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Sample records for ammonium bicarbonate buffer

  1. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 1066-33-7) is prepared by reacting gaseous carbon dioxide with aqueous ammonia. Crystals of ammonium bicarbonate are precipitated from solution and subsequently washed and dried. (b) The ingredient...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1135 - Ammonium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 , CAS Reg. No. 1066-33-7) is prepared by reacting gaseous carbon dioxide with aqueous ammonia. Crystals of ammonium bicarbonate are precipitated from solution and subsequently washed and dried. (b) The ingredient...

  3. Supporting Information for: Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes

    E-print Network

    S1 Supporting Information for: Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes was measured by first equilibrating the polymer film in the desired solution [e.g., DI water, 0.5 mol/L sodium chloride (NaCl), or 0.5 mol/L ammonium bicarbonate (AmB)]. Films were allowed to equilibrate

  4. Supporting Information Evaluation of Flow field design in an Ammonium Bicarbonate

    E-print Network

    Supporting Information Evaluation of Flow field design in an Ammonium Bicarbonate Reverse Electrodialysis Stack Marta C. Hatzella , and Bruce E. Loganb* a Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering

  5. pH-metric determination of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate in solutions containing ammonium vanadate

    SciTech Connect

    Fofanov, Al.A.; Yuorenko, V.V.; Kharlampieva, T.I.; Potapov, V.I.

    1986-07-01

    Ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate and ammonium carbonate salts used in hydrometallurgy are characterized by low stability both in solid form and in solutions. The frequently used method of acid-base titration in the presence of a pH indicator is unsuitable in the presence of ions in solution that change color within the investigated pH range. The purpose of this paper is to develop a method of rapid determination of the concentration of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate in solutions containing ammonium vanadate. The authors used a 0.1 M solution of hydrochloric acid, analytical grade ammonium vanadate, and ammonium carbonate salts, the composition of which approximates real technological solutions. An aliquot portion of the test solution (1-2 ml) is transferred to a 50-ml beaker, and 10 ml of distilled water is added. The electrodes of the pH meter are placed in the solution, and it is titrated with 0.1 M hydrochloric acid with constant mixing.

  6. Shock wave synthesis of amino acids from solutions of ammonium formate and ammonium bicarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Chizuka; Furukawa, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Takamichi; Sekine, Toshimori; Nakazawa, Hiromoto; Kakegawa, Takeshi

    2015-07-01

    The emergence of life's building blocks, such as amino acids and nucleobases, on the prebiotic Earth was a critical step for the beginning of life. Reduced species with low mass, such as ammonia, amines, or carboxylic acids, are potential precursors for these building blocks of life. These precursors may have been provided to the prebiotic ocean by carbonaceous chondrites and chemical reactions related to meteorite impacts on the early Earth. The impact of extraterrestrial objects on Earth occurred more frequently during this period than at present. Such impacts generated shock waves in the ocean, which have the potential to progress chemical reactions to form the building blocks of life from reduced species. To simulate shock-induced reactions in the prebiotic ocean, we conducted shock-recovery experiments on ammonium bicarbonate solution and ammonium formate solution at impact velocities ranging from 0.51 to 0.92 km/s. In the products from the ammonium formate solution, several amino acids (glycine, alanine, ß-alanine, and sarcosine) and aliphatic amines (methylamine, ethylamine, propylamine, and butylamine) were detected, although yields were less than 0.1 mol % of the formic acid reactant. From the ammonium bicarbonate solution, smaller amounts of glycine, methylamine, ethylamine, and propylamine were formed. The impact velocities used in this study represent minimum cases because natural meteorite impacts typically have higher velocities and longer durations. Our results therefore suggest that shock waves could have been involved in forming life's building blocks in the ocean of prebiotic Earth, and potentially in aquifers of other planets, satellites, and asteroids.

  7. Highly efficient hydrogen storage system based on ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over palladium nanocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Su, Ji; Yang, Lisha; Lu, Mi; Lin, Hongfei

    2015-03-01

    A highly efficient, reversible hydrogen storage-evolution process has been developed based on the ammonium bicarbonate/formate redox equilibrium over the same carbon-supported palladium nanocatalyst. This heterogeneously catalyzed hydrogen storage system is comparable to the counterpart homogeneous systems and has shown fast reaction kinetics of both the hydrogenation of ammonium bicarbonate and the dehydrogenation of ammonium formate under mild operating conditions. By adjusting temperature and pressure, the extent of hydrogen storage and evolution can be well controlled in the same catalytic system. Moreover, the hydrogen storage system based on aqueous-phase ammonium formate is advantageous owing to its high volumetric energy density. PMID:25663262

  8. Physical Compatibility of Magnesium Sulfate and Sodium Bicarbonate in a Pharmacy-compounded Bicarbonate-buffered Hemofiltration Solution

    PubMed Central

    Moriyama, Brad; Henning, Stacey A.; Jin, Haksong; Kolf, Mike; Rehak, Nadja N.; Danner, Robert L.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Grimes, George J.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the physical compatibility of magnesium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution used at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (http://www.cc.nih.gov). METHODS Two hemofiltration fluid formulations with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L or 15 mEq/L were prepared in triplicate with an automated compounding device. The hemofiltration solution with a bicarbonate of 50 mEq/L and a magnesium of 1.5 mEq/L contains the maximum concentration of additives that we use in clinical practice. The hemofiltration solution of 15 mEq/L of magnesium and 50 mEq/L of bicarbonate was used to study the physicochemical properties of this interaction. The solutions were stored without light protection at 22 to 25 °C for 48 hours. Physical compatibility was assessed by visual inspection and microscopy. The pH of the solutions was assayed at 3 to 4 hours and 52 to 53 hours after compounding. In addition, electrolyte and glucose concentrations in the solutions were assayed at two time points after preparation: 3 to 4 hours and 50 to 51 hours. RESULTS No particulate matter was observed by visual and microscopic inspection in the compounded hemofiltration solutions at 48 hours. Electrolyte and glucose concentrations and pH were similar at both time points after solution preparation. CONCLUSION Magnesium sulfate (1.5 mEq/L) and sodium bicarbonate (50 mEq/L) were physically compatible in a pharmacy-compounded bicarbonate-buffered hemofiltration solution at room temperature without light protection at 48 hours. PMID:20237384

  9. ELECTROANTENNOGRAM RESPONSE OF ANASTREPHA SUSPENSA (DIPTERA: TEPHRITIDAE) TO AMMONIUM BICARBONATE AND PUTRESCINE LURES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current trapping systems for Anastrepha fruit flies utilize a two-component attractant consisting of ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine. Though ammonia-based lures have been highly effective for some tephritids (e.g. Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata), attraction of Anastrepha species has...

  10. High effective cytosolic H+ buffering in mouse cortical astrocytes attributable to fast bicarbonate transport.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2015-09-01

    Cytosolic H(+) buffering plays a major role for shaping intracellular H(+) shifts and hence for the availability of H(+) for biochemical reactions and acid/base-coupled transport processes. H(+) buffering is one of the prime means to protect the cell from large acid/base shifts. We have used the H(+) indicator dye BCECF and confocal microscopy to monitor the cytosolic H(+) concentration, [H(+)]i, in cultured cortical astrocytes of wild-type mice and of mice deficient in sodium/bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (NBCe1-KO) or in carbonic anhydrase isoform II (CAII-KO). The steady-state buffer strength was calculated from the amplitude of [H(+)]i transients as evoked by CO2/HCO3(-) and by butyric acid in the presence and absence of CO2/HCO3(-). We tested the hypotheses if, in addition to instantaneous physicochemical H(+) buffering, rapid acid/base transport across the cell membrane contributes to the total, "effective" cytosolic H(+) buffering. In the presence of 5% CO2/26 mM HCO3(-), H(+) buffer strength in astrocytes was increased 4-6 fold, as compared with that in non-bicarbonate, HEPES-buffered solution, which was largely attributable to fast HCO3 (-) transport into the cells via NBCe1, supported by CAII activity. Our results show that within the time frame of determining physiological H(+) buffering in cells, fast transport and equilibration of CO2/H(+)/HCO3(-) can make a major contribution to the total "effective" H(+) buffer strength. Thus, "effective" cellular H(+) buffering is, to a large extent, attributable to membrane transport of base equivalents rather than a purely passive physicochemical process, and can be much larger than reported so far. Not only physicochemical H(+) buffering, but also rapid import of HCO3(-) via the electrogenic sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1, supported by carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), was identified to enhance cytosolic H(+) buffer strength substantially. PMID:25820238

  11. SUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION Evaluation of Stainless Steel Cathodes and a Bicarbonate Buffer For

    E-print Network

    on having good thermal conductivities as well as well separated peaks in gas chromatograms with either different carrier gases in the GCs that allowed us to measure H2, CO2, and CH4. Thermal conductivitiesSUPPLEMENTAL INFORMATION Evaluation of Stainless Steel Cathodes and a Bicarbonate Buffer

  12. In vivo predictive dissolution: transport analysis of the CO2 , bicarbonate in vivo buffer system.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2014-11-01

    Development of an oral in vivo predictive dissolution medium for acid drugs with a pKa in the physiological range (e.g., Biopharmaceutics Classification System Class IIa) requires transport analysis of the complex in vivo CO2 /bicarbonate buffering system. In this report, we analyze this buffer system using hydrodynamically defined rotating disk dissolution. Transport analysis of drug flux was predicted using the film model approach of Mooney et al based on equilibrium assumptions as well as accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O ? H2 CO3 . The accuracy of the models was compared with experimentally determined results using the rotating disk dissolution of ibuprofen, indomethacin, and ketoprofen. The equilibrium and slow hydration reaction rate models predict significantly different dissolution rates. The experimental results are more accurately predicted by accounting for the slow hydration reaction under a variety of pH and hydrodynamic conditions. Although the complex bicarbonate buffering system requires further consideration given its dynamic nature in vivo, a simplifying irreversible reaction (IRR) transport analysis accurately predicts in vitro rotating disk dissolution rates of several carboxylic acid drugs. This IRR transport model provides further insight into bicarbonate buffer and can be useful in developing more physiologically relevant buffer systems for dissolution testing. PMID:25212721

  13. Manganese-dependent disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide in bicarbonate buffer.

    PubMed Central

    Stadtman, E R; Berlett, B S; Chock, P B

    1990-01-01

    At physiological concentrations of HCO3- and CO2, Mn(II) catalyzes disproportionation of H2O2. This catalase-like activity is directly proportional to the concentrations of Mn(II) and H2O2, and it increases exponentially with increases in pH. The effect of increasing pH is almost completely attributable to the concomitant increase in HCO3- concentration. The rate is proportional to the third power of the HCO3- concentration, suggesting that 3 equivalents of HCO3- combine with 1 equivalent of Mn(II) to form the catalytic complex. It is presumed that the redox potential of the Mn(II) in equilibrium with Mn(III) couple in such a complex permits H2O2 to carry out facile reactions with Mn(II) comparable to those that occur with Fe(III) and Cu(II) chelate complexes, in which OH. and O2-. are established intermediates. The Mn-catalyzed disproportionation of H2O2 does not occur at physiological pH in the absence of HCO3-. Hepes, inorganic phosphate, and inorganic pyrophosphate inhibit the reaction catalyzed by the Mn/HCO3- system. These results are similar to those of Sychev et al. [Sychev, A.Y., Pfannmeller, U. & Isak, V.G. (1983) Russ. J. Phys. Chem. 57, 1690-1693]. The catalase-like activity of Mn(II)-bicarbonate complexes reported here, together with the superoxide dismutase activity of Mn complexes demonstrated by Archibald and Fridovich [Archibald, F.S. & Fridovich, I. (1982) Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 214, 452-463], strengthen the proposition that Mn may play an important role in the protection of cells against oxygen radical-mediated damage. PMID:2296593

  14. In Vivo Predictive Dissolution: Comparing the Effect of Bicarbonate and Phosphate Buffer on the Dissolution of Weak Acids and Weak Bases.

    PubMed

    Krieg, Brian J; Taghavi, Seyed Mohammad; Amidon, Gordon L; Amidon, Gregory E

    2015-09-01

    Bicarbonate is the main buffer in the small intestine and it is well known that buffer properties such as pKa can affect the dissolution rate of ionizable drugs. However, bicarbonate buffer is complicated to work with experimentally. Finding a suitable substitute for bicarbonate buffer may provide a way to perform more physiologically relevant dissolution tests. The dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs was conducted in bicarbonate and phosphate buffer using rotating disk dissolution methodology. Experimental results were compared with the predicted results using the film model approach of (Mooney K, Mintun M, Himmelstein K, Stella V. 1981. J Pharm Sci 70(1):22-32) based on equilibrium assumptions as well as a model accounting for the slow hydration reaction, CO2 + H2 O ? H2 CO3 . Assuming carbonic acid is irreversible in the dehydration direction: CO2 + H2 O ? H2 CO3 , the transport analysis can accurately predict rotating disk dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in bicarbonate buffer. The predictions show that matching the dissolution of weak acid and weak base drugs in phosphate and bicarbonate buffer is possible. The phosphate buffer concentration necessary to match physiologically relevant bicarbonate buffer [e.g., 10.5 mM (HCO3 (-) ), pH = 6.5] is typically in the range of 1-25 mM and is very dependent upon drug solubility and pKa . PMID:25980464

  15. In vitro dissolution of proton-pump inhibitor products intended for paediatric and geriatric use in physiological bicarbonate buffer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Shokrollahi, Honaz

    2015-05-15

    Proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) products based on enteric coated multiparticulates are design to meet the needs of patients who cannot swallow tablets such as children and older adults. Enteric coated PPI preparations exhibit delays in in vivo absorption and onset of antisecretory effects, which is not reflected by the rapid in vitro dissolution in compendial pH 6.8 phosphate buffer commonly used for assessment of these products. A more representative and physiological medium, pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer, was used in this study to evaluate the in vitro dissolution of enteric coated multiparticulate-based PPI products. Commercially available omeprazole, lansoprazole and esomeprazole products were subject to dissolution tests using USP-II apparatus in pH 4.5 phosphate buffer saline for 45 min (acid stage) followed by pH 6.8 phosphate buffer or pH 6.8 mHanks bicarbonate buffer. In pH 6.8 phosphate buffer, all nine tested products displayed rapid and comparable dissolution profiles meeting the pharmacopeia requirements for delayed release preparations. In pH 6.8 mHanks buffer, drug release was delayed and failed the pharmacopeia requirements from most enteric coated preparations. Despite that the same enteric polymer, methacrylic acid-ethyl acrylate copolymer (1:1), was applied to all commercial multiparticulate-based products, marked differences were observed between dissolution profiles of these preparations. The use of pH 6.8 physiological bicarbonate (mHanks) buffer can serve as a useful tool to provide realistic and discriminative in vitro release assessment of enteric coated PPI preparations and to assist rational formulation development of these products. PMID:25746736

  16. Effect of TRIS and bicarbonate as buffers on anesthetic efficacy of tricaine methane sulfonate in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Spears, Jonathan; Kamunde, Collins; Stevens, E Don

    2014-12-01

    Tricaine methane sulfonate (TMS), often called MS-222, is the most common anesthetic used with fishes. Because it is very acidic (pKa about 3) it must be neutralized especially when used in soft fresh water. Much of the literature on fish anesthetics recommends neutralizing with bicarbonate. However, much of the zebrafish literature uses the protocol in "The Zebrafish Book" that recommends neutralizing with TRIS. Three considerations when comparing these buffers are: first, TRIS has the advantage that the pH tends to remain constant, whereas the pH of solutions containing bicarbonate tends to increase as CO2 diffuses from the water to air; second, the CO2 produced by bicarbonate may have some sedative effects in and of itself; and third, there is some evidence that the efficacy of TMS changes with pH. In the present study, we compared the efficacy of TMS using these two buffers and show that there is no substantial difference in anesthetic properties in zebrafish. PMID:25264822

  17. Development of an analytical method for distinguishing ammonium bicarbonate from the products of an aqueous ammonia CO2 scrubber.

    PubMed

    Meng, Lingyu; Burris, Stuart; Bui, Holt; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2005-09-15

    The link between anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide, increasing atmospheric CO2 levels, and concomitantly increasing global temperatures is established and accepted. The use of aqueous ammonia, to capture CO2 and produce an inexpensive nitrogen fertilizer, ammonium bicarbonate (ABC), is believed to be a feasible approach to CO2 sequestration. Due to the varying concentrations of reactants and varying reaction conditions, different ammonia-carbon compounds may be produced. ABC is the ideal product for maximizing NH3 utilization in CO2 capture; therefore, identification and quantification of ABC in the reaction products is mandatory. Various analytical techniques were used to distinguish and quantify the ABC. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can only be used to distinguish ammonium carbamate, and. X-ray diffraction can be used to qualitatively distinguish ABC from the other possible products of the CO2 capture reaction. Carbon-hydrogen-nitrogen elemental analysis and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy were used to quantify ABC, with both techniques giving +/-5% agreement for ABC concentrations for 8 of 13 samples from a bench-scale aqueous ammonia CO2 scrubbing system. An additional 3 of the 13 samples were within +/-12%. Results indicate that NIR will be an ideal tool for real-time, on-line measurements of ABC in a full-scale aqueous ammonia CO2 scrubber. The ABC in 11 samples from the bench-scale scrubber at Western Kentucky University was determined by these techniques and assessed to have very good quality as a fertilizer in accordance with GB-3559-92, the Agricultural Ammonium Bicarbonate National Standard of China. PMID:16159126

  18. An in vivo microperfusion study of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption in normal and ammonium chloride rats.

    PubMed Central

    Levine, D Z

    1985-01-01

    For many years it has been thought that distal nephron hydrogen ion secretion can be importantly modulated by factors such as sodium delivery, sodium avidity, and potassium stores. Free flow micropuncture studies have also indicated that the rate of bicarbonate delivery may also alter the rate of bicarbonate reabsorption. The present studies were undertaken to examine possible luminal influences on total CO2 reabsorption in microperfused distal tubules in the rat in vivo. Tubules from normal and acidotic rats were perfused with five solutions in a manner that induced changes in bicarbonate load, sodium and potassium fluxes (JNa, JK), and luminal sulfate concentration. in each collected perfusate, simultaneous analyses were undertaken to determine water reabsorption, Na, and K concentrations using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy and total CO2 by microcalorimetry. Using factorial analysis of covariance to account for confounding effects on total CO2 flux (JtCO2) such as water reabsorption, distal tubules of acidotic rats reabsorbed CO2 in the range of 50-112 pmol X min-1 X mm-1 X These JtCO2 values were not significantly correlated with HCO3 load, JNa, or JK despite changes in the latter from net reabsorption to net secretion. Distal tubules of rats with normal acid-base status had JtCO2 values which were neither significantly different from zero nor correlated with changes in JK and JNa. Further, doubling the load from 250-500 pmol/min (by doubling the perfusion rate of 25-mM HCO3 solutions) did not stimulate JtCO2 in these normal animals. Accordingly, these acute in vivo microperfusion studies indicate for the first time that neither load nor potassium or sodium fluxes are important modulators of distal tubule bicarbonate reabsorption. PMID:2982915

  19. Comparison of hydrogen production and electrical power generation for energy capture in closed-loop ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis systems.

    PubMed

    Hatzell, Marta C; Ivanov, Ivan; Cusick, Roland D; Zhu, Xiuping; Logan, Bruce E

    2014-01-28

    Currently, there is an enormous amount of energy available from salinity gradients, which could be used for clean hydrogen production. Through the use of a favorable oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) cathode, the projected electrical energy generated by a single pass ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis (RED) system approached 78 W h m(-3). However, if RED is operated with the less favorable (higher overpotential) hydrogen evolution electrode and hydrogen gas is harvested, the energy recovered increases by as much ~1.5× to 118 W h m(-3). Indirect hydrogen production through coupling an RED stack with an external electrolysis system was only projected to achieve 35 W h m(-3) or ~1/3 of that produced through direct hydrogen generation. PMID:24322796

  20. Antennal and behavioral responses to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate in the Caribbean fruit fly (Diptera: tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trapping system for Anastrepha fruit flies uses a 2-component lure that emits ammonia and putrescine, both regarded as protein cues. This study used electroantennography and flight tunnel bioassays to quantify olfactory and behavioral responses of A. suspensa to vapors from ammonium bicar...

  1. Effect of calcium cyanamide, ammonium bicarbonate and lime mixture, and ammonia water on survival of Ralstonia solanacearum and microbial community.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijuan; Sun, Chengliang; Liu, Xingxing; He, Xiaolin; Liu, Miao; Wu, Hao; Tang, Caixian; Jin, Chongwei; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-01-01

    The inorganic nitrogenous amendments calcium cyanamide (CC), ammonia water (AW), and a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate with lime (A+L) are popularly used as fumigants to control soil-borne disease in China. However, it is unclear which of these fumigants is more effective in controlling R. solanacearum. This present study compared the efficiencies of the three nitrogenous amendments listed above at four nitrogen levels in suppressing the survival of R. solanacearum in soil. The CC showed the best ability to suppress R. solanacearum due to its highest capacity to increase soil and NO2(-) contents and pH. However, AW was more suitable to controlling bacterial wilt caused by R. solanacearum because it had a lower cost and its application rate of 0.25?g N kg(-1) soil could effectively suppress the survival of R. solanacearum. Additionally, soil microbial activity and community populations were restored to their initial state four weeks after the application of each fumigant, indicating that the three fumigants had few detrimental impacts on soil microbial activity and community structure with an exception of the suppression of R. solanacearum. The present study provides guidance for the selection of a suitable alkaline nitrogenous amendment and its application rate in controlling bacterial wilt. PMID:26738601

  2. Determination of the respiration quotient in mammalian cell culture in bicarbonate buffered media.

    PubMed

    Bonarius, H P; de Gooijer, C D; Tramper, J; Schmid, G

    1995-03-20

    The determination of the respiration quotient (RQ = CER/OUR) has not been used so far as a tool for understanding animal cell metabolism. This is due to problems in measuring the carbon dioxide evolution rate (CER) rather than the oxygen uptake rate (OUR). The determination of the CER is complicated by the use of bicarbonate in the medium. Using liquid and gas balances we have derived an equation for continuous culture to quantify the amount of CO(2) that comes from the bicarbonate in the feed. Under cell-free conditions, values predicted by this equation agree within 4% with the experimental results. In continuous culture using hybridoma cells, the CO(2) from the feed, as determined by an IR-gas analyzer, was found to represent a significant amount of the total measured CO(2) in the off-gas (50% in a suboptimal, and 30% in high-growth medium). Furthermore, the problem of CO(2) loss from the medium during medium preparation and storage was solved using both a theoretical and an experimental approach. RQ values in continuous culture were evaluated for two different growth media. Small but significant differences in RQ were measured, which were matched by differences in specific antibody rates and other metabolic quotients. In a medium with Primatone RL, an enzymatic hydrolysate of animal cell tissue that causes a more than twofold increase in cell density, the RQ was found to be 1.05, whereas in medium without Primatone RL (but containing amino acids equivalent in composition and concentration to Primatone RL) the RQ was found to be 0.97. We suggest the RQ to be a useful parameter for estimating the physiological state of cells. Its determination could be a suitable tool for both the on-line control of animal cell cultivations and the understanding of cell metabolism. PMID:18623253

  3. Author's personal copy Evaluation of stainless steel cathodes and a bicarbonate buffer

    E-print Network

    : Biohydrogen Bioenergy Gas bag Buffer Electrohydrogenesis a b s t r a c t Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs tested in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but not MECs, include MES (C6H12NNaO4S), HEPES (C8H18N2O4S

  4. Coral reef calcifiers buffer their response to ocean acidification using both bicarbonate and carbonate

    PubMed Central

    Comeau, S.; Carpenter, R. C.; Edmunds, P. J.

    2013-01-01

    Central to evaluating the effects of ocean acidification (OA) on coral reefs is understanding how calcification is affected by the dissolution of CO2 in sea water, which causes declines in carbonate ion concentration [CO32?] and increases in bicarbonate ion concentration [HCO3?]. To address this topic, we manipulated [CO32?] and [HCO3?] to test the effects on calcification of the coral Porites rus and the alga Hydrolithon onkodes, measured from the start to the end of a 15-day incubation, as well as in the day and night. [CO32?] played a significant role in light and dark calcification of P. rus, whereas [HCO3?] mainly affected calcification in the light. Both [CO32?] and [HCO3?] had a significant effect on the calcification of H. onkodes, but the strongest relationship was found with [CO32?]. Our results show that the negative effect of declining [CO32?] on the calcification of corals and algae can be partly mitigated by the use of HCO3? for calcification and perhaps photosynthesis. These results add empirical support to two conceptual models that can form a template for further research to account for the calcification response of corals and crustose coralline algae to OA. PMID:23256193

  5. A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Study of the Anesthetic Efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Buffered 2% Lidocaine With 1?:?100,000 Epinephrine in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Blocks

    PubMed Central

    Whitcomb, Michael; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes to test for anesthesia of the first and second molars, premolars, and lateral and central incisors. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes, and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 minutes. For the buffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–71%. For the unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10–72%. No significant differences between the 2 anesthetic formulations were noted. The buffered lidocaine formulation did not statistically result in faster onset of pulpal anesthesia or less pain during injection than did the unbuffered lidocaine formulation. We concluded that buffering a 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine with sodium bicarbonate, as was formulated in the current study, did not statistically increase anesthetic success, provide faster onset, or result in less pain of injection when compared with unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1?:?100,000 epinephrine for an IAN block. PMID:20553136

  6. A prospective, randomized, double-blind study of the anesthetic efficacy of sodium bicarbonate buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in inferior alveolar nerve blocks.

    PubMed

    Whitcomb, Michael; Drum, Melissa; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered, in a double-blind manner, inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) blocks using a buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation and an unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine formulation at 2 separate appointments spaced at least 1 week apart. An electric pulp tester was used in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes to test for anesthesia of the first and second molars, premolars, and lateral and central incisors. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained within 15 minutes, and the 80 reading was continuously sustained for 60 minutes. For the buffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine/sodium bicarbonate formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10-71%. For the unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine formulation, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 10-72%. No significant differences between the 2 anesthetic formulations were noted. The buffered lidocaine formulation did not statistically result in faster onset of pulpal anesthesia or less pain during injection than did the unbuffered lidocaine formulation. We concluded that buffering a 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine with sodium bicarbonate, as was formulated in the current study, did not statistically increase anesthetic success, provide faster onset, or result in less pain of injection when compared with unbuffered 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine for an IAN block. PMID:20553136

  7. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community.

    PubMed

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857?g?kg(-1) of L and 0.428?g?kg(-1) of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  8. Suppression on plant-parasitic nematodes using a soil fumigation strategy based on ammonium bicarbonate and its effects on the nematode community

    PubMed Central

    Su, Lanxi; Ruan, Yunze; Yang, Xiujuan; Wang, Kang; Li, Rong; Shen, Qirong

    2015-01-01

    Banana production is severely hindered by plant-parasitic nematodes in acidic, sandy soil. This study investigated the possibility of applying a novel fumigation agent based on ammonium bicarbonate as a strategy for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes under sealed conditions. Moreover, its effects on the nematode community in pot and field experiments were also measured using morphology and feeding-habit based classification and the PCR-DGGE method. Results showed that a mixture (LAB) of lime (L) and ammonium bicarbonate (AB) in suitable additive amounts (0.857?g?kg?1 of L and 0.428?g?kg?1 of AB) showed stronger nematicidal ability than did the use of AB alone or the use of ammonium hydroxide (AH) and calcium cyanamide (CC) with an equal nitrogen amount. The nematode community was altered by the different fumigants, and LAB showed an excellent plant-parasitic nematicidal ability, especially for Meloidogyne and Rotylenchulus, as revealed by morphology and feeding-habit based classification, and for Meloidogyne, as revealed by the PCR-DGGE method. Fungivores and omnivore-predators were more sensitive to the direct effects of the chemicals than bacterivores. This study explored a novel fumigation agent for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes based on LAB and provides a potential strategy to ensure the worldwide development of the banana industry. PMID:26621630

  9. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    SciTech Connect

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-09-25

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates.

  10. Antennal responses of West Indian and Caribbean fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae) to ammonium bicarbonate and putrescine lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efforts to monitor and detect tephritid fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha currently involve MultiLure traps baited with two food-based synthetic attractants; ammonium acetate and putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). These baits are used in Central America, Florida, Texas, and the Caribbean, each region...

  11. Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) Sodium Bicarbonate/Carbonate Buffer in an Open Aqueous Carbon Dioxide System and Corollary Electrochemical/Chemical Reactions Relative to System pH Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stegman, Thomas W.; Wilson, Mark E.; Glasscock, Brad; Holt, Mike

    2014-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS) experienced a number of chemical changes driven by system absorption of CO2 which altered the coolant’s pH. The natural effects of the decrease in pH from approximately 9.2 to less than 8.4 had immediate consequences on system corrosion rates and corrosion product interactions with specified coolant constituents. The alkalinity of the system was increased through the development and implementation of a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer that would increase coolant pH to 9.0 – 10.0 and maintain pH above 9.0 in the presence of ISS cabin concentrations of CO2 up to twenty times higher than ground concentrations. This paper defines how a carbonate/bicarbonate buffer works in an open carbon dioxide system and summarizes the analyses performed on the buffer for safe and effective application in the on-orbit system. The importance of the relationship between the cabin environment and the IATCS is demonstrated as the dominant factor in understanding the system chemistry and pH trends before and after addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. The paper also documents the corollary electrochemical and chemical reactions the system has experienced and the rationale for remediation of these effects with the addition of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer.

  12. Comparative anti-ulcerogenic study of pantoprazole formulation with and without sodium bicarbonate buffer on pyloric ligated rat

    PubMed Central

    Bigoniya, Papiya; Shukla, A.; Singh, C. S.; Gotiya, P.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the anti-ulcer activity of buffered pantoprazole tablet against plain pantoprazole in pyloric ligated rats. Materials and Methods: In vivo pyloric ligated ulcerogenesis model was used to assess the effect of buffered pantoprazole on the volume of the gastric content, pH, total and free acidity, and ulcerogenic lesion. Pantoprazole level in gastric content and concurrently in stomach tissue was assessed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Results: Buffered tablet effectively increases the pH of the gastric content above 4 up to 6 h (P<0.001) protecting pantoprazole from acid degradation resulting in high concentration in the gastric content and stomach tissue. Conclusions: This study substantiates better, faster and prolonged bioavailability of pantoprazole-buffered tablet compared to plain pantoprazole. PMID:21897712

  13. The effect of buffering dairy cow diets with limestone, calcareous marine algae, or sodium bicarbonate on ruminal pH profiles, production responses, and rumen fermentation.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, C W; Taylor, S; Beya, M M; Calitz, T

    2015-08-01

    Six ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to evaluate the effect of 2 dietary buffers on rumen pH, milk production, milk composition, and rumen fermentation parameters. A high concentrate total mixed ration [35.2% forage dry matter (DM)], formulated to be potentially acidotic, was used to construct 3 dietary treatments in which calcareous marine algae (calcified remains of the seaweed Lithothamnium calcareum) was compared with limestone (control) and sodium bicarbonate plus limestone. One basal diet was formulated and the treatment diets contained either 0.4% of dietary DM as Acid Buf, a calcified marine algae product (AB treatment), or 0.8% of dietary DM as sodium bicarbonate and 0.37% as limestone (BC treatment), or 0.35% of dietary DM as limestone [control (CON) treatment]. Cows were randomly allocated to treatments according to a double 3×3 Latin square design, with 3 treatments and 3 periods. The total experimental period was 66 d during which each cow received each treatment for a period of 15 d before the data collection period of 7 d. Rumen fluid was collected to determine volatile fatty acids, lactic acid, and ammonia concentrations. Rumen pH was monitored every 10min for 2 consecutive days using a portable data logging system fitted with in-dwelling electrodes. Milk samples were analyzed for solid and mineral contents. The effect of treatment on acidity was clearly visible, especially from the period from midday to midnight when rumen pH dropped below 5.5 for a longer period of time (13 h) in the CON treatment than in the BC (8.7 h) and AB (4 h) treatments. Daily milk, 4% fat-corrected milk, and energy-corrected milk yields differed among treatments, with AB being the highest, followed by BC and CON. Both buffers increased milk fat content. Treatment had no effect on milk protein content, but protein yield was increased in the AB treatment. Total rumen volatile fatty acids and acetate concentrations were higher and propionate was lower in the AB treatment than in CON. The molar proportion of acetate was higher in AB than in CON, but that of propionate was lower in both buffer treatments than in CON. The acetate:propionate ratio was increased in the AB and BC treatments compared with CON. Lactic acid concentration was higher in the CON treatment than in the buffer treatments. Treatment had no effect on rumen ammonia concentrations. Results indicated that buffer inclusion in high concentrate diets for lactating dairy cows had a positive effect on milk production and milk composition. Calcareous marine algae, at a level of 90 g/cow per day, had a greater effect on rumen pH, milk production and milk composition, and efficiency of feed conversion into milk than sodium bicarbonate at a level of 180 g/cow per day. PMID:26026755

  14. Bicarbonate Test

    MedlinePLUS

    ... effectiveness of treatment for known imbalances. When an acid-base imbalance is identified, bicarbonate (as part of the ... in nature, and monitor its treatment until the acid-base balance is restored. ^ Back to top When is ...

  15. Method of uranium reclamation from aqueous systems by reactive ion exchange. [US DOE patent application; anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands

    DOEpatents

    Maya, L.

    1981-11-05

    A reactive ion exchange method for separation and recovery of values of uranium, neptunium, plutonium, or americium from substantially neutral aqueous systems of said metals comprises contacting said system with an effective amount of a basic anion exchange resin of copolymerized divinyl-benzene and styrene having quarternary ammonium groups and bicarbonate ligands to achieve nearly 100% sorption of said actinyl ion onto said resin and an aqueous system practically free of said actinyl ions. The method is operational over an extensive range of concentrations from about 10/sup -6/ M to 1.0 M actinyl ion and a pH range of about 4 to 7. The method has particulr application to treatment of waste streams from Purex-type nuclear fuel reprocessing facilities and hydrometallurgical processes involving U, Np, P, or Am.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...NH4 )2 CO3 , CAS Reg. No. 8000-73-5) is a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 ) and ammonium carbamate (NH2 COONH4 ). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...NH4 )2 CO3 , CAS Reg. No. 8000-73-5) is a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 ) and ammonium carbamate (NH2 COONH4 ). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...NH4 )2 CO3 , CAS Reg. No. 8000-73-5) is a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 ) and ammonium carbamate (NH2 COONH4 ). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...NH4 )2 CO3 , CAS Reg. No. 8000-73-5) is a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 ) and ammonium carbamate (NH2 COONH4 ). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...NH4 )2 CO3 , CAS Reg. No. 8000-73-5) is a mixture of ammonium bicarbonate (NH4 HCO3 ) and ammonium carbamate (NH2 COONH4 ). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and...

  1. Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

    2014-08-26

    Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H(+), HCO3 (-) is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membranes. The functions of HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-transporters in epithelial tissues have been studied extensively, but their functions in heart are less well understood. Here we review studies of the identities and physiological functions of Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchangers and Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporters of the SLC4A and SLC26A families in heart. We also present RNA Seq analysis of their cardiac mRNA expression levels. These studies indicate that slc4a3 (AE3) is the major Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger and plays a protective role in heart failure, and that Slc4a4 (NBCe1) is the major Na(+)/HCO3 (-) cotransporter and affects action potential duration. In addition, previous studies show that HCO3 (-) has a positive inotropic effect in the perfused heart that is largely independent of effects on intracellular Ca(2+). The importance of HCO3 (-) in the regulation of contractility is supported by experiments showing that isolated cardiomyocytes exhibit sharply enhanced contractility, with no change in Ca(2+) transients, when switched from Hepes-buffered to HCO3 (-)- buffered solutions. These studies demonstrate that HCO3 (-) and HCO3 (-)-handling proteins play important roles in the regulation of cardiac function. PMID:25225601

  2. Critical role of bicarbonate and bicarbonate transporters in cardiac function

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Yamei; Vairamani, Kanimozhi; Shull, Gary E

    2014-01-01

    Bicarbonate is one of the major anions in mammalian tissues and extracellular fluids. Along with accompanying H+, HCO3- is generated from CO2 and H2O, either spontaneously or via the catalytic activity of carbonic anhydrase. It serves as a component of the major buffer system, thereby playing a critical role in pH homeostasis. Bicarbonate can also be utilized by a variety of ion transporters, often working in coupled systems, to transport other ions and organic substrates across cell membranes. The functions of HCO3- and HCO3--transporters in epithelial tissues have been studied extensively, but their functions in heart are less well understood. Here we review studies of the identities and physiological functions of Cl-/HCO3- exchangers and Na+/HCO3- cotransporters of the SLC4A and SLC26A families in heart. We also present RNA Seq analysis of their cardiac mRNA expression levels. These studies indicate that slc4a3 (AE3) is the major Cl-/HCO3- exchanger and plays a protective role in heart failure, and that Slc4a4 (NBCe1) is the major Na+/HCO3- cotransporter and affects action potential duration. In addition, previous studies show that HCO3- has a positive inotropic effect in the perfused heart that is largely independent of effects on intracellular Ca2+. The importance of HCO3- in the regulation of contractility is supported by experiments showing that isolated cardiomyocytes exhibit sharply enhanced contractility, with no change in Ca2+ transients, when switched from Hepes-buffered to HCO3-- buffered solutions. These studies demonstrate that HCO3- and HCO3--handling proteins play important roles in the regulation of cardiac function. PMID:25225601

  3. Sodium Bicarbonate Therapy in Patients with Metabolic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Adeva-Andany, María M.; Fernández-Fernández, Carlos; Mouriño-Bayolo, David; Castro-Quintela, Elvira; Domínguez-Montero, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic acidosis occurs when a relative accumulation of plasma anions in excess of cations reduces plasma pH. Replacement of sodium bicarbonate to patients with sodium bicarbonate loss due to diarrhea or renal proximal tubular acidosis is useful, but there is no definite evidence that sodium bicarbonate administration to patients with acute metabolic acidosis, including diabetic ketoacidosis, lactic acidosis, septic shock, intraoperative metabolic acidosis, or cardiac arrest, is beneficial regarding clinical outcomes or mortality rate. Patients with advanced chronic kidney disease usually show metabolic acidosis due to increased unmeasured anions and hyperchloremia. It has been suggested that metabolic acidosis might have a negative impact on progression of kidney dysfunction and that sodium bicarbonate administration might attenuate this effect, but further evaluation is required to validate such a renoprotective strategy. Sodium bicarbonate is the predominant buffer used in dialysis fluids and patients on maintenance dialysis are subjected to a load of sodium bicarbonate during the sessions, suffering a transient metabolic alkalosis of variable severity. Side effects associated with sodium bicarbonate therapy include hypercapnia, hypokalemia, ionized hypocalcemia, and QTc interval prolongation. The potential impact of regular sodium bicarbonate therapy on worsening vascular calcifications in patients with chronic kidney disease has been insufficiently investigated. PMID:25405229

  4. A Modified o-Phthalaldehyde Fluorometric Analytical Method for Ultratrace Ammonium in Natural Waters Using EDTA-NaOH as Buffer

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongzhi; Li, Shuo; Guo, Qing; Wu, Chancui

    2014-01-01

    In the existence of appropriate amount of disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA), precipitation would not occur in seawater and other natural waters even if the sample solution was adjusted to strong basicity, and the NH3-OPA-sulfite reaction at the optimal pH range could be used to determine ammonium in natural waters. Based on this, a modified o-phthalaldehyde fluorometric analytical method has been established to determine ultratrace ammonium in natural waters. Experimental parameters, including reagent concentration, pH, reaction time, and effect of EDTA, were optimized throughout the experiments based on univariate experimental design. The results showed that the optimal pH range was between 10.80 and 11.70. EDTA did not obviously affect the fluorometric intensity. The linearity range of the proposed method was 0.032–0.500?µmol/L, 0.250–3.00?µmol/L, and 1.00–20.0?µmol/L at the excitation/emission slit of 3?nm/5?nm, 3?nm/3?nm, and 1.5?nm/1.5?nm, respectively. The method detection limit was 0.0099?µmol/L. Compared to the classical OPA method, the proposed method had the advantage of being more sensitive and could quantify ultratrace ammonium without enrichment. PMID:25436173

  5. Predicting the safety and efficacy of buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe: an integrative modelling study

    E-print Network

    Maini, Philip K.

    .bjcancer.com Published online 1 March 2012 & 2012 Cancer Research UK Keywords: sodium bicarbonate; acidity; mathematical of blood and tumour buffering to examine the impact of oral administration of bicarbonate buffer in mice unseen potentially dangerous elevation in blood pHe resulting from bicarbonate therapy in mice, which

  6. DIETHANOLAMINE-CARBON DIOXIDE BUFFER PRODUCES ETHYLENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Carbon dioxide concentrates in containers are frequently controlled by using a diethanolamine-bicarbonate buffer. Current studies show that this buffer produces ethylene and that the production increases with increasing pH and/or time in the incubation vessel. Ethylene is not pro...

  7. [Involvement of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the superoxide-generating reaction of adrenaline autoxidation].

    PubMed

    Sirota, T V

    2015-01-01

    An important role of carbonate/bicarbonate ions has been recognized in the superoxide generating reaction of adrenaline autooxidation in an alkaline buffer (a model of quinoid adrenaline oxidation in the body). It is suggested that these ions are directly involved not only in formation of superoxide anion radical (?(2)(-)) but also other radicals derived from the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer. Using various buffers it was shown that the rate of accumulation of adrenochrome, the end product of adrenaline oxidation, and the rate of ?(2)(-)· formation depend on concentration of carbonate/bicarbonate ions in the buffer and that these ions significantly accelerate adrenaline autooxidation thus demonstrating prooxidant properties. The detectable amount of diformazan, the product of nitro blue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction, was significantly higher than the amount of adrenochrome formed; taking into consideration the literature data on ?(2)(-)· detection by NBT it is suggested that adrenaline autooxidation is accompanied by one-electron reduction not only of oxygen dissolved in the buffer and responsible for superoxide formation but possible carbon dioxide also dissolved in the buffer as well as carbonate/bicarbonate buffer components leading to formation of corresponding radicals. The plots of the dependence of the inhibition of adrenochrome and diformazan formation on the superoxide dismutase concentration have shown that not only superoxide radicals are formed during adrenaline autooxidation. Since carbonate/bicarbonate ions are known to be universally present in the living nature, their involvement in free radical processes proceeding in the organism is discussed. PMID:25762605

  8. Short Communication Saline catholytes as alternatives to phosphate buffers in microbial

    E-print Network

    2013 Keywords: Microbial fuel cell Buffer Sodium chloride Ion exchange membrane a b s t r a c t HighlyH conditions and increase the solution conduc- tivity, including phosphate, bicarbonate, and zwitterionic (Fan into the environment. Bicarbonate buffers are more useful, but they can enhance the growth of methanogens (Fan et al

  9. Buffer Therapy for Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Maria de Lourdes C; Silva, Ariosto S.; Bailey, Kate M.; Kumar, Nagi B.; Sellers, Thomas A.; Gatenby, Robert A.; Ibrahim-Hashim, Arig; Gillies, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Oral administration of pH buffers can reduce the development of spontaneous and experimental metastases in mice, and has been proposed in clinical trials. Effectiveness of buffer therapy is likely to be affected by diet, which could contribute or interfere with the therapeutic alkalinizing effect. Little data on food pH buffering capacity was available. This study evaluated the pH and buffering capacity of different foods to guide prospective trials and test the effect of the same buffer (lysine) at two different ionization states. Food groups were derived from the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire. Foods were blended and pH titrated with acid from initial pH values until 4.0 to determine “buffering score”, in mmol H+/pH unit. A “buffering score” was derived as the mEq H+ consumed per serving size to lower from initial to a pH 4.0, the postprandial pH of the distal duodenum. To differentiate buffering effect from any metabolic byproduct effects, we compared the effects of oral lysine buffers prepared at either pH 10.0 or 8.4, which contain 2 and 1 free base amines, respectively. The effect of these on experimental metastases formation in mice following tail vein injection of PC-3M prostate cancer cells were monitored with in vivo bioluminescence. Carbohydrates and dairy products’ buffering score varied between 0.5 and 19. Fruits and vegetables showed a low to zero buffering score. The score of meats varied between 6 and 22. Wine and juices had negative scores. Among supplements, sodium bicarbonate and Tums® had the highest buffering capacities, with scores of 11 and 20 per serving size, respectively. The “de-buffered” lysine had a less pronounced effect of prevention of metastases compared to lysine at pH 10. This study has demonstrated the anti-cancer effects of buffer therapy and suggests foods that can contribute to or compete with this approach to manage cancer. PMID:24371544

  10. THE CORRELATION OF SERUM BICARBONATE AND METABOLIC ACIDOSIS TO ALBUMIN IN HEMODIALYSIS PATIENTS

    E-print Network

    Vyduna, Jennifer Lynn

    2012-12-31

    of bicarbonate from the lower intestine, breakdown of proteins from diet, and oxidation of carbohydrates and fats in muscle cells (13, 15). The kidney assists in regenerating bicarbonate used for buffering acids and is vital in acid-base balance. Hydrogen ion... including renal osteodystrophy, protein catabolism, decreased normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR), decreased serum albumin synthesis, and protein energy wasting are observed with metabolic acidosis during maintenance hemodialysis (3, 4). Maintenance...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  12. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  13. Ammonium sulfamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium sulfamate ; CASRN 7773 - 06 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  14. Ammonium methacrylate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium methacrylate ; CASRN 16325 - 47 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcin

  15. Comparison of buffers for extraction of mite allergen der p 1 from dust.

    PubMed

    Prester, Ljerka; Kova?i?, Jelena; Macan, Jelena

    2012-09-01

    Der p 1 is the main allergen of house dust mite Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, which has routinely been detected in residential dust. However, the procedure for extracting Der p 1 from reservoir dust has not been well defined. The aim of this study was to compare Der p 1 mass fractions in dust extracts prepared using the following extraction buffers: phosphate (pH 7.4), borate (pH 8.0), and ammonium bicarbonate (pH 8.0), all with 0.05 % Tween 20. Twenty-eight dust samples were divided into three aliquots and each portion was extracted with one of the three buffers at room temperature. Der p 1 mass fractions were measured in a total of 84 dust extracts using the enzyme immunoassay (range: 0.1 ?g g-1 to 7.53 ?g g-1). Statistical methods including intraclass correlation showed a high agreement between Der p 1 mass fractions irrespective of the extracting medium. Our results suggest that all three buffers are suitable for the extraction of mite allergens and routine Der p 1 analysis in dust. PMID:23152379

  16. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 582.1736 Section 582.1736 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium bicarbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. Buffered Phenol Why buffer phenol?

    E-print Network

    Aris, John P.

    Buffered Phenol Why buffer phenol? Buffered phenol more than 2 months old can damage DNA and interfere with cloning! Liquefied Phenol: 1. Start with a 500 g bottle of ultrapure phenol. Cover phenol, the phenol. 2. Add a large stir bar. Add 0.5 g 8-hydroxyquinoline to 0.1%. Mix to obtain a fine emulsion. 3

  6. Ammonium Acetate and Ammonium Bicarbonate in Traps for Anastrepha Fruit Flies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit flies in the genus Anastrepha, especially the reproductive age females, are attracted to protein baits. Synthetic lures based on the principal components of protein degradation, especially ammonia along with acetic acid, were tested against three of the most economically important Anastrepha s...

  7. 77 FR 50613 - Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate; Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    ...jointly referred to as DDACB on food contact surfaces when applied or used in public...requirement of tolerance residues resulting from contact with surfaces treated with solutions where...gov/dockets. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Velma Noble, Antimicrobials...

  8. 77 FR 50613 - Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Carbonate and Didecyl Dimethyl Ammonium Bicarbonate; Exemption From the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-22

    .... Background and Statutory Findings In the Federal Register of December 8, 2011 (76 FR 76674) (FRL- 9328-8... toxicity studies and a 2-generation reproductive toxicity study. Lastly, they are negative for mutagenicity... found at 73 FR 37852, July 2, 2008. IV. Aggregate Exposure In examining aggregate exposure, section...

  9. The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 is a high-affinity bicarbonate carrier in cortical astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Theparambil, Shefeeq M; Ruminot, Iván; Schneider, Hans-Peter; Shull, Gary E; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2014-01-22

    The electrogenic sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1 (SLC4A4) is a robust regulator of intracellular H(+) and a significant base carrier in many cell types. Using wild-type (WT) and NBCe1-deficient (NBC-KO) mice, we have studied the role of NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes in culture and in situ by monitoring intracellular H(+) using the H(+)-sensitive dye BCECF [2',7'-bis-(carboxyethyl)-5-(and-6)-carboxyfluorescein] in wide-field and confocal microscopy. Adding 0.1-3 mm HCO3(-) to an O2-gassed, HEPES-buffered saline solution lowered the intracellular H(+) concentration with a Km of 0.65 mm HCO3(-) in WT astrocytes, but slowly raised [H(+)]i in NBCe1-KO astrocytes. Human NBCe1 heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes could be activated by adding 1-3 mm HCO3(-), and even by residual HCO3(-) in a nominally CO2/HCO3(-)-free saline solution. Our results demonstrate a surprisingly high apparent bicarbonate sensitivity mediated by NBCe1 in cortical astrocytes, suggesting that NBCe1 may operate over a wide bicarbonate concentration in these cells. PMID:24453308

  10. Effects of sodium bicarbonate ingestion on swim performance in youth athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zajac, Adam; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Langfort, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral administration of sodium bicarbonate (300 mg·kg-1 b.w.) on swim performance in competitive, (training experience of 6.6 ± 0.6 years) youth, (15.1 ± 0.6 years) male swimmers. The subjects completed a test trial, in a double blind fashion, on separate days, consisting of 4 x 50m front crawl swims with a 1st minute passive rest interval twice, on two occasions: after ingestion of bicarbonate or placebo, 72 hours apart, at the same time of the day. Blood samples were drawn from the finger tip three times during each trial; upon arrival to the laboratory, 60 min after ingestion of placebo or the sodium bicarbonate solution and after the 4 x 50m test, during the 1st min of recovery. Plasma lactate concentration, blood pH, standard bicarbonate and base excess were evaluated. The total time of the 4 x 50 m test trial improved from 1.54.28 to 1.52.85s, while statistically significant changes in swimming speed were recorded only during the first 50m sprint (1.92 vs. 1.97 m·s-1, p < 0.05). Resting blood concentration of HCO-3 increased following the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate from 25.13 to 28.49 mM (p < 0.05). Sodium bicarbonate intake had a statistically significant effect on resting blood pH (7.33 vs. 7.41, p < .05) as well as on post exercise plasma lactate concentration (11.27 vs. 13.06 mM, p < 0.05)). Collectively, these data demonstrate that the ingestion of sodium bicarbonate in youth athletes is an effective buffer during high intensity interval swimming and suggest that such a procedure can be used in youth athletes to increase training intensity as well as swimming performance in competition at distances from 50 to 200 m. Key points Sodium bicarbonate is an effective ergogenic aid, also in youth athletes. Sodium bicarbonate intake improves swimming sprint performance. Sodium bicarbonate intake increases resting blood pH and bicarbonate level PMID:24150555

  11. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of sodium bicarbonate forms. The slurry is filtered, forming a cake which is washed and...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of sodium bicarbonate forms. The slurry is filtered, forming a cake which is washed and...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of sodium bicarbonate forms. The slurry is filtered, forming a cake which is washed and...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of sodium bicarbonate forms. The slurry is filtered, forming a cake which is washed and...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    , CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with carbon dioxide. As carbon dioxide is absorbed, a suspension of sodium bicarbonate forms. The slurry is filtered, forming a cake which is washed and...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium bicarbonate. 582.1613 Section 582.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1613 Potassium bicarbonate....

  17. Buffer Biology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Kelly

    2000-01-01

    Presents a science experiment in which students test the buffering capacity of household products such as shampoo, hand lotion, fizzies candy, and cola. Lists the standards addressed in this experiment and gives an example of a student lab write-up. (YDS)

  18. Bicarbonate utilization by leaf protoplasts from Potamogeton

    SciTech Connect

    Staal, M.; Elzenga, J.T.M.; Prins, H.B.A.

    1987-04-01

    Leaves from the submerged angiosperm P. lucens are able to assimilate bicarbonate. These leaves behave polarly: during bicarbonate utilization protons (H/sup +/) are excreted by the cells of the lower epidermis, while hydroxyl (OH/sup -/) ions are excreted by the upper epidermal cells. It has been proposed that acidification of the apoplast is a prerequisite for bicarbonate utilization. To test this hypothesis /sup 14/C fixation by protoplasts was determined at different pH values. Also experiments, using the isotopic disequilibrium technique were performed. They showed that at pH values > 8, bicarbonate is a major carbon source for photosynthesis in protoplasts, despite the absence of cell walls and polarity. At pH values around 6, the rate of /sup 14/C-fixation in protoplasts equals that of intact leaves. At pH values > 8, however, intact leaves show a higher rate. From this, and other experiments, the authors conclude that at least 2 processes contribute to bicarbonate utilization in P. lucens leaves: active transport (H/sup +/-HCO/sub 3//sup -/ symport.) and acidification of the apoplast resulting in the conversion of bicarbonate into CO/sub 2/. Polarity may increase the efficiency of both.

  19. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  20. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  1. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...false Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  2. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  3. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...true Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory...CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory ...140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production...

  4. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    21 ? Food and Drugs ? 6 ? 2010-04-01 ? 2010-04-01 ? false ? Sodium bicarbonate. ? 582.1736 ? Section 582.1736 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ? ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ? SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    21 ? Food and Drugs ? 6 ? 2011-04-01 ? 2011-04-01 ? false ? Sodium bicarbonate. ? 582.1736 ? Section 582.1736 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ? ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ? SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    21 ? Food and Drugs ? 6 ? 2012-04-01 ? 2012-04-01 ? false ? Sodium bicarbonate. ? 582.1736 ? Section 582.1736 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ? ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ? SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    21 ? Food and Drugs ? 6 ? 2013-04-01 ? 2013-04-01 ? false ? Sodium bicarbonate. ? 582.1736 ? Section 582.1736 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ? ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ? SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    21 ? Food and Drugs ? 6 ? 2014-04-01 ? 2014-04-01 ? false ? Sodium bicarbonate. ? 582.1736 ? Section 582.1736 ? Food and Drugs ? FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ? ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS ? SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1613 - Potassium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium bicarbonate. 184.1613 Section 184.1613 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  11. Bicarbonate versus acetate hemodialysis in ventilated patients.

    PubMed

    van Geelen, J A; Woittiez, A J; Schalekamp, M A

    1987-09-01

    Hemodynamic tolerance to bicarbonate versus acetate hemodialysis was studied in seven ventilated, critically ill patients, suffering from acute renal failure. Both kinds of hemodialysis were carried out with a recirculating dialysate delivery system and a relatively low blood flow (180 ml/min). Each patient underwent two hemodialysis procedures, one with bicarbonate and one with acetate, lasting for four hours. Ultrafiltration rates were kept below 250 ml/h and only biocompatible membranes with a relatively small surface area (Biospal 2400, Hospal, France) were used. Despite the mild hemodialysis conditions, hypotensive episodes with a mean blood pressure below 70 mmHg were observed in 3 out of 7 bicarbonate sessions and 4 out of 7 acetate sessions. Thus, we could not demonstrate a hemodynamic advantage of bicarbonate hemodialysis in this group of ventilated patients. This contrasts with other studies conducted in non-ventilated patients. Prevention of hypoxemia by mechanical ventilation and control of vascular tone by the use of vasoactive drugs may be of more clinical relevance than the kind of hemodialysis procedure that is used. PMID:3117466

  12. Reappraisal of bicarbonate secretion by the human oesophagus.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Administration of omeprazole to healthy volunteers was recently reported to increase proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. As human oesophagus also secretes bicarbonate, the hypothesis was tested that omeprazole may stimulate oesophageal bicarbonate secretion and thus contribute to the therapeutic efficacy of the drug in gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In nine healthy volunteers, oesophageal "steady state" perfusion of a 10 cm open segment of distal oesophagus was performed twice in random order. The volunteers were pretreated with either 60 mg/day omeprazole for three days and 80 mg intravenous omeprazole before perfusion or 600 mg/day ranitidine for three days and 50 mg/h intravenously during the perfusion. Saliva and samples of aspirate from the perfused oesophagus and stomach were collected and bicarbonate concentrations were measured. RESULTS: The median rates (95% confidence intervals) of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate secretion, corrected for contaminating salivary and gastric bicarbonate, were 89 (33-150) and 121 (63-203) mumol/h/10 cm (p > 0.5) in omeprazole and ranitidine treated subjects respectively. Salivary and gastric bicarbonate contaminating the oesophagus accounted for 14% and 3%, respectively, of total oesophageal bicarbonate output. CONCLUSIONS: Bicarbonate secretory capacity of the human oesophagus is less than previously assumed, and the clinical relevance of intrinsic oesophageal bicarbonate for mucosal defence may be overestimated. As omeprazole and ranitidine did not affect bicarbonate secretion differently there was no evidence that omeprazole acts on bicarbonate secretory cells in the oesophageal mucosa. PMID:9203933

  13. ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate

    E-print Network

    Hall, Randy A

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH Systematic family-wide analysis of sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCn1/SLC4A7, Atlanta, Georgia, USA Keywords Bicarbonate transporter, pH, protein interaction, SLC4A7, Xenopus oocyte proteins. Introduction NBCn1 (SLC4A7) is a member of SLC4 bicarbonate transporters that include Cl/HCO3

  14. A study of different buffers to maximize viability of an oral Shigella vaccine.

    PubMed

    Chandrasekaran, Lakshmi; Lal, Manjari; Van De Verg, Lillian L; Venkatesan, Malabi M

    2015-11-17

    Live, whole cell killed and subunit vaccines are being developed for diarrheal diseases caused by V. cholerae, Shigella species, ETEC, and Campylobacter. Some of these vaccines can be administered orally since this route best mimics natural infection. Live vaccines administered orally have to be protected from the harsh acidic gastric environment. Milk and bicarbonate solutions have been administered to neutralize the stomach acid. For many Shigella vaccine trials, 100-120ml of a bicarbonate solution is ingested followed by the live vaccine candidate, which is delivered in 30ml of bicarbonate, water or saline. It is not clear if maximum bacterial viability is achieved under these conditions. Also, volumes of neutralizing buffer that are optimal for adults may be unsuitable for children and infants. To address these questions, we performed studies to determine the viability and stability of a Shigella sonnei vaccine candidate, WRSS1, in a mixture of different volumes of five different buffer solutions added to hydrochloric acid to simulate gastric acidity. Among the buffers tested, bicarbonate solution, rotavirus buffer and CeraVacx were better at neutralizing acid and maintaining the viability of WRSS1. Also, a much smaller volume of the neutralizing buffer was sufficient to counteract stomach acid while maintaining bacterial viability. PMID:26428454

  15. Renal bicarbonate reabsorption in the new-born dog.

    PubMed

    Kleinman, L I

    1978-08-01

    1. Renal bicarbonate reabsorption was measured in thirty new-born dogs 2-27 days of age. Plasma bicarbonate was varied in the puppies by exchanging their blood with blood containing high levels of bicarbonate and low levels of chloride.2. The exchange transfusion resulted in increases of plasma pH, P(CO2) and bicarbonate in the puppies without changing plasma sodium and potassium or glomerular filtration rate (g.f.r.) and body weight.3. There was no tubular reabsorption maximum (T(m)) for bicarbonate and reabsorption values as high as 50 muequiv/ml. g.f.r. could be attained. No animals excreted bicarbonate at plasma levels below 25 mM and some animals had plasma bicarbonate threshold values in excess of 40 mM.4. Bicarbonate reabsorption increased as arterial P(CO2) rose (r = 0.62) but this was due to the rise of filtered bicarbonate since (a) there was no correlation between arterial P(CO2) and bicarbonate reabsorption when factored by filtered bicarbonate and (b) lowering arterial P(CO2) by mechanical hyperventilation did not reduce bicarbonate reabsorption corrected for filtered load.5. Inhibition of renal carbonic anhydrase by acetazolamide (50 mg/kg) resulted in an inhibition of bicarbonate reabsorption of only 4.5 muequiv/ml. g.f.r. (less than 20% of the total). Even with renal carbonic anhydrase inhibited, there was no bicarbonate T(m) and bicarbonate reabsorption values as high as 40 muequiv/ml. g.f.r. could be attained.6. There was good correlation (r = 0.82) between inhibition of sodium and bicarbonate reabsorption during renal carbonic anhydrase inhibition. However, with carbonic anhydrase inhibited, there was no correlation between arterial P(CO2) and bicarbonate reabsorption.7. These results demonstrate that tubular bicarbonate reabsorption mechanisms in the new-born dog are as efficient as those reported for the adult as long as body fluid and plasma sodium and potassium levels are carefully maintained.8. The results are also consistent with a bicarbonate reabsorptive mechanism explained either by direct ionic bicarbonate reabsorption or by hydrogen ion secretion with diffusion of carbonic acid. PMID:29966

  16. CHLORIDEDETERMINATION IN HIGH IONIC STRENGTH SOLUTION OF AMMONIUM ACETATE USING NEGATIVE ION ELECTRON SPRAY IONIZATION (HPLC/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A precise ion chromatography method has been developed for the determination of chloride in high ionic strength ammonium acetate solutions (10-5 M-5 M) using sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate as eluent. Negative ion electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry was used for q...

  17. Regulators of Slc4 bicarbonate transporter activity

    PubMed Central

    Thornell, Ian M.; Bevensee, Mark O.

    2015-01-01

    The Slc4 family of transporters is comprised of anion exchangers (AE1-4), Na+-coupled bicarbonate transporters (NCBTs) including electrogenic Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCe1 and NBCe2), electroneutral Na/bicarbonate cotransporters (NBCn1 and NBCn2), and the electroneutral Na-driven Cl-bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), as well as a borate transporter (BTR1). These transporters regulate intracellular pH (pHi) and contribute to steady-state pHi, but are also involved in other physiological processes including CO2 carriage by red blood cells and solute secretion/reabsorption across epithelia. Acid-base transporters function as either acid extruders or acid loaders, with the Slc4 proteins moving HCO?3 either into or out of cells. According to results from both molecular and functional studies, multiple Slc4 proteins and/or associated splice variants with similar expected effects on pHi are often found in the same tissue or cell. Such apparent redundancy is likely to be physiologically important. In addition to regulating pHi, a HCO?3 transporter contributes to a cell's ability to fine tune the intracellular regulation of the cotransported/exchanged ion(s) (e.g., Na+ or Cl?). In addition, functionally similar transporters or splice variants with different regulatory profiles will optimize pH physiology and solute transport under various conditions or within subcellular domains. Such optimization will depend on activated signaling pathways and transporter expression profiles. In this review, we will summarize and discuss both well-known and more recently identified regulators of the Slc4 proteins. Some of these regulators include traditional second messengers, lipids, binding proteins, autoregulatory domains, and less conventional regulators. The material presented will provide insight into the diversity and physiological significance of multiple members within the Slc4 gene family. PMID:26124722

  18. Ammonium hydroxide poisoning

    MedlinePLUS

    ... cleaners such as flooring strippers, brick cleaners, and cements. Ammonium hydroxide can also release ammonia gas into ... Emergency Medicine: A Comprehensive Study Guide. 6th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004:chap 200. Wax ...

  19. Ammonium nitrate explosive systems

    DOEpatents

    Stinecipher, Mary M. (Los Alamos, NM); Coburn, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    Novel explosives which comprise mixtures of ammonium nitrate and an ammonium salt of a nitroazole in desired ratios are disclosed. A preferred nitroazole is 3,5-dinitro-1,2,4-triazole. The explosive and physical properties of these explosives may readily be varied by the addition of other explosives and oxidizers. Certain of these mixtures have been found to act as ideal explosives.

  20. Sodium is not required for chloride efflux via chloride/bicarbonate exchanger from rat thymic lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Stakišaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juška, Alfonsas; Matusevi?ius, Paulius; Didžiapetrien?, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Sodium-dependent Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl(-)) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl(-) efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na(+)) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na(+) and Cl(-) substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7-9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl(-) was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl(-)-free buffer (Cl(-) substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na(+) and Cl(-)-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl(-) efflux is mediated in the absence of Na(+) in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl(-) efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na(+) had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl(-) efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl(-) efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na(+) is not required for Cl(-) efflux via Cl(-)/HCO3 (-) exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na(+) because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

  1. Sodium Is Not Required for Chloride Efflux via Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger from Rat Thymic Lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stakišaitis, Donatas; Meilus, Vaidevutis; Juška, Alfonsas; Matusevi?ius, Paulius; Didžiapetrien?, Janina

    2014-01-01

    Sodium-dependent Cl?/HCO3? exchanger acts as a chloride (Cl?) efflux in lymphocytes. Its functional characterization had been described when Cl? efflux was measured upon substituting extracellular sodium (Na+) by N-methyl-D-glucamine (NMDG). For Na+ and Cl? substitution, we have used D-mannitol or NMDG. Thymocytes of male Wistar rats aged 7–9 weeks were used and intracellular Cl? was measured by spectrofluorimetry using MQAE dye in bicarbonate buffers. Chloride efflux was measured in a Cl?-free buffer (Cl? substituted with isethionate acid) and in Na+ and Cl?-free buffer with D-mannitol or with NMDG. The data have shown that Cl? efflux is mediated in the absence of Na+ in a solution containing D-mannitol and is inhibited by H2DIDS. Mathematical modelling has shown that Cl? efflux mathematical model parameters (relative membrane permeability, relative rate of exchanger transition, and exchanger efficacy) were the same in control and in the medium in which Na+ had been substituted by D-mannitol. The net Cl? efflux was completely blocked in the NMDG buffer. The same blockage of Cl? efflux was caused by H2DIDS. The study results allow concluding that Na+ is not required for Cl? efflux via Cl?/HCO3? exchanger. NMDG in buffers cannot be used for substituting Na+ because NMDG inhibits the exchanger. PMID:25003116

  2. EFFECT OF BUFFERED AND UNBUFFERED TRICAINE METHANESULFONATE (MS-222) AT DIFFERENT CONCENTRATIONS ON THE STRESS RESPONSES OF CHANNEL CATFISH (ICTALURUS PUNCTATUS RAFINESQUE)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of four concentrations (0, 90, 120, and 180 mg/L) of the anesthetic tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) (buffered and unbuffered with sodium bicarbonate) were evaluated on anesthetization efficacy and stress responses of juvenile channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus Rafinesque). Buffered ...

  3. Infrared band intensities in ammonium hydroxide and ammonium salts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sethna, P. P.; Downing, H. D.; Pinkley, L. W.; Williams, D.

    1978-01-01

    We have applied Kramers-Kronig analysis to reflection spectra to determine the optical constants of ammonium hydroxide and of aqueous solutions of ammonium chloride and bromide. From considerations of the absorption indices k(nu) we conclude that ammonium hydroxide consists of a solution of NH3 in water, in which NH3 molecules are hydrogen bonded to neighboring water molecules. The spectrum of ammonium hydroxide differs from the spectra of ammonium salts, in which bands characteristic of NH4(+) ions are prominent. The existence of ammonium hydroxide as an aerosol in planetary atmospheres is briefly discussed

  4. Enhancement of the absorption of CO{sub 2} in alkaline buffer solutions: Joint action of two enhancers

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, G.; Chenlo, F.; Pereira, G.; Vazquez, P.

    1999-05-01

    The authors measured the absorption of CO{sub 2} in alkaline 0.5 M/0.5 M sodium carbonate/bicarbonate buffers containing either saccharose and sodium arsenite or saccharose and formaldehyde. Absorption enhancement increased upon increasing the concentration of either of the catalysts, but the joint action of the two was always less than the sum of their individual effects, the difference being a function of the acidities and concentrations of the catalysts and the pH of the carbonate/bicarbonate buffer solution

  5. Ammonium Bicarbonate Transport in Anion Exchange Membranes for Salinity Gradient Energy

    E-print Network

    such as reverse electrodialysis (RED) rely on highly selective anion transport through polymeric anion exchange to address global energy needs, such as reverse electro- dialysis1-4 (RED), capacitive energy extraction based on Donnan potential5 (CDP), and capacitive reverse electro- dialysis6 (CRED), has encouraged

  6. Honeycomb-like graphitic ordered macroporous carbon prepared by pyrolysis of ammonium bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Liancheng; Zhang, Junhao; School of Biology and Chemical Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang, Jiangsu 212003 ; Xu, Liqiang; Qian, Yitai

    2011-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Honeycomb-like graphitic macroporous carbon (HGMC) with big pores centered at 1-3 {mu}m, has been prepared by controlling the reaction temperature and amount of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} at 550 {sup o}C in a sealed reaction system. Possible formation processes of HGMC are discussed on the experimental results. It is believed that the in situ formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the preparation of HGMC. Highlights: {yields} Honeycomb-like graphitic carbon was synthesized at 550 {sup o}C. {yields} The honeycomb-like graphitic carbon is macroposous structures. {yields} The formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the HGMC formation. {yields} The method can be expended to synthesize other porous or hollow carbon material. -- Abstract: Honeycomb-like graphitic macroporous carbon (HGMC) was synthesized by means of pyrolysis of NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3} using Mg powder as reductant in an autoclave at 550 {sup o}C. The characterization of structure and morphology was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectrum, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), and (High-resolution) transmission electron microscope [(HR)TEM]. The results of nitrogen adsorption-desorption indicate that the products are macropore materials with the pore size of 1-3 {mu}m, and the Brunauer-Emett-Teller (BET) surface area was 14 m{sup 2}/g. As a typical morphology, the possible growth process of HGMC was also investigated and discussed. The experimental results show that the in situ formed MgO microparticles play a template role during the HGMC formation.

  7. Electroantennogram and behavioral responses of Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera: Tephritidae) to putrescine and ammonium bicarbonate lures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    At present, the most effective synthetic lures for pest Anastrepha fruit flies are multi-component blends that include an ammonia-emitting substrate and the diamine synergist, putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane). Both chemicals are regarded as protein-feeding cues which result in female-biased attractio...

  8. Fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil based on ammonium bicarbonate and paraffin wax coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Ou; Wang, Xian; Yuan, Zhiqing; Wang, Menglei; Huang, Juan

    2015-09-01

    A simple and low cost approach was developed to fabricate a superhydrophobic surface on copper foil. The oxidation and etching of the copper foil surface were promoted in NH4HCO3 solution using a water and ethanol admixture as a component solvent. After 28 h in this solution, a hydrophilic rough surface structure was obtained on the copper foil surface. With modification using a paraffin wax coating, the hydrophilic rough copper surface changed to become hydrophobic or superhydrophobic. The surface morphology and wettability were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and contact angle measurements, respectively. When the optimum concentration of paraffin wax was about 2 g L-1, its water contact angle could reach about 152 ± 1.5° and its sliding angle was around 7°. The formation mechanism of the rough copper surface was also explored in detail. Both the experimental process and the material are environmentally friendly.

  9. Mechanisms of contrast-induced nephropathy reduction for saline (NaCl) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3).

    PubMed

    Burgess, W Patrick; Walker, Phillip J

    2014-01-01

    Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

  10. Mechanisms of Contrast-Induced Nephropathy Reduction for Saline (NaCl) and Sodium Bicarbonate (NaHCO3)

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, W. Patrick; Walker, Phillip J.

    2014-01-01

    Nephropathy following contrast media (CM) exposure is reduced by administration before, during, and after the contrast procedure of either isotonic sodium chloride solution (Saline) or isotonic sodium bicarbonate solution (IsoBicarb). The reasons for this reduction are not well established for either sodium salt; probable mechanisms are discussed in this paper. For Saline, the mechanism for the decrease in CIN is likely related primarily to the increased tubular flow rates produced by volume expansion and therefore a decreased concentration of the filtered CM during transit through the kidney tubules. Furthermore, increased tubular flow rates produce a slight increase in tubular pH resulting from a fixed acid excretion in an increased tubular volume. The mechanism for the decreased CIN associated with sodium bicarbonate includes the same mechanisms listed for Saline in addition to a renal pH effect. Increased filtered bicarbonate anion raises both tubular pH and tubular bicarbonate anion levels toward blood physiologic levels, thus providing increased buffer for reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed in the tubules as a result of exposure to CM in renal tubular fluid. PMID:24826379

  11. Buffer Overflow CSC 348648

    E-print Network

    Fulp, Errin W.

    starting the function, the stack is OO memory buffer2 low memory address buffer1 sfp ret a b c high memory address ­ The function copies the current function pointer as SFP ­ Local variables are placed, consider the stack when the function is called buffer top (low memory) SFP ret str* bottom (high memory

  12. 70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    70. INTERIOR VIEW OF AMMONIUM NITRATE HOUSE, LOOKING AT AMMONIUM NITRATE IN STORAGE. APRIL 18, 1919. - United States Nitrate Plant No. 2, Reservation Road, Muscle Shoals, Muscle Shoals, Colbert County, AL

  13. Glufosinate-ammonium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Glufosinate - ammonium ; CASRN 77182 - 82 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarci

  14. VIRTUAL FRAME BUFFER INTERFACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    Large image processing systems use multiple frame buffers with differing architectures and vendor supplied user interfaces. This variety of architectures and interfaces creates software development, maintenance, and portability problems for application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program makes all frame buffers appear as a generic frame buffer with a specified set of characteristics, allowing programmers to write code which will run unmodified on all supported hardware. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface converts generic commands to actual device commands. The virtual frame buffer consists of a definition of capabilities and FORTRAN subroutines that are called by application programs. The virtual frame buffer routines may be treated as subroutines, logical functions, or integer functions by the application program. Routines are included that allocate and manage hardware resources such as frame buffers, monitors, video switches, trackballs, tablets and joysticks; access image memory planes; and perform alphanumeric font or text generation. The subroutines for the various "real" frame buffers are in separate VAX/VMS shared libraries allowing modification, correction or enhancement of the virtual interface without affecting application programs. The Virtual Frame Buffer Interface program was developed in FORTRAN 77 for a DEC VAX 11/780 or a DEC VAX 11/750 under VMS 4.X. It supports ADAGE IK3000, DEANZA IP8500, Low Resolution RAMTEK 9460, and High Resolution RAMTEK 9460 Frame Buffers. It has a central memory requirement of approximately 150K. This program was developed in 1985.

  15. Phosphate dialytic removal: enhancement of phosphate cellular clearance by biofiltration (with acetate-free buffer dialysate).

    PubMed

    Fischbach, M; Hamel, G; Simeoni, U; Geisert, J

    1992-01-01

    Phosphate dialytic removal (PDR) depends in part on the type (acetate or bicarbonate) and the concentration of the buffer dialysate. Plasma phosphate reduction or PDR during a dialysis treatment is the algebraic sum, of phosphate cellular flux (removal or captation) and of phosphate tissular precipitation. High bicarbonate levels induce an intracellular shift of phosphate, thus not available for dialytic removal. On the contrary, acidosis prevents P shifting into the intracellular space, thus more P is available for dialytic removal. In order to evaluate cellular phosphate sequestration (CPS) we tested PDR in a crossover study. Three children were dialyzed (18 sessions) successively using either biofiltration with free buffer dialysate and a constant bicarbonate fluid infusion rate (BF) or using sequential biofiltration (SBF) with an initial controlled acidosis period realized by bicarbonate reinjection fluid rate modelling. PDR was higher in SBF (32 +/- 4 mmol/session) than in BF (24 +/- 6 mmol/session). SBF seemed to be efficient against CPS; it clearly demonstrates that bicarbonate modelling is a promising dialytic approach to enhance PDR. The real clinical relevance of these biological results needs clinical long-term evaluation. PMID:1436307

  16. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from...

  17. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from...

  18. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from...

  19. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from...

  20. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1177 Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...tolerance. The biochemical pesticide potassium bicarbonate is exempted from...

  1. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 ...Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 ...Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 ...Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 ...Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 ...Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. (a) Identification. A bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system is a device...

  6. Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate and phosphate

    E-print Network

    Hu, Qinhong "Max"

    Mobility of arsenic in aquifer sediments at Datong Basin, northern China: Effect of bicarbonate 2012 Available online xxxx Keywords: Arsenic Aquifer sediment Column leaching Phosphate Bicarbonate Datong Basin Effects of phosphate and bicarbonate concentration on mobilization of arsenic in aquifer

  7. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 2011-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  8. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 2014-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  9. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  10. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 2012-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 2013-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement...Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement... The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the...

  12. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  13. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  14. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  15. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  16. 40 CFR 415.140 - Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. 415.140 Section 415.140 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Bicarbonate Production Subcategory § 415.140 Applicability; description of the sodium bicarbonate production subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable...

  17. An optical-density-based feedback feeding method for ammonium concentration control in Spirulina platensis cultivation.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yilu; Wen, Shumei; Cong, Wei; Wu, Xia; Ning, Zhengxiang

    2012-07-01

    Cultivation of Spirulina platensis using ammonium salts or wastewater containing ammonium as alternative nitrogen sources is considered as a commercial way to reduce the production cost. In this research, by analyzing the relationship between biomass production and ammonium- N consumption in the fed-batch culture of Spirulina platensis using ammonium bicarbonate as a nitrogen nutrient source, an online adaptive control strategy based on optical density (OD) measurements for controlling ammonium feeding was presented. The ammonium concentration was successfully controlled between the cell growth inhibitory and limiting concentrations using this OD-based feedback feeding method. As a result, the maximum biomass concentration (2.98 g/l), productivity (0.237 g/l·d), nitrogen-to-cell conversion factor (7.32 gX/gN), and contents of protein (64.1%) and chlorophyll (13.4 mg/g) obtained by using the OD-based feedback feeding method were higher than those using the constant and variable feeding methods. The OD-based feedback feeding method could be recognized as an applicable way to control ammonium feeding and a benefit for Spirulina platensis cultivations. PMID:22580316

  18. Bacterial growth prevention in liquid bicarbonate concentrate.

    PubMed

    Stragier, A; Wenderickx, D

    1998-01-01

    We describe an original Liquid Bicarbonate Concentrate (LBC) production and distribution unit, now functioning for five years. To prevent bacterial growth several measures were taken: LBC osmolarity as high as possible, fast concentrate turnover, UV irradiation of the tank and continuous circulation of LBC. Although, six and ten months elapsed before the first two positive cultures appeared after implementation of the new distribution circuit, subsequently, the interval between positive cultures became much shorter so that disinfection of the LBC unit is now required every 3 weeks. Changing the disinfecting agent from hypochlorite to peracetic acid did not succeed in increasing this interval. Our experience draws special the attention to the problem of bacterial growth in an on-line LBC production and distribution unit and defines the potential methods to control it. Continuous vigilance remains mandatory. PMID:10392080

  19. Structure, hydrogen bonding and thermal expansion of ammonium carbonate monohydrate

    PubMed Central

    Fortes, A. Dominic; Wood, Ian G.; Alfè, Dario; Hernández, Eduardo R.; Gutmann, Matthias J.; Sparkes, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047?(3), b = 4.453?(1), c = 11.023?(3)?Å and V = 591.3?(3)?Å3 [?calc = 1281.8?(7)?kg?m?3] at 10?K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100?K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273?K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263?K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273?K; above 273?K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (E HB ? 30–40?kJ?mol?1), on the basis of H?O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ??36?kJ?mol?1. The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal. PMID:25449618

  20. Structure, hydrogen bonding and thermal expansion of ammonium carbonate monohydrate.

    PubMed

    Fortes, A Dominic; Wood, Ian G; Alfè, Dario; Hernández, Eduardo R; Gutmann, Matthias J; Sparkes, Hazel A

    2014-12-01

    We have determined the crystal structure of ammonium carbonate monohydrate, (NH4)2CO3·H2O, using Laue single-crystal diffraction methods with pulsed neutron radiation. The crystal is orthorhombic, space group Pnma (Z = 4), with unit-cell dimensions a = 12.047?(3), b = 4.453?(1), c = 11.023?(3)?Å and V = 591.3?(3)?Å(3) [?calc = 1281.8?(7)?kg?m(-3)] at 10?K. The single-crystal data collected at 10 and 100?K are complemented by X-ray powder diffraction data measured from 245 to 273?K, Raman spectra measured from 80 to 263?K and an athermal zero-pressure calculation of the electronic structure and phonon spectrum carried out using density functional theory (DFT). We find no evidence of a phase transition between 10 and 273?K; above 273?K, however, the title compound transforms first to ammonium sesquicarbonate monohydrate and subsequently to ammonium bicarbonate. The crystallographic and spectroscopic data and the calculations reveal a quite strongly hydrogen-bonded structure (EHB ? 30-40?kJ?mol(-1)), on the basis of H...O bond lengths and the topology of the electron density at the bond critical points, in which there is no free rotation of the ammonium cation at any temperature. The barrier to free rotation of the ammonium ions is estimated from the observed librational frequency to be ??36?kJ?mol(-1). The c-axis exhibits negative thermal expansion, but the thermal expansion behaviour of the a and b axes is ormal. PMID:25449618

  1. Predicting the safety and efficacy of buffer therapy to raise tumour pHe: an integrative modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, N K; Robey, I F; Gaffney, E A; Gillies, R J; Gatenby, R A; Maini, P K

    2012-01-01

    Background: Clinical positron emission tomography imaging has demonstrated the vast majority of human cancers exhibit significantly increased glucose metabolism when compared with adjacent normal tissue, resulting in an acidic tumour microenvironment. Recent studies demonstrated reducing this acidity through systemic buffers significantly inhibits development and growth of metastases in mouse xenografts. Methods: We apply and extend a previously developed mathematical model of blood and tumour buffering to examine the impact of oral administration of bicarbonate buffer in mice, and the potential impact in humans. We recapitulate the experimentally observed tumour pHe effect of buffer therapy, testing a model prediction in vivo in mice. We parameterise the model to humans to determine the translational safety and efficacy, and predict patient subgroups who could have enhanced treatment response, and the most promising combination or alternative buffer therapies. Results: The model predicts a previously unseen potentially dangerous elevation in blood pHe resulting from bicarbonate therapy in mice, which is confirmed by our in vivo experiments. Simulations predict limited efficacy of bicarbonate, especially in humans with more aggressive cancers. We predict buffer therapy would be most effectual: in elderly patients or individuals with renal impairments; in combination with proton production inhibitors (such as dichloroacetate), renal glomular filtration rate inhibitors (such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), or with an alternative buffer reagent possessing an optimal pK of 7.1–7.2. Conclusion: Our mathematical model confirms bicarbonate acts as an effective agent to raise tumour pHe, but potentially induces metabolic alkalosis at the high doses necessary for tumour pHe normalisation. We predict use in elderly patients or in combination with proton production inhibitors or buffers with a pK of 7.1–7.2 is most promising. PMID:22382688

  2. Bicarbonate sulfate exchange in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, P.J.; Valantinas, J.; Hugentobler, G.; Rahm, I. )

    1987-10-01

    The mechanism(s) and driving forces for biliary excretion of sulfate were investigated in canalicular rat liver plasma membrane vesicles (cLPM). Incubation of cLPM vesicles in the presence of an inside-to-outside (in, out) bicarbonate gradient but not pH or out-to-in sodium gradients, stimulated sulfate uptake 10-fold compared with the absence of bicarbonate and approximately 2-fold above sulfate equilibrium (overshoot). Initial rates of this bicarbonate gradient-driven ({sup 35}S)-sulfate uptake were saturable with increasing concentrations of sulfate and could be inhibited by probenecid, N-(4-azido-2-nitrophenyl)-2-aminoethylsulfonate, acetazolamide, furosemide, 4-acetamideo-4{prime}-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid, and 4,4{prime}-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2{prime}-disulfonic acid (IC{sub 50}, {approximately}40 {mu}M). Cisinhibition of initial bicarbonate gradient-stimulated sulfate uptake and transstimulation of sulfate uptake in the absence of bicarbonate were observed with sulfate, thiosulfate, and oxalate but not with chloride, nitrate, phosphate, acetate, lactate, glutamate, aspartate, cholate, taurocholate, dehydrocholate, taurodehydrocholate, and reduced or oxidized glutathione. These findings indicate the presence of a sulfate (oxalate)-bicarbonate anion exchange system in canalicular rat liver plasma membranes. These findings support the concept that bicarbonate-sensitive transport system might play an important role in bile acid-independent canalicular bile formation.

  3. Cost-effective bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine through deliberate bicarbonate incorporation.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Huang, Bin; Chen, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-05-15

    Bioregeneration of nitrate-laden ion exchange brine is desired to minimize its environmental impacts, but faces common challenges, i.e., enriching sufficient salt-tolerant denitrifying bacteria and stabilizing brine salinity and alkalinity for stable brine biotreatment and economically removing undesired organics derived in biotreatment. Incorporation of 0.25 M bicarbonate in 0.5 M chloride brine little affected resin regeneration but created a benign alkaline condition to favor bio-based brine regeneration. The first-quarter sulfate-mainly enriched spent brine (SB) was acidified with carbon source acetic acid for using CaCl2 at an efficiency >80% to remove sulfate. Residual Ca(2+) was limited below 2 mM by re-mixing the first-quarter and remained SB to favor denitrification. Under [Formula: see text] system buffered pH condition (8.3-8.8), nitrate was removed at 0.90 gN/L/d by hematite-enriched well-settled activated sludge (SVI 8.5 ml/g) and the biogenic alkalinity was retained as bicarbonate. The biogenic alkalinity met the need of alkalinity in removing residual Ca(2+) after sulfate removal and in CaCl2-induced CaCO3 flocculation to remove 63% of soluble organic carbon (SOC) in biotreated brine. Carbon-limited denitrification was also operated after activated sludge acclimation with sulfide to cut SOC formation during denitrification. Overall, this bicarbonate-incorporation approach, stabilizing the brine salinity and alkalinity for stable denitrification and economical removal of undesired SOC, suits long-term cost-effective brine bioregeneration. PMID:25746960

  4. Hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sucha, V.; Elsass, F.; Eberl, D.D.; Kuchta, L'.; Madejova, J.; Gates, W.P.; Komadel, P.

    1998-01-01

    Synthetic gel and glass of illitic composition, natural kaolinite, and mixed-layer illite-smectite were used as starting materials for hydrothermal synthesis of ammonium illite. Ammonium illite was prepared from synthetic gel by hydrothermal treatment at 300??C. The onset of crystallization began within 3 h, and well-crystallized ammonium illite appeared at 24 h. Increasing reaction time (up to four weeks) led to many illite layers per crystal. In the presence of equivalent proportions of potassium and ammonium, the gel was transformed to illite with equimolar contents of K and NH4. In contrast, synthesis using glass under the same conditions resulted in a mixture of mixed-layer ammonium illite-smectite with large expandability and discrete illite. Hydrothermal treatments of the fine fractions of natural kaolinite and illite-smectite produced ammonium illite from kaolinite but the illite-smectite remained unchanged.

  5. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL DEPAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of point from aircraft wheels. he evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Shop ...

  6. Determination of plasma bicarbonate of neonates in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Masters, P; Blackburn, M E; Henderson, M J; Barrett, J F; Dear, P R

    1988-07-01

    Most modern blood-gas analyzers are programmed to use the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation to calculate a value for plasma bicarbonate. It has been suggested, however, that among acutely ill patients, including newborns, these calculated values may be at variance with measured total CO2. To assess the clinical significance of such errors, we compared calculated bicarbonate with measured total CO2 in 79 blood samples from 40 babies in intensive care. The calculated bicarbonate values consistently exceeded the measured values by about 1.5 mmol/L. Of the errors, 94% were within the range -10% to +20%. When the systematic bias was removed, calculated and measured bicarbonate values agreed within +/- 3.30 mmol/L in 95% of cases. Because calculated values can be obtained much more quickly and frequently than laboratory measurements, we believe that these limits are clinically acceptable. PMID:3390923

  7. BICARBONATE OF SODA BLASTING TECHNOLOGY FOR AIRCRAFT WHEEL PAINTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This evaluation addressed product quality, waste reduction/pollution prevention and economics in replacing chemical solvent strippers with a bicarbonate of soda blasting technology for removal of paint from aircraft wheels. The evaluation was conducted in the Paint Stripping Sho...

  8. Distal Renal Tubular Acidosis in Infancy: A Bicarbonate Wasting State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J.; And Others

    1975-01-01

    Studied were three unrelated infants with distal renal tubular acidosis (a condition characterized by an inability to acidify the urine to minimal pH levels resulting in the loss of bicarbonates). (DB)

  9. Effect of a new local anesthetic buffering device on pain reduction during nerve block injections.

    PubMed

    Comerci, Andrew W; Maller, Steven C; Townsend, Richard D; Teepe, John D; Vandewalle, Kraig S

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this double-blind, split-mouth, randomized human clinical study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a new sodium bicarbonate local anesthetic buffering device (Onset) in reducing pain associated with dental injections. Twenty patients were given bilateral inferior alveolar (IA) and long buccal (LB) nerve block injections and asked to quantify the pain experienced during injection on a visual analog scale (0, no pain; 10, worst possible pain). One side of the mouth received standard-of-care injections of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. On the opposite side, after the buffering device was used to mix the components within the anesthetic carpule, patients received injections of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine buffered 9:1 with 8.4% sodium bicarbonate. The mean pain scores were 2.7 (SD, 1.3) for buffered and 2.7 (SD, 1.9) for unbuffered IA injections. The mean pain scores were 2.0 (SD, 1.4) for buffered and 2.7 (SD, 1.8) for unbuffered LB injections. The data were analyzed with a paired t test (? = 0.05), and no statistically significant difference was found between groups for IA (P = 0.94) or LB (P = 0.17) nerve block injections. In this study of patients receiving common dental nerve block injections, local anesthetic buffering technology did not significantly lessen pain compared to that experienced during a standard unbuffered injection. PMID:26545279

  10. VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF RBC (REFINED BICARBONATE) BUILDING LOOKING NORTHEAST. DEMOLITION IN PROGRESS. "ARM & HAMMER BAKING SODA WAS MADE HERE FOR OVER 50 YEARS AND THEN SHIPPED ACROSS THE STREET TO THE CHURCH & DWIGHT PLANT ON WILLIS AVE. (ON THE RIGHT IN THIS PHOTO). LAYING ON THE GROUND IN FRONT OF C&D BUILDING IS PART OF AN RBC DRYING TOWER. - Solvay Process Company, Refined Bicarbonate Building, Between Willis & Milton Avenues, Solvay, Onondaga County, NY

  11. Effects of bicarbonate on lithium transport in human red cells

    PubMed Central

    1978-01-01

    Lithium influx into human erythrocytes increased 12-fold, when chloride was replaced with bicarbonate in a 150 mM lithium medium (38 degrees C. pH 7.4). The increase was linearly related to both lithium- and bicarbonate concentration, and was completely eliminated by the amino reagent 4, 4'- diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS). DIDS binds to an integral membrane protein (mol wt approximately 10(5) dalton) involved in anion exchange. Inhibition of both anion exchange and of bicarbonate-stimulated lithium influx was linearly related to DIDS binding. 1.1 X 10(6) DIDS molecules per cell caused complete inhibition of both processes. Both Cl- and Li+ can apparently be transported by the anion transport mechanism. The results support our previous proposal that bicarbonate-induced lithium permeability is due to transport of lithium-carbonate ion pairs (LiCO-3). DIDS-sensitive lithium influx had a high activation energy (24 kcal/mol), compatible with transport by the anion exchange mechanism. We have examined how variations of passive lithium permeability, induced by bicarbonate, affect the sodium-driven lithium counter-transport in human erythrocytes. The ability of the counter-transport system to establish a lithium gradient across the membrane decrease linearly with bicarbonate concentration in the medium. The counter-transport system was unaffected by DIDS treatement. At a plasma bicarbonate concentration of 24 mM, two-thirds of the lithium influx is mediated by the bicarbonate-stimulated pathway, and the fraction will increase significantly in metabolic alkalosis. PMID:670928

  12. Bicarbonate trigger for inducing lipid accumulation in algal systems

    DOEpatents

    Gardner, Robert; Peyton, Brent; Cooksey, Keith E.

    2015-08-04

    The present invention provides bicarbonate containing and/or bicarbonate-producing compositions and methods to induce lipid accumulation in an algae growth system, wherein the algae growth system is under light-dark cycling condition. By adding said compositions at a specific growth stage, said methods lead to much higher lipid accumulation and/or significantly reduced total time required for accumulating lipid in the algae growth system.

  13. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions...126.28 Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  14. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...2011-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions...126.28 Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  15. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions...126.28 Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  16. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions...126.28 Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  17. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions...126.28 Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo...

  18. Nutritional Strategies to Modulate Intracellular and Extracellular Buffering Capacity During High-Intensity Exercise.

    PubMed

    Lancha Junior, Antonio Herbert; de Salles Painelli, Vitor; Saunders, Bryan; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini

    2015-11-01

    Intramuscular acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Many nutritional strategies aiming to increase intra- and extracellular buffering capacity have been investigated. Among these, supplementation of beta-alanine (~3-6.4 g/day for 4 weeks or longer), the rate-limiting factor to the intramuscular synthesis of carnosine (i.e. an intracellular buffer), has been shown to result in positive effects on exercise performance in which acidosis is a contributing factor to fatigue. Furthermore, sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and sodium/calcium lactate supplementation have been employed in an attempt to increase the extracellular buffering capacity. Although all attempts have increased blood bicarbonate concentrations, evidence indicates that sodium bicarbonate (0.3 g/kg body mass) is the most effective in improving high-intensity exercise performance. The evidence supporting the ergogenic effects of sodium citrate and lactate remain weak. These nutritional strategies are not without side effects, as gastrointestinal distress is often associated with the effective doses of sodium bicarbonate, sodium citrate and calcium lactate. Similarly, paresthesia (i.e. tingling sensation of the skin) is currently the only known side effect associated with beta-alanine supplementation, and it is caused by the acute elevation in plasma beta-alanine concentration after a single dose of beta-alanine. Finally, the co-supplementation of beta-alanine and sodium bicarbonate may result in additive ergogenic gains during high-intensity exercise, although studies are required to investigate this combination in a wide range of sports. PMID:26553493

  19. The influence of the buffering capacity on the production of organic acids and alcohols from wastewater in anaerobic reactor.

    PubMed

    Silva, A J; Pozzi, E; Foresti, E; Zaiat, M

    2015-02-01

    Some bacteria common in anaerobic digestion process can ferment a broad variety of organic compounds to organic acids, alcohols, and hydrogen, which can be used as biofuels. Researches are necessary to control the microbial interactions in favor of the alcohol production, as intermediary products of the anaerobic digestion of organic compounds. This paper reports on the effect of buffering capacity on the production of organic acids and alcohols from wastewater by a natural mixed bacterial culture. The hypothesis tested was that the increase of the buffering capacity by supplementation of sodium bicarbonate in the influent results in benefits for alcohol production by anaerobic fermentation of wastewater. When the influent was not supplemented with sodium bicarbonate, the chemical oxygen demand (COD)-ethanol and COD-methanol detected in the effluent corresponded to 22.5 and 12.7 % of the COD-sucrose consumed. Otherwise, when the reactor was fed with influent containing 0.5 g/L of sodium bicarbonate, the COD-ethanol and COD-methanol were effluents that corresponded to 39.2 and 29.6 % of the COD-sucrose consumed. Therefore, the alcohol production by supplementation of the influent with sodium bicarbonate was 33.6 % higher than the fermentation of the influent without sodium bicarbonate. PMID:25480346

  20. 76 FR 11273 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ...Second Review)] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia AGENCY: United States International Trade...investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia...investigation on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to...

  1. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...Second Review] Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record...antidumping duty order on ammonium nitrate from Russia would be likely to lead to continuation...2011), entitled Ammonium Nitrate from Russia: Investigation No....

  2. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ...DHS-2008-0076] RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security Program AGENCY: National Protection...rulemaking (NPRM), entitled ``Ammonium Nitrate Security Program,'' which was published...62311). Under the proposed Ammonium Nitrate Security Program, the DHS will...

  3. Omeprazole promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Mertz-Nielsen, A; Hillingsø, J; Bukhave, K; Rask-Madsen, J

    1996-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, surprisingly resulted in higher rates of proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion than previously reported using an H2 receptor antagonist for gastric acid inhibition. Gastroduodenal perfusions were performed in healthy volunteers to evaluate whether this incidental finding is explained by more potent gastric acid inhibition by omeprazole or might be caused by the different mode of drug action. Basal and stimulated gastric and duodenal bicarbonate secretion rates were measured in the same subjects in control experiments (n = 17) and after pretreatment with high dose omeprazole (n = 17) and ranitidine (n = 9), respectively, by use of a technique permitting simultaneous measurements. Concentrations of bicarbonate were measured in the respective effluents by the method of back titration. Both omeprazole and ranitidine completely inhibited gastric acid secretion (pH 6.9 v 6.8; p > 0.05). Omeprazole caused higher rates of basal (mean (SEM)) (597 (48) v 351 (39) mumol/h; p < 0.02) and vagally stimulated (834 (72) v 474 (66) mumol/h; p < 0.02), but not acid stimulated (3351 (678) v 2550 (456) mumol/h; p > 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion compared with control experiments. Also the combination of omeprazole and ranitidine increased (p = 0.05) duodenal bicarbonate secretion, while ranitidine alone caused no change in either basal or stimulated secretion. In the stomach basal as well as vagally stimulated bicarbonate secretion was independent of the means of acid inhibition. These results show that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, promotes proximal duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion apparently independent of its gastric acid inhibitory effect. The mechanism of action remains speculative. PMID:8566861

  4. Bicarbonate Modulates Photoreceptor Guanylate Cyclase (ROS-GC) Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Duda, Teresa; Wen, Xiao-Hong; Isayama, Tomoki; Sharma, Rameshwar K; Makino, Clint L

    2015-04-24

    By generating the second messenger cGMP in retinal rods and cones, ROS-GC plays a central role in visual transduction. Guanylate cyclase-activating proteins (GCAPs) link cGMP synthesis to the light-induced fall in [Ca(2+)]i to help set absolute sensitivity and assure prompt recovery of the response to light. The present report discloses a surprising feature of this system: ROS-GC is a sensor of bicarbonate. Recombinant ROS-GCs synthesized cGMP from GTP at faster rates in the presence of bicarbonate with an ED50 of 27 mM for ROS-GC1 and 39 mM for ROS-GC2. The effect required neither Ca(2+) nor use of the GCAPs domains; however, stimulation of ROS-GC1 was more powerful in the presence of GCAP1 or GCAP2 at low [Ca(2+)]. When applied to retinal photoreceptors, bicarbonate enhanced the circulating current, decreased sensitivity to flashes, and accelerated flash response kinetics. Bicarbonate was effective when applied either to the outer or inner segment of red-sensitive cones. In contrast, bicarbonate exerted an effect when applied to the inner segment of rods but had little efficacy when applied to the outer segment. The findings define a new regulatory mechanism of the ROS-GC system that affects visual transduction and is likely to affect the course of retinal diseases caused by cGMP toxicity. PMID:25767116

  5. Effect of sodium bicarbonate and beta-alanine supplementation on maximal sprint swimming

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study examined the effect of simultaneous supplementation of extracellular buffer sodium bicarbonate (SB) and intracellular buffer beta-alanine (BA) on maximal sprint swimming. Methods Thirteen competitive male swimmers completed 4 different treatments (placebo [PL], SB, BA?+?PL, and BA + SB) in a crossover procedure. PL or SB supplementation (0.3 g/kg body weight) was ingested 60 min before two maximal 100-m freestyle swims that were performed with a passive recovery of 12-min between each swim. Because of the known long washout period for carnosine, four weeks of BA supplementation (4.8 g per day) was started after the first week of PL or SB supplementation and performance testing. Results The first maximal swims were similar, but the increase in time of the second versus the first 100-m swimming time was 1.5 s more (p < 0.05) in PL than in SB. Blood pH values were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in the SB and in the BA + SB groups compared to the PL and BA + PL values. There were no differences in peak blood lactate between the treatments. Conclusion Supplementing with SB prior to performing maximal sprint swimming with repetitions under 60 s improves performance. However, co-supplementation with SB and BA did not confer any added benefit on maximal swim performance. PMID:24215679

  6. Distal renal tubular acidosis in infancy: a bicarbonate wasting state.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Soriano, J; Vallo, A; Garcia-Fuentes, M

    1975-04-01

    Three unrelated infants with apparently distal RTA were investigated. Growth retardation, polyuria, nephrocalcinosis, inappropriately high urinary pH, and marked dependence of bicarbonate excretion on urinary flow were characteristic of the distal or classic form of RTA, but the urinary loss of bicarbonate at normal serum values exceeded that usually found in children or adults with this disorder. Renal tubular function was studied during hypotonic saline diuresis in the three patients and in seven healthy control infants of similar age. Fractional delivery of sodium to the distal nephron was significantly higher in the patients than in control subjects. Sodium transport at the diluting segment was not impaired. The results support the assumption that the bicarbonate wasting was the consequence of an increased delivery of this substance to an already impaired distal nephron and thus further inhibited the distal mechanisms of net acid excretion. PMID:236365

  7. Proteins contribute insignificantly to the intrinsic buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm

    SciTech Connect

    Poznanski, Jaroslaw; Szczesny, Pawel; Institute of Experimental Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw ; Ruszczynska, Katarzyna; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr; Institute of Experimental Plant Biology and Biotechnology, Faculty of Biology, University of Warsaw, Warsaw ; Paczek, Leszek

    2013-01-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We predicted buffering capacity of yeast proteome from protein abundance data. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We measured total buffering capacity of yeast cytoplasm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We showed that proteins contribute insignificantly to buffering capacity. -- Abstract: Intracellular pH is maintained by a combination of the passive buffering of cytoplasmic dissociable compounds and several active systems. Over the years, a large portion of and possibly most of the cell's intrinsic (i.e., passive non-bicarbonate) buffering effect was attributed to proteins, both in higher organisms and in yeast. This attribution was not surprising, given that the concentration of proteins with multiple protonable/deprotonable groups in the cell exceeds the concentration of free protons by a few orders of magnitude. Using data from both high-throughput experiments and in vitro laboratory experiments, we tested this concept. We assessed the buffering capacity of the yeast proteome using protein abundance data and compared it to our own titration of yeast cytoplasm. We showed that the protein contribution is less than 1% of the total intracellular buffering capacity. As confirmed with NMR measurements, inorganic phosphates play a crucial role in the process. These findings also shed a new light on the role of proteomes in maintaining intracellular pH. The contribution of proteins to the intrinsic buffering capacity is negligible, and proteins might act only as a recipient of signals for changes in pH.

  8. High performance ammonium nitrate propellant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, F. A. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A high performance propellant having greatly reduced hydrogen chloride emission is presented. It is comprised of: (1) a minor amount of hydrocarbon binder (10-15%), (2) at least 85% solids including ammonium nitrate as the primary oxidizer (about 40% to 70%), (3) a significant amount (5-25%) powdered metal fuel, such as aluminum, (4) a small amount (5-25%) of ammonium perchlorate as a supplementary oxidizer, and (5) optionally a small amount (0-20%) of a nitramine.

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg. No. 12125-02-9) is produced by the reaction of sodium chloride and an ammonium salt in solution. The less soluble sodium...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3,...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...). It is prepared by the sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3,...

  16. Facilitated Lactate Transport by MCT1 when Coexpressed with the Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBC) in Xenopus Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Holger M.; Bröer, Stefan; Deitmer, Joachim W.

    2004-01-01

    Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) and sodium-bicarbonate cotransporters (NBC) transport acid/base equivalents and coexist in many epithelial and glial cells. In nervous systems, the electroneutral MCT1 isoform cotransports lactate and other monocarboxylates with H+, and is believed to be involved in the shuttling of energy-rich substrates between astrocytes and neurons. The NBC cotransports bicarbonate with sodium and generates a membrane current. We have expressed these transporter proteins, cloned from rat brain (MCT1) and human kidney (NBC), alone and together, by injecting the cRNA into oocytes of the frog Xenopus laevis, and measured intracellular pH changes and membrane currents under voltage-clamp with intracellular microelectrodes, and radiolabeled lactate uptake into the oocytes. We determined the cytosolic buffer capacity, the H+ and lactate fluxes as induced by 3 and 10 mM lactate in oocytes expressing MCT1 and/or NBC, and in water-injected oocytes, in salines buffered with 5 mM HEPES alone or with 5% CO2/10 mM HCO3? (pH 7.0). In MCT1 + NBC- but not in MCT1- or NBC-expressing oocytes, lactate activated a Na+- and HCO3?-dependent membrane current, indicating that lactate/H+ cotransport via MCT1, due to the induced pH change, stimulates NBC activity. Lactate/H+ cotransport by MCT1 was increased about twofold when MCT1 was expressed together with NBC. Our results suggest that the facilitation of MCT1 transport activity is mainly due to the increase in apparent buffer capacity contributed by the NBC, and thereby suppresses the build-up of intracellular H+ during the influx of lactate/H+, which would reduce MCT1 activity. Hence these membrane transporters functionally cooperate and are able to increase ion/metabolite transport activity. PMID:14695265

  17. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  18. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  19. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  20. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 148... Materials § 148.205 Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to the stowage and transportation in bulk of ammonium nitrate and the following fertilizers composed of...

  1. In-situ leaching of South Texas uranium ores - 2. Oxidative removal of adsorbed ammonium ions with sodium hypochlorite

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, J.M.; Johnson, W.F.; Fletcher, A.; Venuto, P.B.

    1981-01-01

    This paper reports a laboratory study of the oxidative destruction, by sodium hypochlorite, of ammonium ions adsorbed on relatively reduced South Texas uranium ore. Included are an assessment of reaction stoichiometry, determination of some major reaction pathways and side reactions, and identification of several intermediates. Adsorbed ammonium ions were completely removed by 0.5% sodium hypochlorite with the concentration of ammonia in the effluent falling to a very low value after 10-15 pore volumes of the oxidant. Substantial quantities of sulfate, reflecting oxidation of sulfide minerals such as pyrite, were formed. Large amounts of uranium were leached out, and substantial amounts of calcium and magnesium ions were also produced during the pre-saturation with ammonium bicarbonate during the oxidation stage. 28 refs.

  2. Bicarbonate therapy revisited. A study in therapeutic revisionism.

    PubMed

    Eidelman, A I; Hobbs, J F

    1978-09-01

    In summary, infusion of bicarbonate in the treatment of neonatal acidosis has limited value. Although it may be useful adjunct in the resuscitation of severely depressed and acidotic infants, its efficacy in the management of postasphyxia acidosis or RDS is not supported by any data. The clear risks and disadvantages of such infusions should warn against its current indiscriminate use. PMID:99025

  3. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  4. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  5. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  6. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  7. EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE ON REDUCING ACIDOSIS IN CATTLE LAURA JANE PATON

    E-print Network

    Farrell, Anthony P.

    EFFECTS OF SODIUM BICARBONATE ON REDUCING ACIDOSIS IN CATTLE by LAURA JANE PATON B sodium bicarbonate (SB) reduces the risk of subacute acidosis (SARA) in cattle receiving high concentrate by treatment. Sodium bicarbonate intake differed when provided free choice verses when mixed into the diet (P

  8. 40 CFR 180.1176 - Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the... Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1176 Sodium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. The biochemical pesticide sodium bicarbonate is exempted from the requirement of a tolerance in or on all...

  9. Intestinal bicarbonate secretion in marine teleost fish--source of bicarbonate, pH sensitivity, and consequences for whole animal

    E-print Network

    Grosell, Martin

    . Keywords: Calcium carbonate precipitation; Osmoregulation; Water absorption; Chloride­bicarbonate exchange; Calcium and magnesium homeostasis; Acid­base balance 1. Introduction Teleost fish hypo-osmoregulate into the blood. The HCO3 À secretion therefore plays a rather novel role in osmoregulation [9]. Furthermore

  10. Heterotrophic bicarbonate assimilation is the main process of de novo organic carbon synthesis in hadal zone of the Hellenic Trench, the deepest part of Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Yakimov, Michail M; La Cono, Violetta; Smedile, Francesco; Crisafi, Francesca; Arcadi, Erika; Leonardi, Marcella; Decembrini, Franco; Catalfamo, Maurizio; Bargiela, Rafael; Ferrer, Manuel; Golyshin, Peter N; Giuliano, Laura

    2014-12-01

    Ammonium-oxidizing chemoautotrophic members of Thaumarchaea are proposed to be the key players in the assimilation of bicarbonate in the dark (ABD). However, this process may also involve heterotrophic metabolic pathways, such as fixation of carbon dioxide (CO2) via various anaplerotic reactions. We collected samples from the depth of 4900?m at the Matapan-Vavilov Deep (MVD) station (Hellenic Trench, Eastern Mediterranean) and used the multiphasic approach to study the ABD mediators in this deep-sea ecosystem. At this depth, our analysis indicated the occurrence of actively CO2-fixing heterotrophic microbial assemblages dominated by Gammaproteobacteria with virtually no Thaumarchaea present. [14C]-bicarbonate incorporation experiments combined with shotgun [14C]-proteomic analysis identified a series of proteins of gammaproteobacterial origin. More than quarter of them were closely related with Alteromonas macleodii ‘deep ecotype’ AltDE, the predominant organism in the microbial community of MVD. The present study demonstrated that in the aphotic/hadal zone of the Mediterranean Sea, the assimilation of bicarbonate is associated with both chemolithoauto- and heterotrophic ABD. In some deep-sea areas, the latter may predominantly contribute to the de novo synthesis of organic carbon which points at the important and yet underestimated role heterotrophic bacterial populations can play the in global carbon cycle/sink in the ocean interior. PMID:25756124

  11. Bicarbonate/chloride antiport in Vero cells: II. Mechanisms for bicarbonate-dependent regulation of intracellular pH

    SciTech Connect

    Olsnes, S.; Ludt, J.; Tonnessen, T.I.; Sandvig, K.

    1987-08-01

    The rates of bicarbonate-dependent uptake and efflux of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ in Vero cells were studied and compared with the uptake and efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/. Both processes were strongly inhibited by DIDS. Whereas the transport of chloride increased approximately ten-fold when the internal pH was increased over a narrow range around neutrality, the uptake of Na/sup +/ was much less affected by changes in pH. The bicarbonate-linked uptake of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ was dependent on internal Cl- but not on internal Na/sup +/. At a constant external concentration of HCO/sub 3/-, the amount of /sup 22/Na/sup +/ associated with the cells increased when the internal concentration of HCO/sub 3/- decreased and vice versa, which is compatible with the possibility that the ion pair NaCO/sub 3/- is the transported species and that the transport is symmetric across the membrane. Bicarbonate inhibited the uptake of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ both in the absence and presence of Na/sup +/. At alkaline internal pH, HCO/sub 3/- stimulated the efflux of /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ from preloaded cells, while at acidic internal pH both Na/sup +/ and HCO/sub 3/- were required to induce /sup 36/Cl/sup -/ efflux. We propose a model for how bicarbonate-dependent regulation of the internal pH may occur. This model implies the existence of two bicarbonate transport mechanisms that, under physiological conditions, transport OH(-)-equivalents in opposite directions across the plasma membrane.

  12. Isotonic sodium bicarbonate-triggered emodin release from borate stabilized emodin nanoparticles-loaded polymeric microgel films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Wang, Xiaohan; Li, Xiaozhou

    2014-07-20

    Hydrosoluble emodin-borate (EmB) nanoparticles (NPs) were fabricated by a simple solvent exchange method to address emodin's poor water solubility. As the result, negative charges were introduced in the surface of EmB NPs. In addition, layer-by-layer assembled multilayer films containing cation-rich polymeric microgels (named PAHD) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (NaCMC) were employed as drug carrier. Anionic EmB can be loaded into the PAHD/CMC multilayer films. The influences of various experimental parameters on cargo capacity of the PAHD/CMC film were studied in detail. The loaded EmB can be released in the form of emodin molecule in presence of isotonic sodium bicarbonate (ISB) solution. Gratifyingly, EmB did not almost release in presence of water, PBS buffer solution, 0.9% normal saline, and 5% glucose solution. PMID:24755249

  13. Cyclo­hexyl­ammonium nitrate

    PubMed Central

    Bagabas, Abdulaziz A.; Aboud, Mohamed F. A.; Shemsi, Ahsan M.; Addurihem, Emad S.; Al-Othman, Zeid A.; Chidan Kumar, C. S.; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2014-01-01

    In the title salt, C6H14N+·NO3 ?, the cyclo­hexyl ring adopts a chair conformation. The ammonium group occupies an equatorial position and the crystal struture is stabilized by inter­molecular N—H?O hydrogen-bonding inter­actions, resulting in a three-dimensional network. PMID:24764971

  14. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...ammonium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Ammonium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...ammonium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Ammonium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  16. Transplastomic integration of a cyanobacterial bicarbonate transporter into tobacco chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Pengelly, J. J. L.; Förster, B.; von Caemmerer, S.; Badger, M. R.; Price, G. D.; Whitney, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Improving global yields of agricultural crops is a complex challenge with evidence indicating benefits in productivity are achieved by enhancing photosynthetic carbon assimilation. Towards improving rates of CO2 capture within leaf chloroplasts, this study shows the versatility of plastome transformation for expressing the Synechococcus PCC7002 BicA bicarbonate transporter within tobacco plastids. Fractionation of chloroplast membranes from transplastomic tobBicA lines showed that ~75% of the BicA localized to the thylakoid membranes and ~25% to the chloroplast envelope. BicA levels were highest in young emerging tobBicA leaves (0.12 ?mol m–2, ?7mg m–2) accounting for ~0.1% (w/w) of the leaf protein. In these leaves, the molar amount of BicA was 16-fold lower than the abundant thylakoid photosystem II D1 protein (~1.9 ?mol m–2) which was comparable to the 9:1 molar ratio of D1:BicA measured in air-grown Synechococcus PCC7002 cells. The BicA produced had no discernible effect on chloroplast ultrastructure, photosynthetic CO2-assimilation rates, carbon isotope discrimination, or growth of the tobBicA plants, implying that the bicarbonate transporter had little or no activity. These findings demonstrate the utility of plastome transformation for targeting bicarbonate transporter proteins into the chloroplast membranes without impeding growth or plastid ultrastructure. This study establishes the span of experimental measurements required to verify heterologous bicarbonate transporter function and location in chloroplasts and underscores the need for more detailed understanding of BicA structure and function to identify solutions for enabling its activation and operation in leaf chloroplasts. PMID:24965541

  17. Buffered lidocaine and bupivacaine mixture - the ideal local anesthetic solution?

    PubMed

    Best, Corliss A; Best, Alyssa A; Best, Timothy J; Hamilton, Danielle A

    2015-01-01

    The use of injectable local anesthetic solutions to facilitate pain-free surgery is an integral component of many procedures performed by the plastic surgeon. In many instances, a solution that has both rapid onset and prolonged duration of analgesia is optimal. A combination of lidocaine and bupivacaine, plain or with epinephrine, is readily available in most Canadian health care settings where such procedures are performed, and fulfills these criteria. However, commercially available solutions of both medications are acidic and cause a burning sensation on injection. Buffering to neutral pH with sodium bicarbonate is a practical method to mitigate the burning sensation, and has the added benefit of increasing the fraction of nonionized lipid soluble drug available. The authors report on the proportions of the three drugs to yield a neutral pH, and the results of an initial survey regarding the use of the combined solution with epinephrine in hand surgery. PMID:26090348

  18. Electrochemical Studies on Silicate and Bicarbonate Ions for Corrosion Inhibitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohorich, Michael E.; Lamb, Joshua; Chandra, Dhanesh; Daemen, Jaak; Rebak, Raul B.

    2010-10-01

    Several types of carbon and high-strength low-alloy (HSLA) steels are being considered for use in the underground reinforcement of the Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository. In this study, potentiodynamic polarization under reducing conditions was used to determine the corrosion rates (CRs) and passivity behavior of AISI 4340 steel using different combinations of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), in both pure water (PW) and simulated seawater (SW, 3.5 pct NaCl). These experiments were carried out to examine the potential inhibiting properties of the silicate or bicarbonate ions on the surface of the steel. The addition of sodium silicate to solution reduced the observed CR at room temperature to 19 ?m/y at 0.005 M concentration and 7 ?m/y at 0.025 M concentration in PW. The addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the CR from 84 ?m/y (C = 0.1 M) to 455 ?m/y (C = 1 M). These same behaviors were also observed at higher temperatures.

  19. Sodium bicarbonate treatment extends life of formerly acid lake

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    For the second time, researchers have used a familiar home remedy to restore the balance of a once acid lake. On September 29, Wolf Pond, in New York's Adirondack State Park, was treated with sodium bicarbonate to adjust alkalinity and keep pH at normal levels at least into the 1990's. Since it was first treated with bicarbonate in 1984, Wolf Pond has recovered and stabilized enough to sustain fish life once again. Repeated dosing is necessary because acid rain and runoff gradually deplete alkalinity in the lake over a period of years. Wolf Pond was selected for study because it has very little outflow and its major source of replenishment is rain. As the 1986 study explained, sodium bicarbonate was chosen for this application because it provides four advantages: (1) it is very soluble; (2) it cannot raise pH above 8.5; (3) it is easy to handle and apply; and (4) it is safe enough to be a common ingredient of many pharmaceuticals and foods.

  20. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sublimation of a mixture of ammonium sulfate and calcium carbonate and occurs as a white powder or a hard... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food... GRAS § 184.1137 Ammonium carbonate. (a) Ammonium carbonate ((NH4)2CO3, CAS Reg. No. 8000-73-5) is...

  1. Basics of base in hemodialysis solution: Dialysate buffer production, delivery and decontamination.

    PubMed

    Desai, N

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis requires the use of high volumes of freshly prepared, clean dialysate to foster the removal of low molecular weight metabolites (i.e., urea) and to correct the electrolyte and acid-base imbalance of chronic renal failure. Dialysate is produced by mixing clean, AAMI grade water with both an acid and base concentrate. This purpose of this report is to describe production, mixing and delivery of the buffer component of dialysate, and to also to address the cost, safety and feasibility of producing online bicarbonate. As endotoxin contaminated dialysate has been associated with the release of key mediators in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with long-term hemodialysis therapy, aspects of disinfecting a bicarbonate delivery loop are also addressed. PMID:26199467

  2. Basics of base in hemodialysis solution: Dialysate buffer production, delivery and decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Desai, N.

    2015-01-01

    Hemodialysis requires the use of high volumes of freshly prepared, clean dialysate to foster the removal of low molecular weight metabolites (i.e., urea) and to correct the electrolyte and acid-base imbalance of chronic renal failure. Dialysate is produced by mixing clean, AAMI grade water with both an acid and base concentrate. This purpose of this report is to describe production, mixing and delivery of the buffer component of dialysate, and to also to address the cost, safety and feasibility of producing online bicarbonate. As endotoxin contaminated dialysate has been associated with the release of key mediators in acute and chronic inflammatory diseases associated with long-term hemodialysis therapy, aspects of disinfecting a bicarbonate delivery loop are also addressed. PMID:26199467

  3. Extraction of urea and ammonium ion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anselmi, R. T.; Husted, R. R.; Schulz, J. R.

    1977-01-01

    Water purification system keeps urea and ammonium ion concentration below toxic limits in recirculated water of closed loop aquatic habitat. Urea is first converted to ammonium ions and carbon dioxide by enzygmatic action. Ammonium ions are removed by ion exchange. Bioburden is controlled by filtration through 0.45 micron millipore filters.

  4. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1141 - Ammonium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate. 582.1141 Section 582.1141 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1141 Ammonium phosphate. (a) Product. Ammonium phosphate (mono- and dibasic). (b)...

  9. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ...DHS-2008-0076] RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate Security Program AGENCY: National Protection...rulemaking (NPRM), entitled ``Ammonium Nitrate Security Program,'' which was published...regulate the sale and transfer of ammonium nitrate pursuant to section 563 of the...

  10. 208 Biochimicaet BiophysicaActa, 936(1988)208-214 Kinetics of the bicarbonate effect and the number of bicarbonate-binding sites

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    1988-01-01

    208 Biochimicaet BiophysicaActa, 936(1988)208-214 Elsevier BBA42867 Kinetics of the bicarbonate effect and the number of bicarbonate-binding sites in thylakoid membranes Danny J. Blubangh and Govindjee~ in these thylakoids, even though they appeared to be well depleted of HCO3-. A kinetic analysis of the aetlvlty curve

  11. Using ammonium bicarbonate as pore former in activated carbon catalyst layer to enhance performance of air cathode microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Da; Qu, Youpeng; Liu, Jia; He, Weihua; Wang, Haiman; Feng, Yujie

    2014-12-01

    The rolling catalyst layers in air cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are prepared by introducing NH4HCO3 as pore former (PF) with four PF/activated carbon mass ratios of 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 1.0. The maximum power density of 892 ± 8 mW m-2 is obtained by cathodes with the mass ratio of 0.2, which is 33% higher than that of the control reactor (without PF, 671 ± 22 mW m-2). Pore analysis indicates the porosity increases by 38% and the major pore range concentrates between 0.5 ?m-0.8 ?m which likely facilitates to enrich the active reaction sites compared to 0.8 ?m-3.0 ?m in the control and other PF-cathodes. In addition, pore structure endows the cathode improved exchange current density by 2.4 times and decreased charge transfer resistance by 44%, which are the essential reasons to enhance the oxygen reduction. These results show that addition of NH4HCO3 proves an effective way to change the porosity and pore distribution of catalyst layers and then enhance the MFC performance.

  12. Evaluation of flow fields on bubble removal and system performance in an ammonium bicarbonate reverse electrodialysis stack

    E-print Network

    reverse electrodialysis stack Marta C. Hatzell a , Bruce E. Logan b,n a Department of Mechanical form 11 June 2013 Accepted 15 June 2013 Available online 21 June 2013 Keywords: Reverse electrodialysis solution for energy generation in reverse electrodialysis (RED) stacks. However, operating RED stacks

  13. Sodium Coupled Bicarbonate Influx Regulates Intracellular and Apical pH in Cultured Rat Caput Epididymal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Deng-Liang; Zhang, Geng; Chen, Si-Liang; Ruan, Ye-Chun; Ye, Ke-Nan; Cheng, Christopher H. K.; Zhou, Wen-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Background The epithelium lining the epididymis provides an optimal acidic fluid microenvironment in the epididymal tract that enable spermatozoa to complete the maturation process. The present study aims to investigate the functional role of Na+/HCO3? cotransporter in the pH regulation in rat epididymis. Method/Principal Findings Immunofluorescence staining of pan cytokeratin in the primary culture of rat caput epididymal epithelium showed that the system was a suitable model for investigating the function of epididymal epithelium. Intracellular and apical pH were measured using the fluorescent pH sensitive probe carboxy-seminaphthorhodafluor-4F acetoxymethyl ester (SNARF-4F) and sparklet pH electrode respectively to explore the functional role of rat epididymal epithelium. In the HEPES buffered Krebs-Henseleit(KH) solution, the intracellular pH (pHi) recovery from NH4Cl induced acidification in the cultured caput epididymal epithelium was completely inhibited by amiloride, the inhibitor of Na+/H+ exchanger (NHE). Immediately changing of the KH solution from HEPES buffered to HCO3? buffered would cause another pHi recovery. The pHi recovery in HCO3? buffered KH solution was inhibited by 4, 4diisothiocyanatostilbene-2, 2-disulfonic acid (DIDS), the inhibitor of HCO3? transporter or by removal of extracellular Na+. The extracellular pH measurement showed that the apical pH would increase when adding DIDS to the apical side of epididymal epithelial monolayer, however adding DIDS to the basolateral side had no effect on apical pH. Conclusions The present study shows that sodium coupled bicarbonate influx regulates intracellular and apical pH in cultured caput epididymal epithelium. PMID:21887217

  14. Investigation of crystallization kinetics of sodium bicarbonate in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Haut, Benoît; Halloin, Veronique; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

    2005-08-01

    In our previous work [J. Crystal Growth 263 (2004) 459], a supersaturation determination method using a high-precision densimeter was designed and developed for monitoring sodium bicarbonate supersaturation in the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate system, a two-component solution in equilibrium. In the present paper, we apply this method to the study of sodium bicarbonate continuous crystallization. It gives us access to the sodium bicarbonate supersaturation evolution. The sodium bicarbonate supersaturation evolution and their crystallization kinetics obtained in a continuous stirred tank crystallizer are investigated under different operational conditions, such as residence time, initial supersaturation and seeding. The induction time determined by density measurements is discussed. Mathematical modeling is used to interpret the supersaturation evolution. It is shown that measuring the density gives satisfying performances for studying the crystallization of a two-component solution in equilibrium, such as the sodium carbonate-bicarbonate system.

  15. BUFFERS AND VEGETATIVE FILTER STRIPS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Buffers and filter strips are areas of permanent vegetation located within and between agricultural fields and the water courses to which they drain. These buffers are intended to intercept and slow runoff thereby providing water quality benefits. In addition, in many settings they are intended to...

  16. Manganese complexes with bicarbonate and sulfate in natural water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hem, J.D.

    1963-01-01

    The association constant for the dissolved species MnHCO3+ was experimentally determined to be 63. From this value and a published constant for the species MNSO4 aq., a diagram was prepared showing per cent of dissolved manganese complexed in the presence of 10 to 10,000 p.p.m. bicarbonate and 1.0 to 10,000 p.p.m. sulfate. The rate of oxidation of Mn+2 in aerated water is greatly increased by increasing pH, and is retarded when SO4-2and HCO3- are present.

  17. Effects of Oral Sodium Bicarbonate in Patients with CKD

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, Michal L.; Bauer, Carolyn; Raff, Amanda C.; Hostetter, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background and objectives Metabolic acidosis contributes to muscle breakdown in patients with CKD, but whether its treatment improves functional outcomes is unknown. The choice of dose and tolerability of high doses remain unclear. In CKD patients with mild acidosis, this study evaluated the dose–response relationship of alkali with serum bicarbonate, its side effect profile, and its effect on muscle strength. Design, setting, participants, & measurements In this single-blinded pilot study from March of 2009 to August of 2010, 20 adults with estimated GFR 15–45 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and serum bicarbonate 20–24 mEq/L were treated during successive 2-week periods with placebo followed by escalating oral NaHCO3 doses (0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 mEq/kg per day). At each visit, handgrip strength and time required to complete 5 and 10 repetitions of a sit-to-stand test were measured. Results Each 0.1 mEq/kg per day increase in dose produced a 0.33 mEq/L (95% confidence interval=0.23–0.43 mEq/L) higher serum bicarbonate. Sit-to-stand time improved after 6 weeks of oral NaHCO3 (23.8±1.4 versus 22.2±1.6 seconds for 10 repetitions, P=0.002), and urinary nitrogen excretion decreased (?0.70 g/g creatinine [95% confidence interval=?1.11 to ?0.30] per 0.1 mEq/kg per day higher dose). No statistically significant change was seen in handgrip strength (29.5±9.6 versus 28.4±9.4 kg, P=0.12). Higher NaHCO3 doses were not associated with increased BP or greater edema. Conclusions NaHCO3 supplementation produces a dose-dependent increase in serum bicarbonate and improves lower extremity muscle strength after a short-term intervention in CKD patients with mild acidosis. Long-term studies are needed to determine if this finding translates into improved functional status. PMID:23393105

  18. Oracle Log Buffer Queueing

    SciTech Connect

    Rivenes, A S

    2004-12-08

    The purpose of this document is to investigate Oracle database log buffer queuing and its affect on the ability to load data using a specialized data loading system. Experiments were carried out on a Linux system using an Oracle 9.2 database. Previous experiments on a Sun 4800 running Solaris had shown that 100,000 entities per minute was an achievable rate. The question was then asked, can we do this on Linux, and where are the bottlenecks? A secondary question was also lurking, how can the loading be further scaled to handle even higher throughput requirements? Testing was conducted using a Dell PowerEdge 6650 server with four CPUs and a Dell PowerVault 220s RAID array with 14 36GB drives and 128 MB of cache. Oracle Enterprise Edition 9.2.0.4 was used for the database and Red Hat Linux Advanced Server 2.1 was used for the operating system. This document will detail the maximum observed throughputs using the same test suite that was used for the Sun tests. A detailed description of the testing performed along with an analysis of bottlenecks encountered will be made. Issues related to Oracle and Linux will also be detailed and some recommendations based on the findings.

  19. Ring Buffered Network Bus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the research effort to demonstrate the integration of a data sharing technology, Ring Buffered Network Bus, in development by Dryden Flight Research Center, with an engine simulation application, the Java Gas Turbine Simulator, in development at the University of Toledo under a grant from the Glenn Research Center. The objective of this task was to examine the application of the RBNB technologies as a key component in the data sharing, health monitoring and system wide modeling elements of the NASA Aviation Safety Program (AVSP) [Golding, 1997]. System-wide monitoring and modeling of aircraft and air safety systems will require access to all data sources which are relative factors when monitoring or modeling the national airspace such as radar, weather, aircraft performance, engine performance, schedule and planning, airport configuration, flight operations, etc. The data sharing portion of the overall AVSP program is responsible for providing the hardware and software architecture to access and distribute data, including real-time flight operations data, among all of the AVSP elements. The integration of an engine code capable of numerically "flying" through recorded flight paths and weather data using a software tool that allows for distributed access of data to this engine code demonstrates initial steps toward building a system capable of monitoring and modeling the National Airspace.

  20. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  1. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  2. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. 520...FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered...

  3. Comparison of alternative buffers for use with a new live oral cholera vaccine, Peru-15, in outpatient volunteers.

    PubMed

    Sack, D A; Shimko, J; Sack, R B; Gomes, J G; MacLeod, K; O'Sullivan, D; Spriggs, D

    1997-06-01

    During development of Peru-15, a new live oral vaccine for cholera, the role of buffer needed to be evaluated. Generally, oral bacterial vaccines are acid labile and need to be administered by using a formulation which protects them from gastric acid. We compared three different buffers for use with Peru-15, including a standard bicarbonate-ascorbic acid buffer, Alka-Seltzer, and a new electrolyte-rice buffer, CeraVacx. Saline served as the control. Thirty-nine healthy adult volunteers received Peru-15 (10(8) CFU) with one of the three buffers or saline in a double-masked study. The volunteers were monitored for symptoms for 7 days after the dose, serum was tested for antibody responses by vibriocidal antibody and immunoglobulin G antitoxin enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and stool samples were tested for excretion of the vaccine strain. Side effects were minimal in all groups. All 30 volunteers who took Peru-15 with a buffer showed significant rises in vibriocidal antibody titer. The magnitude of the rises was higher in the CeraVacx group than in the other two buffer groups. Four of nine volunteers who took the vaccine with saline also showed increased titers, but they were lower than those in any of the three buffer groups. Excretion of the vaccine strain was similar in the buffer groups, but excretion was not associated with the magnitude of the vibriocidal responses. Excretion of Peru-15 was not detected in the saline group. We conclude that buffer does amplify the serological response to Peru-15 and that CeraVacx may provide benefits not provided by other buffers. PMID:9169739

  4. Electrodialysis operation with buffer solution

    DOEpatents

    Hryn, John N. (Naperville, IL); Daniels, Edward J. (Orland Park, IL); Krumdick, Greg K. (Crete, IL)

    2009-12-15

    A new method for improving the efficiency of electrodialysis (ED) cells and stacks, in particular those used in chemical synthesis. The process entails adding a buffer solution to the stack for subsequent depletion in the stack during electrolysis. The buffer solution is regenerated continuously after depletion. This buffer process serves to control the hydrogen ion or hydroxide ion concentration so as to protect the active sites of electrodialysis membranes. The process enables electrodialysis processing options for products that are sensitive to pH changes.

  5. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...Explosives, blasting, type E, and Explosives, blasting, type B, Division 1.5...Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1...and ammonium nitrate fertilizers classed as Division...Explosives, blasting, type B, and...

  6. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...Explosives, blasting, type E, and Explosives, blasting, type B, Division 1.5...Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1...and ammonium nitrate fertilizers classed as Division...Explosives, blasting, type B, and...

  7. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...Explosives, blasting, type E, and Explosives, blasting, type B, Division 1.5...Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1...and ammonium nitrate fertilizers classed as Division...Explosives, blasting, type B, and...

  8. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...Explosives, blasting, type E, and Explosives, blasting, type B, Division 1.5...Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1...and ammonium nitrate fertilizers classed as Division...Explosives, blasting, type B, and...

  9. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...Explosives, blasting, type E, and Explosives, blasting, type B, Division 1.5...Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1...and ammonium nitrate fertilizers classed as Division...Explosives, blasting, type B, and...

  10. Ammonium assmilation in spruce ectomycorrhizas

    SciTech Connect

    Chalot, M.; Brun, A.; Botton, B. ); Stewart, G. )

    1990-05-01

    Assimilation of labelled NH{sub 4}{sup +} into amino acids has been followed in ectomycorrhizal roots of spruce. Over an 18 h period of NH{sub 4}{sup +} feeding, Gln, Glu and Ala became the most abundant amino acids. Gln was also the most highly labelled amino acid during the experiment, followed by Glu and Ala. This result indicates that Gln synthesis is an important ammonium utilization reaction in spruce mycorrhizas. Addition of MSX to NH{sub 4}{sup +} fed mycorrhizas caused an inhibition of Gln accumulation with a corresponding increase in Glu, Ala and Asn levels. The supply of MSX induced a sharp diminution of {sup 15}N enrichment in both amino and amido groups of glutamine. In contrast, the {sup 15}N incorporation into Glu and derivatives (Ala and Asp) remained very high. This study demonstrates that the fungal glutamate dehydrogenase is quite operative in spruce ectomycorrhizas since it is able to sustain ammonium assimilation when glutamine synthetase is inhibited.

  11. Structural study of ammonium metatungstate

    SciTech Connect

    Christian, Joel B. Whittingham, M. Stanley

    2008-08-15

    Several techniques have been used to study the structure of the Keggin-type polyoxometalate salt ammonium metatungstate (AMT)-(NH{sub 4}){sub 6}[H{sub 2}W{sub 12}O{sub 40}]*nH{sub 2}O, a potential fuel cell catalyst. The dehydrated salt is comprised of a mixture of crystallites of different unit cells in a centered eutactic cubic configuration, with an average unit cell of a{approx_equal}12.295. Varied orientations of the Keggin ions in the cubic arrangement create the differences, and orientational variation within each unit cell size represents an energy well. Progressive hydration of each crystallite leads to expansion of the lattice, with the degree of expansion depending on the locations of the water added in relation to the Keggin ion, which is influenced by cation location and hydrogen bonding. The structural hypothesis is supported by electron diffraction of single and multicrystal samples, by powder density measurements, X-ray powder diffraction studies, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction, and a priori structural modeling studies. Based on the structure, projected active site densities are compared with nanostructured platinum catalysts for fuel cell application. - Graphical abstract: The structure of ammonium metatungstate powders are highly dependent on hydration and POM molecule rotation, with cation and hydrogen bonding forces directing a mixture of structures that have been studied with bulk and single-crystal methods. The illustration shows Monte Carlo simulated anion structural disorder for the fully dehydrated form of the title compound.

  12. ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S-based buffer layer deposition for solar cells

    DOEpatents

    Bhattacharya, Raghu N. (Littleton, CO)

    2009-11-03

    The invention provides CBD ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S and spray deposited ZnS/Zn(O,OH)S buffer layers prepared from a solution of zinc salt, thiourea and ammonium hydroxide dissolved in a non-aqueous/aqueous solvent mixture or in 100% non-aqueous solvent. Non-aqueous solvents useful in the invention include methanol, isopropanol and triethyl-amine. One-step deposition procedures are described for CIS, CIGS and other solar cell devices.

  13. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and wom...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862.1160 Bicarbonate/carbon...

  15. Conductance Regulator Bicarbonate Conductance and pH Regulatory Capability of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane

    E-print Network

    Machen, Terry E.

    Conductance Regulator Bicarbonate Conductance and pH Regulatory Capability of Cystic Fibrosis Bicarbonate conductance and pH regulatory capability of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator J0 of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 Communicated by Hans H. Ussing, February 28, 1994 ABSTRACT The cystic fibrosis

  16. Simultaneous blood-tissue exchange of oxygen, carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and hydrogen ion.

    PubMed

    Dash, Ranjan K; Bassingthwaighte, James B

    2006-07-01

    A detailed nonlinear four-region (red blood cell, plasma, interstitial fluid, and parenchymal cell) axially distributed convection-diffusion-permeation-reaction-binding computational model is developed to study the simultaneous transport and exchange of oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in the blood-tissue exchange system of the heart. Since the pH variation in blood and tissue influences the transport and exchange of O2 and CO2 (Bohr and Haldane effects), and since most CO2 is transported as HCO3(-) (bicarbonate) via the CO2 hydration (buffering) reaction, the transport and exchange of HCO3(-) and H+ are also simulated along with that of O2 and CO2. Furthermore, the model accounts for the competitive nonlinear binding of O2 and CO2 with the hemoglobin inside the red blood cells (nonlinear O2-CO2 interactions, Bohr and Haldane effects), and myoglobin-facilitated transport of O2 inside the parenchymal cells. The consumption of O2 through cytochrome-c oxidase reaction inside the parenchymal cells is based on Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The corresponding production of CO2 is determined by respiratory quotient (RQ), depending on the relative consumption of carbohydrate, protein, and fat. The model gives a physiologically realistic description of O2 transport and metabolism in the microcirculation of the heart. Furthermore, because model solutions for tracer transients and steady states can be computed highly efficiently, this model may be the preferred vehicle for routine data analysis where repetitive solutions and parameter optimization are required, as is the case in PET imaging for estimating myocardial O2 consumption. PMID:16775761

  17. Effect of lactate supplementation and sodium bicarbonate on 40-km cycling time trial performance.

    PubMed

    Northgraves, Matthew J; Peart, Daniel J; Jordan, Christian A; Vince, Rebecca V

    2014-01-01

    The use of nutritional supplements to improve sporting performance and increase training adaptations is commonplace among athletes and is an expanding market in terms of product choice and availability. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 ergogenic aids with extracellular blood buffering potential, namely sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and a lactate supplement, during a 40-km cycling time trial. Seven recreationally active men (age, 22.3 ± 3.3 years; height, 182.5 ± 6.5 cm; body mass, 79.2 ± 6.3 kg) completed five 40-km cycling time trials, including a familiarization trial in a randomized, blind, double placebo-controlled design. Subjects ingested (a) 300 mg·kg-1 body mass NaHCO3 (BICARB), (b) 45 mg·kg-1 body mass sodium chloride (PL-BICARB) as the placebo for the NaHCO3 trial, (c) 1115 mg lactate (LACTATE), or (d) plain flour as the placebo for the lactate trial (PL-LACTATE) 60 minutes before exercise. There was no significant difference in performance between the 4 conditions (p > 0.05). Although NaHCO3 ingestion induced significant changes in all the acid-base variables (all p < 0.05), no significant change was seen following lactate ingestion (p > 0.05). Subjects in the LACTATE condition did have a significantly higher heart rate (p < 0.05) without experiencing any greater perceived exertion (p > 0.05) than the other 3 conditions. Neither NaHCO3 nor lactate supplementation seem to improve 40-km cycling time trial performance. However, the potential benefits following LACTATE regarding perceived exertion require further research. PMID:23660571

  18. Involvement of CFTR in uterine bicarbonate secretion and the fertilizing capacity of sperm.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao Fei; Zhou, Chen Xi; Shi, Qi Xian; Yuan, Yu Ying; Yu, Mei Kuen; Ajonuma, Louis Chukwuemeka; Ho, Lok Sze; Lo, Pui Shan; Tsang, Lai Ling; Liu, Yu; Lam, Sun Yi; Chan, Ling Nga; Zhao, Wen Chao; Chung, Yiu Wa; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2003-10-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a cAMP-activated chloride channel expressed in a wide variety of epithelial cells, mutations of which are responsible for the hallmark defective chloride secretion observed in cystic fibrosis (CF). Although CFTR has been implicated in bicarbonate secretion, its ability to directly mediate bicarbonate secretion of any physiological significance has not been shown. We demonstrate here that endometrial epithelial cells possess a CFTR-mediated bicarbonate transport mechanism. Co-culture of sperm with endometrial cells treated with antisense oligonucleotide against CFTR, or with bicarbonate secretion-defective CF epithelial cells, resulted in lower sperm capacitation and egg-fertilizing ability. These results are consistent with a critical role of CFTR in controlling uterine bicarbonate secretion and the fertilizing capacity of sperm, providing a link between defective CFTR and lower female fertility in CF. PMID:14515130

  19. Influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of mortar bars in sulfate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kunther, W.; Lothenbach, B.; Scrivener, K.

    2013-02-15

    This work investigates the influence of bicarbonate ions on the deterioration of cementitious material exposed to sulfate ions. Mortars based on a CEM I and on a CEM III/B cement were investigated. Experimental investigations were compared to thermodynamic modeling and phase characterization to understand the differences in deterioration. The presence of bicarbonate ions significantly reduced the expansion of the CEM I mortars. Thermodynamic modeling showed that at high concentrations of bicarbonate ettringite and gypsum become unstable. Microstructural characterization combined with information from thermodynamic modeling suggests that conditions of high supersaturation with respect to ettringite are unlikely in the samples exposed in solutions containing bicarbonate. Consequently, expansive forces are not generated by the crystallization pressure of ettringite. There was little expansion of the CEM III/B sample even in the sodium sulfate solution. In the bicarbonate solution this mortar showed a highly leached zone at the surface in which calcite was observed.

  20. Free flow cell electrophoresis using zwitterionic buffer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodkey, R. Scott

    1990-01-01

    Studies of a zwitterionic buffer formulated for cell electrophoresis were done using the McDonnell-Douglas Continuous Flow Electrophoresis System. Standard buffers were analyzed for their stability in the electrical field and the results showed that both buffers tested were inherently unstable. Further, titration studies showed that the standards buffers buffered poorly at the pH employed for electrophoresis. The zwitterionic buffer buffered well at its nominal pH and was shown to be stable in the electrical field. Comparative studies of the buffer with standard cell separation buffers using formalin fixed rabbit and goose red blood cells showed that the zwitterionic buffer gave better resolution of the fixed cells. Studies with viable hybridoma cells showed that buffer Q supported cell viability equal to Hank's Balanced Salt Solution and that hybridoma cells in different stages of the growth cycle demonstrated reproducible differences in electrophoretic mobility.

  1. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding. Project OE6. [Viscosities of chemical slugs

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.

    1986-05-01

    In this report we are presenting the results of our investigation in 3 areas: (1) the use of low pH alkaline chemicals for wettability alteration; (2) the development of a correlation between interfacial shear viscosity and water breakout for oil-brine macroemulsions; and (3) the evaluation of bicarbonate as a chemical for use in oil recovery. The main objective of our work is to develop an understanding of the mechanisms involved in bicarbonate flooding and to make specific recommendations for its potential use in enhanced oil recovery. To evaluate the use of bicarbonate as an emulsion destabilizer, emulsification and coalescence test results were compared with interfacial shear viscosities. In two of the three systems studied an inverse relationship was found between the maximum rate of water breakout and interfacial shear viscosity. Temperature and aging of the interface was a major factor affecting these results. Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate were used to determine their effect on rock wettability. Sodium bicarbonate was found to change the wettability of Berea sandstone toward the water-wet state more effectively than sodium carbonate for the low acid oil, Noone crude. Highly acidic crude oils appeared to react with bicarbonate creating highly absorbed surfactants. This caused Berea sandstone to become more oil-wet. The major mechanisms of oil recovery using sodium bicarbonate include wettability alteration, emulsification followed by coalescence, and lowered interfacial shear viscosity. These mechanisms alone did not cause significant recovery of the low acid oil, Noone crude. Previous oil displacement tests indicate that bicarbonate is more effective when using acidic crude oils. The range of oils that can be recovered using bicarbonate can be extended by adding small amounts of surfactants to the bicarbonate slug. 18 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  3. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  4. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  5. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  6. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. 176.415 Section 176.415 Transportation Other... requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers. (a) Except as... Captain of the Port (COTP). (1) Ammonium nitrate UN1942, ammonium nitrate fertilizers containing more...

  7. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...This proposed rule would implement anti-terrorism measures to better secure the homeland. The Department of Homeland Security would regulate the sale and transfer of ammonium nitrate pursuant to section 563 of the Fiscal Year 2008 Department of Homeland Security Appropriations Act with the purpose of preventing the use of ammonium nitrate in an act of terrorism. This proposed rule seeks......

  8. Ammonium content and buoyancy in midwater cephalopods

    E-print Network

    Thuesen, Erik V.

    Ammonium content and buoyancy in midwater cephalopods Brad A. Seibela,*, Shana K. Goffredib , Erik the cation concentrations in several midwater cephalopod species. High NH4 + levels were confirmed in cephalopods is the exchange of sodium for ammonium ions creating low-density fluids that impart lift (Clarke

  9. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-34-9) is the ammonium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Ammonium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

  10. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-34-9) is the ammonium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Ammonium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1133 - Ammonium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-34-9) is the ammonium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Ammonium alginate is prepared by the neutralization of purified alginic acid with appropriate pH control agents....

  12. 76 FR 62311 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-07

    ... FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908 (notice of proposed rulemaking... Program Web site in mid-October at http://www.dhs.gov/ files/ ] programs/ammonium-nitrate-security-program...; ] DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Office of the Secretary 6 CFR Part 31 RIN 1601-AA52 Ammonium Nitrate...

  13. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FEED AND DRINKING WATER OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.170 Ammonium formate. The food additive, partially ammonium formate, may be safely used in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal...

  14. Biodegradation of rocket propellant waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqvi, S. M. Z.; Latif, A.

    1975-01-01

    The short term effects of ammonium perchlorate on selected organisms were studied. A long term experiment was also designed to assess the changes incurred by ammonium perchlorate on the nitrogen and chloride contents of soil within a period of 3 years. In addition, an attempt was made to produce methane gas from anaerobic fermentation of the aquatic weed, Alternanthera philoxeroides.

  15. Ammonium nonanoate broadcast application over onions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ammonium nonanoate occurs in nature and is primarily formed from biodegradation of higher fatty acids. Racer (40% ammonium nonaoate) is a potential contact herbicide for weed control in organic crop production. Field research was conducted in southeast Oklahoma (Atoka County, Lane, OK) to determin...

  16. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance...ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million...residues in uncooked edible chicken tissues are: 0.24 parts per million in muscle; 0.72 parts per...

  17. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance...ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million...residues in uncooked edible chicken tissues are: 0.24 parts per million in muscle; 0.72 parts per...

  18. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance...ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million...residues in uncooked edible chicken tissues are: 0.24 parts per million in muscle; 0.72 parts per...

  19. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance...ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million...residues in uncooked edible chicken tissues are: 0.24 parts per million in muscle; 0.72 parts per...

  20. 21 CFR 556.375 - Maduramicin ammonium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...of maduramicin ammonium in chickens as follows: (a) A tolerance...ammonium (marker residue) in chickens is 0.38 parts per million...residues in uncooked edible chicken tissues are: 0.24 parts per million in muscle; 0.72 parts per...

  1. Tri­benzyl­ammonium chloride

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl?, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra­hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri­benzyl­ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H?Cl and C—H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

  2. Tri-benzyl-ammonium chloride.

    PubMed

    Diallo, Waly; Diop, Libasse; Plasseraud, Laurent; Cattey, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH(+)·Cl(-), were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH2)3NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH3)3Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetra-hedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16?(10)°. In the crystal, the tri-benzyl-ammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N-H?Cl and C-H?Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin. PMID:24860409

  3. Buffer Gas Acquisition and Storage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.; Callahan, Richard A.; Delgado, H. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture Of CO2 Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO, freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (ND, and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193K and 10 kpa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph that used a thermoconductivity (TCD) detector with helium (He) as the carrier gas. The general trend as the temperature was lowered was for the membranes to become more selective, In addition, the relative permeation rates between the three gases changed with temperature. The end result was to provide design parameters that could be used to separate CO2 from N2 and Ar.

  4. Buffer gas acquisition and storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrish, Clyde F.; Lueck, Dale E.; Jennings, Paul A.

    2001-02-01

    The acquisition and storage of buffer gases (primarily argon and nitrogen) from the Mars atmosphere provides a valuable resource for blanketing and pressurizing fuel tanks and as a buffer gas for breathing air for manned missions. During the acquisition of carbon dioxide (CO2), whether by sorption bed or cryo-freezer, the accompanying buffer gases build up in the carbon dioxide acquisition system, reduce the flow of CO2 to the bed, and lower system efficiency. It is this build up of buffer gases that provide a convenient source, which must be removed, for efficient capture of CO2. Removal of this buffer gas barrier greatly improves the charging rate of the CO2 acquisition bed and, thereby, maintains the fuel production rates required for a successful mission. Consequently, the acquisition, purification, and storage of these buffer gases are important goals of ISRU plans. Purity of the buffer gases is a concern e.g., if the CO2 freezer operates at 140 K, the composition of the inert gas would be approximately 21 percent CO2, 50 percent nitrogen, and 29 percent argon. Although there are several approaches that could be used, this effort focused on a hollow-fiber membrane (HFM) separation method. This study measured the permeation rates of CO2, nitrogen (N2), and argon (Ar) through a multiple-membrane system and the individual membranes from room temperature to 193 K and 10 kPa to 300 kPa. Concentrations were measured with a gas chromatograph. The end result was data necessary to design a system that could separate CO2, N2, and Ar. .

  5. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). 721.10511 Section 721...Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as quaternary ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320,...

  6. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  7. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  8. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2009-04-01 true Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  9. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165 Section 172...Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used...

  11. 78 FR 32690 - Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ...731-TA-894 (Review)] Certain Ammonium Nitrate From Ukraine Determination On the basis...antidumping duty order on certain ammonium nitrate from Ukraine would be likely to lead to...May 2013), entitled Certain Ammonium Nitrate from Ukraine: Investigation No....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4 H2 PO4 , CAS...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4 H2 PO4 , CAS...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721.10302 Section...Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P-00-442) is subject...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721.10302 Section...Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P-00-442) is subject...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4 H2 PO4 , CAS...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184...Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4 H2 PO4 , CAS...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721.10302 Section...Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance...identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN P-00-442) is subject...

  19. 40 CFR 721.655 - Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. 721.655 Section 721.655 ...Ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound. (a) Chemical substance and significant...ethoxylated alkyl quaternary ammonium compound (PMN P-96-573) is subject...

  20. The origin of high sodium bicarbonate waters in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foster, M.D.

    1950-01-01

    Some sodium bicarbonate waters at depth in the Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plains have the same bicarbonate content as the shallower calcium bicarbonate waters in the same formation and appear to be the result of replacement of calcium by sodium through the action of base-exchange minerals. Others, however, contain several hundred parts per million more of bicarbonate than any of the calcium bicarbonate waters and much more bicarbonate than can be attributed to solution of calcium carbonate through the action of carbon dioxide derived from the air and soil. As the waters in the Potomac group (Cretaceous) are all low in sulphate and as the environmental conditions under which the sediments of the Potomac group were deposited do not indicate that large amounts of sulphate are available for solution, it does not seem probable that carbon dioxide generated by chemical or biochemical breakdown of sulphate is responsible for the high sodium bicarbonate waters in this area. Sulphate as a source of oxygen is not necessary for the generation of carbon dioxide by carbonaceous material. Oxygen is an important constituent of carbonaceous material and carbon dioxide is a characteristic decomposition product of such material-as, for example, peat and lignite. Experimental work showed that distilled water, calcium bicarbonate water, and sodium bicarbonate water, after contact with lignite, calcium carbonate, and permutite (a base-exchange material), had all increased greatly in sodium bicarbonate content and had become similar in chemical character and in mineral content to high sodium bicarbonate waters found in the Coastal Plain. The tests indicated that carbonaceous material can act as a source of carbon dioxide, which, when dissolved in water, enables it to take into solution more calcium carbonate. If base-exchange materials are also present to replace calcium with sodium, a still greater amount of bicarbonate can be held in solution. The presence of carbonaceous material, together with calcium carbonate and base-exchange minerals in a formation is, therefore, sufficient to account for the occurrence in it of high sodium bicarbonate waters. ?? 1950.

  1. Cationic composition and acid-base state of the extracellular fluid, and specific buffer value of hemoglobin from the branchiopod crustacean Triops cancriformis.

    PubMed

    Pirow, Ralph; Buchen, Ina; Richter, Marc; Allmer, Carsten; Nunes, Frank; Günsel, Andreas; Heikens, Wiebke; Lamkemeyer, Tobias; von Reumont, Björn M; Hetz, Stefan K

    2009-04-01

    Recent insights into the allosteric control of oxygen binding in the extracellular hemoglobin (Hb) of the tadpole shrimp Triops cancriformis raised the question about the physico-chemical properties of the protein's native environment. This study determined the cationic composition and acid-base state of the animal's extracellular fluid. The physiological concentrations of potential cationic effectors (calcium, magnesium) were more than one order of magnitude below the level effective to increase Hb oxygen affinity. The extracellular fluid in the pericardial space had a typical bicarbonate concentration of 7.6 mM but a remarkably high CO(2) partial pressure of 1.36 kPa at pH 7.52 and 20 degrees C. The discrepancy between this high CO(2) partial pressure and the comparably low values for water-breathing decapods could not solely be explained by the hemolymph-sampling procedure but may additionally arise from differences in cardiovascular complexity and efficiency. T. cancriformis hemolymph had a non-bicarbonate buffer value of 2.1 meq L(-1) pH(-1). Hb covered 40-60% of the non-bicarbonate buffering power. The specific buffer value of Hb of 1.1 meq (mmol heme)(-1) pH(-1) suggested a minimum requirement of two titratable histidines per heme-binding domain, which is supported by available information from N-terminal sequencing and expressed sequence tags. PMID:19066911

  2. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...nitrate or ammonium nitrate fertilizer not listed in § 176.410... (2) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1 (oxidizer... (4) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Class 9, UN 2071. ...is Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5...

  3. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...nitrate or ammonium nitrate fertilizer not listed in § 176.410... (2) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1 (oxidizer... (4) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Class 9, UN 2071. ...is Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5...

  4. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...nitrate or ammonium nitrate fertilizer not listed in § 176.410... (2) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1 (oxidizer... (4) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Class 9, UN 2071. ...is Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5...

  5. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...nitrate or ammonium nitrate fertilizer not listed in § 176.410... (2) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1 (oxidizer... (4) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Class 9, UN 2071. ...is Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5...

  6. 49 CFR 176.415 - Permit requirements for Division 1.5, ammonium nitrates, and certain ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...nitrate or ammonium nitrate fertilizer not listed in § 176.410... (2) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Division 5.1 (oxidizer... (4) Ammonium nitrate fertilizer, Class 9, UN 2071. ...is Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5...

  7. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...glufosinate ammonium, butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propanoic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...glufosinate ammonium, butanoic acid,...

  8. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...glufosinate-ammonium (butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...3-methylphosphinico-propionic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...glufosinate ammonium, butanoic acid,...

  9. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...glufosinate ammonium, butanoic acid, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...hydroxymethylphosphinyl)propanoic acid, expressed as 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl...glufosinate ammonium, butanoic acid,...

  10. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  11. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  12. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  13. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  14. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identity. (1) The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing... product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium...

  15. Bicarbonate and Alkyl Carbonate Radicals: Structural Integrity and Reactions with Lipid Components.

    PubMed

    Bühl, Michael; DaBell, Peter; Manley, David W; McCaughan, Rory P; Walton, John C

    2015-12-30

    The elusive neutral bicarbonate radical and the carbonate radical anion form an acid/conjugate base pair. We now report experimental studies for a model of bicarbonate radical, namely, methyl carbonate (methoxycarbonyloxyl) radical, complemented by DFT computations at the CAM-B3LYP level applied to the bicarbonate radical itself. Methyl carbonate radicals were generated by UV irradiation of oxime carbonate precursors. Kinetic EPR was employed to measure rate constants and Arrhenius parameters for their dissociation to CO2 and methoxyl radicals. With oleate and cholesterol lipid components, methyl carbonate radicals preferentially added to their double bonds; with linoleate and linolenate substrates, abstraction of the bis-allylic H atoms competed with addition. This contrasts with the behavior of ROS such as hydroxyl radicals that selectively abstract allylic and/or bis-allylic H atoms. The thermodynamic and activation parameters for bicarbonate radical dissociation, obtained from DFT computations, predicted it would indeed have substantial lifetime in gas and nonpolar solvents. The acidity of bicarbonate radicals was also examined by DFT methods. A noteworthy linear relationship was discovered between the known pKa's of strong acids and the computed numbers of microsolvating water molecules needed to bring about their ionization. DFT computations with bicarbonate radicals, solvated with up to eight water molecules, predicted that only five water molecules were needed to bring about its complete ionization. On comparing with the correlation, this indicated a pKa of about -2 units. This marks the bicarbonate radical as the strongest known carboxylic acid. PMID:26623482

  16. Bicarbonate Impact on U(VI) Bioreduction in a Shallow Alluvial Aquifer

    SciTech Connect

    Long, Philip E.; Williams, Kenneth H.; Davis, James A.; Fox, Patricia M.; Wilkins, Michael J.; Yabusaki, Steven B.; Fang, Yilin; Waichler, Scott R.; Berman, Elena S.; Gupta, Manish; Chandler, Darrell P.; Murray, Christopher J.; Peacock, Aaron D.; Giloteaux, L.; Handley, Kim M.; Lovley, Derek R.; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2015-02-01

    Field-scale biostimulation and desorption tracer experiments conducted in a uranium (U) contaminated, shallow alluvial aquifer have provided insight into the coupling of microbiology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology that control U mobility in the subsurface. Initial experiments successfully tested the concept that Fe-reducing bacteria such as Geobacter sp. could enzymatically reduce soluble U(VI) to insoluble U(IV) during in situ electron donor amendment (Anderson et al. 2003, Williams et al. 2011). In parallel, in situ desorption tracer tests using bicarbonate amendment demonstrated rate-limited U(VI) desorption (Fox et al. 2012). These results and prior laboratory studies underscored the importance of enzymatic U(VI)-reduction and suggested the ability to combine desorption and bioreduction of U(VI). Here we report the results of a new field experiment in which bicarbonate-promoted uranium desorption and acetate amendment were combined and compared to an acetate amendment-only experiment in the same experimental plot. Results confirm that bicarbonate amendment to alluvial aquifer desorbs U(VI) and increases the abundance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato complexes. At the same time, that the rate of acetate-promoted enzymatic U(VI) reduction was greater in the presence of added bicarbonate in spite of the increased dominance of Ca-uranyl-carbonato aqueous complexes. A model-simulated peak rate of U(VI) reduction was ~3.8 times higher during acetate-bicarbonate treatment than under acetate-only conditions. Lack of consistent differences in microbial community structure between acetate-bicarbonate and acetate-only treatments suggest that a significantly higher rate of U(VI) reduction the bicarbonate-impacted sediment may be due to a higher intrinsic rate of microbial reduction induced by elevated concentrations of the bicarbonate oxyanion. The findings indicate that bicarbonate amendment may be useful in improving the engineered bioremediation of uranium in aquifers.

  17. Sodium bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated kidney injury: the end of a dream?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The rationale of urine alkalinization through intravenous sodium bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury relies on several pathophysiological arguments. Urine alkalinization is easily feasible in the ICU setting and is often considered to be associated with few side effects. In a previous issue of Critical Care, a retrospective study evaluates the effect of routine intravenous bicarbonate use to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury with cardiopulmonary bypass. This commentary discusses recent data on the use of bicarbonate to prevent cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. PMID:23234469

  18. 4-Hydroxyphenacyl Ammonium Salts: A Photoremovable Protecting Group for Amines in Aqueous Solutions.

    PubMed

    Bownik, Iwona; Šebej, Peter; Literák, Jaromír; Heger, Dominik; Šimek, Zden?k; Givens, Richard S; Klán, Petr

    2015-10-01

    Irradiation of N-protected p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) ammonium caged derivatives at 313 nm releases primary and secondary amines or ammonia in nearly quantitative yields via the photo-Favorskii reaction when conducted in acidic or neutral aqueous buffered media. The reaction efficiencies are strongly dependent on the pH with the most efficient and highest yields obtained when the pH of the media maintains the ammonium and p-hydroxyl groups as their conjugate acids. For example, the overall quantum yields of simple secondary amines release are 0.5 at acidic pH from 3.9 to 6.6 dropping to 0.1 at neutral pH 7.0 and 0.01 at pH 8.4. Speciation studies provide an acid-base profile that helps define the scope and limitations of the reaction. When the pKa of the ammonium group is lower than that of the phenolic hydroxyl group, as is the case for the ?-amino-protected amino acids, the more acidic ammonium ion deprotonates as the media pH is changed from acidic toward neutral or basic, thus diminishing the leaving group ability of the amino group. This, in turn, lowers the propensity for the photo-Favorskii rearrangement reaction to occur and opens the reaction pathway to alternative competing photoreduction process. PMID:26373949

  19. Ammonium Hydrosulfide: Coloring Jupiter's Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeffler, Mark J.; Hudson, Reggie L.; Chanover, Nancy J.; Simon, Amy A.

    2015-11-01

    The appearance and composition of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (GRS) have been studied for over a century, yet there still is no consensus for what is causing the GRS’s color. As the GRS is believed to originate in tropospheric clouds, it seems likely that one or more cloud components may contribute to the GRS's color. Recently, we have begun to investigate whether either ammonium hydrosulfide (NH4SH), a predicted cloud component, or its radiation-chemical products can produce color and/or an ultraviolet-visible spectrum similar to what has been observed on Jupiter via remote sensing (e.g., Simon et al., 2015). Our initial experiments relied on infrared spectroscopy to quantify the radiolytic and thermal stability of NH4SH and to identify the new chemical products formed during MeV ion irradiation (Loeffler et al., 2015). This DPS presentation will cover some of our most recent results detailing the ultraviolet-visible spectral and color changes observed during irradiation and post-irradiation warming of NH4SH ices. This work is funded by NASA’s Outer Planets and Planetary Atmospheres programs.

  20. Phase diagram of ammonium nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Dunuwille, Mihindra; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2013-12-07

    Ammonium Nitrate (AN) is a fertilizer, yet becomes an explosive upon a small addition of chemical impurities. The origin of enhanced chemical sensitivity in impure AN (or AN mixtures) is not well understood, posing significant safety issues in using AN even today. To remedy the situation, we have carried out an extensive study to investigate the phase stability of AN and its mixtures with hexane (ANFO–AN mixed with fuel oil) and Aluminum (Ammonal) at high pressures and temperatures, using diamond anvil cells (DAC) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results indicate that pure AN decomposes to N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, and H{sub 2}O at the onset of the melt, whereas the mixtures, ANFO and Ammonal, decompose at substantially lower temperatures. The present results also confirm the recently proposed phase IV-IV{sup ?} transition above 17 GPa and provide new constraints for the melting and phase diagram of AN to 40 GPa and 400°C.

  1. 77 FR 65532 - Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian Federation: Notice of Rescission of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ...Administration [A-821-811] Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate From the Russian...the antidumping duty order on solid fertilizer grade ammonium nitrate (ammonium nitrate...Antidumping Duty Administrative Review: Solid Fertilizer Grade Ammonium Nitrate (Ammonium...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...7783-20-2) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white, odorless crystals or granules. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1143 - Ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...7783-20-2) occurs naturally and consists of colorless or white, odorless crystals or granules. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with ammonium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the “Food...

  4. Biodegradation of rocket propellent waste, ammonium perchlorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naqui, S. M. Z.

    1975-01-01

    The impact of the biodegradation rate of ammonium perchlorate on the environment was studied in terms of growth, metabolic rate, and total biomass of selected animal and plant species. Brief methodology and detailed results are presented.

  5. Bicarbonate of soda paint stripping process validation and material characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    The Aircraft Production Division at San Antonio Air Logistics Center has conducted extensive investigation into the replacement of hazardous chemicals in aircraft component cleaning, degreasing, and depainting. One of the most viable solutions is process substitution utilizing abrasive techniques. SA-ALC has incorporated the use of Bicarbonate of Soda Blasting as one such substitution. Previous utilization of methylene chloride based chemical strippers and carbon removal agents has been replaced by a walk-in blast booth in which we remove carbon from engine nozzles and various gas turbine engine parts, depaint cowlings, and perform various other functions on a variety of parts. Prior to implementation of this new process, validation of the process was performed, and materials and waste stream characterization studies were conducted. These characterization studies examined the effects of the blasting process on the integrity of the thin-skinned aluminum substrates, the effects of the process on both air emissions and effluent disposal, and the effects on the personnel exposed to the process.

  6. Metabolomic Responses of Guard Cells and Mesophyll Cells to Bicarbonate

    PubMed Central

    Misra, Biswapriya B.; de Armas, Evaldo; Tong, Zhaohui; Chen, Sixue

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic CO2 presently at 400 ppm is expected to reach 550 ppm in 2050, an increment expected to affect plant growth and productivity. Paired stomatal guard cells (GCs) are the gate-way for water, CO2, and pathogen, while mesophyll cells (MCs) represent the bulk cell-type of green leaves mainly for photosynthesis. We used the two different cell types, i.e., GCs and MCs from canola (Brassica napus) to profile metabolomic changes upon increased CO2 through supplementation with bicarbonate (HCO3-). Two metabolomics platforms enabled quantification of 268 metabolites in a time-course study to reveal short-term responses. The HCO3- responsive metabolomes of the cell types differed in their responsiveness. The MCs demonstrated increased amino acids, phenylpropanoids, redox metabolites, auxins and cytokinins, all of which were decreased in GCs in response to HCO3-. In addition, the GCs showed differential increases of primary C-metabolites, N-metabolites (e.g., purines and amino acids), and defense-responsive pathways (e.g., alkaloids, phenolics, and flavonoids) as compared to the MCs, indicating differential C/N homeostasis in the cell-types. The metabolomics results provide insights into plant responses and crop productivity under future climatic changes where elevated CO2 conditions are to take center-stage. PMID:26641455

  7. The structure and spectroscopy of cyanate and bicarbonate ions. Astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    Moreno, M A; Maté, B; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y; Gálvez, O; Gómez, P C; Herrero, V J; Escribano, R

    2013-10-01

    Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed. PMID:23360125

  8. Stress corrosion cracking of X-60 line pipe steel in a carbonate-bicarbonate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Pilkey, A.K.; Lambert, S.B.; Plumtree, A. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1995-02-01

    An experimental system was developed to reproduce stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of API X-60 line pipe steels in highly alkaline (pH = 10) carbonate-bicarbonate (1 N sodium carbonate [Na[sub 2]CO[sub 3

  9. The Structure and Spectroscopy of Cyanate and Bicarbonate Ions. Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, M. A.; Maté, B.; Rodríguez-Lazcano, Y.; Gálvez, O.; Gómez, P. C.; Herrero, V. J.; Escribano, R.

    2013-10-01

    Cyanate and bicarbonate are two ions that play active roles in many fields of physics and chemistry, including biological sciences and astrochemistry. We present here a comprehensive study of these species covering a range of phases and methodologies. We have performed theoretical calculations on the isolated ions and their hydrates with one to four water molecules, and in clusters with 15 water molecules. The predicted infrared spectra are compared with observed spectra from experiments where liquid droplets of their solutions are frozen at 14 K on a substrate, to mimic some astrophysical conditions. Crystals of cyanate and bicarbonate sodium and potassium salts are also studied experimental and theoretically. As well, the spontaneous decomposition of cyanate into bicarbonate is documented from the spectra of an aged solution. Finally, the possible astrophysical observation of bicarbonate in water-containing particles is discussed.

  10. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride... the following compounds: n-dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (CAS Reg. No. 139-07-1);...

  11. Acetate and Bicarbonate Assimilation and Metabolite Formation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: A 13C-NMR Study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Himanshu; Shukla, Manish R.; Chary, Kandala V. R.; Rao, Basuthkar J.

    2014-01-01

    Cellular metabolite analyses by 13C-NMR showed that C. reinhardtii cells assimilate acetate at a faster rate in heterotrophy than in mixotrophy. While heterotrophic cells produced bicarbonate and CO2aq, mixotrophy cells produced bicarbonate alone as predominant metabolite. Experiments with singly 13C-labelled acetate (13CH3-COOH or CH3-13COOH) supported that both the 13C nuclei give rise to bicarbonate and CO2aq. The observed metabolite(s) upon further incubation led to the production of starch and triacylglycerol (TAG) in mixotrophy, whereas in heterotrophy the TAG production was minimal with substantial accumulation of glycerol and starch. Prolonged incubation up to eight days, without the addition of fresh acetate, led to an increased TAG production at the expense of bicarbonate, akin to that of nitrogen-starvation. However, such TAG production was substantially high in mixotrophy as compared to that in heterotrophy. Addition of mitochondrial un-coupler blocked the formation of bicarbonate and CO2aq in heterotrophic cells, even though acetate uptake ensued. Addition of PSII-inhibitor to mixotrophic cells resulted in partial conversion of bicarbonate into CO2aq, which were found to be in equilibrium. In an independent experiment, we have monitored assimilation of bicarbonate via photoautotrophy and found that the cells indeed produce starch and TAG at a much faster rate as compared to that in mixotrophy and heterotrophy. Further, we noticed that the accumulation of starch is relatively more as compared to TAG. Based on these observations, we suggest that acetate assimilation in C. reinhardtii does not directly lead to TAG formation but via bicarbonate/CO2aq pathways. Photoautotrophic mode is found to be the best growth condition for the production of starch and TAG and starch in C. reinhardtii. PMID:25207648

  12. Effects of amounts and types of sodium bicarbonate in wheat flour tortillas 

    E-print Network

    Garza Casso, Jessica Beatriz

    2007-04-25

    EFFECTS OF AMOUNTS AND TYPES OF SODIUM BICARBONATE IN WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLAS A Thesis by JESSICA BEATRIZ GARZA CASSO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 2003 Major Subject: Food Science and Technology EFFECTS OF AMOUNTS AND TYPES OF SODIUM BICARBONATE IN WHEAT FLOUR TORTILLAS A Thesis by JESSICA BEATRIZ GARZA CASSO Submitted...

  13. Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Administration on Mortality in Patients with Lactic Acidosis: A Retrospective Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Jeong; Son, Young Ki; An, Won Suk

    2013-01-01

    Background Lactic acidosis is a common cause of high anion gap metabolic acidosis. Sodium bicarbonate may be considered for an arterial pH <7.15 but paradoxically depresses cardiac performance and exacerbates acidosis by enhancing lactate production. This study aimed to evaluate the cause and mortality rate of lactic acidosis and to investigate the effect of factors, including sodium bicarbonate use, on death. Methods We conducted a single center analysis from May 2011 through April 2012. We retrospectively analyzed 103 patients with lactic acidosis among 207 patients with metabolic acidosis. We used SOFA and APACHE II as severity scores to estimate illness severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis and Cox regression analysis models were used to identify factors that affect mortality. Results Of the 103 patients with a mean age of 66.1±11.4 years, eighty-three patients (80.6%) died from sepsis (61.4%), hepatic failure, cardiogenic shock and other causes. The percentage of sodium bicarbonate administration (p?=?0.006), catecholamine use, ventilator care and male gender were higher in the non-survival group than the survival group. The non-survival group had significantly higher initial and follow-up lactic acid levels, lower initial albumin, higher SOFA scores and APACHE II scores than the survival group. The mortality rate was significantly higher in patients who received sodium bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate administration (p?=?0.016) was associated with higher mortality. Independent factors that affected mortality were SOFA score (Exp (B)?=?1.72, 95% CI?=?1.12–2.63, p?=?0.013) and sodium bicarbonate administration (Exp (B)?=?6.27, 95% CI?=?1.10–35.78, p?=?0.039). Conclusions Lactic acidosis, which has a high mortality rate, should be evaluated in patients with metabolic acidosis. In addition, sodium bicarbonate should be prescribed with caution in the case of lactic acidosis because sodium bicarbonate administration may affect mortality. PMID:23755210

  14. Cell buffer with built-in test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, William E. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A cell buffer with built-in testing mechanism is provided. The cell buffer provides the ability to measure voltage provided by a power cell. The testing mechanism provides the ability to test whether the cell buffer is functioning properly and thus providing an accurate voltage measurement. The testing mechanism includes a test signal-provider to provide a test signal to the cell buffer. During normal operation, the test signal is disabled and the cell buffer operates normally. During testing, the test signal is enabled and changes the output of the cell buffer in a defined way. The change in the cell buffer output can then be monitored to determine if the cell buffer is functioning correctly. Specifically, if the voltage output of the cell buffer changes in a way that corresponds to the provided test signal, then the functioning of the cell buffer is confirmed. If the voltage output of the cell buffer does not change correctly, then the cell buffer is known not to be operating correctly. Thus, the built in testing mechanism provides the ability to quickly and accurately determine if the cell buffer is operating correctly. Furthermore, the testing mechanism provides this functionality without requiring excessive device size and complexity.

  15. The Structure of a Cyanobacterial Bicarbonate Transport Protein, CmpA

    SciTech Connect

    Koropatkin, Nicole M.; Koppenaal, David W.; Pakrasi, Himadri B.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-26

    Cyanobacteria, blue-green algae, are the most abundant autotrophs in aquatic environments and form the base of the food chain by fixing carbon and nitrogen into cellular biomass. To compensate for the low selectivity of Rubisco for CO? over O?, Cyanobacteria have developed highly efficient CO?concentrating machinery of which the ABC transport system CmpABCD from Synechocystis PCC 6803 is one component. Here we describe the structure of the bicarbonate binding protein, CmpA, in the absence and presence of bicarbonate and carbonic acid. CmpA is highly homologous to the nitrate transport protein, NrtA. CmpA binds carbonic acid at the entrance to the ligand-binding pocket whereas bicarbonate binds in nearly an identical location compared to nitrate binding to NrtA. Unexpectedly, bicarbonate binding is accompanied by a metal ion, identified as Ca²? via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. The binding of bicarbonate and metal is highly cooperative and suggests that CmpA co-transports bicarbonate and calcium.

  16. PARTICIPATION OF BICARBONATE IN RNA AND PROTEIN SYNTHESES AS INDICATED BY VIRUS PROPAGATION IN HUMAN CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Chang, R. Shihman

    1959-01-01

    The propagation of a strain of Coxsackie virus, group B type 1, in human cell cultures depleted of bicarbonate has been studied. Under the described experimental conditions, bicarbonate depletion suppresses the propagation of this virus. This suppressive effect may be reversed by the addition of the following compounds to the bicarbonate-depleted cultures: (a) bicarbonate; (b) adenosine, guanosine, cytidine, and uridine; (c) adenylic, guanylic, cytidylic, and uridylic acids; (d) enzymatically degraded RNA prepared from yeasts or human embryo, or (e) RNA. The following compounds are unable to reverse the suppressive effect of bicarbonate depletion: (a) adenine, guanine, cytosine, and uracil, with or without ribose; (b) adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine; (c) deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, deoxycytidine, and thymidine; (d) deoxyadenylic, deoxyguanylic, deoxycytidylic, and thymidylic acids; (e) enzymatically degraded DNA, or (f) DNA. The same general results as with the Coxsackie virus have been obtained with a strain of poliovirus and vaccinia virus. The failure of bicarbonate depletion to suppress completely the propagation of the poliovirus under the described condition constitutes a major difference. The significance of these findings is discussed. PMID:13620851

  17. The thermodynamic-buffer enzymes.

    PubMed

    Stucki, J W

    1980-08-01

    Oxidative phosphorylation operates at optimal efficiency if and only if the condition of conductance matching L33/L11 = square root 1-q2 is fulfilled. In this relation L11 is the phenomenological conductance of phosphorylation, L33 the phenomenological conductance of the load, i.e. the irreversible ATP-utilizing processes in the cell, and q the degree of coupling of oxidative phosphorylation driven by respiration. Since during short time intervals L11 and q are constant whereas L33 fluctuates in the cell, oxidative phosphorylation would only rarely operate at optimal efficiency due to violation of conductance matching. This paper demonstrates that the reversible ATP-utilizing reaction catalyzed by adenylate kinase can effectively compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of a fluctuating L33 and hence allows oxidative phosphorylation to operate at optimal efficiency in the cell. Since the adenylate kinase reaction was found to buffer a thermodynamic potential, i.e. the phosphate potential, this finding was generalized to the concept of thermodynamic buffering. The thermodynamic buffering ability of the adenylate kinase reaction was demonstrated by experiments with incubated rat-liver mitochondria. Considerations of changes introduced in the entropy production by the adenylate kinase reaction allowed to establish the theoretical framework for thermodynamic buffering. The ability of thermodynamic buffering to compensate deviations from conductance matching in the presence of fluctuating loads was demonstrated by computer simulations. The possibility of other reversible ATP-utilizing reactions, like the ones catalyzed by creatine kinase and arginine kinase, to contribute to thermodynamic buffering is discussed. Finally, the comparison of the theoretically calculated steady-stae cytosolic adenine nucleotide concentrations with experimental data from perfused livers demonstrated that in livers from fed rats conductance matching is fulfilled on a time average and that the degree of coupling corresponded to qpec = 0.97 permitting the most economic maintenance of a maximal output power of oxidative phosphorylation. For the case of livers from starved rats this analysis suggested that the degree of coupling corresponded to qfec = 0.95, permitting the most economic maintenance of a maximal net rate of ATP synthesis at optimal efficiency of oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:7408880

  18. Stacked switched capacitor energy buffer architecture

    E-print Network

    Chen, Minjie, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    Electrolytic capacitors are often used for energy buffering applications, including buffering between single-phase ac and dc. While these capacitors have high energy density compared to film and ceramic capacitors, their ...

  19. Stacked Switched Capacitor Energy Buffer Architecture

    E-print Network

    Chen, Minjie

    Electrolytic capacitors are often used for energy buffering applications, including buffering between single-phase ac and dc. While these capacitors have high energy density compared to film and ceramic capacitors, their ...

  20. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes voyage, steering gear other than hydraulic must be designed with suitable buffering arrangements to relieve the gear from shocks to the rudder....

  1. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes voyage, steering gear other than hydraulic must be designed with suitable buffering arrangements to relieve the gear from shocks to the rudder....

  2. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes voyage, steering gear other than hydraulic must be designed with suitable buffering arrangements to relieve the gear from shocks to the rudder....

  3. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes voyage, steering gear other than hydraulic must be designed with suitable buffering arrangements to relieve the gear from shocks to the rudder....

  4. 46 CFR 58.25-45 - Buffers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SYSTEMS Steering Gear § 58.25-45 Buffers. For each vessel on an ocean, coastwise, or Great Lakes voyage, steering gear other than hydraulic must be designed with suitable buffering arrangements to relieve the gear from shocks to the rudder....

  5. Influence of calcium ions on the crystallization of sodium bicarbonate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yi; Demilie, Paul; Davoine, Perrine; Cartage, Thierry; Delplancke-Ogletree, Marie-Paule

    2005-02-01

    In industrial crystallization of sodium bicarbonate (sodium hydrogenocarbonate), the presence of calcium ions in solutions is unavoidable due to the production process. The understanding of the Ca 2+ role in NaHCO 3 crystallization would be helpful for improving the quality of the final products. The influence of calcium ions on NaHCO 3 crystallization was investigated in a 5-l mixed suspension mixed product removal crystallizer under controlled conditions. A density meter was used for continuous supersaturation monitoring. After a steady state had been reached, different CaCl 2 amounts were added at a constant flow rate. It was found that limited calcium ion levels in the system reduce drastically the nucleation frequency of NaHCO 3 and has a limited influence on crystal growth rate. The supersaturation measurements and other methods confirmed this phenomenon. The relationship between the Ca 2+ influence on NaHCO 3 crystallization, the calcium carbonate solubility and its metastable zone in concentrated NaHCO 3 solution was established. In fact, Ca 2+ has a maximum effect on NaHCO 3 crystallization kinetics when the saturation of calcium carbonate in NaHCO 3 solution has been reached, and the effect is constant in the metastable zone. The excess of Ca 2+ precipitates in NaHCO 3 solution as CaCO 3, as observed by energy dispersive X-ray and X-ray diffraction. This explained why an increasing Ca 2+ concentration in the solution has a limited influence on NaHCO 3 crystal size distribution and habit, but decreases the crystal purity. It is also confirmed that an impurity as Ca 2+ has no influence on the equilibrium NaHCO 3-Na 2CO 3.

  6. Throughput Region of Finite-Buffered Networks

    E-print Network

    --Queuing theory, flow-controlled networks, scheduling, packet switching, buffered crossbars. Ã? 1 INTRODUCTION MOST that achieves the maximal throughput with a minimal finite buffer at the internal nodes of the network under implementable policy. We obtain a natural trade-off between throughput and buffer-size for such implementable

  7. RESEARCH NEEDS IN RIPARIAN BUFFER RESTORATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Riparian buffer restorations are used as management tools to produce favorable water quality impacts; moreover, the basis for riparian buffers as an instrument of water quality restoration rests on a relatively firm foundation. However, the extent to which buffers can restore rip...

  8. Damage tolerance of symmetric buffer strip laminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatakrishnaiah, S.; Dharani, L. R.

    The feasibility of using buffer strips for improving the notched strength and crack arrest capability with several combinations of main panel and buffer strip materials is investigated. The results show that a proper selection of main panel and buffer strip material ensures crack arrest and improved notch strength.

  9. Stacked Switched Capacitor Energy Buffer Architecture

    E-print Network

    Perreault, Dave

    Stacked Switched Capacitor Energy Buffer Architecture Minjie Chen, Khurram K. Afridi and David J Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139­4307 Email: minjie@mit.edu Abstract-- Electrolytic capacitors are often used for energy buffering applications, including buffering between single-phase ac and dc. While these capacitors

  10. Doped LZO buffer layers for laminated conductors

    DOEpatents

    Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Schoop, Urs (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Goyal, Amit (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN; Thieme, Cornelis Leo Hans (Westborough, MA) [Westborough, MA; Verebelyi, Darren T. (Oxford, MA) [Oxford, MA; Rupich, Martin W. (Framingham, MA) [Framingham, MA

    2010-03-23

    A laminated conductor includes a metallic substrate having a surface, a biaxially textured buffer layer supported by the surface of the substrate, the biaxially textured buffer layer comprising LZO and a dopant for mitigating metal diffusion through the LZO, and a biaxially textured conductor layer supported by the biaxially textured buffer layer.

  11. Plasma exchange successfully treats central pontine myelinolysis after acute hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osmotic demyelination syndrome (ODS) primarily occurs after rapid correction of severe hyponatremia. There are no proven effective therapies for ODS, but we describe the first case showing the successful treatment of central pontine myelinolysis (CPM) by plasma exchange, which occurred after rapid development of hypernatremia from intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. Case presentation A 40-year-old woman presented with general weakness, hypokalemia, and metabolic acidosis. The patient was treated with oral and intravenous potassium chloride, along with intravenous sodium bicarbonate. Although her bicarbonate deficit was 365 mEq, we treated her with an overdose of intravenous sodium bicarbonate, 480 mEq for 24 hours, due to the severity of her acidemia and her altered mental status. The next day, she developed hypernatremia with serum sodium levels rising from 142.8 mEq/L to 172.8 mEq/L. Six days after developing hypernatremia, she exhibited tetraparesis, drooling, difficulty swallowing, and dysarthria, and a brain MRI revealed high signal intensity in the central pons with sparing of the peripheral portion, suggesting CPM. We diagnosed her with CPM associated with the rapid development of hypernatremia after intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy and treated her with plasma exchange. After two consecutive plasma exchange sessions, her neurologic symptoms were markedly improved except for mild diplopia. After the plasma exchange sessions, we examined the patient to determine the reason for her symptoms upon presentation to the hospital. She had normal anion gap metabolic acidosis, low blood bicarbonate levels, a urine pH of 6.5, and a calyceal stone in her left kidney. We performed a sodium bicarbonate loading test and diagnosed distal renal tubular acidosis (RTA). We also found that she had Sjögren’s syndrome after a positive screen for anti-Lo, anti-Ra, and after the results of Schirmer’s test and a lower lip biopsy. She was discharged and treated as an outpatient with oral sodium bicarbonate and potassium chloride. Conclusion This case indicates that serum sodium concentrations should be carefully monitored in patients with distal RTA receiving intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy. We should keep in mind that acute hypernatremia and CPM can be associated with intravenous sodium bicarbonate therapy, and that CPM due to acute hypernatremia may be effectively treated with plasma exchange. PMID:24708786

  12. Thermal decomposition of sodium bicarbonate and its effect on the reaction of sodium bicarbonate and sulfur dioxide in a simulated flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Keener, T.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of thermally decomposing sodium bicarbonate while simultaneously reacting with SO/sub 2/, was studied. The study was performed by quantitatively determining the rate of thermal decomposition as a function of particle size in an SO/sub 2/ free gas stream. The rate of reaction of sodium carbonate (product of the thermal decomposition) with SO/sub 2/ was then studied, and the data applied to a pore-plugging model which accounts for the loss in reactivity with increased reaction time. The reaction of sodium bicarbonate with SO/sub 2/ was then studied and the results compared to that for sodium carbonate. From the analysis of the data, the activation energy for the thermal decomposition reaction, the SO/sub 2/ sodium carbonate and SO/sub 2/ sodium bicarbonate reaction were derived. The thermal decomposition reaction of sodium biocarbonate was found to be similar to that of calcium carbonate below the point where heat transfer is rate limiting. The degree of conversion of sodium bicarbonate was found to be 12-17 times greater (depending on particle size) than that of sodium carbonate in the temperature range 250/sup 0/-350/sup 0/F (120/sup 0/-177/sup 0/C). This greater conversion was qualitatively explained by hypothesizing the formation of an activated species during thermal decomposition which would be more chemically reactive.

  13. 33 CFR 126.28 - Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ammonium nitrate, ammonium nitrate fertilizers, fertilizer mixtures, or nitro carbo nitrate; general provisions. 126.28 Section 126.28 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING OF DANGEROUS CARGO...

  14. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with..., blasting, type B, and Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5 compatibility group D. (f) No...

  15. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with..., blasting, type B, and Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5 compatibility group D. (f) No...

  16. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with..., blasting, type B, and Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5 compatibility group D. (f) No...

  17. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with..., blasting, type B, and Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5 compatibility group D. (f) No...

  18. 49 CFR 176.410 - Division 1.5 materials, ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ammonium nitrate mixtures. 176.410 Section 176.410 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... nitrate and ammonium nitrate mixtures. (a) This section prescribes requirements to be observed with..., blasting, type B, and Explosives, blasting, type E, Division 1.5 compatibility group D. (f) No...

  19. Capillary electrophoresis of alkali and alkaline-earth cations with imidazole or benzylamine buffers

    SciTech Connect

    Morin, P.; Francois, C.; Dreux, M. . Lab. de Chimie Bioorganique et Analytique)

    1994-01-01

    The separation of alkali, alkaline earth, and ammonium cations in several samples of water was achieved by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection. A solution of imidazole (10[sup [minus]2] M, pH 4.5) was used as a buffer to resolve a mixture of six cations (K[sup +], Na[sup +], Ca[sup 2+], Ba[sup 2+], Li[sup +] and Mg[sup 2+]) by capillary electrophoresis at 214 nm in less than 10 min. The addition of potassium cation to the running buffer has an influence on the resolution of Ca[sup 2+]/Na[sup +] and Na[sup +]/Mg[sup 2+] peaks. A linear relationship between the corrected peak area and concentration was obtained in the 1--10 ppm range for these cations using a hydrodynamic injector. This electrophoretic system permitted the separation of these inorganic cations at a 50 ppb-level concentration with a hydrodynamic injection, thus making it possible to quantitatively determine their presence in mineral waters by capillary electrophoresis. At pH 4.5, potassium and ammonium unfortunately have identical ionic mobilities causing them to comigrate in an imidazole buffer. Using an alkaline solution of benzylamine as carrier electrolyte, their separation can be successfully achieved with excellent resolution at 204 nm. The analyses of tap water and several mineral waters have been achieved by capillary electrophoresis.

  20. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  1. Bicarbonate supplementation enhanced biofuel production potential as well as nutritional stress mitigation in the microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077.

    PubMed

    Pancha, Imran; Chokshi, Kaumeel; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to find out the optimum sodium bicarbonate concentration to produce higher biomass with higher lipid and carbohydrate contents in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. The role of bicarbonate supplementation under different nutritional starvation conditions was also evaluated. The results clearly indicate that 0.6 g/L sodium bicarbonate was optimum concentration resulting in 20.91% total lipid and 25.56% carbohydrate along with 23% increase in biomass production compared to normal growth condition. Addition of sodium bicarbonate increased the activity of nutrient assimilatory enzymes, biomass, lipid and carbohydrate contents under different nutritional starvation conditions. Nitrogen starvation with bicarbonate supplementation resulted in 54.03% carbohydrate and 34.44% total lipid content in microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077. These findings show application of bicarbonate grown microalgae Scenedesmus sp. CCNM 1077 as a promising feedstock for biodiesel and bioethanol production. PMID:26142998

  2. Acute sodium bicarbonate loading has negligible effects on resting and exercise blood pressure but causes gastrointestinal distress

    PubMed Central

    Kahle, Laura E.; Kelly, Patrick V.; Eliot, Kathrin A.; Weiss, Edward P.

    2013-01-01

    Oral ingestion of sodium bicarbonate (bicarbonate loading) has acute ergogenic effects on short-duration, high-intensity exercise. Because sodium bicarbonate is 27% sodium, ergogenic doses (i.e. 300 mg·kg?1) result in sodium intakes well above the Dietary Reference Intakes upper limit of 2300 mg/day. Therefore, it is conceivable that bicarbonate loading could have hypertensive effects. Therefore, we performed a double-blind cross-over trial to evaluate the hypothesis that bicarbonate loading increases resting and exercise blood pressure (BP). A secondary hypothesis was that bicarbonate loading causes gastrointestinal distress. Eleven endurance-trained men and women (exercise frequency, 4.6±0.4 sessions/wk; duration, 65±6 min/session) underwent testing on two occasions in random sequence: once after bicarbonate loading (300 mg·kg?1) and once after placebo ingestion. BP and heart rate (HR) were measured before bicarbonate or placebo consumption, 30 minutes after consumption, during 20 min of steady state submaximal cycling exercise, and during recovery. Bicarbonate loading did not affect systolic BP during rest, exercise, or recovery (p=0.38 for main treatment effect). However, it resulted in modestly higher diastolic BP (main treatment effect, +3.3±1.1 mmHg, p=0.01) and higher HR (main treatment effect, +10.1±2.4 bpm, p=0.002). Global ratings of gastrointestinal distress severity (0–10 scale) were greater after bicarbonate ingestion (5.1±0.5 vs. 0.5±0.2, p<0.0001). Furthermore, 10 of the 11 subjects (91%) experienced diarrhea, 64% experience bloating and thirst, and 45% experienced nausea after bicarbonate loading. In conclusion, although a single, ergogenic dose of sodium bicarbonate does not appear to have acute, clinically important effects on resting or exercise BP, it does cause substantial GI distress. PMID:23746564

  3. Radiolysis of Bicarbonate and Carbonate Aqueous Solutions: Product Analysis and Simulation of Radiolytic Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Cai Zhongli; Li Xifeng; Katsumura, Yosuke; Urabe, Osamu

    2001-11-15

    An understanding of the radiation-induced effects in groundwater is essential to evaluate the safe geological disposal of spent fuel. In groundwater, the bicarbonate ion is the predominant and common anion; this work investigated radiation-induced chemical reactions of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions with steady-state irradiation and pulse radiolysis methods. Aqueous solutions of sodium (bi)carbonate as high as 50 mmol.dm{sup -3} were used. The formation of formate, oxalate, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} were measured under different conditions. A complete set of reaction steps and reliable kinetic data for the radiolysis of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions at ionic strength close to the groundwater were proposed. Kinetic calculations were completed based on the proposed reaction steps and the kinetic data obtained in the present work. The results from the calculation are in good agreement with the experimental results. With these proposed reaction steps and kinetic data, computer simulation can be performed to predict the yield of radiolytic products of (bi)carbonate aqueous solutions as a function of irradiation time and used to evaluate the safety of geological disposal options of spent fuel.

  4. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    SciTech Connect

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-07-16

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 {+-} 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor-liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly.

  5. On the evaporation of ammonium sulfate solution

    PubMed Central

    Drisdell, Walter S.; Saykally, Richard J.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2009-01-01

    Aqueous evaporation and condensation kinetics are poorly understood, and uncertainties in their rates affect predictions of cloud behavior and therefore climate. We measured the cooling rate of 3 M ammonium sulfate droplets undergoing free evaporation via Raman thermometry. Analysis of the measurements yields a value of 0.58 ± 0.05 for the evaporation coefficient, identical to that previously determined for pure water. These results imply that subsaturated aqueous ammonium sulfate, which is the most abundant inorganic component of atmospheric aerosol, does not affect the vapor–liquid exchange mechanism for cloud droplets, despite reducing the saturation vapor pressure of water significantly. PMID:19861551

  6. Direct conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive extraction 

    E-print Network

    Xu, Xin

    2008-10-10

    (e.g., acetic acid) and fuels (e.g., ethanol). Historically, calcium carbonate has been used as the buffer. Recently, it was found that using ammonium bicarbonate as the buffering agent enhances the fermentation conversion. In this case..., fermentation broth contains ammonium salts (e.g., ammonium acetate, propionate, butyrate, pentanoate). Therefore, the downstream processing steps (including extraction, purification, esterification, and product separation) must be compatible...

  7. Buffered Electrochemical Polishing of Niobium

    SciTech Connect

    Gianluigi Ciovati, Hui Tian, Sean Corcoran

    2011-03-01

    The standard preparation of superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities made of pure niobium include the removal of a 'damaged' surface layer, by buffered chemical polishing (BCP) or electropolishing (EP), after the cavities are formed. The performance of the cavities is characterized by a sharp degradation of the quality factor when the surface magnetic field exceeds about 90 mT, a phenomenon referred to as 'Q-drop'. In cavities made of polycrystalline fine grain (ASTM 5) niobium, the Q-drop can be significantly reduced by a low-temperature ({approx} 120 C) 'in-situ' baking of the cavity if the chemical treatment was EP rather than BCP. As part of the effort to understand this phenomenon, we investigated the effect of introducing a polarization potential during buffered chemical polishing, creating a process which is between the standard BCP and EP. While preliminary results on the application of this process to Nb cavities have been previously reported, in this contribution we focus on the characterization of this novel electrochemical process by measuring polarization curves, etching rates, surface finish, electrochemical impedance and the effects of temperature and electrolyte composition. In particular, it is shown that the anodic potential of Nb during BCP reduces the etching rate and improves the surface finish.

  8. Survival after an amniotic fluid embolism following the use of sodium bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Evans, Sorcha; Brown, Brigid; Mathieson, Matthew; Tay, Stan

    2014-01-01

    Amniotic fluid embolism (AFE) is a rare and potentially fatal complication of pregnancy. In this case report, we highlight the successful use of sodium bicarbonate in a patient with an AFE. We present a case of a 38-year-old mother admitted for an elective caesarean section. Following the delivery of her baby, the mother suffered a cardiac arrest. Following a protracted resuscitation, transoesophageal echocardiography demonstrated evidence of acute pulmonary hypertension, with an empty left ventricle and an over-distended right ventricle. In view of these findings and no improvement noted from on-going resuscitation, sodium bicarbonate was infused as a pulmonary vasodilator. Almost instantaneous return of spontaneous circulation was noted, with normalisation of cardiac parameters. We propose that in patients suspected with AFE and who have been unresponsive to advance cardiac life support measures, and where right ventricular failure is present with acidosis and/or hypercarbia, the use of sodium bicarbonate should be considered. PMID:24879737

  9. Carbonic acid buffer species measured in real time with an intracellular microelectrode array

    PubMed Central

    Wietasch, Kristina; Kraig, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    Carbonic acid buffer anions, HCO3?andCO32?, play an instrumental role in a host of vital processes in animal cells and tissues. Yet study of carbonic acid buffer species is hampered because no means are available to simultaneously monitor them at a cellular level in a rapid and dynamic fashion. An ion-selective cocktail, previously reported to measure changes in bicarbonate activity (?HCO3?), was instead shown to be principally selective for ?CO32?. Ion-selective micropipettes (ISMs) based on this exchanger and consisting of a 3:1:6 (volume) mixture of tri-n-octylpropylammonium chloride, 1-octanol, and trifluoroacetyl-p-butylbenzene showed no significant interference from bicarbonate, chloride, phosphate, ascorbate, lactate, glutamate, acetate, or hydroxyl ions at concentrations expected in vivo. Intracellular and triple-barrel ISMs, consisting of a CO32?-sensitive, pH-sensitive, and reference barrel, were fabricated. Skeletal muscle cells (n = 17) were penetrated in vivo and showed values of 74 ± 7 mV for membrane potential, 6.94 ± 0.09 pHi, and 11 ± 5 µM intracellular ?CO32?, from which intracellular ?HCO3? of 25 ± 10 mM and CO2 tension of 120 ± 55 Torr were calculated. All ion measurements reached a new steady state in 9 ± 2 s after cell penetration. Thus measurements of intracellular ?CO32? and pH and associated levels of ?HCO3 and CO2 tension can be determined in biological tissues and cells with a spatial and temporal resolution previously unattainable. PMID:1653544

  10. Heat-stable enterotoxin of Escherichia coli stimulates a non-CFTR-mediated duodenal bicarbonate secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Zachary M; Childs, Debbie; Chow, Jimmy Y C; Smith, Anders J; Hogan, Daniel L; Isenberg, Jon I; Dong, Hui; Barrett, Kim E; Pratha, Vijaya S

    2005-04-01

    The cystic fibrosis (CF) transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an important pathway for duodenal mucosal bicarbonate secretion. Duodenal biopsies from CF patients secrete bicarbonate in response to heat-stable enterotoxin from Escherichia coli (STa) but not cAMP. To explore the mechanism of STa-induced bicarbonate secretion in CF more fully, we examined the role of CFTR in STa-stimulated duodenal bicarbonate secretion in mice. In vivo, the duodenum of CFTR (-/-) or control mice was perfused with forskolin (10(-4) M), STa (10(-7) M), uroguanylin (10(-7) M), 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) (10(-3) M), genistein (10(-6) M) plus STa, or herbimycin A (10(-6) M) plus STa. In vitro, duodenal mucosae were voltage-clamped in Ussing chambers, and bicarbonate secretion was measured by pH-stat. The effect of genistein, DIDS (10(-4) M), and chloride removal was also studied in vitro. Control, but not CF, mice produced a significant increase in duodenal bicarbonate secretion after perfusion with forskolin, uroguanylin, or 8-Br-cGMP. However, both control and CF animals responded to STa with significant increases in bicarbonate output. Genistein and herbimycin A abolished this response in CF mice but not in controls. In vitro, STa-stimulated bicarbonate secretion in CF tissues was inhibited by genistein, DIDS, and chloride-free conditions, whereas bicarbonate secretion persisted in control mice. In the CF duodenum, STa can stimulate bicarbonate secretion via tyrosine kinase activity resulting in apical Cl(-)/HCO(3)(-) exchange. Further studies elucidating the intracellular mechanisms responsible for such non-CFTR mediated bicarbonate secretion may lead to important therapies for CF. PMID:15513951

  11. Diamond Head Revisited with Ammonium Dichromate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arrigoni, Edward

    1981-01-01

    The classroom demonstration using ammonium dichromate to simulate a volcanic eruption can be modified into a more dramatic and accurate representation of the geologic processes involved in the formation of a volcanic crater. The materials, demonstration setup, safety procedures, and applications to instruction are presented. (Author/WB)

  12. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is manufactured by the reaction of 99.5 percent ammonia gas and 99 percent formic acid in a... safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food, Drug, and... ammonium formate. (d) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required...

  13. 21 CFR 573.170 - Ammonium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) The additive is manufactured by the reaction of 99.5 percent ammonia gas and 99 percent formic acid in...) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the other information required by the Federal Food... labeled as containing ammonium formate. (d) To assure safe use of the additive, in addition to the...

  14. 76 FR 70366 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-14

    ... Department previously announced a series of public meetings on the same topic on October 2, 2011 (see 76 FR... public comment on August 3, 2011. See 73 FR 64280 (advance notice of proposed rulemaking); 76 FR 46908... the Department's Ammonium Nitrate Security Program Web site, at...

  15. 76 FR 47238 - Ammonium Nitrate From Russia

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ...)). Background The Commission instituted this review on March 1, 2011 (76 FR 11273) and determined on June 6, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 34749, June 14, 2011). The Commission transmitted... Ammonium Nitrate From Russia Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  16. MECHANISM BY WHICH AMMONIUM FERTILIZERS KILL LARKSPUR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Environmental concerns of using pesticides on public lands have greatly reduced the use of herbicides to control tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi). Alternative methods of control have used ammonium sulfate placed in the crown of individual plants to kill larkspur. The objective of this study was ...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1137 - Ammonium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium carbonate. 184.1137 Section 184.1137 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS...

  19. 76 FR 46907 - Ammonium Nitrate Security Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ...section 31.235 of the proposed rule to make each AN Registered User Number...Ammonium Nitrate Security Program, and to make the records available for inspection by...proposes that each AN Facility be required to make records available within the...

  20. Bicarbonate disruption of the pulmonary endothelial barrier via activation of endogenous soluble adenylyl cyclase, isoform 10

    PubMed Central

    Obiako, Boniface; Calchary, Wendy; Xu, Ningyong; Kunstadt, Ryan; Richardson, Bianca; Nix, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly apparent that cAMP signals within the pulmonary endothelium are highly compartmentalized, and this compartmentalization is critical to maintaining endothelial barrier integrity. Studies demonstrate that the exogenous soluble bacterial toxin, ExoY, and heterologous expression of the forskolin-stimulated soluble mammalian adenylyl cyclase (AC) chimera, sACI/II, elevate cytosolic cAMP and disrupt the pulmonary microvascular endothelial barrier. The barrier-disruptive effects of cytosolic cAMP generated by exogenous soluble ACs are in contrast to the barrier-protective effects of subplasma membrane cAMP generated by transmembrane AC, which strengthens endothelial barrier integrity. Endogenous soluble AC isoform 10 (AC10 or commonly known as sAC) lacks transmembrane domains and localizes within the cytosolic compartment. AC10 is uniquely activated by bicarbonate to generate cytosolic cAMP, yet its role in regulation of endothelial barrier integrity has not been addressed. Here we demonstrate that, within the pulmonary circulation, AC10 is expressed in pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) and pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs), yet expression in PAECs is lower. Furthermore, pulmonary endothelial cells selectively express bicarbonate cotransporters. While extracellular bicarbonate generates a phosphodiesterase 4-sensitive cAMP pool in PMVECs, no such cAMP response is detected in PAECs. Finally, addition of extracellular bicarbonate decreases resistance across the PMVEC monolayer and increases the filtration coefficient in the isolated perfused lung above osmolality controls. Collectively, these findings suggest that PMVECs have a bicarbonate-sensitive cytosolic cAMP pool that disrupts endothelial barrier integrity. These studies could provide an alternative mechanism for the controversial effects of bicarbonate correction of acidosis of acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. PMID:23686854

  1. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...glufosinate ammonium, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid monoammonium salt...equivalent of 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid, in or on the commodity...glufosinate ammonium, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid monoammonium...

  2. 40 CFR 180.473 - Glufosinate ammonium; tolerances for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...glufosinate ammonium, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid monoammonium salt...equivalent of 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid, in or on the commodity...glufosinate ammonium, 2-amino-4-(hydroxymethylphosphinyl)butanoic acid monoammonium...

  3. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  4. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  5. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  6. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  7. 21 CFR 73.1298 - Ferric ammonium ferrocyanide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...The color additive ferric ammonium ferrocyanide is the blue pigment obtained by oxidizing under acidic conditions with sodium...The oxidized product is filtered, washed, and dried. The pigment consists principally of ferric ammonium ferrocyanide...

  8. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

  9. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

  10. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

  11. 46 CFR 148.220 - Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...false Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. 148.220 Section 148.220 ...220 Ammonium nitrate-phosphate fertilizers. (a) This section applies to...phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers, or complete fertilizers of...

  12. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...percent of combustible material; and (4) Nitrogen phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers or complete nitrogen/phosphate/potash type fertilizers containing more than 70 percent but less than 90 percent of ammonium nitrate and a...

  13. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...percent of combustible material; and (4) Nitrogen phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers or complete nitrogen/phosphate/potash type fertilizers containing more than 70 percent but less than 90 percent of ammonium nitrate and a...

  14. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...percent of combustible material; and (4) Nitrogen phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers or complete nitrogen/phosphate/potash type fertilizers containing more than 70 percent but less than 90 percent of ammonium nitrate and a...

  15. 46 CFR 148.205 - Ammonium nitrate and ammonium nitrate fertilizers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...percent of combustible material; and (4) Nitrogen phosphate or nitrogen/potash type fertilizers or complete nitrogen/phosphate/potash type fertilizers containing more than 70 percent but less than 90 percent of ammonium nitrate and a...

  16. The Sodium-Driven Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger in Presynaptic Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Burette, Alain C.; Weinberg, Richard J.; Sassani, Patrick; Abuladze, Natalia; Kao, Liyo; Kurtz, Ira

    2013-01-01

    The sodium-driven chloride/bicarbonate exchanger (NDCBE), a member of the SLC4 family of bicarbonate transporters, was recently found to modulate excitatory neurotransmission in hippocampus. By using light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry, we demonstrate here that NDCBE is expressed throughout the adult rat brain, and selectively concentrates in presynaptic terminals, where it is closely associated with synaptic vesicles. NDCBE is in most glutamatergic axon terminals, and is also present in the terminals of parvalbumin-positive ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic cells. These findings suggest that NDCBE can regulate glutamatergic transmission throughout the brain, and point to a role for NDCBE as a possible regulator of GABAergic neurotransmission. PMID:22102085

  17. Association of Serum Bicarbonate Levels With Gait Speed and Quadriceps Strength in Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Abramowitz, Matthew K.; Hostetter, Thomas H.; Melamed, Michal L.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Metabolic acidosis is associated with skeletal muscle proteolysis, and alkali supplementation has demonstrated improvements in lean body mass and urinary nitrogen wasting in several studies. However, the association of acidosis with functional outcomes has not been examined on a population-based level. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS 2,675 nationally representative adults 50 years of age and older in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999 – 2002. FACTOR Serum bicarbonate level. OUTCOMES Low gait speed (gait speed) and low peak torque (peak torque) were defined as being in the lowest sex-specific quartile of gait speed and peak torque, respectively. MEASUREMENTS Serum bicarbonate was measured in all participants. gait speed was determined from a 20-foot timed walk. peak torque was calculated using peak isokinetic knee extensor force. RESULTS Serum bicarbonate <23 mEq/L was present in 22.7% of the cohort. Compared to participants with bicarbonate ?23 mEq/L, those with bicarbonate <23 mEq/L had higher body-mass index and serum albumin, were more likely to have low socioeconomic status, a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, or glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2, and were less likely to use diuretics. Serum bicarbonate <23 mEq/L, compared with ?23 mEq/L, was associated with low gait speed (OR, 1.43; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.04 – 1.95) and low peak torque (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.07 – 1.74) after multivariable adjustment. The association with low peak torque was modified by race/ethnicity among women but not men (ORs of 1.52 (95% CI 1.08 – 2.13) for men, 2.33 (95% CI 1.23 – 4.44) for non- white women, and 0.93 (95% CI 0.47 – 1.82) for white women). LIMITATIONS Cross-sectional study using a single measurement of bicarbonate. CONCLUSIONS Lower serum bicarbonate levels are associated with slower gait speed and reduced quadriceps strength in older adults. Further studies should examine the effect of alkali therapy on functional outcomes. PMID:21354683

  18. High temperature attack of ores by means of a liquor essentially containing a soluble bicarbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Bosca, B.; Maurel, P.; Nicolas, F.

    1981-10-20

    A process for the oxidizing attack at high temperature of ores containing at least one metal belonging to the group formed by uranium, vanadium and molybdenum, by means of an aqueous liquor containing a majority of sodium bicarbonate and a minority of sodium carbonate according to a ratio by weight of sodium bicarbonate to sodium carbonate of at least 1.5, in the presence of free oxygen injected into the reaction medium, this medium being maintained at a temperature of between 160/sup 0/C and 300/sup 0/C. For at most six hours.

  19. Bicarbonate Inhibits Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase

    PubMed Central

    Mächler, Felix; Nösberger, Josef

    1988-01-01

    Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCO) rapidly extracted from leaves of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and purified activated RuBPCO were incubated in the presence and absence of 20 millimolar HCO3? and changes in activation state were followed. Rapid inactivation occurred in the presence, but not in the absence, of HCO3?. Effects of CO2 concentration and pH during preincubation before assay on activation state of RuBPCO were investigated in equilibrium studies. Twenty percent inactivation occurred at high CO2 concentration if pH was high, but not if it was low, suggesting that RuBPCO was inactivated by HCO3?. The inactivation by HCO3? was more rapid than the dissociation of activating CO2 in CO2-free buffer (both in the presence of 20 millimolar MgCl2), suggesting that HCO3? was bound to the active enzyme complex. The dissociation of inactivating HCO3? from the enzyme was slow enough that inhibition could be demonstrated in experiments with HCO3? treatments during preincubation and constant conditions during assay. Inorganic phosphate did not seem to interfere with the binding of HCO3?. PMID:16666327

  20. Antimicrobial activity of borate-buffered solutions.

    PubMed Central

    Houlsby, R D; Ghajar, M; Chavez, G O

    1986-01-01

    A minimal salts medium adjusted to physiological pH and osmolality was buffered with either 0.3% phosphate or 1.2% borate and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The borate-buffered medium, either with or without a carbon source, exhibited significant antimicrobial activity against 15 Pseudomonas strains, 12 strains of enteric bacteria, and 7 strains of staphylococci. The borate-buffered system appears suitable for use as a generic vehicle for ophthalmic pharmaceutical agents. PMID:3729341

  1. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect

    Urakaev, F.K.

    2009-04-15

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  2. SODR Memory Control Buffer Control ASIC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodson, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    The Spacecraft Optical Disk Recorder (SODR) is a state of the art mass storage system for future NASA missions requiring high transmission rates and a large capacity storage system. This report covers the design and development of an SODR memory buffer control applications specific integrated circuit (ASIC). The memory buffer control ASIC has two primary functions: (1) buffering data to prevent loss of data during disk access times, (2) converting data formats from a high performance parallel interface format to a small computer systems interface format. Ten 144 p in, 50 MHz CMOS ASIC's were designed, fabricated and tested to implement the memory buffer control function.

  3. STUDIES ON THE EFFECT OF AMMONIUM SULFATE ON CARCINOGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The project was designed to evaluate the health effects of ammonium sulfate (Nh4)2 SO4 inhalation using experimental animals. The questions studied were: (1) Is inhaled ammonium sulfate co-carcinogenic. (2) What are the deposition and clearance patterns of inhaled ammonium sulfat...

  4. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721.6070 Section 721.6070 ...721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts (PMNs P-93-725 and...

  5. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721.6070 Section 721.6070 ...721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant...generically as alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts (PMNs P-93-725 and...

  6. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  7. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  8. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  9. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  10. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  11. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  12. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  13. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  14. 21 CFR 172.430 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Iron ammonium citrate. 172.430 Section 172.430...HUMAN CONSUMPTION Anticaking Agents § 172.430 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in food in...

  15. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  16. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  17. 21 CFR 573.560 - Iron ammonium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Iron ammonium citrate. 573.560 Section 573.560...OF ANIMALS Food Additive Listing § 573.560 Iron ammonium citrate. Iron ammonium citrate may be safely used in animal...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10430 - Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10430 Tetra alkyl ammonium salt (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salt (PMN P-97-823) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10511 - Quaternary ammonium salts (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Quaternary ammonium salts (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10511 Quaternary ammonium salts (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... ammonium salts (PMNs P-07-320, P-07-321, P-07-322, P-07-323, and P-07-324) are subject to reporting...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section 184.1141a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184.1141b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1141a - Ammonium phosphate, monobasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. 184.1141a Section... SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141a Ammonium phosphate, monobasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, monobasic (NH4H2PO4, CAS Reg. No. 7722-76-1) is manufactured by reacting ammonia...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. 184.1141b Section 184... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4)2HPO4, CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with...

  12. 21 CFR 172.165 - Quaternary ammonium chloride combination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. 172.165... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Food Preservatives § 172.165 Quaternary ammonium chloride combination. The food additive, quaternary ammonium chloride combination, may be safely used in food in accordance with...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  15. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  17. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  19. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  1. 21 CFR 182.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 182.1127 Section 182.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Food Substances § 182.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1127 - Aluminum ammonium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aluminum ammonium sulfate. 582.1127 Section 582.1127 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... Additives § 582.1127 Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum ammonium sulfate. (b) Conditions...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10302 - Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). 721... Substances § 721.10302 Zinc ammonium phosphate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as zinc ammonium phosphate (PMN...

  6. Loss of Slc4a1b Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger Function Protects Mechanosensory Hair Cells from

    E-print Network

    Rubel, Edwin

    Loss of Slc4a1b Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger Function Protects Mechanosensory Hair Cells from membrane. Loss of function of zSlc4a1b reduces hair cell death caused by exposure to the aminoglycosides al. (2012) Loss of Slc4a1b Chloride/Bicarbonate Exchanger Function Protects Mechanosensory Hair Cells

  7. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate.

    PubMed

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vasilios; Ktenopoulos, Nikolaos; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas pH > 7.15. Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis. PMID:26294968

  8. 416 Biochimica et Biophysica Aeta, 766 (1984) 416 -423 EVIDENCE FROM THERMOLUMINESCENCE FOR BICARBONATE ACTION ON THE

    E-print Network

    Govindjee

    1984-01-01

    THERMOLUMINESCENCE FOR BICARBONATE ACTION ON THE RECOMBINATION REACTIONS INVOLVING THE SECONDARY QUINONE ELECTRON) (Received March 12th, 1984) Key words: Thermoluminescence; Photosynthesis; Photosystem II; Bicarbonate on thermoluminescence from isolated thylakoids to probe the recombination reactions of S2 (or possibly $3) with Q~ or QA

  9. The Use of Sodium Bicarbonate in the Treatment of Acidosis in Sepsis: A Literature Update on a Long Term Debate

    PubMed Central

    Velissaris, Dimitrios; Karamouzos, Vasilios; Ktenopoulos, Nikolaos; Pierrakos, Charalampos; Karanikolas, Menelaos

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Sepsis and its consequences such as metabolic acidosis are resulting in increased mortality. Although correction of metabolic acidosis with sodium bicarbonate seems a reasonable approach, there is ongoing debate regarding the role of bicarbonates as a therapeutic option. Methods. We conducted a PubMed literature search in order to identify published literature related to the effects of sodium bicarbonate treatment on metabolic acidosis due to sepsis. The search included all articles published in English in the last 35 years. Results. There is ongoing debate regarding the use of bicarbonates for the treatment of acidosis in sepsis, but there is a trend towards not using bicarbonate in sepsis patients with arterial blood gas pH > 7.15. Conclusions. Routine use of bicarbonate for treatment of severe acidemia and lactic acidosis due to sepsis is subject of controversy, and current opinion does not favor routine use of bicarbonates. However, available evidence is inconclusive, and more studies are required to determine the potential benefit, if any, of bicarbonate therapy in the sepsis patient with acidosis. PMID:26294968

  10. Melatonin: Buffering the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo-Vico, Antonio; Lardone, Patricia J.; Álvarez-Sánchez, Nuria; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Ana; Guerrero, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin modulates a wide range of physiological functions with pleiotropic effects on the immune system. Despite the large number of reports implicating melatonin as an immunomodulatory compound, it still remains unclear how melatonin regulates immunity. While some authors argue that melatonin is an immunostimulant, many studies have also described anti-inflammatory properties. The data reviewed in this paper support the idea of melatonin as an immune buffer, acting as a stimulant under basal or immunosuppressive conditions or as an anti-inflammatory compound in the presence of exacerbated immune responses, such as acute inflammation. The clinical relevance of the multiple functions of melatonin under different immune conditions, such as infection, autoimmunity, vaccination and immunosenescence, is also reviewed. PMID:23609496

  11. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

    2013-07-01

    As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organics and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O:C) was ? 0.8 and was always observed for O:C<0.5. For 0.5 ? O:C< 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organics investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ? NH4HSO4 ? NaCl ? NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting-out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O:C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

  12. Liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate or sodium chloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    You, Y.; Renbaum-Wolff, L.; Bertram, A. K.

    2013-12-01

    As the relative humidity varies from high to low values in the atmosphere, particles containing organic species and inorganic salts may undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. The majority of the laboratory work on this subject has used ammonium sulfate as the inorganic salt. In the following we studied liquid-liquid phase separation in particles containing organics mixed with the following salts: ammonium sulfate, ammonium bisulfate, ammonium nitrate and sodium chloride. In each experiment one organic was mixed with one inorganic salt and the liquid-liquid phase separation relative humidity (SRH) was determined. Since we studied 23 different organics mixed with four different salts, a total of 92 different particle types were investigated. Out of the 92 types, 49 underwent liquid-liquid phase separation. For all the inorganic salts, liquid-liquid phase separation was never observed when the oxygen-to-carbon elemental ratio (O : C) ≥ 0.8 and was always observed for O : C < 0.5. For 0.5 ≤ O : C < 0.8, the results depended on the salt type. Out of the 23 organic species investigated, the SRH of 20 organics followed the trend: (NH4)2SO4 ≥ NH4HSO4 ≥ NaCl ≥ NH4NO3. This trend is consistent with previous salting out studies and the Hofmeister series. Based on the range of O : C values found in the atmosphere and the current results, liquid-liquid phase separation is likely a frequent occurrence in both marine and non-marine environments.

  13. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  14. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  15. 21 CFR 520.1696a - Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 520.1696a Buffered penicillin powder, penicillin powder with buffered aqueous diluent. (a) Specifications. When reconstituted, each milliliter contains penicillin G procaine...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... potentially serious disorders associated with changes in body acid-base balance. (b) Classification. Class II....

  17. Optical and Physical Properties of Cobalt Oxide Films Electrogenerated in Bicarbonate Aqueous Media

    E-print Network

    Pezolet, Michel

    Optical and Physical Properties of Cobalt Oxide Films Electrogenerated in Bicarbonate Aqueous MediaVember 18, 2005; In Final Form: January 27, 2006 For the first time, cobalt oxide films that are highly interference, have been successfully electrogenerated on polycrystalline cobalt disk electrodes under

  18. Crack Cocaine-Induced Cardiac Conduction Abnormalities Are Reversed by Sodium Bicarbonate Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Carlos Henrique; Pazin-Filho, Antônio

    2013-01-01

    We report a dramatic case of a 19-year-old man with crack cocaine overdose with important clinical complications as cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation and epileptics status. During this intoxication, electrocardiographic abnormalities similar to those found in tricyclic antidepressant poisoning were observed, and they were reversed by intravenous sodium bicarbonate infusion. PMID:23762070

  19. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  20. Control of blue mold of apple by combining controlled atmosphere, antagonist mixtures and sodium bicarbonate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Golden Delicious' apples were wound-inoculated with Penicillium expansum, treated with various combinations of sodium bicarbonate and two antagonists, and stored in air or controlled atmosphere (1.4% O2, 3% CO2). The fruit were stored for 2 or 4 months at 1°C. The antagonists survived and their p...

  1. 40 CFR 180.1177 - Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Potassium bicarbonate; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1177 Section 180.1177 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances §...

  2. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  3. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1160 - Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Bicarbonate/carbon dioxide test system. 862.1160 Section 862.1160 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry...

  5. UNDERSTANDING, DERIVING, AND COMPUTING BUFFER CAPACITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Derivation and systematic calculation of buffer capacity is a topic that seems often to be neglected in chemistry courses and given minimal treatment in most texts. However, buffer capacity is very important in the chemistry of natural waters and potable water. It affects corro...

  6. Buffer Management Simulation in ATM Networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaprak, E.; Xiao, Y.; Chronopoulos, A.; Chow, E.; Anneberg, L.

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of a new dynamic buffer allocation management scheme in ATM networks. To achieve this objective, an algorithm that detects congestion and updates the dynamic buffer allocation scheme was developed for the OPNET simulation package via the creation of a new ATM module.

  7. The buffer capacity of airway epithelial secretions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dusik; Liao, Jie; Hanrahan, John W.

    2014-01-01

    The pH of airway epithelial secretions influences bacterial killing and mucus properties and is reduced by acidic pollutants, gastric reflux, and respiratory diseases such as cystic fibrosis (CF). The effect of acute acid loads depends on buffer capacity, however the buffering of airway secretions has not been well characterized. In this work we develop a method for titrating micro-scale (30 ?l) volumes and use it to study fluid secreted by the human airway epithelial cell line Calu-3, a widely used model for submucosal gland serous cells. Microtitration curves revealed that HCO?3 is the major buffer. Peak buffer capacity (?) increased from 17 to 28 mM/pH during forskolin stimulation, and was reduced by >50% in fluid secreted by cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-deficient Calu-3 monolayers, confirming an important role of CFTR in HCO?3 secretion. Back-titration with NaOH revealed non-volatile buffer capacity due to proteins synthesized and released by the epithelial cells. Lysozyme and mucin concentrations were too low to buffer Calu-3 fluid significantly, however model titrations of porcine gastric mucins at concentrations near the sol-gel transition suggest that mucins may contribute to the buffer capacity of ASL in vivo. We conclude that CFTR-dependent HCO?3 secretion and epithelially-derived proteins are the predominant buffers in Calu-3 secretions. PMID:24917822

  8. Riparian buffer transpiration and watershed scale impacts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Forested riparian buffers are prevalent throughout the Southeastern Coastal Plain Region of the United States (US). Because they make up a significant portion of the regional landscape, transpiration within these riparian buffers is believed to have an important impact on the hydrologic budget of r...

  9. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation prevents skilled tennis performance decline after a simulated match

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The supplementation of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) could increase performance or delay fatigue in intermittent high-intensity exercise. Prolonged tennis matches result in fatigue, which impairs skilled performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of NaHCO3 supplementation on skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. Nine male college tennis players were recruited for this randomized cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. The participants consumed NaHCO3 (0.3 g. kg-1) or NaCl (0.209 g. kg-1) before the trial. An additional supplementation of 0.1 g. kg-1 NaHCO3 or 0.07 g. kg-1 NaCl was ingested after the third game in the simulated match. The Loughborough Tennis Skill Test was performed before and after the simulated match. Post-match [HCO3-] and base excess were significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial than those in the placebo trial. Blood [lactate] was significantly increased in the placebo (pre: 1.22 ± 0.54; post: 2.17 ± 1.46 mM) and bicarbonate (pre: 1.23 ± 0.41; post: 3.21 ± 1.89 mM) trials. The match-induced change in blood [lactate] was significantly higher in the bicarbonate trial. Blood pH remained unchanged in the placebo trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.32; post: 7.37 ± 0.14) but was significantly increased in the bicarbonate trial (pre: 7.37 ± 0.26; post: 7.45 ± 0.63), indicating a more alkaline environment. The service and forehand ground stroke consistency scores were declined significantly after the simulated match in the placebo trial, while they were maintained in the bicarbonate trial. The match-induced declines in the consistency scores were significantly larger in the placebo trial than those in the bicarbonate trial. This study suggested that NaHCO3 supplementation could prevent the decline in skilled tennis performance after a simulated match. PMID:20977701

  10. Ammonium and methylammonium transport in Rhodobacter sphaeroides

    SciTech Connect

    Cordts, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    The properties of two ammonium transport systems, including a novel NH{sub 4}{sup +}-specific system, were studied in the phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. The organism's ability to transport NH{sub 4}{sup +} was characterized by: (1) filtration assays of the analog, {sup 14}CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +} and (2) comparison of extracellular and intracellular NH{sub 4}{sup +} concentrations determined chemically under various conditions. Both {sup 14}CH{sub 3}NH{sub 3}{sup +} transport and maintenance of intracellular NH{sub 4}{sup +} pools were observed when glutamine synthetase was inhibited by methionine sulfoximine, suggesting ammonium transport and assimilation occurred independently.

  11. Corrosion and repairs of ammonium carbamate decomposers

    SciTech Connect

    De Romero, M.F.; Galban, J.P.

    1996-05-01

    Corrosion-erosion problems occurred in the carbon steel base metal of the ammonium carbamate decomposers in an urea extraction process lined with type 316L (UNS S31603) urea grade stainless steel. The cladding was replaced by weld overlay using a semiautomatic gas metal arc welding process. The first layer was alloy 25%Cr-15%Ni-2%Mo (UNS W30923); the second layer was alloy 25%Cr-22%Ni-2%Mo (UNS W31020).

  12. The effect of sodium bicarbonate on cytokine secretion in CKD patients with metabolic acidosis.

    PubMed

    Ori, Yaacov; Zingerman, Boris; Bergman, Michael; Bessler, Hanna; Salman, Hertzel

    2015-04-01

    The incidence of acidosis increases with the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Correction of acidosis by sodium bicarbonate may slow CKD deterioration. Inflammation, which is common in CKD, may be related to acidosis. Whether the slower rate of GFR decline following the correction of acidosis is related to changes in inflammatory markers is unknown. The current study examined whether correcting CKD-acidosis affected inflammatory cytokines secretion. Thirteen patients with CKD 4-5 and acidosis were tested for cytokines secretion from peripheral-blood mononuclear cells at baseline and after one month of oral sodium bicarbonate. Following treatment with sodium bicarbonate there was no change in weight, blood pressure, serum creatinine, albumin, sodium, calcium, phosphate, PTH, hemoglobin and CRP. Serum urea decreased (134±10-116±8 mg/dl, P=0.002), potassium decreased (5.1±0.4-4.8±0.1 mequiv./l, P=0.064), pH increased (7.29±0.01-7.33±0.01, P=0.008), and serum bicarbonate increased (18.6±0.4 mequiv./l to 21.3±0.3 mequiv./l, P=0.001). The secretion of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 decreased (2.75±0.25 ng/ml to 2.29±0.21 ng/ml, P=0.041). There was no significant change in the secretion of the other pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1?, IL-2, IL-6, TNF?, IFN?, IL-1ra. Thus, correcting acidosis in CKD with bicarbonate decreases IL-10 secretion. Its significance needs to be further investigated. PMID:25960222

  13. Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration prevents contrast-induced nephropathy: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Pascal; Ko, Dennis T; Tamura, Akira; Tamhane, Umesh; Gurm, Hitinder S

    2009-01-01

    Background Contrast-induced nephropathy is the leading cause of in-hospital acute renal failure. This side effect of contrast agents leads to increased morbidity, mortality, and health costs. Ensuring adequate hydration prior to contrast exposure is highly effective at preventing this complication, although the optimal hydration strategy to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy still remains an unresolved issue. Former meta-analyses and several recent studies have shown conflicting results regarding the protective effect of sodium bicarbonate. The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of normal saline versus sodium bicarbonate for prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy. Methods The study searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane databases, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts database, ISI Web of Science (until 15 December 2008), and conference proceedings for randomized controlled trials that compared normal saline with sodium bicarbonate-based hydration regimen regarding contrast-induced nephropathy. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary odds ratios. Results A total of 17 trials including 2,633 subjects were pooled. Pre-procedural hydration with sodium bicarbonate was associated with a significant decrease in the rate of contrast-induced nephropathy (odds ratios 0.52; 95% confidence interval 0.34–0.80, P = 0.003). Number needed to treat to prevent one case of contrast-induced nephropathy was 16 (95% confidence interval 10–34). No significant differences in the rates of post-procedure hemodialysis (P = 0.20) or death (P = 0.53) was observed. Conclusion Sodium bicarbonate-based hydration was found to be superior to normal saline in prevention of contrast-induced nephropathy in this updated meta-analysis. PMID:19439062

  14. Sodium bicarbonate versus isotonic saline solution to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Zapata-Chica, Carlos Andres; Bello Marquez, Diana; Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Casas-Arroyave, Fabian David; Donado-Gómez, Jorge Hernando

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Contrast-induced nephropathy is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury and increased hospital-acquired morbidity and mortality. The use of sodium bicarbonate for nephroprotection has emerged as a preventative strategy; however, its efficacy is controversial compared to other strategies, such as hydration using 0.9% saline solution. Objective: To compare the effectiveness of sodium bicarbonate vs. hydration using 0.9% saline solution to prevent contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Methods: A systematic review of studies registered in the COCHRANE, PUBMED, MEDLINE, LILACS, SCIELO and EMBASE databases was conducted. Randomized controlled studies that evaluated the use of 0.9% saline solution vs. sodium bicarbonate to prevent contrast-induced nephropathy were included. Results: A total of 22 studies (5,686 patients) were included. Sodium bicarbonate did not decrease the risk of contrast-induced nephropathy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.02 to 0.03; p= 0.83; I2= 0%). No significant differences were found in the demand for renal replacement therapy (RD= 0.00; 95% CI= -0.01 to 0-01; I2= 0%; p= 0.99) or in mortality (RD= -0.00; 95% CI= -0.001 to 0.001; I2= 0%; p= 0.51). Conclusions: Sodium bicarbonate administration is not superior to the use of 0.9% saline solution for preventing contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with risk factors, nor is it better at reducing mortality or the need for renal replacement therapy.

  15. Bidirectional diffusion of ammonium and sodium cations in forward osmosis: role of membrane active layer surface chemistry and charge.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinglin; Boo, Chanhee; Ma, Jun; Elimelech, Menachem

    2014-12-16

    Systematic fundamental understanding of mass transport in osmosis-driven membrane processes is important for further development of this emerging technology. In this work, we investigate the role of membrane surface chemistry and charge on bidirectional solute diffusion in forward osmosis (FO). In particular, bidirectional diffusion of ammonium (NH4(+)) and sodium (Na(+)) is examined using FO membranes with different materials and surface charge characteristics. Using an ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) draw solution, we observe dramatically enhanced cation fluxes with sodium chloride feed solution compared to that with deionized water feed solution for thin-film composite (TFC) FO membrane. However, the bidirectional diffusion of cations does not change, regardless of the type of feed solution, for cellulose triacetate (CTA) FO membrane. We relate this phenomenon to the membrane fixed surface charge by employing different feed solution pH to foster different protonation conditions for the carboxyl groups on the TFC membrane surface. Membrane surface modification is also carried out with the TFC membrane using ethylenediamine to alter carboxyl groups into amine groups. The modified TFC membrane, with less negatively charged groups, exhibits a significant decrease in the bidirectional diffusion of cations under the same conditions employed with the pristine TFC membrane. Based on our experimental observations, we propose Donnan dialysis as a mechanism responsible for enhanced bidirectional diffusion of cations in TFC membranes. PMID:25418020

  16. High stability buffered phase comparator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (inventors)

    1984-01-01

    A low noise RF signal phase comparator comprised of two high stability driver buffer amplifiers driving a double balanced mixer which operate to generate a beat frequency between the two RF input signals coupled to the amplifiers from the RF sources is described. The beat frequency output from the mixer is applied to a low noise zero crossing detector which is the phase difference between the two RF inputs. Temperature stability is provided by mounting the amplifiers and mixer on a common circuit board with the active circuit elements located on one side of a circuit board and the passive circuit elements located on the opposite side. A common heat sink is located adjacent the circuit board. The active circuit elements are embedded into the bores of the heat sink which slows the effect of ambient temperature changes and reduces the temperature gradients between the active circuit elements, thus improving the cancellation of temperature effects. The two amplifiers include individual voltage regulators, which increases RF isolation.

  17. The effect of varying levels of sodium bicarbonate on polychlorinated biphenyl dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tao; LaPara, Timothy M.; Novak, Paige J.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The addition of different concentrations of sodium bicarbonate had a profound effect on 2,3,4,5-chlorobiphenyl (2,3,4,5-CB) dechlorination in Hudson River sediment cultures. The most extensive dechlorination was observed in cultures to which 100 mg l?1 bicarbonate was added. Cultures amended with 1000 mg l?1 bicarbonate had the least extensive dechlorination, with 2,4-CB and 2,5-CB as predominant end-products. A significant loss of total chlorinated biphenyl mass was observed in cultures to which ?500 mg l?1 bicarbonate was added, suggesting that degradation beyond chlorinated biphenyls occurred. The dynamics of acetate formation were different among the treatments, with high acetate concentrations detected throughout the 303-day experiment in cultures to which 1000 mg l?1 bicarbonate had been added. Sodium bicarbonate addition also had a significant impact on bacterial community structure as detected by polymerase chain reaction-denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) of 16S rRNA gene fragments. Three putative polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorinators were identified; one Dehalococcoides-like population was detected in all enrichment cultures, whereas two Dehalobacter-like populations were only detected in the enrichment cultures with the most extensive dechlorination. These results suggest that the availability of bicarbonate, and potentially sodium, may affect PCB dechlorination in Hudson River sediment and thus need to be taken into consideration when assessing the fate of PCBs or implementing bioremediation. PMID:16817937

  18. Social buffering: relief from stress and anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Kikusui, Takefumi; Winslow, James T; Mori, Yuji

    2006-01-01

    Communication is essential to members of a society not only for the expression of personal information, but also for the protection from environmental threats. Highly social mammals have a distinct characteristic: when conspecific animals are together, they show a better recovery from experiences of distress. This phenomenon, termed ‘social buffering’, has been found in rodents, birds, non-human primates and also in humans. This paper reviews classical findings on social buffering and focuses, in particular, on social buffering effects in relation to neuroendocrine stress responses. The social cues that transmit social buffering signals, the neural mechanisms of social buffering and a partner's efficacy with respect to social buffering are also detailed. Social contact appears to have a very positive influence on the psychological and the physiological aspects of social animals, including human beings. Research leading towards further understanding of the mechanisms of social buffering could provide alternative medical treatments based on the natural, individual characteristics of social animals, which could improve the quality of life. PMID:17118934

  19. A novel structure of optical buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, AiMing; Wu, Chongqing; Gao, Huali; Gong, Yandong; Shum, Ping

    2005-02-01

    Optical buffers are critical for low packet-loss probability in future photonic packet-switched networks. In particular, they would be required to store packets during rate conversion and header processing, and to overcome the receiver's bottleneck. They would be required for queuing packets while transmitters await access to the network. In this paper, we present a novel structure of optical buffer with compact size. This kind of optical buffer is based on a collinear 3x3 fiber coupler in which three fibers are completely in the same plane and weakly coupled. A SOA is used as its nonlinear element as well as an amplifier in it.The experiment result will be also given in the paper. Storage results obtained with this novel structure optical buffer at 100Mb/s will be presented first and then its capacity is extended to higher data rates of 2.5Gb/s, more compatible with present optical networks. Storage has been observed for time up to 1.568ms(more than 32 circulations) in both cases without obvious degration. The novel structure of optical buffer could be a more compact device which makes it possible to be integrated in a chip. SOA in the buffer is used as a nonlinear element as well as an amplifier to compensate loss in the buffer loop. The buffer needs low control power for switch operation. It is easy to control 'write' and 'erase' operation because the same TOAD switch in the buffer can be used for both 'write' and 'erase' operation.

  20. Preparation of Y2O3:Eu3+, Tb3+ nanopowders with tunable luminescence by ammonium bicarbonate co-precipitation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Hui; Zhang, Xi-Yan; Wang, Neng-Li; Dong, Wei-Li; Mi, Xiao-Yun

    2015-09-01

    Y2O3:Eu3+, Tb3+ nanopowders were prepared by co-precipitation method with NH4HCO3 as precipitant. The nanopowders with different calcined temperatures and Eu3+/Tb3+ doped ratio were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The results showed that the nanopowders calcined at 1100°C for 2 h had a uniform distribution, high purity and good dispersibility. The particle size was in the range of 60-80 nm. The excitation spectra of Eu3+/Tb3+ co-doped phosphors were wide. The phosphors could emit the green light at the peak of 543 nm and the red light at the peak of 611 nm simultaneously under 276 nm or 300 nm excited. Because of the energy transfer between Tb3+ and Eu3+, the 543 nm emission of Tb3+ ion was weakened while the 611 nm emission of Eu3+ enhanced. The emissive colors of Y2O3:Eu3+, Tb3+ nanopowders could be adjusted from yellow-green to orange-red by changing the Eu3+/Tb3+ doping ratio.

  1. Sodium Bicarbonate Treatment during Transient or Sustained Lactic Acidemia in Normoxic and Normotensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Valenza, Franco; Pizzocri, Marta; Salice, Valentina; Chevallard, Giorgio; Fossali, Tommaso; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Polli, Federico; Gatti, Stefano; Fortunato, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P.; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Lactic acidosis is a frequent cause of poor outcome in the intensive care settings. We set up an experimental model of lactic acid infusion in normoxic and normotensive rats to investigate the systemic effects of lactic acidemia per se without the confounding factor of an underlying organic cause of acidosis. Methodology Sprague Dawley rats underwent a primed endovenous infusion of L(+) lactic acid during general anesthesia. Normoxic and normotensive animals were then randomized to the following study groups (n?=?8 per group): S) sustained infusion of lactic acid, S+B) sustained infusion+sodium bicarbonate, T) transient infusion, T+B transient infusion+sodium bicarbonate. Hemodynamic, respiratory and acid-base parameters were measured over time. Lactate pharmacokinetics and muscle phosphofructokinase enzyme's activity were also measured. Principal Findings Following lactic acid infusion blood lactate rose (P<0.05), pH (P<0.05) and strong ion difference (P<0.05) drop. Some rats developed hemodynamic instability during the primed infusion of lactic acid. In the normoxic and normotensive animals bicarbonate treatment normalized pH during sustained infusion of lactic acid (from 7.22±0.02 to 7.36±0.04, P<0.05) while overshoot to alkalemic values when the infusion was transient (from 7.24±0.01 to 7.53±0.03, P<0.05). When acid load was interrupted bicarbonate infusion affected lactate wash-out kinetics (P<0.05) so that blood lactate was higher (2.9±1 mmol/l vs. 1.0±0.2, P<0.05, group T vs. T+B respectively). The activity of phosphofructokinase enzyme was correlated with blood pH (R2?=?0.475, P<0.05). Conclusions pH decreased with acid infusion and rose with bicarbonate administration but the effects of bicarbonate infusion on pH differed under a persistent or transient acid load. Alkalization affected the rate of lactate disposal during the transient acid load. PMID:23029373

  2. Ammonium release from a blanket peatland into headwater stream systems.

    PubMed

    Daniels, S M; Evans, M G; Agnew, C T; Allott, T E H

    2012-04-01

    Hydrochemical sampling of South Pennine (UK) headwater streams draining eroded upland peatlands demonstrates these systems are nitrogen saturated, with significant leaching of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), particularly ammonium, during both stormflow and baseflow conditions. DIN leaching at sub-catchment scale is controlled by geomorphological context; in catchments with low gully densities ammonium leaching dominates whereas highly gullied catchments leach ammonium and nitrate since lower water tables and increased aeration encourages nitrification. Stormflow flux calculations indicate that: approximately equivalent amounts of nitrate are deposited and exported; ammonium export significantly exceeds atmospheric inputs. This suggests two ammonium sources: high atmospheric loadings; and mineralisation of organic nitrogen stored in peat. Downstream trends indicate rapid transformation of leached ammonium into nitrate. It is important that low-order headwater streams are adequately considered when assessing impacts of atmospheric loads on the hydrochemistry of stream networks, especially with respect to erosion, climate change and reduced precipitation. PMID:22285801

  3. Use of carbon dioxide- and oxygen-tonometered phosphate-bicarbonate-chloride-glycerol-water mixtures for calibration and control of pH, pCO2, and pO2 electrode systems.

    PubMed

    Veefkind, A H; Van den Camp, R A; Maas, A H

    1975-05-01

    Calibration of pH, PCO2, and PO2 electrode systems of modern blood-gas analyzers, designed with one sample cuvet for measurement, is mostly performed separately with buffer solutions of known pH, PCO2, and PO2 for doing such calibrations simultaneously, containing phosphate, bicarbonate, and chloride in glycerol-water mixtures as solvent. A method is suggested for computing the relation between pH and log PCO2 of these solutions in equilibrium with carbon dioxide gas. It is demonstrated that a solution of phosphate (Na2HPO4, KH2PO4, each 25 mmol/liter), bicarbonate (NaHCO3, 30 mmol/liter), and chloride (Nacl, 30 mmol/liter) in glycerol-water mixture (3/7 by vol) and equilibrated with CO2 in air (4 vol/100 vol) and CO2 in nitrogen (8 vol/100 vol), respectively, makes possible acurate and simultaneous calibration of the pH, PCO2, PO2 electrodes of a Corning Model 165 blood-gas analyzer. Similar solutions may also be used for quality-control of blood-gas measurement. PMID:235377

  4. How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 62 items) How Might New Neurons Buffer Against Stress? Clues Emerging from Studies in New Porter Neuroscience ... role in the action of antidepressants , resilience to stress , the benefits of exercise and enriched environments , and ...

  5. Competitive Parallel Disk Prefetching and Buffer Management

    E-print Network

    Barve, Rakesh; Kallahalla, Mahesh; Varman, Peter J.; Vitter, Jeffrey Scott

    2000-01-01

    We provide a competitive analysis framework for online prefetching and buffer management algorithms in parallel I/O systems, using a read-once model of block references. This has widespread applicability to key I/O-bound applications...

  6. Buffer assignment algorithms for data driven architectures 

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Mitrajit

    1994-01-01

    Data driven architectures designed to achieve high performance and throughput require the corresponding data flow graph to have no accumulation of data at its nodes and simultaneous arrival of all input data to a multi-input node. Buffers...

  7. A MICROPROCESSOR ASCII CHARACTER BUFFERING SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A microprocessor buffering system (MBS) was developed at the Environmental Monitoring and Support Laboratory -Cincinnati (EMSL-CI) to provide an efficient transfer for serial ASCII information between intelligent instrument systema and a Data General NOVA laboratory automation co...

  8. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    DOEpatents

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2006-10-31

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  9. Buffer layer for thin film structures

    SciTech Connect

    Foltyn, Stephen R.; Jia, Quanxi; Arendt, Paul N.; Wang, Haiyan

    2010-06-15

    A composite structure including a base substrate and a layer of a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate is provided. A superconducting article can include a composite structure including an outermost layer of magnesium oxide, a buffer layer of strontium titanate or a mixture of strontium titanate and strontium ruthenate and a top-layer of a superconducting material such as YBCO upon the buffer layer.

  10. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification.

    PubMed

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3(-)) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3(-) transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4? isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3(-) to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4? appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  11. Bicarbonate transporters in corals point towards a key step in the evolution of cnidarian calcification

    PubMed Central

    Zoccola, Didier; Ganot, Philippe; Bertucci, Anthony; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Techer, Nathalie; Voolstra, Christian R; Aranda, Manuel; Tambutté, Eric; Allemand, Denis; Casey, Joseph R; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    The bicarbonate ion (HCO3?) is involved in two major physiological processes in corals, biomineralization and photosynthesis, yet no molecular data on bicarbonate transporters are available. Here, we characterized plasma membrane-type HCO3? transporters in the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Eight solute carrier (SLC) genes were found in the genome: five homologs of mammalian-type SLC4 family members, and three of mammalian-type SLC26 family members. Using relative expression analysis and immunostaining, we analyzed the cellular distribution of these transporters and conducted phylogenetic analyses to determine the extent of conservation among cnidarian model organisms. Our data suggest that the SLC4? isoform is specific to scleractinian corals and responsible for supplying HCO3? to the site of calcification. Taken together, SLC4? appears to be one of the key genes for skeleton building in corals, which bears profound implications for our understanding of coral biomineralization and the evolution of scleractinian corals within cnidarians. PMID:26040894

  12. Transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over NiPd nanoparticle catalyst

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability. PMID:24790945

  13. Methane production from bicarbonate and acetate in an anoxic marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crill, P. M.; Martens, C. S.

    1986-01-01

    Methane production from C-14 labeled bicarbonate and acetate was measured over the top 28 cm of anoxic Cape Lookout Bight sediments during the summer of 1983. The depth distribution and magnitude of summed radioisotopically determined rates compare well with previous measurements of total methane production and the sediment-water methane flux. Methane production from CO2 reduction and acetate fermentation accounts for greater than 80 percent of the total production rate and sediment-water flux. Methane production from bicarbonate was found to occur in all depth intervals sampled except those in the top 2 cm, whereas significant methane production from acetate only occurred at depths below 10 cm where sulfate was exhausted. Acetate provided 20 to 29 percent of the measured methane production integrated over the top 30 cm of the sediments.

  14. Transformation of Sodium Bicarbonate and CO2 into Sodium Formate over NiPd Nanoparticle Catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mengnan; Zhang, Jiaguang; Yan, Ning

    2013-09-01

    The present research systematically investigated, for the first time, the transformation of sodium bicarbonate and CO2 into sodium formate over a series of Ni based metal nanoparticles (NPs). Ni NPs and eight NiM (M stands for a second metal) NPs were prepared by a facile wet chemical process and then their catalytic performance were evaluated in sodium bicarbonate hydrogenation. Bimetallic NiPd NPs with a composition of 7:3 were found to be superior for this reaction, which are more active than both pure Ni and Pd NPs. Hot filtration experiment suggested the NPs to be the truly catalytic active species and kinetic analysis indicated the reaction mechanism to be different than most homogeneous catalysts. The enhanced activity of the bimetallic nanoparticles may be attributed to their smaller size and improved stability.

  15. Epidural lidocaine-bicarbonate-adrenaline vs levobupivacaine for emergency Caesarean section: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Allam, J; Malhotra, S; Hemingway, C; Yentis, S M

    2008-03-01

    Epidural mixtures containing lidocaine with or without additives are commonly used to convert epidural analgesia in labour to anaesthesia for emergency Caesarean section, but direct comparisons with alternative, single agents in this situation are few. In a prospective double-blinded trial, we compared a freshly prepared lidocaine-bicarbonate-adrenaline mixture (final concentrations 1.8%, 0.76% and 1:200,000, respectively) with our standard agent, levobupivacaine 0.5%, for extending epidural blockade for emergency Caesarean section. Using a sequential analysis technique, with data analysed in blocks of 40, women receiving epidural analgesia in labour who required top-up for Caesarean section were randomly assigned to receive 20 ml of epidural solution over 3 min. The first analysis (n = 40) indicated that the study should be stopped, as significant differences were found in our primary outcome data. Median (IQR [range]) times to reach a block to touch to T5 and cold to T4 were, respectively, 7 (6-9 [5-17]) min and 7 (5-8 [4-17]) min for lidocaine-bicarbonate-adrenaline, and 14 (10 -17 [9-31]) min and 11 (9-14 [6-30]) min for levobupivacaine (p = 0.00004 and 0.001, respectively). Pre- and intra-operative supplementation/pain, maternal side-effects and neonatal outcomes (excluding five women who underwent instrumental delivery) were similar between the groups. Intra-operative maternal sedation (scored by the mother on a 10-point scale) was greater with lidocaine-bicarbonate-adrenaline (4.5 (3-8 [1-9])) than with levobupivacaine (3 (1-4 [1-7])), but not significantly so (p = 0.07). We conclude that epidural lidocaine-bicarbonate-adrenaline halves the onset time when extending epidural analgesia for Caesarean section although there is a possibility of increased maternal sedation. PMID:18289229

  16. Low Serum Bicarbonate Predicts Residual Renal Function Loss in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Tae Ik; Kang, Ea Wha; Kim, Hyung Woo; Ryu, Geun Woo; Park, Cheol Ho; Park, Jung Tak; Yoo, Tae-Hyun; Shin, Sug Kyun; Kang, Shin-Wook; Choi, Kyu Hun; Han, Dae Suk; Han, Seung Hyeok

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Low residual renal function (RRF) and serum bicarbonate are associated with adverse outcomes in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. However, a relationship between the 2 has not yet been determined in these patients. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether low serum bicarbonate has a deteriorating effect on RRF in PD patients. This prospective observational study included a total of 405 incident patients who started PD between January 2000 and December 2005. We determined risk factors for complete loss of RRF using competing risk methods and evaluated the effects of time-averaged serum bicarbonate (TA-Bic) on the decline of RRF over the first 3 years of dialysis treatment using generalized linear mixed models. During the first 3 years of dialysis, 95 (23.5%) patients became anuric. The mean time until patients became anuric was 20.8?±?9.0 months. After adjusting for multiple potentially confounding covariates, an increase in TA-Bic level was associated with a significantly decreased risk of loss of RRF (hazard ratio per 1?mEq/L increase, 0.84; 0.75–0.93; P?=?0.002), and in comparison to TA-Bic???24?mEq/L, TA-Bic?bicarbonate and loss of RRF in PD patients. Nevertheless, whether correction of metabolic acidosis for this indication provides additional protection for preserving RRF in these patients is unknown. Future interventional studies should more appropriately address this question. PMID:26252296

  17. Bicarbonate-induced activation of H2O2 for metal-free oxidative desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Bokare, Alok D; Choi, Wonyong

    2016-03-01

    Efficient oxidative desulfurization (ODS) of model oil containing dibenzothiophene (DBT) and aromatic thiophenic derivatives has been achieved at room temperature using hydrogen peroxide activation by inorganic bicarbonate (HCO3(-)). Using in-situ formation of peroxymonocarbonate as oxidant, the transformation of main model substrate DBT to corresponding DBT-sulfone was easily accomplished in biphasic reaction conditions. In the presence of water-acetonitrile polar phase, increasing the water content upto 50% decreased the extraction capacity more than 3 times, but ?90% DBT oxidation was still achieved. The oxidizing capacity of bicarbonate catalyst was maintained during repeated ODS cycles, but DBT removal efficiency was critically dependent on the extraction capacity of the polar phase. Under heterogeneous reaction conditions, bicarbonate-modified ion-exchange resin achieved similar ODS activity compared to the homogeneous catalytic system. Additionally, the efficient formation of peroxymonocarbonate using gaseous CO2 precursor in alkaline conditions was also utilized for DBT oxidation. The present study proposes the NaHCO3/H2O2 catalytic system as an efficient and cheap metal-free alternative for the oxidative removal of aromatic sulfur compounds from fuel oil. PMID:26561755

  18. Effects of angiotensin II and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption in the rat proximal tubule

    SciTech Connect

    Chatsudthipong, V.; Chan, Y.L.

    1986-03-01

    Microperfusion of proximal convoluted tubule(PCT) and peritubular capillaries was performed to examine the effects of angiotensin II(Ang II) and ionomycin on fluid and bicarbonate absorption. Bicarbonate was determined by microcalorimetry and C-14 inulin was used as a volume marker. The rates of bicarbonate absorption (JHCO/sub 3/) was 143 peq/min x mm and fluid absorption(Jv) was 2.70 nl/min x mm, when PCT and capillary perfusate contained normal Ringer solution. Addition of Ang II (10/sup -6/M) to the capillary perfusate caused reductions of JHCO/sub 3/ and Jv by 35%. A similar effect was observed when ionomycin was added to the capillary perfusate. Ang II antagonist, (Sar/sup 1/, Ile/sup 8/)-Angiotensin II(10/sup -6/M), completely blocked the inhibitory effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Removal of calcium from both luminal and capillary perfusate did not change the effect of Ang II on Jv and JHCO/sub 3/. Our results indicate that Ang II inhibits the sodium-hydrogen exchanger in the proximal tubule via interacting with angiotensin receptor. The mechanism of Ang II action may involve mobilization of intracellular calcium.

  19. Evidence for a Detrimental Effect of Bicarbonate Therapy in Hypoxic Lactic Acidosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Helmut; Leach, William; Arieff, Allen I.

    1985-02-01

    Lactic acidosis, a clinical syndrome caused by the accumulation of lactic acid, is characterized by lactate concentration in blood greater than 5 mM. Therapy usually consists of intravenous sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), but resultant mortality is greater than 60 percent. The metabolic and systemic effects of NaHCO3 therapy of hypoxic lactic acidosis in dogs were studied and compared to the effects of sodium chloride or no therapy. Sodium bicarbonate elevated blood lactate concentrations to a greater extent than did either sodium chloride or no treatment. Despite the infusion of NaHCO3, both arterial pH and bicarbonate concentration decreased by a similar amount in all three groups of dogs. Additional detrimental effects of NaHCO3 were observed on the cardiovascular system, including decreases in cardiac output and blood pressure that were not observed with either sodium chloride or no treatment. Thus there is evidence for a harmful effect of NaHCO3 in the treatment of hypoxic lactic acidosis.

  20. Comparison of external jugular and peripheral venous administration of sodium bicarbonate in puppies.

    PubMed

    Fleisher, G; Caputo, G; Baskin, M

    1989-03-01

    We compared the administration of sodium bicarbonate via a catheter inserted in the external jugular and extending to the junction with the subclavian vein (group 1) and a peripheral hindpaw vein (group 2) in puppies. During spontaneous cardiac activity, the increases in pH (0.12 +/- 0.04 in group 1 vs. 0.08 +/- 0.04 in group 2) and PCO2 (11 +/- 2.8 torr in group 1 vs. 6 +/- 3.2 torr in group 2) in blood from the right atrium 10 sec after the injection of bicarbonate differed significantly. However, the increases in pH (0.31 +/- 0.07 in group 1 vs. 0.30 +/- 0.15 in group 2) and PCO2 (86 +/- 33 torr in group 1 vs. 72 +/- 35 torr in group 2) in blood from the right atrium during closed chest CPR were similar in the two groups. We found that the sodium bicarbonate reached the central circulation more rapidly when administered in the external jugular vein as compared to a peripheral site, but this difference was small and did not reach the level of significance during CPR. Our findings do not provide evidence of any advantage to obtaining central venous access (a potentially complicated procedure) in children with cardiac arrest in regard to the delivery of medications to the heart. PMID:2537708

  1. The Sodium Bicarbonate Cotransporter (NBCe1) Is Essential for Normal Development of Mouse Dentition*

    PubMed Central

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Nanci, Antonio; White, Shane N.; Wen, Xin; Wang, HongJun; Zalzal, Sylvia F.; Luong, Vivian Q.; Schuetter, Verna L.; Conti, Peter S.; Kurtz, Ira; Paine, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Proximal renal tubular acidosis (pRTA) is a syndrome caused by abnormal proximal tubule reabsorption of bicarbonate resulting in metabolic acidosis. Patients with mutations to the SLC4A4 gene (coding for the sodium bicarbonate cotransporter NBCe1), have pRTA, growth delay, ocular defects, and enamel abnormalities. In an earlier report, we provided the first evidence that enamel cells, the ameloblasts, express NBCe1 in a polarized fashion, thereby contributing to trans-cellular bicarbonate transport. To determine whether NBCe1 plays a critical role in enamel development, we studied the expression of NBCe1 at various stages of enamel formation in wild-type mice and characterized the biophysical properties of enamel in NBCe1?/? animals. The enamel of NBCe1?/? animals was extremely hypomineralized and weak with an abnormal prismatic architecture. The expression profile of amelogenin, a known enamel-specific gene, was not altered in NBCe1?/? animals. Our results show for the first time that NBCe1 expression is required for the development of normal enamel. This study provides a mechanistic model to account for enamel abnormalities in certain patients with pRTA. PMID:20529845

  2. Pilot scale-SO{sub 2} control by dry sodium bicarbonate injection and an electrostatic precipitator

    SciTech Connect

    Pliat, M.J.; Wilder, J.M.

    2007-10-15

    A 500 actual cubic feet gas per minute (acfm) pilot-scale SO{sub 2} control study was undertaken to investigate flue gas desulfurization (FGD) by dry sodium sorbents in 400{sup o}F (204.5{sup o}C) flue gases emitted from a coal fired boiler with flue gas concentrations between 350 and 2500 ppm SO{sub 2}. Powdered sodium alkaline reagents were injected into the hot flue gas downstream of the air preheater and the spent reagents were collected using an electrostatic precipitator. Three different sorbents were used: processed sodium bicarbonate of two particle sizes; solution mined sodium bicarbonate, and processed sodium sesquicarbonate. SO{sub 2} concentrations were measured upstream of the reagent injection, 25-ft (7.62 m) downstream of the injection point, and downstream of the electrostatic precipitator. SO{sub 2} collection efficiencies ranged from 40 to 80% using sodium bicarbonate stoichiometric ratios from 0.5 to 3.0. Much of the in-duct SO{sub 2} removal occurred during the first second of reagent reaction time, indicating that the sulfur dioxide-sodium reaction rates may be faster than have been measured for fixed bed measurements reported in the literature.

  3. Ammonium nitrate: a promising rocket propellant oxidizer

    PubMed

    Oommen; Jain

    1999-06-30

    Ammonium nitrate (AN) is extensively used in the area of fertilizers and explosives. It is present as the major component in most industrial explosives. Its use as an oxidizer in the area of propellants, however, is not as extensive as in explosive compositions or gas generators. With the growing demand for environmental friendly chlorine free propellants, many attempts have been made of late to investigate oxidizers producing innocuous combustion products. AN, unlike the widely used ammonium perchlorate, produces completely ecofriendly smokeless products. Besides, it is one of the cheapest and easily available compounds. However, its use in large rocket motors is restricted due to some of its adverse characteristics like hygroscopicity, near room temperature phase transformation involving a volume change, and low burning rate (BR) and energetics. The review is an attempt to consolidate the information available on the various issues pertaining to its use as a solid propellant oxidizer. Detailed discussions on the aspects relating to phase modifications, decomposition chemistry, and BR and energetics of AN-based propellants, are presented. To make the review more comprehensive brief descriptions of the history, manufacture, safety, physical and chemical properties and various other applications of the salt are also included. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V. PMID:10370180

  4. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA`s National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970`s. In the late 1970`s and early 1980`s, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC`s current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC`s current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  5. Utilization of by-product ammonium sulfate

    SciTech Connect

    Boles, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Sulfur is generally referred to as a secondary plant nutrients but it actually ranks in importance with nitrogen and phosphorous in protein synthesis. It is also an integral part of vitamins and enzymes essential to life. Soils in many areas of the world today are deficient in sulfur and soil sulfur reserves are being rapidly depleted. To address growing agronomic needs for sulfur, TVA's National Fertilizer and Environmental Research Center (NFERC) has been committed to development of technologies to produce low-cost sulfur-containing fertilizers since the mid 1970's. In the late 1970's and early 1980's, NFERC developed and demonstrated a 29-0-0-5S urea-ammonium sulfate (UAS) suspension. In 1984, NFERC developed and later patented a new family of nitrogen-sulfur (NS) suspensions to replace the earlier UAS suspension with more versatile, better quality products made by a simpler, more economical process. NFERC's current endeavors involve development of technologies for successful utilization of low-quality, by-product ammonium sulfate (AS) in the fertilizer industry, which is the subject of this paper. NFERC's current focus on utilization of by-product AS centers around the economic and environmental aspects of these technologies as the primary rationale for development, since the needs for sulfur in soils is now generally well known and sulfur application is common and now charged for in many areas.

  6. Safety Testing of Ammonium Nitrate Based Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Jason; Lappo, Karmen; Phelan, James; Peterson, Nathan; Gilbert, Don

    2013-06-01

    Ammonium nitrate (AN)/ammonium nitrate based explosives have a lengthy documented history of use by adversaries in acts of terror. While historical research has been conducted on AN-based explosive mixtures, it has primarily focused on detonation performance while varying the oxygen balance between the oxidizer and fuel components. Similarly, historical safety data on these materials is often lacking in pertinent details such as specific fuel type, particle size parameters, oxidizer form, etc. A variety of AN-based fuel-oxidizer mixtures were tested for small-scale sensitivity in preparation for large-scale testing. Current efforts focus on maintaining a zero oxygen-balance (a stoichiometric ratio for active chemical participants) while varying factors such as charge geometry, oxidizer form, particle size, and inert diluent ratios. Small-scale safety testing was conducted on various mixtures and fuels. It was found that ESD sensitivity is significantly affected by particle size, while this is less so for impact and friction. Thermal testing is in progress to evaluate hazards that may be experienced during large-scale testing.

  7. Photosystem II and the unique role of bicarbonate: a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Shevela, Dmitriy; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Shen, Jian-Ren; Govindjee

    2012-08-01

    In photosynthesis, cyanobacteria, algae and plants fix carbon dioxide (CO(2)) into carbohydrates; this is necessary to support life on Earth. Over 50 years ago, Otto Heinrich Warburg discovered a unique stimulatory role of CO(2) in the Hill reaction (i.e., O(2) evolution accompanied by reduction of an artificial electron acceptor), which, obviously, does not include any carbon fixation pathway; Warburg used this discovery to support his idea that O(2) in photosynthesis originates in CO(2). During the 1960s, a large number of researchers attempted to decipher this unique phenomenon, with limited success. In the 1970s, Alan Stemler, in Govindjee's lab, perfected methods to get highly reproducible results, and observed, among other things, that the turnover of Photosystem II (PSII) was stimulated by bicarbonate ions (hydrogen carbonate): the effect would be on the donor or the acceptor, or both sides of PSII. In 1975, Thomas Wydrzynski, also in Govindjee's lab, discovered that there was a definite bicarbonate effect on the electron acceptor (the plastoquinone) side of PSII. The most recent 1.9Å crystal structure of PSII, unequivocally shows HCO(3)(-) bound to the non-heme iron that sits in-between the bound primary quinone electron acceptor, Q(A), and the secondary quinone electron acceptor Q(B). In this review, we focus on the historical development of our understanding of this unique bicarbonate effect on the electron acceptor side of PSII, and its mechanism as obtained by biochemical, biophysical and molecular biological approaches in many laboratories around the World. We suggest an atomic level model in which HCO(3)(-)/CO(3)(2-) plays a key role in the protonation of the reduced Q(B). In addition, we make comments on the role of bicarbonate on the donor side of PSII, as has been extensively studied in the labs of Alan Stemler (USA) and Vyacheslav Klimov (Russia). We end this review by discussing the uniqueness of bicarbonate's role in oxygenic photosynthesis and its role in the evolutionary development of O(2)-evolving PSII. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22521596

  8. Comparison of the Kinetic Rate Law Parameters for the Dissolution of Natural and Synthetic Autunite in the Presence of Aqueous Bicarbonate Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Gudavalli, Ravi; Katsenovich, Yelena; Wellman, Dawn M.; Idarraga, Melina; Lagos, Leonel; Tansel, Berrin

    2013-08-02

    Bicarbonate is one of the most significant components within the uranium geochemical cycle. In aqueous solutions, bicarbonate forms strong complexes with uranium. As such, aqueous bicarbonate may significantly increase the rate of uranium release from uranium minerals. Quantifying the relationship of aqueous bicarbonate concentration to the rate of uranium release during dissolution is critical to understanding the long-term fate of uranium within the environment. Single-pass flow-through (SPTF) experiments were conducted to estimate the rate of uranium release from Na meta-autunite as a function of bicarbonate (0.0005-0.003 M) under the pH range of 6-11 and a temperature range of 5-60oC. Consistent with the results of previous investigation, the rate of uranium release exhibited minimal dependency on temperature; but were strongly dependent on pH. Increasing aqueous bicarbonate concentrations afforded comparable increases in the rate of release of uranium. Most notably under low pH conditions the aqueous bicarbonate resulted in up to 370 fold increases in the rate of uranium release in relative to the rate of uranium release in the absence of bicarbonate. However, the effect of aqueous bicarbonate on the release of uranium was significantly less under higher pH conditions. It is postulated that at high pH values, surface sites are saturated with carbonate, thus the addition of more bicarbonate would have less effect on uranium release.

  9. Meta-analysis of nitrogen removal in riparian buffers.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Paul M; Reynolds, Steven K; McCutchen, Marshall D; Canfield, Timothy J

    2007-01-01

    Riparian buffers, the vegetated region adjacent to streams and wetlands, are thought to be effective at intercepting and reducing nitrogen loads entering water bodies. Riparian buffer width is thought to be positively related to nitrogen removal effectiveness by influencing nitrogen retention or removal. We surveyed the scientific literature containing data on riparian buffers and nitrogen concentration in streams and groundwater to identify trends between nitrogen removal effectiveness and buffer width, hydrological flow path, and vegetative cover. Nitrogen removal effectiveness varied widely. Wide buffers (>50 m) more consistently removed significant portions of nitrogen entering a riparian zone than narrow buffers (0-25 m). Buffers of various vegetation types were equally effective at removing nitrogen but buffers composed of herbaceous and forest/herbaceous vegetation were more effective when wider. Subsurface removal of nitrogen was efficient, but did not appear to be related to buffer width, while surface removal of nitrogen was partly related to buffer width. The mass of nitrate nitrogen removed per unit length of buffer did not differ by buffer width, flow path, or buffer vegetation type. Our meta-analysis suggests that buffer width is an important consideration in managing nitrogen in watersheds. However, the inconsistent effects of buffer width and vegetation on nitrogen removal suggest that soil type, subsurface hydrology (e.g., soil saturation, groundwater flow paths), and subsurface biogeochemistry (organic carbon supply, nitrate inputs) also are important factors governing nitrogen removal in buffers. PMID:17596626

  10. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4 )2 HPO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric acid at a pH above 5.8....

  11. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4 )2 HPO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric acid at a pH above 5.8....

  12. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4 )2 HPO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric acid at a pH above 5.8....

  13. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4 )2 HPO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric acid at a pH above 5.8....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1141b - Ammonium phosphate, dibasic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1141b Ammonium phosphate, dibasic. (a) Ammonium phosphate, dibasic ((NH4 )2 HPO4 , CAS Reg. No. 7783-28-0) is manufactured by reacting ammonia with phosphoric acid at a pH above 5.8....

  15. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  16. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  17. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  18. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6070 - Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. 721... Substances § 721.6070 Alkyl phosphonate ammonium salts. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... salts (PMNs P-93-725 and P-93-726) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant...

  20. Surface Micellization Patterns of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants on Mica

    E-print Network

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    Surface Micellization Patterns of Quaternary Ammonium Surfactants on Mica Heather N. Patrick equilibrium structures of adsorbed films of quaternary ammonium surfactants on mica have been investigated never been reported on graphite. Mica is a model hydrophilic surface and has been previously used