses of 2-›.sup.18 F!fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose. Also provided is a method for performing organic synthetic reactions, including the manufacture of ›.sup.18 F!-labeled compounds useful as PET radiotracers, and particularly for the preparation of 2-›.sup.18 F!fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose in higher yields than previously possible.

  7. Application of carbon dioxide towards the development of smart materials, green reaction schemes and metallic nanoparticle synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, Fiaz S.

    Global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions have steadily risen over the last 50 years, with 34 billion tons of CO2 released in 2009 alone. Its potential as a greenhouse gas has negatively affected of our lives and environment by the resulting ocean acidification and climate change. To mitigate atmospheric CO2, various strategies have been implemented for CO2 separation, capture, storage and use as a chemical feedstock. The use of CO2 in various chemical industries is attractive as its non-flammable, non-toxic, and relatively inert properties have made it an inherently safer alternative to traditional organic solvents, as well as, a greener carbon feedstock. Also, the accessible critical properties, appreciable critical density, high diffusivity and tunable thermophysical properties make liquid and supercritical CO2 an attractive solvent for industrial applications. In recent years, significant progress has been made in the field of tunable solvent media by employing the reversible reaction of CO2 with amines to produce carbamates. This class of compounds possesses ionic properties that are significantly different from their amines resulting in a non-ionic to ionic switching mechanism that provides for switchable solvent properties, reversible surfactants, low molecular weight organogelators and stimuli responsive materials. The focus of this dissertation is therefore the implementation of the reversible CO2amine reaction for the formation of smart surfaces, greener amine protection mechanisms, and cationic metallic nanoparticle synthesis. Chapter 2 of this dissertation demonstrates the reversible reaction of CO2 with amine-containing self-assembled monolayers to yield "smart" surfaces that undergo a reversible change in structure, charge, and wettability upon reaction with CO2. The formation carbamate esters are also a widely implemented mechanism for amine protection during organic synthesis. However, traditional methods of protection incur increased solvent use and energy consumption due to a separate deprotection reaction. To solve this dilemma, the reversible protection of amines using CO2 induced carbamates was demonstrated in chapter 3; by reducing n-alkyl benzophenone imine and n-phenyl, nalkylurea yields by up to 67% compared to non-protected amines. The applicability of this chemistry to these classes of nucleophilic substitution reactions and has significant potential to alter the way we approach amine protection in organic synthesis. Another research area that has grown popularity over the last decade is the development of metallic nanoparticles, specifically gold nanoparticles (GNPs), due to their size and shape dependent optical and catalytic properties. Chapter 4 of this dissertation demonstrates the successful application of polyethylene imine (PEI) in the synthesis of cationic GNPs, which are of significant interest for biomedical applications. In this work, we investigated the effect of pH, PEI concentration and reduction method on the size and stability of amine-stabilized gold and silver nanoparticles. Furthermore the potential of carbon dioxide as a stabilizing aid through reversible carbamate formation was explored, leading to a decrease in particle size at ambient temperature along with an increase in stability. In summary, this work has demonstrated the great potential of employing the reversible reaction of carbon dioxide with primary and secondary amines as an effective and greener alternative to conventional methods in a diversity of fields that include "smart" materials, organic chemistry, and functional nanomaterials.

  8. Overcoming Strain-Induced Rearrangement Reactions: A Mild Dehydrative Aromatization Protocol for Synthesis of Highly Distorted p-Phenylenes.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Nirmal K; Meudom, Rolande; Corzo, Hector H; Gorden, John D; Merner, Bradley L

    2016-03-01

    A series of p-terphenyl-based macrocycles, containing highly distorted p-phenylene units, have been synthesized. Biaryl bonds of the nonplanar p-terphenyl nuclei were constructed in the absence of Pd-catalyzed or Ni-mediated cross-coupling reactions, using 1,4-diketones as surrogates to strained arene units. A streamlined synthetic protocol for the synthesis of 1,4-diketo macrocycles has been developed, using only 2.5 mol % of the Hoveyda-Grubbs second-generation catalyst in both metathesis and transfer hydrogenation reactions. Under protic acid-mediated dehydrative aromatization conditions, the central and most strained benzene ring of the p-terphenyl systems was susceptible to rearrangement reactions. To overcome this, a dehydrative aromatization protocol using the Burgess reagent was developed. Under these conditions, no strain-induced rearrangement reactions occur, delivering p-phenylene units with up to 28.4 kcal/mol strain energy and deformation angles that sum up to 40°. PMID:26866502

  9. Domino Michael-Michael and Aldol-Aldol Reactions: Diastereoselective Synthesis of Functionalized Cyclohexanone Derivatives Containing Quaternary Carbon Center.

    PubMed

    Ghorai, Manas K; Halder, Sandipan; Das, Subhomoy

    2015-10-01

    A simple strategy for the synthesis of highly functionalized cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center from ?-(aryl/alkyl)methylidene-?-keto esters or ?-diketones via a K-enolate mediated domino Michael-Michael reaction sequence with moderate to good yield and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%) is described. Interestingly, Li-base mediated reaction of ?-arylmethylidene-?-diketones affords functionalized 3,5-dihydroxy cyclohexane derivatives as the kinetically controlled products via a domino aldol-aldol reaction sequence with excellent diastereoselectivity. Li-enolates of the ?-keto esters or ?-diketones undergo facile domino Michael-Michael reaction with nitro-olefins to afford the corresponding nitrocyclohexane derivatives in good yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (de > 99%). The formation of the products and the observed stereoselectivity were explained by plausible mechanisms and supported by extensive computational study. An asymmetric version of the protocol was explored with (L)-menthol derived nonracemic substrates, and the corresponding nonracemic cyclohexanone derivatives containing an all-carbon quaternary center were obtained with excellent stereoselectivity (de, ee > 99%). PMID:26334184

  10. Synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated esters via a chemo-enzymatic chain elongation approach by combining carboxylic acid reduction and Wittig reaction

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Yitao; Yao, Peiyuan; Du, Yuncheng; Feng, Jinhui

    2015-01-01

    Summary ?,?-Unsaturated esters are versatile building blocks for organic synthesis and of significant importance for industrial applications. A great variety of synthetic methods have been developed, and quite a number of them use aldehydes as precursors. Herein we report a chemo-enzymatic chain elongation approach to access ?,?-unsaturated esters by combining an enzymatic carboxylic acid reduction and Wittig reaction. Recently, we have found that Mycobacterium sp. was able to reduce phenylacetic acid (1a) to 2-phenyl-1-ethanol (1c) and two sequences in the Mycobacterium sp. genome had high identity with the carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) gene from Nocardia iowensis. These two putative CAR genes were cloned, overexpressed in E. coli and one of two proteins could reduce 1a. The recombinant CAR was purified and characterized. The enzyme exhibited high activity toward a variety of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids, including ibuprofen. The Mycobacterium CAR catalyzed carboxylic acid reduction to give aldehydes, followed by a Wittig reaction to afford the products ?,?-unsaturated esters with extension of two carbon atoms, demonstrating a new chemo-enzymatic method for the synthesis of these important compounds. PMID:26664647

  11. Synthesis of ?,?-unsaturated esters via a chemo-enzymatic chain elongation approach by combining carboxylic acid reduction and Wittig reaction.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yitao; Yao, Peiyuan; Du, Yuncheng; Feng, Jinhui; Wu, Qiaqing; Zhu, Dunming

    2015-01-01

    ?,?-Unsaturated esters are versatile building blocks for organic synthesis and of significant importance for industrial applications. A great variety of synthetic methods have been developed, and quite a number of them use aldehydes as precursors. Herein we report a chemo-enzymatic chain elongation approach to access ?,?-unsaturated esters by combining an enzymatic carboxylic acid reduction and Wittig reaction. Recently, we have found that Mycobacterium sp. was able to reduce phenylacetic acid (1a) to 2-phenyl-1-ethanol (1c) and two sequences in the Mycobacterium sp. genome had high identity with the carboxylic acid reductase (CAR) gene from Nocardia iowensis. These two putative CAR genes were cloned, overexpressed in E. coli and one of two proteins could reduce 1a. The recombinant CAR was purified and characterized. The enzyme exhibited high activity toward a variety of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids, including ibuprofen. The Mycobacterium CAR catalyzed carboxylic acid reduction to give aldehydes, followed by a Wittig reaction to afford the products ?,?-unsaturated esters with extension of two carbon atoms, demonstrating a new chemo-enzymatic method for the synthesis of these important compounds. PMID:26664647

  12. Interactive oxidation-reduction reaction for the in situ synthesis of graphene-phenol formaldehyde composites with enhanced properties.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiaojia; Li, Yang; Wang, Jinhui; Ouyang, Zhaofei; Li, Jingfeng; Wei, Gang; Su, Zhiqiang

    2014-03-26

    We report a facile in situ synthesis of reduced graphene oxide (RGO)-phenol formaldehyde (PF) composites with an interactive oxidation-reduction reaction. In this interactive chemical reaction, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced to RGO by phenol, and simultaneously phenol was oxidized to benzoquinone. The noncovalently adsorbed phenol on the RGO surface can not only serve as an effective reductant but also participate in the in situ polymerization and guide the formation of PF on the RGO surface. RGO-PF composites with different RGO contents were prepared successfully and further characterized with fluorescent spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The mechanical strength, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, and thermal resistance of the created RGO-PF were investigated. The results indicated that the dispersity of RGO in the PF matrix and the interfacial interaction between RGO and PF were improved greatly because of formation of the RGO-PF hybrid in the in situ synthesis. The homogeneous dispersion and in situ polymerization of RGO sheets help to enhance the thermal conductivity of RGO-PF composites from 0.1477 to 0.3769 W m(-1) K(-1) and endow the composites with a good electrical conductivity. In addition, the well-dispersed RGO-PF composites are much more effective in improving their mechanical property and heat resistance. PMID:24588055

  13. California's ammonia emissions have been drastically underestimated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-08-01

    In California, Los Angeles and the Central Valley often have atmospheric concentrations of particulate matter that exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's health guidelines. In the air, chemical reactions between ammonia, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur oxides can create inorganic aerosols like ammonium nitrate and ammonium sulfate. With their small particle sizes, these compounds can be dangerous to breathe, particularly for those with respiratory problems.

  14. Phase- and shape-controlled synthesis of cadmium hydroxyl chloride microstructures via an ammonia-assisted conversion of 1D CdQCl (Q=quinoline) complex microwires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xin; Ni, Yonghong; Hong, Jianming

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we reported a NH3H2O-assisted solvothermal route for successful synthesis of cadmium hydroxyl chlorides (Cdx(OH)yClz) microstructures with different phases and shapes, employing 1D CdQCl (Q=quinoline) complex microwires as the precursor. Experiments contained two processes: firstly, CdQCl complex microwires with 500-600 nm in diameter and several hundreds of micrometers in length were prepared by the complexation between CdCl22.5H2O and quinoline at room temperature; then, CdQCl microwires were solvothermally treated at 150 C for 10 h in the presences of different amounts of NH3H2O to produce Cdx(OH)yClz microstructures with various phases and shapes. The as-obtained precursor and Cdx(OH)yClz microstructures were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Infrared spectrometry and X-ray powder diffraction. Experiments showed that hexagonal Cd(OH)Cl was obtained from water-methanol system, while rhombohedral Cd4(OH)5Cl3 from methanol system. Also, it was found that the shapes of Cdx(OH)yClz could be tuned by the amounts of NH3H2O. Furthermore, the UV diffuse reflection and photoluminescence spectra of the precursor and Cdx(OH)yClz were also investigated.

  15. Ammonia Can Crush

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitz, Ed

    1999-07-01

    When a 12-oz aluminum soft drink can filled with ammonia or hydrogen chloride gas is inverted and dipped into water, the rapidly dissolving gas evacuates the can and the can is crushed before water can be drawn into it. This demonstrates, among other things, the remarkable strength of hydrogen bonds.

  16. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of 5-Phenyl-2-Hydroxyacetophenone Derivatives by a Green Suzuki Coupling Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Pedro; Fernandes, Carlos; Chavarria, Daniel; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of boron-containing reagents in palladium-assisted C-C coupling reactions (the Suzuki reaction) has gained prominence due to the vast array of reagents commercially available. Consequently, the generation of carbon-carbon bonds, namely of functionalized biphenyl systems, is at present considered the backbone of organic…

  17. Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of 5-Phenyl-2-Hydroxyacetophenone Derivatives by a Green Suzuki Coupling Reaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soares, Pedro; Fernandes, Carlos; Chavarria, Daniel; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the use of boron-containing reagents in palladium-assisted C-C coupling reactions (the Suzuki reaction) has gained prominence due to the vast array of reagents commercially available. Consequently, the generation of carbon-carbon bonds, namely of functionalized biphenyl systems, is at present considered the backbone of organic

  18. Synthesis of cyclopropyl-substituted furans by brnsted Acid promoted cascade reactions.

    PubMed

    Clark, J Stephen; Romiti, Filippo; Hogg, Kirsten F; Hamid, Malai Haniti S A; Richter, Sven C; Boyer, Alistair; Redman, Joanna C; Farrugia, Louis J

    2015-05-01

    Chloroacetic acid promotes an efficient and diastereoselective intramolecular cascade reaction of electron-deficient ynenones to deliver products featuring a 2,3,5-trisubstituted furan bearing a fused cyclopropyl substituent at the 5-position. Synthetically relevant polycyclic building blocks featuring rings of various sizes and heteroatoms have been synthesized in high yield using this mild acid-catalyzed reaction. PMID:25782604

  19. Zebra reaction or the recipe for the synthesis of heterodimeric zinc complexes.

    PubMed

    Jędrzkiewicz, D; Ejfler, J; John, Ł; Szafert, S

    2016-02-21

    A series of asymmetric heterodimeric zinc complexes have been synthesized in a direct reaction between conformationally flexible chiral/achiral homodimers. The cooperative activity of steric factors and coordination codes resulted in an intriguing chiral self-sorting process. Herein, we are reporting our recent exploration of the first example of such a type of reaction. PMID:26658768

  20. Synthesis of a Fluorescent Acridone Using a Grignard Addition, Oxidation, and Nucleophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Samuel; Patel, Miloni; Woydziak, Zachary R.

    2015-01-01

    A three-pot synthesis oriented for an undergraduate organic chemistry laboratory was developed to construct a fluorescent acridone molecule. This laboratory experiment utilizes Grignard addition to an aldehyde, alcohol oxidation, and iterative nucleophilic aromatic substitution steps to produce the final product. Each of the intermediates and the…