Sample records for ammonium bicarbonate buffer

  1. Mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate and ammonium sulfate inhibit mycotoxigenic fungi.

    PubMed Central

    DePasquale, D A; Montville, T J

    1990-01-01

    In this study we examined the mechanism by which ammonium bicarbonate inhibits mycotoxigenic fungi. Elevated extracellular pH, alone, was not responsible for the antifungal activity. Although conidia of Penicillium griseofulvum and Fusarium graminearum had internal pH (pHi) values as high as 8.0 in buffer at an external pH (pHo) of 9.5, their viability was not markedly affected. The pHi values from conidia equilibrated in glycine-NaOH-buffered treatments without ammonium bicarbonate or ammonium sulfate were similar to values obtained from buffered treatments containing the ammonium salts. Thus, inhibition did not appear to be directly related to increased pHi. Ammonium sulfate in buffered media at pH greater than or equal to 8.7 was as inhibitory as ammonium bicarbonate, but was completely ineffective at pH less than or equal to 7.8. The hypothesis that free ammonia caused the fungal inhibition was tested by using ammonium sulfate as a model for ammonium bicarbonate. Viability, expressed as log CFU/ml, and percent germination of P. griseofulvum and F. graminearum decreased dramatically as the free ammonia concentration increased. Germination rate ratios (the germination rate in buffered ammonium sulfate divided by the germination rate in buffer alone) decreased linearly as the free ammonia concentration increased, further establishing NH3 as the toxic agent. Ammonium bicarbonate inhibits fungi because the bicarbonate anion supplies the alkalinity necessary to establish an antifungal concentration of free ammonia. PMID:2082821

  2. Supporting Information for: Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    E-print Network

    S1 Supporting Information for: Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes was measured by first equilibrating the polymer film in the desired solution [e.g., DI water, 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride (NaCl), or 0.5 mol/L ammonium bicarbonate (AmB)]. Films were allowed to equilibrate

  3. Physical exercise after induced alkalosis (bicarbonate or Tris-buffer)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Kindermann; J. Keul; G. Huber

    1977-01-01

    Summary  The influence of bicarbonate and Tris-buffer infusions on the performance capacity for maximal, brief exercise (400 m run) was studied using 10 normal males in their twenties. Run time, maximal lactate concentration and heart rate remained unchanged after the buffer infusions. As a result of the induced elevated buffering capacity, the average pH after exercise was about 0.1 unit higher.

  4. Bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improve ex vivo peritoneal macrophage TNFalpha secretion.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R K; Holmes, C J; Moseley, A; Jenkins, J P; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Faict, D; Topley, N

    1998-08-01

    Peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function was examined ex vivo after their in vivo exposure to either acidic, lactate-buffered solutions (PD4; 40 mM lactate, pH 5.2), bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution (TBL; 25 mM/15 mM bicarbonate/lactate, pH 7.3), or bicarbonate-buffered solution (TB; 38 mM bicarbonate, pH 7.3), containing either 1.36 or 3.86% glucose. Initial experiments demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) release (assessed by TNF-direct immunoassay [DIA]) from PMO isolated from the peritoneal cavities of patients exposed to conventional fluid (PD4 1.36% glucose) was lowest after 30 min of intraperitoneal dwell (3591+/-1200 versus 28,946+/-9359 for 240-min dwell [pg/ml], n=5, P < 0.05). Five patients were exposed on 3 successive days to PD4, TBL, and TB for 30-min acute dwells containing 1.36% glucose in the first week and 3.86% glucose during the second. PMO TNFalpha release was assessed after ex vitro exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Exposure of PMO to TBL or TB (1.36% glucose) resulted in a significant increase in the generation of TNFalpha (pg/2 X 10(6) PMO) compared with PD4. TBL: 68,659+/-35,633, TB: 53,682+/-26,536 versus PD4 17,107+/-8996 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043 versus PD4 for both). PMO that were recovered from PD4 and TB dwells (3.86% glucose) showed no significant difference in TNFalpha secretion (21,661+/-6934 and 23,923+/-9147, respectively). In contrast, exposure to TBL resulted in a significant increase (41,846+/-11,471) compared with PD4 (LPS 1.0 ng/ml, n=5 patients, P=0.043). These data demonstrate enhanced PMO function after in vivo exposure to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solutions. This response was sustained in TBL alone at the highest glucose concentrations. These results suggest that the newer solutions, and particularly bicarbonate/lactate, might improve host defense status in peritoneal dialysis patients. PMID:9697673

  5. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    E-print Network

    Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy Geoffrey M 16802, United States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Many salinity gradient energy technologies recovery using AmB thermolytic solutions in RED. Recent interest in salinity gradient energy technologies

  6. In vivo exposure to bicarbonate/lactate- and bicarbonate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids improves ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Mackenzie, R K; Jones, S; Moseley, A; Holmes, C J; Argyle, R; Williams, J D; Coles, G A; Pu, K; Faict, D; Topley, N

    2000-01-01

    The impact on peritoneal macrophage (PMO) function of acidic lactate-buffered (Lac-PDF [PD4]; 40 mmol/L of lactate; pH 5.2) and neutral-pH, bicarbonate-buffered (TB; 38 mmol/L of bicarbonate; pH 7. 3) and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered (TBL; 25 mmol/L of bicarbonate/15 mmol/L of lactate; pH 7.3) peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) was compared during a study of continuous therapy with PD4, TB, or TBL. During a run-in phase of 6 weeks when all patients (n = 15) were treated with their regular dialysis regimen with Lac-PDF, median PMO tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) release values were 203.6, 89.9, and 115.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the patients subsequently randomized to the PD4, TB, and TBL treatment groups, respectively. Median stimulated TNFalpha values (serum-treated zymosan [STZ], 10 microgram/mL) were 1,894.6, 567.3, and 554.5 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. During the trial phase of 12 weeks, when the three groups of patients (n = 5 per group) were randomized to continuous treatment with PD4, TB, or TBL, median constitutive TNFalpha release values were 204.7, 131.4, and 155.4 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO, respectively. Stimulated TNFalpha values (STZ, 10 microgram/mL) were 1,911, 1,832, and 1,378 pg TNFalpha/10(6) PMO in the same groups, respectively. Repeated-measures analysis of variance comparing the run-in phase with the trial phase showed that PMO TNFalpha release was significantly elevated in patients treated with both TB (P = 0.040) and TBL (P = 0.014) but not in patients treated with Lac-PDF (P = 0. 795). These data suggest that patients continuously exposed to bicarbonate- and bicarbonate/lactate-buffered PDFs might have better preserved PMO function and thus improved host defense status. PMID:10620552

  7. High effective cytosolic H(+) buffering in mouse cortical astrocytes attributable to fast bicarbonate transport.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-09-01

    Cytosolic H(+) buffering plays a major role for shaping intracellular H(+) shifts and hence for the availability of H(+) for biochemical reactions and acid/base-coupled transport processes. H(+) buffering is one of the prime means to protect the cell from large acid/base shifts. We have used the H(+) indicator dye BCECF and confocal microscopy to monitor the cytosolic H(+) concentration, [H(+) ]i , in cultured cortical astrocytes of wild-type mice and of mice deficient in sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (NBCe1-KO) or in carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII-KO). The steady-state buffer strength was calculated from the amplitude of [H(+) ]i transients as evoked by CO2 /HCO3 (-) and by butyric acid in the presence and absence of CO2 /HCO3 (-) . We tested the hypotheses if, in addition to instantaneous physicochemical H(+) buffering, rapid acid/base transport across the cell membrane contributes to the total, "effective" cytosolic H(+) buffering. In the presence of 5% CO2 /26 mM HCO3 (-) , H(+) buffer strength in astrocytes was increased 4-6 fold, as compared with that in non-bicarbonate, HEPES-buffered solution, which was largely attributable to fast HCO3 (-) transport into the cells via NBCe1, supported by CAII activity. Our results show that within the time frame of determining physiological H(+) buffering in cells, fast transport and equilibration of CO2 /H(+) /HCO3 (-) can make a major contribution to the total "effective" H(+) buffer strength. Thus, "effective" cellular H(+) buffering is, to a large extent, attributable to membrane transport of base equivalents rather than a purely passive physicochemical process, and can be much larger than reported so far. Not only physicochemical H(+) buffering, but also rapid import of HCO3 (-) via the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1, supported by carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), was identified to enhance cytosolic H(+) buffer strength substantially. GLIA 2015;63:1581-1594. PMID:25820238

  8. Sodium bicarbonate and Alkaten as buffers in beef cattle diets 

    E-print Network

    Boerner, Benedict Joseph

    1985-01-01

    to decrease levels below control values while 3. 0% NaHCO 3 increased acetate. Propionate and butyr ate were similar across treaments. In contrast, decreased total VFA concentration was measured by Emmanuel et al. ( 1970). Although no individual acid...:50 ( cracked corn concentrate: roughage ) with no buffer, 2 ) 90: 10 with no buffer, 3) 50:50 with 1% 5, 4) 90: 10 with 1% 5, 5) 50:50 with 1% A and 6) 90: 10 with 1% A. In the feeding trial, 48 Hereford X Angus steers were fed diets 2, 4 and 6. Propionate...

  9. EFFECTS OF LIMESTONE AND SODIUM BICARBONATE BUFFERS ON RUMEN MEASUREMENTS AND RATE OF PASSAGE IN CATTLE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. L. Haaland; H. F. Tyrrell

    Summary Eight rumen-fistulated cattle (four Angus steers and four nonlactating Holstein cows) were fed a cracked corn-based concentrate (65% of dry matter) and corn silage (35% of dry matter) diet containing: (1) no buffer, (2) 2.5% limestone, (3) 2% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or (4) 1.25% limestone and 1.25% NaHCO3. Each diet was fed at approximately maintenance and-two times maintenance levels

  10. Effects of various sodium bicarbonate loading protocols on the time-dependent extracellular buffering profile.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Midgley, Adrian W; Polman, Remco C J; Lever, Robert

    2010-09-01

    Although much research has investigated the types of exercise that are enhanced with sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion, to date, there has been limited research on the dosage and timing of ingestion that optimizes the associated ergogenic effects. This study investigated the effects of various NaHCO3 loading protocols on the time-dependent blood-buffering profile. Eight male volunteers (age, 22.4 +/- 5.7 yr; height, 179.8 +/- 9.6 cm, body mass, 76.3 +/- 14.1 kg) completed Part A, measures of alkalosis throughout 120 minutes after ingestion of various single NaHCO3 dosages (0.3 gxkg-1, 0.2 gxkg-1, 0.1 gxkg-1, and placebo); and Part B, similar profiles after alternative NaHCO3 loading protocols (single morning dosage [SMD], single evening dosage [SED], and dosages ingested on 3 consecutive evenings [CED]). Results from Part A are as follows. Blood buffering in the 0.1 gxkg-1 condition was significantly lower than the 0.2 g.kg-1 and 0.3 gxkg-1 conditions (p < 0.002), but there was no significant differences between the 0.2 gxkg -1and 0.3 g.kg-1 conditions (p = 0.34). Although the blood buffering was relatively constant in the 0.1 and 0.2 conditions, it was significantly higher at 60 minutes than at 100 minutes and 120 minutes in the 0.3 gxkg-1 condition (p < 0.05). Results from Part B are as follows. Blood buffering for SMD was significantly higher than for SED and CED (p < 0.05). Blood buffering in the SMD condition was significantly lower at 17:00 hours than at 11:00 hours (p = 0.007). The single 0.2 and 0.3 gxkg-1 NaHCO3 dosages appeared to be the most effective for increasing blood-buffering capacity. The 0.2 gxkg-1 dosage is best ingested 40 to 50 minutes before exercise and the 0.3 gxkg-1 dosage 60 minutes before exercise. PMID:20040895

  11. Determination of the rate constants for the carbon dioxide to bicarbonate inter-conversion in pH-buffered seawater systems

    E-print Network

    Zeebe, Richard E.

    Determination of the rate constants for the carbon dioxide to bicarbonate inter-conversion in pH-buffered seawater systems K.G. Schulz a,*, U. Riebesell a , B. Rost b , S. Thoms b , R.E. Zeebe c a Leibniz of carbon dioxide (CO2) to bicarbonate (HCO3 Ŕ ) in seawater. Because in such experiments a constant p

  12. In vitro effects of bicarbonate and bicarbonate-lactate buffered peritoneal dialysis solutions on mesothelial and neutrophil function.

    PubMed

    Topley, N; Kaur, D; Petersen, M M; Jörres, A; Williams, J D; Faict, D; Holmes, C J

    1996-02-01

    The inclusion of bicarbonate in the formulation of peritoneal dialysis solutions may avoid the in vitro impairment of certain cell functions seen with acidic lactate-based fluids. The supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 inherent in such formulations may, however, not be biocompatible. This study compared the in vitro biocompatibility of a pH 5.2 lactate-based formulation with formulations containing either 40 mM lactate at pH 7.4, 38 mM HCO3- at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 240 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 60 mm Hg), and 25 mM HCO3- plus 15 mM lactate at pH 6.8 (PCO2 at approximately 160 mm Hg) or 7.4 (PCO2 at approximately 40 mm Hg). Significant release of lactate dehydrogenase or decreases in ATP content by human peritoneal mesothelial cells (HPMC) and human peripheral polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) after a 30-min exposure to each test solution was only seen with the pH 5.2 lactate-based fluid. The ATP content of HPMC exposed to this fluid returned to control levels after 30 min of recovery in M199 control medium but showed a trend toward decreasing ATP content at 240 min. Similarly, interleukin (IL)-1 beta-induced IL-6 synthesis by HPMC was also only significantly reduced by the pH 5.2 lactate solution. PMN chemiluminescence was unaffected by 30-min exposure to all test solutions except for the pH 5.2 lactate formulation. Staphylococcus epidermidis phagocytosis was reduced to between 46 to 57% of control with all test solutions except the pH 5.2 lactate solution, which further suppressed the chemiluminescence response to 17% of control. These data suggest that short exposure to supranormal physiological levels of HCO3- and PCO2 does not impair HPMC or PMN viability and function. Furthermore, neutral pH lactate-containing solutions show equivalent biocompatibility to bicarbonate-based ones. PMID:8785390

  13. Evolution of a physiological pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer system: application to the dissolution testing of enteric coated products.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Merchant, Hamid A; Kulkarni, Rucha P; Alkademi, Maram; Basit, Abdul W

    2011-05-01

    The use of compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer to assess dissolution of enteric coated products gives rise to poor in vitro-in vivo correlations because of the inadequacy of the buffer to resemble small intestinal fluids. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer, was developed to evaluate the dissolution behaviour of enteric coatings. The bicarbonate system was evolved from pH7.4 Hanks balanced salt solution to produce a pH 6.8 bicarbonate buffer (modified Hanks buffer, mHanks), which resembles the ionic composition and buffer capacity of intestinal milieu. Prednisolone tablets were coated with a range of enteric polymers: hypromellose phthalate (HP-50 and HP-55), cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP), hypromellose acetate succinate (HPMCAS-LF and HPMCAS-MF), methacrylic acid copolymers (EUDRAGIT® L100-55, EUDRAGIT® L30D-55 and EUDRAGIT® L100) and polyvinyl acetate phthalate (PVAP). Dissolution of coated tablets was carried out using USP-II apparatus in 0.1M HCl for 2h followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer. In pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, the various enteric polymer coated products displayed rapid and comparable dissolution profiles. In pH 6.8 mHanks buffer, drug release was delayed and marked differences were observed between the various coated tablets, which is comparable to the delayed disintegration times reported in the literature for enteric coated products in the human small intestine. In summary, the use of pH 6.8 physiological bicarbonate buffer (mHanks) provides more realistic and discriminative in vitro release assessment of enteric coated formulations compared to compendial phosphate buffer. PMID:21255647

  14. An in vivo microperfusion study of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption in normal and ammonium chloride rats.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, D Z

    1985-01-01

    For many years it has been thought that distal nephron hydrogen ion secretion can be importantly modulated by factors such as sodium delivery, sodium avidity, and potassium stores. Free flow micropuncture studies have also indicated that the rate of bicarbonate delivery may also alter the rate of bicarbonate reabsorption. The present studies were undertaken to examine possible luminal influences on total CO2 reabsorption in microperfused distal tubules in the rat in vivo. Tubules from normal and acidotic rats were perfused with five solutions in a manner that induced changes in bicarbonate load, sodium and potassium fluxes (JNa, JK), and luminal sulfate concentration. in each collected perfusate, simultaneous analyses were undertaken to determine water reabsorption, Na, and K concentrations using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and total CO2 by microcalorimetry. Using factorial analysis of covariance to account for confounding effects on total CO2 flux (JtCO2) such as water reabsorption, distal tubules of acidotic rats reabsorbed CO2 in the range of 50-112 pmol X min-1 X mm-1 X These JtCO2 values were not significantly correlated with HCO3 load, JNa, or JK despite changes in the latter from net reabsorption to net secretion. Distal tubules of rats with normal acid-base status had JtCO2 values which were neither significantly different from zero nor correlated with changes in JK and JNa. Further, doubling the load from 250-500 pmol/min (by doubling the perfusion rate of 25-mM HCO3 solutions) did not stimulate JtCO2 in these normal animals. Accordingly, these acute in vivo microperfusion studies indicate for the first time that neither load nor potassium or sodium fluxes are important modulators of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption. PMID:2982915

  15. Antennal and behavioral responses to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate in the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a 2-component lure that emits ammonia and putrescine, both regarded as protein cues. This study used electroantennography and flight tunnel bioassays to quantify olfactory and behavioral responses of A. suspensa to vapors from ammonium bicar...

  16. Inhibition of Protein Carbamylation in Urea Solution Using Ammonium Containing Buffers

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shisheng; Zhou, Jian-Ying; Yang, Weiming; Zhang, Hui

    2013-01-01

    Urea solution is one of the most commonly employed protein denaturants for protease digestion in proteomic studies. However, it has long been recognized that urea solution can cause carbamylation at the N-termini of proteins/peptides and at the side chain amino groups of lysine and arginine residues. Protein/peptide carbamylation blocks protease digestion and affects protein identification and quantification in mass spectrometry analysis by blocking peptide amino groups from isotopic/isobaric labeling and changing peptide charge states, retention times and masses. In addition, protein carbamylation during sample preparation makes it difficult to study in vivo protein carbamylation. In this study, we compared the peptide carbamylation in urea solutions of different buffers and found that ammonium containing buffers were the most effective buffers to inhibit protein carbamylation in urea solution. The possible mechanism of carbamylation inhibition by ammonium containing buffers is discussed, and a revised procedure for the protease digestion of proteins in urea and ammonium containing buffers was developed to facilitate its application in proteomic research. PMID:24161613

  17. Better preservation of peritoneal morphologic features and defense in rats after long-term exposure to a bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution.

    PubMed

    Hekking, L H; Zareie, M; Driesprong, B A; Faict, D; Welten, A G; de Greeuw, I; Schadee-Eestermans, I L; Havenith, C E; van den Born, J; ter Wee, P M; Beelen, R H

    2001-12-01

    The long-term effects of a standard lactate-buffered dialysis fluid and a new, two-chamber, bicarbonate/lactate-buffered dialysis fluid (with fewer glucose degradation products and a neutral pH) were compared in an in vivo peritoneal exposure model. Rats were given daily injections, via an access port, of 10 ml of standard solution or bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution for 9 to 10 wk. The omentum, peritoneum, and mesothelial cell layer were screened for morphologic changes. In addition, the bacterial clearing capacity of the peritoneal cells was studied. Significantly more milky spots and blood vessels were observed in the omenta of animals treated with standard solution (P < 0.03 for both parameters). Electron-microscopic analysis demonstrated dramatic changes in the appearance of the vascular endothelial cells of the milky spots and a severely damaged or even absent mesothelium on the peritoneal membrane of the standard solution-treated animals. In contrast, the mesothelium was still present in the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, although the cells lost microvilli. Both peritoneal dialysis fluids significantly increased the density of mesothelial cells (per square millimeter) on the surface of the liver and the thickness of the submesothelial extracellular matrix of the peritoneum (both P < 0.04 for both fluids versus control). A significantly better ex vivo bacterial clearing capacity was observed with peritoneal cells from the bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution group, compared with the standard solution group (P < 0.05 in both experiments). These results demonstrate that instillation of bicarbonate/lactate-buffered solution into rats for 9 to 10 wk preserves both morphologic and immune parameters much more effectively, compared with standard solution. These findings may be of considerable clinical importance. PMID:11729248

  18. Author's personal copy Evaluation of stainless steel cathodes and a bicarbonate buffer

    E-print Network

    ), although carbonate buffers have been shown to work in other bioelectrochemical systems with a platinum (Pt, where bacteria oxidize the substrate, donate the electrons to the anode, and produce protons which go into solution. The electrons travel through the circuit and combine with protons on the cathode, usually

  19. Coral reef calcifiers buffer their response to ocean acidification using both bicarbonate and carbonate.

    PubMed

    Comeau, S; Carpenter, R C; Edmunds, P J

    2013-02-22

    Central to evaluating the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral reefs is understanding how calcification is affected by the dissolution of CO(2) in sea water, which causes declines in carbonate ion concentration [CO(3)(2-)] and increases in bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO(3)(-)]. To address this topic, we manipulated [CO(3)(2-)] and [HCO(3)(-)] to test the effects on calcification of the coral Porites rus and the alga Hydrolithon onkodes, measured from the start to the end of a 15-day incubation, as well as in the day and night. [CO(3)(2-)] played a significant role in light and dark calcification of P. rus, whereas [HCO(3)(-)] mainly affected calcification in the light. Both [CO(3)(2-)] and [HCO(3)(-)] had a significant effect on the calcification of H. onkodes, but the strongest relationship was found with [CO(3)(2-)]. Our results show that the negative effect of declining [CO(3)(2-)] on the calcification of corals and algae can be partly mitigated by the use of HCO(3)(-) for calcification and perhaps photosynthesis. These results add empirical support to two conceptual models that can form a template for further research to account for the calcification response of corals and crustose coralline algae to OA. PMID:23256193

  20. Coral reef calcifiers buffer their response to ocean acidification using both bicarbonate and carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, S.; Carpenter, R. C.; Edmunds, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Central to evaluating the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral reefs is understanding how calcification is affected by the dissolution of CO2 in sea water, which causes declines in carbonate ion concentration [CO32?] and increases in bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO3?]. To address this topic, we manipulated [CO32?] and [HCO3?] to test the effects on calcification of the coral Porites rus and the alga Hydrolithon onkodes, measured from the start to the end of a 15-day incubation, as well as in the day and night. [CO32?] played a significant role in light and dark calcification of P. rus, whereas [HCO3?] mainly affected calcification in the light. Both [CO32?] and [HCO3?] had a significant effect on the calcification of H. onkodes, but the strongest relationship was found with [CO32?]. Our results show that the negative effect of declining [CO32?] on the calcification of corals and algae can be partly mitigated by the use of HCO3? for calcification and perhaps photosynthesis. These results add empirical support to two conceptual models that can form a template for further research to account for the calcification response of corals and crustose coralline algae to OA. PMID:23256193

  1. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1?:?100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Michael; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes to test for anesthesia of the first and second molars, premolars, and lateral and central incisors. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes, and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 minutes. For the buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–71%. For the unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–72%. No significant differences between the 2 anesthetic formulations were noted. The buffered lidocaine formulation did not statistically result in faster onset of pulpal anesthesia or less pain during injection than did the unbuffered lidocaine formulation. We concluded that buffering a 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine with sodium bicarbonate, as was formulated in the current study, did not statistically increase anesthetic success, provide faster onset, or result in less pain of injection when compared with unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine for an IAN block. PMID:20553136

  2. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    SciTech Connect

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-09-25

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates.

  3. Detection of OXA-48-type carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in diagnostic laboratories can be enhanced by addition of bicarbonates to cultivation media or reaction buffers.

    PubMed

    Studentova, Vendula; Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Chudackova, Eva; Bergerova, Tamara; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabak, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Carbapenemase-mediated resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae has become the main challenge in the treatment and prevention of infections recently. The partially unnoticed spread of OXA-48-type carbapenemase producers is usually assigned to low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems that OXA-48-producing isolates often display. Therefore, there is an urgent need of specific and sensitive methods for isolation and detection of OXA-48 producers in clinical microbiology diagnostics. The influence of bicarbonates on carbapenem MICs against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was tested. We also checked whether the addition of bicarbonates to liquid media supplemented with meropenem may facilitate the selective enrichment of various carbapenemase producers in cultures. Furthermore, the sensitivity of carbapenemase confirmation by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays upon the addition of NH4HCO3 was examined. The addition of NaHCO3 significantly increased MICs of ertapenem and meropenem for OXA-48 producers. Furthermore, liquid media supplemented with NaHCO3 and meropenem were reliable for the selective enrichment of carbapenemase producers. The presence of NH4HCO3 in buffers used in the spectrophotometric and MALDI-TOF MS carbapenemase detection increased the sensitivity of that assay. Our results demonstrate that bicarbonates in media or reaction buffers can enhance the sensitivity of screening methods and diagnostic tests for carbapenemase producers. PMID:25261959

  4. Antennal responses of West Indian and Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to monitor and detect tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha currently involve MultiLure traps baited with two food-based synthetic attractants; ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These baits are used in Central America, Florida, Texas, and the Caribbean, each region...

  5. Continuous dialysis with bicarbonate/lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids results in a long-term improvement in ex vivo peritoneal macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Jones, Suzanne; Holmes, Clifford J; Mackenzie, Ruth K; Stead, Rachel; Coles, Gerald A; Williams, John D; Faict, Dirk; Topley, Nicholas

    2002-01-01

    To circumvent the potentially negative consequences of long-term exposure to unphysiologic acidic lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDF), neutral pH solutions buffered with bicarbonate/lactate have recently been introduced in phase 2 and 3 clinical trials. This study examines the longitudinal changes in peritoneal macrophage (PMŘ) function in patients dialyzed continuously with either lactate (LPD; 40 mM lactate, pH 5.2)-buffered or bicarbonate/lactate (TBL; 25 mM/15 mM bicarbonate/lactate, pH 7.3)-buffered PDF. Before the study, during the run in period of a phase 3 clinical trial, all patients had been taking LPD for at least the previous 18 wk. At the beginning of the study (day 0), both constitutive and serum-treated zymosan (STZ) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) synthesis were assessed in PMŘ isolated from 12-h dwell effluent (with 1.36% glucose) in all patients. The patients were subsequently randomized to either continuous TBL or LPD therapy and PMŘ function was assessed after further 3- and 6-mo periods in all patients. At all time points measured STZ induced a dose-dependent increase in PMŘ TNF-alpha secretion (P = 0.043 versus control for doses greater than 100 microg/ml). In patients continuously dialyzed with LPD, constitutive PMŘ TNF-alpha synthesis levels (mean +/- SEM, pg/10(6) PMŘ per18 h, n = 5 patients) were 154 +/- 65, 261 +/- 60, and 101 +/- 99 at 0, 3, and 6 mo, respectively. Stimulated STZ (1000 microg/ml) levels were 1340 +/- 519, 1046 +/- 586, and 758 +/- 250 at 0, 3, and 6 mo, respectively. In patients dialyzed with TBL, constitutive PMŘ TNF-alpha synthesis levels (pg/10(6) PMŘ per 18 h, n = 5 patients) were 300 +/- 136, 106 +/- 35, and 213 +/- 62 at 0, 3, and 6 mo, respectively. Stimulated STZ (1000 microg/ml) levels were 1969 +/- 751, 1541 +/- 330, and 2670 +/- 671 at 0, 3, and 6 mo, respectively. At 6 mo, STZ-stimulated PMŘ TNF-alpha synthesis was significantly higher in patients treated with TBL compared with those treated with LPD (P = 0.0035). These data suggest that in patients continuously dialyzed with a neutral pH solution, there is a long-term improvement in PMŘ function compared with patients on conventional therapy. Better PMŘ function suggests improved host defense status and may affect the peritoneum's susceptibility to infection and potentially reduce the negative consequences of repeated intraperitoneal inflammation on long-term membrane function. PMID:11792769

  6. Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

  7. Comparative anti-ulcerogenic study of pantoprazole formulation with and without sodium bicarbonate buffer on pyloric ligated rat

    PubMed Central

    Bigoniya, Papiya; Shukla, A.; Singh, C. S.; Gotiya, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the anti-ulcer activity of buffered pantoprazole tablet against plain pantoprazole in pyloric ligated rats. Materials and Methods: In vivo pyloric ligated ulcerogenesis model was used to assess the effect of buffered pantoprazole on the volume of the gastric content, pH, total and free acidity, and ulcerogenic lesion. Pantoprazole level in gastric content and concurrently in stomach tissue was assessed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results: Buffered tablet effectively increases the pH of the gastric content above 4 up to 6 h (P<0.001) protecting pantoprazole from acid degradation resulting in high concentration in the gastric content and stomach tissue. Conclusions: This study substantiates better, faster and prolonged bioavailability of pantoprazole-buffered tablet compared to plain pantoprazole. PMID:21897712

  8. Effect of two-chambered bicarbonate lactate-buffered peritoneal dialysis fluids on peripheral blood mononuclear cell and polymorphonuclear cell function in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, S; Cendoroglo, M; Cooker, L A; Jaber, B L; Faict, D; Holmes, C J; Pereira, B J

    1997-11-01

    Low pH, high osmolality, increasing glucose concentration, and glucose degradation products (GDP) formed during heat sterilization of conventional peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluids have been shown to have a detrimental effect on cells involved in peritoneal host defense. The two-chambered PD fluid bag in which glucose at pH approximately 3 is separated from a bicarbonate (25 mmol/L)-lactate (15 mmol/L) buffer during heat sterilization permits PD fluids with lower GDP to be delivered to the patient at neutral pH. To establish the possible benefit of two-chambered bag PD fluids on peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cell function, we compared conventional 1.5% Dianeal (1.5%D) with 1.5% two-chambered bag bicarbonate-lactate (1.5%D-B), and conventional 4.25% Dianeal (4.25%D) with 4.25% two-chambered bag bicarbonate-lactate (4.25%D-B). Furthermore, to study the effect of the sterilization process on PBMC and PMN function, we compared filter-sterilized 4.25%D (4.25%D-F) with 4.25%D and 4.25%D-B. PBMC were harvested by Ficoll-Hypaque separation, and 2.5 x 10(6) cells in RPMI were incubated with an equal volume of the test fluids for 4 hours, pelleted, and resuspended in RPMI containing 10 ng endotoxin for a further 20 hours. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production by endotoxin-stimulated PBMC was not significantly different (P = 0.10) between 1.5%D-B and 1.5%D, but was significantly higher (P = 0.01) with 4.25%D-B compared with 4.25%D. PBMC exposed to filter-sterilized fluid (4.25%D-F) showed significantly higher endotoxin-stimulated TNF-alpha production compared with 4.25%D (P = 0.02), but was not significantly different from 4.25%D-B (P = 0.40). PMN were harvested by Ficoll-Hypaque separation and 10 x 10(6) cells incubated with test fluids for 30 minutes. After incubation, phagocytosis (phagocytosis index) was determined by the uptake of 14C-labeled Staphylococcus aureus, oxidative burst by reduction of ferricytochrome C to ferrocytochrome C on stimulation with PMA, and enzyme release by measurement of endotoxin-stimulated bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI). Bicarbonate-lactate two-chambered fluids of similar osmolality and glucose concentration conferred a significant improvement in phagocytosis (P = 0.02 for 1.5%D-B and P < 0.001 for 4.25%D-B). Oxidative burst and BPI release were significantly higher in 4.25%D-B compared with 4.25%D (P < 0.001). Filter-sterilized 4.25%D-F conferred a significant improvement in phagocytosis and oxidative burst compared with 4.25%D (P < 0.001) or 4.25%D-B (P < 0.001). Furthermore, conventional 4.25%D was associated with significantly lower BPI release compared with 4.25%D-F (P = 0.01). GDP's acetaldehyde and 5-HMF were analyzed in 4.25%D-B, 4.25%D, and 4.25%D-F. Acetaldehyde was below the lower limit (0.79 ppm) of the standard curve in 4.25%D-B and 4.25%D-F fluids but was detected (3.76 to 5.12 ppm) in all of the 4.25%D fluids. Relative levels of 5-HMF in the 4.25%D-B (0.032 to 0.041 Abs @ 284 nm) and 4.25%D (0.031 to 0.036 Abs @ 284 nm) were similar. The lowest levels (0.001 Abs @ 284 nm) were observed in the filter-sterilized 4.25%D-F. The beneficial effects of two-chambered bicarbonate lactate-buffered PD fluids on PBMC and PMN function are probably related to reduction of GDP from heat sterilization of glucose in a separate chamber at a lower pH. This improvement in biocompatibility could have a beneficial affect on peritoneal defenses. PMID:9370184

  9. Method of uranium reclamation from aqueous systems by reactive ion exchange. [US DOE patent application; anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1981-11-05

    A reactive ion exchange method for separation and recovery of values of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, or americium from substantially neutral aqueous systems of said metals comprises contacting said system with an effective amount of a basic anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands to achieve nearly 100% sorption of said actinyl ion onto said resin and an aqueous system practically free of said actinyl ions. The method is operational over an extensive range of concentrations from about 10/sup -6/ M to 1.0 M actinyl ion and a pH range of about 4 to 7. The method has particulr application to treatment of waste streams from Purex-type nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and hydrometallurgical processes involving U, Np, P, or Am.

  10. Sodium bicarbonate improves swimming performance.

    PubMed

    Lindh, A M; Peyrebrune, M C; Ingham, S A; Bailey, D M; Folland, J P

    2008-06-01

    Sodium bicarbonate ingestion has been shown to improve performance in single-bout, high intensity events, probably due to an increase in buffering capacity, but its influence on single-bout swimming performance has not been investigated. The effects of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 200 m freestyle swimming performance were investigated in elite male competitors. Following a randomised, double blind counterbalanced design, 9 swimmers completed maximal effort swims on 3 separate occasions: a control trial (C); after ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (SB: NaHCO3 300 mg . kg (-1) body mass); and after ingestion of a placebo (P: CaCO3 200 mg . kg (-1) body mass). The SB and P agents were packed in gelatine capsules and ingested 90 - 60 min prior to each 200 m swim. Mean 200 m performance times were significantly faster for SB than C or P (1 : 52.2 +/- 4.7; 1 : 53.7 +/- 3.8; 1 : 54.0 +/- 3.6 min : ss; p < 0.05). Base excess, pH and blood bicarbonate were all elevated pre-exercise in the SB compared to C and P trials (p < 0.05). Post-200 m blood lactate concentrations were significantly higher following the SB trial compared with P and C (p < 0.05). It was concluded that SB supplementation can improve 200 m freestyle performance time in elite male competitors, most likely by increasing buffering capacity. PMID:18004687

  11. Influence of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in bicarbonate\\/carbonate buffer solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. G. Li; Y. R. Feng; Z. Q. Bai; J. W. Zhu; M. S. Zheng

    2007-01-01

    The influences of temperature, chloride ions and chromium element on the electronic property of passive film formed on carbon steel in NaHCO3\\/Na2CO3 buffer solution are investigated by capacitance measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The results show that the passive film appears n-type semiconductive character; with increasing the solution temperature, the addition of chromium into carbon steel and increasing the

  12. Ergogenic effects of sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    McNaughton, Lars R; Siegler, Jason; Midgley, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Athletes use many different strategies to enhance their performance, including clothing and footwear, training regimes, diets, and ergogenic aids. The use of ergogenic aids is believed to be widespread, with a variety of legal as well as illegal substances being used previously and currently. Among the more popular ergogenic aids is the use of sodium bicarbonate or sodium citrate, collectively recognized as "buffers." These substances potentially provide the body with added resistance against fatigue caused by deleterious changes in acid-base balance brought about by a variety of exercise modes and durations. The popularity of buffering has generated a plethora of research dating back to the 1930s, which continues to date. The issues surrounding buffering revolve around the dosage size, timing of ingestion, and the type of exercise to benefit from the use of buffers. We hope this review addresses these pertinent issues. PMID:18607226

  13. Solubility of ammonium acid urate nephroliths from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    PubMed

    Argade, Sulabha; Smith, Cynthia R; Shaw, Timothy; Zupkas, Paul; Schmitt, Todd L; Venn-Watson, Stephanie; Sur, Roger L

    2013-12-01

    Nephrolithiasis has been identified in managed populations of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus); most of these nephroliths are composed of 100% ammonium acid urate (AAU). Several therapies are being investigated to treat and prevent nephrolithiasis in dolphins including the alkalization of urine for dissolution of nephroliths. This study evaluates the solubility of AAU nephroliths in a phosphate buffer, pH range 6.0-8.0, and in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8. AAU nephroliths were obtained from six dolphins and solubility studies were conducted using reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection at 290 nm. AAU nephroliths were much more soluble in a carbonate-bicarbonate buffer, pH range 9.0-10.8 compared to phosphate buffer pH range 6.0-8.0. In the pH range 6.0-8.0, the solubility was 45% lower in potassium phosphate buffer compared to sodium phosphate buffer. When citrate was used along with phosphate in the same pH range, the solubility was improved by 13%. At pH 7 and pH 8, 150 mM ionic strength buffer was optimum for dissolution. In summary, adjustment of urinary pH alone does not appear to be a useful way to treat AAU stones in bottlenose dolphins. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of AAU nephrolithiasis in dolphins is needed to optimize kidney stone prevention and treatment. PMID:24450043

  14. Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H+, HCO3- is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membranes. The functions of HCO3- and HCO3--transporters in epithelial tissues have been studied extensively, but their functions in heart are less well understood. Here we review studies of the identities and physiological functions of Cl-/HCO3- exchangers and Na+/HCO3- cotransporters of the SLC4A and SLC26A families in heart. We also present RNA Seq analysis of their cardiac mRNA expression levels. These studies indicate that slc4a3 (AE3) is the major Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and plays a protective role in heart failure, and that Slc4a4 (NBCe1) is the major Na+/HCO3- cotransporter and affects action potential duration. In addition, previous studies show that HCO3- has a positive inotropic effect in the perfused heart that is largely independent of effects on intracellular Ca2+. The importance of HCO3- in the regulation of contractility is supported by experiments showing that isolated cardiomyocytes exhibit sharply enhanced contractility, with no change in Ca2+ transients, when switched from Hepes-buffered to HCO3-- buffered solutions. These studies demonstrate that HCO3- and HCO3--handling proteins play important roles in the regulation of cardiac function. PMID:25225601

  15. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mourińo-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  16. Abstract: We report the use of bicarbonate salts as viable alter-natives to more expensive bases for the in situ generation of

    E-print Network

    Lectka, Thomas

    the deprotonation of the acyl ammonium salt. Scheme 1. Mechanism of -Lactam Formation with Sodium Bicarbonate O Cl R1 LETTER Abstract: We report the use of bicarbonate salts as viable alter- natives to more applied this to the catalytic, asymmetric synthesis of -lactams. Key words: -lactam, bicarbonate salts

  17. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Pre and Postpartum Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; P. J. Wangsness

    1980-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to evaluate the effect of buffer addition on adaptation to high-energy rations by dairy cows in early lactation. Forty-five Holstein cows were assigned to one of three treatment groups: control pre- and postpartum; control prepartum, buffer postpartum; and buffer pre- and postpartum. Rations consisted of 85% chopped grass hay: 15% concentrate prepartum

  18. Addition of Sodium Bicarbonate to Rations of Postpartum Dairy Cows: Physiological and Metabolic Effects1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. H. Kilmer; L. D. Muller; T. J. Snyder

    1981-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate was added to complete mixed rations to characterize physiological, metabolic, and ruminal changes immediately postpartum when dairy cows are switched abruptly from a low energy ration prepartum to a high energy ration postpartum. Twelve Holstein cows were paired and assigned randomly to either a control or buffered ration containing .8% sodium bicarbonate. Ra- tions consisted of 50% corn

  19. A Modified o-Phthalaldehyde Fluorometric Analytical Method for Ultratrace Ammonium in Natural Waters Using EDTA-NaOH as Buffer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongzhi; Li, Shuo; Guo, Qing; Wu, Chancui

    2014-01-01

    In the existence of appropriate amount of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), precipitation would not occur in seawater and other natural waters even if the sample solution was adjusted to strong basicity, and the NH3-OPA-sulfite reaction at the optimal pH range could be used to determine ammonium in natural waters. Based on this, a modified o-phthalaldehyde fluorometric analytical method has been established to determine ultratrace ammonium in natural waters. Experimental parameters, including reagent concentration, pH, reaction time, and effect of EDTA, were optimized throughout the experiments based on univariate experimental design. The results showed that the optimal pH range was between 10.80 and 11.70. EDTA did not obviously affect the fluorometric intensity. The linearity range of the proposed method was 0.032–0.500?µmol/L, 0.250–3.00?µmol/L, and 1.00–20.0?µmol/L at the excitation/emission slit of 3?nm/5?nm, 3?nm/3?nm, and 1.5?nm/1.5?nm, respectively. The method detection limit was 0.0099?µmol/L. Compared to the classical OPA method, the proposed method had the advantage of being more sensitive and could quantify ultratrace ammonium without enrichment. PMID:25436173

  20. Bicarbonate\\/lactate-based peritoneal dialysis solution increases cancer antigen 125 and decreases hyaluronic acid levels

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzanne Jones; Clifford J. Holmes; Raymond T. Krediet; Ruth Mackenzie; Dirk Faict; Anders Tranaeus; John D. Williams; Gerald A. Coles; Nicholas Topley

    2001-01-01

    Bicarbonate\\/lactate peritoneal dialysate increases cancer antigen 125 and decreases hyaluronic acid levels.BackgroundIn a randomized, controlled trial comparing a pH neutral, bicarbonate\\/lactate (B\\/L)-buffered PD solution to conventional acidic, lactate-buffered solution (C), the overnight dialysate levels of markers of inflammation\\/wound healing [hyaluronic acid (HA)], mesothelial cell mass\\/membrane integrity [cancer antigen 125 (CA125)], and fibrosis [transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) and procollagen I peptides

  1. Predicting the safety and efficacy of buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe: an integrative modelling study

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    .bjcancer.com Published online 1 March 2012 & 2012 Cancer Research UK Keywords: sodium bicarbonate; acidity; mathematical of blood and tumour buffering to examine the impact of oral administration of bicarbonate buffer in mice unseen potentially dangerous elevation in blood pHe resulting from bicarbonate therapy in mice, which

  2. Pancreatic Bicarbonate Secretion Involves Two Proton Pumps*

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Ivana; Wang, Jing; Henriksen, Katrine L.; Haanes, Kristian A.; Krabbe, Simon; Nitschke, Roland; Hede, Susanne E.

    2011-01-01

    Pancreas secretes fluid rich in digestive enzymes and bicarbonate. The alkaline secretion is important in buffering of acid chyme entering duodenum and for activation of enzymes. This secretion is formed in pancreatic ducts, and studies to date show that plasma membranes of duct epithelium express H+/HCO3? transporters, which depend on gradients created by the Na+/K+-ATPase. However, the model cannot fully account for high-bicarbonate concentrations, and other active transporters, i.e. pumps, have not been explored. Here we show that pancreatic ducts express functional gastric and non-gastric H+-K+-ATPases. We measured intracellular pH and secretion in small ducts isolated from rat pancreas and showed their sensitivity to H+-K+ pump inhibitors and ion substitutions. Gastric and non-gastric H+-K+ pumps were demonstrated on RNA and protein levels, and pumps were localized to the plasma membranes of pancreatic ducts. Quantitative analysis of H+/HCO3? and fluid transport shows that the H+-K+ pumps can contribute to pancreatic secretion in several species. Our results call for revision of the bicarbonate transport physiology in pancreas, and most likely other epithelia. Furthermore, because pancreatic ducts play a central role in several pancreatic diseases, it is of high relevance to understand the role of H+-K+ pumps in pathophysiology. PMID:20978133

  3. Practical considerations for bicarbonate loading and sports performance.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Consumption of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg/kg 1-2 h before exercise) can temporarily increase blood bicarbonate concentrations, enhancing extracellular buffering of hydrogen ions which accumulate and efflux from the working muscle. Such 'bicarbonate loading' provides an ergogenic strategy for sporting events involving high rates of anaerobic glycolysis which are otherwise limited by the body's capacity to manage the progressive increase in intracellular acidity. Studies show that bicarbonate loading strategies have a moderate positive effect on the performance of sports involving 1-7 min of sustained strenuous exercise, and may also be useful for prolonged sports involving intermittent or sustained periods of high-intensity work rates. This potential to enhance sports performance requires further investigation using appropriate research design, but may be limited by practical considerations such as gut discomfort or the logistics of the event. The effect of chronic use of bicarbonate supplementation prior to high-intensity workouts to promote better training performance and adaptations is worthy of further investigation. While this relatively simple dietary strategy has been studied and used by sports people for over 80 years, it is likely that there are still ways in which further benefits from bicarbonate supplementation can be developed and individualized for specific athletes or specific events. PMID:23765347

  4. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Hirofumi; Berlett, Barbara S.; Chock, P. Boon; Stadtman, Earl R.

    2005-07-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate/CO2 compared with phosphate buffer. However, when copper was substituted for iron in these mixtures, the rate of LDL oxidation in both buffers was similar. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL was highly sensitive to inhibition by phosphate. Presence of 0.3-0.5 mM phosphate, characteristic of human serum, led to 30-40% inhibition of LDL oxidation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer. Iron-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to MDA in phosphate buffer was inhibited by increasing concentrations of albumin (10-200 ?M), whereas MDA formation in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was stimulated by 10-50 ?M albumin but inhibited by higher concentrations. However, albumin stimulated the oxidation of LDL proteins to carbonyl derivatives at all concentrations examined in both buffers. Conversion of LDL to MDA in bicarbonate/CO2 buffer was greatly stimulated by ADP, ATP, and EDTA but only when EDTA was added at a concentration equal to that of iron. At higher than stoichiometric concentrations, EDTA prevented oxidation of LDL. Results of these studies suggest that interactions between bicarbonate and iron or heme derivatives leads to complexes with redox potentials that favor the generation of reactive oxygen species and/or to the generation of highly reactive CO2 anion or bicarbonate radical that facilitates LDL oxidation. Freely available online through the PNAS open access option.Abbreviations: LDL, low-density lipoprotein; MDA, malondialdehyde; MetO, methionine sulfoxide.

  5. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section...Purpose Food Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  9. Effect of bicarbonate on iron-mediated oxidation of low-density lipoprotein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirofumi Arai; Barbara S. Berlett; P. Boon Chock; Earl R. Stadtman

    2005-01-01

    Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) may play an important role in atherosclerosis. We studied the effects of bicarbonate\\/CO2 and phosphate buffer systems on metal ion-catalyzed oxidation of LDL to malondialdehyde (MDA) and to protein carbonyl and MetO derivatives. Our results revealed that LDL oxidation in mixtures containing free iron or heme derivatives was much greater in bicarbonate\\/CO2 compared with phosphate

  10. Buffer Therapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes C; Silva, Ariosto S.; Bailey, Kate M.; Kumar, Nagi B.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine “buffering score”, in mmol H+/pH unit. A “buffering score” was derived as the mEq H+ consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products’ buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums® had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The “de-buffered” lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer. PMID:24371544

  11. The ability of modified Krebs Ringer bicarbonate diluents to maintain stallion spermatozoa 

    E-print Network

    Wright, Diane Lynne

    1990-01-01

    /L . 184 g/L Sodium bicarbonate Hepes buffer Sodium pyruvate Pen/Suep BSA Fraction V Sterile water 25mM 25mM 50ml/L 100ml/L 30 g/L 850ml/L Sodium bicarbonate Hepes buffer Sodium pytuvate Pen/Strep Fetal calf serum Sterile water 25mM 25m...M 50ml/L 100ml/L 100ml/L 750ml/L Sodium bicarbonate 25mM Hepes buffer 25rnM Sodium pyruvate 50ml/L Pen/Strep 100ml/L Fetal calf serum 100ml/L Sterile water 750ml/L was determined using the 10 ml graduations on the bottles. Concentration...

  12. The rhesus protein RhCG: a new perspective in ammonium transport and distal urinary acidification.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Carsten A; Devuyst, Olivier; Belge, Hendrica; Bourgeois, Soline; Houillier, Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Urinary acidification is a complex process requiring the coordinated action of enzymes and transport proteins and resulting in the removal of acid and the regeneration of bicarbonate. Proton secretion is mediated by luminal H(+)-ATPases and requires the parallel movement of NH?, and its protonation to NH?(+), to provide sufficient buffering. It has been long assumed that ammonia secretion is a passive process occurring by means of simple diffusion driven by the urinary trapping of ammonium. However, new data indicate that mammalian cells possess specific membrane proteins from the family of rhesus proteins involved in ammonia/?m permeability. Rhesus proteins were first identified in yeast and later also in plants, algae, and mammals. In rodents, RhBG and RhCG are expressed in the collecting duct, whereas in humans only RhCG was detected. Their expression increases with maturation of the kidney and accelerates after birth in parallel with other acid-base transport proteins. Deletion of RhBG in mice had no effect on renal ammonium excretion, whereas RhCG deficiency reduces renal ammonium secretion strongly, causes metabolic acidosis in acid-challenged mice, and impairs restoration of normal acid-base status. Microperfusion experiments or functional reconstitution in liposomes demonstrates that ammonia is the most likely substrate of RhCG. Similarly, crystal structures of human RhCG and the homologous bacterial AmtB protein suggest that these proteins may form gas channels. PMID:20927037

  13. Effect of inorganic carbon on anaerobic ammonium oxidation enriched in sequencing batch reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dexiang LIAO; Xiaoming LI; Qi YANG; Guangming ZENG; Liang GUO; Xiu YUE

    2008-01-01

    The present lab-scale research reveals the enrichment of anaerobic ammonium oxidation microorganism from methanogenic anaerobic granular sludge and the effect of inorganic carbon (sodium bicarbonate) on anaerobic ammonium oxidation. The enrichment of anammox bacteria was carried out in a 7.0-L sequencing batch reactor (SBR) and the effect of bicarbonate on anammox was conducted in a 3.0-L SBR. Research results, especially

  14. Characterization of bicarbonate-dependent potassium uptake in cultured corneal endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Savion, N.; Farzame, N.; Berlin, H.B.

    1989-04-01

    Bovine corneal endothelial (BCE) cells in culture demonstrated 86Rb+ uptake which was mostly ouabain-sensitive with some (15 to 50%) ouabain-insensitive uptake that was dependent on the presence of bicarbonate in the incubation medium. Bovine smooth muscle (SM) cells demonstrated ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake but the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake was not bicarbonate-dependent. Although omission of bicarbonate from the incubation buffer resulted in some reduction in the pH, this change was not responsible for the reduction in the ouabain-insensitive 86Rb+ uptake. Furthermore, the removal of bicarbonate decreased the 86Rb+ influx but not its efflux. This ouabain-insensitive and bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ influx in BCE cells proceeded at a linear rate for at least 60 min and increased as a function of bicarbonate concentration such that almost maximal uptake was observed at a concentration of about 10 to 15 mM. Saturation of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ pump in BCE cells occurred at a concentration of 2 mM Rb+ in the incubation buffer, similar to the previously observed value for the Na+, K+-ATPase. Competition experiments with both unlabeled Rb+ and K+ demonstrated that likewise in the Na+, K+-ATPase the 86Rb+ influx represented physiological influx of K+. Furthermore, the energy requirements of the bicarbonate-dependent 86Rb+ uptake were similar to those of the 86Rb+ uptake via the Na+, K+-ATPase. The results described in this work demonstrated a novel bicarbonate-dependent K+ pump in addition to the Na+, K+-ATPase pump.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and boxing performance.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Hirscher, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Boxing is a sport that consists of multiple high-intensity bouts separated by minimal recovery time and may benefit from a pre-exercise alkalotic state. The purpose of this study was to observe the ergogenic potential of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on boxing performance. Ten amateur boxers volunteered to participate in 2 competitive sparring bouts. The boxers were prematched for weight and boxing ability and consumed either 0.3 g.kg(-1) body weight (BW) of NaHCO3 (BICARB) or 0.045 g.kg(-1) BW of NaCl placebo (PLAC) mixed in diluted low calorie-flavored cordial. The sparring bouts consisted of four 3-minute rounds, each separated by 1-minute seated recovery. Blood acid-base (pH, bicarbonate [HCO3(-)], base excess [BE]), and performance (rates of perceived exertion [RPE], heart rate [HR] [HR(ave) and HR(max)], total punches landed successfully) profiles were analyzed before (where applicable) and after sparring. The results indicated a significant interaction effect for HCO3(-) (p < or = 0.001) and BE (p < 0.001), but not for pH (p = 0.48). Post hoc analysis revealed higher presparring HCO3(-) and BE for the BICARB condition, but no differences between the BICARB and PLAC conditions postsparring. There was a significant increase in punches landed during the BICARB condition (p < 0.001); however, no significant interaction effects for HRave (p = 0.15), HRmax (p = 0.32), or RPE (p = 0.38). The metabolic alkalosis induced by the NaHCO3 loading elevated before and after sparring blood buffering capacity. In practical application, the findings suggest that a standard NaHCO3 loading dose (0.3 g.kg(-1)) improves punch efficacy during 4 rounds of sparring performance. PMID:19625976

  16. Nitrate And Bicarbonate Selective Chemfets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Martijn M. G. Antonisse; Johan F. J. Engbersen; David N. Reinhoudt

    1995-01-01

    The development of durable anion selective CHEMFET micro sensors is described. Selectivity in these sensors is either obtained from differences in hydration energy of the anions (the Hlofmeister series, giving nitrate selectivity) or by introduction of a new class of uranyl salophene ionophores (bicarbonate selectivity). The durability of the nitrate sensor was enhanced by using polysiloxane membranes in which 1

  17. Effect of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Magnesium Oxide on Production and Physiology in Early Lactation1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. A. Erdman; R. L. Botts; R. W. Hemken; L. S. Bull

    1980-01-01

    Twenty cows were in an experiment to measure effects of dietary buffers, sodium bicarbonate and magnesium oxide, on ration adjustment and incidence of metabolic problems in the first 8 wk postpartum. Cows were fed 2.7 kg grain per day and alfalfa ad libitum prepartum and switched immediately to a complete ration of 40% corn silage and 60% con- centrate (dry

  18. Effects of Sodium Bicarbonate or Sodium Sesquicarbonate on Lactating Holsteins Fed a High Grain Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Solorzano; L. E. Armentano; R. R. Grummer; M. R. Dentine

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen Holstein cows, 35 to 70 d postpartum, were assigned to five 3 x 3 Latin squares. Treatments were: control (60% concentrate, 40% corn silage, DM basis) or control supplemented with either .71% sodium bicarbonate or .65% sodium sesquicarbonate, DM basis. Ortho- gonal contrasts compared the effect of both buffered diets versus the control diet, and the effect of sodium

  19. 77 FR 50613 - Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate; Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...jointly referred to as DDACB on food contact surfaces when applied or used in public...requirement of tolerance residues resulting from contact with surfaces treated with solutions where...gov/dockets. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Velma Noble, Antimicrobials...

  20. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. Peru; P. B. Lorenz

    1987-01-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate

  1. Time course of blood bicarbonate and pH three hours after sodium bicarbonate ingestion.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael J; Singh, Malkit

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the increase in blood pH and bicarbonate concentration after ingestion of a standard sodium bicarbonate solution. Peak blood pH and bicarbonate concentration occurred between 60 and 90 minutes. Values decreased over the remainder of the ingestion period although still elevated above preingestion levels. PMID:19208932

  2. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on swim performance in youth athletes.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Adam; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Langfort, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg(-1) b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1(st) minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s(-1), p < 0.05). Resting blood concentration of HCO(-) 3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05). Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05) as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m. Key pointsSodium bicarbonate is an effective ergogenic aid, also in youth athletes.Sodium bicarbonate intake improves swimming sprint performance.Sodium bicarbonate intake increases resting blood pH and bicarbonate level. PMID:24150555

  3. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on swim performance in youth athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Adam; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Langfort, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05). Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05). Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05) as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m. Key points Sodium bicarbonate is an effective ergogenic aid, also in youth athletes. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves swimming sprint performance. Sodium bicarbonate intake increases resting blood pH and bicarbonate level PMID:24150555

  4. CELL BIOLOGY: A Universal Bicarbonate Sensor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    U. Benjamin Kaupp (Institut fĂĽr Biologische Informationsverarbeitung; )

    2000-07-28

    Access to the article is free, however registration and sign-in are required. The three principal molecular events that prepare sperm for fertilization are all controlled by the intracellular nucleotide adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP). One of these, capacitation, is also regulated by bicarbonate ions. The elusive connection between cAMP and bicarbonate ions now appears to be solved as Kaupp and Weyand explain in their Perspective. Bicarbonate ions enter sperm through the anion transporter in the sperm plasma membrane and activate the soluble form of adenylyl cyclase, the enzyme that synthesizes cAMP (Chen et al.)

  5. Effect of ranitidine on basal and bicarbonate enhanced intragastric PCO2: a tonometric study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J J Kolkman; A B Groeneveld; S G Meuwissen

    1994-01-01

    A high intragastric PCO2 (iPCO2), determined tonometrically, is the main factor participating in a low gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) and may point to gastric mucosal ischaemia. iPCO2 might also increase, however, after buffering of gastric acid by bicarbonate; the magnitude of this effect and the efficacy of H2 blockers to prevent it are unclear. Ten healthy volunteers (20-24 years) were

  6. Native Small Airways Secrete Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cl? impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl? transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3?) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3? transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3? secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidity in CF. We used a novel, mini-Ussing chamber system to investigate the properties of HCO3? transport in native porcine small airways (? 1 mm ?). We assayed HCO3? transport across small airway epithelia as reflected by the transepithelial voltage, conductance, and equivalent short-circuit current with bilateral 25-mM HCO3? plus 125-mM NaGlu Ringer’s solution in the presence of luminal amiloride (10 ?M). Under these conditions, because no major transportable anions other than HCO3? were present, we took the equivalent short-circuit current to be a direct measure of active HCO3? secretion. Applying selective agonists and inhibitors, we show constitutive HCO3? secretion in small airways, which can be stimulated significantly by ?-adrenergic– (cAMP) and purinergic (Ca2+) -mediated agonists, independently. These results indicate that two separate components for HCO3? secretion, likely via CFTR- and calcium-activated chloride channel–dependent processes, are physiologically regulated for likely roles in mucus clearance and antimicrobial innate defenses of small airways. PMID:24224935

  7. Native small airways secrete bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Shamsuddin, A K M; Quinton, Paul M

    2014-04-01

    Since the discovery of Cl(-) impermeability in cystic fibrosis (CF) and the cloning of the responsible channel, CF pathology has been widely attributed to a defect in epithelial Cl(-) transport. However, loss of bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) transport also plays a major, possibly more critical role in CF pathogenesis. Even though HCO3(-) transport is severely affected in the native pancreas, liver, and intestines in CF, we know very little about HCO3(-) secretion in small airways, the principle site of morbidity in CF. We used a novel, mini-Ussing chamber system to investigate the properties of HCO3(-) transport in native porcine small airways (? 1 mm ?). We assayed HCO3(-) transport across small airway epithelia as reflected by the transepithelial voltage, conductance, and equivalent short-circuit current with bilateral 25-mM HCO3(-) plus 125-mM NaGlu Ringer's solution in the presence of luminal amiloride (10 ?M). Under these conditions, because no major transportable anions other than HCO3(-) were present, we took the equivalent short-circuit current to be a direct measure of active HCO3(-) secretion. Applying selective agonists and inhibitors, we show constitutive HCO3(-) secretion in small airways, which can be stimulated significantly by ?-adrenergic- (cAMP) and purinergic (Ca(2+)) -mediated agonists, independently. These results indicate that two separate components for HCO3(-) secretion, likely via CFTR- and calcium-activated chloride channel-dependent processes, are physiologically regulated for likely roles in mucus clearance and antimicrobial innate defenses of small airways. PMID:24224935

  8. Prolactin regulates luminal bicarbonate secretion in the intestine of the sea bream (Sparus aurata L.).

    PubMed

    Ferlazzo, A; Carvalho, E S M; Gregorio, S F; Power, D M; Canario, A V M; Trischitta, F; Fuentes, J

    2012-11-01

    The pituitary hormone prolactin is a pleiotropic endocrine factor that plays a major role in the regulation of ion balance in fish, with demonstrated actions mainly in the gills and kidney. The role of prolactin in intestinal ion transport remains little studied. In marine fish, which have high drinking rates, epithelial bicarbonate secretion in the intestine produces luminal carbonate aggregates believed to play a key role in water and ion homeostasis. The present study was designed to establish the putative role of prolactin in the regulation of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in a marine fish. Basolateral addition of prolactin to the anterior intestine of sea bream mounted in Ussing chambers caused a rapid (<20 min) decrease of bicarbonate secretion measured by pH-stat. A clear inhibitory dose-response curve was obtained, with a maximal inhibition of 60-65% of basal bicarbonate secretion. The threshold concentration of prolactin for a significant effect on bicarbonate secretion was 10 ng ml(-1), which is comparable with putative plasma levels in seawater fish. The effect of prolactin on apical bicarbonate secretion was independent of the generation route for bicarbonate, as shown in a preparation devoid of basolateral HCO(3)(-)/CO(2) buffer. Specific inhibitors of JAK2 (AG-490, 50 ?mol l(-1)), PI3K (LY-294002, 75 ?mol l(-1)) or MEK (U-012610, 10 ?mol l(-1)) caused a 50-70% reduction in the effect of prolactin on bicarbonate secretion, and demonstrated the involvement of prolactin receptors. In addition to rapid effects, prolactin has actions at the genomic level. Incubation of intestinal explants of anterior intestine of the sea bream in vitro for 3 h demonstrated a specific effect of prolactin on the expression of the Slc4a4A Na(+)-HCO(3)(-) co-transporter, but not on the Slc26a6A or Slc26a3B Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchanger. We propose a new role for prolactin in the regulation of bicarbonate secretion, an essential function for ion/water homeostasis in the intestine of marine fish. PMID:22855618

  9. Isolation of bicarbonate from equine urine for isotope ratio mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hülsemann, Frank; Flenker, Ulrich; Machnik, Marc; Schänzer, Wilhelm

    2007-12-01

    Sodium bicarbonate administration to horses prior to competition in order to enhance the buffer capacity of the organism is considered as a doping offence. The analysis of the isotopic composition of urinary bicarbonate/CO(2) (TCO(2)) may help to identify an exogenous bicarbonate source, as technical sodium bicarbonate exhibits elevated delta(13)C values compared with urinary total carbon. The isolation of TCO(2) from 60 equine urine samples as BaCO(3) followed by an isotopic analysis shows a significant variability of delta(13)C for TCO(2) of more than 10 per thousand. The delta(13)C of total carbon and TCO(2) seem to reflect different proportions of C3 and C4 plant material in the diet. The isotopic analysis of different mixtures of technical NaHCO(3) and equine urine shows that TCO(2) can be easily isolated without major isotopic fractionation; however, attention has to be paid to the storage time of urine samples, as a shift of delta(13)C of TCO(2) to lower values may occur. PMID:18041617

  10. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  11. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  12. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  13. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  14. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. ...MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  15. Seasonal, reproductive, and nutritional influences on muscle “buffering capacity” in yellow perch ( Perca flavescens )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jay A. Nelson; John J. Magnuson

    1987-01-01

    “Effective non-bicarbonatebuffering capacity (or buffer value) was measured in white muscle of yellow perch (Perca flavescens) by titrations with mineral acid and base in a carbon-dioxide free, closed system. Yellow perch were collected at three month intervals throughout 1983 from an acidic lake (pH ? 4.6) and two alkaline lakes (pH ? 7.8) in northern Wisconsin. “Buffering capacity” was

  16. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Bicarbonate and bicarbonate/lactate peritoneal dialysis solutions for the treatment of infusion pain.

    PubMed

    Mactier, R A; Sprosen, T S; Gokal, R; Williams, P F; Lindbergh, M; Naik, R B; Wrege, U; Gröntoft, K C; Larsson, R; Berglund, J; Tranaeus, A P; Faict, D

    1998-04-01

    A randomized, double-blind, cross-over study was undertaken to determine the effects of novel bicarbonate (38 mM) and bicarbonate (25 mM)/lactate (15 mM) containing peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions on infusion pain in patients who experienced inflow pain with conventional lactate (40 mM) solution. Pain was assessed using a verbal rating scale and the validated McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ). Eighteen patients were recruited to the study. Both novel solutions resulted in highly statistically significant reductions in inflow pain compared to the control lactate solution, as assessed with both the verbal rating scale and the MPQ. For all pain variables assessed, the bicarbonate/lactate solution was more effective than the bicarbonate solution in alleviating pain. In conclusion, both solutions reduced the infusion pain experienced with control solution, but the bicarbonate/lactate solution appears to be the most effective. In contrast to the most widespread current treatment, which is the manual injection of sodium bicarbonate, the bicarbonate/lactate solution does not have the associated increased risk of peritonitis. PMID:9551418

  18. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation and ingestion timing: does it matter?

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Marshall, Paul W M; Bray, James; Towlson, Chris

    2012-07-01

    Although a considerable amount of literature exists on the ergogenic potential of ingesting sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) before short-term, high-intensity exercise, very little exists on optimal loading times before exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of NaHCO3 supplementation timing on repeated sprint ability (RSA). Eight men completed 3 (randomized and counterbalanced) trials of ten 10-second sprints separated by 50 seconds of active recovery (1:5 work-to-rest) on a nonmotorized treadmill. Before each trial, the subjects ingested 0.3 g·kg(-1) body weight of NaHCO3 at 60 (H1), 120 (H2), or 180 (H3) minutes before exercise. Additionally, the subjects were assessed for any side effects (gastrointestinal [GI] discomfort) from the NaHCO3 ingestion via a visual analog scale (VAS). Blood buffering was assessed using a 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures, whereas repeated sprint performance and GI discomfort were assessed via a 1-way ANOVA with repeated measures. Blood-buffering capacity was not different at preexercise times (HCO3(-) [millimoles per liter] H1: 30.2 ± 0.4, H2: 30.9 ± 0.6, H3: 31.2 ± 0.6; p > 0.74). Average speed, average power, and total distance covered progressively declined over the 10 sprints; however, there was no difference between conditions (p > 0.22). The incidence of GI discomfort was significantly higher (p < 0.05) from preingestion at all time points with the exception of 180 minutes, whereas severity was only different between 90 and 180 minutes. Ingestion times (between 60 and 180 minutes) did not influence the blood buffering or the ergogenic potential of NaHCO3 as assessed by RSA. However, VAS scores indicated that at 180 minutes postingestion, an individual is less prone to experiencing significant GI discomfort. PMID:21964428

  19. Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransport in Retinal Astrocytes and Mu ller

    E-print Network

    Newman, Eric A.

    Sodium-Bicarbonate Cotransport in Retinal Astrocytes and Mu¨ ller Cells of the Rat ERIC A. NEWMANH; imaging; BCPCF; pH regulation ABSTRACT Sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in retinal glial cells was studied

  20. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate

    E-print Network

    Hall, Randy A

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/SLC4A7, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Keywords Bicarbonate transporter, pH, protein interaction, SLC4A7, Xenopus oocyte proteins. Introduction NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is a member of SLC4 bicarbonate transporters that include Cl/HCO3

  1. FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    FATE OF INGESTED SODIUM BICARBONATE IN THE FOWL J.-R. HUNT Canada Department of Agriculture (1) and HowEs (1967), that the incorporation of sodium bicarbonate in the diet of the hen results!RPO>&dquo; 1966) and would be unfavourable for sodium bicarbonate to exist in the ionic form. From the results

  2. Effect of ranitidine on basal and bicarbonate enhanced intragastric PCO2: a tonometric study.

    PubMed Central

    Kolkman, J J; Groeneveld, A B; Meuwissen, S G

    1994-01-01

    A high intragastric PCO2 (iPCO2), determined tonometrically, is the main factor participating in a low gastric intramucosal pH (pHi) and may point to gastric mucosal ischaemia. iPCO2 might also increase, however, after buffering of gastric acid by bicarbonate; the magnitude of this effect and the efficacy of H2 blockers to prevent it are unclear. Ten healthy volunteers (20-24 years) were studied at baseline and after oral ingestion of 500 mg sodium bicarbonate. The same test was carried out one hour after intravenous injection of 100 mg ranitidine. A glass pH electrode for continuous gastric juice pH measurements and a Tonomitor catheter were placed 10 cm distally from the gastro-oesophageal junction. iPCO2 was measured in saline boluses, infused at 30 minute intervals in the balloon at the tip of the Tonomitor. Before ranitidine was given, basal iPCO2 (mean (SD)) was 8.40 (2.53) kPa, and increased to 19.20 (5.87) kPa after sodium bicarbonate (p < 0.001). After ranitidine, the gastric juice pH increased from 1.8 (0.9) to 5.6 (1.3) (p < 0.05), while basal iPCO2 was 5.60 (0.67) kPa (p < 0.01) and did not change after sodium bicarbonate (6.27 (2.67) kPa)). iPCO2 values after acid secretion suppression were similar to those in capillary blood (5.60 (0.40 kPa)). The difference between intragastric and blood PCO2 during normal acid secretion probably results from buffering of gastric acid by gastric bicarbonate, rather than by duodenogastric reflux or saliva entering the stomach. During acid secretion suppression, intragastric equals blood PCO2, even after oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate. Hence, acid secretion inhibition is mandatory for proper assessment of iPCO2 and pHi as specific measures of the adequacy of gastric mucosal blood flow. PMID:8020795

  3. DWPF ammonium ion analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Eibling, R.E.

    1992-06-05

    Ammonium nitrate production during the operation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) has been identified as a major problem. The accumulation of ammonium nitrate deposits in the vent system of the chemical processing cell has substantial safety implications and will require analysis of ammonium ions within DWPF process samples. As a part of the research and development of the DWPF at TNX, an ammonium analysis method developed by Dionex Corporation has been identified and confirmed to provide the required information. This memorandum describes the technical basis of the method, the accuracy and precision of the method, known interferences, and maintenance details.

  4. [Breeding of ammonium-tolerant mutants of Actinobacillus succinogenes for succinic acid production and effect of ammonium].

    PubMed

    Ye, Guizi; Jiang, Min; Chen, Kequan; Li, Jian; Xi, Yonglan; Huang, Xiumei; Wei, Ping

    2010-02-01

    An ammonium-tolerant mutant of Actinobacillus succinogenes, YZ25, was obtained in the medium containing 61-242 mmol/L NH4+ after DES mutagenesis. Succinic acid produced by the mutant YZ25 reached 32.68 g/L when the medium contains 50 g/L glucose and 121 mmol/L ammonium, which was increased by 180.5% compared with that of the parent strain. The effects of different ammonium salts on the growth of the mutant and its metabolic response to high ammonium concentrations were investigated. The results showed that low ammonium concentration could improve the specific growth rates of the mutants, while high ammonium concentration inhibited cell growth. The ammonia-nitrogen half-inhibition constants (Ki) for different ammonium salts were as follows: 215 mmol/L for (NH4)2SO4, 265 mmol/L for NH4HCO3, 235 mmol/L for NH4Cl, and 210 mmol/L for NH4NO3. The process of ammonium inhibition on the mutant YZ25 was investigated in 3.0 L stirred fermenter. When NH4OH was used to buffer the pH, cell growth was not inhibited. However, production of succinic acid and consumption of glucose gradually decreased when cells entered the stationary phase, and the glucose could not be utilized completely at the end of fermentation. The possible ammonium inhibition mechanism was discussed based on the metabolic pathway of A. succinogenes. PMID:20432936

  5. Iron coordination in photosystem II: interaction between bicarbonate and the QB pocket studied by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Berthomieu, C; Hienerwadel, R

    2001-04-01

    The non heme iron environment of photosystem II is studied by light-induced infrared spectroscopy. A conclusion of previous work [Hienerwadel, R., and Berthomieu, C. (1995) Biochemistry 34, 16288-16297] is that bicarbonate is a bidendate ligand of the reduced iron and a monodentate ligand in the Fe(3+) state. In this work, the effects of bicarbonate replacement with lactate, glycolate, and glyoxylate, and of o-phenanthroline binding are investigated to determine the specific interactions of bicarbonate with the protein. Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) FTIR spectra recorded with (12)C- and (13)C(1)-labeled lactate indicate that lactate displaces bicarbonate by direct binding to the iron through one carboxylate oxygen and the hydroxyl group in both the Fe(2+) and Fe(3+) states. This different binding mode with respect to bicarbonate could explain the lower midpoint of the iron couple observed in the presence of this anion [Deligiannakis, Y., Petrouleas, V., and Diner, B. A. (1994) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1188, 260-270]. In agreement with the -60 mV/pH unit dependence of the iron midpoint potential in the presence of bicarbonate, the proton release upon iron oxidation by photosystem II is directly measured to 0.95 +/- 0.05 by the comparison of infrared signals of phosphate buffer and ferrocyanide modes. This accurate method may be applied to the study of other redox reactions in proteins. The pH dependence of the iron couple is proposed to reflect the deprotonation of D1His215, a putative iron ligand located at the Q(B) pocket, since the signal at 1094 cm(-1) assigned to the nu(C-N) mode of a histidinate ligand in the Fe(3+) state is not observed in the presence of o-phenanthroline. Specific regulation of the pK(a) of D1His215 by bicarbonate is inferred from the absence of the band at 1094 cm(-1) in Fe(2+)/Fe(3+) spectra recorded with glycolate, glyoxylate, or lactate. A broad positive continuum, maximum at approximately 2550 cm(-1), observed in the presence of bicarbonate, but absent with o-phenanthroline or lactate, glycolate, and glyoxylate, indicates a hydrogen bond network from the non heme iron toward the Q(B) pocket involving bicarbonate and His D1-215. Proton release of about 1, measured upon iron oxidation at pH 6 with the latter anions, points to a proton release mechanism different from that involved in the presence of bicarbonate. PMID:11300785

  6. Comparison of in vitro AGE formation between standard PD fluid and a novel bicarbonate/lactate formulation.

    PubMed

    Millar, D J; Holmes, C; Faict, D; Dawnay, A

    1998-01-01

    Peritoneal advanced glycation end-product (AGE) formation may be accelerated by glucose degradation products produced as a consequence of heat sterilization of peritoneal dialysis (PD) fluid. The formation of these degradation products is reduced if the glucose is separated from the buffers during heat sterilization. This pilot study compared in vitro AGE formation in PD fluid (1.36% and 3.86% glucose) heat sterilized in a two-compartment bag (bicarbonate/lactate buffer) with that in a standard, single-compartment bag (lactate buffer, Dianeal). Peritoneal dialysis fluids were incubated with human serum albumin (HSA, 1 g/L), as a model protein, at 37 degrees C for 0, 5, and 20 days. Formation of AGEs was assessed by measuring fluorescence at each time point. Advanced glycation end-product formation was greater in lactate PD fluid compared with bicarbonate/lactate PD fluid of equivalent glucose strength. Advanced glycation end-product formation in the lactate PD fluid containing 1.36% glucose was comparable to that in the bicarbonate/lactate PD fluid containing 3.86% glucose. The rate of increase in fluorescence per day was greater in the first 5 days of incubation than in the subsequent 15 days. These results are compatible with the presence of greater amounts of glucose-degradation products in the standard single-compartment bag resulting in enhanced AGE formation. PMID:10649722

  7. REMOTE Shared Memory Buffer #2

    E-print Network

    ;#12;#12;Command Buffer Buffer Status Command Buffer Buffer Status Buffer StatusCommand Buffer Process RCS Process RCS Process RCS Write status messages Read command messages Module 1 Module 3 W rite com m and m

  8. Seawater bicarbonate removal during hydrothermal circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proskurowski, G. K.; Seewald, J.; Sylva, S. P.; Reeves, E.; Lilley, M. D.

    2013-12-01

    High temperature fluids sampled at hydrothermal vents represent a complex alteration product of water-rock reactions on a multi-component mixture of source fluids. Sources to high-temperature hydrothermal samples include the 'original' seawater present in the recharge limb of circulation, magmatically influenced fluids added at depth as well as any seawater entrained during sampling. High-temperature hydrothermal fluids are typically enriched in magmatic volatiles, with CO2 the dominant species, characterized by concentrations of 10's-100's of mmol/kg (1, 2). Typically, the high concentration of CO2 relative to background seawater bicarbonate concentrations (~2.3 mmol/kg) obscures a full analysis of the fate of seawater bicarbonate during high-temperature hydrothermal circulation. Here we present data from a suite of samples collected over the past 15 years from high-temperature hydrothermal vents at 9N, Endeavour, Lau Basin, and the MAR that have endmember CO2 concentrations less than 10 mmol/kg. Using stable and radiocarbon isotope measurements these samples provide a unique opportunity to examine the balance between 'original' seawater bicarbonate and CO2 added from magmatic sources. Multiple lines of evidence from multiple hydrothermal settings consistently points to the removal of ~80% of the 'original' 2.3 mmol/kg seawater bicarbonate. Assuming that this removal occurs in the low-temperature, 'recharge' limb of hydrothermal circulation, this removal process is widely occurring and has important contributions to the global carbon cycle over geologic time. 1. Lilley MD, Butterfield DA, Lupton JE, & Olson EJ (2003) Magmatic events can produce rapid changes in hydrothermal vent chemistry. Nature 422(6934):878-881. 2. Seewald J, Cruse A, & Saccocia P (2003) Aqueous volatiles in hydrothermal fluids from the Main Endeavour Field, northern Juan de Fuca Ridge: temporal variability following earthquake activity. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 216(4):575-590.

  9. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4), Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs) including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2), electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2), and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), as well as a borate transporter (BTR1). These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO?3 either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO?3 transporter contributes to a cell's ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s) (e.g., Na+ or Cl?). In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both well-known and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family. PMID:26124722

  10. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  11. Determination of antibacterial quaternary ammonium compounds in lozenges by capillary electrophoresis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. B Taylor; S Toasaksiri; R. G Reid

    1998-01-01

    A method for the specific determination of three quaternary ammonium compounds, benzalkonium chloride, cetylpyridinium chloride and dequalinium chloride, used as antibacterial agents in candy-based lozenges, is described based on capillary zone electrophoresis. It is shown that, following optimisation of buffer composition with respect to organic modifier concentration, pH and buffer concentration together with the inclusion of sodium dodecylsulphate as an

  12. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  13. The anaerobic oxidation of ammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike S. M Jetten; Marc Strous; Katinka T van de Pas-Schoonen; Jos Schalk; Udo G. J. M van Dongen; Astrid A van de Graaf; Susanne Logemann; Gerard Muyzer; Mark C. M van Loosdrecht; J. Gijs Kuenen

    1998-01-01

    From recent research it has become clear that at least two different possibilities for anaerobic ammonium oxidation exist in nature. `Aerobic' ammonium oxidizers like Nitrosomonas eutropha were observed to reduce nitrite or nitrogen dioxide with hydroxylamine or ammonium as electron donor under anoxic conditions. The maximum rate for anaerobic ammonium oxidation was about 2 nmol NH+4 min?1 (mg protein)?1 using

  14. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

  15. A mathematical model of tumour and blood pHe regulation: The HCO buffering system

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    , Bristol, BS8 2PS, UK c H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute, 12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa December 2010 Available online 15 December 2010 Keywords: Buffering Acidity Cancer Bicarbonate a b s t r of glucose than corresponding normal tissues or benign tumours [1,2]. This increased glucose uptake

  16. EFFECT OF BUFFERED AND UNBUFFERED TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE (MS-222) AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS ON THE STRESS RESPONSES OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS RAFINESQUE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of four concentrations (0, 90, 120, and 180 mg/L) of the anesthetic tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) (buffered and unbuffered with sodium bicarbonate) were evaluated on anesthetization efficacy and stress responses of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque). Buffered ...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 ...Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  18. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 ...Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  2. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  3. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  4. Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate and phosphate

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arsenic Aquifer sediment Column leaching Phosphate Bicarbonate Datong Basin Effects of phosphate and bicarbonate concentration on mobilization of arsenic in aquifer

  5. Enhancement of the absorption of CO{sub 2} in alkaline buffer solutions: Joint action of two enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.; Chenlo, F.; Pereira, G.; Vazquez, P. [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering] [Univ. of Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1999-05-01

    The authors measured the absorption of CO{sub 2} in alkaline 0.5 M/0.5 M sodium carbonate/bicarbonate buffers containing either saccharose and sodium arsenite or saccharose and formaldehyde. Absorption enhancement increased upon increasing the concentration of either of the catalysts, but the joint action of the two was always less than the sum of their individual effects, the difference being a function of the acidities and concentrations of the catalysts and the pH of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solution

  6. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and repeated swim sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason C; Gleadall-Siddall, Damien O

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to observe the ergogenic potential of 0.3 g·kg-1 of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) in competitive, nonelite swimmers using a repeated swim sprint design that eliminated the technical component of turning. Six male (181.2 ± 7.2 cm; 80.3 ± 11.9 kg; 50.8 ± 5.5 ml·kg-1·min-1 VO2max) and 8 female (168.8 ± 5.6 cm; 75.3 ± 10.1 kg; 38.8 ± 2.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 VO2max) swimmers completed 2 trial conditions (NaHCO3 [BICARB] and NaCl placebo [PLAC]) implemented in a randomized (counterbalanced), single blind manner, each separated by 1 week. Swimmers were paired according to ability and completed 8, 25-m front crawl maximal effort sprints each separated by 5 seconds. Blood acid-base status was assessed preingestion, pre, and postswim via capillary finger sticks, and total swim time was calculated as a performance measure. Total swim time was significantly decreased in the BICARB compared to PLAC condition (p = 0.04), with the BICARB condition resulting in a 2% decrease in total swim time compared to the PLAC condition (159.4 ± 25.4 vs. 163.2 ± 25.6 seconds; mean difference = 4.4 seconds; 95% confidence interval = 8.7-0.1). Blood analysis revealed significantly elevated blood buffering potential preswim (pH: BICARB = 7.48 ± 0.01, PLAC = 7.41 ± 0.01) along with a significant decrease in extracellular K+ (BICARB = 4.0 ± 0.1 mmol·L-1, PLAC = 4.6 ± 0.1 mmol·L-1). The findings suggest that 0.3 g·kg-1 NaHCO3 ingested 2.5 hours before exercise enhances the blood buffering potential and may positively influence swim performance. PMID:20881504

  7. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  8. Potassium bicarbonate, but not sodium bicarbonate, reduces urinary calcium excretion and improves calcium balance in healthy men

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jacob Lemann; Richard W Gray; Joan A Pleuss

    1989-01-01

    Potassium bicarbonate, but not sodium bicarbonate, reduces urinary calcium excretion and improves calcium balance in healthy men. Previous studies demonstrated that the administration of NaHCO3 or sodium citrate had either only a small effect to reduce urinary Ca excretion or no effect, but that potassium citrate significantly reduced urinary Ca excretion. In order to further evaluate and compare the effects

  9. Comparison of ammonium bicarbonate?DTPA, ammonium carbonate, and ammonium oxalate to assess the availability of molybdenum in mine spoils and soils

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Wang; K. J. Reddy; L. C. Munn

    1994-01-01

    A variety of extractants has been used to assess the availability of molybdenum (Mo) in soils. Most of the extractants have been studied from a deficiency aspect rather than for soils with Mo toxicity, and none of them have been used to extract available Mo from mine spoils. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential of different

  10. Buffer strips trap contaminants

    E-print Network

    Nebraska-Lincoln, University of

    ideal width for riparian buffer strips in Midwest. They trap sediment, nutrients and pesticides. That maater Buffer strips trap contaminants Three research and demonstration projects seek to determine kes riparian buffer strips a valuable tool in preventing nonpo int sour ce pollution, according

  11. Acute ammonium dichromate poisoning.

    PubMed

    Meert, K L; Ellis, J; Aronow, R; Perrin, E

    1994-10-01

    We report the ingestion of ammonium dichromate by a child that resulted in multiple-organ-system failure and death. Exchange transfusion and hemodialysis were ineffective in removing significant amounts of chromium or causing sustained clinical improvement. We suggest that immediate, large doses of the reducing agent ascorbic acid would allow effective reduction of hexavalent chromium with less cellular toxicity. PMID:8092606

  12. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. (University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland))

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  13. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  14. Practical recommendations for coaches and athletes: a meta-analysis of sodium bicarbonate use for athletic performance.

    PubMed

    Peart, Daniel J; Siegler, Jason C; Vince, Rebecca V

    2012-07-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) is a buffering agent that is suggested to improve performance by promoting the efflux of hydrogen ions from working cells and tissues. Research surrounding its efficacy as an ergogenic aid is conflicting, making it difficult to draw conclusions as to its effectiveness for training and competition. This study performed a meta-analysis of relevant research articles to allow the development of concise practical recommendations for coaches and athletes. The overall effect size for the influence of NaHCO3 on performance was moderate, and was significantly lower for specifically trained as opposed to recreationally trained participants. PMID:22505127

  15. Bile Acids and Bicarbonate Inversely Regulate Intracellular Cyclic di-GMP in Vibrio cholerae

    PubMed Central

    Koestler, Benjamin J.

    2014-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative bacterium that persists in aquatic reservoirs and causes the diarrheal disease cholera upon entry into a human host. V. cholerae employs the second messenger molecule 3?,5?-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) to transition between these two distinct lifestyles. c-di-GMP is synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC) enzymes and hydrolyzed by phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzymes. Bacteria typically encode many different DGCs and PDEs within their genomes. Presumably, each enzyme senses and responds to cognate environmental cues by alteration of enzymatic activity. c-di-GMP represses the expression of virulence factors in V. cholerae, and it is predicted that the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP is low during infection. Contrary to this model, we found that bile acids, a prevalent constituent of the human proximal small intestine, increase intracellular c-di-GMP in V. cholerae. We identified four c-di-GMP turnover enzymes that contribute to increased intracellular c-di-GMP in the presence of bile acids, and deletion of these enzymes eliminates the bile induction of c-di-GMP and biofilm formation. Furthermore, this bile-mediated increase in c-di-GMP is quenched by bicarbonate, the intestinal pH buffer secreted by intestinal epithelial cells. Our results lead us to propose that V. cholerae senses distinct microenvironments within the small intestine using bile and bicarbonate as chemical cues and responds by modulating the intracellular concentration of c-di-GMP. PMID:24799624

  16. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Ryan Penton

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently discovered nitrogen removal pathway in natural systems. First found to\\u000a be a significant nitrogen sink in the Black Sea anoxic water column in 2003, anammox has shown to be responsible for as much\\u000a as 79% of N2 production in marine sediments. Little is known concerning the significance of anammox in freshwater systems and

  17. Structure, hydrogen bonding and thermal expansion of ammonium carbonate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Wood, Ian G.; Alfč, Dario; Hernández, Eduardo R.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Sparkes, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047?(3), b = 4.453?(1), c = 11.023?(3)?Ĺ and V = 591.3?(3)?Ĺ3 [?calc = 1281.8?(7)?kg?m?3] at 10?K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100?K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273?K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263?K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273?K; above 273?K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (E HB ? 30–40?kJ?mol?1), on the basis of H?O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ??36?kJ?mol?1. The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal. PMID:25449618

  18. Structure, hydrogen bonding and thermal expansion of ammonium carbonate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic; Wood, Ian G; Alfč, Dario; Hernández, Eduardo R; Gutmann, Matthias J; Sparkes, Hazel A

    2014-12-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047?(3), b = 4.453?(1), c = 11.023?(3)?Ĺ and V = 591.3?(3)?Ĺ(3) [?calc = 1281.8?(7)?kg?m(-3)] at 10?K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100?K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273?K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263?K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273?K; above 273?K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (EHB ? 30-40?kJ?mol(-1)), on the basis of H...O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ??36?kJ?mol(-1). The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal. PMID:25449618

  19. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  20. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  1. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Preloading on Ischemic Renal Failure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L. Atkins

    1986-01-01

    Rats pretreated with sodium bicarbonate were functionally protected from the damage of bilateral renal artery occlusion. The rise in serum creatinine (day 1 minus day 0) during the first 24 h after ischemia was 2.88 ± 0.28 mg% in the bicarbonate-loaded animals versus 3.90 ± 0.26 mg% in their matched controls (p ? 0.01). Pretreatment with acetazolamide produced a similar

  2. Effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated sprints

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G Lavender; S R Bird

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion upon repeated bouts of intensive short duration exercise. Twenty-three subjects participated in the investigation (8 females and 15 males, age 21.4 +\\/- 2.3, mean +\\/- sd). Subjects completed six trials; three following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg\\/kg body weight) and three following the ingestion

  3. [Gastric emptying and metabolic acidosis. II. Study, in an experimental model in rats, of gastric retention of a sodium bicarbonate solution].

    PubMed

    Belangero, V M; Collares, E F

    1992-01-01

    The gastric emptying of a 0.25 M sodium bicarbonate solution was studied in rats with metabolic acidosis induced by a previous (6 hours) orogastric infusion of a 0.5 M ammonium chloride solution. Two control groups were used: one previously infused with 0.5 M sodium chloride and the other with water, in the same volume that further solutions. Every animal was fed with 2 ml/100 g of its weight of these solutions. The test meal (bicarbonate solution) was utilized containing 6 mg% red fenol as a marker. The gastric retentions were determined 6 hours after those first meals at 5, 10, 20 and 30 minutes. The results demonstrated that the gastric retentions of the bicarbonate solution were significantly lower in the acidotic group than that one of water group (at 20 minutes) and that one of the sodium chloride (at 10, 20 and 30 minutes). The data here presented suggest that metabolic acidosis accelerates the gastric emptying of a sodium bicarbonate solution. PMID:1339142

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  5. Ammonium imidazolium dichromate.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Run-Qiang

    2012-04-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, (C(3)H(5)N(2))(NH(4))[Cr(2)O(7)], the anions and cations are linked through N-H?O hydrogen bonds, resulting in a three-dimensional structure which contains three kinds of layers parallel to (001). One layer contains imidazole cations, the other two layers the ammonium cations and dichromate anions. The dichromate anion has an eclipsed conformation with a dihedral angle of 14.65?(18)° between the mean planes of the O-P-O-P-O backbone. PMID:22589777

  6. Ammonium scandium tetrafluoride.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Nicholas F; Lightfoot, Philip

    2006-12-01

    The title compound, NH4ScF4, is an addition to the AMF4 family of layered perovskite-like structures. The structure consists of a two-dimensional array of corner-sharing ScF6 octahedra, which produces anionic sheets of stoichiometry [ScF4]- stacked along the c axis. The layers are separated by charge-balancing ammonium cations, which hydrogen bond to the apical F atoms of adjacent layers. This structure may be viewed as a ;single-layer' fluoride analogue of the Dion-Jacobson family of oxides. PMID:17148883

  7. Sodium bicarbonate versus normal saline for protection against contrast nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Budhiraja, Pooja; Chen, Zhao; Popovtzer, Mordecai

    2009-01-01

    Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is a form of acute kidney injury and a significant source of morbidity and mortality. We defined CIN as an increase in serum creatinine (SCr) of 25% or more within 48 hours of receiving contrast. We retrospectively compared sodium bicarbonate with normal saline for prevention of CIN. One hundred and eighty-seven patients exposed to contrast during cardiac angiography, treated prophylactically either with sodium bicarbonate (n = 89) or with normal saline (n = 98), were studied. Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar in terms of age, amount of contrast, presence of diabetes mellitus, and use of furosemide and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. Patients in bicarbonate group had more severe renal disease with higher baseline SCr (1.58 +/- 0.5 mg/dL vs. 1.28 +/- 0.3 mg/dL, p = 0.001) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, 51.06 +/- 14.0 mL/min vs. 62.3+/-13.5 mL/min, p = 0.001) compared to the normal saline group. After the contrast exposure, there was significant drop in eGFR (6.4%) and increase in SCr (11.3%) in the normal saline group and no significant change in the bicarbonate group. Three patients (3.4%) in the bicarbonate group as opposed to 14 patients (14.3%) in the normal saline group developed CIN (p = 0.011). Two patients in the normal saline group and none in the bicarbonate group needed dialysis. There was no significant difference in serum creatinine at three-month follow-up in either group. The above findings suggest that hydration with intravenous sodium bicarbonate is more effective than normal saline in preventing contrast-induced nephropathy. PMID:19212908

  8. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on maximal sprint swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of simultaneous supplementation of extracellular buffer sodium bicarbonate (SB) and intracellular buffer beta-alanine (BA) on maximal sprint swimming. Methods Thirteen competitive male swimmers completed 4 different treatments (placebo [PL], SB, BA?+?PL, and BA + SB) in a crossover procedure. PL or SB supplementation (0.3 g/kg body weight) was ingested 60 min before two maximal 100-m freestyle swims that were performed with a passive recovery of 12-min between each swim. Because of the known long washout period for carnosine, four weeks of BA supplementation (4.8 g per day) was started after the first week of PL or SB supplementation and performance testing. Results The first maximal swims were similar, but the increase in time of the second versus the first 100-m swimming time was 1.5 s more (p < 0.05) in PL than in SB. Blood pH values were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the SB and in the BA + SB groups compared to the PL and BA + PL values. There were no differences in peak blood lactate between the treatments. Conclusion Supplementing with SB prior to performing maximal sprint swimming with repetitions under 60 s improves performance. However, co-supplementation with SB and BA did not confer any added benefit on maximal swim performance. PMID:24215679

  9. Tri-State Buffer

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Bartelt, Terry L. M.

    This interactive presentation, created by Terry Bartelt and hosted by the Electromechanical Digital Library, discusses the tri-state buffer used in devices employing digital circuitry. A tri-state buffer is "one type of device that is used in digital circuits receiving two logic states but producing three different types of output signals." The presentation is filled with useful flash animations presenting the buffer's use. Furthermore, a series of slides presents the application of this device in different situations. Once complete, a short four-question quiz is provided to test the full understanding of the different concepts.

  10. High bicarbonate assimilation in the dark by Arctic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Galand, Pierre E; Casamayor, Emilio O; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos; Bertilsson, Stefan

    2010-12-01

    Although both autotrophic and heterotrophic microorganisms incorporate CO? in the dark through different metabolic pathways, this process has usually been disregarded in oxic marine environments. We studied the significance and mediators of dark bicarbonate assimilation in dilution cultures inoculated with winter Arctic seawater. At stationary phase, bicarbonate incorporation rates were high (0.5-2.5??g?C L?ą?d?ą) and correlated with rates of bacterial heterotrophic production, suggesting that most of the incorporation was due to heterotrophs. Accordingly, very few typically chemoautotrophic bacteria were detected by 16S rRNA gene cloning. The genetic analysis of the biotin carboxylase gene accC putatively involved in archaeal CO? fixation did not yield any archaeal sequence, but amplified a variety of bacterial carboxylases involved in fatty acids biosynthesis, anaplerotic pathways and leucine catabolism. Gammaproteobacteria dominated the seawater cultures (40-70% of cell counts), followed by Betaproteobacteria and Flavobacteria as shown by catalyzed reporter deposition fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARDFISH). Both Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were active in leucine and bicarbonate uptake, while Flavobacteria did not take up bicarbonate, as measured by microautoradiography combined with CARDFISH. Within Gammaproteobacteria, Pseudoalteromonas-Colwellia and Oleispira were very active in bicarbonate uptake (ca. 30 and 70% of active cells, respectively), while the group Arctic96B-16 did not take up bicarbonate. Our results suggest that, potentially, the incorporation of CO? can be relevant for the metabolism of specific Arctic heterotrophic phylotypes, promoting the maintenance of their cell activity and/or longer survival under resource depleted conditions. PMID:20555365

  11. pH and buffer capacities of apoplastic and cytoplasmic cell compartments in leaves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vello Oja; Galina Savchenko; Burkhard Jakob; Ulrich Heber

    1999-01-01

    .   After opening the stomata in CO2-free air, darkened leaves of several plant species were titrated with CO2 at concentrations between 1 and 16%, in air in order to reversibly decrease cellular pH values and to calculate buffer capacities\\u000a from pH changes and bicarbonate accumulation using both gas-exchange and fluorescence methods for analysis. After equilibration\\u000a with CO2 for times ranging

  12. Ammonium metabolism and protection from urease mediated destruction in Helicobacter pylori infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W D Neithercut; C Williams; M S Hossack; K E McColl

    1993-01-01

    AIM: To investigate further the intracellular ammonium metabolism of Helicobacter pylori and the mechanism of its urease mediated destruction. METHODS: The mechanism of the in vitro destruction of H pylori was investigated by incubating it in buffer solutions, at pH 6.0, containing isocitrate or alpha ketoglutarate in addition to urea concentrations which had previously been shown to destroy H pylori.

  13. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation for treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Ping Zheng; Chong-jian Tang; Jin Ren-cun

    2008-01-01

    The concept of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) is presently of great interest. The functional bacteria belonging to\\u000a the Planctomycete phylum and their metabolism are investigated by microbiologists. Meanwhile, the ANAMMOX is equally valuable\\u000a in treatment of ammonium-rich wastewaters. Related processes including partial nitritation-ANAMMOX and completely autotrophic\\u000a nitrogen removal over nitrite (CANON) have been developed, and lab-scale experiments proved that both

  14. The stable nonequilibrium state of bicarbonate aqueous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voeikov, V. L.; Vilenskaya, N. D.; Ha, Do Minh; Malyshenko, S. I.; Buravleva, E. V.; Yablonskaya, O. I.; Timofeev, K. N.

    2012-09-01

    Data obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and chemiluminescence analysis indicate that in aqueous solutions of bicarbonates, superoxide radical and other reactive oxygen species (ROS) are constantly produced. The stationary level of the superoxide radical is found to increase when a solution is illuminated. Reactions involving ROS are shown to be accompanied by the generation of electron excitation energy, keeping bicarbonate solutions in a stable nonequilibrium state. The system can emit part of this energy. Variations in emitting activity are found to correlate with variations in the cosmophysical factors. The emitting activity of solutions is found to vary in the presence of low and ultralow concentrations of hydrated fullerenes. It is noted that the phenomenon of spontaneous charge separation in aqueous systems (G. H. Pollack) could play a role in maintaining a stable nonequilibrium state in bicarbonate systems where the reactions with ROS participation are catalyzed by forms of carbonate. It is concluded that the abovementioned properties of bicarbonate aqueous systems most likely keep living matter whose structural basis is formed by these systems in a stable excited state, thereby making it highly sensitive to the action of external factors with low and ultralow intensities.

  15. Sodium Bicarbonate for the Treatment of Lactic Acidosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sean M. Forsythe; Gregory A. Schmidt

    Lactic acidosis often challenges the intensivist and is associated with a strikingly high mortality. Treatment involves discerning and correcting its underlying cause, ensuring adequate oxygen delivery to tissues, reducing oxygen demand through sedation and mechanical ventilation, and (most controversially) attempting to alkalinize the blood with IV sodium bicarbonate. Here we review the literature to answer the following questions: Is a

  16. Hormonal regulation of bicarbonate secretion in the biliary epithelium.

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, D.; Gigliozzi, A.; Fraioli, F.; Romeo, R.; Papa, E.; Delle Monache, M.; Capocaccia, L.

    1997-01-01

    Bicarbonate excretion in bile is a major function of the biliary epithelium. It is driven by the apically located Cl-/HCO3- exchanger which is functionally coupled with a cAMP-dependent Cl- channel (CFTR). A number of hormones and/or neuropeptides with different mechanisms and at different intracellular levels regulate, in concert, the processes underlying bicarbonate excretion in the biliary epithelium. Secretin induces a bicarbonate rich choleresis by stimulating the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger by cAMP and protein kinase A mediated phosphorylation of CFTR regulatory domain. Protein phosphatase 1/2A are involved in the run-down of secretory stimulus after secretin removal. Acetylcholine potentiates secretin-choleresis by inducing a Ca(++)-calcineurin mediated "sensitization" of adenyl cyclase to secretin. Bombesin and vasoactive intestinal peptide also enhance the Cl-/HCO3- exchanger activity, but the intracellular signal transduction pathway has not yet been defined. Somatostatin and gastrin inhibit basal and/or secretin-stimulated bicarbonate excretion by down-regulating the secretin receptor and decreasing cAMP intracellular levels induced by secretin. PMID:9626762

  17. Bicarbonate ingestion: Effects of dosage on 60 s cycle ergometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars R. McNaughton

    1992-01-01

    Nine healthy male subjects who were all participating in athletic events volunteered to take part in this study, the aim of which was to determine whether there are specific dosages of sodium bicarbonate (HCO3 ) that are useful as an ergogenic aid as far as anaerobic performance times are concerned. A control, placebo (CaCO3 500 mg kg) and five dosages

  18. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of ammonium sulfate to carbonate systems 

    E-print Network

    Feagley, Sam Edward

    1976-01-01

    O O E X z I. O N ORNOOD SL MgCO 3 E 0. 5 CaCO~ BaCO~ 0. 0 0 20 40 60 80 IOO Time Af ter (NH4)2 S04 Applie d (hours) Figure 3. Ratios of ammonia (ammonium) to carbon dioxid. e (bicarbonate) evolved versus time for several carbonate... evolved. increased rapidly through the first 12 hours then slowly for the remainder of' the 60 hour reaction period. The CO also increased through the first 12 hours, then decreased sharply between the 12 and 20 hour sampling periods. It stayed...

  19. CCMR: Investigation of Potential Buffer Solutions and Concentrations for an Electrochemical Microfluidic Biosensor

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wiles, Laura K.

    2009-08-15

    Biosensors are analytical devices that are being used to detect a variety of analytes including pathogens via antibody recognition. Liposomes have been used in the Baeumner research group for signal generation and amplification. In one detection strategy, electrochemical signals are being reported by entrapping a redox couple in the inner cavity of the liposomes and releasing them upon detection of the pathogen. The main task of this research was the optimization of a buffer system that can be used for the entrapment of the redox couple and does not inhibit the oxidation and reduction reactions on a gold electrode. Potassium ferrihexacyanide and potassium ferrohexacyanide (ferri/ferrohexacyanide) were used as redox couple and dissolved in 0.01M bicarbonate buffer, pH 7.0; 0.01M and 0.1M sodium borate buffers, pH 7.0; and 0.01M and 0.1M phosphate buffers, pH 7.0. The current produced by flowing each of these solutions through a 500?m long by 50?m deep channel in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) over the interdigitated ultramicroelectrode array (IDUA) was measured using amperometry. The resulting signal peaks created by the redox cycling of ferri/ferrohexacyanide on the electrode were compared. A 10?M solution of ferri/ferrohexacyanide gave signals of 0.44nA in 0.01M phosphate buffer, 0.41nA in sodium borate, 0.37nA in sodium borate diluted in phosphate buffer, and 0.04nA in 0.01M bicarbonate. Since the phosphate buffer cannot be used for liposome synthesis, it was determined that the sodium borate buffer might be the best alternative.

  20. Bicarbonate reabsorption in chronic renal failure studies in man and the rat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jose A. L. Arruda; Luiz Nascimento; Gilberto Arevalo; Robert L. Baranowski; Andrew Cubria; Thomas Carrasquillo; Christof Westenfelder; Neil A. Kurtzman

    1978-01-01

    Bicarbonate reabsorption during bicarbonate loading was measured in rats and in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF) and in normal human subjects. Bicarbonate reabsorption expressed as Tm\\/GFR was not significantly different between normal and CRF rats despite the fact that fractional chloride excretion was significantly greater (an indication of volume expansion) in CRF rats than in normals. The ratio of

  1. Proteins contribute insignificantly to the intrinsic buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Poznanski, Jaroslaw [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Szczesny, Pawel [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland) [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Experimental Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Ruszczynska, Katarzyna [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland)] [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Zielenkiewicz, Piotr [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland) [Institute of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Institute of Experimental Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw (Poland); Paczek, Leszek, E-mail: leszek.paczek@wum.edu.pl [Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)] [Department of Immunology, Transplantology and Internal Medicine, Warsaw Medical University, Warsaw (Poland)

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted buffering capacity of yeast proteome from protein abundance data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured total buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that proteins contribute insignificantly to buffering capacity. -- Abstract: Intracellular pH is maintained by a combination of the passive buffering of cytoplasmic dissociable compounds and several active systems. Over the years, a large portion of and possibly most of the cell's intrinsic (i.e., passive non-bicarbonate) buffering effect was attributed to proteins, both in higher organisms and in yeast. This attribution was not surprising, given that the concentration of proteins with multiple protonable/deprotonable groups in the cell exceeds the concentration of free protons by a few orders of magnitude. Using data from both high-throughput experiments and in vitro laboratory experiments, we tested this concept. We assessed the buffering capacity of the yeast proteome using protein abundance data and compared it to our own titration of yeast cytoplasm. We showed that the protein contribution is less than 1% of the total intracellular buffering capacity. As confirmed with NMR measurements, inorganic phosphates play a crucial role in the process. These findings also shed a new light on the role of proteomes in maintaining intracellular pH. The contribution of proteins to the intrinsic buffering capacity is negligible, and proteins might act only as a recipient of signals for changes in pH.

  2. Effects of dietary alteration of bicarbonate and magnesium on rat bone.

    PubMed

    Burnell, J M; Liu, C; Miller, A G; Teubner, E

    1986-02-01

    To study the effects of bicarbonate and magnesium on bone, mild acidosis and/or hypermagnesemia were produced in growing rats by feeding ammonium chloride and/or magnesium sulfate. Bone composition, quantitative histomorphometry, and mineral x-ray diffraction (XRD) characteristics were measured after 6 wk of treatment. The results demonstrated that both acidosis (decreased HCO3) and hypermagnesemia inhibited periosteal bone formation, and, when combined, results were summative; and the previously observed in vitro role of HCO3- and Mg2+ as inhibitors of crystal growth were confirmed in vivo. XRD measurements demonstrated that decreased plasma HCO3 resulted in larger crystals and increased Mg resulted in smaller crystals. However, the combined XRD effects of acidosis and hypermagnesemia resembled acidosis alone. It is postulated that the final composition and crystal structure of bone are strongly influenced by HCO3- and Mg2+, and the effects are mediated by the combined influence on both osteoblastic bone formation and the growth of hydroxyapatite. PMID:3946606

  3. Ammonium transport in the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eladari, Dominique; Chambrey, Régine

    2010-01-01

    Ammonium excretion into the urine is the main mechanism of renal acid excretion. Ammonium is produced by epithelial cells of the proximal tubule and then secreted into the luminal fluid. However, before its final excretion into urine, ammonium ion is reabsorbed by the thick ascending limb (TAL), and accumulated in the interstitium to build up a corticopapillary gradient of ammonium which is necessary for the final diffusion of the gas NH3 in parallel to active proton secretion. Recent evidence has been provided by the study of several mouse models of renal acidosis. Particularly, it has been shown that the Na+/H+ exchanger NHE4 is a critical step of ammonium absorption by the TAL, and also that NH3 diffusion across the membrane of collecting duct cells requires the presence of the recently identified gas channel Rhcg. This review is an update on the different mechanisms of ammonium transport along the nephron, with a particular emphasis on these new molecules. PMID:21170885

  4. Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH

    SciTech Connect

    Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

    1987-08-01

    The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/. Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na/sup +/ was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na/sup +/. At a constant external concentration of HCO/sub 3/-, the amount of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO/sub 3/- decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO/sub 3/- is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ both in the absence and presence of Na/sup +/. At alkaline internal pH, HCO/sub 3/- stimulated the efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na/sup +/ and HCO/sub 3/- were required to induce /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.

  5. Heterotrophic bicarbonate assimilation is the main process of de novo organic carbon synthesis in hadal zone of the Hellenic Trench, the deepest part of Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Smedile, Francesco; Crisafi, Francesca; Arcadi, Erika; Leonardi, Marcella; Decembrini, Franco; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Bargiela, Rafael; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium-oxidizing chemoautotrophic members of Thaumarchaea are proposed to be the key players in the assimilation of bicarbonate in the dark (ABD). However, this process may also involve heterotrophic metabolic pathways, such as fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) via various anaplerotic reactions. We collected samples from the depth of 4900?m at the Matapan-Vavilov Deep (MVD) station (Hellenic Trench, Eastern Mediterranean) and used the multiphasic approach to study the ABD mediators in this deep-sea ecosystem. At this depth, our analysis indicated the occurrence of actively CO2-fixing heterotrophic microbial assemblages dominated by Gammaproteobacteria with virtually no Thaumarchaea present. [14C]-bicarbonate incorporation experiments combined with shotgun [14C]-proteomic analysis identified a series of proteins of gammaproteobacterial origin. More than quarter of them were closely related with Alteromonas macleodii ‘deep ecotype’ AltDE, the predominant organism in the microbial community of MVD. The present study demonstrated that in the aphotic/hadal zone of the Mediterranean Sea, the assimilation of bicarbonate is associated with both chemolithoauto- and heterotrophic ABD. In some deep-sea areas, the latter may predominantly contribute to the de novo synthesis of organic carbon which points at the important and yet underestimated role heterotrophic bacterial populations can play the in global carbon cycle/sink in the ocean interior. PMID:25756124

  6. Differential Buffer Ring Oscillator

    E-print Network

    Ayazi, Farrokh

    Differential Buffer delay Ring Oscillator Replica-feedback current souce bias circuit VDD = 2.4 - 3. The clock generator is based on a 3-stage differential ring oscillator. The compensation technique to appropriately change the control voltage of the differential ring oscillator. Measurements made across

  7. Transplastomic integration of a cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter into tobacco chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Pengelly, J. J. L.; Förster, B.; von Caemmerer, S.; Badger, M. R.; Price, G. D.; Whitney, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Improving global yields of agricultural crops is a complex challenge with evidence indicating benefits in productivity are achieved by enhancing photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Towards improving rates of CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts, this study shows the versatility of plastome transformation for expressing the Synechococcus PCC7002 BicA bicarbonate transporter within tobacco plastids. Fractionation of chloroplast membranes from transplastomic tobBicA lines showed that ~75% of the BicA localized to the thylakoid membranes and ~25% to the chloroplast envelope. BicA levels were highest in young emerging tobBicA leaves (0.12 ?mol m–2, ?7mg m–2) accounting for ~0.1% (w/w) of the leaf protein. In these leaves, the molar amount of BicA was 16-fold lower than the abundant thylakoid photosystem II D1 protein (~1.9 ?mol m–2) which was comparable to the 9:1 molar ratio of D1:BicA measured in air-grown Synechococcus PCC7002 cells. The BicA produced had no discernible effect on chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rates, carbon isotope discrimination, or growth of the tobBicA plants, implying that the bicarbonate transporter had little or no activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of plastome transformation for targeting bicarbonate transporter proteins into the chloroplast membranes without impeding growth or plastid ultrastructure. This study establishes the span of experimental measurements required to verify heterologous bicarbonate transporter function and location in chloroplasts and underscores the need for more detailed understanding of BicA structure and function to identify solutions for enabling its activation and operation in leaf chloroplasts. PMID:24965541

  8. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion improves performance in interval swimming

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jiaping Gao; David L. Costill; Craig A. Horswill; Sung H. Park

    1988-01-01

    Summary  In an effort to determine the effects of bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on exercise performance, ten male college swimmers were studied during five different trials. Each trial consisted of five 91.4m (100-yd) front crawl swims with a two-minute rest interval between each bout. The trials consisted of two NaHCO3 treatments, two placebo trials and one test with no-drink. One hour before

  9. Sodium bicarbonate reduces postharvest decay development on melons

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Aharoni; E. Fallik; A. Copel; M. Gil; S. Grinberg; J. D. Klein

    1997-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate (SBC) inhibited in vitro mycelial growth of A. alternata, Fusarium spp. and R. stolonifer. SBC action was fungistatic rather than fungicidal. Coating commercially harvested ‘Galia’ and ‘Ein-Dor’ melons with wax containing 2% SBC reduced decay incidence after storage and shelf life simulation by four to seven-fold, to a commercially acceptable level of 6–7%, compared to untreated or waxed-treated

  10. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

    2014-07-20

    Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

  11. Electrochemical Studies on Silicate and Bicarbonate Ions for Corrosion Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohorich, Michael E.; Lamb, Joshua; Chandra, Dhanesh; Daemen, Jaak; Rebak, Raul B.

    2010-10-01

    Several types of carbon and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels are being considered for use in the underground reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization under reducing conditions was used to determine the corrosion rates (CRs) and passivity behavior of AISI 4340 steel using different combinations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), in both pure water (PW) and simulated seawater (SW, 3.5 pct NaCl). These experiments were carried out to examine the potential inhibiting properties of the silicate or bicarbonate ions on the surface of the steel. The addition of sodium silicate to solution reduced the observed CR at room temperature to 19 ?m/y at 0.005 M concentration and 7 ?m/y at 0.025 M concentration in PW. The addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the CR from 84 ?m/y (C = 0.1 M) to 455 ?m/y (C = 1 M). These same behaviors were also observed at higher temperatures.

  12. Sodium bicarbonate treatment extends life of formerly acid lake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    For the second time, researchers have used a familiar home remedy to restore the balance of a once acid lake. On September 29, Wolf Pond, in New York's Adirondack State Park, was treated with sodium bicarbonate to adjust alkalinity and keep pH at normal levels at least into the 1990's. Since it was first treated with bicarbonate in 1984, Wolf Pond has recovered and stabilized enough to sustain fish life once again. Repeated dosing is necessary because acid rain and runoff gradually deplete alkalinity in the lake over a period of years. Wolf Pond was selected for study because it has very little outflow and its major source of replenishment is rain. As the 1986 study explained, sodium bicarbonate was chosen for this application because it provides four advantages: (1) it is very soluble; (2) it cannot raise pH above 8.5; (3) it is easy to handle and apply; and (4) it is safe enough to be a common ingredient of many pharmaceuticals and foods.

  13. Bicarbonate-Dependent Secretion and Proteolytic Processing of Recombinant Myocilin

    PubMed Central

    Aroca-Aguilar, José-Daniel; Martínez-Redondo, Francisco; Martín-Gil, Alba; Pintor, Jesús; Coca-Prados, Miguel; Escribano, Julio

    2013-01-01

    Myocilin is an extracellular glycoprotein of poorly understood function. Mutations of this protein are involved in glaucoma, an optic neuropathy characterized by a progressive and irreversible visual loss and frequently associated with elevated intraocular pressure. We previously showed that recombinant myocilin undergoes an intracellular proteolytic processing by calpain II which cleaves the central region of the protein, releasing one N- and one C-terminal fragment. Myocilin cleavage is reduced by glaucoma mutations and it has been proposed to participate in intraocular pressure modulation. To identify possible factors regulating the proteolytic processing of recombinant myocilin, we used a cellular model in which we analyzed how different culture medium parameters (i.e., culture time, cell density, pH, bicarbonate concentration, etc.) affect the presence of the extracellular C-terminal fragment. Extracellular bicarbonate depletion associated with culture medium acidification produced a reversible intracellular accumulation of full-length recombinant myocilin and incremented its intracellular proteolytic processing, raising the extracellular C-terminal fragment percentage. It was also determined that myocilin intracellular accumulation depends on its N-terminal region. These data suggest that aqueous humor bicarbonate variations could also modulate the secretion and cleavage of myocilin present in ocular tissues. PMID:23342144

  14. pH buffering does not influence BDNF responses to exercise.

    PubMed

    Rojas Vega, S; Hollmann, W; Vera Wahrmann, B; Strüder, H K

    2012-01-01

    The influence of acidosis on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) was examined by buffering pH changes during 10 min of continuous low intensity (LIE) and following high intensity cycling exercise to exhaustion (HIE). 11 athletes participated in 2 trials separated by 1 week. Individuals received either a placebo infusion (isotonic saline) or an isotonic sodium bicarbonate infusion before and during exercise. Blood samples were drawn at rest, after LIE and after HIE, as well as 3, 6, 10 and 15 min post exercise. During placebo trial, HIE induced a profound decrease (p<0.01) of capillary blood bicarbonate concentration (HCO3-), pH, base excess (BE) and pCO2. Higher (p<0.01) HCO3-, pH and BE were found during bicarbonate infusion and post exercise in comparison to the placebo trial. Exercise induced an identical increase of blood lactate concentration in both trials. Serum BDNF concentration was increased (p<0.01) at the end of HIE and remained elevated until 3 min post exercise in both trials. The present study suggests that during HIE lactate might have an acidosis-independed impact on BDNF secretion because buffering of blood gases, that attenuate the fall of pH but not the accumulation of lactic acid, failed to alter the exercise-induced increase of BDNF. PMID:22127561

  15. Virginia Tech - Buffer Pool

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cliff Shaffer

    Allows user to select from FIFO, LRU, and LFU page replacement strategies. User then gives a series of page requests and the AV shows the decisions made regarding page replacement. Simple to use, clearly shows the process. It would be nice if the user could pick the size of the backing memory and the buffer pool. Recommended as lecture aide, standalone, self-study suppliment to tutorial or lecture.

  16. Acid Rain Experiments: Soil Buffering

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This experiment will help students understand that soil sometimes contains substances, like limestone, that buffer acids or bases, and that some salts in soil may also act as buffers. They will collect soil samples from their lawn, garden, or school and look for buffering effects by observing the pH change of an acid mixture poured through the samples. If the water collected from the sample is less acidic than the original mixture, then the soil is buffering some of the acid. If it does not change, then the soil may not be capable of buffering acids.

  17. Buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Collard, Marie; Laitat, Kim; Moulin, Laure; Catarino, Ana I; Grosjean, Philippe; Dubois, Philippe

    2013-09-01

    The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic activity results in an acidification of the surface waters of the oceans. The impact of these chemical changes depends on the considered organisms. In particular, it depends on the ability of the organism to control the pH of its inner fluids. Among echinoderms, this ability seems to differ significantly according to species or taxa. In the present paper, we investigated the buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid in different echinoderm taxa as well as factors modifying this capacity. Euechinoidea (sea urchins except Cidaroidea) present a very high buffer capacity of the coelomic fluid (from 0.8 to 1.8mmolkg(-1) SW above that of seawater), while Cidaroidea (other sea urchins), starfish and holothurians have a significantly lower one (from -0.1 to 0.4mmolkg(-1) SW compared to seawater). We hypothesize that this is linked to the more efficient gas exchange structures present in the three last taxa, whereas Euechinoidea evolved specific buffer systems to compensate lower gas exchange abilities. The constituents of the buffer capacity and the factors influencing it were investigated in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and the starfish Asterias rubens. Buffer capacity is primarily due to the bicarbonate buffer system of seawater (representing about 63% for sea urchins and 92% for starfish). It is also partly due to coelomocytes present in the coelomic fluid (around 8% for both) and, in P. lividus only, a compound of an apparent size larger than 3kDa is involved (about 15%). Feeding increased the buffer capacity in P. lividus (to a difference with seawater of about 2.3mmolkg(-1) SW compared to unfed ones who showed a difference of about 0.5mmolkg(-1) SW) but not in A. rubens (difference with seawater of about 0.2 for both conditions). In P. lividus, decreased seawater pH induced an increase of the buffer capacity of individuals maintained at pH7.7 to about twice that of the control individuals and, for those at pH7.4, about three times. This allowed a partial compensation of the coelomic fluid pH for individuals maintained at pH7.7 but not for those at pH7.4. PMID:23752123

  18. Using ammonium bicarbonate as pore former in activated carbon catalyst layer to enhance performance of air cathode microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Qu, Youpeng; Liu, Jia; He, Weihua; Wang, Haiman; Feng, Yujie

    2014-12-01

    The rolling catalyst layers in air cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are prepared by introducing NH4HCO3 as pore former (PF) with four PF/activated carbon mass ratios of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0. The maximum power density of 892 ± 8 mW m-2 is obtained by cathodes with the mass ratio of 0.2, which is 33% higher than that of the control reactor (without PF, 671 ± 22 mW m-2). Pore analysis indicates the porosity increases by 38% and the major pore range concentrates between 0.5 ?m-0.8 ?m which likely facilitates to enrich the active reaction sites compared to 0.8 ?m-3.0 ?m in the control and other PF-cathodes. In addition, pore structure endows the cathode improved exchange current density by 2.4 times and decreased charge transfer resistance by 44%, which are the essential reasons to enhance the oxygen reduction. These results show that addition of NH4HCO3 proves an effective way to change the porosity and pore distribution of catalyst layers and then enhance the MFC performance.

  19. Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack

    E-print Network

    solution for energy generation in reverse electrodialysis (RED) stacks. However, operating RED stacks capable of generat- ing electricity is essential in order to meet rising global energy demands. Salinity gradient energy, which is based on extracting the free energy released from natural salinity gradients

  20. Wettability of Ammonium Nitrate Prills

    Microsoft Academic Search

    QUEENIE S. M. KWOK; PEETER KRUUS; DAVID E. G. JONES

    2004-01-01

    The wettability of ammonium nitrate (AN) prills is one of the primary factors determining the physical stability and detonation behavior of ANFO. The wettabilities of various types of AN prills were compared using capillary penetration measurements. Complementary characterization studies using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetry (TG) were performed to rationalize the observed differences in wettability. The wettability of AN

  1. Cyclo-hexyl-ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz A; Aboud, Mohamed F A; Shemsi, Ahsan M; Addurihem, Emad S; Al-Othman, Zeid A; Chidan Kumar, C S; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-03-01

    In the title salt, C6H14N(+)·NO3 (-), the cyclo-hexyl ring adopts a chair conformation. The ammonium group occupies an equatorial position and the crystal struture is stabilized by inter-molecular N-H?O hydrogen-bonding inter-actions, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:24764971

  2. Influence of Heterogeneous Ammonium Availability on Bacterial

    E-print Network

    Lovley, Derek

    and the Expression of Nitrogen Fixation and Ammonium Transporter Genes during in Situ Bioremediation of Uranium bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater was evaluated. Ammonium concentrations varied by 2 orders microbial processes during bioremediation. Introduction

  3. Basics of base in hemodialysis solution: Dialysate buffer production, delivery and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Desai, N

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis requires the use of high volumes of freshly prepared, clean dialysate to foster the removal of low molecular weight metabolites (i.e., urea) and to correct the electrolyte and acid-base imbalance of chronic renal failure. Dialysate is produced by mixing clean, AAMI grade water with both an acid and base concentrate. This purpose of this report is to describe production, mixing and delivery of the buffer component of dialysate, and to also to address the cost, safety and feasibility of producing online bicarbonate. As endotoxin contaminated dialysate has been associated with the release of key mediators in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with long-term hemodialysis therapy, aspects of disinfecting a bicarbonate delivery loop are also addressed. PMID:26199467

  4. Buffered lidocaine and bupivacaine mixture - the ideal local anesthetic solution?

    PubMed

    Best, Corliss A; Best, Alyssa A; Best, Timothy J; Hamilton, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    The use of injectable local anesthetic solutions to facilitate pain-free surgery is an integral component of many procedures performed by the plastic surgeon. In many instances, a solution that has both rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia is optimal. A combination of lidocaine and bupivacaine, plain or with epinephrine, is readily available in most Canadian health care settings where such procedures are performed, and fulfills these criteria. However, commercially available solutions of both medications are acidic and cause a burning sensation on injection. Buffering to neutral pH with sodium bicarbonate is a practical method to mitigate the burning sensation, and has the added benefit of increasing the fraction of nonionized lipid soluble drug available. The authors report on the proportions of the three drugs to yield a neutral pH, and the results of an initial survey regarding the use of the combined solution with epinephrine in hand surgery. PMID:26090348

  5. Highly sensitive ammonium tetraazidoaurates(III).

    PubMed

    Klapötke, Thomas M; Krumm, Burkhard; Galvez-Ruiz, Juan-Carlos; Nöth, Heinrich

    2005-12-26

    The preparation and characterization of selected ammonium and methylammonium tetraazidoaurates(III) are reported. All ammonium salts were shown to be highly explosive materials. The first crystal structure of such an ammonium salt, that of [Me(4)N][Au(N(3))(4)], features polymeric units of the anion, which are linked by weak Au...Au interactions. PMID:16363826

  6. Molecular Cloning of a New Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter cDNA from Human Retina

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenichi Ishibashi; Sei Sasaki; Fumiaki Marumo

    1998-01-01

    Sodium bicarbonate cotransport is an electrogenic process and a principal regulator of pH. A recently cloned sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC1) is predominantly expressed in kidney. The presence of several isoforms is suggested from functional studies. We have cloned a new member of this family from human retina, which was named hNBC2 (for human sodium bicarbonate cotransporter 2). The hNBC2 has

  7. The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on anaerobic power during intermittent exercise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Parry-Billings; D. P. M. MacLaren

    1986-01-01

    Summary  The effect of sodium bicarbonate and sodium citrate ingestion on cycling performance in three 30 s Wingate Anaerobic Tests\\u000a separated by 6 min recovery periods has been studied using 6 male subjects. Subjects ingested either sodium bicarbonate (B),\\u000a sodium bicarbonate plus sodium citrate (BC), sodium citrate (C) or sodium chloride (P) 2.5 h prior to exercise in a dose of

  8. Anion?exchange membrane, water, and sodium bicarbonate extractions as soil tests for phosphorus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Schoenau; W. Z. Huang

    1991-01-01

    Three techniques were evaluated as soil P tests for western Canadian soils: anion?exchange membrane (AEM), water, and bicarbonate extraction. The AEM, water, and bicarbonate?extractable total P represented novel approaches to compare to the widely used bicarbonate?extractable inorganic P (traditional Olsen) soil test. In a range of Saskatchewan soils, similar trends in predicted relative P availability were observed for AEM, water

  9. Manganese complexes with bicarbonate and sulfate in natural water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.

    1963-01-01

    The association constant for the dissolved species MnHCO3+ was experimentally determined to be 63. From this value and a published constant for the species MNSO4 aq., a diagram was prepared showing per cent of dissolved manganese complexed in the presence of 10 to 10,000 p.p.m. bicarbonate and 1.0 to 10,000 p.p.m. sulfate. The rate of oxidation of Mn+2 in aerated water is greatly increased by increasing pH, and is retarded when SO4-2and HCO3- are present.

  10. Hydrothermal oxidation of organic wastes using reclaimed ammonium nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. I. Proesmans; L. Luan; S. J. Buelow

    1996-01-01

    Ammonium nitrate is being studied as an alternative for ammonium perchlorate as an oxidizing agent in Department of Defense 1.1 and 1.3 rocket propellants. Use of ammonium nitrate would eliminate the HCl produced by ammonium perchlorate upon thermal decomposition. To stabilize the ammonium nitrate, which suffers from phase instability, potassium dinitramide (KDN) is added. This increased use of ammonium nitrate

  11. Unusual buffer action of free-standing nanoscopically confined water.

    PubMed

    Liao, Kylin; Xu, Xiaozhou; Du, Xuezhong

    2010-01-15

    The acid-base properties of nanoscopic water confined in the black soap films (BSFs), which were prepared from aqueous solutions of sodium dodecylsulphate (SDS) with the dye neutral red (NR) as a pH probe, were investigated using a combination of UV-vis and FTIR spectroscopy. For the SDS micellar solutions at pH 1.0-9.5 adjusted with HCl/NaOH solutions and at pH 9.4 with ammonium buffered solution, the aqueous core thicknesses in the corresponding BSFs ranged from 2.7 to 6.2 nm, and the nanoscopically confined water exhibits unusual buffer action resistant not only to acidic/alkaline solutions but also to standard buffer solution. In the heavily water-depleted confined zones, it is most likely that charge pairs in proton-transfer reactions could not be formed effectively and proton transfer was prohibited in the absence of sufficient solvating ability. Theoretical analyzes indicated that the buffer action of the nanoscopic water originated from the confinement effect of two charged surfaces of the BSFs. These results might inspire deeper understanding and further studies of biobuffering, enzyme superactivity, acid-catalyzed reactions, and Nafion fuel cell membranes. PMID:19846104

  12. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and wom...

  13. SODIUM BENTONITE OR SODIUM BICARBONATE AS AIDS IN FEEDING HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS TO LAMBS 1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. B. Huntington; R. J. Emerick; L. B. Embry

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Studies were conducted to compare bento- nite and sodium bicarbonate as dietary aids in adaptation and subsequent performance of lambs fed high-concentrate diets under various conditions of protein supplementation. Three protein variations, including no supplemental protein (NSP), soybean meal (SBM) or urea, were factored with a control, 2% or 4% sodium bentonite, and 2% or 4% sodium bicarbonate in

  14. High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William L Henrich; Terry D Woodard; Barry D Meyer; Timothy R Chappell; Lewis J Rubin

    1983-01-01

    High sodium bicarbonate and acetate hemodialysis: Double-blind crossover comparison of hemodynamic and ventilatory effects. The superiority of bicarbonate dialysis (Bi HD) over acetate dialysis (Ac HD) using a high sodium dialysate has not been established to our knowledge. We compared Bi HD to Ac HD over 6 weeks each in ten stable patients using a double-blind crossover design and a

  15. The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    The role of sodium bicarbonate in the nucleation of noctilucent clouds J. M. C. Plane School smoke, sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), provides par- ticularly eective condensation nuclei for noctilucent for the sublimation of H2O to bulk ice. A 1-dimensional model of sodium chemistry was then employed to show

  16. Conductance Regulator Bicarbonate Conductance and pH Regulatory Capability of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane

    E-print Network

    Machen, Terry E.

    Conductance Regulator Bicarbonate Conductance and pH Regulatory Capability of Cystic Fibrosis Bicarbonate conductance and pH regulatory capability of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator J0 of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Communicated by Hans H. Ussing, February 28, 1994 ABSTRACT The cystic fibrosis

  17. Iron Oxide Removal from Soils and Clays by a Dithionite-Citrate System Buffered with Sodium Bicarbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. P. MEdinA; M. L. JACKSO

    1958-01-01

    The oxidation potential of dithionite (Na~S204) increases from 0.37 V to 0.73 V with increase in pH from 6 to 9, because hydroxyl is consumed during oxidation of dithionite. At tile same time the amount of iron oxide dissolved in 15 minutes falls off (from 100 percent to less than 1 percent extracted) with increase in pH from 6 to

  18. Simultaneous Blood–Tissue Exchange of Oxygen, Carbon Dioxide, Bicarbonate, and Hydrogen Ion

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Ranjan K.; Bassingthwaighte, James B.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed nonlinear four-region (red blood cell, plasma, interstitial fluid, and parenchymal cell) axially distributed convection-diffusion-permeation-reaction-binding computational model is developed to study the simultaneous transport and exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood–tissue exchange system of the heart. Since the pH variation in blood and tissue influences the transport and exchange of O2 and CO2 (Bohr and Haldane effects), and since most CO2 is transported as HCO3- (bicarbonate) via the CO2 hydration (buffering) reaction, the transport and exchange of HCO3- and H+ are also simulated along with that of O2 and CO2. Furthermore, the model accounts for the competitive nonlinear binding of O2 and CO2 with the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells (nonlinear O2–CO2 interactions, Bohr and Haldane effects), and myoglobin-facilitated transport of O2 inside the parenchymal cells. The consumption of O2 through cytochrome-c oxidase reaction inside the parenchymal cells is based on Michaelis–Menten kinetics. The corresponding production of CO2 is determined by respiratory quotient (RQ), depending on the relative consumption of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The model gives a physiologically realistic description of O2 transport and metabolism in the microcirculation of the heart. Furthermore, because model solutions for tracer transients and steady states can be computed highly efficiently, this model may be the preferred vehicle for routine data analysis where repetitive solutions and parameter optimization are required, as is the case in PET imaging for estimating myocardial O2 consumption. PMID:16775761

  19. Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p < 0.05), no significant change was seen following lactate ingestion (p > 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p < 0.05) without experiencing any greater perceived exertion (p > 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research. PMID:23660571

  20. Mechanisms of buffer therapy resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Kate M.; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; Cornnell, Heather H.; Ribeiro, Maria C.; Balagurunathan, Yoganand; Hashim, Arig Ibrahim; Gillies, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have shown that the acidity of solid tumors contributes to local invasion and metastasis. Oral pH buffers can specifically neutralize the acidic pH of tumors and reduce the incidence of local invasion and metastatic formation in multiple murine models. However, this effect is not universal as we have previously observed that metastasis is not inhibited by buffers in some tumor models, regardless of buffer used. B16-F10 (murine melanoma), LL/2 (murine lung) and HCT116 (human colon) tumors are resistant to treatment with lysine buffer therapy, whereas metastasis is potently inhibited by lysine buffers in MDA-MB-231 (human breast) and PC3M (human prostate) tumors. In the current work, we confirmed that sensitive cells utilized a pH-dependent mechanism for successful metastasis supported by a highly glycolytic phenotype that acidifies the local tumor microenvironment resulting in morphological changes. In contrast, buffer-resistant cell lines exhibited a pH-independent metastatic mechanism involving constitutive secretion of matrix degrading proteases without elevated glycolysis. These results have identified two distinct mechanisms of experimental metastasis, one of which is pH-dependent (buffer therapy sensitive cells) and one which is pH-independent (buffer therapy resistant cells). Further characterization of these models has potential for therapeutic benefit. PMID:24862761

  1. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kunther, W., E-mail: Wolfgang.Kunther@empa.ch [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Lothenbach, B. [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)] [Empa, Laboratory for Concrete and Construction Chemistry, Ueberlandstrasse 129, CH-8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Scrivener, K. [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [EPFL, Laboratory of Construction Materials, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  2. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding. Project OE6. [Viscosities of chemical slugs

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    In this report we are presenting the results of our investigation in 3 areas: (1) the use of low pH alkaline chemicals for wettability alteration; (2) the development of a correlation between interfacial shear viscosity and water breakout for oil-brine macroemulsions; and (3) the evaluation of bicarbonate as a chemical for use in oil recovery. The main objective of our work is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms involved in bicarbonate flooding and to make specific recommendations for its potential use in enhanced oil recovery. To evaluate the use of bicarbonate as an emulsion destabilizer, emulsification and coalescence test results were compared with interfacial shear viscosities. In two of the three systems studied an inverse relationship was found between the maximum rate of water breakout and interfacial shear viscosity. Temperature and aging of the interface was a major factor affecting these results. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate were used to determine their effect on rock wettability. Sodium bicarbonate was found to change the wettability of Berea sandstone toward the water-wet state more effectively than sodium carbonate for the low acid oil, Noone crude. Highly acidic crude oils appeared to react with bicarbonate creating highly absorbed surfactants. This caused Berea sandstone to become more oil-wet. The major mechanisms of oil recovery using sodium bicarbonate include wettability alteration, emulsification followed by coalescence, and lowered interfacial shear viscosity. These mechanisms alone did not cause significant recovery of the low acid oil, Noone crude. Previous oil displacement tests indicate that bicarbonate is more effective when using acidic crude oils. The range of oils that can be recovered using bicarbonate can be extended by adding small amounts of surfactants to the bicarbonate slug. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Cigarette Smoking Impairs Pancreatic Duct Cell Bicarbonate Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Kadiyala, Vivek; Lee, Linda S; Banks, Peter A; Suleiman, Shadeah; Paulo, Joao A; Wang, Wei; Rosenblum, Jessica; Sainani, Nisha I; Mortele, Koenraad; Conwell, Darwin L

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare pancreatic duct cell function in smokers (current and past) and never smokers by measurement of secretin-stimulated peak bicarbonate concentration ([HCO3?]) in endoscopic collected pancreatic fluid (PF). Methods This retrospective study was cross-sectional in design, recording demographic information (age, gender, etc.), smoking status (former, current, never), alcohol intake, clinical data (imaging, endoscopy), and laboratory results (peak PF [HCO3?]) from subjects evaluated for pancreatic disease at a tertiary pancreas center. Univariate and multivariate statistical analysis (SAS Version 9.2, Cary, NC, USA) was performed to assess the relationship between cigarette smoking and secretin-stimulated pancreatic fluid bicarbonate concentration. Results A total of 131 subjects underwent pancreatic fluid collection (endoscopic pancreatic function test, ePFT) for bicarbonate analysis: 25.2% (33 out of 131) past smokers, 31.3% (41 out of 131) current smokers, and 43.5% (57 out of 131) were never smokers. Measures of Association The mean peak PF [HCO3?] in never smokers (81.3±18.5 mEq/L) was statistically higher (indicating better duct cell function) when compared to past smokers (66.8±24.7 mEq/L, P=0.005) and current smokers (70.0±20.2 mEq/L, P=0.005). However, the mean peak [HCO3?] in past smokers was not statistically different from that in current smokers (P=0.575), and therefore, the two smoking groups were combined to form a single “smokers cohort”. When compared to the never smokers, the smokers cohort was older (P=0.037) and had a greater proportion of subjects with definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (P=0.010), alcohol consumption ?20 g/day (P=0.012), and abnormal peak PF [HCO3-] (P<0.001). Risk-Based Estimates Cigarette smoking (risk ratio, RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3–3.5; P<0.001), diagnosis of definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.6–3.2; P<0.001) and alcohol consumption ?20 g/day (RR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.1–2.4; P=0.033) were all associated with low mean peak PF [HCO3?] (indicating duct cell secretory dysfunction). Multivariate Analysis Smoking (odds ratio, OR: 3.8, 95% CI: 1.6–9.1; P=0.003) and definite chronic pancreatitis imaging (OR: 5.7, 95% CI: 2.2–14.8; P<0.001) were determined to be independent predictors of low peak PF [HCO3?], controlling for age, gender, and alcohol intake. Furthermore there was no interaction between smoking status and alcohol intake in predicting duct cell dysfunction (P=0.571). Conclusion Measurement of pancreatic fluid bicarbonate in smokers reveals that cigarette smoking (past and current) is an independent risk factor for pancreatic duct cell secretory dysfunction (low PF [HCO3?]). Furthermore, the risk of duct cell dysfunction in subjects who smoked was approximately twice the risk (RR: 2.2) in never smokers. Further in depth, translational research approaches to pancreatic fluid analysis may help unravel mechanisms of cigarette smoking induced pancreatic duct cell injury. PMID:23306332

  4. Storage of Anthropogenic Carbon Dioxide as Ocean Bicarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, G. H.; Caldeira, K.

    2006-12-01

    Fossil fuels will likely remain the world's primary energy source for the foreseeable future. Practical and safe means of lowering the associated CO2 emissions are therefore needed to avoid potentially catastrophic climate and environmental impacts. The ocean should not be ignored in assessing both CO2 effects and mitigation options. Accelerated weathering of limestone (AWL) is a candidate technology that could significantly contribute to lowering CO2 emissions as well as to chemically mitigating the effects of ocean acidification. Our research has shown that contacting flue gas (from fossil fuel combustion) with seawater and limestone presents a simple, low-tech way of spontaneously reacting CO2 out of waste gas streams to form a bicarbonate-rich solution via the reaction: CO2 + CaCO3 + H2O <--> Ca2+ + 2HCO3-. (An analogous seawater process is already commercially used in some locations to remove flue gas SOx.) Our modeling studies show that disposing of the resulting calcium bicarbonate-rich solution in the ocean would provide effective, long-term carbon sequestration. It would also add carbonate alkalinity, thus countering the effects of CO2-caused ocean acidification on corals, shellfish, and other calcifying marine organisms. AWL reactors could be optimized for carbon storage or for mitigation of ocean acidification. Experiments have shown that seawater can tolerate >18x saturation before calcium carbonate precipitation is chemically initiated. It is therefore unlikely that once AWL effluent is in the ocean that degassing of some residual CO2 would lead to a reversal of the above reaction and subsequent carbonate precipitation. It is proposed that the cost, safety, impacts, and effectiveness of AWL be further evaluated as a means of mitigating CO2 from point sources, and of reducing the loss of marine calcification.

  5. ANAEROBIC AMMONIUM OXIDATION IN THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcel M. M. Kuypers; Gaute Lavik; Bo Thamdrup

    Oceanographers noticed already many years ago that far less ammonium accumulated in anoxic fjords and basins, than would be\\u000a expected from the stoichiometry of heterotrophic denitrification. It was suggested that this ‘missing’ ammonium was oxidized\\u000a with nitrate to freeN2. Since then several otherworkers have argued based on chemical profiles that ammonium is oxidized anaerobically in oxygen\\u000a deficient marine sediments and

  6. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  7. Development and evaluation of acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet for mixed vaginal infections.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mohd Aftab; Ahmad, Farhan Jalees; Khan, Zeenat Iqbal; Khar, Roop Krishen; Ali, Mushir

    2007-01-01

    An acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was developed for the treatment of genitourinary tract infections. From the bioadhesion experiment and release studies it was found that polycarbophil and sodium carboxymethylcellulose is a good combination for an acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet. Sodium monocitrate was used as a buffering agent to provide acidic pH (4.4), which is an attribute of a healthy vagina. The effervescent mixture (citric acid and sodium bicarbonate) along with a superdisintegrant (Ac-Di-sol) was used to enhance the swellability of the bioadhesive tablet. The drugs clotrimazole (antifungal) and metronidazole (antiprotozoal as well as an antibacterial) were used in the formulation along with Lactobacillus acidophilus spores to treat mixed vaginal infections. From the ex vivo retention study it was found that the bioadhesive polymers hold the tablet for more than 24 hours inside the vaginal tube. The hardness of the acid-buffering bioadhesive vaginal tablet was optimized, at 4 to 5 kg hardness the swelling was found to be good and the cumulative release profile of the developed tablet was matched with a marketed conventional tablet (Infa-V). The in vitro spreadability of the swelled tablet was comparable to the marketed gel. In the in vitro antimicrobial study it was found that the acid-buffering bioadhesive tablet produces better antimicrobial action than marketed intravaginal drug delivery systems (Infa-V, Candid-V and Canesten 1). PMID:18181530

  8. Proteins contribute insignificantly to the intrinsic buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm.

    PubMed

    Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Szczesny, Pawel; Ruszczy?ska, Katarzyna; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Paczek, Leszek

    2013-01-11

    Intracellular pH is maintained by a combination of the passive buffering of cytoplasmic dissociable compounds and several active systems. Over the years, a large portion of and possibly most of the cell's intrinsic (i.e., passive non-bicarbonate) buffering effect was attributed to proteins, both in higher organisms and in yeast. This attribution was not surprising, given that the concentration of proteins with multiple protonable/deprotonable groups in the cell exceeds the concentration of free protons by a few orders of magnitude. Using data from both high-throughput experiments and in vitro laboratory experiments, we tested this concept. We assessed the buffering capacity of the yeast proteome using protein abundance data and compared it to our own titration of yeast cytoplasm. We showed that the protein contribution is less than 1% of the total intracellular buffering capacity. As confirmed with NMR measurements, inorganic phosphates play a crucial role in the process. These findings also shed a new light on the role of proteomes in maintaining intracellular pH. The contribution of proteins to the intrinsic buffering capacity is negligible, and proteins might act only as a recipient of signals for changes in pH. PMID:23206695

  9. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...2012-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  10. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...2013-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  11. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...2014-10-01 false Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY...

  12. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...REGULATIONS CARRIAGE BY VESSEL Detailed Requirements for Class 4 (Flammable Solids), Class 5 (Oxidizers and Organic Peroxides), and Division 1.5 Materials § 176.410 Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate...

  13. Ammonium homeostasis and human Rhesus glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Planelles, Gabrielle

    2007-01-01

    The brain ammonium production is detoxified by astrocytes, the gut ammonium production is detoxified by hepatic cells, and the renal ammonium production plays a major role in renal acid excretion. As a result of ammonium handling in these organs, the ammonium and pH values are strictly regulated in plasma. Up until recently, it was accepted that mammalian cell transmembrane ammonium transport was due to NH(4)(+) transport by non-specific transporting systems, and to non-ionic NH(3) diffusion, whereas lower organisms (such as bacteria, yeasts and plants) were endowed with specific ammonium transporters (Amts). Sequence homologies between Amts and human Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins (RhAG, from erythroid cells, and RhBG and RhCG from epithelial cells) raised the hypothesis that Rh glycoproteins act as specific ammonium transporters, further sustained by the polarized distribution of RhBG and RhCG in gut, kidney and liver. Results from functional studies agree that Rh glycoproteins are the first ammonium transporters reported in mammals. However, the nature of the transported specie(s) is much debated: in particular, it is proposed that Rh glycoproteins mediate a direct NH(3) transport, or that they mediate an indirect NH(3) transport (resulting from NH(4)(+) for H(+) exchange). Direct NH(3) transport (associated or not with NH(4)(+) transport) raises the exciting hypothesis that Rh glycoproteins may also transport other gases than NH(3) (namely, CO(2)). PMID:17106214

  14. The origin of high bicarbonate and fluoride concentrations in waters of the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley, East African Rift system

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Berhanu Gizaw

    1996-01-01

    Thermal waters in the Main Ethiopian Rift Valley are characterized by high Na, bicarbonate and fluoride concentrations, and near-neutral to alkaline pH. Sodium, bicarbonate and fluoride are positively correlated in the waters. The principal reason for the bicarbonate in the area is the high rate of carbon dioxide outgassing. This, combined with acid volcanics, geothermal heating, low Ca and low

  15. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material, together with calcium carbonate and base-exchange minerals in a formation is, therefore, sufficient to account for the occurrence in it of high sodium bicarbonate waters. ?? 1950.

  16. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. (Univ. of nancy, Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France)); Stewart, G. (University College, London (England))

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  17. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. [OSRAM SYLVANIA Global Tungsten and Powders, Towanda, PA 18848 (United States); SUNY at Binghamton, Materials Science Program, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)], E-mail: joel.christian@sylvania.com; Whittingham, M. Stanley [SUNY at Binghamton, Materials Science Program, Binghamton, NY 13902 (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  18. Biological Treatment of Ammonium-Rich Wastewater with the Partial Nitrification and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qinglin Xie; Xiaoxia Li; Shaoyuan Bai; Yanhong Li

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the investigation was to evaluate the nitrogen removal efficiency by using the combined partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process for high-strength ammonium synthetic wastewater. The partial nitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation reactors were inoculate with domesticated sludge and operated respectively during the startup period. Subsequently, they were combined for stable operation when the partial nitrification

  19. Effect of ammonium metavanadate on the mouse peritoneal macrophage lysosomal enzymes.

    PubMed

    Vaddi, K; Wei, C I

    1991-05-01

    Female B6C3F1 mice were injected intraperitoneally with ammonium metavanadate (2.5 or 10 mg V/kg), ammonium chloride, or sodium phosphate buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.2) every 3 d for 6 wk. Resident peritoneal macrophage (PEM) cytolysates were prepared and assayed for intracellular enzyme activities of beta-glucuronidase, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, acid phosphatase, and lysozyme, to investigate possible reasons for the depressive effect of ammonium metavanadate on the intracellular killing of Listeria monocytogenes by murine PEM. Acid phosphatase activity per 10(6) cells for the 2.5 and 10 mg V/kg groups was depressed by 22.8 and 44.7%, respectively, when compared to phosphate buffer controls. No significant effect by vanadium treatment was observed with regard to the other three enzymes. Kinetic studies (in vitro) on the effect of ammonium metavanadate (5, 10, 15, and 20 mM) on the above enzymes showed similar patterns of effect by vanadium. Lineweaver-Burk analysis of acid phosphatase indicated linear noncompetitive inhibition by vanadium with a Kj of 14.8 mM. NH4Cl and 10 mg V/kg treatments also enhanced extracellular secretion of beta-glucuronidase and lysozyme from PEM, which could be attributed to the presence of ammonium ion. The decrease in acid phosphatase activity might contribute, in part through its interference in the phosphorylation/dephosphorylation, to the diminished intracellular killing ability of PEM. PMID:2033645

  20. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  1. Bicarbonate stimulated phospholipid scrambling induces cholesterol redistribution and enables cholesterol depletion in the sperm plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Flesch, F M; Brouwers, J F; Nievelstein, P F; Verkleij, A J; van Golde, L M; Colenbrander, B; Gadella, B M

    2001-10-01

    Mammalian sperm cells are activated prior to fertilization by high bicarbonate levels, which facilitate lipoprotein-mediated cholesterol efflux. The role of bicarbonate and cholesterol acceptors on the cholesterol organization in the sperm plasma membrane was tested. Bicarbonate induced an albumin-independent change in lipid architecture that was detectable by an increase in merocyanine staining (due to protein kinase A-mediated phospholipid scrambling). The response was limited to a subpopulation of viable sperm cells that were sorted from the non-responding subpopulation by flow cytometry. The responding cells had reduced cholesterol levels (30% reduction) compared with non-responding cells. The subpopulation differences were caused by variable efficiencies in epididymal maturation as judged by cell morphology. Membrane cholesterol organization was observed with filipin, which labeled the entire sperm surface of non-stimulated and non-responding cells, but labeled only the apical surface area of bicarbonate-responding cells. Addition of albumin caused cholesterol efflux, but only in bicarbonate-responding cells that exhibited virtually no filipin labeling in the sperm head area. Albumin had no effect on other lipid components, and no affinity for cholesterol in the absence of bicarbonate. Therefore, bicarbonate induces first a lateral redistribution in the low cholesterol containing spermatozoa, which in turn facilitates cholesterol extraction by albumin. A model is proposed in which phospholipid scrambling induces the formation of an apical membrane raft in the sperm head surface that enables albumin mediated efflux of cholesterol. PMID:11682613

  2. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion in marine teleost fish--source of bicarbonate, pH sensitivity, and consequences for whole animal

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    seawater European flounder (Platichthys flesus) revealed that increasing intestinal [Ca2 + ] to 20 m and 70 mM) in ambient seawater resulted in reduced plasma total CO2. This indicates (1) imperfect acid epithelium, the replacement of serosal CO2 with a HEPES buffered saline had no effect on HCO3 Ŕ secretion

  3. Bicarbonate impact on U(VI) bioreduction in a shallow alluvial aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S. F.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Chris; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, Ludovic; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al., 2003; Williams et al., 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al., 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer sediments desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ?3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction in the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  4. Dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilchrist, John le G.

    1987-12-01

    Two dielectric relaxations in partly deuterated ammonium dichromate are attributed to reorientations of mixed-isotope ammonium ions. Loss peaks were observed between 20 and 40 K and obey the Arrhenius law with activation energy 1.5 kcal/mol for the stronger relaxation. The dipole moment is of the order of 0.015 D.

  5. Winter Wheat Fertilization: Post Ammonium Nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Byron Irvine; Guy Lafond; Randy Kutcher

    Summary The potential for overwinter losses of nitrogen by denitrification and leaching have led to the recommendation that nitrogen fertilization of winter wheat be done using ammonium nitrate broadcast in the spring. However, spring broadcast application of urea can result in significant loss of nitrogen by volatilization and immobilization by surface residues. Since prilled ammonium nitrate is not available for

  6. Ammonium nonanoate broadcast application over onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonium nonanoate occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. Racer (40% ammonium nonaoate) is a potential contact herbicide for weed control in organic crop production. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determin...

  7. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  8. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). 721.10511 Section 721...Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as quaternary ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  12. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  13. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section...Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section...General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721...Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). ...chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  2. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...Review)] Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine Determination On the basis of the record...order on certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to continuation...entitled Certain Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No....

  3. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  4. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  5. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  6. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  7. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination... The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination...7.0-8.0; total amines, maximum 1 percent...

  8. Glyphosate detection with ammonium nitrate and humic acids as potential interfering substances by pulsed voltammetry technique.

    PubMed

    Martínez Gil, Pablo; Laguarda-Miro, Nicolas; Camino, Juan Soto; Peris, Rafael Masot

    2013-10-15

    Pulsed voltammetry has been used to detect and quantify glyphosate on buffered water in presence of ammonium nitrate and humic substances. Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide active ingredient in the world. It is a non-selective broad spectrum herbicide but some of its health and environmental effects are still being discussed. Nowadays, glyphosate pollution in water is being monitored but quantification techniques are slow and expensive. Glyphosate wastes are often detected in countryside water bodies where organic substances and fertilizers (commonly based on ammonium nitrate) may also be present. Glyphosate also forms complexes with humic acids so these compounds have also been taken into consideration. The objective of this research is to study the interference of these common pollutants in glyphosate measurements by pulsed voltammetry. The statistical treatment of the voltammetric data obtained lets us discriminate glyphosate from the other studied compounds and a mathematical model has been built to quantify glyphosate concentrations in a buffer despite the presence of humic substances and ammonium nitrate. In this model, the coefficient of determination (R(2)) is 0.977 and the RMSEP value is 2.96 × 10(-5) so the model is considered statistically valid. PMID:24054650

  9. Bicarbonate binding to the non-heme iron of photosystem II investigated by Fourier transform infrared difference spectroscopy and 13C-labeled bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Hienerwadel, R; Berthomieu, C

    1995-12-19

    The binding site of the non-heme iron of photosystem II (PS II) is investigated by light-induced Fourier tranform infrared (FTIR) difference spectroscopy on Tris-washed membranes. The non-heme iron is oxidized (Fe3+) in the dark with ferricyanide and reduced (Fe2+) after light-induced charge separation by electron transfer from the semiquinone anion QA-. EPR experiments and IR modes of ferri- and ferrocyanide show that the electron donor side of PS II is reduced in less than 2 s after a flash and that ferricyanide reoxidizes the non-heme iron with a half-time of approximately 20 s. Recording FTIR spectra before and 2 s after flash illumination thus results in the Fe2+/Fe3+ difference spectrum. This spectrum shows band shifts and intensity changes of IR modes from ligands and neighboring residues of the non-heme iron. The IR modes of bicarbonate are revealed by comparison of Fe2+/Fe3+ spectra obtained on PS II membranes with 12C or 13C isotope labeled bicarbonate in H2O and in 2H2O. The nu as(CO) and nu s(CO) modes of bicarbonate in the Fe2+ state are assigned at 1530 +/- 10 and 1338 cm-1, respectively. The low frequency of the nu as(CO) mode is taken as experimental evidence that bicarbonate is a ligand of the non-heme iron. Furthermore, the small frequency difference (192 cm-1) between the nu as(CO) and nu s(CO) modes as compared to even hydrogen-bonded ionic bicarbonate strongly indicates that bicarbonate is a bidentate ligand of the non-heme iron in PS II. Upon iron oxidation, the bicarbonate modes are largely affected. The nu s(CO) mode is assigned at 1228 cm-1, while the nu as(CO) mode is tentatively assigned at 1658 +/- 20 cm-1. The strong up- and downshifts of the nu as and nu s(CO) modes of bicarbonate upon iron oxidation results in a frequency difference of 430 +/- 20 cm-1 that is not only explained by the increased charge on the iron but indicates that bicarbonate is a monodentate ligand of the oxidized iron. The sensitivity of the nu s(CO) mode of bicarbonate to 1H/2H exchange in both the Fe2+ and Fe3+ states and the presence in the Fe2+ state of a delta (COH) mode at 1258 cm-1 confirm that bicarbonate and not carbonate is the iron ligand and further exhibits hydrogen bond(s) with the protein. The 13C isotope-sensitive modes of bicarbonate are not affected by 15N labeling of the PS II membranes. 15N sensitive signals at 1111/1102 and 1094 cm-1 are assigned to side chain modes from histidine ligands of the iron. The latter signal is proposed to account for a histidine ligand that deprotonates upon iron oxidation. The involvement of protein peptide groups and side chains in the hydrogen-bond network around the iron is also discussed. PMID:8845353

  10. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  11. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a)...

  14. Stress corrosion cracking of X-60 line pipe steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, A.K.; Lambert, S.B.; Plumtree, A. (Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    An experimental system was developed to reproduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X-60 line pipe steels in highly alkaline (pH = 10) carbonate-bicarbonate (1 N sodium carbonate [Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3

  15. The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. A.; Maté, B.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Gálvez, O.; Gómez, P. C.; Herrero, V. J.; Escribano, R.

    2013-10-01

    Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed.

  16. Chemoselective Esterification of Phenolic Acids in the Presence of Sodium Bicarbonate in Ionic Liquids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ambika; Pradeep Pratap Singh; S. M. S. Chauhan

    2008-01-01

    Chemoselective esterification of phenolic acids with dialkyl sulphates or alkyl halides in the presence of sodium bicarbonate in 1,3?dialkylimidazolium ionic liquids is reported in excellent yields and less reaction time as compared to organic solvents.

  17. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  18. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    for fish and wildlife, and to benefit landowners and communities. The width of the buffer and the type for funding (for example, a particular buffer width, type of vegetation, and/or length of time the buffer must, and often have different requirements to qualify for funding (for example, wider or narrower buffer widths

  19. The weak spots of saliva buffering tests.

    PubMed

    Buchgraber, Barbara; Kqiku, Lumnije; Reibnegger, Gilbert; Städtler, Peter

    2013-09-01

    Saliva buffering test is in need of improvements. This article illustrates the most commonly used saliva buffering capacity tests and its major problems. Starting with Ericsson and his laboratory buffer capacity test and all the way to Kitasako a lot of issues are to release. The aim of this paper is to put saliva buffering tests up to serious discussion. PMID:24308249

  20. Rheogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransport in the peritubular cell membrane of rat renal proximal tubule

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Yoshitomi; B.-Ch. Burckhardt; E. Frömter

    1985-01-01

    The mechanism of bicarbonate transport across the peritubular cell membrane was investigated in rat kidney proximal tubules in situ by measuring cell pH and cell Na+ activity in response to sudden reduction of peritubular Na+ and\\/or HCO3-. The following observations were made: 1. sudden peritubular reduction of either ion concentration produced the same transient depolarizing potential response; 2. bicarbonate efflux

  1. Effects of amounts and types of sodium bicarbonate in wheat flour tortillas 

    E-print Network

    Garza Casso, Jessica Beatriz

    2007-04-25

    EFFECTS OF AMOUNTS AND TYPES OF SODIUM BICARBONATE IN WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLAS A Thesis by JESSICA BEATRIZ GARZA CASSO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2003 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF AMOUNTS AND TYPES OF SODIUM BICARBONATE IN WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLAS A Thesis by JESSICA BEATRIZ GARZA CASSO Submitted...

  2. Development and characterization of an inorganic foam obtained by using sodium bicarbonate as a gas generator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Rubio-Avalos; A. Manzano-Ramírez; J. M. Yańez-Limón; M. E. Contreras-García; E. M. Alonso-Guzmán; J. González-Hernández

    2005-01-01

    In the construction industry almost all of the insulating and expansive materials are organic foams. In this work, the production of an inorganic foam is described. Sodium bicarbonate is used as a gas generator. CO2 gas is released when water is added to the mixture of sodium bicarbonate and ?-hemihydrate gypsum powder (CaSO4·1\\/2H2O). Hence, stabilization of the foam is achieved

  3. Acetate and Bicarbonate Assimilation and Metabolite Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A 13C-NMR Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Himanshu; Shukla, Manish R.; Chary, Kandala V. R.; Rao, Basuthkar J.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular metabolite analyses by 13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly 13C-labelled acetate (13CH3-COOH or CH3-13COOH) supported that both the 13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2aq. The observed metabolite(s) upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG) in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii. PMID:25207648

  4. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion and its effects on anaerobic exercise of various durations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lars R. McNaughton

    1992-01-01

    Four groups of male subjects participated in anaerobic testing on a Repco EX 10 cycle ergometer to determine the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g kg body mass) as an ergogenic aid during exercise of 10, 30, 120 and 240 s duration. Blood was collected 90 min prior to ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), after ingestion of NaHCO3 and immediately

  5. The influence of copper and bicarbonate ions on the corrosion of aluminum alloys saline solutions

    E-print Network

    Becerra-Diaz, Alcibiades

    1972-01-01

    . Rowe and Walker (19) used the electrical conductance technique for determining variations in corrosion rates of commercially pure aluminum immersed in waters containing such impurities as chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, calcium, magnesium...THE INFLUENCE OF COPPER AND BICARBONATE IONS ON THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS IN SALINE SOLUTIONS A Thesis by ALCIBIADES BECERRA-DIAZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  6. Remediation of uranium contaminated soils with bicarbonate extraction and microbial U(VI) reduction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Elizabeth J. P. Phillips; Edward R. Landa; Derek R. Lovley

    1995-01-01

    Summary A process for concentrating uranium from contaminated soils in which the uranium is first extracted with bicarbonate and then the extracted uranium is precipitated with U(VI)-reducing microorganisms was evaluated for a variety of uranuum-contaminated soils. Bicarbonate (100 mM) extracted 20–94% of the uranium that was extracted with nitric acid. The U(VI)-reducing microorganism,Desulfovibrio desulfuricans reduced the U(VI) to U(IV) in

  7. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO? over O?, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO?concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca˛? via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  8. Size Control of (99m)Tc-tin Colloid Using PVP and Buffer Solution for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Mi; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Colloidal particle size is an important characteristic that allows mapping sentinel nodes in lymphoscintigraphy. This investigation aimed to introduce different ways of making a (99m)Tc-tin colloid with a size of tens of nanometers. All agents, tin fluoride, sodium fluoride, poloxamer-188, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), were mixed and labeled with (99m)Tc. Either phosphate or sodium bicarbonate buffers were used to adjust the pH levels. When the buffers were added, the size of the colloids increased. However, as the PVP continued to increase, the size of the colloids was controlled to within tens of nanometers. In all samples, phosphate buffer added PVP (30 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-PPTC-30) and sodium bicarbonate solution added PVP (50 mg) stabilized tin colloid ((99m)Tc-BPTC-50) were chosen for in vitro and in vivo studies. (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 (<20 nm) was primarily located in bone marrow and was then secreted through the kidneys, and (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 (>100 nm) mainly accumulated in the liver. When a rabbit was given a toe injection, the node uptake of (99m)Tc-PPTC-30 decreased over time, while (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 increased. Therefore, (99m)Tc-BPTC-50 could be a good candidate radiopharmaceutical for sentinel node detection. The significance of this study is that nano-sized tin colloid can be made very easily and quickly by PVP. PMID:26028937

  9. Determination of chromium(III) and chromium(VI) by ammonium pyrrolidinecarbodithioate-methyl isobutyl ketone furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kunnath S. Subramanian

    1988-01-01

    The solution conditions and other parameters affecting the ammonium pyrrolidinecarbodithioate-methyl isobutyl ketone (APCD-MIBK) extraction system for the graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) have been studied in detail. The parameters studied include pH of the aqueous phase prior to extraction, concentration of APDC, concentration of the potassium hydrogen phthalate buffer, the length of time needed for

  10. Influence of the form of nitrogen on ammonium, amino acids and n?assimelating enzyme activity in maize genotypes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. R. Magalhăes; D. M. Huber; C. Y. Tsai

    1995-01-01

    An understanding of nitrogen (N) interactions with plant growth and metabolism is important in order to increase the efficiency of fertilizer amendments for crop production. This study was initiated to evaluate the effect of the form of N and buffering with calcium carbonate (CaCO3) on the activity of ammonium (NH4) assimilating enzymes in a maize hybrid, a GDH?deficient mutant, and

  11. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christian, Joel B.; Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-01

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)—(NH 4) 6[H 2W 12O 40]* nH 2O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a?12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application.

  12. Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and its effect on the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfur dioxide in a simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of thermally decomposing sodium bicarbonate while simultaneously reacting with SO/sub 2/, was studied. The study was performed by quantitatively determining the rate of thermal decomposition as a function of particle size in an SO/sub 2/ free gas stream. The rate of reaction of sodium carbonate (product of the thermal decomposition) with SO/sub 2/ was then studied, and the data applied to a pore-plugging model which accounts for the loss in reactivity with increased reaction time. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate with SO/sub 2/ was then studied and the results compared to that for sodium carbonate. From the analysis of the data, the activation energy for the thermal decomposition reaction, the SO/sub 2/ sodium carbonate and SO/sub 2/ sodium bicarbonate reaction were derived. The thermal decomposition reaction of sodium biocarbonate was found to be similar to that of calcium carbonate below the point where heat transfer is rate limiting. The degree of conversion of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 12-17 times greater (depending on particle size) than that of sodium carbonate in the temperature range 250/sup 0/-350/sup 0/F (120/sup 0/-177/sup 0/C). This greater conversion was qualitatively explained by hypothesizing the formation of an activated species during thermal decomposition which would be more chemically reactive.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium salt separates out at elevated temperatures...Alternatively, hydrogen chloride formed by the burning of hydrogen in chlorine is dissolved in water and then reacted with...

  17. Biodegradation of rocket propellent waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqui, S. M. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of the biodegradation rate of ammonium perchlorate on the environment was studied in terms of growth, metabolic rate, and total biomass of selected animal and plant species. Brief methodology and detailed results are presented.

  18. Ammonium nitrate induced cracking of a dryer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. E. Clegg; R. Tomlins; M. J. Mackay

    2011-01-01

    After less than 1year of service, extensive cracking of two ammonium nitrate prill dryers was found. The cracking was found to be ammonium nitrate-induced stress corrosion cracking and the failure was attributed to a lack of post-weld stress relieving of the fabricated structures. It was considered likely that the SCC would occur more slowly once the cracks had progressed beyond

  19. Key Physiology of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARC STROUS; J. GIJS KUENEN; MIKE S. M. JETTEN

    1999-01-01

    The physiology of anaerobic ammonium oxidizing (anammox) aggregates grown in a sequencing batch reactor was investigated quantitatively. The physiological pH and temperature ranges were 6.7 to 8.3 and 20 to 43°C, respectively. The affinity constants for the substrates ammonium and nitrite were each less than 0.1 mg of nitrogen per liter. The anammox process was completely inhibited by nitrite concentrations

  20. The effect of pressure on neutron irradiated ammonium chromates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Stamouli

    1985-01-01

    The effect of pressure on neutron irradiated ammonium chromate and ammonium dichromate has been studied. Compression was found to have no effect on the retention and on the M and DP yields in both salts. Pressure applied before heating was found to retard annealing in ammonium chromate, while it appeared to have no influence on the annealing of ammonium dichromate.

  1. Effects of combined creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated sprint performance in trained men.

    PubMed

    Barber, James J; McDermott, Ann Y; McGaughey, Karen J; Olmstead, Jennifer D; Hagobian, Todd A

    2013-01-01

    Creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation independently increase exercise performance, but it remains unclear whether combining these 2 supplements is more beneficial on exercise performance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of combining creatine monohydrate and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on exercise performance. Thirteen healthy, trained men (21.1 ± 0.6 years, 23.5 ± 0.5 kg·m(-2), 66.7 ± 5.7 ml·(kg·m)(-1) completed 3 conditions in a double-blinded, crossover fashion: (a) Placebo (Pl; 20 g maltodextrin + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), (b) Creatine (Cr; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) maltodextrin), and (c) Creatine plus sodium bicarbonate (Cr + Sb; 20 g + 0.5 g·kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate). Each condition consisted of supplementation for 2 days followed by a 3-week washout. Peak power, mean power, relative peak power, and bicarbonate concentrations were assessed during six 10-second repeated Wingate sprint tests on a cycle ergometer with a 60-second rest period between each sprint. Compared with Pl, relative peak power was significantly higher in Cr (4%) and Cr + Sb (7%). Relative peak power was significantly lower in sprints 4-6, compared with that in sprint 1, in both Pl and Cr. However, in Cr + Sb, sprint 6 was the only sprint significantly lower compared with sprint 1. Pre-Wingate bicarbonate concentrations were significantly higher in Cr + Sb (10%), compared with in Pl and Cr, and mean concentrations remained higher after sprint 6, although not significantly. Combining creatine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation increased peak and mean power and had the greatest attenuation of decline in relative peak power over the 6 repeated sprints. These data suggest that combining these 2 supplements may be advantageous for athletes participating in high-intensity, intermittent exercise. PMID:23254493

  2. Reactivation of aerobic and anaerobic ammonium oxidizers in OLAND biomass after long-term storage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegfried E. Vlaeminck; Joke Geets; Han Vervaeren; Nico Boon; Willy Verstraete

    2007-01-01

    The biomass of an oxygen-limited autotrophic\\u000a nitrification\\/denitrification (OLAND) biofilm reactor was preserved in\\u000a various ways to find a storage method for both aerobic and anaerobic\\u000a ammonium-oxidizing bacteria (AerAOB and AnAOB). Storage occurred at -20\\u000a degrees C with and without glycerol as cryoprotectant and at 4 and -20\\u000a degrees C with and without nitrate as redox buffer. After 2 and 5

  3. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:26142998

  4. The effects of bicarbonate and its combination with chelating agents used for the removal of depleted uranium in rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuda, Satoshi; Ikeda, Mizuyo; Nakamura, Mariko; Katoh, Akira; Yan, Xueming; Xie, Yuyuan; Kontoghiorghes, George J

    2008-01-01

    The effects of bicarbonate and its combination with the chelating agents, deferiprone (L1), 4,6-dimethyl-1-hydroxypyrimidin-2(1H)-one (AK-4), catechol-3,6-bis(methyleneimino-diacetic-acid) (CBMIDA), and ethane-1-hydroxy-1,1-bisphoshonate (EHBP) in removing depleted uranium (DU) for radiation emergency medicine were examined. After the intramuscular injection of DU in rats, various time schedules of bicarbonate and chelating agent administration were tested. The results indicate that the bicarbonate helps increase significantly the effects of LI and AK-4, while there were no effects of using bicarbonate alone. The effects of bicarbonate on CBMIDA were unclear, and the effects of EHBP were negative. Further studies are necessary to obtain distinctly synergic effects by the combination of chelating agents with bicarbonate. PMID:18274996

  5. Partner Buffering of Attachment Insecurity

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Jeffry A.; Overall, Nickola C.

    2014-01-01

    Insecurely attached people have less happy, unstable romantic relationships, but the quality of their relationships should depend on how their partners regulate them. Some partners find ways to buffer (emotionally and behaviorally regulate) insecurely attached individuals, which makes them feel better, behave more constructively, and improves their relationships. Understanding when and how this important interpersonal process works requires a dyad-centered approach. In this article, we describe core tenets of attachment theory and the two forms of attachment insecurity (anxiety and avoidance). We then present the Dyadic Regulation Model of Insecurity Buffering, which explains how and why certain types of buffering behaviors soothe the worries and improve the relationship perceptions and behaviors of anxious or avoidant people. We next review studies of couples trying to resolve major conflicts that illustrate some ways in which partners can successfully buffer the insecure reactions of anxious and avoidant individuals. We conclude by discussing other traits and social contexts to which our model can be applied. PMID:25214722

  6. Intrinsic buffering capacity of feedstuffs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sylvie Giger-Reverdin; Christine Duvaux-Ponter; Daniel Sauvant; Olivier Martin; Rudy Müller

    2002-01-01

    Since acidosis is a major pathological risk for ruminants, we have defined a new method for the measurement of the intrinsic buffering capacity (BC) of feeds, by modeling the resistance of a feedstuff to the addition of an acid or a base. We compared results obtained on 24 feedstuffs with a strong acid and a strong base to those measured

  7. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress.

    PubMed

    Kahle, Laura E; Kelly, Patrick V; Eliot, Kathrin A; Weiss, Edward P

    2013-06-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (ie, 300 mg?kg?ą) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind crossover trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6 ± 0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65 ± 6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg?kg?ą) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (P = .38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3 ± 1.1 mmHg, P = .01) and higher heart rate (main treatment effect, +10.1 ± 2.4 beats per minute, P = .002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0-10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1 ± 0.5 vs 0.5 ± 0.2, P < .0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial gastrointestinal distress. PMID:23746564

  8. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications. PMID:22941193

  9. Experimental acidification of two biogeochemically-distinct neotropical streams: buffering mechanisms and macroinvertebrate drift.

    PubMed

    Ardón, Marcelo; Duff, John H; Ramírez, Alonso; Small, Gaston E; Jackman, Alan P; Triska, Frank J; Pringle, Catherine M

    2013-01-15

    Research into the buffering mechanisms and ecological consequences of acidification in tropical streams is lacking. We have documented seasonal and episodic acidification events in streams draining La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica. Across this forested landscape, the severity in seasonal and episodic acidification events varies due to interbasin groundwater flow (IGF). Streams that receive IGF have higher concentrations of solutes and more stable pH (~6) than streams that do not receive IGF (pH ~5). To examine the buffering capacity and vulnerability of macroinvertebrates to short-term acidification events, we added hydrochloric acid to acidify a low-solute, poorly buffered (without IGF) and a high-solute, well buffered stream (with IGF). We hypothesized that: 1) protonation of bicarbonate (HCO(3)(-)) would neutralize most of the acid added in the high-solute stream, while base cation release from the sediments would be the most important buffering mechanism in the low-solute stream; 2) pH declines would mobilize inorganic aluminum (Ali) from sediments in both streams; and 3) pH declines would increase macroinvertebrate drift in both streams. We found that the high-solute stream neutralized 745 ?eq/L (96% of the acid added), while the solute poor stream only neutralized 27.4 ?eq/L (40%). Protonation of HCO(3)(-) was an important buffering mechanism in both streams. Base cation, Fe(2+), and Ali release from sediments and protonation of organic acids also provided buffering in the low-solute stream. We measured low concentrations of Ali release in both streams (2-9 ?eq/L) in response to acidification, but the low-solute stream released double the amount Ali per 100 ?eq of acid added than the high solute stream. Macroinvertebrate drift increased in both streams in response to acidification and was dominated by Ephemeroptera and Chironomidae. Our results elucidate the different buffering mechanisms in tropical streams and suggest that low-solute poorly buffered streams might be particularly vulnerable to episodic acidification. PMID:23201647

  10. Effect of cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate on pancreatic replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Durie, P R; Bell, L; Linton, W; Corey, M L; Forstner, G G

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency were studied during four randomised seven day treatment periods in which they received only pancreatic supplement (Pancrelipase, 27 capsules per day) or supplement plus cimetidine (20 mg/kg body weight/24 h) or sodium bicarbonate (15 g/m2/24 h) alone or in combination. Dietary intake was not fixed but was restricted to foods of known fat and nitrogen content from which daily intakes could be computed. Faecal fat and nitrogen were calculated as g/24 h and percentage of intake. Addition of either cimetidine or bicarbonate resulted in significant improvement in fat and nitrogen excretion, which was not greater with the combination of both drugs. Cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate in these doses are therefore sufficient to produce maximal improvement in digestive activity of pancreatic supplements. Fat excretion per gram of intake fell with cimetidine and bicarbonate from 12 times the normal level, to normal, in patients consuming less than 120 g fat daily. Above this intake the dose of pancreatic supplement appeared to be inadequate. Faecal nitrogen excretion increased with nitrogen intake in all four periods, but, in contrast with fat excretion, the response to cimetidine and bicarbonate was not affected by the level of intake. Dietary intake appears to be a significant factor in determining the faecal output of fat and nitrogen in patients with pancreatic insufficiency and should be considered when determining the optimum amount of pancreatic supplementation. PMID:7429342

  11. Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Zhongli; Li Xifeng; Katsumura, Yosuke; Urabe, Osamu [University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2001-11-15

    An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm{sup -3} were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel.

  12. Application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing consortium to achieve completely autotrophic ammonium and sulfate removal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sitong Liu; Fenglin Yang; Zheng Gong; Fangang Meng; Huihui Chen; Yuan Xue; Kenji Furukawa

    2008-01-01

    The simultaneous ammonium and sulfate removal was detected in an anammox reactor, consisted of ammonium oxidization with sulfate deoxidization, and subsequently traditional anammox process, in via of middle medium nitrite with solid sulfur and N2 as the terminal products. The pure anammox bacteria offered a great biotechnological potential for the completely autotrophic reaction indicated by batch tests. Denaturing gradient gel

  13. Stacked switched capacitor energy buffer architecture

    E-print Network

    Chen, Minjie, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Electrolytic capacitors are often used for energy buffering applications, including buffering between single-phase ac and dc. While these capacitors have high energy density compared to film and ceramic capacitors, their ...

  14. Throughput Region of Finite-Buffered Networks

    E-print Network

    , IEEE, and Devavrat Shah, Member, IEEE Abstract--Most of the current communication networks, including buffer-size. In this paper, we study the effect of finite buffer-size on the performance of networks theory, flow-controlled networks, scheduling, packet switching, buffered crossbars. Ç 1 INTRODUCTION MOST

  15. Riparian buffers and potentially unstable ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swee May Tang; David R. Montgomery

    1995-01-01

    The spatial coincidence between riparian buffers of various widths and extents and potentially unstable ground was quantified using a physically based model for shallow landslide initiation and GIS for two watersheds on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, USA. The proportion of the potentially unstable ground in each watershed within riparian buffers is a function of both buffer width and the extent

  16. Effect of Beta-Alanine With and Without Sodium Bicarbonate on 2,000-m Rowing Performance.

    PubMed

    Hobson, Ruth M; Harris, Roger C; Martin, Dan; Smith, Perry; Macklin, Ben; Gualano, Bruno; Sale, Craig

    2013-10-01

    Purpose: To examine the effect of beta-alanine only and beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2,000-m rowing performance. Methods: Twenty well-trained rowers (age 23 ± 4 y; height 1.85 ± 0.08 m; body mass 82.5 ± 8.9 kg) were assigned to either a placebo or beta-alanine (6.4 g·d-1 for 4 weeks) group. A 2,000-m rowing time trial (TT) was performed before supplementation (Baseline) and after 28 and 30 days of supplementation. The post supplementation trials involved supplementation with either maltodextrin or sodium bicarbonate in a double-blind, crossover design, creating four study conditions (placebo with maltodextrin; placebo with sodium bicarbonate; beta-alanine with maltodextrin; beta-alanine with sodium bicarbonate). Blood lactate, pH, bicarbonate, and base excess were measured pre-TT, immediately post-TT and at TT+5 min. Performance data were analyzed using magnitude based inferences. Results: Beta-alanine supplementation was very likely to be beneficial to 2,000-m rowing performance (6.4 ± 8.1 s effect compared with placebo), with the effect of sodium bicarbonate having a likely benefit (3.2 ± 8.8 s). There was a small (1.1 ± 5.6 s) but possibly beneficial additional effect when combining chronic beta-alanine supplementation with acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation compared with chronic beta-alanine supplementation alone. Sodium bicarbonate ingestion led to increases in plasma pH, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate concentrations. Conclusions: Both chronic beta-alanine and acute sodium bicarbonate supplementation alone had positive effects on 2,000-m rowing performance. The addition of acute sodium bicarbonate to chronic beta-alanine supplementation may further enhance rowing performance. PMID:24172994

  17. Comparative shell buffering properties correlate with anoxia tolerance in freshwater turtles.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Donald C; Taylor, Sarah E; Asare, Vivian S; Villarnovo, Dania; Gall, Jonathan M; Reese, Scott A

    2007-02-01

    Freshwater turtles as a group are more resistant to anoxia than other vertebrates, but some species, such as painted turtles, for reasons not fully understood, can remain anoxic at winter temperatures far longer than others. Because buffering of lactic acid by the shell of the painted turtle is crucial to its long-term anoxic survival, we have tested the hypothesis that previously described differences in anoxia tolerance of five species of North American freshwater turtles may be explained at least in part by differences in their shell composition and buffering capacity. All species tested have large mineralized shells. Shell comparisons included 1) total shell CO2 concentration, 2) volume of titrated acid required to hold incubating shell powder at pH 7.0 for 3 h (an indication of buffer release from shell), and 3) lactate concentration of shell samples incubated to equilibrium in a standard lactate solution. For each measurement, the more anoxia-tolerant species (painted turtle, Chrysemys picta; snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina) had higher values than the less anoxia-tolerant species (musk turtle, Sternotherus odoratus; map turtle, Graptemys geographica; red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta). We suggest that greater concentrations of accessible CO2 (as carbonate or bicarbonate) in the more tolerant species enable these species, when acidotic, to release more buffer into the extracellular fluid and to take up more lactic acid into their shells. We conclude that the interspecific differences in shell composition and buffering can contribute to, but cannot explain fully, the variations observed in anoxia tolerance among freshwater turtles. PMID:17008457

  18. High temperature attack of ores by means of a liquor essentially containing a soluble bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosca, B.; Maurel, P.; Nicolas, F.

    1981-10-20

    A process for the oxidizing attack at high temperature of ores containing at least one metal belonging to the group formed by uranium, vanadium and molybdenum, by means of an aqueous liquor containing a majority of sodium bicarbonate and a minority of sodium carbonate according to a ratio by weight of sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate of at least 1.5, in the presence of free oxygen injected into the reaction medium, this medium being maintained at a temperature of between 160/sup 0/C and 300/sup 0/C. For at most six hours.

  19. Rationale for a novel nutraceutical complex 'K-water': potassium taurine bicarbonate (PTB).

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2006-01-01

    Potassium taurine bicarbonate (PTB), an equimolar blend of potassium bicarbonate and taurine, provides a convenient and feasible means of delivering physiologically significant doses of potassium, taurine, and organic base when dissolved in water ("K-water"). This brief essay reviews the versatile and complementary health benefits that likely would accrue in individuals making regular use of K-water; in particular, an adequate intake of PTB could be expected to aid blood pressure control, lessen risk for atherosclerosis and its thromboembolic complications (particularly stroke), promote maintenance of bone density, help to prevent calcium renal stones, and possibly reduce risk for weight gain and diabetes. PMID:16516402

  20. The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mike James Price; David Cripps

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake ([Vdot]O2max) 47.0 ± 7ml · kg · min) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion

  1. Total alkalinity versus buffer value (capacity) as a sensitivity indicator for fresh waters receiving acid rain

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, S.D.

    1983-09-01

    The frequently stated idea that total alkalinity is a measure of the buffer capacity of a natural water is refuted. Total alkalinity is a measure of the acid neutralizing capacity, equivalents/liter, of a water. In natural waters, the carbonate system provides most of this neutralizing capacity. In as much as the pH values of natural fresh waters lie below 8.3, the total alkalinity is, for all intents and purposes, the total bicarbonate content. Any contributions of carbonate and hydroxide to total alkalinity are nil. The buffer capacity or buffer value is the relation between the increment of a strong base, or strong acid, that causes a one unit change in the pH value. The values of total alkalinity and pH, considered individually cannot give an accurate assessment of the impact of acid deposition on a natural water. Rather it is necessary to combine the pH and alkalinity values into the beta concept in order to assess accurately and to calculate the capacity of a natural water to resist the impact of acid deposition. An analytical determination of total alkalinity is given with an application of the beta value. 17 references, 2 figures, 4 tables.

  2. Transcriptional Responses of a Bicarbonate-Tolerant Monocot, Puccinellia tenuiflora, and a Related Bicarbonate-Sensitive Species, Poa annua, to NaHCO3 Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Shio; Satone, Hina; Tan, Engkong; Kurokochi, Hiroyuki; Asakawa, Shuichi; Liu, Shenkui; Takano, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Puccinellia tenuiflora is an alkaline salt-tolerant monocot found in saline-alkali soil in China. To identify the genes which are determining the higher tolerance of P. tenuiflora compared to bicarbonate sensitive species, we examined the responses of P. tenuiflora and a related bicarbonate-sensitive Poeae plant, Poa annua, to two days of 20 mM NaHCO3 stress by RNA-seq analysis. We obtained 28 and 38 million reads for P. tenuiflora and P. annua, respectively. For each species, the reads of both unstressed and stressed samples were combined for de novo assembly of contigs. We obtained 77,329 contigs for P. tenuiflora and 115,335 contigs for P. annua. NaHCO3 stress resulted in greater than two-fold absolute expression value changes in 157 of the P. tenuiflora contigs and 1090 of P. annua contigs. Homologs of the genes involved in Fe acquisition, which are important for the survival of plants under alkaline stress, were up-regulated in P. tenuiflora and down-regulated in P. annua. The smaller number of the genes differentially regulated in P. tenuiflora suggests that the genes regulating bicarbonate tolerance are constitutively expressed in P. tenuiflora. PMID:25551599

  3. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  4. Supercritical water oxidation of ammonium picrate

    SciTech Connect

    LaJeunesse, C.A.; Mills, B.E.; Brown, B.G.

    1994-11-01

    This study demonstrates the feasibility of using supercritical water oxidation to destroy ammonium picrate. Analyses of reactor effluent composition at various temperatures, residence times, and oxidant concentrations were used to design an improved reactor configuration for achieving destruction with minimum corrosion. The engineering evaluation reactor, a room-sized laboratory scale reactor, was reconfigured to incorporate this design change. Destruction of ammonium picrate with minimized corrosion was demonstrated on this reconfigured reactor. Factors that must be considered in scaling up to pilot plant size are discussed.

  5. Eutectic composite explosives containing ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Stinecipher, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The eutectic of ammonium nitrate (AN), the ammonium salt of 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole was prepared and its sensitivity and performance were studied. It was found that this AN formulation was unusual in that it performed ideally at small diameter, which indicated that it was a monomolecular explosive. Sensitivity tests included type 12 impact, Henkin thermal and wedge tests, and performance tests included rate stick/plate dent, cylinder, and aquarium tests. Results were compared with calculations, standard explosives, and another eutectic, ethylendiamine dinitrate (EDD)/AN.

  6. Improving Water Quality With Conservation Buffers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowrance, R.; Dabney, S.; Schultz, R.

    2003-12-01

    Conservation buffer technologies are new approaches that need wider application. In-field buffer practices work best when used in combination with other buffer types and other conservation practices. Vegetative barriers may be used in combination with edge-of-field buffers to protect and improve their function and longevity by dispersing runoff and encouraging sediment deposition upslope of the buffer. It's important to understand how buffers can be managed to help reduce nutrient transport potential for high loading of nutrients from manure land application sites, A restored riparian wetland buffer retained or removed at least 59 percent of the nitrogen and 66 percent of the phosphorus that entered from an adjacent manure land application site. The Bear Creek National Restoration Demonstration Watershed project in Iowa has been the site of riparian forest buffers and filter strips creation; constructed wetlands to capture tile flow; stream-bank bioengineering; in-stream structures; and controlling livestock grazing. We need field studies that test various widths of buffers of different plant community compositions for their efficacy in trapping surface runoff, reducing nonpoint source pollutants in subsurface waters, and enhancing the aquatic ecosystem. Research is needed to evaluate the impact of different riparian grazing strategies on channel morphology, water quality, and the fate of livestock-associated pathogens and antibiotics. Integrating riparian buffers and other conservation buffers into these models is a key objective in future model development.

  7. Diurnal patterns of ammonium and un-ionized ammonia in streams receiving secondary treatment effluent

    SciTech Connect

    Crumpton, W.G.; Isenhart, T.M.

    1988-04-01

    Ammonia is a common pollutant of streams receiving domestic and industrial waste water effluent. In aqueous solution, ammonium (NH/sub 4//sup +/) and un-ionized ammonia (NH/sub 3/) form a pH dependent equilibrium. Although ammonium is relatively nontoxic, unionized ammonia is toxic to a variety of aquatic organisms. Water quality criteria have been derived for un-ionized ammonia based on its toxicity to fish and aquatic invertebrates. The effects of fluctuating concentrations of ammonia could be especially significant in streams receiving sewage treatment effluent. Ammonia loads from sewage treatment facilities often display pronounced diurnal patterns, which may be imparted to receiving streams. In addition, diurnal patterns in stream pH and temperature could significantly affect ammonia speciation. Diurnal patterns in pH due to photosynthesis and respiration could significantly affect ammonia speciation and thus un-ionized ammonia concentrations in poorly buffered or highly productive streams. This paper describes diurnal patterns in ammonium and un-ionized ammonia in a stream receiving secondary treatment effluent and illustrates the effects of effluent loads, pH, and temperature on un-ionized ammonia patterns.

  8. Stress Corrosion Cracking Characteristics of a Range of Pipeline Steels in Carbonate-Bicarbonate Solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. N. Parkins; W. K. Blanchard Jr; E. N. Belhimer

    1993-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking (SCC) characteristics of a range of pipeline steels immersed in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution were studied in terms of the deleterious effects of small-amplitude cyclic loading on threshold stress, together with the increase of crack nucleation and the decrease of average crack growth rates with increasing test times. Data were reported on conditions for coalescence or otherwise of

  9. Experimental Tricyclic Antidepressant Toxicity: A Randomized, Controlled Comparison of Hypertonic Saline Solution, Sodium Bicarbonate, and Hyperventilation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James L McCabe; Daniel J Cobaugh; James J Menegazzi; John Fata

    1998-01-01

    Study objective: We sought to compare the effects of hypertonic sodium chloride solution (HTS), sodium bicarbonate solution, and hyperventilation (HV) on severe tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) toxicity in a swine model. Methods: Twenty-four mixed-breed, domestic swine of either sex were given an intravenous infusion of nortriptyline (NT) until development of both a QRS duration longer than 120 ms and a systolic

  10. Control of blue mold of apple by combining controlled atmosphere, antagonist mixtures and sodium bicarbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Golden Delicious' apples were wound-inoculated with Penicillium expansum, treated with various combinations of sodium bicarbonate and two antagonists, and stored in air or controlled atmosphere (1.4% O2, 3% CO2). The fruit were stored for 2 or 4 months at 1°C. The antagonists survived and their p...

  11. Effect of Prepartum Energy, Body Condition, and Sodium Bicarbonate on Production of Cows in Early Lactation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Boisclair; D. G. Grieve; J. B. Stone; O. B. Allen; G. K. Macleod

    1986-01-01

    In trial 1, the effects of dietary energy (102, 131 or 162% of requirement) in the dry period and of sodium bicarbonate (0 or .75% of diet dry matter) in early lactation were assessed with 31 cows in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Body condition and weight increased linearly with prepartum energy. Dry matter intake and milk

  12. Is Serum Lactate Necessary in Patients with Normal Anion Gap and Serum Bicarbonate?

    PubMed Central

    Aronovich, Daniel; Trotter, Maykel; Rivera, Cynthia; Dalley, Michael; Farcy, David; Betancourt, Michel; Howard, Lydia; Licciardi, Sharon; Cubeddu, Luigi; Goldszer, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There has been an increase in patients having serum lactate drawn in emergency situations. The objective of this study was to determine whether or not it was necessary to obtain a lactate level in patients with a normal serum bicarbonate level and anion gap. Methods This is a retrospective chart review evaluation of 304 patients who had serum lactate and electrolytes measured in an emergency setting in one academic medical center. Results In 66 patients who had elevated serum lactate (>2.2mmol/L), 45 (68%) patients had normal serum bicarbonate (SB) (greater than 21 mmol/L). Normal anion gap (AG) (normal range <16 mEq/l) was found in 51 of the 66 patients (77%). Conclusion We found that among patients with elevated serum lactate, 77% had a normal anion gap and 68% had normal serum bicarbonate. We conclude serum lactate should be drawn based on clinical suspicion of anaerobic tissue metabolism independent of serum bicarbonate or anion gap values. PMID:25987907

  13. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on 1500?m racing time

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. R. Bird; J. Wiles; J. Robbins

    1995-01-01

    Twelve athletes, all of whom regularly participated in middle? or long?distance running races at club to national standard, competed in simulated 1500?m races under three conditions: following ingestion of 300 mg sodium bicarbonate per kg of body mass (B); following ingestion of a placebo (100 mg sodium chloride per kg of body mass and 200 mg calcium carbonate per kg

  14. Evolutionary aspects of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in fish Josi R. Taylor , Martin Grosell

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    Evolutionary aspects of intestinal bicarbonate secretion in fish Josi R. Taylor , Martin Grosell January 2006; accepted 16 January 2006 Abstract Experiments compared intestinal HCO3 - secretion in the intestine of marine teleost Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, to representatives of early chondrostean

  15. Hydrogen storage by the bicarbonate\\/formate reaction. Studies on the activity of Pd catalysts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Kramer; M. Levy; A. Warshawsky

    1995-01-01

    The method of storage and generation of hydrogen by the bicarbonate\\/formate reaction was studied. It was shown that the Pd catalyst used loses its activity with time and can be regenerated by air oxidation. CO was found to be a powerful poison for the catalyst, in both the forward and the back reactions. The activity of the catalyst could be

  16. A Case report: Ammonium dichromate poisoning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asif Hasan

    We have presented a case report on ammonium dichromate poisoning to highlight the awareness of medical professionals about the toxicity of chromates and to minimize the fatalities. Its diagnosis depends mainly on history, clinical examination and post mortem findings. Chemical analysis is usually not helpful in this case, as it is a highly dissociable compound. In this case report, we

  17. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation in an estuarine sediment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Risgaard-Petersen; R. L. Meyer; M. C. Schmid; M. S. M. Jetten; A. Enrich-Prast; S. Rysgaard; N. P. Revsbech

    2004-01-01

    The occurrence and significance of the anammox (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) process relative to denitrification was studied in photosynthetically active sediment from 2 shallow-water estuaries: Randers Fjord and Norsminde Fjord, Denmark. Anammox accounted for 5 to 24 % of N-2 production in Randers Fjord sediment, whereas no indication was seen of the process in sediment from Norsminde Fjord, It is suggested

  18. Action of Quaternary Ammonium Salts on Nerve

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. L. Cowan

    1933-01-01

    EXPERIMENTS similar to those of Fromherz with curare on medullated nerve, referred to by Prof. A. V. Hill in his article on ``The Physical Nature of the Nerve Impulse'',1 in NATURE of April 8, have been made with pure quaternary ammonium salts prepared by Dr. H. R. Ing. These have a curare-like action, preventing transmission of excitation from nerve to

  19. Original article Ammonium assimilation and ureide metabolism

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    during the vegeta- tive and two during the reproductive period. Salinity reduced plant dry weight by 25 2000; revised 17 July 2001; accepted 21 August 2001) Abstract ­ The effect of salinity on ammonium-assimilation enzymes, as well as on the enzymes of purine catabolism, was studied in root nodules of common bean plants

  20. Determination of the ( Ammonium (NH4

    E-print Network

    , paleoclimate history, biologic cycling of nutrients, ground-water contamination, and natural remediation contributed to understanding of water-supply sustainability, ground-water/surface-water interactionsDetermination of the ( 15 N/ 14 N) of Ammonium (NH4 + ) in Water: RSIL Lab Code 2898 Chapter 15

  1. Modelling Ammonium Transporters in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Symbiosis

    E-print Network

    Troina, Angelo

    Modelling Ammonium Transporters in Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Symbiosis Mario Coppo1 , Ferruccio Damiani, the most wide-spread plant-fungus symbiosis on earth. Inves- tigating this kind of symbiosis is considered), the most widespread symbiosis between plants and fungi, got into the focus of research because of its

  2. [Nitritation-ANAMMOX process for treatment of ammonium rich wastewater].

    PubMed

    Liao, De-xiang; Wu, Yong-ming; Li, Xiao-ming; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2006-09-01

    Combination of a nitritation process and anoxic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) process for the treatment of ammonia rich influents is evaluated. Herein the combined process was studied with manmade synthetic wastewater. Research results show that when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was I day, the nitritation activity was stable and the influent ammonium concentration has little effect on it. When the influent ammonium concentration is 400-600 mg/L, the effluent nitrite concentration is always between 260 mg/L and 280 mg/L, so the effluent nitrite/ammonium ratio can be adjust by control the influent ammonium concentration. The total nitrogen elimination was depended strongly on the nitrite/ammonium ratio in the inlet of the ANAMMOX reactor. When the inlet ammonium was 480 mg/L of the combined process, the nitrite/ammonium ratio of the nitritation process was about 1.2, the total nitrogen elimination was 84%. PMID:17117631

  3. THE EFFECT OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES ON ESTUARINE AMMONIUM OXIDIZERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of seven thiophosphorus pesticides and their degradation products on estuarine ammonium oxidizers were examined. Using an axenic, closed-culture, high cell density assay, the pesticides caused little inhibition of ammonium oxidation. However, the degradation product o...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  8. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  9. Peroxynitrite reaction with carbon dioxide/bicarbonate: kinetics and influence on peroxynitrite-mediated oxidations.

    PubMed

    Denicola, A; Freeman, B A; Trujillo, M; Radi, R

    1996-09-01

    Peroxynitrite is a strong oxidant produced in vivo as the reaction product of superoxide anion and nitric oxide (k approximately 5 x 10(9) M-1 s-1) and can be formed and mediate reactions in the extracellular environment. It has recently been reported that peroxynitrite and carbon dioxide react in a second-order process (S. V. Lymar and K. Hurst (1995) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 117, 8867-8868). Since one of the most abundant constituents of the extracellular milieu is bicarbonate anion (25 mM in plasma) which is in equilibrium with carbon dioxide (1.3 mM in plasma) we have further studied the kinetics of the reaction between peroxynitrite and carbon dioxide/ bicarbonate and the effect of bicarbonate on different peroxynitrite-mediated oxidations. The apparent second-order rate constant for the reaction is (2.3 +/- 0.1) x 10(3) M-1 s-1 at 37 degrees C and pH 7.4 and a pH-independent second-order rate constant of (5.8 +/- 0.2) x 10(4) M-1 s-1 at 37 degrees C was obtained considering peroxynitrite anion and carbon dioxide as the reacting species. The enthalpy and entropy of activation are delta H* = +10.7 +/- 0.8 kcal mol-1 and delta S* = -6.5 +/- 0.5 cal mol-1 K-1, respectively. The presence of bicarbonate had variable influence on peroxynitrite-mediated oxidations. While bicarbonate significantly enhanced peroxynitrite-mediated nitration of aromatics, it partially inhibited the oxidation of thiols, dimethylsulfoxide, oxyhemoglobin, and cytochrome c+2 and totally inhibited the hydroxylation of benzoate. Spontaneous chemiluminescence studies suggest the formation of bicarbonate radicals during the interactions of peroxynitrite with carbon dioxide/ bicarbonate. Our results support that peroxynitrite anion rapidly reacts with carbon dioxide to yield an adduct (ONOOCO2-) which can participate in oxidation and nitration processes, thus redirecting the primary reactivity of peroxynitrite. PMID:8806753

  10. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ching-Lin; Shih, Mu-Chin; Yang, Chia-Cheng; Huang, Ming-Hsiang; Chang, Chen-Kang

    2010-01-01

    The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1) or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1) before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14) but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63), indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. PMID:20977701

  11. Molecular tunneling dynamics of NH3D + in ammonium sulfate and ammonium thiocyanate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wes Burrows; Herbert L. Strauss

    1993-01-01

    The kinetics of NH3D+ rotation in ammonium sulfate and ammonium thiocyanate are measured at low temperature (8–60 K). Infrared hole burning of the N–D stretching bands causes reorientation of the ions among distinct positions relative to the crystal lattice, producing nonequilibrium population distributions. The slow relaxation (time scale of minutes to hours) is monitored with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer as

  12. Pore Mutations in Ammonium Transporter AMT1 with Increased Electrogenic Ammonium Transport Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Loqué, Dominique; Mora, Silvia I.; Andrade, Susana L. A.; Pantoja, Omar; Frommer, Wolf B.

    2009-01-01

    AMT/Mep ammonium transporters mediate high affinity ammonium/ammonia uptake in bacteria, fungi, and plants. The Arabidopsis AMT1 proteins mediate uptake of the ionic form of ammonium. AMT transport activity is controlled allosterically via a highly conserved cytosolic C terminus that interacts with neighboring subunits in a trimer. The C terminus is thus capable of modulating the conductivity of the pore. To gain insight into the underlying mechanism, pore mutants suppressing the inhibitory effect of mutations in the C-terminal trans-activation domain were characterized. AMT1;1 carrying the mutation Q57H in transmembrane helix I (TMH I) showed increased ammonium uptake but reduced capacity to take up methylammonium. To explore whether the transport mechanism was altered, the AMT1;1-Q57H mutant was expressed in Xenopus oocytes and analyzed electrophysiologically. AMT1;1-Q57H was characterized by increased ammonium-induced and reduced methylammonium-induced currents. AMT1;1-Q57H possesses a 100× lower affinity for ammonium (Km) and a 10-fold higher Vmax as compared with the wild type form. To test whether the trans-regulatory mechanism is conserved in archaeal homologs, AfAmt-2 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus was expressed in yeast. The transport function of AfAmt-2 also depends on trans-activation by the C terminus, and mutations in pore-residues corresponding to Q57H of AMT1;1 suppress nonfunctional AfAmt-2 mutants lacking the activating C terminus. Altogether, our data suggest that bacterial and plant AMTs use a conserved allosteric mechanism to control ammonium flux, potentially using a gating mechanism that limits flux to protect against ammonium toxicity. PMID:19581303

  13. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect

    Urakaev, F.K. [Institute of Geology & Mineral SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  14. The effect of sodium bicarbonate on cytokine secretion in CKD patients with metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ori, Yaacov; Zingerman, Boris; Bergman, Michael; Bessler, Hanna; Salman, Hertzel

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of acidosis increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Correction of acidosis by sodium bicarbonate may slow CKD deterioration. Inflammation, which is common in CKD, may be related to acidosis. Whether the slower rate of GFR decline following the correction of acidosis is related to changes in inflammatory markers is unknown. The current study examined whether correcting CKD-acidosis affected inflammatory cytokines secretion. Thirteen patients with CKD 4-5 and acidosis were tested for cytokines secretion from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells at baseline and after one month of oral sodium bicarbonate. Following treatment with sodium bicarbonate there was no change in weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, albumin, sodium, calcium, phosphate, PTH, hemoglobin and CRP. Serum urea decreased (134±10-116±8mg/dl, P=0.002), potassium decreased (5.1±0.4-4.8±0.1mequiv./l, P=0.064), pH increased (7.29±0.01-7.33±0.01, P=0.008), and serum bicarbonate increased (18.6±0.4mequiv./l to 21.3±0.3mequiv./l, P=0.001). The secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 decreased (2.75±0.25ng/ml to 2.29±0.21ng/ml, P=0.041). There was no significant change in the secretion of the other pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, TNF?, IFN?, IL-1ra. Thus, correcting acidosis in CKD with bicarbonate decreases IL-10 secretion. Its significance needs to be further investigated. PMID:25960222

  15. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati, Hui Tian, Sean Corcoran

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop'. In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature ({approx} 120 C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  16. Original article Ionic adsorption of ammonium and nitrate on some

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Original article Ionic adsorption of ammonium and nitrate on some animal litters and their role -- Two experiments were carried out to determine the adsorption of ammonium and nitrate on litters (Exp added to the tubes which were incubated for 24 h. Ammonium and nitrate concentrations, and pH, were

  17. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721.6070 Section 721.6070 ...721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts (PMNs P-93-725 and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721.6070 Section 721.6070 ...721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts (PMNs P-93-725 and...

  19. Bacterial adhesion inhibition of the quaternary ammonium functionalized silica nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jooyoung Song; Hyeyoung Kong; Jyongsik Jang

    2011-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds have been considered as excellent antibacterial agents due to their effective biocidal activity, long term durability and environmentally friendly performance. In this work, 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecylammonium chloride as a quaternary ammonium silane was applied for the surface modification of silica nanoparticles. The quaternary ammonium silane provided silica surface with hydrophobicity and antibacterial properties. In addition, the glass surface which

  20. Factors Controlling Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation with Nitrite in

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Dalsgaard; Bo Thamdrup

    Factors controlling the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrate and nitrite were explored in a marine sediment from the Skagerrak in the Baltic-North Sea transition. In anoxic incubations with the addition of nitrite, approximately 65% of the nitrogen gas formation was due to anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite, with the remainder being produced by denitrification. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite

  1. Integration of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation, Methanogensis and Denitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zu Bo; Shiqiang Wei

    2011-01-01

    If EGSB reactor was inoculated with the aerobic activated sludge, then after the reactor start-up operation of 120 d, Granular sludge can be formed. Denitrification bacteria and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria were cultured and enriched for 270 d in EGSB reactor with nitrite and ammonium. The removal efficiency of COD was 85%, ammonium nitrogen 35%, nitrite nitrogen 99.9%, and total

  2. Significance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the Bess B. Ward

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    Significance of anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the ocean Bess B. Ward Department of Geosciences: bacteria capable of oxidizing ammonium to nitrogen gas (N2). This new source of N2 has now been detected the existence of bacteria capable of coupling the oxidation of ammonium directly to the reduction of nitrate [6

  3. Introduction Ammonium is the most reduced form of inorganic nitrogen

    E-print Network

    by bacteria in aerobic (nitrification) or anaerobic (anaerobic ammonium oxidation) environments (Furman et al144 Introduction Ammonium is the most reduced form of inorganic nitrogen in seawater matter (Von Brand et al. 1937). Ammonium can be assimilated and incorporated into organic molecules

  4. Factors Controlling Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation with Nitrite in Marine Sediments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tage Dalsgaard; Bo Thamdrup

    2002-01-01

    Factors controlling the anaerobic oxidation of ammonium with nitrate and nitrite were explored in a marine sediment from the Skagerrak in the Baltic-North Sea transition. In anoxic incubations with the addition of nitrite, approximately 65% of the nitrogen gas formation was due to anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite, with the remainder being produced by denitrification. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite

  5. Cultivation, Detection, and Ecophysiology of Anaerobic Ammonium-Oxidizing Bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boran Kartal; Wim Geerts; Mike S. M. Jetten

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria oxidize ammonium with nitrite under anoxic conditions. The anammox process is currently used to remove ammonium from wastewater and contributes significantly to the loss of fixed nitrogen from the oceans. In this chapter, we focus on the ecophysiology of anammox bacteria and describe new methodologies to grow these microorganisms. Now, it is possible to enrich anammox

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) in Chesapeake

    E-print Network

    Ward, Bess

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) in Chesapeake Bay Sediments Jeremy J. Rich / Published online: 7 July 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007 Abstract Anaerobic ammonium as anaero- bic ammonium oxidation (anammox), may be an important loss term in some systems [6, 23]. Anammox

  7. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  8. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  9. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  10. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  11. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  12. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  13. Thermal Dissociation Kinetics of Solid and Liquid Ammonium Nitrate

    E-print Network

    Utah, University of

    Thermal Dissociation Kinetics of Solid and Liquid Ammonium Nitrate Sergey Vyazovkin,* Jacalyn S and liquid ammonium nitrate. Model-fitting and model-free kinetic methods have been applied to the sets/vaporization. Introduction Ammonium nitrate (AN) finds a widespread applica- tion as both fertilizer and energetic material

  14. Sediment ammonium availability and eelgrass ( Zostera marina ) growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. C. Dennison; R. C. Aller; R. S. Alberte

    1987-01-01

    The interaction of sediment ammonium (NH4+) availability and eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) growth, biomass and photosynthesis was investigated using controlled environment and in-situ manipulations of pore water ammonium concentrations. Sediment diffusers were used to create pore water diffusion gradients to fertilize and deplete ammonium levels in sediments with intact eelgrass rhizospheres. Between October, 1982 and September, 1983 controlled environment experiments

  15. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  16. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  17. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  18. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  19. An efficient buffer-mediated control between free radical substitution and proton-coupled electron transfer: dehalogenation of iodoethane by the ?-hydroxyethyl radical in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ljubi?, Ivan; Matasovi?, Brunislav; Bonifa?i?, Marija

    2013-11-01

    A remarkable buffer-mediated control between free-radical substitution (FRS) and proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) is demonstrated for the reaction between iodoethane and the ?-hydroxyethyl radical in neutral aqueous solution in the presence of bicarbonate or phosphate buffer. The reaction is initiated by the ?-radiolysis of the water solvent, and the products, either the iodine atom (FRS) or anion (PCET), are analysed using ion chromatographic and spectrophotometric techniques. A detailed insight into the mechanism is gained by employing density functional theory (M06-2X), Mřller-Plesset perturbation treatment to the second order (MP2), and multireference methods (CASSCF/CASPT2). Addition of a basic buffer anion is indispensable for the reaction to occur and the competition between the two channels depends subtly on its proton accepting affinity, with FRS being the dominant channel in the phosphate and PCET in the bicarbonate containing solutions. Unlike the former, the latter channel sustains a chain-like process which significantly enhances the dehalogenation. The present systems furnish an example of the novel PCET/FRS dichotomy, as well as insights into possibilities of its efficient control. PMID:24061544

  20. Detection and Quantification of Bacteria Involved in Aerobic and Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation in an Ammonium-Contaminated Aquifer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theo H. M. Smits; Arne Hüttmann; David N. Lerner; Christof Holliger

    2009-01-01

    The aerobic and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacterial guilds were studied from two multilevel samplers in an ammonium-contaminated aquifer in the UK. By end point polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the presence of betaproteobacterial ammonium-oxidizing bacteria and anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) planctomycetes was demonstrated. The sequences of cloned anammox-specific PCR fragments had close relationships with known anammox strains. Real-time PCR was subsequently used to

  1. Riparian buffers and potentially unstable ground

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swee May Tang; David R. Montgomery

    1995-01-01

    The spatial coincidence between riparian buffers of various widths and extents and potentially unstable ground was quantified\\u000a using a physically based model for shallow landslide initiation and GIS for two watersheds on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington,\\u000a USA. The proportion of the potentially unstable ground in each watershed within riparian buffers is a function of both buffer\\u000a width and the extent

  2. Muscarinic M1 receptor inhibition reduces gastroduodenal bicarbonate secretion and promotes gastric prostaglandin E2 synthesis in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsř, J; Eskerod, O; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1995-01-01

    The selective muscarinic M1 receptor antagonist, pirenzepine, considerably stimulates duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in the rat and increases gastric luminal release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in humans. This study, therefore, looked at the effect of pirenzepine on bicarbonate secretion and luminal output of PGE2 into the stomach and the duodenum of nine healthy volunteers using a new technique permitting simultaneous measurements. In the stomach modified sham feeding increased bicarbonate secretion from 382 (62) mumol/h (mean (SEM)) to 959 (224) mumol/h (p < 0.02). In the duodenum modified sham feeding and acid exposure (HCl 0.1 M; 20 ml; 5 min) of the duodenal bulb increased mucosal bicarbonate secretion from 191 (14) mumol/cm x h to 266 (27) mumol/cm x h (p < 0.02) and 634 (157) mumol/cm x h (p < 0.01), respectively. Pirenzepine (10 mg/h intravenously) reduced basal and vagally stimulated gastric and basal duodenal bicarbonate secretion by about 50% (p < 0.03). In the stomach, but not the duodenum, basal and vagally stimulated PGE2 output increased significantly (p < 0.05) in response to pirenzepine. In conclusion, human gastroduodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion is regulated by a pirenzepine sensitive mechanism, which is probably cholinergic. The rise in gastric PGE2 output seen in response to M1 receptor inhibition by pirenzepine suggests the existence of a feed back loop secondary to the decrease seen in bicarbonate secretion. PMID:7737558

  3. Variation of urinary pH and bicarbonate concentrations of students in metropolitan and rural areas of Japan.

    PubMed

    Tomoda, A; Yamanaka, S; Kawai, H; Itoh, H; Katsumata, M; Minami, M; Hashimoto, T; Tanii, H; Hashimoto, K

    1995-01-01

    Changes in urinary pH and bicarbonate levels were studied in urine collected before and after final examinations taken by 91 medical students (65 males, 26 females) in Tokyo and from 87 students (73 males, 14 females) in Kanazawa, a rural municipality. Bicarbonate levels and pH in the urine of students in both cities increased significantly after attending 2 h of final examinations. The highest pH value and highest bicarbonate level were 7.66 and 80.3 mM, respectively, found in the urine of a student in Kanazawa. Urinary pH and bicarbonate levels averaged 6.48 and 11.1 mM, respectively, for students in Tokyo and 6.26 and 8.91 mM, respectively, for students in Kanazawa. Given that the concentrations of carbon dioxide in the air of the classrooms in both cities increased drastically during the final examinations (i.e., from 700 ppm to 1 200 ppm in Tokyo and from 700 ppm to 1 500 ppm in Kanazawa), it appears that the increases in urinary pH and bicarbonate levels were correlated with the increase of carbon dioxide (known to be convertible to bicarbonate in blood) in the rooms. This was also supported by the increase in urinary pH and bicarbonate levels found in urine collected from 20 students who stayed in a cinema for 3 h, at which location carbon dioxide levels in air reached 1 200 ppm. PMID:8572725

  4. All-optical buffering for DPSK packets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guodong; Wu, Chongqing; Liu, Lanlan; Wang, Fu; Mao, Yaya; Sun, Zhenchao

    2013-12-01

    Advanced modulation formats, such as DPSK, DQPSK, QAM, have become the mainstream technologies in the optical network over 40Gb/s, the DPSK format is the fundamental of all advanced modulation formats. Optical buffers, as a key element for temporarily storing packets in order to synchronization or contention resolution in optical nodes, must be adapted to this new requirement. Different from other current buffers to store the NRZ or RZ format, an all-optical buffer of storing DPSK packets based on nonlinear polarization rotation in SOA is proposed and demonstrated. In this buffer, a section of PMF is used as fiber delay line to maintain the polarization states unchanged, the driver current of SOA is optimized, and no amplifier is required in the fiber loop. A packet delay resolution of 400ns is obtained and storage for tens rounds is demonstrated without significant signal degradation. Using proposed the new tunable DPSK demodulator, bit error rate has been measured after buffering for tens rounds for 10Gb/s data payload. Configurations for First-in First-out (FIFO) buffer or First-in Last-out (FILO) buffer are proposed based on this buffer. The buffer is easy control and suitable for integration. The terminal contention caused by different clients can be mitigated by managing packets delays in future all-optical network, such as optical packet switching network and WDM switching network.

  5. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  6. Hydroformylation of C 8 olefins catalyzed by rhodium–inorganic ammonium salt systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dehua He; Dongcheng Pang; Lan Wei; Yu Chen; Tong-en Wang; Zhigang Tang; Jinyao Liu; Ye Liu; Qiming Zhu

    2002-01-01

    The effect of inorganic ammonium salts which contain group VIB metals of the periodic table (ammonium chromate, ammonium dichromate, ammonium molybdate and ammonium tungstate) as additives on the catalytic performance of Rh catalysts for the hydroformylation of C8-olefins and 1-dodecylene has been investigated. Modification of rhodium with ammonium salts could increase the yield of aldehydes in the hydroformylation of the

  7. Effects of sodium bicarbonate and 1,25-dihydroxy-cholecalciferol on calcium and phosphorus balances in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goulding, A.; McIntosh, J.; Campbell, D.

    1984-04-01

    Metabolic balance studies were undertaken to determine whether sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) supplements (4.5 mmol/day) altered 7-day cumulative calcium (Ca) phosphorus (P) balances in growing rats consuming either a basal diet providing 0.6% Ca and 0.3% P, or this diet plus 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (40 ng 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3//day). Feeding bicarbonate lowered urinary Ca but raised fecal Ca so that Ca balance became less positive. However, 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ increased net absorption of Ca and P to the same degree when given to control rats and rats consuming bicarbonate. Nevertheless, bicarbonate-fed rats had lower net Ca absorption than controls, even when treated with high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/. Changes in net Ca absorption induced by bicarbonate may occur at a point in the gut distal to the duodenum since duodenal /sup 45/Ca absorption was decreased by bicarbonate feeding. The present results show that bicarbonate consumption depressed net Ca absorption in the rat. The effect appears to be independent of changes in 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ metabolism because it is manifest in animals receiving high doses of 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/, which stimulate alimentary Ca absorption maximally, and because bicarbonate-fed rats are able to respond normally to exogenous 1,25(OH)/sub 2/D/sub 3/ by increasing their net absorption of Ca and P. In view of this demonstration that NaHCO/sub 3/ supplements elevate fecal Ca loss in the rat, it is suggested that studies should be undertaken to determine whether bicarbonate exerts similar adverse effects on Ca balance in humans.

  8. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  9. Copper corrosion in buffered and non-buffered synthetic seawater: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JoăoPedro Ferreira; JoăoAlexandre Rodrigues; InęsTeodoraElias da Fonseca

    2004-01-01

    The electrochemical behaviour of copper in neutral buffered and non-buffered synthetic seawater and in pure chloride solutions has been studied by cyclic voltammetry, weight loss measurements, open circuit potential and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Values of the repassivation potentials of Cu in non-buffered and buffered synthetic seawater, at 50 mV s -1, were 0.12 and 0.46 V vs. SCE, respectively. The sharpness, heights

  10. [Quaternary ammonium compounds--new occupational hazards].

    PubMed

    Lipi?ska-Ojrzanowska, Agnieszka; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs, quats) belong to organic ionic chemical agents which display unique properties of both surfactants and disinfectants. Their wide distribution in the work environment and also in private households brings about new occupational hazards. This paper reviews reports about the health effects of QACs. QACs could play a role of sensitizers and irritants to the skin and mucous membranes. It is suspected that particular QACs can display an immunologic cross-reactivity between each other and with other chemical compounds containing ammonium ion, such as muscle relaxants widely used in anesthesia. They may promote the development of airway allergy, however, the background mechanisms are still unclear and need to be further investigated. Until now, a few cases of occupational asthma induced by QACs have been described and their involvement in contact dermatitis has been documented. The possibility of anaphylaxis due to QACs cannot be excluded as well. PMID:25812396

  11. Rosin (colophony) holograms sensitized with ammonium dichromate ®

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Olivares-Pérez; J. C. Ibarra-Torres; M. Ortiz-Gutiérrez; M. Pérez-Cortés; I. Fuentes-Tapia

    2005-01-01

    We report a photosensitive emulsion by mixing ammonium dichromate with rosin resin diluted in isopropyl alcohol. This material can be easily elaborated. A phase grating in this material was recorded using an argon-ion laser at ?=457nm, shows a moderate diffraction efficiency. This material is capable of a high resolution when we record some diffraction gratings, observing the order of 2000l\\/mm

  12. Detonation characteristics of prilled ammonium nitrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Winning

    1965-01-01

    Detonation characteristics of prilled ammonium nitrate vary greatly with physical factors. Minimum primer requirements and\\u000a minimum propagating diameters of industrial and fertilizer grade prills are compared as well as the detonation velocities\\u000a and blast effects of prill “shots” of various sizes and degrees of confinement. The sensitizing effect of elevated temperature\\u000a on AN detonations also is demonstrated.

  13. Anammoxosomes of Anaerobic Ammonium-oxidizing Planctomycetes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John A. Fuerst; Richard Webb; Laura van Niftrik; Mike S. M. Jetten; Marc Strous

    2006-01-01

    Anammoxosomes are unique metabolically significant compartments of planctomycetes performing the anammox process. These bacteria carry out Anaerobic\\u000a Ammonium Oxidation, a chemolithotrophic\\u000a and autotrophic metabolism. They comprise Candidatus genera “Brocadia”,\\u000a “Kuenenia” and “Scalindua”, mostly from wastewater treatment bioreactors or marine\\u000a anaerobic habitats and none of which are yet in pure culture. Like cells of other planctomycetes, anammox\\u000a species possess a shared planctomycete cell

  14. Metal Ammonium Phosphates and Their New Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L M Lapina

    1968-01-01

    The review deals with the methods of preparation and applications of double salts comprising metal and ammonium phosphates. Particular attention has been given to the methods of preparation and properties of divalent metal compounds of composition MNH4PO4·nH2O which are interesting as complex, long-acting fertilizers. The syntheses and investigations of those trivalent metal compounds which can be formed on interaction between

  15. Ammonium nitrate: thermal stability and explosivity modifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jimmie C Oxley; James L Smith; Evan Rogers; Ming Yu

    2002-01-01

    Two basic approaches to diminish the explosivity of AN have been suggested: dilution of ammonium nitrate (AN) with a chemically inert material or incorporation of small amounts of material which increases the chemical reaction zone [Method of Desensitizing AN and the Product Obtained, United States Patent Office, No. 3,366,468 (1968); Fertilizer additives: can AN be defanged? C&E News (1995) 6].

  16. Use of ammonium in nutrient solutions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted in greenhouse under hydroponic conditions to study the response of wheat to: i) different ammonium\\/nitrate (NH4\\/NO3) ratios, ii) the application of NH4 during different phenological states, and iii) the addition of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) for maximum replacement of NO3 by NH4. Small amounts of NH4 considerably increased yield and grain quality. The best response was observed

  17. Ammonium piperidine-1-carbodithio­ate

    PubMed Central

    Mafud, Ana C.; Gambardella, Maria T. P.

    2011-01-01

    The title compound, NH4 +·C6H10NS2 ?, is composed of an ammonium cation and a piperidine-1-carbodithio­ate anion which exhibits positional disorder. The atoms of the ring have a structural disorder and they are divided into two sites, with occupancy factors of 0.584 and 0.426.. In the crystal, the cation and anion are linked by N—H?S hydrogen bonds to form an infinite two-dimensional network. PMID:21754156

  18. Ammonium Hydroxide Detoxification of Spruce Acid Hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Alriksson; Ilona Sárvári Horvath; Anders Sjöde; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant; Leif J. Jönsson

    When dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce are fermented to produce ethanol, detoxification is required to make the hydrolysates\\u000a fermentable at reasonable rates. Treatment with alkali, usually by overtiming, is one of the most efficient approaches. Several\\u000a nutrients, such as ammonium and phosphate, are added to the hydrolysates prior to fermentation. We investigated the use of\\u000a NH4OH for simultaneous detoxification and addition

  19. Ammonium hydroxide detoxification of spruce acid hydrolysates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Björn Alriksson; Ilona Sárvári Horváth; Anders Sjöde; Nils-Olof Nilvebrant; Leif J. Jönsson

    2005-01-01

    When dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce are fermented to produce ethanol, detoxification is required to make the hydrolysates\\u000a fermentable at reasonable rates. Treatment with alkali, usually by overliming, is one of the most efficient approaches. Several\\u000a nutrients, such as ammonium and phosphate, are added to the hydrolysates prior to fermentation. We investigated the use of\\u000a NH4OH for simultaneous detoxification and addition

  20. Equation of State of Ammonium Nitrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robbins, David L.; Sheffield, Stephen A.; Dattelbaum, Dana M.; Velisavljevic, Nenad; Stahl, David B.

    2009-12-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is a widely used fertilizer and mining explosive. AN is commonly used in ammonium nitrate-fuel oil (ANFO), which is a mixture of explosive-grade AN prills and fuel oil in a 94:6 ratio by weight. ANFO is a non-ideal explosive with measured detonation velocities around 4 km/s. The equation of state properties and known initiation behavior of neat AN are limited. We present the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on pressed neat ammonium nitrate at 1.72 g/cm3. No evidence of initiation was observed under shock loading to 22 GPa. High pressure x-ray diffraction experiments in diamond anvil cells provided insight into the high pressure phase behavior over the same pressure range (to 25 GPa), as well as a static isotherm at ambient temperature. From the isotherm and thermodynamic properties at ambient conditions, a preliminary unreacted equation of state (EOS) has been developed based on the Murnaghan isotherm and Helmholtz formalism [1], which compares favorably with the available experimental Hugoniot data on several densities of AN.

  1. Preparation of Y2O3:Eu3+, Tb3+ nanopowders with tunable luminescence by ammonium bicarbonate co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hui; Zhang, Xi-Yan; Wang, Neng-Li; Dong, Wei-Li; Mi, Xiao-Yun

    2015-09-01

    Y2O3:Eu3+, Tb3+ nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation method with NH4HCO3 as precipitant. The nanopowders with different calcined temperatures and Eu3+/Tb3+ doped ratio were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results showed that the nanopowders calcined at 1100°C for 2 h had a uniform distribution, high purity and good dispersibility. The particle size was in the range of 60-80 nm. The excitation spectra of Eu3+/Tb3+ co-doped phosphors were wide. The phosphors could emit the green light at the peak of 543 nm and the red light at the peak of 611 nm simultaneously under 276 nm or 300 nm excited. Because of the energy transfer between Tb3+ and Eu3+, the 543 nm emission of Tb3+ ion was weakened while the 611 nm emission of Eu3+ enhanced. The emissive colors of Y2O3:Eu3+, Tb3+ nanopowders could be adjusted from yellow-green to orange-red by changing the Eu3+/Tb3+ doping ratio.

  2. Using Input Buffers for Streaming XSLT Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jana Dvoráková; Filip Zavoral

    2009-01-01

    We present a buffering streaming engine for processing top-down XSLT transformations. It consists of an analyzer and a transformer. The analyzer examines given top-down XSLT and XSD, and gen- erates fragments which identify parts of XSD need to be buffered when XSLT is applied. The fragments are passed to the transformer which processes XSLT on an input XML document conforming

  3. Optimal Buffering for Streaming XPath Evaluation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudarshan S. Chawathe

    We motivate and present a definition of optimal buffering for streaming evaluation of XPath queries. We consider a large fragment of XPath that includes multiple (correlated) subqueries and reverse (up the document tree) axes. We de- scribe a method for XPath evaluation with optimal buffer- ing. We present the results of an experimental evaluation of our methods based on our

  4. NC machining with G-buffer method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Takafumi Saito; Tokiichiro Takahashi

    1991-01-01

    The G-buffer method is applied to NC machining. A total NC system is created that consists of all essential functions, such as tool path generation, path verification, and feed rate control. Moreover, any combination of object surface and tool shape is acceptable. By utilizing G-buffers created from a parallel projection, the required NC functions are realized as image processing operations.

  5. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  6. Making Fast Buffer Insertion Even Faster via

    E-print Network

    Shi, Weiping "Peter"

    . Lillis, Cheng and Lin [TCAS 96]: O(b2n2) time and space for b buffer types. Shi and Li [DAC 04]: O) time and space for b buffer types. Minimum Cost Lillis, Cheng and Lin [TCAS 96]: pseudo-polynomial time

  7. Buffer Tank Design for Acceptable Control Performance

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    ), and neutralization vessels. We start with a definition: A buffer tank is a unit where the holdup (volume) is exploited to provide smoother operation. We here focus on buffer tanks for liquids, although most, accumulators, or inventories. 2 #12;In both cases the tank volume is exploited, and a larger volume gives

  8. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3(-) transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4? isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3(-) to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4? appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  9. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  10. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  11. Use of carbon dioxide- and oxygen-tonometered phosphate-bicarbonate-chloride-glycerol-water mixtures for calibration and control of pH, pCO2, and pO2 electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Veefkind, A H; Van den Camp, R A; Maas, A H

    1975-05-01

    Calibration of pH, PCO2, and PO2 electrode systems of modern blood-gas analyzers, designed with one sample cuvet for measurement, is mostly performed separately with buffer solutions of known pH, PCO2, and PO2 for doing such calibrations simultaneously, containing phosphate, bicarbonate, and chloride in glycerol-water mixtures as solvent. A method is suggested for computing the relation between pH and log PCO2 of these solutions in equilibrium with carbon dioxide gas. It is demonstrated that a solution of phosphate (Na2HPO4, KH2PO4, each 25 mmol/liter), bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 30 mmol/liter), and chloride (Nacl, 30 mmol/liter) in glycerol-water mixture (3/7 by vol) and equilibrated with CO2 in air (4 vol/100 vol) and CO2 in nitrogen (8 vol/100 vol), respectively, makes possible acurate and simultaneous calibration of the pH, PCO2, PO2 electrodes of a Corning Model 165 blood-gas analyzer. Similar solutions may also be used for quality-control of blood-gas measurement. PMID:235377

  12. Initiation of stress corrosion cracking for pipeline steels in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. F. Wang; A. Atrens

    1996-01-01

    The linearly increasing stress test (LIST) was used to study the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) behavior of a range of pipeline\\u000a steels in carbonate-bicarbonate solution under stress rate control at different applied potentials. Stress corrosion cracking,\\u000a at potentials below -800 mV(SCE), was attributed to hydrogen embrittlement. Stress corrosion cracking, in the potential range\\u000a from about-700 to -500 mV(SCE), was attributed

  13. Influence of bicarbonate on the sensitivity of renin release to sodium chloride

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ole Skřtt; Boye L. Jensen

    1989-01-01

    Juxtaglomerular cells in vitro are sensitive to changes in osmolality, but it is unknown whether volumeregulatory changes in cellular ion fluxes are important for the renin secretory process. The sensitivity of renin release to increases in osmolality by NaCl was therefore tested on superfused rat glomeruli treated with bicarbonate\\/chloride exchange inhibitor (DNDS), NaCl\\/KCl cotransport inhibitor (bumetanide), or Na+\\/H+ antiport inhibitor

  14. Time and dose-dependent effects of protein kinase C on proximal bicarbonate transport

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tong Wang; Yun Lai Chan

    1990-01-01

    Summary Activation of protein kinase C has been shown to cause both stimulation and inhibition of transport processes in the brush-border membrane and renal tubule. This study was designed to examine the dose-response nature and time-dependent effect of 4 ß-phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) on the rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO3) and fluid absorption (Jv) in the proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) of rat

  15. Effect of cimetidine and sodium bicarbonate on pancreatic replacement therapy in cystic fibrosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P R Durie; L Bell; W Linton; M L Corey; G G Forstner

    1980-01-01

    Fifteen patients with cystic fibrosis and pancreatic insufficiency were studied during four randomised seven day treatment periods in which they received only pancreatic supplement (Pancrelipase, 27 capsules per day) or supplement plus cimetidine (20 mg\\/kg body weight\\/24 h) or sodium bicarbonate (15 g\\/m2\\/24 h) alone or in combination. Dietary intake was not fixed but was restricted to foods of known

  16. Anion dependence of electrical effects of bicarbonate and sodium on cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Jentsch; Harald Matthes; Svea K. Keller; Michael Wiederholt

    1985-01-01

    Using intracellular microelectrode technique, the effect of anion substitution on the voltage responses to extracellular bicarbonate and sodium was explored in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells.1.The overall amplitude of voltage changes induced by periodic changes of [HCO3-]0 (depolarization upon removal of HCO3- and hyperpolarization upon readdition) was reduced when Cl- was replaced by organic anions (cyclamate, methylsulfate, benzenesulfonate) or by

  17. Evidence for coupled transport of bicarbonate and sodium in cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas J. Jentsch; Svea K. Keller; Marianne Koch; Michael Wiederholt

    1984-01-01

    Summary Usin gintracellular microelectrode technique, the response of the voltageV across the plasma membrane of cultured bovine corneal endothelial cells to changes in sodium and bicarbonate concentrations was investigated. (1) The electrical response to changes in [HCO3-]o(depolarization upon lowering and hyperpolarization upon raising [HCO3-]o) was dependent on sodium. Lithium could fairly well be substituted for sodium, whereas potassium or choline

  18. Bicarbonate Secretion in the Guinea Pig Duodenum: Functional Characterization of Peptide Hormone Receptors in Duodenal Enterocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Reimer; H. S. Odes; W. Beil; M. Schwenk; R. Muallem; K.-F. Sewing

    1996-01-01

    To get information about the peptide hormone receptors involved in duodenal bicarbonate secretion (DBS) and their cellular location, we determined DBS and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity in response to hormones of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (V?P)&slash;secretin family of peptides. DBS was determined in an isolated, perfused (24 mmol\\/l NaHCO3) loop of the proximal duodenum in urethane- and indometacin-treated guinea pigs.

  19. Epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate during CPR following asphyxial cardiac arrest in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Neumar; Nicholas G. Bircher; Ka Ming Sim; Fung Xiao; Kathy Swales Zadach; Ann Radovsky; Laurence Katz; Ewe Ebmeyer; Peter Safar

    1995-01-01

    Although high-dose epinephrine during CPR improves coronary perfusion pressure (CoPP) and rate of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) in some models, its impact on long term outcome (? 72 h) has not been evaluated. Previous studies of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) therapy during CPR indicate that beneficial effects may be dependent on epinephrine (EPI) dose. We hypothesized that EPI and NaHCO3

  20. Fully automated photocolorimetric method for dissolved silica in oil well water rich in sulfide and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Korolev, Dmitry N; Buslaev, Evgeny S; Elefterov, Aleksandr I

    2015-08-01

    A fully automated photocolorimetric method for dissolved silica in oil well water rich in sulfide and bicarbonate is proposed; the method is based on yellow silicomolybdic heteropolyacid. To eliminate the interference of sulfide a treatment with bromate is utilized. The analytical range is 1-30mgL(-1); with the automatically performed dilution it extends up to 300mgL(-1), RSD 5.5%. PMID:26048821

  1. Use of bicarbonate ions as a source of carbon in photosynthesis by Callitriche hermaphroditica

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen C. Maberly; Tom V. Madsen

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies on four amphibious species of Callitriche have shown photosynthesis to be restricted to CO2 as an external carbon source. In contrast, we found that C. hermaphroditica, an obligately submerged species, is able to use bicarbonate ions in addition to CO2 as an external source of inorganic carbon for photosynthesis. In pH-drift experiments, the final concentration of CO2 was

  2. The influence of copper and bicarbonate ions on the corrosion of aluminum alloys saline solutions 

    E-print Network

    Becerra-Diaz, Alcibiades

    1972-01-01

    , the samples were re- moved from their holders and scrubbed with a rubber stopper under flowing hot water. The remaining wax was removed by placing the specimen between paper towels over a hot plate. The corrosion product stripping was accomplished by a...THE INFLUENCE OF COPPER AND BICARBONATE IONS ON THE CORROSION OF ALUMINUM ALLOYS IN SALINE SOLUTIONS A Thesis by ALCIBIADES BECERRA-DIAZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement...

  3. Culture studies of Ruppia maritima L. in bicarbonate- and sucrose-based media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. T. Bird; M. S. Brown; T. T. Henderson; C. E. O'Hara; J. M. Robbie

    1996-01-01

    Media were compared for culture of the estuarine plant Ruppia maritima L. The best inorganic nutrient amendment was based on f\\/2 basal enrichment salts in artificial seawater. Using f\\/2 basal enrichments, Ruppia maritima could be grown in media where either bicarbonate or sucrose was provided as the major carbon source. The cytokinin 2iP (6[?,?-dimethylallylamino]-purine) stimulated more growth than BA (N6-benzylaminopurine)

  4. Water structure and its influence on the flotation of carbonate and bicarbonate salts.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, O; Celik, M S; Nickolov, Z S; Miller, J D

    2007-10-15

    Interfacial water structure is a most important parameter that influences the collector adsorption by salt minerals such as borax, potash and trona. According to previous studies, salts can be classified as water structure makers and water structure breakers. Water structure making and breaking properties of salt minerals in their saturated brine solutions are essential to explain their flotation behavior. In this work, water structure making-breaking studies in solutions of carbonate and bicarbonate salts (Na(2)CO(3), K(2)CO(3), NaHCO(3) and NH(4)HCO(3)) in 4 wt% D(2)O in H(2)O mixtures have been performed by FTIR analysis of the OD stretching band. This method reveals a microscopic picture of the water structure making/breaking character of the salts in terms of the hydrogen bonding between the water molecules in solution. The results from the vibrational spectroscopic studies demonstrate that carbonate salts (Na(2)CO(3) and K(2)CO(3)) act as strong structure makers, whereas bicarbonate salts (NaHCO(3) and NH(4)HCO(3)) act as weak structure makers. In addition, the changes in the OD band parameters of carbonate and bicarbonate salt solutions are in agreement with the viscosity characteristics of their solutions. PMID:17618642

  5. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Civil & Environmental Engineering

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  6. Evidence for a Detrimental Effect of Bicarbonate Therapy in Hypoxic Lactic Acidosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Helmut; Leach, William; Arieff, Allen I.

    1985-02-01

    Lactic acidosis, a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of lactic acid, is characterized by lactate concentration in blood greater than 5 mM. Therapy usually consists of intravenous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but resultant mortality is greater than 60 percent. The metabolic and systemic effects of NaHCO3 therapy of hypoxic lactic acidosis in dogs were studied and compared to the effects of sodium chloride or no therapy. Sodium bicarbonate elevated blood lactate concentrations to a greater extent than did either sodium chloride or no treatment. Despite the infusion of NaHCO3, both arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration decreased by a similar amount in all three groups of dogs. Additional detrimental effects of NaHCO3 were observed on the cardiovascular system, including decreases in cardiac output and blood pressure that were not observed with either sodium chloride or no treatment. Thus there is evidence for a harmful effect of NaHCO3 in the treatment of hypoxic lactic acidosis.

  7. Repeated High Intensity Bouts with Long Recovery: Are Bicarbonate or Carbohydrate Supplements an Option?

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Cetin, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25?min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC); carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO); placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE); placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE). Blood lactate (BLa), blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138 ± 9, 124 ± 6, and 121 ± 6?s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3?). Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3? values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3? was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC. PMID:25431775

  8. Repeated high intensity bouts with long recovery: are bicarbonate or carbohydrate supplements an option?

    PubMed

    Stöggl, Thomas; Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Cetin, Ebru; Nagasaki, Masaru

    2014-01-01

    The effects of varying recovery modes and the influence of preexercise sodium bicarbonate and carbohydrate ingestion on repeated high intensity performance, acid-base response, and recovery were analyzed in 12 well-trained males. They completed three repeated high intensity running bouts to exhaustion with intervening recovery periods of 25 min under the following conditions: sodium bicarbonate, active recovery (BIC); carbohydrate ingestion, active recovery (CHO); placebo ingestion, active recovery (ACTIVE); placebo ingestion, passive recovery (PASSIVE). Blood lactate (BLa), blood gases, heart rate, and time to exhaustion were collected. The three high intensity bouts had a duration of 138 ± 9, 124 ± 6, and 121 ± 6 s demonstrating a decrease from bout 1 to bout 3. Supplementation strategy had no effect on performance in the first bout, even with differences in pH and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Repeated sprint performance was not affected by supplementation strategy when compared to ACTIVE, while PASSIVE resulted in a more pronounced decrease in performance compared with all other interventions. BIC led to greater BLa, pH, and HCO3(-) values compared with all other interventions, while for PASSIVE the opposite was found. BLa recovery was lowest in PASSIVE; recovery in pH, and HCO3(-) was lower in PASSIVE and higher in BIC. PMID:25431775

  9. Interactions between bicarbonate, potassium, and magnesium, and sulfur-dependent induction of luminescence in Vibrio fischeri.

    PubMed

    Tabei, Yosuke; Era, Mariko; Ogawa, Akane; Morita, Hiroshi

    2012-06-01

    In spite of its central importance in research efforts, the relationship between seawater compounds and bacterial luminescence has not previously been investigated in detail. Thus, in this study, we investigated the effect of cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH(4) (+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) and anions (Cl(-) , HCO(3) (-) , CO(3) (2-) , and NO(3) (-) ) on the induction of both inorganic (sulfate, sulfite, and thiosulfate) and organic (L-cysteine and L-cystine) sulfur-dependent luminescence in Vibrio fischeri. We found that HCO(3) (-) (bicarbonate) and CO(3) (2-) (carbonate), in the form of various compounds, had a stimulatory effect on sulfur-dependent luminescence. The luminescence induced by bicarbonate was further promoted by the addition of magnesium. Potassium also increased sulfur-dependent luminescence when sulfate or thiosulfate was supplied as the sole sulfur source, but not when sulfite, L-cysteine, or L-cystine was supplied. The positive effect of potassium was accelerated by the addition of magnesium and/or calcium. Furthermore, the additional supply of magnesium improved the induction of sulfite- or L-cysteine-dependent luminescence, but not the l-cystine-dependent type. These results suggest that sulfur-dependent luminescence of V. fischeri under nutrient-starved conditions is mainly controlled by bicarbonate, carbonate, and potassium. In addition, our results indicate that an additional supply of magnesium is effective for increasing V. fischeri luminescence. PMID:21953119

  10. A new role for bicarbonate secretion in cervico-uterine mucus release

    PubMed Central

    Muchekehu, Ruth W; Quinton, Paul M

    2010-01-01

    Cervical mucus thinning and release during the female reproductive cycle is thought to rely mainly on fluid secretion. However, we now find that mucus released from the murine reproductive tract critically depends upon concurrent bicarbonate (HCO3?) secretion. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)- and carbachol-stimulated mucus release was severely inhibited in the absence of serosal HCO3?, HCO3? transport, or functional cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). In contrast to mucus release, PGE2- and carbachol-stimulated fluid secretion was not dependent on bicarbonate or on CFTR, but was completely blocked by niflumic acid. We found stimulated mucus release was severely impaired in the cystic fibrosis ?F508 reproductive tract, even though stimulated fluid secretion was preserved. Thus, CFTR mutations and/or poor bicarbonate secretion may be associated with reduced female fertility associated with abnormal mucus and specifically, may account for the increased viscosity and lack of cyclical changes in cervical mucus long noted in women with cystic fibrosis. PMID:20478977

  11. The effects of elevated levels of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on the acute power output and time to fatigue of maximally stimulated mouse soleus and EDL muscles.

    PubMed

    Higgins, M F; Tallis, J; Price, M J; James, R S

    2013-05-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated buffer capacity [~32 mM HCO?(-)] through administration of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO?) on maximally stimulated isolated mouse soleus (SOL) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles undergoing cyclical length changes at 37 °C. The elevated buffering capacity was of an equivalent level to that achieved in humans with acute oral supplementation. We evaluated the acute effects of elevated [HCO?(-)] on (1) maximal acute power output (PO) and (2) time to fatigue to 60 % of maximum control PO (TLIM60), the level of decline in muscle PO observed in humans undertaking similar exercise, using the work loop technique. Acute PO was on average 7.0 ± 4.8 % greater for NaHCO?-treated EDL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.0) and 3.6 ± 1.8 % greater for NaHCO?-treated SOL muscles (P < 0.001; ES = 2.3) compared to CON. Increases in PO were likely due to greater force production throughout shortening. The acute effects of NaHCO? on EDL were significantly greater (P < 0.001; ES = 0.9) than on SOL. Treatment of EDL (P = 0.22; ES = 0.6) and SOL (P = 0.19; ES = 0.9) with NaHCO? did not alter the pattern of fatigue. Although significant differences were not observed in whole group data, the fatigability of muscle performance was variable, suggesting that there might be inter-individual differences in response to NaHCO? supplementation. These results present the best indication to date that NaHCO? has direct peripheral effects on mammalian skeletal muscle resulting in increased acute power output. PMID:23203385

  12. Effect of Feeding Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate on Milk Fat, Rumen pH, and Volatile Fatty Acid Production1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Emery; L. D. Brown

    1961-01-01

    SUM~M:ARY Sodium or potassium bicarbonates (1 lb\\/day) were added to the rations of cows fed grain to appetite and 2 lb. of long or pelleted hay. These bicarbonates prevented the decline in milk fat percentage frequently associated with such rations. The pH of the rumen contents was increased, but the molar proportion of the acids was not appreciably altered. The

  13. Influence of Dietary Sodium and Potassium Bicarbonate and Total Potassium on Heat-Stressed Lactating Dairy Cows1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Schneider; D. K. Beede; C. J. Wilcox; R. J. Collier

    1984-01-01

    Objectives were to study effects of heat stress, 0 or .85% sodium bicarbonate, 0 or 1.0% potassium bicarbonate, and 1.0 or 1.5% total dietary potassium on production and physiological responses of dairy cows. Eighteen lactating Holsteins were assigned to shade (control) or no shade (heat stress) lots continuously for three consecutive 35-day periods and to different dietary treatments each period.

  14. High stability buffered phase comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A low noise RF signal phase comparator comprised of two high stability driver buffer amplifiers driving a double balanced mixer which operate to generate a beat frequency between the two RF input signals coupled to the amplifiers from the RF sources is described. The beat frequency output from the mixer is applied to a low noise zero crossing detector which is the phase difference between the two RF inputs. Temperature stability is provided by mounting the amplifiers and mixer on a common circuit board with the active circuit elements located on one side of a circuit board and the passive circuit elements located on the opposite side. A common heat sink is located adjacent the circuit board. The active circuit elements are embedded into the bores of the heat sink which slows the effect of ambient temperature changes and reduces the temperature gradients between the active circuit elements, thus improving the cancellation of temperature effects. The two amplifiers include individual voltage regulators, which increases RF isolation.

  15. Sediment retention in rangeland riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Hook, Paul B

    2003-01-01

    Controlling nonpoint-source sediment pollution is a common goal of riparian management, but there is little quantitative information about factors affecting performance of rangeland riparian buffers. This study evaluated the influence of vegetation characteristics, buffer width, slope, and stubble height on sediment retention in a Montana foothills meadow. Three vegetation types (sedge wetland, rush transition, bunchgrass upland) were compared using twenty-six 6- x 2-m plots spanning 2 to 20% slopes. Plots were clipped moderately (10-15 cm stubble) or severely (2-5 cm stubble). Sediment (silt + fine sand) was added to simulated overland runoff 6, 2, or 1 m above the bottom of each plot. Runoff was sampled at 15-s to > 5-min intervals until sediment concentrations approached background levels. Sediment retention was affected strongly by buffer width and moderately by vegetation type and slope, but was not affected by stubble height. Mean sediment retention ranged from 63 to > 99% for different combinations of buffer width and vegetation type, with 94 to 99% retention in 6-m-wide buffers regardless of vegetation type or slope. Results suggest that rangeland riparian buffers should be at least 6 m wide, with dense vegetation, to be effective and reliable. Narrower widths, steep slopes, and sparse vegetation increase risk of sediment delivery to streams. Vegetation characteristics such as biomass, cover, or density are more appropriate than stubble height for judging capacity to remove sediment from overland runoff, though stubble height may indirectly indicate livestock impacts that can affect buffer performance. PMID:12809315

  16. Electrophoretic mobilities of erythrocytes in various buffers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plank, L. D.; Kunze, M. E.; Todd, P. W.

    1985-01-01

    The calibration of space flight equipment depends on a source of standard test particles, this test particle of choice is the fixed erythrocyte. Erythrocytes from different species have different electrophoretic mobilities. Electrophoretic mobility depends upon zeta potential, which, in turn depends upon ionic strength. Zeta potential decreases with increasing ionic strength, so cells have high electrophoretic mobility in space electrophoresis buffers than in typical physiological buffers. The electrophoretic mobilities of fixed human, rat, and rabbit erythrocytes in 0.145 M salt and buffers of varying ionic strength, temperature, and composition, to assess the effects of some of the unique combinations used in space buffers were characterized. Several effects were assessed: glycerol or DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) were considered for use as cryoprotectants. The effect of these substances on erythrocyte electrophoretic mobility was examined. The choice of buffer depended upon cell mobility. Primary experiments with kidney cells established the choice of buffer and cryoprotectant. A nonstandard temperature of EPM in the suitable buffer was determined. A loss of ionic strength control occurs in the course of preparing columns for flight, the effects of small increases in ionic strength over the expected low values need to be evaluated.

  17. A Systematic Approach to the Design of Buffer Tanks

    E-print Network

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    a buffer tank with liquid volume Î ˘ ŃżŁ , in- ). Zheng and Mahajanam (1998) find the necessary buffer tank volume by optimization and use#12;A Systematic Approach to the Design of Buffer Tanks Audun Faanes Ł ˝ Sigurd Skogestad

  18. A novel structure of optical buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, AiMing; Wu, Chongqing; Gao, Huali; Gong, Yandong; Shum, Ping

    2005-02-01

    Optical buffers are critical for low packet-loss probability in future photonic packet-switched networks. In particular, they would be required to store packets during rate conversion and header processing, and to overcome the receiver's bottleneck. They would be required for queuing packets while transmitters await access to the network. In this paper, we present a novel structure of optical buffer with compact size. This kind of optical buffer is based on a collinear 3x3 fiber coupler in which three fibers are completely in the same plane and weakly coupled. A SOA is used as its nonlinear element as well as an amplifier in it.The experiment result will be also given in the paper. Storage results obtained with this novel structure optical buffer at 100Mb/s will be presented first and then its capacity is extended to higher data rates of 2.5Gb/s, more compatible with present optical networks. Storage has been observed for time up to 1.568ms(more than 32 circulations) in both cases without obvious degration. The novel structure of optical buffer could be a more compact device which makes it possible to be integrated in a chip. SOA in the buffer is used as a nonlinear element as well as an amplifier to compensate loss in the buffer loop. The buffer needs low control power for switch operation. It is easy to control 'write' and 'erase' operation because the same TOAD switch in the buffer can be used for both 'write' and 'erase' operation.

  19. Nitrogen-limited mangrove ecosystems conserve N through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Sheryl Oliveira; Bonin, Patricia C; Michotey, Valérie D; Garcia, Nicole; LokaBharathi, P A

    2012-01-01

    Earlier observations in mangrove sediments of Goa, India have shown denitrification to be a major pathway for N loss. However, percentage of total nitrate transformed through complete denitrification accounted for <0-72% of the pore water nitrate reduced. Here, we show that up to 99% of nitrate removal in mangrove sediments is routed through dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA). The DNRA process was 2x higher at the relatively pristine site Tuvem compared to the anthropogenically-influenced Divar mangrove ecosystem. In systems receiving low extraneous nutrient inputs, this mechanism effectively conserves and re-circulates N minimizing nutrient loss that would otherwise occur through denitrification. In a global context, the occurrence of DNRA in mangroves has important implications for maintaining N levels and sustaining ecosystem productivity. For the first time, this study also highlights the significance of DNRA in buffering the climate by modulating the production of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. PMID:22639727

  20. Analyzing the revolution of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) performance and sludge characteristics under zinc inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Zheng-Zhe; Guo, Qiong; Wang, Jiao-Jiao; Wang, Hui-Zhong; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, the short- and long-term effects of Zn(II) on the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) performance and sludge characteristics were evaluated. The anammox activity decreased with increasing Zn(II) concentration and pre-exposure time in short-term tests. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Zn(II) was found to be 25.0 mg L(-1). The 24 and 48-h pre-exposure time was a restricted factor impacting the anammox activity, and washing the inhibited sludge with buffer solution only worked under 0 and 24-h pre-exposure time. The anammox sludge could tolerate 5 mg L(-1) Zn(II) but was suppressed at 8 mg L(-1). The inhibited performance could be remitted, as the combination strategies were applied, and after the short term of recovery period, the inhibited sludge characteristics were remitted to the normal. PMID:25398286

  1. Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-08-02

    Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.

  2. Rosin (colophony) holograms sensitized with ammonium dichromate ®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivares-Pérez, A.; Ibarra-Torres, J. C.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Pérez-Cortés, M.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.

    2005-12-01

    We report a photosensitive emulsion by mixing ammonium dichromate with rosin resin diluted in isopropyl alcohol. This material can be easily elaborated. A phase grating in this material was recorded using an argon-ion laser at ? = 457 nm, shows a moderate diffraction efficiency. This material is capable of a high resolution when we record some diffraction gratings, observing the order of 2000 l/mm (grooves). A characteristic of the developed process is its simplicity that it takes approximately 25 s. It describes a hypothesis with respect to some mechanisms of photosensitivity in emulsions.

  3. Antibacterial activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ob??k, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Guz-Regner, Katarzyna; Dworniczek, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium salts (chlorides and bromides), with various hydrocarbon chain and spacer lengths, were tested. These compounds exhibited antibacterial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and were not mutagenic. The strongest antibacterial effect was observed for TMPG-10 Cl (against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853) and TMPG-12 Br (against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 and Escherichia coli ATCC 11229 and clinical ESBL(+) isolate 434) surfactants. These compounds inhibited the adhesion of Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35984 to a polystyrene surface and eradicated biofilm formed by P. aeruginosa PAO1. The activity of studied compounds was dependent on hydrocarbon chain length. PMID:24236547

  4. Ammonium dichromate poisoning: A rare cause of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Radhakrishnan, H; Gopi, M; Arumugam, A

    2014-11-01

    Ammonium dichromate is an inorganic compound frequently used in screen and color printing. Being a strong oxidizing agent, it causes oxygen free radical injury resulting in organ failure. We report a 25-year-old female who presented with acute kidney injury after consumption of ammonium dichromate. She was managed successfully with hemodialysis and supportive measures. This case is reported to highlight the toxicity of ammonium dichromate. PMID:25484533

  5. Anaerobic ammonium oxidation discovered in a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Mulder; A. A. van de Graaf; L. A. Robertson; J. G. Kuenen

    1995-01-01

    Until now, oxidation of ammonium has only been known to proceed under aerobic conditions. Recently, we observed that NH4+ was disappearing from a denitrifying fluidized bed reactor treating effluent from a methanogenic reactor. Both nitrate and ammonium consumption increased with concomitant gas production. A maximum ammonium removal rate of 0.4 kg N · m?3 · d?1 (1.2 mM\\/h) was observed.

  6. Effects of ammonium concentration and charge exchange on ammonium recovery from high strength wastewater using a microbial fuel cell.

    PubMed

    Kuntke, P; Geleji, M; Bruning, H; Zeeman, G; Hamelers, H V M; Buisman, C J N

    2011-03-01

    Ammonium recovery using a two chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) was investigated at high ammonium concentration. Increasing the ammonium concentration (from 0.07 to 4 g ammonium-nitrogen/L) by addition of ammonium chloride did not affect the performance of the MFC. The obtained current densities by DC-voltammetry were higher than 6A/m(2) for both operated MFCs. Also continuous operation at lower external resistance (250 ?) showed an increased current density (0.9A/m(2)). Effective ammonium recovery can be achieved by migrational ion flux through the cation exchange membrane to the cathode chamber, driven by the electron production from degradation of organic substrate. The charge transport was proportional to the concentration of ions. Nonetheless, a concentration gradient will influence the charge transport. Furthermore, a charge exchange process can influence the charge transport and therefore the recovery of specific ions. PMID:21277769

  7. The molar enthalpies of solution and vapour pressures of saturated aqueous solutions of some ammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Apelblat; Eli Korin

    2003-01-01

    Vapour pressures of water over saturated solutions of ammonium bromide, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, ammonium thiosulfate, ammonium persulfate, ammonium acetate, ammonium oxalate and ammonium tartrate were determined as a function of temperature. These vapour pressures were used to evaluate the water activities, osmotic coefficients and molar enthalpies of vaporization. Molar enthalpies of solution of ammonium bromide ?solHm(NH4Br, T=293.97K, m=0.1030mol·kg?1)=(17.4±0.5)kJ·mol?1; ammonium hydrogen

  8. How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress?

    MedlinePLUS

    How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress? Recent News Boys Prescribed Antipsychotics More Often July 1, 2015 Study May Help VA ... Treatments (71 items) Clues Emerging from Studies in New Porter Neuroscience Center July 18, 2014 • Science Update ...

  9. Competitive Parallel Disk Prefetching and Buffer Management

    E-print Network

    Barve, Rakesh; Kallahalla, Mahesh; Varman, Peter J.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    2000-01-01

    We provide a competitive analysis framework for online prefetching and buffer management algorithms in parallel I/O systems, using a read-once model of block references. This has widespread applicability to key I/O-bound applications...

  10. Ammonium removal from concentrated waste streams with the anaerobic ammonium oxidation (Anammox) process in different reactor configurations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc Strous; Eric Van Gerven; Ping Zheng; J. Gijs Kuenen; Mike S. M. Jetten

    1997-01-01

    Many concentrated wastewater streams produced in food and agro-industry are treated using sludge digestion. The effluent from sludge digestors frequently contains ammonium in high concentrations (up to 2 kg m?3). This ammonium-rich effluent is usually treated by a normal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). When ammonium removal from this concentrated stream is considered, steam stripping or a combination of two biological

  11. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  12. ABS: Adaptive Buffer Sizing for Heterogeneous Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yueping Zhang; Dmitri Loguinov

    2008-01-01

    Abstract—Most existing criteria [3], [5], [9] for sizing router buffers rely on explicit formulation,of the relationship between buffer size and characteristics of Internet traffic. However, this is a non-trivial, if not impossible, task given that the number of flows, their individual RTTs, and congestion control methods, as well as flow responsiveness, are unknown. In this paper, we undertake,a completely,different approach,that

  13. Electron conducting buffer layers in organic photovoltaics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian E. Lassiter; Guodan Wei; Xin Xiao; Siyi Wang; Mark E. Thompson; Stephen R. Forrest

    2011-01-01

    It is common to incorporate a cathode-side buffer layer in organic photovoltaic devices (OPVs) to mitigate damage from the evaporation of metal onto the underlying acceptor layer (e.g. C60), which can lead to exciton quenching and\\/or a barrier to charge extraction. Additionally, these materials can act as both an optical spacer and an exciton blocking layer. One class of buffer

  14. Quantification of Kinetic Rate Law Parameters of Uranium Release from Sodium Autunite as a Function of Aqueous Bicarbonate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-09-05

    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen carbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, hydrogen carbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous hydrogen carbonate solutions to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate solutions (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and temperatures of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release from sodium autunite exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH and increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions. Most notably at pH 7, the rate of uranium release exhibited 370 fold increases relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of increasing concentrations of bicarbonate solutions on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release. Results indicate the activation energies were unaffected by temperature and bicarbonate concentration variations, but were strongly dependent on pH conditions. As pH increased from 6 to 11, activation energy values were observed to decrease from 29.94 kJ mol-1 to 13.07 kJ mol-1. The calculated activation energies suggest a surface controlled dissolution mechanism.

  15. Determination of the rate constants for the carbon dioxide to bicarbonate inter-conversion in pH-buffered seawater systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. G. Schulz; U. Riebesell; B. Rost; S. Thoms; R. E. Zeebe

    2006-01-01

    Experimental setups to study modes of inorganic carbon acquisition and fixation rates by marine phytoplankton commonly make use of so-called disequilibrium techniques. The chemical or isotopic disequilibrium, either caused by phytoplankton cells taking up inorganic carbon or by a small disturbance of the isotopic equilibrium in the carbonate system, requires to account for the relatively slow chemical interconversion of carbon

  16. A case of near-fatal flecainide overdose in a neonate successfully treated with sodium bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Jang, David H.; Hoffman, Robert S.; Nelson, Lewis S.

    2014-01-01

    Background Flecainide is a class IC antidysrhythmic primarily indicated for ventricular dysrhythmias and supraventricular tachycardia (SVT). Class IC antidysrhythmic overdoses has a reported mortality of 22% and death results from dysrhythmias and cardiovascular collapse. We report a near-fatal flecainide overdose in an 18-day old treated successfully with sodium bicarbonate. Case Report An 18-day old, 2 week premature, 4-kg boy developed persistently high heart rates (220-240 beats/min) and ECG changes consistent with supraventricular tachycardia. There was minimal response to vagal maneuvers, adenosine, and esmolol, and a transthoracic echocardiogram showed no underlying structural abnormality. He was then started on flecainide 4 mg PO Q8h. Following the fourth dose he developed lethargy, cold clammy skin and a heart rate of 40 beats/min with no palpable pulse. Patient was given 0.1 mg of atropine intravenously with an increase to 160 beats/min of the patient's heart rate. The child's cardiac monitor revealed a wide-complex tachycardia with left bundle branch morphology with associated pallor and poor cap refill. Sodium bicarbonate was administered intravenously due to suspected flecainide toxicity. Approximately five minutes after 10 mEq of 8.4% sodium bicarbonate intravenously twice his rhythm converted to a narrow-complex tachycardia. A serum flecainide concentration was 1360 mcg/L (therapeutic, 200-1000 mcg/L) drawn one hour prior to the cardiac arrest. It was later discovered that a 2-fold dosing error occurred: the patient received 8 mg Q8h instead of 4 mg Q8h for four doses. Conclusion Flecainide toxicity in children is rare, especially in neonates. It is important for clinicians to be able to identify and treat this uncommon poisoning. PMID:22981658

  17. Effect of carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion on performance during a validated basketball simulation test.

    PubMed

    Afman, Gregg; Garside, Richard M; Dinan, Neal; Gant, Nicholas; Betts, James A; Williams, Clyde

    2014-12-01

    Current recommendations for nutritional interventions in basketball are largely extrapolated from laboratory-based studies that are not sport-specific. We therefore adapted and validated a basketball simulation test relative to competitive basketball games using well-trained basketball players (n = 10), then employed this test to evaluate the effects of two common preexercise nutritional interventions on basketball-specific physical and skilled performance. Specifically, in a randomized and counterbalanced order, participants ingested solutions providing either 75 g carbohydrate (sucrose) 45 min before exercise (Study A; n = 10) or 2 × 0.2 g · kg(-1) sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) 90 and 20 min before exercise (Study B; n = 7), each relative to appropriate placebos (H2O and 2 × 0.14 g · kg(-1) NaCl, respectively). Heart rate, sweat rate, pedometer count, and perceived exertion did not systematically differ between the 60-min basketball simulation test and competitive basketball, with a strong positive correlation in heart rate response (r = .9, p < .001). Preexercise carbohydrate ingestion resulted in marked hypoglycemia (< 3.5 mmol · l(-1)) throughout the first quarter, coincident with impaired sprinting (+0.08 ± 0.05 second; p = .01) and layup shooting performance (8.5/11 versus 10.3/11 baskets; p < .01). However, ingestion of either carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate before exercise offset fatigue such that sprinting performance was maintained into the final quarter relative to placebo (Study A: -0.07 ± 0.04 second; p < .01 and Study B: -0.08 ± 0.05 second; p = .02), although neither translated into improved skilled (layup shooting) performance. This basketball simulation test provides a valid reflection of physiological demands in competitive basketball and is sufficiently sensitive to detect meaningful changes in physical and skilled performance. While there are benefits of preexercise carbohydrate or sodium bicarbonate ingestion, these should be balanced against potential negative side effects. PMID:24901305

  18. The effect of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on high-intensity intermittent running and subsequent performance.

    PubMed

    Price, Michael J; Simons, Christopher

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) ingestion on intermittent running and subsequent performance. Eight healthy men volunteered to take part in the study. One hour after the ingestion of either NaHCO(3) or placebo (sodium chloride; NaCl) participants undertook 20 x 24-second runs on a motorized treadmill at the velocity eliciting maximal oxygen uptake (100% v-VO(2)max). After sprint 20 participants performed a run to volitional exhaustion at 120% v-VO(2)max. Capillary blood samples for blood pH, bicarbonate ([HCO(3)]), and lactate ([Bla]) concentration were taken pre and postingestion, every fifth sprint and after the performance run. After ingestion of NaHCO(3), blood [HCO(3)] increased from resting values (p < 0.05), and the increase in pH approached significance. Blood [HCO(3)(-)] continually decreased throughout intermittent exercise (p < 0.05) and decreased further after performance in both trials (p < 0.05). [Bla] was similar in both trials throughout intermittent exercise but was greater at exhaustion for NaHCO(3) (main effect for trial; p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in performance of the group between trials (78 +/- 22 and 75 +/- 22 seconds for NaHCO(3) and NaCl, respectively). The intercept of the relationships between [Bla] and [HCO(3)(-)] and between [Bla] and pH was greater during NaHCO(3) (p < 0.05), whereas the relationship between pH and [HCO(3)(-)] was unchanged (p > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that the ingestion of NaHCO(3) before intermittent type exercise was sufficient to induce metabolic alkalosis but did not significantly affect performance. However, because significant individual variations in performance were observed, an individual approach to bicarbonate ingestion is recommended based on the intensity and duration of the required performance. PMID:20555273

  19. The effects of combined glucose-electrolyte and sodium bicarbonate ingestion on prolonged intermittent exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Price, Mike James; Cripps, David

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of combined glucose and sodium bicarbonate ingestion prior to intermittent exercise. Ninemales (mean ± s age 25.4 ± 6.6 years, body mass 78.8 ± 12.0 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max)) 47.0 ± 7 ml · kg · min(-1)) undertook 4 × 45 min intermittent cycling trials including 15 × 10 s sprints one hour after ingesting placebo (PLA), glucose (CHO), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or a combined CHO and NaHCO3 solution (COMB). Post ingestion blood pH (7.45 ± 0.03, 7.46 ± 0.03, 7.32 ± 0.05, 7.32 ± 0.01) and bicarbonate (30.3 ± 2.1, 30.7 ± 1.8, 24.2 ± 1.2, 24.0 ± 1.8 mmol · l(-1)) were greater for NaHCO3 and COMB when compared to PLA and CHO, remaining elevated throughout exercise (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood lactate concentration was greatest throughout exercise for NaHCO3 and COMB (main effect for trial; P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration was greatest 15 min post-ingestion for CHO followed by COMB, NaHCO3 and PLA (7.13 ± 0.60, 5.58 ± 0.75, 4.51 ± 0.56, 4.46 ± 0.59 mmol · l(-1), respectively; P < 0.05). Gastrointestinal distress was lower during COMB compared to NaHCO3 at 15 min post-ingestion (P < 0.05). No differences were observed for sprint performance between trials (P = 1.00). The results of this study suggest that a combined CHO and NaHCO3 beverage reduced gastrointestinal distress and CHO availability but did not improve performance. Although there was no effect on performance an investigation of the effects in more highly trained individuals may be warranted. PMID:22616569

  20. Diphenhydramine Overdose with Intraventricular Conduction Delay Treated with Hypertonic Sodium Bicarbonate and IV Lipid Emulsion

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Amin; Rose, Emily; Levine, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Diphenhydramine toxicity commonly manifests with antimuscarinic features, including dry mucous membranes, tachycardia, urinary retention, mydriasis, tachycardia, and encephalopathy. Severe toxicity can include seizures and intraventricular conduction delay. We present here a case of a 23-year-old male presenting with recurrent seizures, hypotension and wide complex tachycardia who had worsening toxicity despite treatment with sodium bicarbonate. The patient was ultimately treated with intravenous lipid emulsion therapy that was temporally associated with improvement in the QRS duration. We also review the current literature that supports lipid use in refractory diphenhydramine toxicity. PMID:25493135

  1. Localized corrosion of 1024 mild steel in slightly alkaline bicarbonate solution with Cl ? ions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Simard; H. Menard; L. Brossard

    1998-01-01

    The passive film breakdown of 1024 mild steel induced by the presence of 0.05m chloride ions had been investigated in 0.075–0.75m\\u000a bicarbonate solutions at pH8.9–9.7. A rotating disc electrode with a Kel-F holder was used in conjunction with a rotating\\u000a ring-disc electrode. The resistance to localized attack is closely linked to the preanodization potential (Eox) applied in\\u000a the absence of

  2. Altered cell wall properties are responsible for ammonium-reduced aluminium accumulation in rice roots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Zhao, Xue Qiang; Chen, Rong Fu; Dong, Xiao Ying; Lan, Ping; Ma, Jian Feng; Shen, Ren Fang

    2015-07-01

    The phytotoxicity of aluminium (Al) ions can be alleviated by ammonium (NH4 (+) ) in rice and this effect has been attributed to the decreased Al accumulation in the roots. Here, the effects of different nitrogen forms on cell wall properties were compared in two rice cultivars differing in Al tolerance. An in vitro?Al-binding assay revealed that neither NH4 (+) nor NO3 (-) altered the Al-binding capacity of cell walls, which were extracted from plants not previously exposed to N sources. However, cell walls extracted from NH4 (+) -supplied roots displayed lower Al-binding capacity than those from NO3 (-) -supplied roots when grown in non-buffered solutions. Fourier-transform infrared microspectroscopy analysis revealed that, compared with NO3 (-) -supplied roots, NH4 (+) -supplied roots possessed fewer Al-binding groups (-OH and COO-) and lower contents of pectin and hemicellulose. However, when grown in pH-buffered solutions, these differences in the cell wall properties were not observed. Further analysis showed that the Al-binding capacity and properties of cell walls were also altered by pHs alone. Taken together, our results indicate that the NH4 (+) -reduced Al accumulation was attributed to the altered cell wall properties triggered by pH decrease due to NH4 (+) uptake rather than direct competition for the cell wall binding sites between Al(3+) and NH4 (+) . PMID:25444246

  3. THE MASS ACCOMMODATION COEFFICIENT OF AMMONIUM NITRATE AEROSOL. (R823514)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mass transfer rate of pure ammonium nitrate between the aerosol and gas phases was quantified experimentally by the use of the tandem differential mobility analyzer/scanning mobility particle sizer (TDMA/SMPS) technique. Ammonium nitrate particles 80-220 nm in diameter...

  4. Effects of ammonium compounds on the foliar activity of acifluorfen

    E-print Network

    Schaffers, William Clemens

    1989-01-01

    and ammonium sulfate increased the activity of dichlorprop on Stellaria m dia (L. ) Vill. (53) Picloram (4-amino-3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) has also shown a response to inorganic salts. The addition of ammonium sulfate to picloram spray...

  5. Ammonium determination in soil extracts by the salicylate method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Kempers; A. Zweers

    1986-01-01

    An ammonium determination, based on formation of a substituted indophenol with sodiumsalicylate as phenolic reagent, has been reexamined. An increase of 70% in absorbancy compared with existing salicylate methods in soil science, and an increase in reproducibility compared with pre?existing equivalent methods in other disciplines were obtained. The method can be applied satisfactorily for ammonium in 2M KCl soil extracts

  6. Surface Micellization Patterns of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants on Mica

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Surface Micellization Patterns of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants on Mica Heather N. Patrick equilibrium structures of adsorbed films of quaternary ammonium surfactants on mica have been investigated never been reported on graphite. Mica is a model hydrophilic surface and has been previously used

  7. Response of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria to hydroxylamine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarten J. Van De Graaf; Boran Kartal; Cristian Picioreanu; Mike S. M. Jetten

    2008-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidation is a recent addition to the microbial nitrogen cycle, and its metabolic pathway, including the production and conversion of its intermediate hydrazine, is not well understood. Therefore, the effect of hydroxylamine addition on the hydrazine metabolism of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria was studied both experimentally and by mathematical modeling. It was observed that hydroxylamine was disproportionated biologically

  8. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Ferric ammonium citrate may be safely used in combination with pyrogallol (as listed in § 73.1375), for coloring plain and chromic...1980). (2) The level of the ferric ammonium citrate-pyrogallol complex shall not exceed 3 percent of the total weight...

  9. 21 CFR 73.1025 - Ferric ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Ferric ammonium citrate may be safely used in combination with pyrogallol (as listed in § 73.1375), for coloring plain and chromic...1980). (2) The level of the ferric ammonium citrate-pyrogallol complex shall not exceed 3 percent of the total weight...

  10. Quaternary Ammonium Polysaccharides for Gene Delivery Ira Yudovin-Farber,

    E-print Network

    Linial, Michal

    Quaternary Ammonium Polysaccharides for Gene Delivery Ira Yudovin-Farber, Chava Yanay, Tony Azzam by conjugation of various monoquaternary (MQ) ammonium oligoamines to oxidized dextran by reductive amination that contain primary, secondary, or tertiary amines (11). Under physiological conditions, polyamines become

  11. 14C Fixation by Leaves and Leaf Cell Protoplasts of the Submerged Aquatic Angiosperm Potamogeton lucens: Carbon Dioxide or Bicarbonate? 1

    PubMed Central

    Staal, Marten; Elzenga, J. Theo M.; Prins, Hidde B. A.

    1989-01-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of the aquatic angiosperm Potamogeton lucens L. The leaves utilize bicarbonate as a carbon source for photosynthesis, and show polarity; that is, acidification of the periplasmic space of the lower, and alkalinization of the space near the upper leaf side. At present there are two models under consideration for this photosynthetic bicarbonate utilization process: conversion of bicarbonate into free carbon dioxide as a result of acidification and, second, a bicarbonate-proton symport across the plasma membrane. Carbon fixation of protoplasts was studied at different pH values and compared with that in leaf strips. Using the isotopic disequilibrium technique, it was established that carbon dioxide and not bicarbonate was the form in which DIC actually crossed the plasma membrane. It is concluded that there is probably no true bicarbonate transport system at the plasma membrane of these cells and that bicarbonate utilization in this species apparently rests on the conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide. Experiments with acetazolamide, an inhibitor of periplasmic carbonic anhydrase, and direct measurements of carbonic anhydrase activity in intact leaves indicate that in this species the role of this enzyme for periplasmic conversion of bicarbonate into carbon dioxide is insignificant. PMID:16666848

  12. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to...

  13. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. 721...Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. ...identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10443 - Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (generic). 721.10443 Section 721...Ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...ethoxylated alkylphenol sulfate, ammonium salt (PMN P-01-470) is subject to...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9075 - Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. 721...Substances § 721.9075 Quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide. ...identified generically as quaternary ammonium salt of fluorinated alkylaryl amide...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10170 - Polyoxyethylene polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). 721.10170 Section 721...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance...polyalkylarylphenylether sulfate ammonium salt (PMN P-03-197) is subject to...

  18. Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) A new sink in the marine nitrogen cycle

    E-print Network

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Term paper Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation (Anammox) ­ A new sink in the marine nitrogen cycle@ethz.ch Tutor: Prof. Bernhard Wehrli #12;Abstract Anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) is a recently of anaerobic ammonium oxidation........................................................1 2. The "new" marine

  19. Abstract Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite to N2 (anammox) is a recently discovered microbial reaction

    E-print Network

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    Abstract Anaerobic ammonium oxidation with nitrite to N2 (anammox) is a recently discovered. Keywords Anaerobic ammonium oxidation · Anammox · Identification · Planctomycete · Fluorescence in situ (The Netherlands) (Mulder et al. 1995). The process, called anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anam- mox

  20. 78 FR 35258 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ...Trade Administration [A-823-810] Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from...of the antidumping duty order \\1\\ on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from...1\\ See Antidumping Duty Order: Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate...

  1. 77 FR 59377 - Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Final Results of the Expedited Second...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ...Trade Administration [A-823-810] Solid Agricultural Grade Ammonium Nitrate from...review of the antidumping duty order on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate from...review of the antidumping duty order on solid agricultural grade ammonium nitrate...

  2. Heuristic Models for Material Discharge from Landscapes with Riparian Buffers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Donald E. Weller; Thomas E. Jordan; David L. Correll

    1998-01-01

    For landscapes with riparian buffers, we develop and analyze models pre- dicting landscape discharge based on material release by an uphill source area, the spatial distribution of riparian buffer along a stream, and retention within the buffer. We model the buffer as a grid of cells, and each cell transmits a fixed fraction of the materials it receives. We consider

  3. A REVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE ON RIPARIAN BUFFER

    E-print Network

    Rosemond, Amy Daum

    1 A REVIEW OF THE SCIENTIFIC LITERATURE ON RIPARIAN BUFFER WIDTH, EXTENT AND VEGETATION Seth Wenger-defensible basis for determining riparian buffer width, extent and vegetation. This docu- ment presents the results erosion. Studies have yielded a range of recom- mendations for buffer widths; buffers as narrow as 4.6 m

  4. An Efficient Buffer Memory System for Subarray Access

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jong Won Park

    2001-01-01

    Many current graphical display systems utilize a buffer memory system to contain a two-dimensional image array to be modified and displayed. In order to speed up the update of the buffer memory system, it is required that the buffer memory system accesses many image points within an image subarray in parallel. This paper proposes an efficient buffer memory system for

  5. Counterexample-Guided SMT-Driven Optimal Buffer Sizing

    E-print Network

    Seshia, Sanjit A.

    Counterexample-Guided SMT-Driven Optimal Buffer Sizing Bryan A. Brady1 Daniel Holcomb1 Sanjit A of network-on-chip (NoC) designs depends crucially on the size of buffers in NoC components. While buffers latency. In this paper, we present a new approach for minimizing the cumulative buffer size in on- chip

  6. Antifungal activity of gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

    PubMed

    Ob??k, Ewa; Piecuch, Agata; Krasowska, Anna; Luczy?ski, Jacek

    2013-12-14

    A series of gemini quaternary ammonium chlorides and bromides with various alkyl chain and spacer lengths was synthesized. The most active compounds against fungi were chlorides with 10 carbon atoms within the hydrophobic chain. Among these compounds were few with no hemolytic activity at minimal inhibitory concentrations. None of the tested compounds were cytotoxic and mutagenic. Cationic gemini surfactants poorly reduced the adhesion of microorganisms to the polystyrene plate, but inhibited the filamentation of Candida albicans. One of the tested compounds eradicated C. albicans and Rodotorula mucilaginosa biofilm, what could be important in overcoming catheter-associated infections. It was also shown that gemini surfactants enhanced the sensitivity of C. albicans to azoles and polyenes, thus they might be potentially used in combined therapy against fungi. PMID:23827647

  7. Ammonium nitrate-polymer glasses: a new concept for phase and thermal stabilization of ammonium nitrate.

    PubMed

    Lang, Anthony J; Vyazovkin, Sergey

    2008-09-11

    Dissolving of ammonium nitrate in highly polar polymers such as poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and/or poly(acrylamide) can result in the formation of single-phase glassy solid materials, in which NH 4 (+) and NO 3 (-) are separated through an ion-dipole interaction with the polymer matrix. Below the glass transition temperature of the polymer matrix the resulting materials remain phase and thermally stable as demonstrated through the absence of decomposition as well as the solid-solid transitions and melting of ammonium nitrate. The structure of the materials is explored by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and density functional calculations. Differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry, and isoconversional kinetic analysis are applied to characterize the thermal behavior of the materials. PMID:18707076

  8. Ammonium Metabolism Enzymes Aid Helicobacter pylori Acid Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Erica F.

    2014-01-01

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori possesses a highly active urease to support acid tolerance. Urea hydrolysis occurs inside the cytoplasm, resulting in the production of NH3 that is immediately protonated to form NH4+. This ammonium must be metabolized or effluxed because its presence within the cell is counterproductive to the goal of raising pH while maintaining a viable proton motive force (PMF). Two compatible hypotheses for mitigating intracellular ammonium toxicity include (i) the exit of protonated ammonium outward via the UreI permease, which was shown to facilitate diffusion of both urea and ammonium, and/or (ii) the assimilation of this ammonium, which is supported by evidence that H. pylori assimilates urea nitrogen into its amino acid pools. We investigated the second hypothesis by constructing strains with altered expression of the ammonium-assimilating enzymes glutamine synthetase (GS) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) and the ammonium-evolving periplasmic enzymes glutaminase (Ggt) and asparaginase (AsnB). H. pylori strains expressing elevated levels of either GS or GDH are more acid tolerant than the wild type, exhibit enhanced ammonium production, and are able to alkalize the medium faster than the wild type. Strains lacking the genes for either Ggt or AsnB are acid sensitive, have 8-fold-lower urea-dependent ammonium production, and are more acid sensitive than the parent. Additionally, we found that purified H. pylori GS produces glutamine in the presence of Mg2+ at a rate similar to that of unadenylated Escherichia coli GS. These data reveal that all four enzymes contribute to whole-cell acid resistance in H. pylori and are likely important for assimilation and/or efflux of urea-derived ammonium. PMID:24936052

  9. Biological treatment of ammonium-rich wastewater by partial nitritation and subsequent anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) in a pilot plant

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Fux; Marc Boehler; Philipp Huber; Irene Brunner; Hansruedi Siegrist

    2002-01-01

    In wastewater treatment plants with anaerobic sludge digestion, 15–20% of the nitrogen load is recirculated to the main stream with the return liquors from dewatering. Separate treatment of this ammonium-rich digester supernatant would significantly reduce the nitrogen load of the activated sludge system. Some years ago, a novel biological process was discovered in which ammonium is converted to nitrogen gas

  10. PULMONARY FUNCTION IN ELASTASE-TREATED GUINEA PIGS AND RATS EXPOSED TO AMMONIUM SULFATE OR AMMONIUM NITRATE AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Three weeks following intratracheal instillations of elastase dissolved in saline, or saline alone, guinea pigs and rats were exposed for 5 or 20 days, 6 hr/day, 5 days/week to filtered room air, 1 mg/cu.m. ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4) or 1 mg/cu.m. ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) aero...

  11. Sample Questions (1) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research.

    E-print Network

    California at San Diego, University of

    Sample Questions (1) Phosphate buffered saline (PBS) is a buffer solution commonly used in biological research. It is a water-based salt solution containing sodium phosphate, sodium chloride and of the solutions match those of the human body (isotonic). The most common composition of PBS (1X) has

  12. Molecular tunneling dynamics of NH3D + in ammonium sulfate and ammonium thiocyanate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrows, Wes; Strauss, Herbert L.

    1993-10-01

    The kinetics of NH3D+ rotation in ammonium sulfate and ammonium thiocyanate are measured at low temperature (8-60 K). Infrared hole burning of the N-D stretching bands causes reorientation of the ions among distinct positions relative to the crystal lattice, producing nonequilibrium population distributions. The slow relaxation (time scale of minutes to hours) is monitored with a Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer as the ions tunnel back to their equilibrium distributions. Kinetic models are used to extract rate constants for rotation between orientations. The rate constants range from 0.01 h-1 at 8 K, to about 10 h-1 above 50 K. The higher temperature data is described by barrier transmission calculations with barrier heights of 1000 to 1600 cm-1. The low temperature data agrees with rates calculated from a phonon-assisted tunneling model for transitions between the ground states of the orientations, with energy differences between ground states on the order of 10 cm-1. Calculations of the tunneling rates between quantum states in a potential for the rotation of the NH3D+ ion in ammonium sulfate generated by a point-charge model are also performed and compared to the experimental results.

  13. The effect of buffering on pain and duration of local anesthetic in the face: A double-blind, randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Afolabi, Oluwatola; Murphy, Amanda; Chung, Bryan; Lalonde, Donald H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The acidity of lidocaine preparations is believed to contribute to the pain of local anesthetic injection. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of buffering lidocaine on the pain of injection and duration of anesthetic effect. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized trial involving 44 healthy volunteers was conducted. The upper lip was injected with a solution of: lidocaine 1% (Xylocaine, AstraZeneca, Canada, Inc) with epinephrine; and lidocaine 1% with epinephrine and 8.4% sodium bicarbonate. Volunteers reported pain of injection and duration of anesthetic effect. RESULTS: Twenty-six participants found the unbuffered solution to be more painful. Fifteen participants found the buffered solution to be more painful; the difference was not statistically significant. Twenty-one volunteers reported duration of anesthetic effect. The buffered solution provided longer anesthetic effect than the unbuffered solution (P=0.004). CONCLUSION: Although buffering increased the duration of lidocaine’s anesthetic effect in this particular model, a decrease in the pain of the injection was not demonstrated, likely due to limitations of the study. PMID:24497759

  14. Corrosion-fatigue durability of pipe steel in carbonate-bicarbonate medium

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullin, I.G.; Gareev, A.G.

    1994-03-01

    Analysis of the operating conditions of gas mains shows that, along with the static stress, a pipe is subjected to cyclically varying stress with a wide frequency spectrum. These stresses consisting of low and high frequency oscillations may result in small cycle corrosion fatigue of pipes. Carbonate corrosion cracking appears under the specific influence of a carbonate-bicarbonate medium, under the periodic shift of the potential of cathodic polarization in the positive direction, and under stresses statically applied to pipeline areas with damaged insulation. Examination of the fracture hearths caused by carbonate corrosion cracking shows that the cracks are not attached to the stress concentrators, although both types of fractures are topographically similar. Corrosion-fatigue tests were carried out in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution and found that the solution slows down the growth of the corrosion-fatigue cracks, apparently because the crack tip is dulled due to the electrochemical dissolution of metal. The authors conclude that carbonate corrosion cracking is an independent phenonmenon separate from small cycle corrosion cracking.

  15. Identification of a novel noncatalytic bicarbonate binding site in eubacterial beta-carbonic anhydrase.

    PubMed

    Cronk, Jeff D; Rowlett, Roger S; Zhang, Kam Y J; Tu, Chingkuang; Endrizzi, James A; Lee, Joseph; Gareiss, Peter C; Preiss, Jeffrey R

    2006-04-11

    The structures of beta class carbonic anhydrases (beta-CAs) determined so far fall into two distinct subclasses based on the observed coordination of the catalytic zinc (Zn2+) ion. The subclass of beta-CAs that coordinate Zn2+ tetrahedrally with four protein-derived ligands is represented by the structures of orthologues from Porphyridium purpureum, Escherichia coli, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we present the structure of an additional member of that subclass, that from Haemophilus influenzae, as well as detailed kinetic analysis, revealing the correspondence between structural classification and kinetic profile for this subclass. In addition, we identify a unique, noncatalytic binding mode for the substrate bicarbonate that occurs in both the H. influenzae and E. coli enzymes. The kinetic and structural analysis indicates that binding of bicarbonate in this site of the enzyme may modulate its activity by influencing a pH-dependent, cooperative transition between active and inactive forms. We hypothesize that the two structural subclasses of beta-CAs may provide models for the proposed active and inactive forms of the H. influenzae and E. coli enzymes. PMID:16584170

  16. Acute and chronic loading of sodium bicarbonate in highly trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Sarah; Minahan, Clare; Anderson, Megan; Osborne, Mark

    2012-02-01

    In the present study, 200-m swim time in highly trained male swimmers was measured on two consecutive days (Trial 1 and Trial 2) and under three conditions [(1) acute loading, AcL; (2) chronic loading, ChL; (3) Placebo, PLA]. No sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) was administered between Trial 1 and Trial 2 under each condition. Blood lactate concentration ([La(-)]), base excess of extracellular fluid (BE(ecf)), plasma bicarbonate concentration ([HCO(3) (-)]) and pH were determined before and after capsule administration as well as at 0, 3, 5, 15 and 30 min after each 200-m swim trial. Swim time was not different among AcL, ChL or PLA for Trial 1 or 2 and we observed no change in 200-m swim time from Trial 1 to 2 under any condition (F = 0.48, P = 0.80). [HCO(3) (-)], pH and BE(ecf) measured after capsule administration was higher during AcL and ChL when compared with PLA (P < 0.05). We did not observe any difference in blood [La(-)] between the three conditions at any stage post-exercise (P > 0.05). The results indicate that acute and chronic loading of NaHCO(3) does not improve 200-m swim time in highly trained male swimmers. PMID:21584683

  17. boxcar, width, [buffer, /decimate] Boxcar smoothing clip, datamin, datamax, [buffer, /blank] Truncate spectrum to a min and max data value

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    Other boxcar, width, [buffer, /decimate] Boxcar smoothing clip, datamin, datamax, [buffer, /blank the data end-to-end mediansub, width, [buffer] Subtract the median filtered values of the given width from] Truncate spectrum to a min and max data value decimate, [nchan, startat, buffer, ok] Decimate the spectrum

  18. Does preincubational in ovo injection of buffers or antioxidants improve the quality and hatchability in long-term stored eggs?

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, M R; Jafari Ahangari, Y; Zamiri, M J; Akhlaghi, A; Atashi, H

    2012-11-01

    A hypothesis was tested that providing buffer solutions or antioxidants during egg storage may help embryos in combating the harmful effect of longer holding periods. Hatching eggs were obtained from a breeder ?ock (35 wk) and stored for 13 d before setting. In experiment 1, the eggs were injected (d 4) with bicarbonate buffer solution (BBS) or PBS. For experiment 2, l-carnitine (LC), vitamin E (VE), and vitamin C (VC) were injected (d 7) at 3 different doses. The egg internal quality characteristics were evaluated at 2-d intervals after injection and the remaining eggs were incubated for 21 d under standard conditions. At 21 d, hatchability was recorded and unhatched eggs were broken open to assess the fertility and stage of embryonic mortality. No differences were noted in albumen pH due to using buffer solutions or antioxidants except for a decreased pH at 2 d postinjection of the high dose of VC (75 mg). In ovo injection of BBS increased the albumen index and Haugh unit at d 6 postinjection; however, the response to PBS was not different from that in the control group. In ovo injection of antioxidants did not influence the albumen index, Haugh unit, and yolk index; however, the yolk percentage was partly affected. Irrespective of the dosage, hatchability was greatly decreased following in ovo injection of buffers or antioxidants (as low as 4.3 vs. 87.5% in control), with the highest mortality percentage recorded at early embryonic stages (d 0 to 6). Data suggested that, despite improvement in certain egg internal qualities, preincubational in ovo injection of BBS, PBS, LC, VE, or VC was associated with a profoundly decreased hatchability for which the underlying mechanism(s) remain(s) to be clarified. PMID:23091158

  19. Population of Nitrifying Bacteria and Nitrification in Ammonium Saturated Clinoptilolite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGilloway, R. L.; Weaver, R. W.; Ming, Douglas W.; Gruener, J.

    1999-01-01

    As humans begin to spend longer periods of time in space, plants will be incorporated into life support systems. Ammonium saturated clinoptilolite is one plant growth substrate but a balance between ammonium and nitrate is needed. A laboratory study was conducted to determine effects of nitrifying bacteria on ammonium concentrations and kinetics of nitrification. Columns containing clinoptilolite substrate amended with nitrifying bacteria obtained from soil enrichment were analyzed weekly for a 90 day period. The enrichment culture initially contained 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria and 1 x 10(exp 2) nitrite oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate. Populations of ammonium oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 6) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria increased to 1 x 10(exp 3) per gram of substrate. The nitrification rate was approximately 0.25mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Experiments were also conducted to enumerate nitrifying bacteria in a clinoptilolite substrate used to grow wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Seventy days following the initial inoculation with an unknown number of commercial nitrifying bacteria, 1 x 10(exp 5) ammonium oxidizing bacteria per gram of substrate were present. The number of nitrite oxidizing bacteria was between 1 x 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 4) per gram of substrate as measured by the most probable number method. Nitrification rates were approximately 0.20mg NO3(-)-N/kg.hr. Clinoptilolite readily exchanged sufficient concentrations of ammonium to support nitrifying bacteria and they survived well in this medium.

  20. [Reasons of high concentration ammonium in Yellow River, China].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-qing; Xia, Xing-hui; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2007-07-01

    Ammonium nitrogen contamination is one of the major problems of the Yellow River in China. The speciation, concentration and sources of nitrogen compounds as well as the water environment conditions of the Yellow River had been analyzed to study the reasons for the fact that the ammonium nitrogen concentration was above the water quality standard. In addition, laboratory experiments had been carried out to investigate the effects of suspended sediment (SS) on nitrification rate. The results indicated that the presence of SS could accelerate the nitrification process, therefore, the effects of SS on nitrification rate was not the reason for the high level of ammonium nitrogen in the river. The excessive and continuous input of nitrogen contaminants to the river was the fundamental reason for the high concentration of ammonium nitrogen. Organic and ammonium nitrogen with high concentration inhibitted the nitrification processes. When the initial NH4+ -N concentrations were 10.1, 18.4 and 28.2 mg/L, nitrification efficiencies were 17.4%, 13.0% and 2.5%, respectively. When the initial organic nitrogen concentrations were 5.5 and 8.6 mg/L, the maximum concentrations of ammonium nitrogen produced by the oxidation of organic nitrogen would reach 0.47 and 1.69 mg/L and they would last for 2 days and 6 days, respectively. The oxygen-consuming organics and toxic substance existing in the river water could inhibit the activity of nitrifying bacteria, and thus lead to the accumulation of ammonium nitrogen. In addition, the high pH value of river water resulted in the high concentration of nonionic ammonium nitrogen which would reduce the activity of nitrifying bacteria and decrease the nitrification rates. Besides, low river runoff, low SS content and low activity of nitrifying bacteria resulted in the high level of ammonium nitrogen of the river in the low water season. PMID:17891948

  1. Antimicrobial Polymeric Materials with Quaternary Ammonium and Phosphonium Salts

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yan; Xiao, Huining; Zhang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    Polymeric materials containing quaternary ammonium and/or phosphonium salts have been extensively studied and applied to a variety of antimicrobial-relevant areas. With various architectures, polymeric quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts were prepared using different approaches, exhibiting different antimicrobial activities and potential applications. This review focuses on the state of the art of antimicrobial polymers with quaternary ammonium/phosphonium salts. In particular, it discusses the structure and synthesis method, mechanisms of antimicrobial action, and the comparison of antimicrobial performance between these two kinds of polymers. PMID:25667977

  2. Post-harvest Riparian Buffer Response: Implications for Wood Recruitment Modeling and Buffer Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liquori, Michael K.

    2006-02-01

    Despite the importance of riparian buffers in providing aquatic functions to forested streams, few studies have sought to capture key differences in ecological and geomorphic processes between buffered sites and forested conditions. This study examines post-harvest buffer conditions from 20 randomly selected harvest sites within a managed tree farm in the Cascade Mountains of western Washington. Post-harvest wind derived treefall rates in buffers up to three years post-harvest averaged 268 trees/km/year, 26 times greater than competition-induced mortality rate estimates. Treefall rates and stem breakage were strongly tied to tree species and relatively unaffected by stream direction. Observed treefall direction is strongly biased toward the channel, irrespective of channel or buffer orientation. Fall direction bias can deliver significantly more wood recruitment relative to randomly directed treefall, suggesting that models that utilize the random fall assumption will significantly underpredict recruitment. A simple estimate of post-harvest wood recruitment from buffers can be obtained from species specific treefall and breakage rates, combined with bias corrected recruitment probability as a function of source distance from the channel. Post-harvest wind effects may reduce the standing density of trees enough to significantly reduce or eliminate competition mortality and thus indirectly alter bank erosion rates, resulting in substantially different wood recruitment dynamics from buffers as compared to unmanaged forests.

  3. Calcium balance and acid-base status of women as affected by increased protein intake and by sodium bicarbonate ingestion13

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Lutz

    Six women, aged 38 to 62 yr. participated in a 40-day metabolic study to investigate the effect of level of protein intake and of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on urinary calcium, net calcium balance, net renal acid excretion, and arterialized venous blood pH and bicarbonate ion concentration. The diet contained 44 g protein during the first 16 days and 102 g

  4. Understanding the Science Behind Riparian Forest Buffers

    E-print Network

    Liskiewicz, Maciej

    on the stream's con- dition and on the adjoining watershed will help deter- mine how wide the buffer should be). Watershed To understand the forces affecting a par- ticular stream segment, it is important to look at the entire watershed (Figure 2). A stream is influenced by many factors, including the area's geology

  5. A Discovery Chemistry Experiment on Buffers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulevich, Suzanne E.; Herrick, Richard S.; Mills, Kenneth V.

    2014-01-01

    The Holy Cross Chemistry Department has designed and implemented an experiment on buffers as part of our Discovery Chemistry curriculum. The pedagogical philosophy of Discovery Chemistry is to make the laboratory the focal point of learning for students in their first two years of undergraduate instruction. We first pose questions in prelaboratory…

  6. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Shoup, Shara S. (Woodstock, GA); Paranthamam, Mariappan (Knoxville, TN); Beach, David B. (Knoxville, TN); Kroeger, Donald M. (Knoxville, TN); Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  7. Research Councils: Buffers under Cross Pressures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenger, Pim

    1992-01-01

    The role of national research councils as buffers between the state and the scientific community is discussed from three perspectives--research councils as part of a stratified, dispersed decision-making structure; a para-governmental organization; and promoting transnationalization of scientific and educational exchange. Pressures and threats on…

  8. A Review of Buffer Strip Design Algorithms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leon J. Bren

    Strips of trees left along streams (buffers) are a fundamental protection against stream pollution in forest harvesting. However this raises the question of just how wide such strips should be, and this has important effects on the economic productivity of land-based ventures. Various algorithms for computation of the appropriate width are reviewed in the light of the author's research. It

  9. DETERGENTS & BUFFERS 10394 Pacific Center Court

    E-print Network

    Lebendiker, Mario

    DETERGENTS & BUFFERS 10394 Pacific Center Court San Diego, CA 92121 (858) 450-9600 Customer Service: (800) 854-3417 Technical Service: (800) 628-8470 Fax: (800) 776-0999 CALBIOCHEM IONIC DETERGENTS BATC Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid, Sodium Salt 580549 521.7 -- -- -- 1 g 5 g TOPPS 615000 350.5 4.5 -- -- 5 g Detergent Cat. No

  10. Buffering children from marital conflict and dissolution.

    PubMed

    Katz, L F; Gottman, J M

    1997-06-01

    Examined several protective mechanisms that may reduce deleterious correlates of marital conflict and marital dissolution in young children. One set of potential buffers focused on parent-child interaction: parental warmth, parental scaffolding/praise, and inhibition of parental rejection. As a second set of potential buffers, each parent was interviewed about their "meta-emotion philosophy"--that is, their feelings about their own emotions, and their attitudes and responses to their children's anger and sadness. The third set of potential buffers concerned intraindividual characteristics of the child, including the child's intelligence and regulatory physiology (basal vagal tone and vagal suppression). Fifty-six families with a preschool child were studied at two time points: when the children were 5 years old (Time 1) and again when the children were 8 years old (Time 2). At Time 1, naturalistic observations of marital and parent-child interaction were conducted and assessment of child regulatory physiology was obtained through measures of basal vagal tone and suppression of vagal tone. Parents were also interviewed individually about their feelings about their own and their children's emotions, and children's intelligence was assessed. At Time 2, assessment of child outcomes were obtained, including observations of peer interaction, mother ratings of behavior problems and mother and teacher ratings of peer aggression, mother ratings of child physical illness, and measures of achievement. Results indicated that all Time 1 buffering factors protected children in face of marital conflict and dissolution. PMID:9169376

  11. Buffer overflow asymptotics for multiplexed regulated traffic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Ying; Fabrice Guillemin; Ravi Mazumdar; Catherine Rosenberg

    2008-01-01

    By characterizing the worst case profile, which maximizes the content of a buffer fed with leaky bucket regulated flows in packet telecommunication networks, we derive a tight upper bound in the many-sources regime for the tail distribution of the workload generated by these flows in a FIFO queue with constant service rate. Furthermore, we compare this workload distribution with an

  12. Ammonium Hydrosulfide and Jupiter's Great Red Spot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R.; Chanover, N.; Simon, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    The color and composition of Jupiter's Great Red Spot (GRS) has been debated for more than a century. While there are numerous hypotheses for the origin of Jupiter's GRS, recent work suggests that the GRS's color could originate from multiple components (Carlson et al., 2012; Simon et al., submitted). In light of this, we have recently begun conducting in situ laboratory experiments that test whether ammonium hydrosulfide, NH4SH, or its radiation decomposition products contribute to the GRS spectrum. In this presentation, we will discuss some of our most recent results, where we have studied the stability of NH4SH samples as a function of temperature using infrared and mass spectrometry. Funding for this work has been provided by NASA's Planetary Atmospheres and Outer Planets Research programs. ReferencesCarlson, R. W., K. H. Baines, M. S. Anderson, G. Filacchione. Chromophores from photolyzed ammonia reacting with acetylene: Application to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, DPS, 44, 2012. Simon, A. A., J. Legarreta, F. Sanz-Requena, S. Perez-Hoyos, E. Garcia-Melendo, R. W. Carlson. Spectral Comparison and Stability of Red Regions on Jupiter. J. Geophys. Res. - Planets, submitted.

  13. Quaternary Ammonium Biocides: Efficacy in Application

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) are among the most commonly used disinfectants. There has been concern that their widespread use will lead to the development of resistant organisms, and it has been suggested that limits should be place on their use. While increases in tolerance to QACs have been observed, there is no clear evidence to support the development of resistance to QACs. Since efflux pumps are believe to account for at least some of the increased tolerance found in bacteria, there has been concern that this will enhance the resistance of bacteria to certain antibiotics. QACs are membrane-active agents interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane of bacteria and lipids of viruses. The wide variety of chemical structures possible has seen an evolution in their effectiveness and expansion of applications over the last century, including non-lipid-containing viruses (i.e., noroviruses). Selection of formulations and methods of application have been shown to affect the efficacy of QACs. While numerous laboratory studies on the efficacy of QACs are available, relatively few studies have been conducted to assess their efficacy in practice. Better standardized tests for assessing and defining the differences between increases in tolerance versus resistance are needed. The ecological dynamics of microbial communities where QACs are a main line of defense against exposure to pathogens need to be better understood in terms of sublethal doses and antibiotic resistance. PMID:25362069

  14. Ammonium removal performance of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria immobilized in polyethylene glycol gel carrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuichi Isaka; Yasuhiro Date; Tatsuo Sumino; Satoshi Tsuneda

    2007-01-01

    Anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria were immobilized in polyethylene glycol gel carriers. A small amount of seed\\u000a sludge [0.24% (w\\/v)] was entrapped in the carriers, and continuous feeding tests were performed. Nitrogen removal activity increased gradually,\\u000a reaching 3.7 kg N\\/m3 reactor per day on day 67. The average of nitrogen conversion rate was calculated as 3.4 kg N\\/m3 reactor per day. Microscopic examination

  15. Baroreflex buffering and susceptibility to vasoactive drugs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Jens; Tank, Jens; Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Lipp, Axel; Schroder, Christoph; Arnold, Guy; Sharma, Arya M.; Biaggioni, Italo; Robertson, David; Luft, Friedrich C.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The overall effect of vasoactive drugs on blood pressure is determined by a combination of the direct effect on vascular tone and an indirect baroreflex-mediated effect, a baroreflex buffering of blood pressure. Differences in baroreflex function affect the responsiveness to vasoactive medications, particularly baroreflex buffering of blood pressure; however, the magnitude is not known. METHODS AND RESULTS: We characterized baroreflex function and responses to vasoactive drugs in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, patients with essential hypertension, patients with monogenic hypertension and brachydactyly, patients with multiple system atrophy, and control subjects. We used phenylephrine sensitivity during ganglionic blockade as a measure of baroreflex buffering. Phenylephrine (25 microg) increased systolic blood pressure 6+/-1.6 mm Hg in control subjects, 6+/-1.1 mm Hg in orthostatic intolerance patients, 18+/-3.9 mm Hg in patients with essential hypertension, 31+/-3.4 mm Hg in patients with monogenic hypertension, and 25+/-3.4 mm Hg in patients with multiple system atrophy. Similar differences in sensitivities between groups were observed with nitroprusside. The sensitivity to vasoactive drugs was highly correlated with baroreflex buffering function and to a lesser degree with baroreflex control of heart rate. In control subjects, sensitivities to nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusions were correlated with baroreflex heart rate control and sympathetic nerve traffic. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings are consistent with an important effect of baroreflex blood pressure buffering on the sensitivity to vasoactive drugs. They suggest that even moderate changes in baroreflex function may have a substantial effect on the sensitivity to vasoactive medications.

  16. Dry process fluorination of uranium dioxide using ammonium bifluoride

    E-print Network

    Yeamans, Charles Burnett, 1978-

    2003-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to determine the practicality of various unit operations for fluorination of uranium dioxide. The objective was to prepare ammonium uranium fluoride double salts from uranium dioxide and ...

  17. Formation of urea and guanidine by irradiation of ammonium cyanide.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lohrmann, R.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ammonium cyanide yield urea, cyanamide and guanidine when exposed to sunlight or an unfiltered 254 nm ultraviolet source. The prebiotic significance of these results is discussed.

  18. 75 FR 14082 - Ammonium Salts of Fatty Acids (C8

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ...significantly increase the overall exposure to all populations including infants and children. Because of their strong soil adsorption and the rapid degradation of ammonium salts of fatty acids they are not expected to reach surface water via runoff nor...

  19. Characterization of physical, thermal and chemical contributions of sodium bicarbonate particles in extinguishing counterflow nonpremixed flames

    SciTech Connect

    Chelliah, H.K.; Krauss, R.H.; Zhou, H.; Lentati, A.M.

    1999-07-01

    Based on laminar, nonpremixed methane-air flames established in a counterflow field, the flame extinction effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate particles is investigated here, both experimentally and numerically. In experiments, particles are separated into varying sizes (with the range of each size group approximately 10 {micro}m), and are introduced with the air stream. Flame extinction strain rates estimated using the measured nozzle exit velocities and separation distance are reported, as well as limited comparisons with LDV data (latter are mainly for calibration of the system). Numerical flame extinction results are also reported using a hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian model previously developed for characterization of the flame extinction mechanism of fine-water droplets in a counterflow field. Comparison of the experimental and numerical results indicates a similar trend with particular size variation, but uncertainties in the particle decomposition model employed precludes any absolute comparisons at this time.

  20. CONTROL OF CADMIUM CARBONATE PRECIPITATION INTERFERENCES DURING THE DIALYSIS OF CADMIUM IN HIGH BICARBONATE ALKALINITY AQUATIC-LIFE BIOASSAY WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The precipitation of cadmium carbonate during the dialysis of cadmium in a high bicarbonate alkalinity natural water, was linked to a significant source of error when determining dialyzate cadmium concentrations. The relative standard deviation was reduced by approximately four-f...

  1. No effect of bicarbonate treatment on insulin sensitivity and glucose control in non-diabetic older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic mild metabolic acidosis is common among older adults, and limited evidence suggests that it may contribute to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. This analysis was conducted to determine whether bicarbonate supplementation, an alkalinizing treatment, improves insulin sensitivity or gluco...

  2. Pendrin, encoded by the Pendred syndrome gene, resides in the apical region of renal intercalated cells and mediates bicarbonate secretion

    PubMed Central

    Royaux, Ines E.; Wall, Susan M.; Karniski, Lawrence P.; Everett, Lorraine A.; Suzuki, Koichi; Knepper, Mark A.; Green, Eric D.

    2001-01-01

    Pendrin is an anion transporter encoded by the PDS/Pds gene. In humans, mutations in PDS cause the genetic disorder Pendred syndrome, which is associated with deafness and goiter. Previous studies have shown that this gene has a relatively restricted pattern of expression, with PDS/Pds mRNA detected only in the thyroid, inner ear, and kidney. The present study examined the distribution and function of pendrin in the mammalian kidney. Immunolocalization studies were performed using anti-pendrin polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies. Labeling was detected on the apical surface of a subpopulation of cells within the cortical collecting ducts (CCDs) that also express the H+-ATPase but not aquaporin-2, indicating that pendrin is present in intercalated cells of the CCD. Furthermore, pendrin was detected exclusively within the subpopulation of intercalated cells that express the H+-ATPase but not the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) and that are thought to mediate bicarbonate secretion. The same distribution of pendrin was observed in mouse, rat, and human kidney. However, pendrin was not detected in kidneys from a Pds-knockout mouse. Perfused CCD tubules isolated from alkali-loaded wild-type mice secreted bicarbonate, whereas tubules from alkali-loaded Pds-knockout mice failed to secrete bicarbonate. Together, these studies indicate that pendrin is an apical anion transporter in intercalated cells of CCDs and has an essential role in renal bicarbonate secretion. PMID:11274445

  3. SODIUM BENTONITE AND SODIUM BICARBONATE IN HIGH-CONCENTRATE DIETS FOR LAMBS AND STEERS 1,2

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. H. Dunn; R. J. Emerick; L. B. Embry

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Sodium bentonite, sodium bicarbonate and a combination of these, initially at levels of 2% each, were incorporated into diets of lambs and steers rapidly converted from a roughage diet to a high- concentrate diet. Acidosis-related lamb death losses were reduced from 19% in controls to 0 to 3% in all treatment groups. No deaths occurred in steers where conditions

  4. Improving Control of Green and Blue Molds of Oranges by Combining Pantoea Agglomerans (CPA2) and Sodium Bicarbonate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Teixidó; J. Usall; L. Palou; A. Asensio; C. Nunes; I. Vińas

    2001-01-01

    The potential of using Pantoea agglomerans (strain CPA-2) alone, or in combination with sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate solutions, for control of Penicillium digitatum (green mold) and Penicillium italicum (blue mold) on oranges was investigated under ambient (20 °C) and cold storage (3 °C) conditions. P. agglomerans controlled both pathogens on oranges at 2 × 108 cfu ml-1. The biocontrol

  5. Effects of Dietary Sodium Bicarbonate and Calcium Chloride on Physiological Responses of Lactating Dairy Cows in Hot Weather

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Escobosa; C. E. Coppock; L. D. Rowe Jr; W. L. Jenkins; C. E. Gates

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-four lactating cows were as- signed randomly to three treatments to evaluate responses to large differences of dietary sodium and chloride. Treatments were corn-cottonseed meal-corn silage based complete rations with either: 1) .23% sodium chloride (control), 2) control plus 2.28% calcium chloride, or 3) control plus 1.70% sodium bicarbonate.

  6. EFFECT OF LEACHING ON SOIL IRRIGATED WITH SODIUM BICARBONATE WATER APPLIED BY DRIP IRRIGATION, WITH TWO IRRIGATION AND NITRATE TREATMENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demands on high quality water supplies means that agriculture must evaluate use of lower quality waters for irrigation. Saline waters are often high in nitrate concentrations, and in some instances may contain elevated concentrations of bicarbonates and high pH. In this study we examined ...

  7. Rumen Volatile Fatty Acid Production and Nutrient Utilization in Steers Fed a Diet Supplemented with Sodium Bicarbonate and Monensin1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Rogers; C. L. Davis

    1982-01-01

    Effects of feeding dietary supplements of monensin and sodium bicarbonate singly or in combination on production of rumen volatile fatty acids, nitrogen balance, and rumen water kinetics were studied. Four rumen fistulated steers were fed a diet (50% concentrate mix and 50% corn silage) ad libitum in a 4 x 4 Latin square design (21-day periods) with a 2 ×

  8. Integrating heat treatment, biocontrol and sodium bicarbonate to reduce postharvest decay of apple caused by Colletotrichum acutatum and Penicillium expansum

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William S. Conway; Britta Leverentz; Wojciech J. Janisiewicz; Amy B. Blodgett; Robert A. Saftner; Mary J. Camp

    2004-01-01

    ‘Golden Delicious’ apples were wound inoculated with conidial suspensions of either Colletotrichum acutatum or Penicillium expansum, then treated with heat (38°C) for 4 days, sodium bicarbonate, and\\/or one of two heat tolerant biocontrol agents (yeasts). Following four months storage at 0°C, the apples were left at room temperature for two weeks. Populations of antagonists were stable throughout the experiment and

  9. Control of blue mold decay of apple during commercial controlled atmosphere storage with yeast antagonists and sodium bicarbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of two yeast antagonists, Metschnikowia pulcherrima and Cryptococcus laurentii, originally isolated from apples and having superior biocontrol activity against blue mold of apple over individual application of these yeasts, were used in combination with sodium bicarbonate (SBC) in a pilot ...

  10. Effect of sodium and bicarbonate irrigation waters on sodium accumulation and on maize and wheat yields in Northern India

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. S. Bajwa; G. S. Hira; N. T. Singh

    1983-01-01

    The effect of five years use of irrigation water containing sodium and bicarbonate on sodium accumulation in soils and yields of maize and wheat was studied in 50 cm diam and 90 cm long pots embeded in trenches in the field. Waters were synthesized by mixing NaCl and Na HCO3 with canal water before each irrigation. Gypsum, required to reduce

  11. Buffering limits plasma HCO3- dehydration when red blood cell anion exchange is inhibited.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, K M; Desforges, P R; Perry, S F

    2004-05-20

    Theory suggests that HCO3- dehydration in the plasma of rainbow trout is limited by both the absence of carbonic anhydrase (CA) activity and the low non-bicarbonate buffer capacity of the plasma (betaplasma). The potential for betaplasma to limit plasma HCO3- dehydration was assessed in rainbow trout in which HCO3- dehydration via the red blood cell (RBC) was inhibited using the anion exchange blocker 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS). DIDS administration reduced the rate of RBC HCO3- dehydration by 68-80% for at least 6h, resulting in the elevation of arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) by 3.07 +/- 0.45 Torr (N = 6). Addition of bovine CA to the circulation of DIDS-treated trout caused PaCO2 to decrease significantly. This effect was increased significantly in rainbow trout in which betaplasma was elevated experimentally by intravascular injection of N-[2-hydroxyethyl]piperazine-N'-[2-ethanesulfonic acid] (HEPES), supporting the hypothesis that CA-catalysed HCO3- dehydration in the plasma of rainbow trout is limited by proton availability. PMID:15134665

  12. Effect of Beta alanine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on repeated-sprint performance.

    PubMed

    Ducker, Kagan J; Dawson, Brian; Wallman, Karen E

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate if combining beta alanine (BA) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation could lead to enhanced repeated-sprint performance in team-sport athletes, beyond what is possible with either supplement alone. Participants (n = 24) completed duplicate trials of a repeated-sprint test (3 sets; 6 × 20 m departing every 25 seconds, 4 minutes active recovery between sets) and were then allocated into 4 groups as follows: BA only (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute sodium chloride placebo); NaHCO3 only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute NaHCO3); BA/NaHCO3 (n = 6; 28 days BA, acute NaHCO3); placebo only (n = 6; 28 days glucose placebo, acute sodium chloride placebo), then completed duplicate trials postsupplementation. Sodium bicarbonate alone resulted in moderate effect size (d = 0.40-0.71) and "likely" and "very likely" benefit for overall total sprint times (TST) and for each individual set and for first sprint (sets 2 and 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3). Combining BA and NaHCO3 resulted in "possible" to "likely" benefits for overall TST and for sets 2 and 3. First sprint (set 3) and best sprint time (sets 2 and 3) also showed "likely" benefit after this trial. The BA and placebo groups showed no differences in performance after supplementation. In conclusion, these results indicate that supplementation with acute NaHCO3 improved repeated-sprint performance more than either a combination of NaHCO3 and BA or BA alone. PMID:23524361

  13. Effects of sodium bicarbonate on striated muscle metabolism and intracellular pH during endotoxic shock.

    PubMed

    Bollaert, P E; Robin-Lherbier, B; Mallie, J P; Nace, L; Escanye, J M; Larcan, A

    1994-03-01

    The effects of HCO3Na load on acid-base balance and muscle intracellular bioenergetics have been investigated using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy in an experimental model of endotoxinic shock. Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated, and paralyzed rats (n = 16) were given an intravenous bolus of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (15 mg/kg). When shock was established they were randomly assigned to receive either HCO3Na intravenously (2 mmol/kg in 2 min) or an equimolar saline injection. Lipopolysaccharide induced a significant decrease in the levels of mean arterial pressure (58 +/- 6 vs. 120 +/- 8 mmHg), arterial pH (7.20 +/- .03 vs. 7.35 +/- .01), intracellular pH (6.86 +/- .04 vs. 7.08 +/- .01), a marked hyperlactatemia (7 +/- 3 vs. 1.2 +/- .2 mmol/L) and a drop in the phosphocreatine-inorganic phosphate ratio. In the bicarbonate-loaded rats, mean arterial pressure further decreased whereas it remained unchanged in the saline group. Bicarbonate increased arterial pH and PaCO2 transiently. In the saline group, arterial pH decreased and PaCO2 remained stable. In both groups, intracellular pH and high energy phosphates had a similar evolution. In this model of septic shock, partial correction of arterial pH using HCO3Na did not reduce the metabolic cellular injury in skeletal muscle. Based on these results, HCO3Na may be of limited therapeutic value in severe septic metabolic acidosis. PMID:7735951

  14. Humidity sensor using epoxy resin containing quaternary ammonium salts

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chil-Won Lee; Hee-Woo Rhee; Myoung-Seon Gong

    2001-01-01

    Humidity-sensitive epoxy monomer, glycidyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (GTMAC) was selected as the humidity-sensing resin. Polypropylene glycol diglycidyl ether (PPGDGE) and methyl tetrahydrophthalic anhydride (MTPHA) were used as a comonomer and a curing agent, respectively. The humidity-sensitive membranes were composed of GTMAC, PPGDGE and MTPHA. When impedance characteristics of the epoxy resins containing quaternary ammonium salts were measured, the impedance decreased

  15. Dissolution kinetics of malachite in ammonia\\/ammonium carbonate leaching

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bingöl; M. Canbazo?lu; S. Aydo?an

    2005-01-01

    The leaching of oxide copper ore containing malachite, which is the unique copper mineral in the ore, by aqueous ammonia solution has been studied. The effect of leaching time, ammonium hydroxide, and ammonium carbonate concentration, pH, [NH3]\\/[NH4+] ratio, stirring speed, solid\\/liquid ratio, particle size, and temperature were investigated. The main important parameters in ammonia leaching of malachite ore are determined

  16. Characterization of ammonium dichromate doped PVA films based waveguides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Poonam Vashistha; Shiv Shankar Gaur; K. N. Tripathi

    2007-01-01

    We report here the study of refractive index and Propagation loss of ammonium dichromate doped poly (vinyl alcohol) thin films\\u000a by using a prism coupling technique. Transmissions of the doped films have been measured. It has been observed that doping\\u000a of ammonium dichromate increase the refractive index. Propagation losses are found to decrease up to dye concentration 0.02%\\u000a and thereafter

  17. Kinetic Characteristics of Anaerobic Ammonium Oxidation, Methanogensis and Denitrification

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bo Zu; Xiangchao Liu; Daijun Zhang; Qingwei Yang

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic characteristics of anaerobic ammonium oxidation, methanogenesis and denitrification inoculated with the granular sludge from EGSB reactor, in which they were integrated, were investigated by batch experiment,respectively. For anaerobic ammonium oxidation ,the kinetic parameters :the maximum NH + 4-N (mg\\/MLSS.h) reaction rate was 6.65×10 -3 mg\\/mg.h, the NH + 4-N half saturate coefficient were 87.1 mg \\/L and the

  18. Versatility and application of anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing bacteria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Da-Wen Gao; Yu Tao

    2011-01-01

    With the unique cell compartmentalization and the ability to simultaneously oxidize ammonium and reduce nitrite into nitrogen\\u000a gas, anaerobic ammonium-oxidizing (anammox) bacteria have challenged our recognitions of microorganism. The research conducted\\u000a on these bacteria has been extended from bench-scale tryouts to full-scale reactor systems. This review addresses the recently\\u000a discovered versatile properties of anammox bacteria and the applications and obstacles

  19. Treating leachate mixture with anaerobic ammonium oxidation technology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hong-guo Zhang; Shao-qi Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of ammonium and a low content of biodegradable chemical oxygen demand(COD) are contained in leachate from aged\\u000a landfills, together with the effluent containing high concentration of nitric nitrogen after biochemical treatment. Treatment\\u000a effect of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) process on the mixture of the leachate and its biochemical effluent was investigated.\\u000a The results show that the average removal

  20. Performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lei Zhang; Ping Zheng; YuHui He; RenCun Jin

    2009-01-01

    The performance of sulfate-dependent anaerobic ammonium oxidation was studied. The results showed that both SO4\\u000a 2? and NH4\\u000a + were chemically stable under anaerobic conditions. They did not react with each other in the absence of biological catalyst\\u000a (sludge). The anaerobic digested sludge cultivated in an anaerobic reactor for three years took on the ability of oxidizing\\u000a ammonium with sulfate