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Sample records for ammotragus lervia bovidae

  1. Investigation and diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis in a captive herd of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia).

    PubMed

    Portas, Timothy J; Bryant, Benn R; Jones, Stephen L; Humphreys, Kaye; Gilpin, Christopher M; Rose, Karrie A

    2009-06-01

    An epizootic of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis occurred in a captive herd of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) over a period of 18 mo. Each of the affected animals was subject to a thorough postmortem examination that included histopathology, tissue concentration and acid-fast staining, aerobic and anaerobic bacterial culture, mycobacterial culture, and real-time polymerase chain reaction specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA. Histopathologic lesions consistent with pulmonary mycobacteriosis, including the presence of acid-fast bacteria, were identified in two captive adult male aoudad. M. avium was isolated in culture from the pulmonary parenchyma, and M. parafortuitum was isolated from a mesenteric lymph node of a third animal, an adult female, euthanized subsequent to an illness characterized by progressive dyspnea and tachypnea. M. intracellulare was isolated within the bronchial lymph node of a fourth aoudad, an adult female that was euthanized due to chronic weight loss. Diagnostic testing of the 34 individuals in the herd included collection of blood for an interferon-gamma assay, intradermal tuberculin testing, and radiometric fecal culture for M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis. On the basis of this investigation, mycobacteriosis associated with M. bovis, M. tuberculosis, and/or M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis was ruled out and nontuberculous mycobacteriosis was confirmed in this herd. PMID:19569478

  2. Population effects of sarcoptic mange in Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) from Sierra Espuña Regional Park, Spain.

    PubMed

    González-Candela, Mónica; León-Vizcaíno, Luis; Cubero-Pablo, María José

    2004-07-01

    The nonindigenous Barbary sheep population (Ammotragus lervia) of the Sierra Espuna Regional Park (Murcia, Spain) suffered an outbreak of sarcoptic mange between 1991 and 1995, which contributed to a population decrease of 86%. This study presents the results of two population surveys conducted in 1994 and 1999 based on the fixed point and itineraries method (FPI) and the excrement count (EC) method, as well as data from demographic estimates and clinical observations conducted by the Regional Administration of Murcia. Results of surveillance for mange are given between 1992 and 1995, because no animals were observed with sarcoptic mange in 1999. Prevalence of mange peaked in 1994 and then declined. During the regression phase of the epidemic, there was a higher infection rate in males (21.9%) than in females (16.6%) or young animals (5.1%). Males over 5 yr old were the worst affected age group, followed by subadults of both sexes. Few animals had generalized lesions of mange (7%), and most individuals (72%) had lesions of moderate severity. The most common locations of lesions were the neck, head, and back. The density of Barbary sheep in the Sierra Espuna Regional Park increased from introduction in 1972 until it peaked at 13 animals/km(2) in 1991, the year when the first case of sarcoptic mange was detected. After 2 yr of the mange epidemic, the average estimated density was 1.7 animals/km(2) in 1994, which increased to 5.0 animals/km(2) in 1999. The average group size also increased from 7.9 to 19.2 animals/group between 1994 and 1999. The sex ratio, expressed as the proportion of females in the total population observed, decreased from 0.61 in 1994 to 0.49 in 1999. The reproduction rate (kids per females per year) was essentially stable (0.59 in 1994 to 0.65 in 1999). Between 1994 and 1999 the population aged, with the number of young animals (<18 mo of age) decreasing from 45.3% to 36.6% from 1994 to 1999. In the same period, the proportion of males increased

  3. Cryopreservation of aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm obtained by transrectal ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands and electroejaculation.

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Guerra, R; Ruiz, M J; Mendoza, N; Luna, C; Cebrián-Pérez, J A; Hildebrandt, T B

    2013-01-15

    This study examines (1) the effectiveness of transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands (TUMASG) combined with electroejaculation for obtaining aoudad (Ammotragus lervia sahariensis) sperm samples for cryopreservation, and (2) the effectiveness of a Tris-citric acid-glucose-based medium (TCG; usually used for freezing ibex sperm) and a TES-Tris-glucose-based medium (TTG; typically used in the cryopreservation of mouflon sperm) as sperm extenders. After TUMASG, just one to three electrical pulses were required for ejaculation to occur in five of the six animals studied; one ejaculated after TUMASG alone. Transrectal, ultrasound-guided massage of the accessory sex glands would therefore appear to be useful in obtaining sperm samples from this species, requiring few subsequent electrical electroejaculation stimuli and sometimes none at all. After thawing, the membrane integrity (assessed by nigrosin-eosin staining) of sperm extended with TTG was greater than that of sperm extended with TCG (P < 0.05). The total percentage of sperm showing an intact acrosome, as assessed by fluorescein isothiocyanate-conjugated peanut (Arachis hypogea) agglutinin, was also higher in the TTG-extended sperm (P < 0.05), and the percentage of dead sperm with a damaged acrosome was lower (P < 0.05). No differences were seen between TCG and TTG in terms of apoptotic manifestations (DNA damage, caspase activity, mitochondrial membrane potential, and plasmalemma stability). Therefore, TTG appears to be a better extender than TCG for cryopreserving aoudad sperm. PMID:23158213

  4. The eye of the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia): reference values for selected ophthalmic diagnostic tests, morphologic and biometric observations

    PubMed Central

    Fornazari, G.A.; Montiani-Ferreira, F.; Filho, I.R. de Barros; Somma, A.T.; Moore, B.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the normal ocular anatomy and establish reference values for ophthalmic tests in the Barbary sheep or aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Aoudad eyes are large and laterally positioned in the head with several specialized anatomic features attributed to evolutionary adaptations for grazing. Normal values for commonly used ophthalmic tests were established, Schirmer tear test (STT) - 27.22 ± 3.6 mm/min; Predominant ocular surface bacterial microbiota - Staphylococcus sp.; Corneal esthesiometry- 1.3 ± 0.4 cm; Intraocular pressure by rebound tonometry- 19.47 ± 3.9 mmHg; Corneal thickness- 630.07 ± 20.67 µm, B-mode ultrasonography of the globe-axial eye globe length 29.94 ± 0.96 mm, anterior chamber depth 5.03 ± 0.17 mm, lens thickness 9.4 ± 0.33 mm, vitreous chamber depth 14.1 ± 0.53 mm; Corneal diameter-horizontal corneal diameter 25.05 ± 2.18 mm, vertical corneal diameter 17.95 ± 1.68 mm; Horizontal palpebral fissure length- 34.8 ± 3.12 mm. Knowledge of these normal anatomic variations, biometric findings and normal parameters for ocular diagnostic tests may assist veterinary ophthalmologists in the diagnosis of ocular diseases in this and other similar species. PMID:27419103

  5. Effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) ejaculates.

    PubMed

    Pradiee, J; O'Brien, E; Esteso, M C; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Lopez-Sebastián, A; Marcos-Beltrán, J L; Vega, R S; Guillamón, F G; Martínez-Nevado, E; Guerra, R; Santiago-Moreno, J

    2016-08-01

    The present study reports the effect of shortening the prefreezing equilibration time with glycerol on the quality of frozen-thawed ejaculated sperm from four Mediterranean mountain ungulates: Cantabrian chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica), mouflon (Ovis musimon) and aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). Ejaculated sperm from these species were divided into two aliquots. One was diluted with either a Tris-citric acid-glucose based medium (TCG-glycerol; for chamois and ibex sperm) or a Tris-TES-glucose-based medium (TTG-glycerol; for mouflon and aoudad sperm), and maintained at 5°C for 3h prior to freezing. The other aliquot was diluted with either TCG (chamois and ibex sperm) or TTG (mouflon and aoudad sperm) and maintained at 5°C for 1h before adding glycerol (final concentration 5%). After a 15min equilibration period in the presence of glycerol, the samples were frozen. For the ibex, there was enhanced (P<0.05) sperm viability and acrosome integrity after the 3h as compared with the 15min equilibration time. For the chamois, subjective sperm motility and cell membrane functional integrity were less (P<0.05) following 15min of equilibration. In the mouflon, progressive sperm motility and acrosome integrity was less (P<0.05) when the equilibration time was reduced to 15min. For the aoudad, the majority of sperm variables measured were more desirable after the 3h equilibration time. The freezing-thawing processes reduced the sperm head size in all the species studied; however, the equilibration time further affected the frozen-thawed sperm head variables in a species-dependent fashion. While the equilibration time for chamois sperm might be shortened, this appears not to be the case for all ungulates. PMID:27346588

  6. Molecular evolution of coding and non-coding sequences of the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene in the family Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Maj, Andrzej; Zwierzchowski, Lech

    2006-01-01

    The GHR gene exon 1A and exon 4 with fragments of its flanking introns were sequenced in twelve Bovidae species and the obtained sequences were aligned and analysed by the ClustalW method. In coding exon 4 only three interspecies differences were found, one of which had an effect on the amino-acid sequence--leucine 152 proline. The average mutation frequency in non-coding exon 1A was 10.5 per 100 bp, and was 4.6-fold higher than that in coding exon 4 (2.3 per 100 bp). The mutation frequency in intron sequences was similar to that in non-coding exon 1A (8.9 vs 10.5/100 bp). For non-coding exon 1A, the mutation levels were lower within than between the subfamilies Bovinae and Caprinae. Exon 4 was 100% identical within the genera Ovis, Capra, Bison, and Bos and 97.7% identical for Ovis moschatus, Ammotragus lervia and Bovinae species. The identity level of non-coding exon 1A of the GHR gene was 93.8% between species belonging to Bovinae and Caprinae. The average mutation rate was 0.2222/100 bp/MY and 0.0513/100 bp/MY for the Bovidae GHR gene exons 1A and 4, respectively. Thus, the GHR gene is well conserved in the Bovidae family. Also, in this study some novel intraspecies polymorphisms were found for cattle and sheep. PMID:17044257

  7. The use of buck and ram extenders and two packaging systems to cryopreserve aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Crenshaw, C C; Martin, L M; Mains, C R; Wright, R D; Dart, M G; Perkins, R M; Purdy, P H; Ericsson, S A

    2000-07-01

    Because the aoudad has been hunted to near extinction, cryopreservation of their semen would be useful for DNA conservation and for the possible re-establishment of captive bred animals to their former ranges. This study was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of cryopreserving aoudad spermatozoa. Semen samples from four post-pubertal animals were collected using electro-ejaculation. Microscopic analysis was performed to assess the percentages of progressively and non-progressively motile spermatozoa as well as intact acrosomes in samples prior to freezing and post-thaw. Extended samples (0.2 mL) were frozen using 2 different extenders and packaging systems and stored in LN2 Post-thaw data were arcsine-transformed and analyzed using ANOVA, 2 x 2 factorial. Samples that were processed using the ram/straw method had a significantly higher percentage (P < 0.05) of spermatozoa with intact acrosomes than did any other system. In addition, samples that were processed with the buck/pellet system had significantly greater percentages (P < 0.05) of progressive and non-progressively motile spermatozoa than the samples processed using either extender and packaged in straws. This study illustrates that some aoudad spermatozoa may be cryopreserved using the extender/processing systems developed for the domestic buck and ram. PMID:10990348

  8. Meiotic behaviour of evolutionary sex-autosome translocations in Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Vozdova, Miluse; Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora; Fernandez, Jonathan; Cernohorska, Halina; Frohlich, Jan; Sebestova, Hana; Kubickova, Svatava; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-09-01

    The recurrent occurrence of sex-autosome translocations during mammalian evolution suggests common mechanisms enabling a precise control of meiotic synapsis, recombination and inactivation of sex chromosomes. We used immunofluorescence and FISH to study the meiotic behaviour of sex chromosomes in six species of Bovidae with evolutionary sex-autosome translocations (Tragelaphus strepsiceros, Taurotragus oryx, Tragelaphus imberbis, Tragelaphus spekii, Gazella leptoceros and Nanger dama ruficollis). The autosomal regions of fused sex chromosomes showed normal synapsis with their homologous counterparts. Synapsis in the pseudoautosomal region (PAR) leads to the formation of characteristic bivalent (in T. imberbis and T. spekii with X;BTA13/Y;BTA13), trivalent (in T. strepsiceros and T. oryx with X/Y;BTA13 and G. leptoceros with X;BTA5/Y) and quadrivalent (in N. dama ruficollis with X;BTA5/Y;BTA16) structures at pachynema. However, when compared with other mammals, the number of pachynema lacking MLH1 foci in the PAR was relatively high, especially in T. imberbis and T. spekii, species with both sex chromosomes involved in sex autosome translocations. Meiotic transcriptional inactivation of the sex-autosome translocations assessed by γH2AX staining was restricted to their gonosomal regions. Despite intraspecies differences, the evolutionary fixation of sex-autosome translocations among bovids appears to involve general mechanisms ensuring sex chromosome pairing, synapsis, recombination and inactivation. PMID:27136937

  9. Phylogenetic position of the saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) inferred from cytogenetic analysis of eleven species of Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T; Aniskin, V M; Gerbault-Seureau, M; Planton, H; Renard, J P; Nguyen, B X; Hassanin, A; Volobouev, V T

    2008-01-01

    Previous morphological and molecular analyses failed to resolve the phylogenetic position of the critically endangered saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) with respect to its placement in Bovina (cattle, bison, and yak) or Bubalina (Asian and African buffaloes). In the present study, G- and C-banding, Ag-staining and FISH with 28S and telomeric probes was undertaken for 17 bovid species. An analysis of these data allowed us to identify 49 structural rearrangements that included autosomes, gonosomes and 17 different NOR sites. The combined data set was subjected to a cladistic analysis aimed at: (i) providing new insights on phylogenetic relationships of the saola and other species within the subfamily Bovinae, and (ii) testing the suitability of different classes of chromosomal characters for phylogenetic reconstruction of the family Bovidae. The study revealed that nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are phylogenetically informative. It was shown that at least one, or sometimes two of these characters punctuate divergences that include nodes that are the most basal in the tree, to those that are the most recent. In this context, the shared presence of three NORs in saola and species of Syncerus and Bubalus strongly suggests the saola's placement within the subtribe Bubalina. This contrasts with Robertsonian rearrangements which are informative only at the generic level. These findings suggest that NORs are an important and frequently overlooked source of additional phylogenetic information within the Bovidae that may also have applicability at higher taxonomic levels, possibly even for Pecora. PMID:18931485

  10. Complete mitochondrial genomes of the tooth of a poached Bornean banteng (Bos javanicus lowi; Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Ishige, Taichiro; Gakuhari, Takashi; Hanzawa, Kei; Kono, Tomohiro; Sunjoto, Indra; Sukor, Jum Rafiah Abdul; Ahmad, Abdul Hamid; Matsubayashi, Hisashi

    2016-07-01

    Here we report the complete mitochondrial genome of the Bornean banteng Bos javanicus lowi (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae), which was determined using next-generation sequencing. The mitochondrial genome is 16,344 bp in length containing 13 protein-coding genes, 21 tRNAs and 2 rRNAs. It shows the typical pattern of bovine mitochondrial arrangement. Phylogenetic tree analysis of complete mtDNA sequences showed that Bornean banteng is more closely related to gaur than to other banteng subspecies. Divergence dating indicated that Bornean banteng and gaur diverged from their common ancestor approximately 5.03 million years ago. These results suggest that Bornean banteng might be a distinct species in need of conservation. PMID:26075477

  11. The complete mitochondrial genome of the Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xian; Pei, Jie; Bao, Pengjia; Chu, Min; Wu, Xiaoyun; Ding, Xuezhi; Yan, Ping

    2016-07-01

    The Qinghai Plateau yak Bos grunniens (Cetartiodactyla: Bovidae) is an important primitive local breed in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and adjacent regions. In this study, its complete mitochondrial genome sequence has been assembled and characterized from high-throughput Illumina sequencing data. This genome is 16 322 bp in length, and contains 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, two rRNA genes, and a non-coding D-loop or control region. The nucleotide composition is asymmetric (33.73% A, 25.79% C, 13.19% G, and 27.29% T) with an overall A + T content of 61.02%. The gene arrangement and the composition are similar to most other vertebrates. These data would contribute to our better understanding its population genetics and evolutionary history. PMID:26478258

  12. Y-chromosome phylogeny in the evolutionary net of chamois (genus Rupicapra)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The chamois, distributed over most of the medium to high altitude mountain ranges of southern Eurasia, provides an excellent model for exploring the effects of historical and evolutionary events on diversification. Populations have been grouped into two species, Rupicapra pyrenaica from southwestern Europe and R. rupicapra from eastern Europe. The study of matrilineal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and biparentally inherited microsatellites showed that the two species are paraphyletic and indicated alternate events of population contraction and dispersal-hybridization in the diversification of chamois. Here we investigate the pattern of variation of the Y-chromosome to obtain information on the patrilineal phylogenetic position of the genus Rupicapra and on the male-specific dispersal of chamois across Europe. Results We analyzed the Y-chromosome of 87 males covering the distribution range of the Rupicapra genus. We sequenced a fragment of the SRY gene promoter and characterized the male specific microsatellites UMN2303 and SRYM18. The SRY promoter sequences of two samples of Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) were also determined and compared with the sequences of Bovidae available in the GenBank. Phylogenetic analysis of the alignment showed the clustering of Rupicapra with Capra and the Ammotragus sequence obtained in this study, different from the previously reported sequence of Ammotragus which groups with Ovis. Within Rupicapra, the combined data define 10 Y-chromosome haplotypes forming two haplogroups, which concur with taxonomic classification, instead of the three clades formed for mtDNA and nuclear microsatellites. The variation shows a west-to-east geographical cline of ancestral to derived alleles. Conclusions The phylogeny of the SRY-promoter shows an association between Rupicapra and Capra. The position of Ammotragus needs a reinvestigation. The study of ancestral and derived characters in the Y-chromosome suggests that, contrary to the presumed

  13. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  14. Isolation and characterization of cross-amplification microsatellite panels for species of Procapra (Bovidae; Antilopinae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Li, Chunlin; Yang, Ji; Luo, Zhenhua; Tang, Songhua; Li, Feng; Li, Chunwang; Liu, Bingwan; Jiang, Zhigang

    2012-01-01

    The three Procapra species, Tibetan gazelle (P. picticaudata), Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa) and Przewalski's gazelle (P. przewalskii) are endemic to Asia. Several intraspecific genetic issues have been studied with species-specific microsatellite loci in these Asian gazelles. However, cross-species microsatellite panels are absent, which inhibits comparative conservation and evolutionary studies of the Procapra. In this study, we isolated 20 cross-species microsatellite loci for Procapra from both related species and the genomic library of P. przewalskii. Fifty-three samples of the three gazelles were used to characterize the markers. Allele numbers ranged from three to 20, with a mean of 7.93 per locus. Observed heterozygosity (H(O)) averaged 0.680 and expected heterozygosity (H(E)) 0.767. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) was 0.757 for P. picticaudata, 0.803 for P. gutturosa and 0.590 for P. przewalskii. Nine loci were significantly deviated from Hardy-Weinberg (H-W) equilibrium in the three species. Significant linkage disequilibrium was detected in four pairs of loci in P. przewalskii, five pairs in P. gutturosa and 51 pairs in P. picticaudata. Considering the abundance of published loci and their high success rates of cross-amplification, testing and utilization of loci from related species is efficient for wild species of Bovidae. The cross-species microsatellite loci we developed will facilitate further interspecies genetic studies in Procapra. PMID:22942736

  15. Novel insights into the bovine polled phenotype and horn ontogenesis in Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  16. Phylogenetic relationships and the primitive X chromosome inferred from chromosomal and satellite DNA analysis in Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Raquel; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Heslop-Harrison, John S

    2005-10-01

    The early phylogeny of the 137 species in the Bovidae family is difficult to resolve; knowledge of the evolution and relationships of the tribes would facilitate comparative mapping, understanding chromosomal evolution patterns and perhaps assist breeding and domestication strategies. We found that the study of the presence and organization of two repetitive DNA satellite sequences (the clone pOaKB9 from sheep, a member of the 1.714 satellite I family and the pBtKB5, a 1.715 satellite I clone from cattle) on the X and autosomal chromosomes by in situ hybridization to chromosomes from 15 species of seven tribes, was informative. The results support a consistent phylogeny, suggesting that the primitive form of the X chromosome is acrocentric, and has satellite I sequences at its centromere. Because of the distribution of the ancient satellite I sequence, the X chromosome from the extant Tragelaphini (e.g. oryx), rather than Caprini (sheep), line is most primitive. The Bovini (cow) and Tragelaphini tribes lack the 1.714 satellite present in the other tribes, and this satellite is evolutionarily younger than the 1.715 sequence, with absence of the 1.714 sequence being a marker for the Bovini and Tragelaphini tribes (the Bovinae subfamily). In the other tribes, three (Reduncini, Hippotragini and Aepycerotini) have both 1.714 and 1.715 satellite sequences present on both autosomes and the X chromosome. We suggest a parallel event in two lineages, leading to X chromosomes with the loss of 1.715 satellite from the Bovini, and the loss of both 1.714 and 1.715 satellites in a monophyletic Caprini and Alcelaphini lineage. The presence and X chromosome distribution of these satellite sequences allow the seven tribes to be distributed to four groups, which are consistent with current diversity estimates, and support one model to resolve points of separation of the tribes. PMID:16191610

  17. The tribal radiation of the family Bovidae (Artiodactyla) and the evolution of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

    1999-11-01

    The nucleotide sequence of the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene has been determined and compared for 51 species of the family Bovidae and 10 potential pecoran and tragulid outgroups. A detailed saturation analysis at each codon position relative to the maximum parsimony procedure indicates that all transitions on third codon positions do not accumulate in a similar fashion: C-T are more saturated than A-G substitutions. The same trend is observed for second positions but not for first positions where A-G and C-T transitions exhibit roughly the same levels of saturation. Maximum parsimony reconstructions were weighted according to these observations. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and distance phylogenetic reconstructions all depict a major split within Bovidae. The subfamily Bovinae includes four multifurcating tribes and subtribes: Boselaphini, Tragelaphini, cattle-Bovini (Bos and Bison), and buffalo-Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus). Its sister group is the subfamily Antilopinae, i.e., all non-Bovinae taxa, represented by seven lineages: Antilopini (including Saiga), Caprini sensu lato (i. e., Caprinae including Pantholops), Hippotragini, Alcelaphini, Reduncini (including Pelea), Aepyceros possibly linked to Neotragus, and Cephalophini possibly linked to Oreotragus (the suni and the klipspringer being members of a polyphyletic Neotragini). These various tribes and major lineages were produced by two noteworthy explosive radiations, which occurred simultaneously between 12.0 and 15.3 MY (Middle Miocene) in the subfamilies Bovinae and Antilopinae. PMID:10603253

  18. Evolutionary affinities of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis) in the context of the molecular phylogeny of Bovidae.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, A; Douzery, E J

    1999-05-01

    To elucidate the systematic status of the enigmatic saola (Pseudoryx nghetinhensis), a new bovid genus recently discovered in Vietnam, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships within the family Bovidae, four distinct DNA markers were sequenced. Complete mitochondrial cytochrome b (1143 bp) and 12S rRNA (956 bp) genes and non-coding regions from the nuclear genes for aromatase cytochrome P-450 (199 bp) and lactoferrin (338 bp) have been compared for 25 bovid species and three Cervidae and Antilocapridae outgroups. Independent and/or combined analyses of the four nucleotide matrices through maximum parsimony and maximum-likelihood methods indicated that Bovidae consists of two major lineages, i.e. Bovinac which contains the tribes Bovini, Boselaphini and Tragelaphini, and Antilopinae which encompasses all other bovids. Within Bovinae, the tribe Bovini is divided into buffalo Bovini (Bubalus and Syncerus) and cattle Bovini (Bos and Bison) and Tragelaphini are possibly related to Boselaphini. Pseudoryx is shown to be (i) robustly nested within Bovinae; (ii) strongly associated with Bovini; and (iii) tentatively sharing a sister-group relationship with cattle Bovini. Within Antilopinae, three robust clades are in evidence: (i) Hippotragus and Damaliscus are linked to Ovis; (ii) Aepyceros joins Neotragus; and (iii) Cephalophus clusters with Oreotragus. PMID:10380679

  19. Phylogenetic reconstruction and the identification of ancient polymorphism in the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae)

    PubMed Central

    MacEachern, Sean; McEwan, John; Goddard, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Background The Bovinae subfamily incorporates an array of antelope, buffalo and cattle species. All of the members of this subfamily have diverged recently. Not surprisingly, a number of phylogenetic studies from molecular and morphological data have resulted in ambiguous trees and relationships amongst species, especially for Yak and Bison species. A partial phylogenetic reconstruction of 13 extant members of the Bovini tribe (Bovidae, Bovinae) from 15 complete or partially sequenced autosomal genes is presented. Results We identified 3 distinct lineages after the Bovini split from the Boselaphini and Tragelaphini tribes, which has lead to the (1) Buffalo clade (Bubalus and Syncerus species) and a more recent divergence leading to the (2) Banteng, Gaur and Mithan and (3) Domestic cattle clades. A fourth lineage may also exist that leads to Bison and Yak. However, there was some ambiguity as to whether this was a divergence from the Banteng/Gaur/Mithan or the Domestic cattle clade. From an analysis of approximately 30,000 sites that were amplified in all species 133 sites were identified with ambiguous inheritance, in that all trees implied more than one mutation at the same site. Closer examination of these sites has identified that they are the result of ancient polymorphisms that have subsequently undergone lineage sorting in the Bovini tribe, of which 53 have remained polymorphic since Bos and Bison species last shared a common ancestor with Bubalus between 5–8 million years ago (MYA). Conclusion Uncertainty arises in our phylogenetic reconstructions because many species in the Bovini diverged over a short period of time. It appears that a number of sites with ambiguous inheritance have been maintained in subsequent populations by chance (lineage sorting) and that they have contributed to an association between Yak and Domestic cattle and an unreliable phylogenetic reconstruction for the Bison/Yak clade. Interestingly, a number of these aberrant sites are in

  20. A multi-calibrated mitochondrial phylogeny of extant Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Ruminantia) and the importance of the fossil record to systematics

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Molecular phylogenetics has provided unprecedented resolution in the ruminant evolutionary tree. However, molecular age estimates using only one or a few (often misapplied) fossil calibration points have produced a diversity of conflicting ages for important evolutionary events within this clade. I here identify 16 fossil calibration points of relevance to the phylogeny of Bovidae and Ruminantia and use these, individually and together, to construct a dated molecular phylogeny through a reanalysis of the full mitochondrial genome of over 100 ruminant species. Results The new multi-calibrated tree provides ages that are younger overall than found in previous studies. Among these are young ages for the origin of crown Ruminantia (39.3–28.8 Ma), and crown Bovidae (17.3–15.1 Ma). These are argued to be reasonable hypotheses given that many basal fossils assigned to these taxa may in fact lie on the stem groups leading to the crown clades, thus inflating previous age estimates. Areas of conflict between molecular and fossil dates do persist, however, especially with regard to the base of the rapid Pecoran radiation and the sister relationship of Moschidae to Bovidae. Results of the single-calibrated analyses also show that a very wide range of molecular age estimates are obtainable using different calibration points, and that the choice of calibration point can influence the topology of the resulting tree. Compared to the single-calibrated trees, the multi-calibrated tree exhibits smaller variance in estimated ages and better reflects the fossil record. Conclusions The use of a large number of vetted fossil calibration points with soft bounds is promoted as a better approach than using just one or a few calibrations, or relying on internal-congruency metrics to discard good fossil data. This study also highlights the importance of considering morphological and ecological characteristics of clades when delimiting higher taxa. I also illustrate how

  1. Nucleotide Sequence Evolution at the κ-Casein Locus: Evidence for Positive Selection within the Family Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Ward, T. J.; Honeycutt, R. L.; Derr, J. N.

    1997-01-01

    κ-Casein is a mammalian milk protein involved in a number of important physiological processes. In the gut, the ingested protein is split into an insoluble peptide (para κ-casein) and a soluble hydrophilic glycopeptide (caseinomacropeptide). Caseinomacropeptide is responsible for increased efficiency of digestion, prevention of neonate hypersensitivity to ingested proteins, and inhibition of gastric pathogens. Variation within this peptide has significant effects associated with important traits such as milk production. The nucleotide sequences for regions of κ-casein exon and intron four were determined for representatives of the artiodactyl family Bovidae. The pattern of nucleotide substitution in κ-casein sequences for distantly related bovid taxa demonstrates that positive selection has accelerated their divergence at the amino acid sequence level. This selection has differentially influenced the molecular evolution of the two κ-casein split peptides and is focused within a 34-codon region of caseinomacropeptide. PMID:9409842

  2. Physical organization of the 1.709 satellite IV DNA family in Bovini and Tragelaphini tribes of the Bovidae: sequence and chromosomal evolution.

    PubMed

    Adega, F; Chaves, R; Guedes-Pinto, H; Heslop-Harrison, J S

    2006-01-01

    Repetitive DNA in the mammalian genome is a valuable record and marker for evolution, providing information about the order and driving forces related to evolutionary events. The evolutionarily young 1.709 satellite IV DNA family is present near the centromeres of many chromosomes in the Bovidae. Here, we isolated 1.709 satellite DNA sequences from five Bovidae species belonging to Bovini: Bos taurus (BTA, cattle), Bos indicus (BIN, zebu), Bubalus bubalis (BBU, water buffalo) and Tragelaphini tribes: Taurotragus oryx (TOR, eland) and Tragelaphus euryceros (TEU, bongo). Its presence in both tribes shows the sequence predates the evolutionary separation of the two tribes (more than 10 million years ago), and primary sequence shows increasing divergence with evolutionary distance. Genome organization (Southern hybridization) and physical distribution (in situ hybridization) revealed differences in the molecular organization of these satellite DNA sequences. The data suggest that the sequences on the sex chromosomes and the autosomes evolve as relatively independent groups, with the repetitive sequences suggesting that Bovini autosomes and the Tragelaphini sex chromosomes represent the more primitive chromosome forms. PMID:16825766

  3. Oryx callotis (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Dana N.; Dolman, Richard W.; Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Oryx callotis O. Thomas, 1982 (fringe-eared oryx) is a relatively large, long-bodied bovid, with an appropriate common name because of its distinguishing tufts of hair extending from the ends of the ears. It occupies arid lands in Kenya and Tanzania. O. callotis can go up to a month without drinking water if succulent vegetation is available. Some herds have been semidomesticated, and 60% of the presumed 17,000 wild individuals exist in wildlife reserves, currently receiving some protection from settlement and poaching. O. callotis is considered “Vulnerable” by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources but as a subspecies of O. beisa, which is listed as “Near Threatened.”

  4. Procapra picticaudata (Artiodactyla: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leslie,, David M., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    Procapra picticaudata Hodgson, 1846, is commonly called the Tibetan gazelle, goa (= Tibetan), or zang yuan ling (= Chinese) and is monotypic. It is a high-elevation specialist endemic to the Tibetan Plateau where it prefers alpine meadow and alpine steppe but uses other lower-elevation plains and valleys. It is partial to good grasslands with high diversity of forbs. There have been no systematic estimates of total numbers of P. picticaudata. Populations are currently widespread but have been reduced from historic levels and are vulnerable because of poaching in remote areas and competition with livestock of pastoralists. P. picticaudata is uncommon in zoos and private collections. It is a threatened Class II species in China and considered “Near Threatened" by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources.

  5. The fossil Bovidae (Artiodactyla, Mammalia) from Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, Israel: Out of Africa during the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Rabinovich, Rivka

    2011-04-01

    We report the study of the collection of fossil bovid specimens from the Early-Middle Pleistocene Acheulian site of Gesher Benot Ya'aqov. This locality, situated in the Levantine Corridor (the bottleneck that connects Africa and Eurasia) is a key site to explain the faunal and human dispersals out of Africa during the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary around 0.8Ma. Two species of bovine (Bos sp., and Bovini gen. et sp. indet. cf. Bison sp.), one antelope (Gazella sp. cf. G. Gazella), and another indeterminate Bovidae gen. et sp. indet., have been recorded. The largest species, Bos sp., is an African immigrant related to the species from the Eritrean site of Buia, Bos buiaensis, which evolved from the buffalo of Olduvai Pelorovis oldowayensis, and colonized the Eurasian continent in parallel with the dispersal of the Acheulian culture into the northern continent. Numerous important species first recorded in several localities of Early-Middle Pleistocene transition from Eurasia are included in this dispersal out of Africa, including the megaherbivore, Palaeoloxodon antiquus, and the carnivores Crocuta crocuta, and later, Panthera leo and Panthera pardus. This faunal turnover is coincident with the change to colder climates that dominated the Middle Pleistocene. PMID:21392634

  6. Haemolytic effect of Pasteurella haemolytica on blood from young mammals.

    PubMed

    Smith, G R; Turner, A; Hawkey, C M

    1988-09-01

    On agar plates containing young lamb blood, Pasteurella haemolytica produces a wide outer zone of partial haemolysis in addition to the narrow zone of complete clearing seen on adult sheep blood agar. To determine whether this phenomenon was limited to lamb blood, samples from young animals of 20 mammalian species were examined. Two species--the barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) and scimitar horned oryx (Oryx tao)--possessed blood that gave this effect provided that the samples were taken from young animals. The 18 species that gave negative results included an ovine species, the bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis). PMID:3194597

  7. Sarcocystis arieticanis (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) infecting the heart muscles of the domestic sheep, Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), from K. S. A. on the basis of light and electron microscopic data.

    PubMed

    Al Quraishy, Saleh; Morsy, Kareem; Bashtar, Abdel-Rahman; Ghaffar, Fathy Abdel; Mehlhorn, Heinz

    2014-10-01

    In the present study, the heteroxenous life cycle of Sarcocystis species from three strains of the slaughtered sheep at Al-Azizia and Al-Saada abattoirs in Riyadh city, K.S.A., was studied. Muscle samples of the oesophagus, diaphragm, tongue, skeletal and heart muscles were examined. Varied natural infection rates in the muscles of the examined sheep strains were recorded as 83% in Niemy, 81.5% in Najdy and 90% in Sawakny sheep. Muscles of the diaphragm showed the highest infection level above all organs except Najdy sheep in which oesophagus has the highest rate. Also, the heart was the lowest infected organ (40% Niemy, 44% Najdy and 53% Sawakny). Microscopic sarcocysts of Sarcocystis arieticanis are easily identified in sections through the heart muscles of the domestic sheep Ovis aries (Artiodactyla: Bovidae). Cysts measured 38.5-64.4 μm (averaged 42.66 μm) in width and 62.4-173.6 μm (averaged 82.14 μm) in length. The validity of this species was confirmed by means of ultrastructural characteristics of the primary cyst wall (0.1-0.27 μm thick) which revealed the presence of irregularly shaped crowded and hairy-like projections underlined by a thin layer of ground substance. This layer consisted mainly of fine, dense homogenous granules enclosing the developing metrocytes and merozoites that usually contain nearly all the structures of the apical complex and fill the interior cavity of the cyst. Several septa derived from the ground substance divided the cyst into compartments. The merozoites were banana-shaped and measured 12-16 μm in length with centrally or posteriorly located nuclei. Experimental infection of carnivores by feeding heavily infected sheep muscles revealed that the dog, Canis familiaris, is the only final host of the present Sarcocystis species. Gamogony, sporogonic stages and characteristics of sporulated oocysts were also investigated. PMID:25112213

  8. Morphology of intestinal villi in African antelope (Artiodactyla: Bovidae).

    PubMed Central

    Woodall, P F; Skinner, J D

    1994-01-01

    Villous morphology in 16 species of African antelope varied from finger-like and leaf-like to ridge-like forms. Some species showed uniform villi whereas it was variable in others. There was a slight indication that leaf-like and finger-like forms become more frequent in the distal regions of the small intestine. The variation in morphology was not associated with body size or phylogeny, but did show a significant correlation with diet: species with high moisture content and/or high fibre levels (equivalent to low bulk values) in the digesta were more likely to have ridges, which were the lowest of the villi. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7928641

  9. Spatial distribution and risk factors of Brucellosis in Iberian wild ungulates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The role of wildlife as a brucellosis reservoir for humans and domestic livestock remains to be properly established. The aim of this work was to determine the aetiology, apparent prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for brucellosis transmission in several Iberian wild ungulates. Methods A multi-species indirect immunosorbent assay (iELISA) using Brucella S-LPS antigen was developed. In several regions having brucellosis in livestock, individual serum samples were taken between 1999 and 2009 from 2,579 wild bovids, 6,448 wild cervids and4,454 Eurasian wild boar (Sus scrofa), and tested to assess brucellosis apparent prevalence. Strains isolated from wild boar were characterized to identify the presence of markers shared with the strains isolated from domestic pigs. Results Mean apparent prevalence below 0.5% was identified in chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica), Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), and red deer (Cervus elaphus). Roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), fallow deer (Dama dama), mouflon (Ovis aries) and Barbary sheep (Ammotragus lervia) tested were seronegative. Only one red deer and one Iberian wild goat resulted positive in culture, isolating B. abortus biovar 1 and B. melitensis biovar 1, respectively. Apparent prevalence in wild boar ranged from 25% to 46% in the different regions studied, with the highest figures detected in South-Central Spain. The probability of wild boar being positive in the iELISA was also affected by age, age-by-sex interaction, sampling month, and the density of outdoor domestic pigs. A total of 104 bacterial isolates were obtained from wild boar, being all identified as B. suis biovar 2. DNA polymorphisms were similar to those found in domestic pigs. Conclusions In conclusion, brucellosis in wild boar is widespread in the Iberian Peninsula, thus representing an important threat for domestic pigs. By contrast, wild ruminants were not identified as a significant brucellosis reservoir for livestock. PMID:20205703

  10. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-12-01

    Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  11. Evolution of satellite DNA sequences in two tribes of Bovidae: A cautionary tale

    PubMed Central

    Nieddu, Mariella; Mezzanotte, Roberto; Pichiri, Giuseppina; Coni, Pier Paolo; Dedola, Gian Luca; Dettori, Maria Luisa; Pazzola, Michele; Vacca, Giuseppe Massimo; Robledo, Renato

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two clones, Bt1 from Bos taurus and Om1 from Ovis orientalis musimon, were used as probes for hybridization on genomic DNA and on metaphase chromosomes in members of Bovini and Caprini tribes. Bt1 and Om1 are sequences respectively belonging to the 1.715 and 1.714 DNA satellite I families. Southern blots and fluorescence in situ hybridization experiments showed completely coherent results: the Bovini probe Bt1 hybridized only to members of the Bovini tribe and not to members of Caprini. Likewise, the Caprini probe Om1 hybridized only to members of the Caprini tribe and not to members of Bovini. Hybridization signals were detected in the heterochromatic regions of every acrocentric autosome, except for two pairs of autosomes from Capra hircus that did not show hybridization to probe Om1. No signal was detected on X and Y chromosomes or on bi-armed autosomes. Remarkably, probe Om1 showed almost 100% homology with a bacterial sequence reported in Helicobacter pylori. PMID:26692159

  12. Cytochrome b gene haplotypes characterize chromosomal lineages of anoa, the Sulawesi dwarf buffalo (Bovidae: Bubalus sp.).

    PubMed

    Schreiber, A; Seibold, I; Nötzold, G; Wink, M

    1999-01-01

    Partial mitochondrial cytochrome b gene sequences reveal two deeply differentiated mtDNA lineages in anoa dwarf buffaloes (Bubalus depressicornis) from the studbook herd in European zoos. Three matrilinear lineages of lowland anoas (depressicornis type) contributed three rather similar sequence haplotypes, but one remarkably distinct haplotype was observed exclusively in mountain anoas (quarlesi type) descended from one founder female. The carriers of the distinctive mtDNA haplotype were also distinguished by several chromosomal and phenotypic peculiarities too. The differentiation between the mtDNA lineages of anoa approached or even surpassed the genetic divergence between some uncontested species of wild cattle. The depth of this haplotype divergence in anoas is discussed against the background of the phylogenetic age of these paleoendemic inhabitants of a predator-free island refugium, Sulawesi, who are among the most plesiomorphic living bovines. The studbook breeding of captive anoas as a safeguard against extinction might profit from such population genetic markers. These cytochrome b gene sequences were unable to resolve the phylogeny of nine bovine taxa robustly, except the divergence of Bubalus, Synceros, Bison, and Bos (sensu lato) genera. PMID:9987926

  13. Nanger, Eudorcas, Gazella, and Antilope form a well-supported chromosomal clade within Antilopini (Bovidae, Cetartiodactyla).

    PubMed

    Cernohorska, Halina; Kubickova, Svatava; Kopecna, Olga; Vozdova, Miluse; Matthee, Conrad A; Robinson, Terence J; Rubes, Jiri

    2015-06-01

    The evolutionary clade comprising Nanger, Eudorcas, Gazella, and Antilope, defined by an X;BTA5 translocation, is noteworthy for the many autosomal Robertsonian fusions that have driven the chromosome number variation from 2n = 30 observed in Antilope cervicapra, to the 2n = 58 in present Eudorcas thomsoni and Eudorcas rufifrons. This work reports the phylogenetic relationships within the Antilopini using comprehensive cytogenetic data from A. cervicapra, Gazella leptoceros, Nanger dama ruficollis, and E. thomsoni together with corrected karyotypic data from an additional nine species previously reported in the literature. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using BAC and microdissected cattle painting probes, in conjunction with differential staining techniques, provide the following: (i) a detailed analysis of the E. thomsoni chromosomes, (ii) the identification and fine-scale analysis the BTA3 orthologue in species of Antilopini, and (iii) the location of the pseudoautosomal regions on sex chromosomes of the four species. Our phylogenetic analysis of the chromosomal data supports monophyly of Nanger and Eudorcas and suggests an affiliation between A. cervicapra and some of the Gazella species. This renders Gazella paraphyletic and emphasizes a closer relationship between Antilope and Gazella than what has previously been considered. PMID:25416455

  14. Survival of European mouflon (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Hawai'i based on tooth cementum lines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hess, S.C.; Stephens, R.M.; Thompson, T.L.; Danner, R.M.; Kawakami, B., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Reliable techniques for estimating age of ungulates are necessary to determine population parameters such as age structure and survival. Techniques that rely on dentition, horn, and facial patterns have limited utility for European mouflon sheep (Ovis gmelini musimon), but tooth cementum lines may offer a useful alternative. Cementum lines may not be reliable outside temperate regions, however, because lack of seasonality in diet may affect annulus formation. We evaluated the utility of tooth cementum lines for estimating age of mouflon in Hawai'i in comparison to dentition. Cementum lines were present in mouflon from Mauna Loa, island of Hawai'i, but were less distinct than in North American sheep. The two age-estimation methods provided similar estimates for individuals aged ???3 yr by dentition (the maximum age estimable by dentition), with exact matches in 51% (18/35) of individuals, and an average difference of 0.8 yr (range 04). Estimates of age from cementum lines were higher than those from dentition in 40% (14/35) and lower in 9% (3/35) of individuals. Discrepancies in age estimates between techniques and between paired tooth samples estimated by cementum lines were related to certainty categories assigned by the clarity of cementum lines, reinforcing the importance of collecting a sufficient number of samples to compensate for samples of lower quality, which in our experience, comprised approximately 22% of teeth. Cementum lines appear to provide relatively accurate age estimates for mouflon in Hawai'i, allow estimating age beyond 3 yr, and they offer more precise estimates than tooth eruption patterns. After constructing an age distribution, we estimated annual survival with a log-linear model to be 0.596 (95% CI 0.5540.642) for this heavily controlled population. ?? 2011 by University of Hawai'i Press.

  15. Biology and impacts of Pacific island invasive species 9. Capra hircus, the feral goat, (Mammalia: Bovidae)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chynoweth, Mark W.; Litton, Creighton M.; Lepczyk, Christopher A.; Hess, Steve A.; Cordell, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Domestic goats, Capra hircus, were intentionally introduced to numerous oceanic islands beginning in the sixteenth century. The remarkable ability of C. hircus to survive in a variety of conditions has enabled this animal to become feral and impact native ecosystems on islands throughout the world. Direct ecological impacts include consumption and trampling of native plants, leading to plant community modification and transformation of ecosystem structure. While the negative impacts of feral goats are well-known and effective management strategies have been developed to control this invasive species, large populations persist on many islands. This review summarizes the impacts of feral goats on Pacific island ecosystems, and the management strategies available to control this invasive species.

  16. Evolution and taxonomy of the wild species of the genus Ovis (Mammalia, Artiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Hamid Reza; Naderi, Saeid; Chintauan-Marquier, Ioana Cristina; Taberlet, Pierre; Virk, Amjad Tahir; Naghash, Hamid Reza; Rioux, Delphine; Kaboli, Mohammad; Pompanon, François

    2010-02-01

    New insights for the systematic and evolution of the wild sheep are provided by molecular phylogenies inferred from Maximum parsimony, Bayesian, Maximum likelihood, and Neighbor-Joining methods. The phylogeny of the wild sheep was based on cytochrome b sequences of 290 samples representative of most of the sub-species described in the genus Ovis. The result was confirmed by a combined tree based on cytochrome b and nuclear sequences for 79 Ovis samples representative of the robust clades established with mitochondrial data. Urial and mouflon, which are either considered as a single or two separate species, form two monophyletic groups (O. orientalis and O. vignei). Their hybrids appear in one or the other group, independently from their geographic origin. The European mouflon O. musimon is clearly in the O. orientalis clade. The others species, O. dalli, O. canadensis, O. nivicola, and O. ammon are monophyletic. The results support an Asiatic origin of the genus Ovis, followed by a migration to North America through North-Eastern Asia and the Bering Strait and a diversification of the genus in Eurasia less than 3 million years ago. Our results show that the evolution of the genus Ovis is a striking example of successive speciation events occurring along the migration routes propagating from the ancestral area. PMID:19897045

  17. New data on the distribution and taxonomy of fossil Soergel's ox (Soergelia sp., Bovidae, Artiodactyla, Mammalia) in Yakutia.

    PubMed

    Boeskorov, G G

    2016-07-01

    Novel findings of fossil remains of the extinct artiodactyl Soergel's ox, as well as some findings that were not analyzed previously, are presented in the article. Soergelia remains are extremely rare; therefore, the species range of these animals remains uncharacterized by now and the taxonomic positions of some findings are not clear. Analysis of the new material extends the knowledge on the species range and the limits of morphological variation of the Soergel's ox and allowed a more precise assessment of the taxonomic position of the findings from Yakutia. PMID:27595828

  18. The highly specialized vocal tract of the male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa Pallas, 1777 – Mammalia, Bovidae)

    PubMed Central

    Frey, R; Gebler, A

    2003-01-01

    The entire head and neck of a wild adult male Mongolian gazelle (Procapra gutturosa) was dissected with special reference to its enlarged larynx. Two additional adult male specimens taken from the wild were analysed by computer tomography. The sternomandibularis, omohyoideus, thyrohyoideus and hyoepiglotticus muscles are particularly enlarged and improve laryngeal suspension and stabilization. The epiglottis is exceptionally large. A permanent laryngeal descent is associated with the evolution of an unpaired palatinal pharyngeal pouch. A certain momentary descent seems to occur during vocalization. The high lateral walls of the thyroid cartilage are ventrally connected by a broad keel. The large thyroarytenoid muscle is divided into two portions: a rostral ventricularis and a caudal vocalis muscle. A paired lateral laryngeal ventricle projects between these two muscles. The massive vocal fold is large and lacks any rostrally directed flexible structures. It is supported by a large cymbal-like fibroelastic pad. Vocal tract length was measured in the course of dissection and in computer tomographic images. Two representative spectrograms, one of an adult male and one of a juvenile, recorded in the natural habitat of the Mongolian gazelle are presented. In the spectrograms, the centre frequency of the lowest band is about 500 Hz in the adult male and about 790 Hz in the juvenile. The low pitch of the adult male's call is ascribed to the evolutionary mass increase and elongation of the vocal folds. In the habitat of P. gutturosa a call with a low pitch and, thus, with an almost homogeneous directivity around the head of the vocalizing animal may be optimally suited for multidirectional advertisement calls during the rut. The signal range of an adult male's call in its natural habitat can therefore be expected to be larger than the high-pitched call of a juvenile. PMID:14635800

  19. Monitoring the endangered population of the antelope Kobus leche smithemani (Artiodactyla: Bovidae), in the Bangweulu Ecosystem, Zambia.

    PubMed

    Siamudaala, Victor M; Munyeme, Musso; Matandiko, Wigganson; Muma, John B; Munang'andu, Hetron M

    2012-12-01

    Black lechwe (Kobus leche smithemani) is a semi-aquatic medium sized antelope currently enlisted on the IUCN red list of endangered species and is only endemic to the Bangweulu basin of Zambia. Its population has significantly decreased due to floods that took place during the period 1930-1940 from over 250 000-15000 leading the Zambian government to gazette all habitats of Black lechwe into state protected areas, and to establish urgent management strategies needed to save the remaining population from extinction. Using retrospective data, our findings show that the population has increased from 15000 animals in 1954 to 55 632 in 2009. The current population is estimated at 34.77% (55 632/160 000) of the carrying capacity of the Bangweulu basin. Although the Black lechwe is one of the 42 species offered for consumptive utilization by the Zambia Wildlife Authority (ZAWA), only 0.12% and 0.08% of the current stock was offered for safari and resident hunting annually for the period 2005-2009, respectively. Annual quota utilization were estimated at 67% (n=37) and 81% (n=37) for safari and resident hunting, respectively. Hence, overall income obtained from utilization of Black lechwe is very low accounting for only 2.1% of the total revenue earned from wildlife utilization. Although the current population trend is showing a unit increase of 639 animals per year, it is still far below levels ideal for the lucrative utilization. In this study, we demonstrate that adverse ecological changes on wildlife species, can lead to their vulnerability and danger of extinction, and that their recovery to full carrying capacity may demand a considerable amount of time. PMID:23342517

  20. Molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini (Bovidae, Bovinae) and the taxonomic status of the Kouprey, Bos sauveli Urbain 1937.

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; Ropiquet, Anne

    2004-12-01

    The kouprey is a very rare bovid species of the Indochinese peninsula, and no living specimen has been described for a long time, suggesting that it is possibly extinct. Its systematic position within the tribe Bovini remains confused since the analyses of morphological characters have led to several conflicting hypotheses. Some authors have also suggested that it could be a hybrid species produced by the crossing of the banteng with gaur, zebu, or water buffalo. Here we performed a molecular phylogeny of the tribe Bovini to determine the taxonomic status of the kouprey. DNA was extracted from the holotype specimen preserved in the MNHN collections. Phylogenetic analyses were carried out on a matrix including all the taxonomic diversity described in the tribe Bovini, and 2065 nucleotide characters, representing three different markers, i.e., the promotor of the lactoferrin and two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome b and subunit II of the cytochrome c oxidase). The results show that the kouprey belongs to the subtribe Bovina, and that three different clades can be evidenced into this group: the first includes the domestic ox, zebu, and European bison; the second incorporates the yak and American bison; and the third contains the kouprey, banteng and gaur. All hypotheses involving hybridization for the origin of the kouprey can be rejected, confirming that it is a real wild species. Molecular datings and biogeographic inferences suggest that the kouprey diverged from banteng and gaur during the Plio-Pleistocene of Asia. In addition, several molecular signatures were detected in the cytochrome b gene, permitting a molecular identification of the kouprey. We propose a conservation project based on a molecular taxonomy approach for tracking the kouprey in Indochina in order to determine whether some populations still survive in the wild. PMID:15522811

  1. Combining multiple autosomal introns for studying shallow phylogeny and taxonomy of Laurasiatherian mammals: Application to the tribe Bovini (Cetartiodactyla, Bovidae).

    PubMed

    Hassanin, Alexandre; An, Junghwa; Ropiquet, Anne; Nguyen, Trung Thanh; Couloux, Arnaud

    2013-03-01

    Mitochondrial sequences are widely used for species identification and for studying phylogenetic relationships among closely related species or populations of the same species. However, many studies of mammals have shown that the maternal history of the mitochondrial genome can be discordant with the true evolutionary history of the taxa. In such cases, the analyses of multiple nuclear genes can be more powerful for deciphering interspecific relationships. Here, we designed primers for amplifying 13 new exon-primed intron-crossing (EPIC) autosomal loci for studying shallow phylogeny and taxonomy of Laurasiatherian mammals. Three criteria were used for the selection of the markers: gene orthology, a PCR product length between 600 and 1200 nucleotides, and different chromosomal locations in the bovine genome. Positive PCRs were obtained from different species representing the orders Carnivora, Cetartiodactyla, Chiroptera, Perissodactyla and Pholidota. The newly developed markers were analyzed in a phylogenetic study of the tribe Bovini (the group containing domestic and wild cattle, bison, yak, African buffalo, Asian buffalo, and saola) based on 17 taxa and 18 nuclear genes, representing a total alignment of 13,095 nucleotides. The phylogenetic results were compared to those obtained from analyses of the complete mitochondrial genome and Y chromosomal genes. Our analyses support a basal divergence of the saola (Pseudoryx) and a sister-group relationship between yak and bison. These results contrast with recent molecular studies but are in better agreement with morphology. The comparison of pairwise nucleotide distances shows that our nuDNA dataset provides a good signal for identifying taxonomic levels, such as species, genera, subtribes, tribes and subfamilies, whereas the mtDNA genome fails because of mtDNA introgression and higher levels of homoplasy. Accordingly, we conclude that the genus Bison should be regarded as a synonym of Bos, with the European bison relegated to a subspecies rank within Bos bison. We compared our molecular dating estimates to the fossil record in order to propose a biogeographic scenario for the evolution of Bovini during the Neogene. PMID:23159894

  2. Occurrence of the Indian genus Hemibos (Bovini, Bovidae, Mammalia) at the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Navarro, Bienvenido; Palombo, Maria Rita

    2004-05-01

    The morphology of the horn-core structure and section shape of the Bos galerianus type specimen, as well as the general anatomy of the frontal and occipital areas of the skull, suggest that the skull is better attributed to the Indian genus Hemibos. This finding contributes to our understanding of faunal dispersal patterns into Europe at the Early-Middle Pleistocene transition.

  3. Description of a new species of Eimeria Schneider, 1875 (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the western Derby eland Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) in Senegal.

    PubMed

    Máca, Ondřej

    2012-06-01

    Examination of faecal samples from semi-captive western Derby elands Taurotragus derbianus derbianus Gray, in the Bandia and Fathala Reserves of Senegal, revealed the presence of oöcysts of the genus Eimeria Schneider, 1875 that we considered to represent a new species, Eimeria derbiani n. sp. The new species possesses nearly ellipsoidal oöcysts (length/width ratio 1.3) with a bi-layered wall and an average size of 27.6 × 21.5 μm. E. derbiani possesses a micropyle covered by a micropylar cap and ovoidal, single-layered sporocysts with an average size of 14.9 × 7.7 μm, each with a Stieda body. Sporozoites of E. derbiani possess a large refractile body and a nucleus. Sporulation lasted for 2 days at 23°C. The new species is differentiated from the two species parasitising Taurotragus oryx Pallas, E. canna Triffitt, 1924 and E. triffittae Yakimoff, 1934. PMID:22581248

  4. Chromosome conservation among the advanced pecorans and determination of the primitive bovid karyotype.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D S; Derr, J N; Womack, J E

    1994-01-01

    Extensive monobrachial QFH-band homologies were found among cattle (Bovidae), pronghorn (Antilocapridae), Masai giraffe (Giraffidae), and mule and whitetail deer (Cervidae). The deer species had identical karyotypes (2n = 70, NAA = 70). Interfamily comparisons demonstrated that cattle (2n = 60, NAA = 58) and pronghorn (2n = 58, NAA = 60) were karyotypically the most similar. The giraffe possessed a 2n = 30, NAA = 54, and differed from the other artiodactyls by having a preponderance of biarmed autosomes. The primarily acrocentric deer karyotypes showed several chromosome arm disruptions relative to the other species. Comparative cytogenetic data among the advanced pecorans strongly suggest that the 2n = 60, NAA = 58 karyotype found in several species of the tribe Bovini is probably near the primitive condition for the Bovidae. However, the ancestral conditions of the sex chromosomes within the Bovidae and among the advanced pecorans remain in question. PMID:8014460

  5. 16 CFR 301.0 - Fur products name guide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Ungulata Bovidae Bos taurus. Cat, Caracal Carnivora Felidae Caracal caracal. Cat, Domestic ......do ......do Felis catus. Cat, Lynx ......do ......do Lynx refus. Cat, Manul ......do ......do Felis manul. Cat, Margay ......do ......do Felis wiedii. Cat, Spotted ......do ......do Felis sp. (South America)....

  6. Resolving the Evolution of Extant and Extinct Ruminants With High-Throughput Phylogenomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pecorans (higher ruminants) are believed to have rapidly speciated in the Mid-Eocene, resulting in five distinct extant families; Antilocapridae, Giraffidae, Moschidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae. Due to the rapid radiation, the Pecoran phylogeny has proven difficult to resolve and eleven of the fift...

  7. Comparative analysis of a putative tuberculosis-susceptibility gene, MC3R, and pseudogene sequences in cattle, African buffalo, hyena, rhinoceros and other African bovids and ruminants.

    PubMed

    Müller, A; Möller, M; Adams, L A; Warren, R M; Hoal, E G; van Helden, P D

    2012-01-01

    Studies in humans have suggested the possible involvement of melanocortin-3-receptor (MC3R) and other components of the central melanocortin system in host defense against mycobacteria. We report a genomic DNA nucleotide sequence highly homologous to human MC3R in several bovids and non-bovid African wildlife species. Nucleotide sequence analysis indicates that the orthologous genes of cattle and buffalo are highly homologous (89.4 and 90%, respectively) to the human MC3R gene. Sequence results also identified a typical non-functional, duplicated pseudogene, MC3RP, in 7 species from the family Bovidae. No pseudogene was found in animals outside Bovidae. The presence of the pseudogene in tuberculosis-susceptible species could have possible immunomodulatory effects on susceptibility to bovine tuberculosis infection, as well as a considerable influence on energy metabolism and food conversion efficiency. PMID:22286663

  8. Isozyme characterization of cattle (Bos taurus) and American buffalo (Bison bison) cell cultures.

    PubMed

    Carleer, J; Pastoret, P P; Ansay, M

    1978-01-01

    Four Bovidae cell lines (BEK-1, MDBK, Bu and EBTr) were characterized by means of enzymatic biochemical markers. Out of 15 enzymatic systems, 3--adenosine deaminase (Ada), phosphoglucomutase (Pgm) and nucleoside phosphorylase (Np)--were found to be polymorphic and quite suitable for biochemical identification of each cell line. The Bu cell line has shown a Np phenotypic pattern which could be distinctive of the Bison bison species. PMID:109020

  9. Repellent Properties of δ-Octalactone Against the Tsetse Fly, Glossina morsitans Morsitans

    PubMed Central

    Mwangi, Martin T.; Gikonyo, Nicholas K.; Ndiege, Isaiah O.

    2008-01-01

    δ-octalactone, produced by several Bovidae, has been suggested as a potential repellant of tsetse fly attack. Racemic δ-octalactone was synthesized via an abbreviated route. The product was assayed against 3-day old starved teneral female tsetse flies, Glossina morsitans morsitans Wiedemann (Diptera: Glossinidae), in a choice wind tunnel and found to be a potent tsetse repellent at doses ≥0.05 mg in 200 µl of paraffin oil (0.05 >p >0.01). PMID:20298116

  10. Molecular cytogenetic insights to the phylogenetic affinities of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and pronghorn (Antilocapra americana).

    PubMed

    Cernohorska, Halina; Kubickova, Svatava; Kopecna, Olga; Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Perelman, Polina L; Elder, Frederick F B; Robinson, Terence J; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Rubes, Jiri

    2013-08-01

    Five families are traditionally recognized within higher ruminants (Pecora): Bovidae, Moschidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Antilocapridae. The phylogenetic relationships of Antilocapridae and Giraffidae within Pecora are, however, uncertain. While numerous fusions (mostly Robertsonian) have accumulated in the giraffe's karyotype (Giraffa camelopardalis, Giraffidae, 2n = 30), that of the pronghorn (Antilocapra americana, Antilocapridae, 2n = 58) is very similar to the hypothesised pecoran ancestral state (2n = 58). We examined the chromosomal rearrangements of two species, the giraffe and pronghorn, using a combination of fluorescence in situ hybridization painting probes and BAC clones derived from cattle (Bos taurus, Bovidae). Our data place Moschus (Moschidae) closer to Bovidae than Cervidae. Although the alternative (i.e., Moschidae + Cervidae as sister groups) could not be discounted in recent sequence-based analyses, cytogenetics bolsters conclusions that the former is more likely. Additionally, DNA sequences were isolated from the centromeric regions of both species and compared. Analysis of cenDNA show that unlike the pronghorn, the centromeres of the giraffe are probably organized in a more complex fashion comprising different repetitive sequences specific to single chromosomal pairs or groups of chromosomes. The distribution of nucleolar organiser region (NOR) sites, often an effective phylogenetic marker, were also examined in the two species. In the giraffe, the position of NORs seems to be autapomorphic since similar localizations have not been found in other species within Pecora. PMID:23896647

  11. Regional diversity patterns in African bovids, hyaenids, and felids during the past 3 million years: the role of taphonomic bias and implications for the evolution of Paranthropus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, David B.; Faith, J. Tyler; Bobe, René; Wood, Bernard

    2014-07-01

    Reconstructing patterns of Plio-Pleistocene mammalian faunal exchange between eastern and southern Africa may help us to better understand patterns of evolution within the hominin clade. However, differences in geological context, taphonomic history and collection methods, as well as a lack of a precise chronology in one of the regions, complicate attempts to compare the faunas of the two regions, but access to new comprehensive datasets encouraged us to re-examine this critical time period in the African paleontological record. In this study, we examine the biogeographic histories of three terrestrial African mammalian families whose fossil records span the past 3 million years to test hypotheses related to the evolutionary history of the hominin genus Paranthropus. We used presence/absence data for 117 species from 38 genera within the family Bovidae and 34 species from 15 genera within the families Hyaenidae and Felidae from 52 eastern African and 40 southern African fossil localities. These assemblages were placed into 500 ka time slices and compared at both the genus and species level using the Jaccard index of faunal similarity. Our findings indicate that sampling biases have more effect on the patterns of interchange between eastern and southern African Bovidae than they do the patterns of interchange seen in the Hyaenidae and Felidae. However, even when these biases are taken into account there are persistent differences in the degree of interchange within and between these families. These findings suggest that mammalian groups (including hominins) can have very different histories of exchange between eastern and southern Africa over the past 3 million years. There is no a priori reason why any of the three families we examined is a suitable proxy for the eastern and southern African hyper-megadont and megadont hominin taxa presently included in Paranthropus, but of the three we suggest that the Bovidae is likely to come closest to being an appropriate

  12. Exposure of Asian Elephants and Other Exotic Ungulates to Schmallenberg Virus

    PubMed Central

    Molenaar, Fieke M.; La Rocca, S. Anna; Khatri, Meenakshi; Lopez, Javier; Steinbach, Falko; Dastjerdi, Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Schmallenberg virus (SBV) is an emerging Orthobunyavirus, first described in 2011 in cattle in Germany and subsequently spread throughout Europe, affecting mainly ruminant livestock through the induction of foetal malformations. To gain a better understanding of the spectrum of susceptible species and to assess the value of current SBV serological assays, screening of serum samples from exotic artiodactyls and perissodactyls collected at the Living Collections from the Zoological Society of London (Whipsnade and London Zoos) and Chester Zoo was carried out. There was compelling evidence of SBV infection in both zoological collections. The competitive ELISA has proved to be applicable for the detection of SBV in exotic Bovidae, Cervidae, Suidae, Giraffidae and most notably in endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus), but unreliable for the screening of Camelidae, for which the plaque reduction neutralisation test was considered the assay of choice. PMID:26274399

  13. Transmission dynamics of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores at the Barcelona zoo: a long-term study.

    PubMed

    Gracenea, M; Gómez, M S; Torres, J; Carné, E; Fernández-Morán, J

    2002-02-27

    Factors influencing the transmission of Cryptosporidium in primates and herbivores housed at the Barcelona zoo have been analyzed. The relationship between continuous and discontinuous oocyst shedding, both animal housing conditions and abiotic factors (seasonality, humidity, temperature) was examined to explain the epizootiology of the protozoan. Thirty six fecal samples from each of 11 primates (Pongidae, Cebidae, Cercopithecidae and Lemuridae) and 22 herbivores (Elephantidae, Camelidae, Cervidae, Giraffidae and Bovidae) were examined over the period of 1 year. The parasite transmission was based on the chronic infection status of some animals serving as a source of successive reinfection for other animals. The environmental temperature and humidity (seasonality), the physical features of the facilities, the vicinity of the animals and the physiological status induced by captivity contributed to transmission. The long-term character of this study was essential for obtaining these results and interpreting the complex relationships. PMID:11779652

  14. Sarcocystis cruzi infection in wood bison (Bison bison athabascae).

    PubMed

    Calero-Bernal, Rafael; Verma, Shiv K; Seaton, C Tom; Sinnett, David; Ball, Erin; Dunams, Detiger; Rosenthal, Benjamin M; Dubey, Jitender P

    2015-05-30

    Endangered wood bison (Bison bison athabascae) is the largest terrestrial mammal in the American continent. Animal health is an important issue in their conservation, and Sarcocystis cruzi may be a cause of clinical disease in Bovidae. Hearts of eight wood bison from Alaska, USA were examined for sarcocysts by histology, transmission electron microscopy, pepsin digestion, and molecularly. Sarcocystis bradyzoites were found in pepsin digests of all eight and sarcocysts were found in histologic sections of myocardium of four bison. Sarcocysts were thin-walled and ultrastructurally consistent with S. cruzi. Characterization of DNA obtained from lysis of pepsin liberated bradyzoites by PCR-RFLP and subsequent phylogenetic analyses matched with that previously reported for S. cruzi infecting cattle in the USA. Collectively, data indicate that wood bison is a natural intermediate host for S. cruzi. PMID:25868849

  15. Genetic characterization of MHC class II DQB exon 2 variants in gayal (Bos frontalis)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yongke; Xi, Dongmei; Li, Guozhi; Hao, Tiantian; Chen, Yuhan; Yang, Yuai

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, exon 2 of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II DQB gene from 39 gayals (Bos frontalis) was isolated, characterized and compared with previously reported patterns for other bovidae. It was revealed by sequence analyses that there are 36 DQB exon 2 variants among 39 gayals. These variants exhibited a high degree of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions with most amino acid variations occurring at positions forming the peptide-binding sites (PBS). The DQB loci were analysed for patterns of synonymous (d S) and non-synonymous (d N) substitution. The gayals were observed to be under strong balancing selection in the DQB exon 2 PBS (d N = 0.094, P = 0.001). It appears that this variability among gayals could confer the ability to mount immune responses to a wide variety of peptides or pathogens. PMID:26019566

  16. [Recent developments relevant to animal welfare for the optimization of distance immobilization].

    PubMed

    Wiesner, H

    1998-07-01

    Developments in the field of distance immobilization with regard to animal welfare are reported. In order to prevent trauma, the impact energy of the darts has to be adjusted species specifically to the quality of the epidermis, the subcutaneous tissue and the thickness of the coat. A momentum of 10 joule in Equidae, or 20 joule in Bovidae and Cervidae should not be exceeded in any case. The impact energy can be reduced to 50% by using rubber caps with the darts; it is therefore recommended to use them regularly. The use of a laser range finder allows the most precise and careful application. Dosage recommendations for the "Hellabrunner Mixture" (mortality rate 0.35%) and for Long Acting Neuroleptic (LAN) are given. It is referred to the relevant legal regulations. PMID:9710926

  17. Blood-gas and acid-base parameters in nontranquilized Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Kilgallon, Conor; Bailey, Tom; Arca-Ruibal, Barbara; Misheff, Martha; O'Donovan, Declan

    2008-03-01

    Arterial and venous blood-gas and acid-base values were established from a herd (n = 19; 14 male, 5 female) of semi-free-ranging Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx) in the United Arab Emirates. The animals were restrained with the use of a modified raceway incorporating a commercially available handling crate. Statistically significant differences were found between arterial and venous values for PO2 (p < 0.001), PCO2 (p = 0.0141), SO2 (p < 0.001), pH (p = 0.0494), and glucose (p < 0.0001). The results are similar to those reported for the same species under field anesthetic conditions, and to those reported from other species of wild bovidae, both tranquilized and nontranquilized, established under similar methods of restraint. In addition, Bland and Altman plots suggest adequate levels of clinical agreement between venous and arterial pH but not between arterial and venous PCO2. PMID:18432091

  18. Fematrin-1 is involved in fetomaternal cell-to-cell fusion in Bovinae placenta and has contributed to diversity of ruminant placentation.

    PubMed

    Nakaya, Yuki; Koshi, Katsuo; Nakagawa, So; Hashizume, Kazuyoshi; Miyazawa, Takayuki

    2013-10-01

    During placentation, mammals employ different strategies for nourishing and supporting fetuses. Members of the Bovidae family, consisting of cloven-hoofed ruminants, utilize multiple maternal attachment points on the placenta, known as cotyledons, and hybrid cells, named trinucleate cells or syncytial plaques, made up of a fusion of fetal trophoblasts and maternal endometrial cells to provide essential hormones and maintain long gestation periods. These hybrid cells are unique to the Bovidae, as fetomaternal borders are clearly separated by syncytiotrophoblasts or epithelial cells in the placenta of other mammals. Recently, it was reported that Syncytin-Rum1 was inserted into ruminant genomes, including cattle and sheep, and was possibly involved in fetomaternal cell-to-cell fusion in both species. However, Syncytin-Rum1 alone is insufficient to explain the morphological diversity of the fetomaternal hybrids between Bovinae and Caprinae (i.e., trinucleate cells in Bovinae and syncytial plaques in Caprinae). Here we report that the bovine endogenous retrovirus K1 (BERV-K1) envelope, which we term Fematrin-1, was specifically expressed in binucleated trophoblasts throughout gestation in cattle and induced fusion with bovine endometrial cells in vitro at a significantly higher level than Syncytin-Rum1 under physiological conditions. Fematrin-1 was found to be integrated into intron 18 of FAT tumor suppressor homolog 2 (FAT2) about 18.3 to 25.4 million years ago and has been subject to purifying selection through the evolution of Bovinae. Phylogenetically, Fematrin-1 is distinct from Syncytin genes found in other mammalian species that form syncytiotrophoblasts. Our results suggest that the newly acquired endogenous retroelement has contributed to generating placentation diversity through ruminant evolution. PMID:23864631

  19. Identification of multiple pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAGs) purified from the European bison (Eb; Bison bonasus L.) placentas.

    PubMed

    Kiewisz, J; Melo de Sousa, N; Beckers, J F; Panasiewicz, G; Gizejewski, Z; Szafranska, B

    2009-06-01

    This paper describes the first identified chorionic PAGs in the European bison (Eb), named EbPAGs, predominantly expressed during early and mid-pregnancy (45-120 day post-coitum; dpc). Many EbPAGs were extracted from various cotyledonary tissues, precipitated, chromatographed (DEAE and VVA: Vicia villosa agglutinin), electrophoresed (1D- and 2D-PAGE), analysed by heterologous (cross-species) Western blotting and then micro-sequenced by Edman degradation. Finally, twelve selected VVA-purified isoforms (Ip 3.7-7.4) were entirely characterised. Nine identified NH(2)-terminal micro-sequences were found to be PAGs. On 45 dpc, three identified forms were named: EbPAG(67AkDa) (RGSNLTHPLRNIGDLFYVGN), EbPAG(55BkDa) (RGSNLTHPL) and EbPAG(50CkDa) (SQISLRGSNLTI). On 60 dpc, the next three forms were named: EbPAG(71DkDa) (RGSNLTIHPLRNIIDLFYVG), EbPAG(55EkDa) (RGSNLTHPLRNI) and EbPAG(50FkDa) (SQISLRGS). On 120 dpc, three other forms were named: EbPAG(71GkDa) (RGSNLTHPLRNIRDLFYVG), EbPAG(60HkDa) (RGSNLTTHPLRNIKDLVVYM) and EbPAG(50IkDa) (SGSNLTTV). These EbPAG ((A-I)) sequences are unique, as they are not identical to any other PAGs purified previously in related species of the Bovidae family. However, the EbPAGs (A-I forms) have some sequence resemblance to internal sequences of various full-length polypeptide PAG precursors (in silico translated from cloned cDNAs) identified in domestic cattle. Three other novel native isoforms (J1, J2 and K): EbUPG(45kDa) J1 (SKDNYKNYIPLIVPFAT), EbUPG(45kDa) J2 (SKDNQKNYIPLIVPFAT) and EbUPG(76kDa) K (SPEFTV), were temporarily named 'unknown placental glycoproteins' (UPGs), due to their efficient VVA-purification (specific for glycoproteins only) and a lack of considerable consensus to previously sequenced placental glycoproteins in the Bovidae family. This is the first study identifying NH(2)-terminals of multiple/diverse EbPAGs and some EbUPGs purified from the synepitheliochorial cotyledonary placenta of the endangered Bison bonasus (Red List

  20. Genome-Wide Survey and Analysis of Microsatellite Sequences in Bovid Species

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Wen-Hua; Jiang, Xue-Mei; Du, Lian-Ming; Xiao, Guo-Sheng; Hu, Ting-Zhang; Yue, Bi-Song; Quan, Qiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) have become the most popular source of genetic markers, which are ubiquitously distributed in many eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. This is the first study examining and comparing SSRs in completely sequenced genomes of the Bovidae. We analyzed and compared the number of SSRs, relative abundance, relative density, guanine-cytosine (GC) content and proportion of SSRs in six taxonomically different bovid species: Bos taurus, Bubalus bubalis, Bos mutus, Ovis aries, Capra hircus, and Pantholops hodgsonii. Our analysis revealed that, based on our search criteria, the total number of perfect SSRs found ranged from 663,079 to 806,907 and covered from 0.44% to 0.48% of the bovid genomes. Relative abundance and density of SSRs in these Bovinae genomes were non-significantly correlated with genome size (Pearson, r < 0.420, p > 0.05). Perfect mononucleotide SSRs were the most abundant, followed by the pattern: perfect di- > tri- > penta- > tetra- > hexanucleotide SSRs. Generally, the number of SSRs, relative abundance, and relative density of SSRs decreased as the motif repeat length increased in each species of Bovidae. The most GC-content was in trinucleotide SSRs and the least was in the mononucleotide SSRs in the six bovid genomes. The GC-contents of tri- and pentanucleotide SSRs showed a great deal of similarity among different chromosomes of B. taurus, O. aries, and C. hircus. SSR number of all chromosomes in the B. taurus, O.aries, and C. hircus is closely positively correlated with chromosome sequence size (Pearson, r > 0.980, p < 0.01) and significantly negatively correlated with GC-content (Pearson, r < -0.638, p < 0.01). Relative abundance and density of SSRs in all chromosomes of the three species were significantly negatively correlated with GC-content (Pearson, r < -0.333, P < 0.05) but not significantly correlated with chromosome sequence size (Pearson, r < -0.185, P > 0.05). Relative abundances of the same

  1. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-08-25

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0-1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales. PMID:26261300

  2. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-09-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production. PMID:27004812

  3. A genome-wide association study identifies a genomic region for the polycerate phenotype in sheep (Ovis aries)

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Xue; Yang, Guang-Li; Peng, Wei-Feng; Zhao, Yong-Xin; Zhang, Min; Chen, Ze-Hui; Wu, Fu-An; Kantanen, Juha; Shen, Min; Li, Meng-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Horns are a cranial appendage found exclusively in Bovidae, and play important roles in accessing resources and mates. In sheep (Ovies aries), horns vary from polled to six-horned, and human have been selecting polled animals in farming and breeding. Here, we conducted a genome-wide association study on 24 two-horned versus 22 four-horned phenotypes in a native Chinese breed of Sishui Fur sheep. Together with linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyses and haplotype-based association tests, we identified a genomic region comprising 132.0–133.1 Mb on chromosome 2 that contained the top 10 SNPs (including 4 significant SNPs) and 5 most significant haplotypes associated with the polycerate phenotype. In humans and mice, this genomic region contains the HOXD gene cluster and adjacent functional genes EVX2 and KIAA1715, which have a close association with the formation of limbs and genital buds. Our results provide new insights into the genetic basis underlying variable numbers of horns and represent a new resource for use in sheep genetics and breeding. PMID:26883901

  4. Conserved synteny between pig chromosome 8 and human chromosome 4 but rearranged and distorted linkage maps

    SciTech Connect

    Ellegren, H.; Edfors-Lilja, I.; Anderson, L. ); Wintero, A.K. )

    1993-09-01

    The porcine genes encoding interleukin 2, alcohol dehydrogenase (class I) gamma polypeptide, and osteopontin were mapped to chromosome 8 by linkage analysis. Together with previous assignments to this chromosome (the albumin, platelet-derived growth factor receptor A, and fibrinogen genes), an extensive syntenic homology with human chromosome 4 was discovered. Loci from about three-quarters of the q arm of human chromosome 4 are on pig chromosome 8. However, the linear order of the markers is not identical in the two species, and there are several examples of interspecific differences in the recombination fractions between adjacent markers. The conserved synteny between man and the pig gives strong support to a previous suggestion that a synteny group present in the ancestor of mammalian species has been retained on human chromosome 4q. Since loci from this synteny group are found on two cattle chromosomes, the bovine rearrangement must have occurred after the split of Suidae and Bovidae within Artiodactyla. 29 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Bovine Carboxylesterases: Evidence for Two CES1 and Five Families of CES Genes on Chromosome 18

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, Roger S; Cox, Laura A; VandeBerg, John L

    2009-01-01

    Predicted bovine carboxylesterase (CES) protein and gene sequences were derived from bovine (Bos taurus) genomic sequence data. Two bovine CES1 genes (CES1.1 and CES1.2) were located on chromosome 18 encoding amino acid sequences that were 81% identical. Two forms of CES1.2 were also observed apparently caused by an indel polymorphism encoded at the C-terminus end. Two CES gene clusters were observed on chromosome 18: CES5-CES1.1-CES1.2 and CES2-CES3-CES6. Bovine CES1, CES2, CES3, CES5 and CES6 shared 39-45% identity with each other, but showed 71-76% identity with each of the five corresponding human CES family members. Phylogeny studies indicated that bovine CES genes originated from five ancestral gene duplication events which predated the eutherian mammalian common ancestor. In addition, a subsequent CES1 gene duplication event is proposed during mammalian evolution prior to the appearance of the Bovidae common ancestor ~ 20 MY ago. PMID:20161341

  6. Cloning and Expression of Yak Active Chymosin in Pichia pastoris

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Fan; Jiang, Wei Hua; Yang, Yuan Xiao; Li, Jiang; Jiang, Ming Feng

    2016-01-01

    Rennet, a complex of enzymes found in the stomachs of ruminants, is an important component for cheese production. In our study, we described that yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could serve as a novel source for rennet production. Yaks total RNA was extracted from the abomasum of an unweaned yak. The yak preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes from total RNA were isolated using gene specific primers based on cattle chymosin gene sequence respectively and analyzed their expression pattern byreal time-polymerase chain reaction. The result showed that the chymosin gene expression level of the sucking yaks was 11.45 times higher than one of adult yaks and yak chymosin belongs to Bovidae family in phylogenetic analysis. To express each, the preprochymosin, prochymosin, and chymosin genes were ligated into the expression vector pPICZαA, respectively, and were expressed in Pichia pastoris X33. The results showed that all the recombinant clones of P. pastoris containing the preprochymosin, prochymosin or chymosin genes could produce the active form of recombinant chymosin into the culture supernatant. Heterologous expressed prochymosin (14.55 Soxhlet unit/mL) had the highest enzyme activity of the three expressed chymosin enzymes. Therefore, we suggest that the yak chymosin gene recombinant Pichia pastoris strain could provide an alternative source of rennet production. PMID:27004812

  7. Differences in evolutionary history translate into differences in invasion success of alien mammals in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yessoufou, Kowiyou; Gere, Jephris; Daru, Barnabas H; van der Bank, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Attempts to investigate the drivers of invasion success are generally limited to the biological and evolutionary traits distinguishing native from introduced species. Although alien species introduced to the same recipient environment differ in their invasion intensity – for example, some are “strong invaders”; others are “weak invaders” – the factors underlying the variation in invasion success within alien communities are little explored. In this study, we ask what drives the variation in invasion success of alien mammals in South Africa. First, we tested for taxonomic and phylogenetic signal in invasion intensity. Second, we reconstructed predictive models of the variation in invasion intensity among alien mammals using the generalized linear mixed-effects models. We found that the family Bovidae and the order Artiodactyla contained more “strong invaders” than expected by chance, and that such taxonomic signal did not translate into phylogenetic selectivity. In addition, our study indicates that latitude, gestation length, social group size, and human population density are only marginal determinant of the variation in invasion success. However, we found that evolutionary distinctiveness – a parameter characterising the uniqueness of each alien species – is the most important predictive variable. Our results indicate that the invasive behavior of alien mammals may have been “fingerprinted” in their evolutionary past, and that evolutionary history might capture beyond ecological, biological and life-history traits usually prioritized in predictive modeling of invasion success. These findings have applicability to the management of alien mammals in South Africa. PMID:25360253

  8. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    PubMed

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective. PMID:25633896

  9. The trappin gene family: proteins defined by an N-terminal transglutaminase substrate domain and a C-terminal four-disulphide core.

    PubMed Central

    Schalkwijk, J; Wiedow, O; Hirose, S

    1999-01-01

    Recently, several new genes have been discovered in various species which are homologous to the well-characterized human epithelial proteinase inhibitor elafin/SKALP (skin-derived anti-leukoproteinase). Because of the high degree of conservation and the similarities in genomic organization, we propose that these genes belong to a novel gene family. At the protein level, the family members are defined by: (1) an N-terminal domain consisting of a variable number of repeats with the consensus sequence Gly-Gln-Asp-Pro-Val-Lys that can act as an anchoring motif by transglutaminase cross-linking, and (2) a C-terminal four-disulphide core or whey acidic protein (WAP) domain, which harbours a functional motif involved in binding of proteinases and possibly other proteins. We have proposed the name trappin gene family as a unifying nomenclature for this group of proteins (trappin is an acronym for TRansglutaminase substrate and wAP domain containing ProteIN, and refers to its functional property of 'getting trapped' in tissues by covalent cross-linking). Analysis of the trappin family members shows extensive diversification in bovidae and suidae, whereas the number of primate trappins is probably limited. Recent biochemical and cell biological data on the human trappin family member elafin/SKALP suggest that this molecule is induced in epidermis by cellular stress. We hypothesize that trappins play an important role in the regulation of inflammation and in protection against tissue damage in stratified epithelia. PMID:10359639

  10. The binucleate cell of okapi and giraffe placenta shows distinctive glycosylation compared with other ruminants: a lectin histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Jones, Carolyn J P; Wilsher, Sandra A; Wooding, F B P; Benirschke, K; Allen, W R

    2015-02-01

    The placenta of ruminants contains characteristic binucleate cells (BNC) with a highly conserved glycan structure which evolved early in Ruminant phylogenesis. Giraffe and Okapi placentae also contain these cells and it is not known whether they have a similar glycan array. We have used lectin histochemistry to examine the glycosylation of these cells in these species and compare them with bovine BNC which have a typical ruminant glycan composition. Two placentae, mid and near term, from Giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) and two term placenta of Okapi (Okapia johnstoni) were embedded in resin and stained with a panel of 23 lectins and compared with near-term bovine (Bos taurus) placenta. Significant differences were found in the glycans of Giraffe and Okapi BNC compared with those from the bovine, with little or no expression of terminal αN-acetylgalactosamine bound by Dolichos biflorus and Vicia villosa agglutinins which instead bound to placental blood vessels. Higher levels of N-acetylglucosamine bound by Lycopersicon esculentum and Phytolacca americana agglutinins were also apparent. Some differences between Okapi and Giraffe were evident. Most N-linked glycans were similarly expressed in all three species as were fucosyl residues. Interplacentomal areas in Giraffe and Bovine showed differences from the placentomal cells though no intercotyledonary BNC were apparent in Okapi. In conclusion, Giraffidae BNC developed different glycan biosynthetic pathways following their split from the Bovidae with further differences evolving as Okapi and Giraffe diverged from each other, affecting both inter and placentomal BNC which may have different functions during development. PMID:25527317

  11. The arteries of brain base in species of Bovini tribe.

    PubMed

    Zdun, Maciej; Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Kiełtyka-Kurc, Agata; Kowalczyk, Karolina; Nabzdyk, Maria; Timm, Anita

    2013-11-01

    Studies were conducted on 78 preparations of head and brain arteries in four species of Bos genus, that is in domestic cattle (N = 59), including 22 foetuses (CRL 36.5-78.5 cm), in banteng (Bos javanicus, N = 3), yak (Bos mutus f. grunniens, N = 2), American bison (Bison bison, N = 4), and European bison (Bison bonasus, N = 10). The comparative analysis permitted to demonstrate a similar pattern of brain base arteries in the studied animals. In the studied species, blood vessels of the arterial circle of the brain were found to form by bifurcation of intracranial segments of inner carotid arteries, which protruded from the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. In Bovidae arterial circle of the brain was supplied with blood mainly by maxillary artery through the blood vessels of the paired rostral epidural rete mirabile. The unpaired caudal epidural rete mirabile was participating in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain from vertebral and occipital arteries. It manifested character of a taxonomic trait for species of Bos and Bison genera. Basilar artery in all the examined animals manifested a variable diameter, with preliminary portion markedly narrowed, which prevented its participation in blood supply to the arterial circle of the brain. The results and taxonomic position of the species made the authors to suggest a hypothesis that a similar arterial pattern on the brain base might be present also in other species, not included in this analysis. PMID:24106047

  12. Molecular evolution of Bov-B LINEs in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kordis, D; Gubensek, F

    1999-09-30

    Since their discovery in family Bovidae (bovids), Bov-B LINEs, believed to be order-specific SINEs, have been found in all ruminants and recently also in Viperidae snakes. The distribution and the evolutionary relationships of Bov-B LINEs provide an indication of their origin and evolutionary dynamics in different species. The evolutionary origin of Bov-B LINE elements has been shown unequivocally to be in Squamata (squamates). The horizontal transfer of Bov-B LINE elements in vertebrates has been confirmed by their discontinuous phylogenetic distribution in Squamata (Serpentes and two lizard infra-orders) as well as in Ruminantia, by the high level of nucleotide identity, and by their phylogenetic relationships. The direction of horizontal transfer from Squamata to the ancestor of Ruminantia is evident from the genetic distances and discontinuous phylogenetic distribution of Bov-B LINE elements. The ancestor of Colubroidea snakes has been recognized as a possible donor of Bov-B LINE elements to Ruminantia. The timing of horizontal transfer has been estimated from the distribution of Bov-B LINE elements in Ruminantia and the fossil data of Ruminantia to be 40-50 My ago. The phylogenetic relationships of Bov-B LINE elements from the various Squamata species agrees with that of the species phylogeny, suggesting that Bov-B LINE elements have been stably maintained by vertical transmission since the origin of Squamata in the Mesozoic era. PMID:10570995

  13. Horizontal transfer of non-LTR retrotransposons in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kordis, D; Gubensek, F

    1999-01-01

    Since their discovery in family Bovidae (bovids), Bov-B LINEs, believed to be order-specific SINEs, have been found in all ruminants and recently also in Viperidae snakes. The distribution and the evolutionary relationships of Bov-B LINEs provide an indication of their origin and evolutionary dynamics in different species. The evolutionary origin of Bov-B LINE elements has been shown unequivocally to be in Squamata (squamates). The horizontal transfer of Bov-B LINE elements in vertebrates has been confirmed by their discontinuous phylogenetic distribution in Squamata (Serpentes and two lizard infra-orders) as well as in Ruminantia, by the high level of nucleotide identity, and by their phylogenetic relationships. The direction of horizontal transfer from Squamata to the ancestor of Ruminantia is evident from the genetic distances and discontinuous phylogenetic distribution of Bov-B LINE elements. The ancestral snake lineage (Boidae) has been recognized as a possible donor of Bov-B LINE elements to Ruminantia. The timing of horizontal transfer has been estimated from the distribution of Bov-B LINE elements in Ruminantia and the fossil data of Ruminantia to be 40-50 mya. The phylogenetic relationships of Bov-B LINE elements from the various Squamata species agrees with that of the species phylogeny, suggesting that Bov-B LINE elements have been stably maintained by vertical transmission since the origin of Squamata in the Mesozoic era. PMID:10952205

  14. Comprehensive Serology Based on a Peptide ELISA to Assess the Prevalence of Closely Related Equine Herpesviruses in Zoo and Wild Animals

    PubMed Central

    Abdelgawad, Azza; Hermes, Robert; Damiani, Armando; Lamglait, Benjamin; Czirják, Gábor Á.; East, Marion; Aschenborn, Ortwin; Wenker, Christian; Kasem, Samy; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Greenwood, Alex D.

    2015-01-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disorders and abortion in equids while EHV-1 regularly causes equine herpesvirus myeloencephalopathy (EHM), a stroke-like syndrome following endothelial cell infection in horses. Both EHV-1 and EHV-9 infections of non-definitive hosts often result in neuronal infection and high case fatality rates. Hence, EHV-1 and EHV-9 are somewhat unusual herpesviruses and lack strict host specificity, and the true extent of their host ranges have remained unclear. In order to determine the seroprevalence of EHV-1 and EHV-9, a sensitive and specific peptide-based ELISA was developed and applied to 428 sera from captive and wild animals representing 30 species in 12 families and five orders. Members of the Equidae, Rhinocerotidae and Bovidae were serologically positive for EHV-1 and EHV-9. The prevalence of EHV-1 in the sampled wild zebra populations was significantly higher than in zoos suggesting captivity may reduce exposure to EHV-1. Furthermore, the seroprevalence for EHV-1 was significantly higher than for EHV-9 in zebras. In contrast, EHV-9 antibody prevalence was high in captive and wild African rhinoceros species suggesting that they may serve as a reservoir or natural host for EHV-9. Thus, EHV-1 and EHV-9 have a broad host range favoring African herbivores and may have acquired novel natural hosts in ecosystems where wild equids are common and are in close contact with other perissodactyls. PMID:26378452

  15. Mycobacterium spp. in wild game in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Pate, Mateja; Zajc, Urška; Kušar, Darja; Žele, Diana; Vengušt, Gorazd; Pirš, Tina; Ocepek, Matjaž

    2016-02-01

    Wildlife species are an important reservoir of mycobacterial infections that may jeopardise efforts to control and eradicate bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis. Slovenia is officially free of bTB, but no data on the presence of mycobacteria in wild animals has been reported. In this study, samples of liver and lymph nodes were examined from 306 apparently healthy free-range wild animals of 13 species in Slovenia belonging to the families Cervidae, Suidae, Canidae, Mustelidae and Bovidae. Mycobacteria were isolated from 36/306 (11.8%) animals (red deer, roe deer, fallow deer, wild boar and jackal) and identified by PCR, commercial diagnostic kits and sequencing. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria identified in five species were Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. avium subsp. hominissuis, M. intracellulare, M. confluentis, M. fortuitum, M. terrae, M. avium subsp. avium, M. celatum, M. engbaekii, M. neoaurum, M. nonchromogenicum and M. vaccae. PMID:26639827

  16. Species Composition and Community Structure of Dung Beetles Attracted to Dung of Gaur and Elephant in the Moist Forests of South Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Vinod, K.V.; Sabu, Thomas K.

    2007-01-01

    The community structure of dung beetles attracted to dung of gaur, Bos gaurus (H. Smith) (Artiodactyla: Bovidae) and Asian elephant, Elephas maximus Linnaeus (Proboscidea: Elephantidae), is reported from the moist forests of Western Ghats, in South India. The dominance of dwellers over rollers, presence of many endemic species, predominance of regional species and higher incidence of the old world roller, Ochicanthon laetum, make the dung beetle community in the moist forests of the region unusual. The dominance of dwellers and the lower presence of rollers make the functional guild structure of the dung beetle community of the region different from assemblages in the moist forests of south East Asia and Neotropics, and more similar to the community found in Ivory Coast forests. The ability of taxonomic diversity indices to relate variation in dung physical quality with phylogenetic structure of dung beetle assemblage is highlighted. Comparatively higher taxonomic diversity and evenness of dung beetle assemblage attracted to elephant dung rather than to gaur dung is attributed to the heterogeneous nature of elephant dung. Further analyses of community structure of dung beetles across the moist forests of Western Ghats are needed to ascertain whether the abundance of dwellers is a regional pattern specific to the transitional Wayanad forests of south Western Ghats. PMID:20337551

  17. PCR-RFLP analysis: a promising technique for host species identification of blood meals from tsetse flies (Diptera: Glossinidae).

    PubMed

    Steuber, Stephan; Abdel-Rady, Ahmed; Clausen, Peter-Henning

    2005-10-01

    A polymerase chain reaction with the restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method using universal primers complementary to the conserved region of the cytochrome b gene (cyt b) of the mitochondrion DNA (mtDNA) of vertebrates was applied to the identification of the origin of blood meals in tsetse flies. Blood samples from ten potential tsetse hosts of the family bovidae (cattle, water buffalo, red buffalo, waterbuck, springbok, goat, sheep, sable antelope, oryx and dik-dik) were included in this study. Sites for appropriate restriction endonucleases cuts were chosen by pairwise alignment of the amplified 359 bp fragments. A flow chart of endonucleases digestion using three restriction enzymes (e.g. TaqI, AluI and HindII) for the unequivocal identification of the respective bovid species was developed. A number of additional non-specific DNA fragments attributed to the co-amplification of cytochrome b pseudogenes were observed in some species (e.g. in red buffalo and dik-dik after digestion with AluI) but did not hamper assignment of bovid species. The detection rate of host DNA in tsetse by PCR-RFLP was 100, 80, 60 and 40% at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after in vitro feeding, respectively. Identification of the last blood meal was possible even when tsetse had previously fed on different hosts. PMID:15999278

  18. Effect of species-specific differences in chromosome morphology on chromatin compaction and the frequency and distribution of RAD51 and MLH1 foci in two bovid species: cattle (Bos taurus) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx).

    PubMed

    Sebestova, Hana; Vozdova, Miluse; Kubickova, Svatava; Cernohorska, Halina; Kotrba, Radim; Rubes, Jiri

    2016-03-01

    Meiotic recombination between homologous chromosomes is crucial for their correct segregation into gametes and for generating diversity. We compared the frequency and distribution of MLH1 foci and RAD51 foci, synaptonemal complex (SC) length and DNA loop size in two related Bovidae species that share chromosome arm homology but show an extreme difference in their diploid chromosome number: cattle (Bos taurus, 2n = 60) and the common eland (Taurotragus oryx, 2nmale = 31). Compared to cattle, significantly fewer MLH1 foci per cell were observed in the common eland, which can be attributed to the lower number of initial double-strand breaks (DSBs) detected as RAD51 foci in leptonema. Despite the significantly shorter total autosomal SC length and longer DNA loop size of the common eland bi-armed chromosomes compared to those of bovine acrocentrics, the overall crossover density in the common eland was still lower than in cattle, probably due to the reduction in the number of MLH1 foci in the proximal regions of the bi-armed chromosomes. The formation of centric fusions during karyotype evolution of the common eland accompanied by meiotic chromatin compaction has greater implications in the reduction in the number of DSBs in leptonema than in the decrease of MLH1 foci number in pachynema. PMID:26194101

  19. Lights and shadows in the evolutionary patterns of insular bovids.

    PubMed

    Rozzi, Roberto; Palombo, Maria Rita

    2014-03-01

    Endemic bovids are intriguing elements of insular faunas. The living species include the Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) and the Formosan serow (C. swinhoei), the tamaraw from Mindoro, Philippines, (Bubalus mindorensis) and the anoas (B. depressicornis and B. quarlesi), 2 species of dwarf buffalos endemic to Sulawesi, Indonesia. Fossil endemic bovids are only recorded in some Asian, North American and Western Mediterranean islands. Here we present a comprehensive overview of the changes in body size and evolutionary patterns exhibited by both extant and extinct insular bovids. Our appraisal indicates that each insular representative of Bovidae shows its own peculiar evolutionary model, albeit some parallel trends exist (e.g. reduction in body size, allometric changes in limb bones, alteration of the life history traits). Some changes in morphology (e.g. the simplification of horn cores, the increase in hypsodonty, the acquisition of a 'low-gear' locomotion), for instance, appear as common, albeit not general, patterns triggered by a combination of selective forces. Body size patterns support the 'generality of the island rule' and suggest that biotic interaction had/have a major role in influencing body size evolution in these species, although in different ways on different islands. All things considered, available evidence suggest that a major role in the evolution of insular bovids is played by the structure of the insular community, the nature of available niches and by the dynamics of ecological interactions. PMID:24673764

  20. Chromosomal variation and perinatal mortality in San Diego zoo Soemmerring's gazelles.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Cynthia C; Charter, Suellen J; Goddard, Natalie; Davis, Heidi; Brandt, Margot; Houck, Marlys L; Ryder, Oliver A

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations play a fundamental role in the evolution and speciation of antelopes (Antilopinae, Bovidae), with several species exhibiting polymorphism for centric fusions. For the past 35 years, the San Diego Zoo Global (SDZG) captive population of Soemmerring's gazelles has revealed complex karyotypes resulting from chromosomal translocations with diploid numbers ranging from 34 to 39. Poor reproductive performance of this species in captivity and elevated mortality the first month of life (perinatal) has been attributed to this chromosomal dynamism. We have extended the studies of karyotypic variation in the SDZG Soemmerring's gazelle population and analyzed the effect of chromosomal and genetic variation upon perinatal mortality. Karyotypes from 149 captive Soemmerring's gazelles were evaluated revealing two unreported autosomal combinations, now constituting a total of 15 distinct karyotypes for the 3 Robertsonian centric fusions originally described for this population. Among SDZG founders, distinct chromosomal variation and nuclear and mitochondrial genetic structure were detected corresponding to the institution of origin of the founders. Low levels of genetic distance and nucleotide diversity among individuals, in addition to high relatedness values, suggested that outbreeding is less of a concern than inbreeding for maintaining a sustainable captive population. Finally, analysis of karyotypes of offspring born into the SDZG Soemmerring's gazelle herds, in conjunction with the maternal karyotype showed association of chromosomal makeup with perinatal mortality. This supports the importance of continuing cytogenetic screening efforts, particularly to evaluate the presence of deleterious chromosomal rearrangements in stillborns. PMID:26011774

  1. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-08-01

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0-1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales.

  2. Water Buffalo Genome Science Comes of Age

    PubMed Central

    Michelizzi, Vanessa N.; Dodson, Michael V.; Pan, Zengxiang; Amaral, M Elisabete J; Michal, Jennifer J.; McLean, Derek J.; Womack, James E.; Jiang, Zhihua

    2010-01-01

    The water buffalo is vital to the lives of small farmers and to the economy of many countries worldwide. Not only are they draught animals, but they are also a source of meat, horns, skin and particularly the rich and precious milk that may be converted to creams, butter, yogurt and many cheeses. Genome analysis of water buffalo has advanced significantly in recent years. This review focuses on currently available genome resources in water buffalo in terms of cytogenetic characterization, whole genome mapping and next generation sequencing. No doubt, these resources indicate that genome science comes of age in the species and will provide knowledge and technologies to help optimize production potential, reproduction efficiency, product quality, nutritional value and resistance to diseases. As water buffalo and domestic cattle, both members of the Bovidae family, are closely related, the vast amount of cattle genetic/genomic resources might serve as shortcuts for the buffalo community to further advance genome science and biotechnologies in the species. PMID:20582226

  3. Role of the prion protein family in the gonads

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Pailhoux, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The prion-gene family comprises four members named PRNP (PRPc), PRND (Doppel), PRNT (PRT), and SPRN (Shadoo). According to species, PRND is located 16–52 kb downstream from the PRNP locus, whereas SPRN is located on another chromosome. The fourth prion-family gene, PRNT, belongs to the same genomic cluster as PRNP and PRND in humans and bovidae. PRNT and PRND possibly resulted from a duplication event of PRND and PRNP, respectively, that occurred early during eutherian species divergence. Although most of the studies concerning the prion-family has been done on PRPc and its involvement in transmissible neurodegenerative disorders, different works report some potential roles of these proteins in the reproductive function of both sexes. Among them, a clear role of PRND, that encodes for the Doppel protein, in male fertility has been demonstrated through gene targeting studies in mice. In other species, Doppel seems to play a role in testis and ovary development but its cellular localization is variable according to the gonadal developmental stage and to the mammalian species considered. For the other three genes, their roles in reproductive function appear ill-defined and/or controversial. The present review aimed to synthesize all the available data on these prion-family members and their relations with reproductive processes, mainly in the gonad of both sexes. PMID:25364761

  4. A Comparative Study of Mammalian Diversification Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenhua; Xu, Junxiao; Wu, Yi; Yang, Guang

    2012-01-01

    Although mammals have long been regarded as a successful radiation, the diversification pattern among the clades is still poorly known. Higher-level phylogenies are conflicting and comprehensive comparative analyses are still lacking. Using a recently published supermatrix encompassing nearly all extant mammalian families and a novel comparative likelihood approach (MEDUSA), the diversification pattern of mammalian groups was examined. Both order- and family-level phylogenetic analyses revealed the rapid radiation of Boreoeutheria and Euaustralidelphia in the early mammalian history. The observation of a diversification burst within Boreoeutheria at approximately 100 My supports the Long Fuse model in elucidating placental diversification progress, and the rapid radiation of Euaustralidelphia suggests an important role of biogeographic dispersal events in triggering early Australian marsupial rapid radiation. Diversification analyses based on family-level diversity tree revealed seven additional clades with exceptional diversification rate shifts, six of which represent accelerations in net diversification rate as compared to the background pattern. The shifts gave origin to the clades Muridae+Cricetidae, Bovidae+Moschidae+Cervidae, Simiiformes, Echimyidae, Odontoceti (excluding Physeteridae+Kogiidae+Platanistidae), Macropodidae, and Vespertilionidae. Moderate to high extinction rates from background and boreoeutherian diversification patterns indicate the important role of turnovers in shaping the heterogeneous taxonomic richness observed among extant mammalian groups. Furthermore, the present results emphasize the key role of extinction on erasing unusual diversification signals, and suggest that further studies are needed to clarify the historical radiation of some mammalian groups for which MEDUSA did not detect exceptional diversification rates. PMID:22457604

  5. A karyotypic analysis of the lesser Malay chevrotain, Tragulus javanicus (Artiodactyla: Tragulidae).

    PubMed

    Gallagher, D S; Houck, M L; Ryan, A M; Womack, J E; Kumamoto, A T

    1996-11-01

    Chevrotains are small forest-dwelling ruminants of the family Tragulidae. The chromosome number of the lesser Malay chevrotain was determined to be 2n = 32, NF = 64, G- and Q-banding allowed the identification of homologous chromosomes, and C-banding demonstrated the presence of pericentromeric, telomeric and interstitial constitutive heterochromatin. Q-band comparisons with domestic cattle revealed relatively few monobrachial chromosome band homologies. However, the smallest biarmed autosome of the chevrotain, chromosome 15, was determined to be cytogenetically homologus with the acrocentric chromosome 19 of cattle. A molecular cytogenetic analysis confirmed this putative chromosomal homology. In fact, molecular cytogenetic analyses indicate complete conservation of synteny among mouse deer chromosome 15, domestic cattle chromosome 19, domestic pig chromosome 12 and human chromosome 17. In the light of these molecular cytogenetic data and since mouse deer chromosome 15 is submetacentric and appears homologous in banding to submetacentric chromosome 12 of the domestic pig, these outgroup comparisons indicate that the acrocentric condition of cattle chromosome 19 has been derived by inversion. Since this derivative condition is present in the Antilocapridae, Bovidae, Cervidae and Giraffidae, it is a chromosomal synapomorphy that unites these advance ruminant families within the Artiodactyla. PMID:8939367

  6. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes of well-preserved Middle Pleistocene bone collagen from Schöningen (Germany) and their paleoecological implications.

    PubMed

    Kuitems, Margot; van der Plicht, Johannes; Drucker, Dorothée G; Van Kolfschoten, Thijs; Palstra, Sanne W L; Bocherens, Hervé

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes in bone collagen can provide valuable information about the diet and habitat of mammal species. However, bone collagen degrades in normal circumstances very rapidly, and isotope analyses are therefore usually restricted to fossil material with a Late Pleistocene or Holocene age. The Middle Pleistocene site of Schöningen, dated to around 300,000 years ago, yielded bones and teeth with an exceptionally good state of collagen preservation. This allowed us to measure reliable biogenic carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios for different herbivorous taxa from the families Elephantidae, Rhinocerotidae, Equidae, Cervidae, and Bovidae. The results provide insights regarding the paleoenvironmental setting in which Middle Pleistocene hominins operated. The vegetation consumed by the herbivores from the famous spear horizon originates from open environments. During the climatic Reinsdorf Interglacial optimum, the landscape seems to have been relatively open as well, but certainly included parts that were forested. The results also indicate some niche partitioning; different herbivore species used different plant resources. For instance, the horses seem to have been predominantly browsers, while the straight-tusked elephants were feeding chiefly on grass. PMID:25824673

  7. Continuous evolutionary change in Plio-Pleistocene mammals of eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Faysal; Kiessling, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    Much debate has revolved around the question of whether the mode of evolutionary and ecological turnover in the fossil record of African mammals was continuous or pulsed, and the degree to which faunal turnover tracked changes in global climate. Here, we assembled and analyzed large specimen databases of the fossil record of eastern African Bovidae (antelopes) and Turkana Basin large mammals. Our results indicate that speciation and extinction proceeded continuously throughout the Pliocene and Pleistocene, as did increases in the relative abundance of arid-adapted bovids, and in bovid body mass. Species durations were similar among clades with different ecological attributes. Occupancy patterns were unimodal, with long and nearly symmetrical origination and extinction phases. A single origination pulse may be present at 2.0–1.75 Ma, but besides this, there is no evidence that evolutionary or ecological changes in the eastern African record tracked rapid, 100,000-y-scale changes in global climate. Rather, eastern African large mammal evolution tracked global or regional climatic trends at long (million year) time scales, while local, basin-scale changes (e.g., tectonic or hydrographic) and biotic interactions ruled at shorter timescales. PMID:26261300

  8. Epidemiological observations on spongiform encephalopathies in captive wild animals in the British Isles.

    PubMed

    Kirkwood, J K; Cunningham, A A

    1994-09-24

    Since 1986, scrapie-like spongiform encephalopathy has been diagnosed in 19 captive wild animals of eight species at or from eight zoological collections in the British Isles. The affected animals have comprised members of the family Bovidae: one nyala (Tragelaphus angasi), four eland (Taurotragus oryx), and six greater kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros), one gemsbok (Oryx gazella), one Arabian oryx (Oryx leucoryx), and one scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah), and members of the family Felidae: four cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) and one puma (Felis concolor). In addition, three cases of a spongiform encephalopathy of unknown aetiology have been reported in ostriches (Struthio camellus) from two zoos in north west Germany. Three features suggest that some of these cases may have been caused by the agent of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). First, they have been temporally and geographically coincident with the BSE epidemic. Secondly, in all the ungulates for which details are available, it is possible that either the affected animal itself, or the herd into which it was born or moved, had been exposed to proprietary feeds containing ruminant-derived protein or other potentially contaminated material, and all the carnivores had been fed parts of cattle carcases judged unfit for human consumption. Thirdly, the pathological results of inoculating mice with a homogenate of fixed brain tissue from the nyala and from one greater kudu were similar to the results of inoculating mice with BSE brain tissue. PMID:7817514

  9. Dryland salinity and the ecology of Ross River virus: the ecological underpinnings of the potential for transmission.

    PubMed

    Carver, Scott; Spafford, Helen; Storey, Andrew; Weinstein, Philip

    2009-12-01

    Alterations in transmission of vector-borne zoonoses are often linked to environmental change. However, ecological processes that determine variability in potential for transmission are generally not well understood. Ross River virus (RRV, Togoviridae: Alphavirus) is a mosquito-borne zoonosis in Australia with a significant human disease burden. The inland southwest (Wheatbelt) of Western Australia (WA) is substantially affected by an anthropogenic salinization of agricultural land (dryland salinity). Aedes camptorhynchus Thomson (Diptera: Culicidae) is the dominant vector of RRV in southwest WA and is halophilic. As such, dryland salinity may influence potential for RRV transmission by influencing interactions between Ae. camptorhynchus and mammalian hosts. We surveyed areas of the Wheatbelt with varying salinity impacts and found Ae. camptorhynchus was more abundant in saline areas, whereas sheep Ovis aries (Linnaeus 1758, Bovidae) declined with increasing salinity. We used a deterministic model to examine interactions between Ae. camptorhynchus and mammals, and we assessed potential for RRV transmission. We found variation in potential for RRV transmission was positively related to increasing salinity and abundance of Ae. camptorhynchus and negatively associated with increasing abundance of Macropus fuliginosus (Desmarest 1817, Macropodidae). Abundance of Ae. camptorhynchus determined more variation in potential for RRV transmission than other variables. Accordingly, dryland salinity increases the zoonotic potential for RRV transmission primarily by facilitating abundance of Ae. camptorhynchus. Human RRV notifications do not currently reflect the salinity-RRV transmission potential in the Wheatbelt but appear to be associated with RRV activity in the enzootic coastal zone. We speculate dryland salinity is a determinant of potential for RRV transmission but not activity. Dryland salinity is predicted to expand two- to four-fold by 2050. Preservation and

  10. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L.; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  11. Elemental Analysis of Bone, Teeth, Horn and Antler in Different Animal Species Using Non-Invasive Handheld X-Ray Fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Buddhachat, Kittisak; Klinhom, Sarisa; Siengdee, Puntita; Brown, Janine L; Nomsiri, Raksiri; Kaewmong, Patcharaporn; Thitaram, Chatchote; Mahakkanukrauh, Pasuk; Nganvongpanit, Korakot

    2016-01-01

    Mineralized tissues accumulate elements that play crucial roles in animal health. Although elemental content of bone, blood and teeth of human and some animal species have been characterized, data for many others are lacking, as well as species comparisons. Here we describe the distribution of elements in horn (Bovidae), antler (Cervidae), teeth and bone (humerus) across a number of species determined by handheld X-ray fluorescence (XRF) to better understand differences and potential biological relevance. A difference in elemental profiles between horns and antlers was observed, possibly due to the outer layer of horns being comprised of keratin, whereas antlers are true bone. Species differences in tissue elemental content may be intrinsic, but also related to feeding habits that contribute to mineral accumulation, particularly for toxic heavy metals. One significant finding was a higher level of iron (Fe) in the humerus bone of elephants compared to other species. This may be an adaptation of the hematopoietic system by distributing Fe throughout the bone rather than the marrow, as elephant humerus lacks a marrow cavity. We also conducted discriminant analysis and found XRF was capable of distinguishing samples from different species, with humerus bone being the best source for species discrimination. For example, we found a 79.2% correct prediction and success rate of 80% for classification between human and non-human humerus bone. These findings show that handheld XRF can serve as an effective tool for the biological study of elemental composition in mineralized tissue samples and may have a forensic application. PMID:27196603

  12. Phylogenetic analyses of gazelles reveal repeated transitions of key ecological traits and provide novel insights into the origin of the genus Gazella.

    PubMed

    Lerp, Hannes; Klaus, Sebastian; Allgöwer, Stefanie; Wronski, Torsten; Pfenninger, Markus; Plath, Martin

    2016-05-01

    African bovids are a famous example of a taxonomic group in which the correlated evolution of body size, feeding mode, gregariousness, and social organization in relation to the preferred habitat type has been investigated. A continuum has been described ranging from small-bodied, sedentary, solitary or socially monogamous, forest- or bush-dwelling, browsing species that seek shelter from predation in dense vegetation, to large-bodied, migratory, highly gregarious, grazing taxa inhabiting open savannahs and relying on flight or group-defense behaviors when facing predators. Here, we examined a geographically widespread clade within the Bovidae (the genus Gazella) that shows minimal interspecific variation in body size and asked if we could still uncover correlated changes of key ecological and behavioral traits during repeated transitions from open-land to mountain-dwelling. Our study used a multi-locus phylogeny (based on sequence variation of Cytb and six nuclear intron markers) of all extant members of the genus Gazella to infer evolutionary patterns of key ecological and behavioral traits and to estimate ancestral character states using Bayesian inference. At the base of the Gazella-phylogeny, open plains were inferred as the most likely habitat type, and three independent transitions toward mountain-dwelling were uncovered. Those shifts coincided with shifts from migratory to sedentary lifestyles. Character estimation for group size was largely congruent with movement patterns in that species forming large groups tended to be migratory, while small group size was correlated with a sedentary lifestyle. Evolutionary patterns of two other conspicuous traits (twinning ability vs. exclusive singleton births and hornless vs. horned females) did not follow this trend in the Gazella-phylogeny. Furthermore, we inferred the genus Gazella to have emerged in the Late Miocene to Pliocene (10-3Mya), and estimating ancestral ranges based on a Dispersal

  13. The glycosylation pattern of secretory granules in binucleate trophoblast cells is highly conserved in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Klisch, K; Wooding, F B P; Jones, C J P

    2010-01-01

    The binucleate trophoblast cells (BNCs) in the ruminant placenta are a unique feature of this taxon. These cells produce several secretory proteins and transfer these across the fetomaternal barrier into the dam. We used lectin histochemistry with a panel of 24 lectins to characterise the glycosylation pattern of BNC secretory granules in a variety of ruminants. Seven species out of three ruminant families were thus investigated: greater malayan chevrotain (Tragulidae); fallow deer, red deer, chinese water deer (Cervidae); and domestic goat, springbok, impala (Bovidae). BNC granules in all species studied strongly expressed tri-/tetraantennary complex N-glycans and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine [GlcNAc] as shown by binding of leuco- and erythroagglutins of Phaseolus vulgaris respectively. The presence of terminal N-acetylgalactosamine [GalNAc]) in BNC granules is shown by intense staining with lectins from Dolichos biflorus, Vicia villosa and Wisteria floribunda. Terminal galactose or GalNAc was also present, bound by Glycine max agglutinin. Treatment of slides with neuraminidase strongly intensified staining of Erythrina cristagalli lectin (ECA) to terminal lactosamine in all species studied; this was otherwise absent except in goat. Sambucus nigra-1 lectin bound to BNC granules in all species except in Impala, indicating the presence of abundant alpha2,6 linked sialic acid. These results indicate that these unusual highly branched glycans, with bisecting GlcNAc and terminal GalNAc are a general feature of BNC granules in Ruminants, including the most basal Tragulid branch. It therefore appears that the specific glycosylation pattern of BNC granules evolved early in ruminant phylogenesis, together with the appearance of BNC. The conserved glycan structure in BNC secretory granules indicates that this pattern of glycosylation is likely to be of considerable functional importance for the secretory glycoproteins of ruminant BNC. PMID:19959226

  14. Evolutionary history of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia using next generation sequencing of Mycoplasma mycoides Subsp. mycoides "Small Colony".

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Virginie; Manso-Silván, Lucía; Barbe, Valérie; Thebault, Patricia; Dordet-Frisoni, Emilie; Citti, Christine; Poumarat, François; Blanchard, Alain; Breton, Marc; Sirand-Pugnet, Pascal; Thiaucourt, François

    2012-01-01

    Mycoplasma mycoides subsp. mycoides "Small Colony" (MmmSC) is responsible for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) in bovidae, a notifiable disease to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Although its origin is not documented, the disease was known in Europe in 1773. It reached nearly world-wide distribution in the 19(th) century through the cattle trade and was eradicated from most continents by stamping-out policies. During the 20(th) century it persisted in Africa, and it reappeared sporadically in Southern Europe. Yet, classical epidemiology studies failed to explain the re-occurrence of the disease in Europe in the 1990s. The objectives of this study were to obtain a precise phylogeny of this pathogen, reconstruct its evolutionary history, estimate the date of its emergence, and determine the origin of the most recent European outbreaks. A large-scale genomic approach based on next-generation sequencing technologies was applied to construct a robust phylogeny of this extremely monomorphic pathogen by using 20 representative strains of various geographical origins. Sixty two polymorphic genes of the MmmSC core genome were selected, representing 83601 bp in total and resulting in 139 SNPs within the 20 strains. A robust phylogeny was obtained that identified a lineage specific to European strains; African strains were scattered in various branches. Bayesian analysis allowed dating the most recent common ancestor for MmmSC around 1700. The strains circulating in Sub-Saharan Africa today, however, were shown to descend from a strain that existed around 1810. MmmSC emerged recently, about 300 years ago, and was most probably exported from Europe to other continents, including Africa, during the 19(th) century. Its diversity is now greater in Africa, where CBPP is enzootic, than in Europe, where outbreaks occurred sporadically until 1999 and where CBPP may now be considered eradicated unless MmmSC remains undetected. PMID:23071648

  15. Bovine Polledness – An Autosomal Dominant Trait with Allelic Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Medugorac, Ivica; Seichter, Doris; Graf, Alexander; Russ, Ingolf; Blum, Helmut; Göpel, Karl Heinrich; Rothammer, Sophie; Förster, Martin; Krebs, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    The persistent horns are an important trait of speciation for the family Bovidae with complex morphogenesis taking place briefly after birth. The polledness is highly favourable in modern cattle breeding systems but serious animal welfare issues urge for a solution in the production of hornless cattle other than dehorning. Although the dominant inhibition of horn morphogenesis was discovered more than 70 years ago, and the causative mutation was mapped almost 20 years ago, its molecular nature remained unknown. Here, we report allelic heterogeneity of the POLLED locus. First, we mapped the POLLED locus to a ∼381-kb interval in a multi-breed case-control design. Targeted re-sequencing of an enlarged candidate interval (547 kb) in 16 sires with known POLLED genotype did not detect a common allele associated with polled status. In eight sires of Alpine and Scottish origin (four polled versus four horned), we identified a single candidate mutation, a complex 202 bp insertion-deletion event that showed perfect association to the polled phenotype in various European cattle breeds, except Holstein-Friesian. The analysis of the same candidate interval in eight Holsteins identified five candidate variants which segregate as a 260 kb haplotype also perfectly associated with the POLLED gene without recombination or interference with the 202 bp insertion-deletion. We further identified bulls which are progeny tested as homozygous polled but bearing both, 202 bp insertion-deletion and Friesian haplotype. The distribution of genotypes of the two putative POLLED alleles in large semi-random sample (1,261 animals) supports the hypothesis of two independent mutations. PMID:22737241

  16. Paleoenvironment of Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabánya, Hungary: evidence from dental meso- and micro-wear analyses of large vegetarian mammals.

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Schulz, Ellen; Kordos, László; Kaiser, Thomas M

    2007-10-01

    The environment of the hominoid Dryopithecus brancoi at Rudabánya (Late Miocene of Hungary) is reconstructed here using the dietary traits of fossil ruminants and equids. Two independent approaches, dental micro- and meso-wear analyses, are applied to a sample of 73 specimens representing three ruminants: Miotragocerus sp. (Bovidae), Lucentia aff. pierensis (Cervidae), Micromeryx flourensianus (Moschidae), and one equid, Hippotherium intrans (Equidae). The combination of meso- and micro-wear signatures provides both long- and short-term dietary signals, and through comparisons with extant species, the feeding styles of the fossil species are reconstructed. Both approaches categorize the cervid as an intermediate feeder engaged in both browsing and grazing. The bovid Miotragocerus sp. is depicted as a traditional browser. Although the dental meso-wear pattern of the moschid has affinities with intermediate feeders, its dental micro-wear pattern also indicates significant intake of fruits and seeds. Hippotherium intrans was not a grazer and its dental micro-wear pattern significantly differs from that of living browsers, which may suggest that the fossil equid was engaged both in grazing and browsing. However, the lack of extant equids which are pure browsers prevents any definitive judgment on the feeding habits of Hippotherium. Based on these dietary findings, the Rudabánya paleoenvironment is reconstructed as a dense forest. The presence of two intermediate feeders indicates some clearings within this forest; however the absence of grazers suggests that these clearings were most likely confined. To demonstrate the ecological diversity among the late Miocene hominoids in Europe, the diet and habitat of Dryopithecus brancoi and Ouranopithecus macedoniensis (Greece) are compared. PMID:17719619

  17. Molecular cloning, sequence characterization, and gene expression profiling of a novel water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) gene, AGPAT6.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Huo, J L; Li, D L; Yuan, Y Y; Yuan, F; Miao, Y W

    2013-01-01

    Several 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate-O-acyltransferases (AGPATs) can acylate lysophosphatidic acid to produce phosphatidic acid. Of the eight AGPAT isoforms, AGPAT6 is a crucial enzyme for glycerolipids and triacylglycerol biosynthesis in some mammalian tissues. We amplified and identified the complete coding sequence (CDS) of the water buffalo AGPAT6 gene by using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, based on the conversed sequence information of the cattle or expressed sequence tags of other Bovidae species. This novel gene was deposited in the NCBI database (accession No. JX518941). Sequence analysis revealed that the CDS of this AGPAT6 encodes a 456-amino acid enzyme (molecular mass = 52 kDa; pI = 9.34). Water buffalo AGPAT6 contains three hydrophobic transmembrane regions and a signal 37-amino acid peptide, localized in the cytoplasm. The deduced amino acid sequences share 99, 98, 98, 97, 98, 98, 97 and 95% identity with their homologous sequences from cattle, horse, human, mouse, orangutan, pig, rat, and chicken, respectively. The phylogenetic tree analysis based on the AGPAT6 CDS showed that water buffalo has a closer genetic relationship with cattle than with other species. Tissue expression profile analysis shows that this gene is highly expressed in the mammary gland, moderately expressed in the heart, muscle, liver, and brain; weakly expressed in the pituitary gland, spleen, and lung; and almost silently expressed in the small intestine, skin, kidney, and adipose tissues. Four predicted microRNA target sites are found in the water buffalo AGPAT6 CDS. These results will establish a foundation for further insights into this novel water buffalo gene. PMID:24114207

  18. Deep Sequencing of Plant and Animal DNA Contained within Traditional Chinese Medicines Reveals Legality Issues and Health Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Coghlan, Megan L.; Haile, James; Houston, Jayne; Murray, Dáithí C.; White, Nicole E.; Moolhuijzen, Paula; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has been practiced for thousands of years, but only within the last few decades has its use become more widespread outside of Asia. Concerns continue to be raised about the efficacy, legality, and safety of many popular complementary alternative medicines, including TCMs. Ingredients of some TCMs are known to include derivatives of endangered, trade-restricted species of plants and animals, and therefore contravene the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) legislation. Chromatographic studies have detected the presence of heavy metals and plant toxins within some TCMs, and there are numerous cases of adverse reactions. It is in the interests of both biodiversity conservation and public safety that techniques are developed to screen medicinals like TCMs. Targeting both the p-loop region of the plastid trnL gene and the mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene, over 49,000 amplicon sequence reads were generated from 15 TCM samples presented in the form of powders, tablets, capsules, bile flakes, and herbal teas. Here we show that second-generation, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) of DNA represents an effective means to genetically audit organic ingredients within complex TCMs. Comparison of DNA sequence data to reference databases revealed the presence of 68 different plant families and included genera, such as Ephedra and Asarum, that are potentially toxic. Similarly, animal families were identified that include genera that are classified as vulnerable, endangered, or critically endangered, including Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) and Saiga antelope (Saiga tatarica). Bovidae, Cervidae, and Bufonidae DNA were also detected in many of the TCM samples and were rarely declared on the product packaging. This study demonstrates that deep sequencing via HTS is an efficient and cost-effective way to audit highly processed TCM products and will assist in monitoring their legality and safety especially when

  19. The infection of reintroduced ruminants - Bison bonasus and Alces alces - with Anaplasma phagocytophilum in northern Poland.

    PubMed

    Karbowiak, Grzegorz; Víchová, Bronislava; Werszko, Joanna; Demiaszkiewicz, Aleksander W; Pyziel, Anna M; Sytykiewicz, Hubert; Szewczyk, Tomasz; Peťko, Branislav

    2015-12-01

    The north-eastern part of Poland is considered an area of high risk for infection with tick-borne diseases, including with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agents. The etiological agent of HGE is Anaplasma phagocytophilum. As the animal reservoir for A. phagocytophilum in the environment serve the species from Cervidae and Bovidae families. European bison (Bison bonasus) and elk (Alces alces) are the big ruminant species, reintroduced to the forests of Middle Europe after many decades of absence. In the foci of zoonotic diseases they are able to play a role as natural reservoir to pathogens, however, their status as protected animals means their study has been rare and fragmentary. The studies of B. bonasus were conducted in Białowieża Primeval Forest and A. alces in Biebrza National Park. PCR amplifications were performed using primers amplifing the end of the groES gene, the intergenic spacer and approximately two-thirds of the groEL gene in the first round, and primers that span a 395-bp region of the groEL gene were used in the second round. The positive results were obtained in B. bonasus and A. alces, the prevalence of infection was 66.7 and 20.0%, respectively. Randomly selected samples were sequenced, sequences were compared with GenBank entries using Blast N2.2.13 and determined as A. phagocytophilum. The results presented herein are the first record of the presence of Anaplasma phagocytophilum in A. alces, and at the same time confirm the previous observations regarding the infection of B. bonasus with A. phagocytophilum. PMID:26408585

  20. Evolutionary histories of highly repeated DNA families among the Artiodactyla (Mammalia).

    PubMed

    Modi, W S; Gallagher, D S; Womack, J E

    1996-03-01

    Six highly repeated DNA families were analyzed using Southern blotting and fluorescence in situ hybridization in a comparative study of 46 species of artiodactyls belonging to seven of the eight extant taxonomic families. Two of the repeats, the dispersed bovine-Pst family and the localized 1.715 component, were found to have the broadest taxonomic distributions, being present in all pecoran ruminants (Giraffidae, Cervidae, Antilocapridae, and Bovidae), indicating that these repeats may be 25-40 million years old. Different 1.715 restriction patterns were observed in different taxonomic families, indicating that independent concerted evolution events have homogenized different motifs in different lineages. The other four satellite arrays were restricted to the Bovini and sometimes to the related Boselaphini and Tragelaphini. Results reveal that among the two compound satellites studied, the two components of the 1.711a originated simultaneously, whereas the two components of the 1.711b originated at two different historical times, perhaps as many as 15 million years apart. Systematic conclusions support the monophyly of the infraorder Pecora, the monophyly of the subfamily Bovinae (containing the Boselaphini, Bovini, and Tragelaphini), an inability to resolve any interrelationships among the other tribes of bovids, paraphyly of the genus Bos with respect to Bison, and a lack of molecular variation among two morphologically and ecologically distinct subspecies of African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer cafer and S. c. nanus). Cytogenetically, a reduction in diploid chromosome numbers through centric fusion in derived karyotypes is accompanied by a loss of centromeric satellite DNA. The nilgai karyotype contains an apparent dicentric chromosome as evidenced by the sites of 1.715 hybridization. Telomeric sequences have been translocated to the centromeres without concomitant chromosomal rearrangement in Thompson's gazelle. PMID:8661995

  1. Distribution of endogenous type B and type D sheep retrovirus sequences in ungulates and other mammals.

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, S J; Stedman, K E; Carlson, J O; DeMartini, J C

    1996-01-01

    The jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV), which appears to be a type B/D retrovirus chimera, has been incriminated as the cause of ovine pulmonary carcinoma. Recent studies suggest that the sequences related to this virus are found in the genomes of normal sheep and goats. To learn whether there are breeds of sheep that lack the endogenous viral sequences and to study their distribution among other groups of mammals, we surveyed several domestic sheep and goat breeds, other ungulates, and various mammal groups for sequences related to JSRV. Probes prepared from the envelope (SU) region of JSRV and the capsid (CA) region of a Peruvian type D virus related to JSRV were used in Southern blot hybridization with genomic DNA followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Fifteen to 20 CA and SU bands were found in all members of the 13 breeds of domestic sheep and 6 breeds of goats tested. There were similar findings in 6 wild Ovis and Capra genera. Within 22 other genera of Bovidae including domestic cattle, and 7 other families of Artiodactyla including Cervidae, there were usually a few CA or SU bands at low stringency and rare bands at high stringency. Among 16 phylogenetically distant genera, there were generally fewer bands hybridizing with either probe. These results reveal wide-spread phylogenetic distribution of endogenous type B and type D retroviral sequences related to JSRV among mammals and argue for further investigation of their potential role in disease. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8622932

  2. Seasonal diet and prey preference of the African lion in a waterhole-driven semi-arid savanna.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Zeke; Valeix, Marion; Van Kesteren, Freya; Loveridge, Andrew J; Hunt, Jane E; Murindagomo, Felix; Macdonald, David W

    2013-01-01

    Large carnivores inhabiting ecosystems with heterogeneously distributed environmental resources with strong seasonal variations frequently employ opportunistic foraging strategies, often typified by seasonal switches in diet. In semi-arid ecosystems, herbivore distribution is generally more homogeneous in the wet season, when surface water is abundant, than in the dry season when only permanent sources remain. Here, we investigate the seasonal contribution of the different herbivore species, prey preference and distribution of kills (i.e. feeding locations) of African lions in Hwange National Park, Zimbabwe, a semi-arid African savanna structured by artificial waterholes. We used data from 245 kills and 74 faecal samples. Buffalo consistently emerged as the most frequently utilised prey in all seasons by both male (56%) and female (33%) lions, contributing the most to lion dietary biomass. Jacobs' index also revealed that buffalo was the most intensively selected species throughout the year. For female lions, kudu and to a lesser extent the group "medium Bovidae" are the most important secondary prey. This study revealed seasonal patterns in secondary prey consumption by female lions partly based on prey ecology with browsers, such as giraffe and kudu, mainly consumed in the early dry season, and grazers, such as zebra and suids, contributing more to female diet in the late dry season. Further, it revealed the opportunistic hunting behaviour of lions for prey as diverse as elephants and mice, with elephants taken mostly as juveniles at the end of the dry season during droughts. Jacobs' index finally revealed a very strong preference for kills within 2 km from a waterhole for all prey species, except small antelopes, in all seasons. This suggested that surface-water resources form passive traps and contribute to the structuring of lion foraging behaviour. PMID:23405121

  3. The arterial circle of the brain, its branches and connections in selected representatives of the Antilopinae.

    PubMed

    Frąckowiak, Hieronim; Dębiński, Dariusz; Komosa, Marcin; Zdun, Maciej

    2015-07-01

    The arterial circle of the brain, that is, the circle of Willis, and its branches in ruminants have been chiefly described in farm animals and only in selected wild species. In view of the deficit of information about this vascular region in numerous other species of the Ruminantia, the arteries of the encephalic base were analyzed in five antelope species representing different genera of the Bovidae, Antilopinae. Specimens of the following species were examined: springbuck (Antidorcas marsupialis), blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), dik-dik (Madoqua kirkii), saiga (Saiga tatarica), and oribi (Ourebia ourebi). Post-autopsy material received from domestic zoological gardens was used to inject the bilateral common carotid arteries with a stained acetone solution of vinyl superchloride. When the material was polymerized, the specimens were macerated enzymatically. The process resulted in casts of arteries of the head and encephalic base on a skeletal scaffold. The investigations revealed that the bilateral components of the arterial circle of the brain, that is, the rostral cerebral artery and caudal communicating artery, arose from the division of the intracranial segment of the internal carotid artery, which emerges from the rostral epidural rete mirabile. The extracranial segment of the internal carotid artery was obliterated. In consequence of this process, the blood reaches the brain chiefly from the maxillary artery. The research proved that the arteries of the encephalic base in the Antilopinae are most similar to the vessels described in antelopes of Tragelaphus, Taurotragus, and Boselaphus genera and small domestic ruminants. However, they are different from the arterial pattern of the encephalic base in bovines and other species classified as the Bovini. PMID:25694115

  4. Forensic DNA Barcoding and Bio-Response Studies of Animal Horn Products Used in Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Han, Yu M.; Peng, Cheng; Dong, Xiao P.; Chen, Shi L.; Sun, Li G.; Xiao, Xiao H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Animal horns (AHs) have been applied to traditional medicine for more than thousands of years, of which clinical effects have been confirmed by the history. But now parts of AHs have been listed in the items of wildlife conservation, which limits the use for traditional medicine. The contradiction between the development of traditional medicine and the protection of wild resources has already become the common concern of zoophilists, traditional medical professionals, economists, sociologists. We believe that to strengthen the identification for threatened animals, to prevent the circulation of them, and to seek fertile animals of corresponding bioactivities as substitutes are effective strategies to solve this problem. Methodology/Principal Findings A powerful technique of DNA barcoding based on the mitochondrial gene cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) was used to identify threatened animals of Bovidae and Cervidae, as well as their illegal adulterants (including 10 species and 47 specimens). Meanwhile, the microcalorimetric technique was used to characterize the differences of bio-responses when those animal specimens acted on model organism (Escherichia coli). We found that the COI gene could be used as a universal primer to identify threatened animals and illegal adulterants mentioned above. By analyzing 223 mitochondrial COI sequences, a 100% identification success rate was achieved. We further found that the horns of Mongolian Gazelle and Red Deer could be exploited as a substitute for some functions of endangered Saiga Antelope and Sika Deer in traditional medicine, respectively. Conclusion/Significance Although it needs a more comprehensive evaluation of bioequivalence in order to completely solve the problem of substitutes for threatened animals, we believe that the identification (DNA barcoding) of threatened animals combined with seeking substitutions (bio-response) can yet be regarded as a valid strategy for establishing a balance between the

  5. An integrated approach to taphonomy and faunal change in the Shungura formation (Ethiopia) and its implication for hominid evolution.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Zeresenay

    2003-04-01

    Environmental and faunal changes through time have been recorded for many African Plio-Pleistocene sites. Fossil evidence suggests that there is a continuous, if not uniform, transformation of the fauna and flora from the Pliocene through the end of Pleistocene. However, discerning major biotic turnovers and linking them to global and regional climatic changes have been complicated by many factors, notably taphonomy and discontinuity of the fossil evidence, notwithstanding the considerable work of some researchers (e.g., Vrba, E.S., 1988. Late Pliocene climatic events and hominid evolution, in: Grine, F. (Ed.), Evolutionary History of the "Robust" Australopithecines. De Gruyter, New York, pp. 405-426, Vrba, E.S., 1995. The fossil record of African (Mammalia, Bovidae) in relation to human evolution and paleoclimate, in: Vrba, E.S., Denton, G.H., Partridge, T.C., Burkle, L.H. (Eds.), Paleoclimate and Evolution, with Emphasis on Human Origins. Yale University Press, New Haven, pp. 385-424). A sample of over 22,000 fossils collected by the French Omo Expedition, from the Shungura Formation of Ethiopia, was analyzed using an integrated approach to investigate taphonomic and faunal change patterns. The following results are obtained: (1) Univariate and multivariate studies support continuous faunal change from Member A through Member G of the Shungura sequence; (2) Correspondence analysis (CA) on extant bovids in African game parks shows that bovid tribes and genera are generally characterized by habitat specificity; (3) Taphonomic studies demonstrate that the relative abundance of different skeletal elements varies according to depositional environment; (4) CA on 73 localities of the Shungura Formation and 19 mammalian taxa points to a major faunal change around the base of Member G dated to ca. 2.3 Ma. This transformation is characterized by a change to open and edaphic grassland as a dominant type of environment; (5) This major faunal change correlates in time with

  6. Identification of major milk fat globule membrane proteins from pony mare milk highlights the molecular diversity of lactadherin across species.

    PubMed

    Cebo, C; Rebours, E; Henry, C; Makhzami, S; Cosette, P; Martin, P

    2012-03-01

    Equidae milk is much more complex than that from Bovidae milk (i.e., cow and goat milk), therefore raising questions regarding the precise function of these different isoforms, if any, in the equine mammary gland. PMID:22365192

  7. Evolution and Biogeography of Haemonchus contortus: Linking Faunal Dynamics in Space and Time.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Zarlenga, D S

    2016-01-01

    History is the foundation that informs about the nuances of faunal assembly that are essential in understanding the dynamic nature of the host-parasite interface. All of our knowledge begins and ends with evolution, ecology and biogeography, as these interacting facets determine the history of biodiverse systems. These components, relating to Haemonchus, can inform about the complex history of geographical distribution, host association and the intricacies of host-parasite associations that are played out in physiological and behavioural processes that influence the potential for disease and our capacity for effective control in a rapidly changing world. Origins and evolutionary diversification among species of the genus Haemonchus and Haemonchus contortus occurred in a complex crucible defined by shifts in environmental structure emerging from cycles of climate change and ecological perturbation during the late Tertiary and through the Quaternary. A history of sequential host colonization associated with waves of dispersal bringing assemblages of ungulates from Eurasia into Africa and processes emerging from ecosystems in collision and faunal turnover defined the arena for radiation among 12 recognized species of Haemonchus. Among congeners, the host range for H. contortus is exceptionally broad, including species among artiodactyls of 40 genera representing 5 families (and within 12 tribes of Bovidae). Broad host range is dramatically reflected in the degree to which translocation, introduction and invasion with host switching, has characterized an expanding distribution over time in North America, South America, southern Eurasia, Australia and New Zealand, coincidental with agriculture, husbandry and global colonization by human populations driven particularly by European exploration after the 1500s. African origins in xeric to mesic habitats of the African savannah suggest that historical constraints linked to ecological adaptations (tolerances and

  8. Foot & Mouth Disease & Ulcerative/Vesicular Rule-outs: Challenges Encountered in Recent Outbreaks

    SciTech Connect

    Hullinger, P

    2008-01-28

    Foot and mouth disease (FMD) is a highly infectious and contagious viral disease affecting bovidae (cattle, zebus, domestic buffaloes, yaks), sheep, goats, swine, all wild ruminants and suidae. Camelidae (camels, dromedaries, llamas, vicunas) have low susceptibility. Foot and mouth disease is caused by a RNS virus of the family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus. There are seven immunologically distinct serotypes: A, O, C, SAT1, SAT2, SAT3, Asia 1. Foot and mouth disease causes significant economic loss both to countries who manage it as an endemic disease (with or without vaccination), as well as those FMD free countries which may become infected. The mortality rate is low in adult animals, but often higher in young due to myocarditis. Foot and mouth disease is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America (sporadic outbreaks in free areas). The Office of International Epizootics (OIE), also referred to the World Organization for Animal Health maintains an official list of free countries and zones.1 The OIE Terrestrial Code (Chapter 2.2.10) provides detailed information on the categories of freedom that can be allocated to a country as well as guidelines for the surveillance for foot and mouth disease (Appendix 3.8.7). In short, countries may be completely free of FMD, free with vaccination or infected with foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV). Source of FMDV include incubating and clinically affected animals with virus present in breath, saliva, faeces, urine, milk and semen. In experimental settings virus has been detected in milk several days before the onset of clinical signs2. Additional sources of virus are meat and by-products in which pH has remained above 6.0 as well as persistently infected carrier animals. Carrier animals may include cattle and water buffalo; convalescent animals and exposed vaccinates (virus persists in the oropharynx for up to 30 months in cattle or longer in buffalo, 9 months in sheep). Pigs do not become carriers

  9. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    through to continental scales). Our ability to reconstruct narratives of landscape dynamics of encompassing - mega-geomorphic - patterns can only be as good as the details of individual events we can discern in Earth history. Obviously, recognizing the centrality of "Conquering the Mesoscale" as the intrinsic prerequisite to test competing hypotheses of landscape dynamics, in the earth system context, calls for innovative research approaches. This is where Africa holds vast potential. The continent is the most remarkable natural laboratory to explore and tackle these challenges where we seek to build the composite mega-geomorphic chronicle informed in the detail of mesoscale process and form. But how does geomorphology, embedded in an earth system framework, advance beyond the established approaches in process and mega-geomorphology? The latter's limitations to reconstruct the tempo and mode of African landforms and palaeoenviroments reveal the stark limits for researchers. This is where a geobiological approach brings interesting opportunities, especially for Africa. Consider, for one, the interlinking patterns of high endemism and geographical heterogeneity of extant biodiversity across the continent, and moreover the interplay in biotic turnovers since the Mesozoic that shaped these regional and more local patterns. These individuated biotic assemblages making up the continent's biomes and ecoregions reveal strident congruence with physiographic controls: especially relief, drainage and edaphic variables. Calibrated by molecular clocks, resolved with DNA evidence, timetrees of this phylogenetic diversity reveal a richness of evolutionary signals; the spectrum of these spectacular biotic radiations of African biodiversity range from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The temporal spread of this phylogenetic diversity is exemplified, for example, in the extant mammal fauna: witness the Afrotheria compared to the Bovidae (Kingdon J et al. 2013. Mammals of Africa. Bloomsbury

  10. Geobiology of the Critical Zone: the Hierarchies of Process, Form and Life provide an Integrated Ontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    through to continental scales). Our ability to reconstruct narratives of landscape dynamics of encompassing - mega-geomorphic - patterns can only be as good as the details of individual events we can discern in Earth history. Obviously, recognizing the centrality of "Conquering the Mesoscale" as the intrinsic prerequisite to test competing hypotheses of landscape dynamics, in the earth system context, calls for innovative research approaches. This is where Africa holds vast potential. The continent is the most remarkable natural laboratory to explore and tackle these challenges where we seek to build the composite mega-geomorphic chronicle informed in the detail of mesoscale process and form. But how does geomorphology, embedded in an earth system framework, advance beyond the established approaches in process and mega-geomorphology? The latter's limitations to reconstruct the tempo and mode of African landforms and palaeoenviroments reveal the stark limits for researchers. This is where a geobiological approach brings interesting opportunities, especially for Africa. Consider, for one, the interlinking patterns of high endemism and geographical heterogeneity of extant biodiversity across the continent, and moreover the interplay in biotic turnovers since the Mesozoic that shaped these regional and more local patterns. These individuated biotic assemblages making up the continent's biomes and ecoregions reveal strident congruence with physiographic controls: especially relief, drainage and edaphic variables. Calibrated by molecular clocks, resolved with DNA evidence, timetrees of this phylogenetic diversity reveal a richness of evolutionary signals; the spectrum of these spectacular biotic radiations of African biodiversity range from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The temporal spread of this phylogenetic diversity is exemplified, for example, in the extant mammal fauna: witness the Afrotheria compared to the Bovidae (Kingdon J et al. 2013. Mammals of Africa. Bloomsbury