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Sample records for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide

  1. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Sallis, S.; Williams, D. S.; Butler, K. T.; Walsh, A.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Junda, M.; Podraza, N. J.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; White, B. E.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-06-09

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  2. Origin of deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide: Chemically disordered coordination of oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallis, S.; Butler, K. T.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Williams, D. S.; Junda, M.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; Podraza, N. J.; White, B. E.; Walsh, A.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-06-01

    The origin of the deep subgap states in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO), whether intrinsic to the amorphous structure or not, has serious implications for the development of p-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors. We report that the deep subgap feature in a-IGZO originates from local variations in the oxygen coordination and not from oxygen vacancies. This is shown by the positive correlation between oxygen composition and subgap intensity as observed with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We also demonstrate that the subgap feature is not intrinsic to the amorphous phase because the deep subgap feature can be removed by low-temperature annealing in a reducing environment. Atomistic calculations of a-IGZO reveal that the subgap state originates from certain oxygen environments associated with the disorder. Specifically, the subgap states originate from oxygen environments with a lower coordination number and/or a larger metal-oxygen separation.

  3. Thermoelectric properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Deborah Susan

    More than 50% of the photons present in the solar spectrum generate efficiency degrading waste heat in solar cells. Development of a transparent thermoelectric material could potentially double the overall efficiency of this renewable energy source. This dissertation focuses on understanding the thermoelectric properties of alpha-InGaZnO, a material that has the potential of fulfilling the properties necessary for a transparent thermoelectric material. Characterization of the structural, thermal, and electrical properties of alpha-InGaZnO has been carried out. The samples were made by sputtering with varying deposition and post-deposition annealing conditions. The thermal conductivity of O-rich samples is found to increase with decreasing temperature. This is in contrast to other amorphous materials in which the thermal conductivity decreases with decreasing temperature. In addition, the thermal conductivity is much lower than the predicted minimum thermal conductivity. The electrical resistivity shows thermally activated transport, but does not show the characteristic T1/4 behavior of localized electrons. These results suggest that neither the charge carriers nor the lattice vibrations are localized in this material. In addition, mobilities as high as 12 cm2/Vs were found. Finally, the highest thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, is found to be 0.17. Modifications of the stoichiometry to produce additional Rayleigh scattering of the lattice vibrations could produce higher values of ZT.

  4. Deep Subgap Feature in Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide. Evidence Against Reduced Indium

    SciTech Connect

    Sallis, Shawn; Quackenbush, Nicholas F.; Williams, Deborah S.; Senger, Mikell; Woicik, Joseph C.; White, Bruce E.; Piper, Louis F.

    2015-01-14

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) is the archetypal transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor. In spite of the gains made with a-IGZO over amorphous silicon in the last decade, the presence of deep subgap states in a-IGZO active layers facilitate instabilities in thin film transistor properties under negative bias illumination stress. Several candidates could contribute to the formation of states within the band gap. We present evidence against In+ lone pair active electrons as the origin of the deep subgap features. No In+ species are observed, only In0 nano-crystallites under certain oxygen deficient growth conditions. Our results further support under coordinated oxygen as the source of the deep subgap states.

  5. Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide as electron transport layer in organic photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, H.; Malinowski, P. E. Chasin, A.; Cheyns, D.; Steudel, S.; Schols, S.; Heremans, P.

    2015-04-06

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) is demonstrated as an electron transport layer (ETL) in a high-performance organic photodetector (OPD). Dark current in the range of 10 nA/cm{sup 2} at a bias voltage of −2 V and a high photoresponse in the visible spectrum were obtained in inverted OPDs with poly(3-hexylthiophene) and phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester active layer. The best results were obtained for the optimum a-IGZO thickness of 7.5 nm with specific detectivity of 3 × 10{sup 12} Jones at the wavelength of 550 nm. The performance of the best OPD devices using a-IGZO was shown to be comparable to state-of-the-art devices based on TiO{sub x} as ETL, with higher rectification achieved in reverse bias. Yield and reproducibility were also enhanced with a-IGZO, facilitating fabrication of large area OPDs. Furthermore, easier integration with IGZO-based readout backplanes can be envisioned, where the channel material can be used as photodiode buffer layer after additional treatment.

  6. Water-soluble thin film transistors and circuits based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Sung Hun; Kang, Seung-Kyun; Cho, In-Tak; Han, Sang Youn; Chung, Ha Uk; Lee, Dong Joon; Shin, Jongmin; Baek, Geun Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Ho; Rogers, John A

    2015-04-22

    This paper presents device designs, circuit demonstrations, and dissolution kinetics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) comprised completely of water-soluble materials, including SiNx, SiOx, molybdenum, and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA). Collections of these types of physically transient a-IGZO TFTs and 5-stage ring oscillators (ROs), constructed with them, show field effect mobilities (∼10 cm2/Vs), on/off ratios (∼2×10(6)), subthreshold slopes (∼220 mV/dec), Ohmic contact properties, and oscillation frequency of 5.67 kHz at supply voltages of 19 V, all comparable to otherwise similar devices constructed in conventional ways with standard, nontransient materials. Studies of dissolution kinetics for a-IGZO films in deionized water, bovine serum, and phosphate buffer saline solution provide data of relevance for the potential use of these materials and this technology in temporary biomedical implants. PMID:25805699

  7. Electromechanical properties of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide transistors structured with an island configuration on plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Bum; Na, Hyung Il; Yoo, Soon Sung; Park, Kwon-Shik

    2016-03-01

    A comparative study of the electromechanical properties was carried out on a low-temperature-processed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor, particularly with regard to the structural design of the device under the stress accumulation of an outward bending surface. Shown herein is the reliable electromechanical integrity of island-structured devices against the mechanical strain at bending radii of mm order. The onset of crack strain also closely corresponded to the electrical failure of the stressed device. These results revealed that the island configuration on the bending surface effectively suppresses the stress accumulation on sheets composed of inorganic stacked layers in a uniaxial direction.

  8. Defect generation in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by positive bias stress at elevated temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin; Migliorato, Piero

    2014-04-07

    We report on the generation and characterization of a hump in the transfer characteristics of amorphous indium gallium zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by positive bias temperature stress. The hump depends strongly on the gate bias stress at 100 °C. Due to the hump, the positive shift of the transfer characteristic in deep depletion is always smaller that in accumulation. Since, the latter shift is twice the former, with very good correlation, we conclude that the effect is due to creation of a double acceptor, likely to be a cation vacancy. Our results indicate that these defects are located near the gate insulator/active layer interface, rather than in the bulk. Migration of donor defects from the interface towards the bulk may also occur under PBST at 100 °C.

  9. Crystallization behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide films and its effects on thin-film transistor performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suko, Ayaka; Jia, JunJun; Nakamura, Shin-ichi; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2016-03-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films were deposited by DC magnetron sputtering and post-annealed in air at 300-1000 °C for 1 h to investigate the crystallization behavior in detail. X-ray diffraction, electron beam diffraction, and high-resolution electron microscopy revealed that the IGZO films showed an amorphous structure after post-annealing at 300 °C. At 600 °C, the films started to crystallize from the surface with c-axis preferred orientation. At 700-1000 °C, the films totally crystallized into polycrystalline structures, wherein the grains showed c-axis preferred orientation close to the surface and random orientation inside the films. The current-gate voltage (Id-Vg) characteristics of the IGZO thin-film transistor (TFT) showed that the threshold voltage (Vth) and subthreshold swing decreased markedly after the post-annealing at 300 °C. The TFT using the totally crystallized films also showed the decrease in Vth, whereas the field-effect mobility decreased considerably.

  10. A transparent diode with high rectifying ratio using amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide/SiNx coupled junction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Myung-Jea; Kim, Myeong-Ho; Choi, Duck-Kyun

    2015-08-01

    We introduce a transparent diode that shows both high rectifying ratio and low leakage current at process temperature below 250 °C. This device is clearly distinguished from all previous transparent diodes in that the rectifying behavior results from the junction between a semiconductor (amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO)) and insulator (SiNx). We systematically study the properties of each junction within the device structure and demonstrate that the a-IGZO/SiNx junction is the source of the outstanding rectification. The electrical characteristics of this transparent diode are: 2.8 A/cm2 on-current density measured at -7 V; lower than 7.3 × 10-9 A/cm2 off-current density; 2.53 ideality factor; and high rectifying ratio of 108-109. Furthermore, the diode structure has a transmittance of over 80% across the visible light range. The operating principle of the indium-tin oxide (ITO)/a-IGZO/SiNx/ITO device was examined with an aid of the energy band diagram and we propose a preliminary model for the rectifying behavior. Finally, we suggest further directions for research on this transparent diode.

  11. Channel length dependence of negative-bias-illumination-stress in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Um, Jae Gwang; Mativenga, Mallory; Migliorato, Piero; Jang, Jin

    2015-06-01

    We have investigated the dependence of Negative-Bias-illumination-Stress (NBIS) upon channel length, in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). The negative shift of the transfer characteristic associated with NBIS decreases for increasing channel length and is practically suppressed in devices with L = 100-μm. The effect is consistent with creation of donor defects, mainly in the channel regions adjacent to source and drain contacts. Excellent agreement with experiment has been obtained by an analytical treatment, approximating the distribution of donors in the active layer by a double exponential with characteristic length LD ˜ Ln ˜ 10-μm, the latter being the electron diffusion length. The model also shows that a device with a non-uniform doping distribution along the active layer is in all equivalent, at low drain voltages, to a device with the same doping averaged over the active layer length. These results highlight a new aspect of the NBIS mechanism, that is, the dependence of the effect upon the relative magnitude of photogenerated holes and electrons, which is controlled by the device potential/band profile. They may also provide the basis for device design solutions to minimize NBIS.

  12. Improvement in gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors using microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Kwang-Won; Cho, Won-Ju

    2014-11-24

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of microwave irradiation (MWI) post-deposition-annealing (PDA) treatment on the gate bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) and compared the results with a conventional thermal annealing PDA treatment. The MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs exhibited enhanced electrical performance as well as improved long-term stability with increasing microwave power. The positive turn-on voltage shift (ΔV{sub ON}) as a function of stress time with positive bias and varying temperature was precisely modeled on a stretched-exponential equation, suggesting that charge trapping is a dominant mechanism in the instability of MWI-PDA-treated a-IGZO TFTs. The characteristic trapping time and average effective barrier height for electron transport indicate that the MWI-PDA treatment effectively reduces the defects in a-IGZO TFTs, resulting in a superior resistance against gate bias stress.

  13. Temperature-dependent bias-stress-induced electrical instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Hui-Min; Yu, Guang; Lu, Hai; Wu, Chen-Fei; Tang, Lan-Feng; Zhou, Dong; Ren, Fang-Fang; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, You-Liao; Huang, Xiao-Ming

    2015-07-01

    The time and temperature dependence of threshold voltage shift under positive-bias stress (PBS) and the following recovery process are investigated in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. It is found that the time dependence of threshold voltage shift can be well described by a stretched exponential equation in which the time constant τ is found to be temperature dependent. Based on Arrhenius plots, an average effective energy barrier Eτstress = 0.72 eV for the PBS process and an average effective energy barrier Eτrecovery = 0.58 eV for the recovery process are extracted respectively. A charge trapping/detrapping model is used to explain the threshold voltage shift in both the PBS and the recovery process. The influence of gate bias stress on transistor performance is one of the most critical issues for practical device development. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2011CB301900 and 2011CB922100) and the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, China

  14. Coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor with He plasma treated heavily doped layer

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, Ho-young; Lee, Bok-young; Lee, Young-jang; Lee, Jung-il; Yang, Myoung-su; Kang, In-byeong; Mativenga, Mallory; Jang, Jin

    2014-01-13

    We report thermally stable coplanar amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with heavily doped n{sup +} a-IGZO source/drain regions. Doping is through He plasma treatment in which the resistivity of the a-IGZO decreases from 2.98 ??cm to 2.79??10{sup ?3} ??cm after treatment, and then it increases to 7.92??10{sup ?2} ??cm after annealing at 300?C. From the analysis of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the concentration of oxygen vacancies in He plasma treated n{sup +}a-IGZO does not change much after thermal annealing at 300?C, indicating thermally stable n{sup +} a-IGZO, even for TFTs with channel length L?=?4??m. Field-effect mobility of the coplanar a-IGZO TFTs with He plasma treatment changes from 10.7 to 9.2?cm{sup 2}/V?s after annealing at 300?C, but the performance of the a-IGZO TFT with Ar or H{sub 2} plasma treatment degrades significantly after 300?C annealing.

  15. Microscopic structure and electrical transport property of sputter-deposited amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide semiconductor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yabuta, H.; Kaji, N.; Shimada, M.; Aiba, T.; Takada, K.; Omura, H.; Mukaide, T.; Hirosawa, I.; Koganezawa, T.; Kumomi, H.

    2014-06-01

    We report on microscopic structures and electrical and optical properties of sputter-deposited amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films. From electron microscopy observations and an x-ray small angle scattering analysis, it has been confirmed that the sputtered a-IGZO films consist of a columnar structure. However, krypton gas adsorption measurement revealed that boundaries of the columnar grains are not open-pores. The conductivity of the sputter-deposited a-IGZO films shows a change as large as seven orders of magnitude depending on post-annealing atmosphere; it is increased by N2-annealing and decreased by O2-annealing reversibly, at a temperature as low as 300°C. This large variation in conductivity is attributed to thermionic emission of carrier electrons through potential barriers at the grain boundaries, because temperature dependences of the carrier density and the Hall mobility exhibit thermal activation behaviours. The optical band-gap energy of the a-IGZO films changes between before and after annealing, but is independent of the annealing atmosphere, in contrast to the noticeable dependence of conductivity described above. For exploring other possibilities of a-IGZO, we formed multilayer films with an artificial periodic lattice structure consisting of amorphous InO, GaO, and ZnO layers, as an imitation of the layer-structured InGaZnO4 homologous phase. The hall mobility of the multilayer films was almost constant for thicknesses of the constituent layer between 1 and 6 Å, suggesting rather small contribution of lateral two-dimensional conduction It increased with increasing the thickness in the range from 6 to 15 Å, perhaps owing to an enhancement of two-dimensional conduction in InO layers.

  16. Comparison of the electronic structure of amorphous versus crystalline indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor: structure, tail states and strain effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jamblinne de Meux, A.; Pourtois, G.; Genoe, J.; Heremans, P.

    2015-11-01

    We study the evolution of the structural and electronic properties of crystalline indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) upon amorphization by first-principles calculation. The bottom of the conduction band (BCB) is found to be constituted of a pseudo-band of molecular orbitals that resonate at the same energy on different atomic sites. They display a bonding character between the s orbitals of the metal sites and an anti-bonding character arising from the interaction between the oxygen and metal s orbitals. The energy level of the BCB shifts upon breaking of the crystal symmetry during the amorphization process, which may be attributed to the reduction of the coordination of the cationic centers. The top of the valence band (TVB) is constructed from anti-bonding oxygen p orbitals. In the amorphous state, they have random orientation, in contrast to the crystalline state. This results in the appearance of localized tail states in the forbidden gap above the TVB. Zinc is found to play a predominant role in the generation of these tail states, while gallium hinders their formation. Last, we study the dependence of the fundamental gap and effective mass of IGZO on mechanical strain. The variation of the gap under strain arises from the enhancement of the anti-bonding interaction in the BCB due to the modification of the length of the oxygen-metal bonds and/or to a variation of the cation coordination. This effect is less pronounced for the amorphous material compared to the crystalline material, making amorphous IGZO a semiconductor of choice for flexible electronics. Finally, the effective mass is found to increase upon strain, in contrast to regular materials. This counterintuitive variation is due to the reduction of the electrostatic shielding of the cationic centers by oxygen, leading to an increase of the overlaps between the metal orbitals at the origin of the delocalization of the BCB. For the range of strain typically met in flexible electronics, the induced variation in the effective mass is found to be negligible (less than 1%).

  17. Tunneling phenomenon of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors for flexible display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Teresa

    2015-09-01

    It is an importance to understand the contact mechanism at interfaces between dielectric and channel materials to improve the performance of thin film transistors. Oxide semiconductor has proposed as promising candidate for transparent flexible application, whose development requires greater understand and control of their electron contacts. The performance of IGZO/SiOC TFTs depended on properties of SiOC as a gate insulator. SiOC exhibited a range of systematic interface electronic structure that can be understood at the atomic scale to provide a comprehensive feature of Schottky barrier and Ohmic contacts. The conduction of TFTs prepared on low polar SiOC was progressed by the tunneling behavior. The ambipolar transfer characteristics in tunneling transistors were done by a spontaneous potential barrier of SiOC such as the Schottky barrier (SB) in a short range and Ohmic contact in a long range. TFTs on SiOC with Poole-Frenkel contact as high SB operated under the threshold voltage, and then became free from the threshold voltage shift. However, the TFTs on high polar SiOC with Ohmic contact in a short range was also showed the unipolar characteristics by the trapping behavior as well as instability owing to the operation at high drain bias voltage over the threshold voltage. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  18. Amorphous Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors with a Low-Temperature Polymeric Gate Dielectric on a Flexible Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyung, Gun Woo; Park, Jaehoon; Wang, Jian-Xun; Lee, Ho Won; Li, Zhao-Hui; Koo, Ja-Ryong; Kwon, Sang Jik; Cho, Eou-Sik; Kim, Woo Young; Kim, Young Kwan

    2013-07-01

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with a solution-processed polymeric gate dielectric of cross-linked poly(4-vinylphenol) (c-PVP) film were fabricated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate on which an a-IGZO film, as the active channel layer, was deposited by radio frequency (RF) sputtering. The entire TFT fabrication process was carried out at a temperature below 110 °C. The device exhibited an on/off ratio of 1.5×106 and a high field-effect mobility of 10.2 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is, to our knowledge, the best result ever achieved among a-IGZO TFTs with polymeric gate dielectrics on a plastic substrate.

  19. Alumina nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposite dielectric for flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors on plastic substrate with superior stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Hsin-Cheng; Pei, Zingway; Jian, Jyun-Ruri; Tzeng, Bo-Jie

    2014-07-01

    In this study, the Al2O3 nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer as a nono-composite dielectric for used in a flexible amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate by solution process. The process temperature was well below 100 °C. The a-IGZO TFT exhibit a mobility of 5.13 cm2/V s on the flexible substrate. After bending at a radius of 4 mm (strain = 1.56%) for more than 100 times, the performance of this a-IGZO TFT was nearly unchanged. In addition, the electrical characteristics are less altered after positive gate bias stress at 10 V for 1500 s. Thus, this technology is suitable for use in flexible displays.

  20. Study on interface characteristics in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors by using low-frequency noise and temperature dependent mobility measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chenfei; Huang, Xiaoming; Lu, Hai; Yu, Guang; Ren, Fangfang; Chen, Dunjun; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Youdou

    2015-07-01

    In this work, the interface properties of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors annealed at different temperatures ranging from 150 to 250 C are studied by temperature dependent mobility and low-frequency noise (LFN) characterizations. The dominant scattering mechanism for carrier transport is found to be Coulomb scattering based on gate bias and temperature dependent mobility measurement. Meanwhile, as the annealing temperature increases, the dominant mechanism of LFN within the device channel varies from carrier number fluctuation to carrier mobility fluctuation. The border trap density as well as the distribution properties of charged border traps is deduced. The present results suggest that annealing at higher temperature has a more remarkable effect on removing deeper border traps than traps closer to the channel/dielectric interface.

  1. Back-channel-etch amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors: The impact of source/drain metal etch and final passivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nag, Manoj; Bhoolokam, Ajay; Steudel, Soeren; Chasin, Adrian; Myny, Kris; Maas, Joris; Groeseneken, Guido; Heremans, Paul

    2014-11-01

    We report on the impact of source/drain (S/D) metal (molybdenum) etch and the final passivation (SiO2) layer on the bias-stress stability of back-channel-etch (BCE) configuration based amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). It is observed that the BCE configurations TFTs suffer poor bias-stability in comparison to etch-stop-layer (ESL) TFTs. By analysis with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), as well as by a comparative analysis of contacts formed by other metals, we infer that this poor bias-stability for BCE transistors having Mo S/D contacts is associated with contamination of the back channel interface, which occurs by Mo-containing deposits on the back channel during the final plasma process of the physical vapor deposited SiO2 passivation.

  2. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under positive gate bias stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niang, K. M.; Barquinha, P. M. C.; Martins, R. F. P.; Cobb, B.; Powell, M. J.; Flewitt, A. J.

    2016-02-01

    Thin film transistors (TFTs) employing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) channel layer exhibit a positive shift in the threshold voltage under the application of positive gate bias stress (PBS). The time and temperature dependence of the threshold voltage shift was measured and analysed using the thermalization energy concept. The peak energy barrier to defect conversion is extracted to be 0.75 eV and the attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 107 s-1. These values are in remarkable agreement with measurements in a-IGZO TFTs under negative gate bias illumination stress (NBIS) reported recently (Flewitt and Powell, J. Appl. Phys. 115, 134501 (2014)). This suggests that the same physical process is responsible for both PBS and NBIS, and supports the oxygen vacancy defect migration model that the authors have previously proposed.

  3. Alumina nanoparticle/polymer nanocomposite dielectric for flexible amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors on plastic substrate with superior stability

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, Hsin-Cheng; Pei, Zingway; Jian, Jyun-Ruri; Tzeng, Bo-Jie

    2014-07-21

    In this study, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles were incorporated into polymer as a nono-composite dielectric for used in a flexible amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) on a polyethylene naphthalate substrate by solution process. The process temperature was well below 100 °C. The a-IGZO TFT exhibit a mobility of 5.13 cm{sup 2}/V s on the flexible substrate. After bending at a radius of 4 mm (strain = 1.56%) for more than 100 times, the performance of this a-IGZO TFT was nearly unchanged. In addition, the electrical characteristics are less altered after positive gate bias stress at 10 V for 1500 s. Thus, this technology is suitable for use in flexible displays.

  4. Effects of low-temperature (120 °C) annealing on the carrier concentration and trap density in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-sung; Piao, Mingxing; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Oh, Byung Su; Joo, Min-Kyu; Ahn, Seung-Eon

    2014-12-28

    We report an investigation of the effects of low-temperature annealing on the electrical properties of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the charge carrier concentration, which is related to the density of oxygen vacancies. The field-effect mobility was found to decrease as a function of the charge carrier concentration, owing to the presence of band-tail states. By employing the transmission line method, we show that the contact resistance did not significantly contribute to the changes in device performance after annealing. In addition, using low-frequency noise analyses, we found that the trap density decreased by a factor of 10 following annealing at 120 °C. The switching operation and on/off ratio of the a-IGZO TFTs improved considerably after low-temperature annealing.

  5. Scaling characteristics of depletion type, fully transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors and inverters following Ar plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonwoo; Jeong, Soon Moon; Jeong, Jaewook

    2015-11-01

    We fabricated depletion type, transparent amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) and inverters with an Ar plasma treatment and analyzed their scaling characteristics with channel lengths ranging from 2 to 100 µm. The improvement of the field-effect mobility of a-IGZO TFTs is apparent only for short channel lengths. There is also an unexpected side effect of the Ar plasma treatment, which introduces back-channel interfacial states and induces a positive shift in the threshold voltage of a-IGZO TFTs. The resulting increase in the field-effect mobility and the positive shift in the threshold voltage of each TFT increase the differential gain up to 3 times and the positive shift in the transient point of the transparent inverters.

  6. Highest transmittance and high-mobility amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide films on flexible substrate by room-temperature deposition and post-deposition anneals

    SciTech Connect

    Gadre, Mandar J.; Alford, T. L.

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films of the highest transmittance reported in literature were initially deposited onto flexible polymer substrates at room temperature. The films were annealed in vacuum, air, and oxygen to enhance their electrical and optical performances. Electrical and optical characterizations were done before and after anneals. A partial reversal of the degradation in electrical properties upon annealing in oxygen was achieved by subjecting the films to subsequent vacuum anneals. A model was developed based on film texture and structural defects which showed close agreement between the measured and calculated carrier mobility values at low carrier concentrations (2-6 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}).

  7. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm2/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites.

  8. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (VTG) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm2 intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the VTG from -15 to +15 V. By changing VTG from negative to positive, the Fermi level (EF) shifts toward conduction band edge (EC), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (VO → VO+/VO2+ + e-/2e-), peroxide (O22-) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (Oi2-) to neutral interstitial (Oi), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows -2.7 V shift at VTG = -15 V, which gradually decreases to -0.42 V shift at VTG = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (VO+/VO2+/O22-/Oi) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.

  9. Dual operation characteristics of resistance random access memory in indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Jyun-Bao; Chen, Yu-Ting; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Chang, Ting-Chang; Huang, Jheng-Jie; Chen, Yu-Chun; Tseng, Hsueh-Chih; Sze, Simon M.

    2014-04-14

    In this study, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors can be operated either as transistors or resistance random access memory devices. Before the forming process, current-voltage curve transfer characteristics are observed, and resistance switching characteristics are measured after a forming process. These resistance switching characteristics exhibit two behaviors, and are dominated by different mechanisms. The mode 1 resistance switching behavior is due to oxygen vacancies, while mode 2 is dominated by the formation of an oxygen-rich layer. Furthermore, an easy approach is proposed to reduce power consumption when using these resistance random access memory devices with the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistor.

  10. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm2/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites. PMID:26972476

  11. High-pressure Gas Activation for Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors at 100 °C.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won-Gi; Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Jung, Tae Soo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the use of high-pressure gases as an activation energy source for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs). High-pressure annealing (HPA) in nitrogen (N2) and oxygen (O2) gases was applied to activate a-IGZO TFTs at 100 °C at pressures in the range from 0.5 to 4 MPa. Activation of the a-IGZO TFTs during HPA is attributed to the effect of the high-pressure environment, so that the activation energy is supplied from the kinetic energy of the gas molecules. We reduced the activation temperature from 300 °C to 100 °C via the use of HPA. The electrical characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs annealed in O2 at 2 MPa were superior to those annealed in N2 at 4 MPa, despite the lower pressure. For O2 HPA under 2 MPa at 100 °C, the field effect mobility and the threshold voltage shift under positive bias stress were improved by 9.00 to 10.58 cm(2)/V.s and 3.89 to 2.64 V, respectively. This is attributed to not only the effects of the pressurizing effect but also the metal-oxide construction effect which assists to facilitate the formation of channel layer and reduces oxygen vacancies, served as electron trap sites. PMID:26972476

  12. Effect of top gate bias on photocurrent and negative bias illumination stress instability in dual gate amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eunji; Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Park, Min Sang; Jang, Jin

    2015-12-07

    We have studied the effect of top gate bias (V{sub TG}) on the generation of photocurrent and the decay of photocurrent for back channel etched inverted staggered dual gate structure amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Upon 5 min of exposure of 365 nm wavelength and 0.7 mW/cm{sup 2} intensity light with negative bottom gate bias, the maximum photocurrent increases from 3.29 to 322 pA with increasing the V{sub TG} from −15 to +15 V. By changing V{sub TG} from negative to positive, the Fermi level (E{sub F}) shifts toward conduction band edge (E{sub C}), which substantially controls the conversion of neutral vacancy to charged one (V{sub O} → V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+} + e{sup −}/2e{sup −}), peroxide (O{sub 2}{sup 2−}) formation or conversion of ionized interstitial (O{sub i}{sup 2−}) to neutral interstitial (O{sub i}), thus electron concentration at conduction band. With increasing the exposure time, more carriers are generated, and thus, maximum photocurrent increases until being saturated. After negative bias illumination stress, the transfer curve shows −2.7 V shift at V{sub TG} = −15 V, which gradually decreases to −0.42 V shift at V{sub TG} = +15 V. It clearly reveals that the position of electron quasi-Fermi level controls the formation of donor defects (V{sub O}{sup +}/V{sub O}{sup 2+}/O{sub 2}{sup 2−}/O{sub i}) and/or hole trapping in the a-IGZO /interfaces.

  13. Influence of source and drain contacts on the properties of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors based on amorphous carbon nanofilm as barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongxiang; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Mingjie; Li, Min; Xu, Miao; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2015-02-18

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (α-IGZO TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were achieved by introducing a carbon nanofilm as a barrier layer. We investigate the effects of different source-and-drain (S/D) materials on TFT performance. We find the TFT with Ti/C S/D electrodes exhibits a superior performance with higher output current, lower threshold voltage, and higher effective electron mobility compared to that of Mo/C S/D electrodes. Transmittance electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) are employed to analysis the interfacial interaction between S/D metal/C/α-IGZO layers. The results indicate that the better performance of TFTs with Ti/C electrodes should be attributed to the formations of Ti-C and Ti-O at the Ti/C-contact regions, which lead to a lower contact resistance, whereas Mo film is relatively stable and does not react easily with C nanofilm, resulting in a nonohmic contact behavior between Mo/C and α-IGZO layer. However, both kinds of α-IGZO TFTs show good stability under thermal bias stress, indicating that the inserted C nanofilms could avoid the impact on the α-IGZO channel regions during S/D electrodes formation. Finally, we successfully fabricated a high-definition active-matrix organic lighting emitting diode prototype driven by α-IGZO TFTs with Ti/C electrodes in a pilot line. PMID:25619280

  14. Surface reactivity and oxygen migration in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide films annealed in humid atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, Ken; Lee, Dong-Hee; Materials and Structures Laboratory , Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox R3-4, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 ; Sakaguchi, Isao; Haneda, Hajime; Nomura, Kenji; Kamiya, Toshio; Materials Research Center for Element Strategy , Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 ; Hosono, Hideo; Frontier Research Center, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Mailbox S2-13, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026; Materials Research Center for Element Strategy , Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026 ; Ohashi, Naoki; Materials Research Center for Element Strategy , Mailbox S2-13, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 4259 Nagatsuta, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-0026

    2013-11-11

    An isotope tracer study, i.e., {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O exchange using {sup 18}O{sub 2} and H{sub 2}{sup 18}O, was performed to determine how post-deposition annealing (PDA) affected surface reactivity and oxygen diffusivity of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) films. The oxygen tracer diffusivity was very high in the bulk even at low temperatures, e.g., 200 °C, regardless of PDA and exchange conditions. In contrast, the isotope exchange rate, dominated by surface reactivity, was much lower for {sup 18}O{sub 2} than for H{sub 2}{sup 18}O. PDA in a humid atmosphere at 400 °C further suppressed the reactivity of O{sub 2} at the a-IGZO film surface, which is attributable to –OH-terminated surface formation.

  15. A thermalization energy analysis of the threshold voltage shift in amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors under simultaneous negative gate bias and illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Flewitt, A. J.; Powell, M. J.

    2014-04-07

    It has been previously observed that thin film transistors (TFTs) utilizing an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconducting channel suffer from a threshold voltage shift when subjected to a negative gate bias and light illumination simultaneously. In this work, a thermalization energy analysis has been applied to previously published data on negative bias under illumination stress (NBIS) in a-IGZO TFTs. A barrier to defect conversion of 0.65–0.75 eV is extracted, which is consistent with reported energies of oxygen vacancy migration. The attempt-to-escape frequency is extracted to be 10{sup 6}−10{sup 7} s{sup −1}, which suggests a weak localization of carriers in band tail states over a 20–40 nm distance. Models for the NBIS mechanism based on charge trapping are reviewed and a defect pool model is proposed in which two distinct distributions of defect states exist in the a-IGZO band gap: these are associated with states that are formed as neutrally charged and 2+ charged oxygen vacancies at the time of film formation. In this model, threshold voltage shift is not due to a defect creation process, but to a change in the energy distribution of states in the band gap upon defect migration as this allows a state formed as a neutrally charged vacancy to be converted into one formed as a 2+ charged vacancy and vice versa. Carrier localization close to the defect migration site is necessary for the conversion process to take place, and such defect migration sites are associated with conduction and valence band tail states. Under negative gate bias stressing, the conduction band tail is depleted of carriers, but the bias is insufficient to accumulate holes in the valence band tail states, and so no threshold voltage shift results. It is only under illumination that the quasi Fermi level for holes is sufficiently lowered to allow occupation of valence band tail states. The resulting charge localization then allows a negative threshold voltage shift, but only under conditions of simultaneous negative gate bias and illumination, as observed experimentally as the NBIS effect.

  16. Remarkable changes in interface O vacancy and metal-oxide bonds in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by long time annealing at 250 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, Md Delwar Hossain; Um, Jae Gwang; Jang, Jin

    2014-12-08

    We have studied the effect of long time post-fabrication annealing on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film-transistors. Annealing for 100 h at 250 °C increased the field effect mobility from 14.7 cm{sup 2}/V s to 17.9 cm{sup 2}/V s and reduced the NBIS instability remarkably. Using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the oxygen vacancy and OH were found to exist at the interfaces of a-IGZO with top and bottom SiO{sub 2}. Long time annealing helps to decrease the vacancy concentration and increase the metal-oxygen bonds at the interfaces; this leads to increase in the free carrier concentrations in a-IGZO and field-effect mobility. X-ray reflectivity measurement indicated the increment of a-IGZO film density of 5.63 g cm{sup −3} to 5.83 g cm{sup −3} (3.4% increase) by 100 h annealing at 250 °C. The increase in film density reveals the decrease of O vacancy concentration and reduction of weak metal-oxygen bonds in a-IGZO, which substantially helps to improve the NBIS stability.

  17. Improvement of bias-stability in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors by using solution-processed Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation

    SciTech Connect

    An, Sungjin; Mativenga, Mallory; Kim, Youngoo; Jang, Jin

    2014-08-04

    We demonstrate back channel improvement of back-channel-etch amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors by using solution-processed yttrium oxide (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) passivation. Two different solvents, which are acetonitrile (35%) + ethylene glycol (65%), solvent A and deionized water, solvent B are investigated for the spin-on process of the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation—performed after patterning source/drain (S/D) Mo electrodes by a conventional HNO{sub 3}-based wet-etch process. Both solvents yield devices with good performance but those passivated by using solvent B exhibit better light and bias stability. Presence of yttrium at the a-IGZO back interface, where it occupies metal vacancy sites, is confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The passivation effect of yttrium is more significant when solvent A is used because of the existence of more metal vacancies, given that the alcohol (65% ethylene glycol) in solvent A may dissolve the metal oxide (a-IGZO) through the formation of alkoxides and water.

  18. Influence of the charge trap density distribution in a gate insulator on the positive-bias stress instability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eungtaek; Kim, Choong-Ki; Lee, Myung Keun; Bang, Tewook; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Park, Sang-Hee Ko; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the positive-bias stress (PBS) instability of thin film transistors (TFTs) composed of different types of first-gate insulators, which serve as a protection layer of the active surface. Two different deposition methods, i.e., the thermal atomic layer deposition (THALD) and plasma-enhanced ALD (PEALD) of Al2O3, were applied for the deposition of the first GI. When THALD was used to deposit the GI, amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs showed superior stability characteristics under PBS. For example, the threshold voltage shift (ΔVth) was 0 V even after a PBS time (tstress) of 3000 s under a gate voltage (VG) condition of 5 V (with an electrical field of 1.25 MV/cm). On the other hand, when the first GI was deposited by PEALD, the ΔVth value of a-IGZO TFTs was 0.82 V after undergoing an identical amount of PBS. In order to interpret the disparate ΔVth values resulting from PBS quantitatively, the average oxide charge trap density (NT) in the GI and its spatial distribution were investigated through low-frequency noise characterizations. A higher NT resulted during in the PEALD type GI than in the THALD case. Specifically, the PEALD process on a-IGZO layer surface led to an increasing trend of NT near the GI/a-IGZO interface compared to bulk GI owing to oxygen plasma damage on the a-IGZO surface.

  19. Effect of direct current sputtering power on the behavior of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors under negative bias illumination stress: A combination of experimental analyses and device simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jun Tae; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr; Park, Jozeph; Ahn, Byung Du; Kim, Hyun-Suk E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr

    2015-03-23

    The effect of direct current sputtering power of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) on the performance and stability of the corresponding thin-film transistor devices was studied. The field effect mobility increases as the IGZO sputter power increases, at the expense of device reliability under negative bias illumination stress (NBIS). Device simulation based on the extracted sub-gap density of states indicates that the field effect mobility is improved as a result of the number of acceptor-like states decreasing. The degradation by NBIS is suggested to be induced by the formation of peroxides in IGZO rather than charge trapping.

  20. Flexible indium-gallium-zinc-oxide Schottky diode operating beyond 2.45 GHz.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Yunpeng; Zhang, Binglei; Wang, Hanbin; Xin, Qian; Song, Aimin

    2015-01-01

    Mechanically flexible mobile phones have been long anticipated due to the rapid development of thin-film electronics in the last couple of decades. However, to date, no such phone has been developed, largely due to a lack of flexible electronic components that are fast enough for the required wireless communications, in particular the speed-demanding front-end rectifiers. Here Schottky diodes based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates. Using suitable radio-frequency mesa structures, a range of IGZO thicknesses and diode sizes have been studied. The results have revealed an unexpected dependence of the diode speed on the IGZO thickness. The findings enable the best optimized flexible diodes to reach 6.3 GHz at zero bias, which is beyond the critical benchmark speed of 2.45 GHz to satisfy the principal frequency bands of smart phones such as those for cellular communication, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and global satellite positioning. PMID:26138510

  1. Flexible indium-gallium-zinc-oxide Schottky diode operating beyond 2.45 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jiawei; Li, Yunpeng; Zhang, Binglei; Wang, Hanbin; Xin, Qian; Song, Aimin

    2015-07-01

    Mechanically flexible mobile phones have been long anticipated due to the rapid development of thin-film electronics in the last couple of decades. However, to date, no such phone has been developed, largely due to a lack of flexible electronic components that are fast enough for the required wireless communications, in particular the speed-demanding front-end rectifiers. Here Schottky diodes based on amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) are fabricated on flexible plastic substrates. Using suitable radio-frequency mesa structures, a range of IGZO thicknesses and diode sizes have been studied. The results have revealed an unexpected dependence of the diode speed on the IGZO thickness. The findings enable the best optimized flexible diodes to reach 6.3 GHz at zero bias, which is beyond the critical benchmark speed of 2.45 GHz to satisfy the principal frequency bands of smart phones such as those for cellular communication, Bluetooth, Wi-Fi and global satellite positioning.

  2. Recovery from ultraviolet-induced threshold voltage shift in indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors by positive gate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P.; Chen, T. P.; Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2013-11-11

    The effect of short-duration ultraviolet (UV) exposure on the threshold voltage (V{sub th}) of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors (TFTs) and its recovery characteristics were investigated. The V{sub th} exhibited a significant negative shift after UV exposure. The V{sub th} instability caused by UV illumination is attributed to the positive charge trapping in the dielectric layer and/or at the channel/dielectric interface. The illuminated devices showed a slow recovery in threshold voltage without external bias. However, an instant recovery can be achieved by the application of positive gate pulses, which is due to the elimination of the positive trapped charges as a result of the presence of a large amount of field-induced electrons in the interface region.

  3. Examination of the ambient effects on the stability of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin film transistors using a laser-glass-sealing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yamada, Kazuo; Takeda, Satoshi; Nomura, Kenji; Abe, Katsumi; Hosono, Hideo

    2014-09-29

    The effect of an ambient atmosphere with a positive bias constant current stress (CCS) and a negative bias illumination stress (NBIS) on the stability of amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film transistors (TFTs) is examined by utilizing a glass-hermetic-sealant with a moisture permeability of less than 10{sup −6} g/m{sup 2} · day. In the CCS test, the threshold voltage shift (ΔV{sub th}) was remarkably suppressed in the glass-sealed TFTs. The unsealed and resin-sealed TFTs exhibited large ΔV{sub th} values. During the NBIS tests, the glass-sealed TFTs had almost the same negative ΔV{sub th} as the unsealed and resin sealed TFTs. Among the different TFTs, no significant differences were observed in the threshold voltage, the subthreshold swing and the saturation mobility as a function of the photon energy. It is concluded that ambient molecules were the primary origin of the instability of the ΔV{sub th}, induced by a CCS, but they were not related to the NBIS instability. The major role of the effective passivation layers in the NBIS test was not to simply block out the ambient effects, but to reduce the extra density of states at/near the surface of the back channel.

  4. Interface location-controlled indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors using a solution process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jae Won; Kim, Yeong-gyu; Jung, Tae Soo; Tak, Young Jun; Park, Sung Pyo; Park, Jeong Woo; Kim, Si Joon; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-03-01

    The role of an interface as an electron-trapping layer in double-stacked indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) was investigated and interface location-controlled (ILC) IGZO TFTs were introduced. In the ILC TFTs, the thickness of the top and bottom IGZO layers is controlled to change the location of the interface layer. The system exhibited improved electrical characteristics as the location of the interface layer moved further from the gate insulator: field-effect mobility increased from 0.36 to 2.17 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the on-current increased from 2.43  ×  10-5 to 1.33  ×  10-4 A. The enhanced electrical characteristics are attributed to the absence of an electron-trapping interface layer in the effective channel layer where electrons are accumulated under positive gate bias voltage.

  5. In situ analyses on negative ions in the indium-gallium-zinc oxide sputtering process

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo

    2013-07-01

    The origin of negative ions in the dc magnetron sputtering process using a ceramic indium-gallium-zinc oxide target has been investigated by in situ analyses. The observed negative ions are mainly O{sup -} with energies corresponding to the target voltage, which originates from the target and barely from the reactive gas (O{sub 2}). Dissociation of ZnO{sup -}, GaO{sup -}, ZnO{sub 2}{sup -}, and GaO{sub 2}{sup -} radicals also contributes to the total negative ion flux. Furthermore, we find that some sputtering parameters, such as the type of sputtering gas (Ar or Kr), sputtering power, total gas pressure, and magnetic field strength at the target surface, can be used to control the energy distribution of the O{sup -} ion flux.

  6. Study of breakdown voltage of indium-gallium-zinc-oxide-based Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Xin, Qian; Yan, Linlong; Luo, Yi; Song, Aimin

    2015-03-16

    In contrast to the intensive studies on thin-film transistors based on indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), the research on IGZO-based diodes is still very limited, particularly on their behavior and stability under high bias voltages. Our experiments reveal a sensitive dependence of the breakdown voltage of IGZO Schottky diodes on the anode metal and the IGZO film thickness. Devices with an Au anode are found to breakdown easily at a reverse bias as low as −2.5 V, while the devices with a Pd anode and a 200-nm, fully depleted IGZO layer have survived up to −15 V. All diodes are fabricated by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature without any thermal treatment, yet showing an ideality factor as low as 1.14, showing the possibility of achieving high-performance Schottky diodes on flexible plastic substrate.

  7. Performance of Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors in Saline Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Lacour, S. P.

    2016-06-01

    Transistors are often envisioned as alternative transducing devices to microelectrodes to communicate with the nervous system. Independently of the selected technology, the transistors should have reliable performance when exposed to physiological conditions (37°C, 5% CO2). Here, we report on the reliable performance of parylene encapsulated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) after prolonged exposure to phosphate buffer saline solution in an incubator. The encapsulated IGZO TFTs (W/L = 500 μm/20 μm) have an ON/OFF current ratio of 107 and field effect mobility of 8.05 ± 0.78 cm2/Vs. The transistors operate within 4 V; their threshold voltages and subthreshold slope are ~1.9 V and 200 mV/decade, respectively. After weeks immersed in saline solution and at 37°C, we did not observe any significant deterioration in the transistors' performance. The long-term stability of IGZO transistors at physiological conditions is a promising result in the direction of metal oxide bioelectronics.

  8. Performance of Indium Gallium Zinc Oxide Thin-Film Transistors in Saline Solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, S.; Lacour, S. P.

    2016-03-01

    Transistors are often envisioned as alternative transducing devices to microelectrodes to communicate with the nervous system. Independently of the selected technology, the transistors should have reliable performance when exposed to physiological conditions (37°C, 5% CO2). Here, we report on the reliable performance of parylene encapsulated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) based thin-film transistors (TFTs) after prolonged exposure to phosphate buffer saline solution in an incubator. The encapsulated IGZO TFTs (W/L = 500 μm/20 μm) have an ON/OFF current ratio of 107 and field effect mobility of 8.05 ± 0.78 cm2/Vs. The transistors operate within 4 V; their threshold voltages and subthreshold slope are ~1.9 V and 200 mV/decade, respectively. After weeks immersed in saline solution and at 37°C, we did not observe any significant deterioration in the transistors' performance. The long-term stability of IGZO transistors at physiological conditions is a promising result in the direction of metal oxide bioelectronics.

  9. High stability mechanisms of quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide multicomponent oxide films and thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ching-Ting Lin, Yung-Hao; Lin, Jhong-Ham

    2015-01-28

    Quinary indium gallium zinc aluminum oxide (IGZAO) multicomponent oxide films were deposited using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) target and Al target by radio frequency magnetron cosputtering system. An extra carrier transport pathway could be provided by the 3 s orbitals of Al cations to improve the electrical properties of the IGZO films, and the oxygen instability could be stabilized by the strong Al-O bonds in the IGZAO films. The electron concentration change and the electron mobility change of the IGZAO films for aging time of 10 days under an air environment at 40 °C and 75% humidity were 20.1% and 2.4%, respectively. The experimental results verified the performance stability of the IGZAO films. Compared with the thin film transistors (TFTs) using conventional IGZO channel layer, in conducting the stability of TFTs with IGZAO channel layer, the transconductance g{sub m} change, threshold voltage V{sub T} change, and the subthreshold swing S value change under the same aging condition were improved to 7.9%, 10.5%, and 14.8%, respectively. Furthermore, the stable performances of the IGZAO TFTs were also verified by the positive gate bias stress. In this research, the quinary IGZAO multicomponent oxide films and that applied in TFTs were the first studied in the literature.

  10. Short-Term Synaptic Plasticity Regulation in Solution-Gated Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Electric-Double-Layer Transistors.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chang Jin; Liu, Yang Hui; Zhu, Li Qiang; Feng, Ping; Shi, Yi; Wan, Qing

    2016-04-20

    In the biological nervous system, synaptic plasticity regulation is based on the modulation of ionic fluxes, and such regulation was regarded as the fundamental mechanism underlying memory and learning. Inspired by such biological strategies, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) electric-double-layer (EDL) transistors gated by aqueous solutions were proposed for synaptic behavior emulations. Short-term synaptic plasticity, such as paired-pulse facilitation, high-pass filtering, and orientation tuning, was experimentally emulated in these EDL transistors. Most importantly, we found that such short-term synaptic plasticity can be effectively regulated by alcohol (ethyl alcohol) and salt (potassium chloride) additives. Our results suggest that solution gated oxide-based EDL transistors could act as the platforms for short-term synaptic plasticity emulation. PMID:27007748

  11. Low turn-on voltage due to conduction band lowering effect in crystalline indium gallium zinc oxide transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubayashi, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Matsuda, Shinpei; Obonai, Toshimitsu; Ishihara, Noritaka; Tanaka, Tetsuhiro; Tezuka, Sachiaki; Suzawa, Hideomi; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2014-01-01

    We found out that in an indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) transistor, the energy barrier in the channel region, i.e., the conduction band energy relative to the Fermi energy is lowered by electrons flowing from n+ regions under source and drain electrodes. We have named this phenomenon “conduction band lowering (CBL) effect”. Owing to this effect, even when the Fermi energy of an IGZO film gets closer to the mid-gap, a transistor formed using the film in the channel region is always turned on around a gate voltage of 0 V. In other words, by sufficiently reducing the donor concentration of the channel region, such IGZO transistors are turned on at a certain low gate voltage determined by the CBL effect and their characteristics variation can be suppressed.

  12. Activation of sputter-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide films by simultaneous ultraviolet and thermal treatments.

    PubMed

    Tak, Young Jun; Du Ahn, Byung; Park, Sung Pyo; Kim, Si Joon; Song, Ae Ran; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2016-01-01

    Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) films, deposited by sputtering at room temperature, still require activation to achieve satisfactory semiconductor characteristics. Thermal treatment is typically carried out at temperatures above 300 °C. Here, we propose activating sputter- processed IGZO films using simultaneous ultraviolet and thermal (SUT) treatments to decrease the required temperature and enhance their electrical characteristics and stability. SUT treatment effectively decreased the amount of carbon residues and the number of defect sites related to oxygen vacancies and increased the number of metal oxide (M-O) bonds through the decomposition-rearrangement of M-O bonds and oxygen radicals. Activation of IGZO TFTs using the SUT treatment reduced the processing temperature to 150 °C and improved various electrical performance metrics including mobility, on-off ratio, and threshold voltage shift (positive bias stress for 10,000 s) from 3.23 to 15.81 cm(2)/Vs, 3.96 × 10(7) to 1.03 × 10(8), and 11.2 to 7.2 V, respectively. PMID:26902863

  13. Ohmic contact formation process on low n-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) using indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO)

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Seong-Uk; Jung, Woo-Shik; Lee, In-Yeal; Jung, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Gil-Ho; Park, Jin-Hong

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • We propose a method to fabricate non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs with IGZO. • 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current and 1.5 on/off-current ratio are achieved in the junction. • InAs and InGaAs formed by this process decrease an electron barrier height. • Traps generated by diffused O atoms also induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon. - Abstract: Here, an excellent non-gold Ohmic contact on low n-type GaAs is demonstrated by using indium gallium zinc oxide and investigating through time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, J–V measurement, and H [enthalpy], S [entropy], Cp [heat capacity] chemistry simulation. In is diffused through GaAs during annealing and reacts with As, forming InAs and InGaAs phases with lower energy bandgap. As a result, it decreases the electron barrier height, eventually increasing the reverse current. In addition, traps generated by diffused O atoms induce a trap-assisted tunneling phenomenon, increasing generation current and subsequently the reverse current. Therefore, an excellent Ohmic contact with 0.15 A/cm{sup 2} on-current density and 1.5 on/off-current ratio is achieved on n-type GaAs.

  14. Effects of electron trapping and interface state generation on bias stress induced in indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Sang-Sub; Kim, Kwang-Ryul; Baek, Do-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Soo; Choi, Byoung-Deog

    2014-08-01

    The electrical characteristics of bias temperature stress (BTS) induced in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) were studied. We analyzed the threshold voltage (VTH) shift on the basis of the effects of positive bias temperature stress (PBTS) and negative bias temperature stress (NBTS), and applied it to the stretched-exponential model. Both stress temperature and bias are considered as important factors in the electrical instabilities of a-IGZO TFTs, and the stretched-exponential equation is well fitted to the stress condition. VTH for the drain current-gate voltage (IDS-VGS) curve and flat-band voltage (VFB) for the capacitance-voltage (C-V) curve move in the positive direction when PBTS is induced. However, in the case of NBTS, they move slightly in the negative direction. To clarify the VTH shift phenomenon by electron and hole injection, the average effective energy barrier (Eτ) is extracted, and the extracted values of Eτ under PBTS and NBTS are about 1.33 and 2.25 eV, respectively. The oxide trap charges (Not) of PBTS and NBTS calculated by C-V measurement are 4.4 × 1011 and 1.49 × 1011 cm-2, respectively. On the other hand, the border trap charges of PBTS and NBTS are 6.7 × 108 and 1.7 × 109 cm-2, respectively. This indicates that the increased interface trap charge, after PBTS is induced, captures electrons during detrap processing from the border trap to the conduction band, valence band, and interface trap.

  15. High performance indium gallium zinc oxide thin film transistors fabricated on polyethylene terephthalate substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, Wantae; Jang, Jung Hun; Kim, S.-H.; Norton, D. P.; Craciun, V; Pearton, S. J.; Ren, F.; Shen, H.

    2008-08-25

    High-performance amorphous ({alpha}-) InGaZnO-based thin film transistors (TFTs) were fabricated on flexible polyethylene terephthalate substrates coated with indium oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) films. The InGaZnO films were deposited by rf magnetron sputtering with the presence of O{sub 2} at room temperature. The n-type carrier concentration of InGaZnO film was {approx}2x10{sup 17} cm{sup -3}. The bottom-gate-type TFTs with SiO{sub 2} or SiN{sub x} gate dielectric operated in enhancement mode with good electrical characteristics: saturation mobility 11.5 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} for SiO{sub 2} and 12.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} for SiN{sub x} gate dielectrics and drain current on-to-off ratio >10{sup 5}. TFTs with SiN{sub x} gate dielectric exhibited better performance than those with SiO{sub 2}. This is attributed to the relatively high dielectric constant (i.e., high-k material) of SiN{sub x}. After more than 500 h aging time at room temperature, the saturation mobility of the TFTs with SiO{sub 2} gate dielectric was comparable to the as-fabricated value and the threshold voltage shift was 150 mV.

  16. Fourier spectrum based extraction of an equivalent trap state density in indium gallium zinc oxide transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Thakur, Bikash; Sambandan, Sanjiv; Lee, Sungsik; Nathan, Arokia; Ahnood, Arman; Jeon, Sanghun

    2014-05-19

    Segregating the dynamics of gate bias induced threshold voltage shift, and in particular, charge trapping in thin film transistors (TFTs) based on time constants provides insight into the different mechanisms underlying TFTs instability. In this Letter we develop a representation of the time constants and model the magnitude of charge trapped in the form of an equivalent density of created trap states. This representation is extracted from the Fourier spectrum of the dynamics of charge trapping. Using amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O TFTs as an example, the charge trapping was modeled within an energy range of ΔE{sub t}≈ 0.3 eV and with a density of state distribution as D{sub t}(E{sub t−j})=D{sub t0}exp(−ΔE{sub t}/kT)with D{sub t0} = 5.02 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}. Such a model is useful for developing simulation tools for circuit design.

  17. Realization of write-once-read-many-times memory device with O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, P. Chen, T. P. Li, X. D.; Wong, J. I.; Liu, Z.; Liu, Y.; Leong, K. C.

    2014-01-20

    A write-once-read-many-times (WORM) memory devices based on O{sub 2} plasma-treated indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films has been demonstrated. The device has a simple Al/IGZO/Al structure. The device has a normally OFF state with a very high resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 9} ? for a device with the radius of 50??m) as a result of the O{sub 2} plasma treatment on the IGZO thin films. The device could be switched to an ON state with a low resistance (e.g., the resistance at 2?V is ?10{sup 3} ? for the radius of 50??m) by applying a voltage pulse (e.g., 10?V/1??s). The WORM device has good data-retention and reading-endurance capabilities.

  18. Properties of c-axis-aligned crystalline indium-gallium-zinc oxide field-effect transistors fabricated through a tapered-trench gate process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Yoshinobu; Kurata, Motomu; Okazaki, Yutaka; Higa, Eiji; Matsubayashi, Daisuke; Okamoto, Satoru; Sasagawa, Shinya; Moriwaka, Tomoaki; Kakehata, Tetsuya; Yakubo, Yuto; Kato, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Takashi; Sakakura, Masayuki; Hayakawa, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2016-04-01

    To achieve both low power consumption and high-speed operation, we fabricated c-axis-aligned crystalline indium-gallium-zinc oxide (CAAC-IGZO) field-effect transistors (FETs) with In-rich IGZO and common IGZO (\\text{In}:\\text{Ga}:\\text{Zn} = 1:1:1 in atomic ratio) active layers through a simple process using trench gates, and evaluated their characteristics. The results confirm that 60-nm-node IGZO FETs fabricated through a 450 °C process show an extremely low off-state current below the detection limit (at most 2 × 10-16 A) even at a measurement temperature of 150 °C. The results also reveal that the FETs with the In-rich IGZO active layer show a higher on-state current than those with the common IGZO active layer and have excellent frequency characteristics with a cutoff frequency and a maximum oscillation frequency of up to 20 and 6 GHz, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that CAAC-IGZO FETs with trench gates are promising for achieving both low power consumption and high-speed operation.

  19. Indium-gallium-zinc-oxide layer used to increase light transmittance efficiency of adhesive layer for stacked-type multijunction solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshidomi, Shinya; Kimura, Shunsuke; Hasumi, Masahiko; Sameshima, Toshiyuki

    2015-11-01

    We report the increase in transmittance efficiency of the intermediate layer for multijunction solar cells caused by the indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) layer used as the antireflection layer. Si substrates coated with a 200-nm-thick IGZO layer with a refractive index of 1.85 were prepared. The resistivity of the IGZO layer was increased from 0.0069 (as-deposited) to 0.032 Ω cm by heat treatment at 350 °C for 1 h to prevent free-carrier optical absorption. Samples with the Si/IGZO/adhesive/IGZO/Si structure were fabricated. The average transmissivity for wavelengths between 1200 and 1600 nm was 49%, which was close to 55% of single-crystal silicon substrates. A high effective transmittance efficiency of 89% was experimentally achieved. The numerical calculation showed in an effective transmittance efficiency of 99% for 170-nm-thick antireflection layers with a resistivity of 0.6 Ω cm and a refractive index of 2.1.

  20. Electrical Instability of Amorphous-Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors under Ultraviolet Illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan-Feng, Tang; Hai, Lu; Fang-Fang, Ren; Dong, Zhou; Rong, Zhang; You-Dou, Zheng; Xiao-Ming, Huang

    2016-03-01

    Not Available Supported by the Key Industrial R&D Program of Jiangsu Province under Grand No BE2015155, the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions, and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities under Grant No 021014380033.

  1. Thermal Characteristics of Amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide and Graphite in Display Panel Based Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Jun; Kim, Youn-Jea

    2015-11-01

    One of the important design factors in the smart electronic industry is proper heat treatment of the display panel. In order to improve the heat transfer performance of display panels, we analyzed a three-dimensional model of multi-stack layers of the thin film transistors (TFTs). In particular, we numerically investigated the thermal barrier effects of active layers having different material properties of a-IGZO (isotropy) and graphite (anisotropy). We calculated the temperature distribution on the display panel with each active layer, using the commercial code, COMSOL Multiphysics. We graphically depict comparative results of the thermal characteristics between a-IGZO and graphite with the stacked structure of the TFTs. PMID:26726627

  2. Low temperature annealed amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as a pH sensitive layer for applications in field effect based sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Narendra; Kumar, Jitendra; Panda, Siddhartha

    2015-06-01

    The use of a-IGZO instead of the conventional high-k dielectrics as a pH sensitive layer could lead to the simplification of fabrication steps of field effect based devices. In this work, the pH sensitivities of a-IGZO films directly deposited over a SiO2/Si surface were studied utilizing electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor (EIS) structures. Annealing of the films was found to affect the sensitivity of the devices and the device with the film annealed at 400 oC in N2 ambience showed the better sensitivity, which reduced with further increase in the annealing temperature to 500 oC. The increased pH sensitivity with the film annealed at 400 oC in N2 gas was attributed to the enhanced lattice oxygen ions (based on the XPS data) and improved C-V characteristics, while the decrease in sensitivity at an increased annealing temperature of 500 oC was attributed to defects in the films as well as the induced traps at the IGZO/SiO2 interface based on the stretched accumulation and the peak in the inversion region of C-V curves. This study could help to develop a sensor where the material (a-IGZO here) used as the active layer in a thin film transistors (TFTs) possibly could also be used as the pH sensitive layer without affecting the TFT characteristics, and thus obviating the need of high-K dielectrics for sensitivity enhancement.

  3. Ferroelectric switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor non-volatile memories with an amorphous oxide semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinck, G. H.; van Breemen, A. J. J. M.; Cobb, B.

    2015-03-01

    Ferroelectric polarization switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) is investigated in different thin-film device structures, ranging from simple capacitors to dual-gate thin-film transistors (TFT). Indium gallium zinc oxide, a high mobility amorphous oxide material, is used as semiconductor. We find that the ferroelectric can be polarized in both directions in the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure and in the dual-gate TFT under certain biasing conditions, but not in the single-gate thin-film transistors. These results disprove the common belief that MFS structures serve as a good model system for ferroelectric polarization switching in thin-film transistors.

  4. Ferroelectric switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) in metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor non-volatile memories with an amorphous oxide semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Gelinck, G. H.; Breemen, A. J. J. M. van; Cobb, B.

    2015-03-02

    Ferroelectric polarization switching of poly(vinylidene difluoride-trifluoroethylene) is investigated in different thin-film device structures, ranging from simple capacitors to dual-gate thin-film transistors (TFT). Indium gallium zinc oxide, a high mobility amorphous oxide material, is used as semiconductor. We find that the ferroelectric can be polarized in both directions in the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure and in the dual-gate TFT under certain biasing conditions, but not in the single-gate thin-film transistors. These results disprove the common belief that MFS structures serve as a good model system for ferroelectric polarization switching in thin-film transistors.

  5. Effects of high-temperature thermal annealing on the electronic properties of In-Ga-Zn oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Qin; Song, Zhong Xiao; Ma, Fei E-mail: liyhemail@gmail.com; Li, Yan Huai E-mail: liyhemail@gmail.com; Xu, Ke Wei

    2015-03-15

    Indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin films were deposited by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering at room-temperature. Then, thermal annealing was conducted to improve the structural ordering. X-ray diffraction and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy demonstrated that the as-deposited IGZO thin films were amorphous and crystallization occurred at 800 and 950 °C. As a result of crystallization at high temperature, the carrier concentration and the Hall mobility of IGZO thin films were sharply increased, which could be ascribed to the increased oxygen vacancies and improved structural ordering of the thin films.

  6. Visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based TFTs for transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2014-10-15

    We investigate the origin of visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin film transistors (oxide-TFTs) for transparent electronics by exploring the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub th}). A large hysteresis window in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs possessing large optical band-gap (≈3 eV) was observed in a visible-light illuminated condition whereas no hysteresis window was shown in a dark measuring condition. We also report the instability caused by photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress in oxide-TFTs. Larger V{sub th} shift was observed after photo-induced stress combined with a negative gate bias than the sum of that after only illumination stress and only negative gate bias stress. Such results can be explained by trapped charges at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric and/or in the gate dielectric which play a role in a screen effect on the electric field applied by gate voltage, for which we propose that the localized-states-assisted transitions by visible-light absorption can be responsible.

  7. Electrical dependence on the chemical composition of the gate dielectric in indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Tari, Alireza Lee, Czang-Ho; Wong, William S.

    2015-07-13

    Bottom-gate thin-film transistors were fabricated by depositing a 50 nm InGaZnO (IGZO) channel layer at 150 °C on three separate gate dielectric films: (1) thermal SiO{sub 2}, (2) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) SiN{sub x}, and (3) a PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric. X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the V{sub o} concentration was dependent on the hydrogen concentration of the underlying dielectric film. IGZO films on SiN{sub x} (high V{sub o}) and SiO{sub 2} (low V{sub o}) had the highest and lowest conductivity, respectively. A PECVD SiO{sub x}/SiN{sub x} dual-dielectric layer was effective in suppressing hydrogen diffusion from the nitride layer into the IGZO and resulted in higher resistivity films.

  8. Electrical dependence on the chemical composition of the gate dielectric in indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tari, Alireza; Lee, Czang-Ho; Wong, William S.

    2015-07-01

    Bottom-gate thin-film transistors were fabricated by depositing a 50 nm InGaZnO (IGZO) channel layer at 150 °C on three separate gate dielectric films: (1) thermal SiO2, (2) plasma-enhanced chemical-vapor deposition (PECVD) SiNx, and (3) a PECVD SiOx/SiNx dual-dielectric. X-ray photoelectron and photoluminescence spectroscopy showed the Vo concentration was dependent on the hydrogen concentration of the underlying dielectric film. IGZO films on SiNx (high Vo) and SiO2 (low Vo) had the highest and lowest conductivity, respectively. A PECVD SiOx/SiNx dual-dielectric layer was effective in suppressing hydrogen diffusion from the nitride layer into the IGZO and resulted in higher resistivity films.

  9. Field-induced activation of metal oxide semiconductor for low temperature flexible transparent electronic device applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Noh, Joo Hyon; Wong, Anthony; Haglund, Amada; Ward, Thomas Zac; Mandrus, David; Rack, Philip

    Amorphous metal-oxide semiconductors have been extensively studied as an active channel material in thin film transistors due to their high carrier mobility, and excellent large-area uniformity. Here, we report the athermal activation of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide semiconductor channels by an electric field-induced oxygen migration via gating through an ionic liquid. Using field-induced activation, a transparent flexible thin film transistor is demonstrated on a polyamide substrate with transistor characteristics having a current ON-OFF ratio exceeding 108, and saturation field effect mobility of 8.32 cm2/(V.s) without a post-deposition thermal treatment. This study demonstrates the potential of field-induced activation as an athermal alternative to traditional post-deposition thermal annealing for metal oxide electronic devices suitable for transparent and flexible polymer substrates. Materials Science and Technology Division, ORBL, Oak Ridge, TN 37831, USA.

  10. Amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide films deposited by magnetron sputtering with various reactive gases: Spatial distribution of thin film transistor performance

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Junjun; Torigoshi, Yoshifumi; Shigesato, Yuzo; Kawashima, Emi; Utsuno, Futoshi; Yano, Koki

    2015-01-12

    This work presents the spatial distribution of electrical characteristics of amorphous indium-tin-zinc oxide film (a-ITZO), and how they depend on the magnetron sputtering conditions using O{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and N{sub 2}O as the reactive gases. Experimental results show that the electrical properties of the N{sub 2}O incorporated a-ITZO film has a weak dependence on the deposition location, which cannot be explained by the bombardment effect of high energy particles, and may be attributed to the difference in the spatial distribution of both the amount and the activity of the reactive gas reaching the substrate surface. The measurement for the performance of a-ITZO thin film transistor (TFT) also suggests that the electrical performance and device uniformity of a-ITZO TFTs can be improved significantly by the N{sub 2}O introduction into the deposition process, where the field mobility reach to 30.8 cm{sup 2} V{sup –1} s{sup –1}, which is approximately two times higher than that of the amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide TFT.

  11. Effect of etching stop layer on characteristics of amorphous IGZO thin film transistor fabricated at low temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xifeng; Xin, Enlong; Chen, Longlong; Shi, Jifeng; Zhang, Jianhua

    2013-03-01

    Transparent bottom-gate amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) had been successfully fabricated at relative low temperature. The influence of reaction gas ratio of N2O and SiH4 during the growth of etching stop layer (SiOx) on the characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs was investigated. The transfer characteristics of the TFTs were changed markedly because active layer of a-IGZO films was modified by plasma in the growth process of SiOx. By optimizing the deposition parameters of etching stop layer process, a-IGZO TFTs were manufactured and exhibited good performance with a field-effect mobility of 8.5 cm2V-1s-1, a threshold voltage of 1.3 V, and good stability under gate bias stress of 20 V for 10000 s.

  12. Field-induced carrier generation in amorphous-InGaZnO4 thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gwang Um, Jae; Mativenga, Mallory; Migliorato, Piero; Jang, Jin

    2014-09-01

    The positive threshold voltage (VTH) shift induced by positive gate bias stress (PBS) in amorphous-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) is commonly attributed to carrier trapping mechanism. Here we show that in addition to these trapping mechanisms, the concentration of donors also increases during PBS when the applied gate bias stress voltage VGS_Stress?30 V. In the early stages of the PBS, this increase in donor concentration may manifest itself as a negative VTH shift. In the case of VGS_Stress?40 V, however, the increase is not detectable because electron trapping at the semiconductor/gate-insulator interface is dominant - even in the early stages of the PBS.

  13. Electrical stability enhancement of the amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin film transistor by formation of Au nanoparticles on the back-channel surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Byungsu; Lee, Jaesang; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a significant improvement in various electrical instabilities of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin film transistor (TFT) by implanting Au nanoparticles (NPs) on the a-IGZO back-channel. This TFT showed the enhanced stability of threshold voltage (Vth) under ambient humidity, illumination stress, and a-IGZO thickness variation tests. Application of back-channel Au NPs to a-IGZO TFT is regarded to control the surface potential, to lead reversible carrier trap/injection, and to increase incident UV light absorption by local surface plasmon. Au NPs are formed by e-beam evaporation, and therefore, this technique can be applicable to the TFT manufacturing process.

  14. Large scale integration of flexible non-volatile, re-addressable memories using P(VDF-TrFE) and amorphous oxide transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelinck, Gerwin H.; Cobb, Brian; van Breemen, Albert J. J. M.; Myny, Kris

    2015-07-01

    Ferroelectric polymers and amorphous metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for re-programmable non-volatile memories and high-performance, flexible thin-film transistors, respectively. However, realizing sophisticated transistor memory arrays has proven to be a challenge, and demonstrating reliable writing to and reading from such a large scale memory has thus far not been demonstrated. Here, we report an integration of ferroelectric, P(VDF-TrFE), transistor memory arrays with thin-film circuitry that can address each individual memory element in that array. n-type indium gallium zinc oxide is used as the active channel material in both the memory and logic thin-film transistors. The maximum process temperature is 200 C, allowing plastic films to be used as substrate material. The technology was scaled up to 150 mm wafer size, and offers good reproducibility, high device yield and low device variation. This forms the basis for successful demonstration of memory arrays, read and write circuitry, and the integration of these.

  15. Investigation on the negative bias illumination stress-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jang, Jaeman; Kim, Dae Geun; Kim, Dong Myong; Choi, Sung-Jin; Kim, Dae Hwan E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr; Lim, Jun-Hyung; Lee, Je-Hun; Ahn, Byung Du E-mail: drlife@kookmin.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Sung

    2014-10-13

    The quantitative analysis of mechanism on negative bias illumination stress (NBIS)-induced instability of amorphous indium-tin-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor (TFT) was suggested along with the effect of equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) of gate insulator. The analysis was implemented through combining the experimentally extracted density of subgap states and the device simulation. During NBIS, it was observed that the thicker EOT causes increase in both the shift of threshold voltage and the variation of subthreshold swing as well as the hump-like feature in a transfer curve. We found that the EOT-dependence of NBIS instability can be clearly explicated with the donor creation model, in which a larger amount of valence band tail states is transformed into either the ionized oxygen vacancy V{sub O}{sup 2+} or peroxide O{sub 2}{sup 2−} with the increase of EOT. It was also found that the V{sub O}{sup 2+}-related extrinsic factor accounts for 80%–92% of the total donor creation taking place in the valence band tail states while the rest is taken by the O{sub 2}{sup 2–} related intrinsic factor. The ratio of extrinsic factor compared to the total donor creation also increased with the increase of EOT, which could be explained by more prominent oxygen deficiency. The key founding of our work certainly represents that the established model should be considered very effective for analyzing the instability of the post-indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) ZnO-based compound semiconductor TFTs with the mobility, which is much higher than those of a-IGZO TFTs.

  16. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  17. High mobility amorphous zinc oxynitride semiconductor material for thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Yan; Lim, Rodney; White, John M.

    2009-10-01

    Zinc oxynitride semiconductor material is produced through a reactive sputtering process in which competition between reactions responsible for the growth of hexagonal zinc oxide (ZnO) and for the growth of cubic zinc nitride (Zn{sub 3}N{sub 2}) is promoted. In contrast to processes in which the reaction for either the oxide or the nitride is dominant, the multireaction process yields a substantially amorphous or a highly disordered nanocrystalline film with higher Hall mobility, 47 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} for the as-deposited film produced at 50 deg. C and 110 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} after annealing at 400 deg. C. In addition, it has been observed that the Hall mobility of the material increases as the carrier concentration decreases in a carrier concentration range where a multicomponent metal oxide semiconductor, indium-gallium-zinc oxide, follows the opposite trend. This indicates that the carrier transports in the single-metal compound and the multimetal compound are probably dominated by different mechanisms. Film stability and thin film transistor performance of the material have also been tested, and results are presented herein.

  18. Deep-level transient spectroscopy on an amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} Schottky diode

    SciTech Connect

    Chasin, Adrian Bhoolokam, Ajay; Nag, Manoj; Genoe, Jan; Heremans, Paul; Simoen, Eddy; Gielen, Georges

    2014-02-24

    The first direct measurement is reported of the bulk density of deep states in amorphous IGZO (indium-gallium-zinc oxide) semiconductor by means of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). The device under test is a Schottky diode of amorphous IGZO semiconductor on a palladium (Pd) Schottky-barrier electrode and with a molybdenum (Mo) Ohmic contact at the top. The DLTS technique allows to independently measure the energy and spatial distribution of subgap states in the IGZO thin film. The subgap trap concentration has a double exponential distribution as a function energy, with a value of ∼10{sup 19} cm{sup −3} eV{sup −1} at the conduction band edge and a value of ∼10{sup 17} cm{sup −3} eV{sup −1} at an energy of 0.55 eV below the conduction band. Such spectral distribution, however, is not uniform through the semiconductor film. The spatial distribution of subgap states correlates well with the background doping density distribution in the semiconductor, which increases towards the Ohmic Mo contact, suggesting that these two properties share the same physical origin.

  19. Influence of an anomalous dimension effect on thermal instability in amorphous-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Kuan-Hsien; Chou, Wu-Ching E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chang, Ting-Chang E-mail: wuchingchou@mail.nctu.edu.tw; Chen, Hua-Mao; Tai, Ya-Hsiang; Tsai, Ming-Yen; Hung, Pei-Hua; Chu, Ann-Kuo; Wu, Ming-Siou; Hung, Yi-Syuan; Hsieh, Tien-Yu; Yeh, Bo-Liang

    2014-10-21

    This paper investigates abnormal dimension-dependent thermal instability in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors. Device dimension should theoretically have no effects on threshold voltage, except for in short channel devices. Unlike short channel drain-induced source barrier lowering effect, threshold voltage increases with increasing drain voltage. Furthermore, for devices with either a relatively large channel width or a short channel length, the output drain current decreases instead of saturating with an increase in drain voltage. Moreover, the wider the channel and the shorter the channel length, the larger the threshold voltage and output on-state current degradation that is observed. Because of the surrounding oxide and other thermal insulating material and the low thermal conductivity of the IGZO layer, the self-heating effect will be pronounced in wider/shorter channel length devices and those with a larger operating drain bias. To further clarify the physical mechanism, fast I{sub D}-V{sub G} and modulated peak/base pulse time I{sub D}-V{sub D} measurements are utilized to demonstrate the self-heating induced anomalous dimension-dependent threshold voltage variation and on-state current degradation.

  20. Fabrication of amorphous InGaZnO thin-film transistor-driven flexible thermal and pressure sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ick-Joon; Jeong, Chan-Yong; Cho, In-Tak; Lee, Jong-Ho; Cho, Eou-Sik; Kwon, Sang Jik; Kim, Bosul; Cheong, Woo-Seok; Song, Sang-Hun; Kwon, Hyuck-In

    2012-10-01

    In this work, we present the results concerning the use of amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) as a driving transistor of the flexible thermal and pressure sensors which are applicable to artificial skin systems. Although the a-IGZO TFT has been attracting much attention as a driving transistor of the next-generation flat panel displays, no study has been performed about the application of this new device to the driving transistor of the flexible sensors yet. The proposed thermal sensor pixel is composed of the series-connected a-IGZO TFT and ZnO-based thermistor fabricated on a polished metal foil, and the ZnO-based thermistor is replaced by the pressure sensitive rubber in the pressure sensor pixel. In both sensor pixels, the a-IGZO TFT acts as the driving transistor and the temperature/pressure-dependent resistance of the ZnO-based thermistor/pressure-sensitive rubber mainly determines the magnitude of the output currents. The fabricated a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible thermal sensor shows around a seven times increase in the output current as the temperature increases from 20 °C to 100 °C, and the a-IGZO TFT-driven flexible pressure sensors also exhibit high sensitivity under various pressure environments.

  1. Water-Mediated Photochemical Treatments for Low-Temperature Passivation of Metal-Oxide Thin-Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jae Sang; Jo, Jeong-Wan; Kang, Jingu; Jeong, Chan-Yong; Jeong, Hu Young; Kim, Sung Kyu; Kim, Kwanpyo; Kwon, Hyuck-In; Kim, Jaekyun; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Kim, Myung-Gil; Park, Sung Kyu

    2016-04-27

    The low-temperature electrical passivation of an amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) thin-film transistor (TFT) is achieved by a deep ultraviolet (DUV) light irradiation-water treatment-DUV irradiation (DWD) method. The water treatment of the first DUV-annealed amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin film is likely to induce the preferred adsorption of water molecules at the oxygen vacancies and leads to subsequent hydroxide formation in the bulk a-IGZO films. Although the water treatment initially degraded the electrical performance of the a-IGZO TFTs, the second DUV irradiation on the water-treated devices may enable a more complete metal-oxygen-metal lattice formation while maintaining low oxygen vacancies in the oxide films. Overall, the stable and dense metal-oxygen-metal (M-O-M) network formation could be easily achieved at low temperatures (below 150 °C). The successful passivation of structural imperfections in the a-IGZO TFTs, such as hydroxyl group (OH-) and oxygen vacancies, mainly results in the enhanced electrical performances of the DWD-processed a-IGZO TFTs (on/off current ratio of 8.65 × 10(9), subthreshold slope of 0.16 V/decade, an average mobility of >6.94 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), and a bias stability of ΔVTH < 2.5 V), which show more than a 30% improvement over the simple DUV-treated a-IGZO TFTs. PMID:27035796

  2. The influence of RF power on the electrical properties of sputtered amorphous In—Ga—Zn—O thin films and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junfei, Shi; Chengyuan, Dong; Wenjun, Dai; Jie, Wu; Yuting, Chen; Runze, Zhan

    2013-08-01

    The influence of radio frequency (RF) power on the properties of magnetron sputtered amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin films and the related thin-film transistor (TFT) devices is investigated comprehensively. A series of a-IGZO thin films prepared with magnetron sputtering at various RF powers are examined. The results prove that the deposition rate sensitively depends on RF power. In addition, the carrier concentration increases from 0.91 × 1019 to 2.15 × 1019 cm-3 with the RF power rising from 40 to 80 W, which may account for the corresponding decrease in the resistivity of the a-IGZO thin films. No evident impacts of RF power are observed on the surface roughness, crystalline nature and stoichiometry of the a-IGZO samples. On the other hand, optical transmittance is apparently influenced by RF power where the extracted optical band-gap value increases from 3.48 to 3.56 eV with RF power varying from 40 to 80 W, as is supposed to result from the carrier-induced band-filling effect. The rise in RF power can also affect the performance of a-IGZO TFTs, in particular by increasing the field-effect mobility clearly, which is assumed to be due to the alteration of the extended states in a-IGZO thin films.

  3. Sub-0.5 V Highly Stable Aqueous Salt Gated Metal Oxide Electronics

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungjun; Lee, SeYeong; Kim, Chang-Hyun; Lee, Ilseop; Lee, Won-June; Kim, Sohee; Lee, Byung-Geun; Jang, Jae-Hyung; Yoon, Myung-Han

    2015-01-01

    Recently, growing interest in implantable bionics and biochemical sensors spurred the research for developing non-conventional electronics with excellent device characteristics at low operation voltages and prolonged device stability under physiological conditions. Herein, we report high-performance aqueous electrolyte-gated thin-film transistors using a sol-gel amorphous metal oxide semiconductor and aqueous electrolyte dielectrics based on small ionic salts. The proper selection of channel material (i.e., indium-gallium-zinc-oxide) and precautious passivation of non-channel areas enabled the development of simple but highly stable metal oxide transistors manifested by low operation voltages within 0.5 V, high transconductance of ~1.0 mS, large current on-off ratios over 107, and fast inverter responses up to several hundred hertz without device degradation even in physiologically-relevant ionic solutions. In conjunction with excellent transistor characteristics, investigation of the electrochemical nature of the metal oxide-electrolyte interface may contribute to the development of a viable bio-electronic platform directly interfacing with biological entities in vivo. PMID:26271456

  4. High Performance, Low Temperature Solution-Processed Barium and Strontium Doped Oxide Thin Film Transistors.

    PubMed

    Banger, Kulbinder K; Peterson, Rebecca L; Mori, Kiyotaka; Yamashita, Yoshihisa; Leedham, Timothy; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2014-01-28

    Amorphous mixed metal oxides are emerging as high performance semiconductors for thin film transistor (TFT) applications, with indium gallium zinc oxide, InGaZnO (IGZO), being one of the most widely studied and best performing systems. Here, we investigate alkaline earth (barium or strontium) doped InBa(Sr)ZnO as alternative, semiconducting channel layers and compare their performance of the electrical stress stability with IGZO. In films fabricated by solution-processing from metal alkoxide precursors and annealed to 450 C we achieve high field-effect electron mobility up to 26 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). We show that it is possible to solution-process these materials at low process temperature (225-200 C yielding mobilities up to 4.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)) and demonstrate a facile "ink-on-demand" process for these materials which utilizes the alcoholysis reaction of alkyl metal precursors to negate the need for complex synthesis and purification protocols. Electrical bias stress measurements which can serve as a figure of merit for performance stability for a TFT device reveal Sr- and Ba-doped semiconductors to exhibit enhanced electrical stability and reduced threshold voltage shift compared to IGZO irrespective of the process temperature and preparation method. This enhancement in stability can be attributed to the higher Gibbs energy of oxidation of barium and strontium compared to gallium. PMID:24511184

  5. High Performance, Low Temperature Solution-Processed Barium and Strontium Doped Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous mixed metal oxides are emerging as high performance semiconductors for thin film transistor (TFT) applications, with indium gallium zinc oxide, InGaZnO (IGZO), being one of the most widely studied and best performing systems. Here, we investigate alkaline earth (barium or strontium) doped InBa(Sr)ZnO as alternative, semiconducting channel layers and compare their performance of the electrical stress stability with IGZO. In films fabricated by solution-processing from metal alkoxide precursors and annealed to 450 °C we achieve high field-effect electron mobility up to 26 cm2 V–1 s–1. We show that it is possible to solution-process these materials at low process temperature (225–200 °C yielding mobilities up to 4.4 cm2 V–1 s–1) and demonstrate a facile “ink-on-demand” process for these materials which utilizes the alcoholysis reaction of alkyl metal precursors to negate the need for complex synthesis and purification protocols. Electrical bias stress measurements which can serve as a figure of merit for performance stability for a TFT device reveal Sr- and Ba-doped semiconductors to exhibit enhanced electrical stability and reduced threshold voltage shift compared to IGZO irrespective of the process temperature and preparation method. This enhancement in stability can be attributed to the higher Gibbs energy of oxidation of barium and strontium compared to gallium. PMID:24511184

  6. Spray-combustion synthesis: Efficient solution route to high-performance oxide transistors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xinge; Smith, Jeremy; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Guo, Peijun; Xia, Yu; Alvarez, Ana; Aghion, Stefano; Lin, Hui; Yu, Junsheng; Chang, Robert P. H.; Bedzyk, Michael J.; Ferragut, Rafael; Marks, Tobin J.; Facchetti, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Metal-oxide (MO) semiconductors have emerged as enabling materials for next generation thin-film electronics owing to their high carrier mobilities, even in the amorphous state, large-area uniformity, low cost, and optical transparency, which are applicable to flat-panel displays, flexible circuitry, and photovoltaic cells. Impressive progress in solution-processed MO electronics has been achieved using methodologies such as sol gel, deep-UV irradiation, preformed nanostructures, and combustion synthesis. Nevertheless, because of incomplete lattice condensation and film densification, high-quality solution-processed MO films having technologically relevant thicknesses achievable in a single step have yet to be shown. Here, we report a low-temperature, thickness-controlled coating process to create high-performance, solution-processed MO electronics: spray-combustion synthesis (SCS). We also report for the first time, to our knowledge, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) transistors having densification, nanoporosity, electron mobility, trap densities, bias stability, and film transport approaching those of sputtered films and compatible with conventional fabrication (FAB) operations. PMID:25733848

  7. Spray-combustion synthesis: efficient solution route to high-performance oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xinge; Smith, Jeremy; Zhou, Nanjia; Zeng, Li; Guo, Peijun; Xia, Yu; Alvarez, Ana; Aghion, Stefano; Lin, Hui; Yu, Junsheng; Chang, Robert P H; Bedzyk, Michael J; Ferragut, Rafael; Marks, Tobin J; Facchetti, Antonio

    2015-03-17

    Metal-oxide (MO) semiconductors have emerged as enabling materials for next generation thin-film electronics owing to their high carrier mobilities, even in the amorphous state, large-area uniformity, low cost, and optical transparency, which are applicable to flat-panel displays, flexible circuitry, and photovoltaic cells. Impressive progress in solution-processed MO electronics has been achieved using methodologies such as sol gel, deep-UV irradiation, preformed nanostructures, and combustion synthesis. Nevertheless, because of incomplete lattice condensation and film densification, high-quality solution-processed MO films having technologically relevant thicknesses achievable in a single step have yet to be shown. Here, we report a low-temperature, thickness-controlled coating process to create high-performance, solution-processed MO electronics: spray-combustion synthesis (SCS). We also report for the first time, to our knowledge, indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) transistors having densification, nanoporosity, electron mobility, trap densities, bias stability, and film transport approaching those of sputtered films and compatible with conventional fabrication (FAB) operations. PMID:25733848

  8. Rare-Earth Doped Wide Bandgap Oxide Semiconductor Materials and Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wellenius, Ian Patrick

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors composed of indium gallium zinc oxide are transparent to visible light and have higher electron mobilities than conventional amorphous semiconductors, such as amorphous silicon. The advantages of higher switching speed, lack of dangling bonds leading to good electronic stability and visible spectrum transparency of amorphous oxide semiconductor devices are expected to lead to numerous applications, including transparent displays and flexible electronics. In this thesis the integration of transparent thin film transistors with transparent electroluminescent pixels was investigated. Compared with display technologies employing organic semiconductors that degrade with exposure to moisture and ultraviolet light, the all-oxide structure of this device is expected to be environmentally robust. This is believed to be the first demonstration of an integrated active matrix pixel using amorphous oxide semiconductor materials as both the light emitter and addressing circuit elements. The transparent active matrix pixel was designed, fabricated and characterized, that integrated amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) with a europium-doped IGZO thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) device. The integrated circuits were fabricated using room temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of IGZO and ITO thin films onto substrates of Corning 7059 glass, sputter coated with an ITO back contact and subsequent atomic layer deposited ATO high-k dielectric. A second ITO layer is deposited by PLD as a contact and interconnect layer. All deposition steps were carried out at room temperature. In addition to the integration task, an important part of this thesis concerns the investigation of europium as a dopant in different oxide hosts including gallium oxide, gadolinium oxide, and amorphous IGZO. Amorphous IGZO was chosen for the integration task since it could be deposited at room temperature, however it was found that the emission intensity of Eu:IGZO thin films was strongly dependent on the oxygen pressure during deposition. It was determined that Eu3+ emission only occurs when the films are insulating, the result of increased oxygen pressure during deposition. Relatively low concentrations of Eu3+ of 1 mole percent were used for this study, with the intensity of these first generation pixels at 6 cd/m 2. Both gadolinium and gallium oxide films were investigated at higher substrate temperatures with a range of europium dopant concentrations. It was found that the both cubic and monoclinic phases of gadolinium oxide could be deposited, with the phase determined by deposition oxygen pressure. The film structure was analyzed by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy and optical spectra were obtained using time resolved photoluminescence (performed by a collaborator). These results were found to be in agreement with Stark-split energy levels calculated by another collaborator. Using 2.5 mole percent europium-doped gallium oxide as a host, bright thin film electroluminescent devices with intensities of 221 cd/m2 observed for a TFEL device excited by a symmetric +/-100 V max square pulse train at 1 kHz. This compares favorably with other red TFEL devices in the literature. Comparison with cathodoluminescence and photoluminescence data suggests that these performance metrics can be improved since the optimal concentration of europium by those experimental techniques was found to be near 10 mole percent. Time resolved photoluminescence revealed that radiative relaxation of the Eu3+ dopant could be modeled by two exponential decay components. Comparison of the intensity versus frequency of the electroluminescent data with time resolved photoluminescence data suggests that the faster component dominates the emission of the TFEL device.

  9. Toward active-matrix lab-on-a-chip: programmable electrofluidic control enabled by arrayed oxide thin film transistors.

    PubMed

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Noh, Jiyong; Kreit, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason; Rack, Philip D

    2012-01-21

    Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m×n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 × 5 electrode array connected to a 2 × 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 μm and mobility of 6.3 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform. PMID:22134753

  10. Toward Active-Matrix Lab-On-A-Chip: Programmable Electrofluidic control Enaled by Arrayed Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Noh, Joo Hyon; Noh, Jiyong; Kreit, Eric; Heikenfeld, Jason; Rack, Philip D

    2012-01-01

    Agile micro- and nano-fluidic control is critical to numerous life science and chemical science synthesis as well as kinetic and thermodynamic studies. To this end, we have demonstrated the use of thin film transistor arrays as an active matrix addressing method to control an electrofluidic array. Because the active matrix method minimizes the number of control lines necessary (m + n lines for the m x n element array), the active matrix addressing method integrated with an electrofluidic platform can be a significant breakthrough for complex electrofluidic arrays (increased size or resolution) with enhanced function, agility and programmability. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductor active layer is used because of its high mobility of 1-15 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, low-temperature processing and transparency for potential spectroscopy and imaging. Several electrofluidic functionalities are demonstrated using a simple 2 x 5 electrode array connected to a 2 x 5 IGZO thin film transistor array with the semiconductor channel width of 50 {mu}m and mobility of 6.3 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}. Additionally, using the TFT device characteristics, active matrix addressing schemes are discussed as the geometry of the electrode array can be tailored to act as a storage capacitor element. Finally, requisite material and device parameters are discussed in context with a VGA scale active matrix addressed electrofluidic platform.

  11. Facile Routes To Improve Performance of Solution-Processed Amorphous Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors by Water Vapor Annealing.

    PubMed

    Park, Won-Tae; Son, Inyoung; Park, Hyun-Woo; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Xu, Yong; Lee, Taegweon; Noh, Yong-Young

    2015-06-24

    Here, we report on a simple and high-rate oxidization method for producing solution-based compound mixtures of indium zinc oxide (IZO) and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) metal-oxide semiconductors (MOS) for thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. One of the issues for solution-based MOS fabrication is how to sufficiently oxidize the precursor in order to achieve high performance. As the oxidation rate of solution processing is lower than vacuum-based deposition such as sputtering, devices using solution-processed MOS exhibit relatively poorer performance. Therefore, we propose a method to prepare the metal-oxide precursor upon exposure to saturated water vapor in a closed volume for increasing the oxidization efficiency without requiring additional oxidizing agent. We found that the hydroxide rate of the MOS film exposed to water vapor is lower than when unexposed (≤18%). Hence, we successfully fabricated oxide TFTs with high electron mobility (27.9 cm(2)/V·s) and established a rapid process (annealing at 400 °C for 5 min) that is much shorter than the conventional as-deposited long-duration annealing (at 400 °C for 1 h) whose corresponding mobility is even lower (19.2 cm(2)/V·s). PMID:26043206

  12. David Adler Lectureship Award in the Field of Materials Physics Talk: Novel Nitride and Oxide Electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearton, Stephen

    2011-03-01

    Recent progress in development of GaN-based transistors for gas and bio-sensing applications and amorphous IGZO layers for use thin film transistors (TFTs)on flexible substrates, including paper,will be presented. For the detection of gases such as hydrogen, the gateless GaN transistors are typically coated with a catalyst metal such as Pd or Pt to increase the detection sensitivity at room temperature. Functionalizing the surface with oxides, polymers and nitrides is also useful in enhancing the detection sensitivity for gases and ionic solutions.The use of enzymes or adsorbed antibody layers on the semiconductor surface leads to highly specific detection of a broad range of antigens of interest in the medical and security fields. We give examples of recent work showing sensitive detection of glucose, lactic acid, prostate cancer and breast cancer markers and the integration of the sensors with wireless data transmission systems to achieve robust, portable sensors. The amorphous transparent conducting oxide InZnGaO4 (IGZO) is attracting attention because of its high electron mobility (10-50 cm2.V-1.sec-1), high transparency in the visible region of the spectrum and its ability to be deposited with a wide range of conductivities.This raises the possibility of making low-cost electronics on a very wide range of arbitrary surfaces, including paper and plastics. N-type oxides such as zinc oxide, zinc tin oxide, indium gallium oxide, and indium gallium zinc tin oxide (IGZO) exhibit surprisingly high carrier mobilities even for amorphous films deposited at 300K. This has been explained by the fact that the conduction in these materials is predominantly through non-directional s orbitals which are less affected by disorder than the directional sp3 orbitals which control electron transport in Si. Examples of progress and discussion of remaining obstacles to use of IGZO TFTs will be presented Work performed in collaboration with Fan Ren.

  13. Glucose Sensing Using Functionalized Amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Du, Xiaosong; Li, Yajuan; Motley, Joshua R; Stickle, William F; Herman, Gregory S

    2016-03-30

    Recent advances in glucose sensing have focused on the integration of sensors into contact lenses to allow noninvasive continuous glucose monitoring. Current technologies focus primarily on enzyme-based electrochemical sensing which requires multiple nontransparent electrodes to be integrated. Herein, we leverage amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) field-effect transistors (FETs), which have found use in a wide range of display applications and can be made fully transparent. Bottom-gated IGZO-FETs can have significant changes in electrical characteristics when the back-channel is exposed to different environments. We have functionalized the back-channel of IGZO-FETs with aminosilane groups that are cross-linked to glucose oxidase and have demonstrated that these devices have high sensitivity to changes in glucose concentrations. Glucose sensing occurs through the decrease in pH during glucose oxidation, which modulates the positive charge of the aminosilane groups attached to the IGZO surface. The change in charge affects the number of acceptor-like surface states which can deplete electron density in the n-type IGZO semiconductor. Increasing glucose concentrations leads to an increase in acceptor states and a decrease in drain-source conductance due to a positive shift in the turn-on voltage. The functionalized IGZO-FET devices are effective in minimizing detection of interfering compounds including acetaminophen and ascorbic acid. These studies suggest that IGZO FETs can be effective for monitoring glucose concentrations in a variety of environments, including those where fully transparent sensing elements may be of interest. PMID:26953727

  14. Facile encapsulation of oxide based thin film transistors by atomic layer deposition based on ozone.

    PubMed

    Fakhri, Morteza; Babin, Nikolai; Behrendt, Andreas; Jakob, Timo; Görrn, Patrick; Riedl, Thomas

    2013-05-28

    A simplified encapsulation strategy for metal-oxide based TFTs, using ozone instead of water as an oxygen source in a low-temperature ALD process is demonstrated. Thereby, the threshold voltage remains unaltered and the hysteresis is permanently reduced. Costly energy- and time-consuming post-treatment processes can be avoided. This concept is widely applicable to various encapsulation materials (e.g., Al2 O3 , TiO2 , ZrO2 ) and metal-oxide channel semiconductors (e.g., zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO), indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO)). PMID:23592395

  15. The effect of annealing temperature on the stability of gallium tin zinc oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Ngoc; McCall, Briana; Alston, Robert; Collis, Ward; Iyer, Shanthi

    2015-10-01

    With the growing need for large area display technology and the push for a faster and cheaper alternative to the current amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) as the active channel layer for pixel-driven thin film transistors (TFTs) display applications, gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) has shown to be a promising candidate due to the similar electronic configuration of Sn4+ and In3+. In this work TFTs of GSZO sputtered films with only a few atomic % of Ga and Sn have been fabricated. A systematic and detailed comparison has been made of the properties of the GSZO films annealed at two temperatures: 140 °C and 450 °C. The electrical and optical stabilities of the respective devices have been studied to gain more insight into the degradation mechanism and are correlated with the initial TFT performance prior to the application of stress. Post deposition annealing at 450 °C of the films in air was found to lead to a higher atomic concentration of Sn4+ in these films and a superior quality of the film, as attested by the higher film density and less surface and interface roughness in comparison to the lower annealed temperature device. These result in significantly reduced shallow and deep interface traps with improved performance of the device exhibiting VON of -3.5 V, ION/IOFF of 108, field-effect mobility (μFE) of 4.46 cm2 V-1s-1, and sub-threshold swing of 0.38 V dec-1. The device is stable under both electrical and optical bias for wavelengths of 550 nm and above. Thus, this work demonstrates GSZO-based TFTs as a promising viable option to the IGZO TFTs by further tailoring the film composition and relevant processing temperatures.

  16. Flexible Electronics Powered by Mixed Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marrs, Michael

    A low temperature amorphous oxide thin film transistor (TFT) and amorphous silicon PIN diode backplane technology for large area flexible digital x-ray detectors has been developed to create 7.9-in. diagonal backplanes. The critical steps in the evolution of the backplane process include the qualification and optimization of the low temperature (200 °C) metal oxide TFT and a-Si PIN photodiode process, the stability of the devices under forward and reverse bias stress, the transfer of the process to flexible plastic substrates, and the fabrication and assembly of the flexible detectors. Mixed oxide semiconductor TFTs on flexible plastic substrates suffer from performance and stability issues related to the maximum processing temperature limitation of the polymer. A novel device architecture based upon a dual active layer improves both the performance and stability. Devices are directly fabricated below 200 ºC on a polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) substrate using mixed metal oxides of either zinc indium oxide (ZIO) or indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) as the active semiconductor. The dual active layer architecture allows for adjustment to the saturation mobility and threshold voltage stability without the requirement of high temperature annealing, which is not compatible with flexible plastic substrates like PEN. The device performance and stability is strongly dependent upon the composition of the mixed metal oxide; this dependency provides a simple route to improving the threshold voltage stability and drive performance. By switching from a single to a dual active layer, the saturation mobility increases from 1.2 cm2/V-s to 18.0 cm2/V-s, while the rate of the threshold voltage shift decreases by an order of magnitude. This approach could assist in enabling the production of devices on flexible substrates using amorphous oxide semiconductors. Low temperature (200°C) processed amorphous silicon photodiodes were developed successfully by balancing the tradeoffs between low temperature and low stress (less than -70 MPa compressive) and device performance. Devices with a dark current of less than 1.0 pA/mm2 and a quantum efficiency of 68% have been demonstrated. Alternative processing techniques, such as pixelating the PIN diode and using organic photodiodes have also been explored for applications where extreme flexibility is desired.

  17. Multi-oxide active layer deposition using Applied Materials Pivot array coater for high-mobility metal oxide TFT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyun Chan; Scheer, Evelyn; Witting, Karin; Hanika, Markus; Bender, Marcus; Hsu, Hao Chien; Yim, Dong Kil

    2015-11-01

    By controlling a thin indium tin oxide (ITO), indium zinc oxide interface layer between gate insulator and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), the thin-film transistor (TFT) performance can reach higher mobility as conventional IGZO as well as superior stability. For large-area display application, Applied Materials static PVD array coater (Applied Materials GmbH & Co. KG, Alzenau, Germany) using rotary targets has been developed to enable uniform thin layer deposition in display industry. Unique magnet motion parameter optimization in Pivot sputtering coater is shown to provide very uniform thin ITO layer to reach TFT performance with high mobility, not only on small scale, but also on Gen8.5 (2500 × 2200 mm glass size) production system.

  18. Metal Oxide Thin Film Transistors on Paper Substrate: Fabrication, Characterization, and Printing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Nack-Bong

    Flexible electronics is an emerging next-generation technology that offers many advantages such as light weight, durability, comfort, and flexibility. These unique features enable many new applications such as flexible display, flexible sensors, conformable electronics, and so forth. For decades, a variety of flexible substrates have been demonstrated for the application of flexible electronics. Most of them are plastic films and metal foils so far. For the fundamental device of flexible circuits, thin film transistors (TFTs) using poly silicon, amorphous silicon, metal oxide and organic semiconductor have been successfully demonstrated. Depending on application, low-cost and disposable flexible electronics will be required for convenience. Therefore it is important to study inexpensive substrates and to explore simple processes such as printing technology. In this thesis, paper is introduced as a new possible substrate for flexible electronics due to its low-cost and renewable property, and amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs are realized as the promising device on the paper substrate. The fabrication process and characterization of a-IGZO TFT on the paper substrate are discussed. a-IGZO TFTs using a polymer gate dielectric on the paper substrate demonstrate excellent performances with field effect mobility of ˜20 cm2 V-1 s-1, on/off current ratio of ˜106, and low leakage current, which show the enormous potential for flexible electronics application. In order to complement the n-channel a-IGZO TFTs and then enable complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuit architectures, cuprous oxide is studied as a candidate material of p-channel oxide TFTs. In this thesis, a printing process is investigated as an alternative method for the fabrication of low-cost and disposable electronics. Among several printing methods, a modified offset roll printing that prints high resolution patterns is presented. A new method to fabricate a high resolution printing plate is investigated and the most favorable condition to transfer ink from a blanket to a cliche is studied. Consequently, a high resolution cliche is demonstrated and the printed patterns of 10mum width and 6mum line spacing are presented. In addition, the top gate a-IGZO TFTs with channel width/length of 12/6mum is successfully demonstrated by printing etch-resists. This work validates the compatibility of a-IGZO TFT on paper substrate for the disposable microelectronics application and presents the potential of low-cost and high resolution printing technology.

  19. The effect of nitrous oxide plasma treatment on the bias temperature stress of metal oxide thin film transistors with high mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Wei-Hao; Fang, Shao-Wei; Lu, Chia-Yang; Chuang, Hung-Yang; Chang, Fan-Wei; Lin, Guan-Yu; Chen, Tsu-Wei; Ma, Kang-Hung; Chen, Hong-Syu; Chen, Teng-Ke; Chen, Yu-Hung; Lee, Jen-Yu; Shih, Tsung-Hsiang; Ting, Hung-Che; Chen, Chia-Yu; Lin, Yu-Hsin; Hong, Hong-Jye

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the effects of nitrous oxide plasma treatment on the negative bias temperature stress of indium tin zinc oxide (ITZO) and indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) were reported. ITZO TFTs were more suitable for the back channel etched-type device structure because they could withstand both Al- and Cu-acid damage. The initial threshold voltage range could be controlled to within 1 V. The root cause of poor negative bias temperature stress for ITZO was likely due to a higher mobility (∼3.3 times) and more carbon related contamination bonds (∼5.9 times) relative to IGZO. Finally, 65″ active-matrix organic light-emitting diode televisions using the ITZO and IGZO TFTs were fabricated.

  20. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mami N; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-01-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices. PMID:26677773

  1. High-density carrier-accumulated and electrically stable oxide thin-film transistors from ion-gel gate dielectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Mami N.; Ishikawa, Yasuaki; Miwa, Kazumoto; Okada, Hiromi; Uraoka, Yukiharu; Ono, Shimpei

    2015-12-01

    The use of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) has paved the way for high-resolution uniform displays or integrated circuits with transparent and flexible devices. However, achieving highly reliable devices that use IGZO for low-temperature processes remains a technological challenge. We propose the use of IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an ionic-liquid gate dielectric in order to achieve high-density carrier-accumulated IGZO TFTs with high reliability, and we discuss a distinctive mechanism for the degradation of this organic-inorganic hybrid device under long-term electrical stress. Our results demonstrated that an ionic liquid or gel gate dielectric provides highly reliable and low-voltage operation with IGZO TFTs. Furthermore, high-density carrier accumulation helps improve the TFT characteristics and reliability, and it is highly relevant to the electronic phase control of oxide materials and the degradation mechanism for organic-inorganic hybrid devices.

  2. Correlation between crystallinity and oxygen vacancy formation in In-Ga-Zn oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Tomoki; Nakashima, Motoki; Kikuchi, Erumu; Ishihara, Noritaka; Tsubuku, Masashi; Dairiki, Koji; Yamazaki, Shunpei

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) crystallinity on oxygen vacancies that play an important role in the characteristics of IGZO-based devices. Optical and electrical measurements revealed that deep defect levels due to oxygen vacancies are largely eliminated in c-axis-aligned crystal IGZO (CAAC-IGZO), which has increased crystallinity without clear grain boundaries. In this study, the correlation between crystallinity and oxygen vacancy formation has been examined by first-principles calculations to investigate the effect of oxygen vacancies in IGZO. Furthermore, the likelihood of oxygen vacancy formation at an edge portion of single-crystal IGZO has been verified by observations of oxygen atoms at the edge region of the IGZO film by annular bright-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ABF-STEM). Experimental and calculation results show that the high crystallinity of IGZO is important for the inhibition of oxygen vacancies.

  3. Origin of major donor states in In–Ga–Zn oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Motoki; Oota, Masashi; Ishihara, Noritaka; Nonaka, Yusuke; Hirohashi, Takuya; Takahashi, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Shunpei; Obonai, Toshimitsu; Hosaka, Yasuharu; Koezuka, Junichi

    2014-12-07

    To clarify the origin of the major donor states in indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO), we report measurement results and an analysis of several physical properties of IGZO thin films. Specifically, the concentration of H atoms and O vacancies (V{sub O}), carrier concentration, and conductivity are investigated by hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, thermal desorption spectroscopy, and Hall effect measurements. The results of these experiments suggest that the origin of major donor states is H occupancy of V{sub O} sites. Furthermore, we use first-principles calculations to investigate the influence of the coexistence of V{sub O} and H in crystalline InGaO{sub 3}(ZnO){sub m} (m = 1). The results indicate that when H is trapped in V{sub O}, a stable complex is created that serves as a shallow-level donor.

  4. Light-induced hysteresis and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Jo, Jeong-Wan; Park, Sung Kyu E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Hoon E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr

    2014-07-28

    In this report, photo-induced hysteresis, threshold voltage (V{sub T}) shift, and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. It was observed that a white light illumination caused negative V{sub T} shift along with creation of clockwise hysteresis in electrical characteristics which can be attributed to photo-generated doubly ionized oxygen vacancies at the semiconductor/gate dielectric interface. More importantly, the photochemically activated IGZO TFTs showed much reduced overall V{sub T} shift compared to thermally annealed TFTs. Reduced number of donor-like interface states creation under light illumination and more facile neutralization of ionized oxygen vacancies by electron capture under positive gate potential are claimed to be the origin of the less V{sub T} shift in photochemically activated TFTs.

  5. Enthalpy of crystallization of amorphous yttrium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Reznitskii, L.A.

    1988-02-01

    Measurements have been made on the enthalpies of crystallization of amorphous Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Y/sub 3/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ from amorphous Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ and Y/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as determined by the DSC method. The heat of crystallization for Y/sub 2/O/sub 3am/ does not make itself felt on the heating thermogram, in contrast to that for Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, evidently because it is spread out over a wide temperature range, so it is difficult to measure. One can combine thermochemical equations to calculate the enthalpy of crystallization for amorphous yttrium oxide as ..delta..H = -24.9 kJ/mole.

  6. The Structure and Properties of Amorphous Indium Oxide

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A series of In2O3 thin films, ranging from X-ray diffraction amorphous to highly crystalline, were grown on amorphous silica substrates using pulsed laser deposition by varying the film growth temperature. The amorphous-to-crystalline transition and the structure of amorphous In2O3 were investigated by grazing angle X-ray diffraction (GIXRD), Hall transport measurement, high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electron diffraction, extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) liquid-quench simulation. On the basis of excellent agreement between the EXAFS and MD results, a model of the amorphous oxide structure as a network of InOx polyhedra was constructed. Mechanisms for the transport properties observed in the crystalline, amorphous-to-crystalline, and amorphous deposition regions are presented, highlighting a unique structure–property relationship. PMID:25678743

  7. Structure and Properties of Amorphous Transparent Conducting Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedeva, Julia

    Driven by technological appeal, the research area of amorphous oxide semiconductors has grown tremendously since the first demonstration of the unique properties of amorphous indium oxide more than a decade ago. Today, amorphous oxides, such as a-ITO, a-IZO, a-IGZO, or a-ZITO, exhibit the optical, electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties that are comparable or even superior to those possessed by their crystalline counterparts, pushing the latter out of the market. Large-area uniformity, low-cost low-temperature deposition, high carrier mobility, optical transparency, and mechanical flexibility make these materials appealing for next-generation thin-film electronics. Yet, the structural variations associated with crystalline-to-amorphous transition as well as their role in carrier generation and transport properties of these oxides are far from being understood. Although amorphous oxides lack grain boundaries, factors like (i) size and distribution of nanocrystalline inclusions; (ii) spatial distribution and clustering of incorporated cations in multicomponent oxides; (iii) formation of trap defects; and (iv) piezoelectric effects associated with internal strains, will contribute to electron scattering. In this work, ab-initio molecular dynamics (MD) and accurate density-functional approaches are employed to understand how the properties of amorphous ternary and quaternary oxides depend on quench rates, cation compositions, and oxygen stoichiometries. The MD results, combined with thorough experimental characterization, reveal that interplay between the local and long-range structural preferences of the constituent oxides gives rise to a complex composition-dependent structural behavior in the amorphous oxides. The proposed network models of metal-oxygen polyhedra help explain the observed intriguing electrical and optical properties in In-based oxides and suggest ways to broaden the phase space of amorphous oxide semiconductors with tunable properties. The work is supported by NSF-MRSEC program.

  8. The effects of buffer layers on the performance and stability of flexible InGaZnO thin film transistors on polyimide substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ok, Kyung-Chul; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Kim, H.; Soo Shin, Hyun; Bae, Jonguk; Park, Jin-Seong

    2014-02-01

    We demonstrated the fabrication of flexible amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) on high-temperature polyimide (PI) substrates, which were debonded from the carrier glass after TFT fabrication. The application of appropriate buffer layers on the PI substrates affected the TFT performance and stability. The adoption of the SiNx/AlOx buffer layers as water and hydrogen diffusion barriers significantly improved the device performance and stability against the thermal annealing and negative bias stress, compared to single SiNx or SiOx buffer layers. The substrates could be bent down to a radius of curvature of 15 mm and the devices remained normally functional.

  9. Reduced graphene oxide/InGaZn mixed oxide nanocomposite photocatalysts for hydrogen production.

    PubMed

    Martha, Satyabadi; Padhi, Deepak Ku; Parida, Kulamani

    2014-02-01

    A series of reduced graphene oxide and indium-gallium-zinc mixed oxide (RGO/IGZ) nanocomposites were successfully synthesised by a simple one-step hydrothermal method. The as-synthesised nanocomposites were characterised by crystallographic, microscopic, and spectroscopic methods to explore the robust photocatalytic activity of the prepared materials. XRD patterns confirmed the formation of highly pure, single-phase, hexagonal In2 Ga2 ZnO7 with no impurity-related peaks. All the photocatalysts absorbed visible light as observed from the diffuse reflectance UV/Vis spectra. The electron-hole recombination is effectively minimised by the formation of an RGO/metal oxide nanocomposite, which was successfully derived from a photoluminescence (PL) study and photoelectrochemical measurements. The decoration of IGZ nanocrystals onto reduced graphene sheets leads to significant quenching of its luminescent intensity, dramatically improved photocurrent generation (33 times more than neat IGZ) and significantly enhanced photostability. The high photocatalytic activity for H2 production is explained by the strong interaction between the IGZ nanocrystals with RGO sheets, low PL intensity, high photocurrent and large surface area. PMID:24127386

  10. Unveiling the complex electronic structure of amorphous metal oxides

    PubMed Central

    Århammar, C.; Pietzsch, Annette; Bock, Nicolas; Holmström, Erik; Araujo, C. Moyses; Gråsjö, Johan; Zhao, Shuxi; Green, Sara; Peery, T.; Hennies, Franz; Amerioun, Shahrad; Föhlisch, Alexander; Schlappa, Justine; Schmitt, Thorsten; Strocov, Vladimir N.; Niklasson, Gunnar A.; Wallace, Duane C.; Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Johansson, Börje; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous materials represent a large and important emerging area of material’s science. Amorphous oxides are key technological oxides in applications such as a gate dielectric in Complementary metal-oxide semiconductor devices and in Silicon-Oxide-Nitride-Oxide-Silicon and TANOS (TaN-Al2O3-Si3N4-SiO2-Silicon) flash memories. These technologies are required for the high packing density of today’s integrated circuits. Therefore the investigation of defect states in these structures is crucial. In this work we present X-ray synchrotron measurements, with an energy resolution which is about 5–10 times higher than is attainable with standard spectrometers, of amorphous alumina. We demonstrate that our experimental results are in agreement with calculated spectra of amorphous alumina which we have generated by stochastic quenching. This first principles method, which we have recently developed, is found to be superior to molecular dynamics in simulating the rapid gas to solid transition that takes place as this material is deposited for thin film applications. We detect and analyze in detail states in the band gap that originate from oxygen pairs. Similar states were previously found in amorphous alumina by other spectroscopic methods and were assigned to oxygen vacancies claimed to act mutually as electron and hole traps. The oxygen pairs which we probe in this work act as hole traps only and will influence the information retention in electronic devices. In amorphous silica oxygen pairs have already been found, thus they may be a feature which is characteristic also of other amorphous metal oxides.

  11. Amorphous copper tungsten oxide with tunable band gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Le; Shet, Sudhakar; Tang Houwen; Wang Heli; Yan Yanfa; Turner, John; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; Ahn, Kwang-soon

    2010-08-15

    We report on the synthesis of amorphous copper tungsten oxide thin films with tunable band gaps. The thin films are synthesized by the magnetron cosputtering method. We find that due to the amorphous nature, the Cu-to-W ratio in the films can be varied without the limit of the solubility (or phase separation) under appropriate conditions. As a result, the band gap and conductivity type of the films can be tuned by controlling the film composition. Unfortunately, the amorphous copper tungsten oxides are not stable in aqueous solution and are not suitable for the application of photoelectrochemical splitting of water. Nonetheless, it provides an alternative approach to search for transition metal oxides with tunable band gaps.

  12. Hole conduction pathways in transparent amorphous tin oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahila, Matthew; Lebens-Higgins, Zachary; Quackenbush, Nicholas; Piper, Louis; Butler, Keith; Hendon, Christopher; Walsh, Aron; Watson, Graeme

    P-type transparent amorphous oxide semiconductors (TAOS) have yet to be sufficiently demonstrated or commercialized, severely limiting the possible device architecture of transparent and flexible oxide electronics. The lack of p-type amorphous oxide candidates mainly originates from the directional oxygen 2 p character of their topmost valence states. Previous attempts to create p-type oxides have involved hybridization of the O 2 p with metal orbitals, such as with CuAlO2 and its Cu 3 d - O 2 p hybridization. However, the highly directional nature of the utilized orbitals means that structural disorder inhibits hybridization and severely disrupts hole-conduction pathways. Crystalline stannous oxide (SnO) and other lone-pair active post-transition metal oxides can have reduced localization at the valence band edge due to complex hybridization between the O 2 p, metal p, and spherical metal s-orbitals. I will discuss our investigation of structural disorder in SnO. Using a combination of synchrotron spectroscopy, and atomistic calculations, our investigation elucidates the important interplay between atomistic and electronic structure in establishing continuous hole conduction pathways at the valence band edge of transparent amorphous oxides.

  13. Amorphous tin-cadmium oxide films and the production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xiaonan; Gessert, Timothy A

    2013-10-29

    A tin-cadmium oxide film having an amorphous structure and a ratio of tin atoms to cadmium atoms of between 1:1 and 3:1. The tin-cadmium oxide film may have an optical band gap of between 2.7 eV and 3.35 eV. The film may also have a charge carrier concentration of between 1.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3 and 2.times.10.sup.20 cm.sup.-3. The tin cadmium oxide film may also exhibit a Hall mobility of between 40 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1 and 60 cm.sup.2V.sup.-1 s.sup.-1. Also disclosed is a method of producing an amorphous tin-cadmium oxide film as described and devices using same.

  14. Tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis from amorphous-like tungsten films.

    PubMed

    Seelaboyina, Raghunandan

    2016-03-18

    A synthesis technique which can lead to direct integration of tungsten oxide nanowires onto silicon chips is essential for preparing various devices. The conversion of amorphous tungsten films deposited on silicon chips by pulsed layer deposition to nanowires by annealing is an apt method in that direction. This perspective discusses the ingenious features of the technique reported by Dellasega et al on the various aspects of tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis. PMID:26871521

  15. Tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis from amorphous-like tungsten films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seelaboyina, Raghunandan

    2016-03-01

    A synthesis technique which can lead to direct integration of tungsten oxide nanowires onto silicon chips is essential for preparing various devices. The conversion of amorphous tungsten films deposited on silicon chips by pulsed layer deposition to nanowires by annealing is an apt method in that direction. This perspective discusses the ingenious features of the technique reported by Dellasega et al on the various aspects of tungsten oxide nanowire synthesis.

  16. Photochemical route for accessing amorphous metal oxide materials for water oxidation catalysis.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rodney D L; Prévot, Mathieu S; Fagan, Randal D; Zhang, Zhipan; Sedach, Pavel A; Siu, Man Kit Jack; Trudel, Simon; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2013-04-01

    Large-scale electrolysis of water for hydrogen generation requires better catalysts to lower the kinetic barriers associated with the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). Although most OER catalysts are based on crystalline mixed-metal oxides, high activities can also be achieved with amorphous phases. Methods for producing amorphous materials, however, are not typically amenable to mixed-metal compositions. We demonstrate that a low-temperature process, photochemical metal-organic deposition, can produce amorphous (mixed) metal oxide films for OER catalysis. The films contain a homogeneous distribution of metals with compositions that can be accurately controlled. The catalytic properties of amorphous iron oxide prepared with this technique are superior to those of hematite, whereas the catalytic properties of a-Fe(100-y-z)Co(y)Ni(z)O(x) are comparable to those of noble metal oxide catalysts currently used in commercial electrolyzers. PMID:23539180

  17. Natural realgar and amorphous AsS oxidation kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lengke, Maggy F.; Tempel, Regina N.

    2003-03-01

    The oxidation rates of natural realgar and amorphous synthetic AsS by dissolved oxygen were evaluated using mixed flow reactors at pH 7.2 to 8.8 and dissolved oxygen contents of 5.9 to 16.5 ppm over a temperature range of 25 to 40°C. The ratios of As/S are stoichiometric for all amorphous AsS oxidation experiments except for two experiments conducted at pH ˜8.8. In these experiments, stoichiometric ratios of As/S were only observed in the early stages of AsS (am) oxidation whereas lower As/S ratios were observed during steady state. For realgar oxidation experiments, the As/S ratio is less than the stoichiometric ratio of realgar, ranging between 0.61 and 0.71. This nonstoichiometric release of As and S to solution indicates that realgar oxidation is more selective for S after the rates of oxidation become constant. All measured oxidation rates at 25°C can be described within experimental uncertainties as follows: Table 1

  18. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on amorphous-like tungsten films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellasega, D.; Pietralunga, S. M.; Pezzoli, A.; Russo, V.; Nasi, L.; Conti, C.; Vahid, M. J.; Tagliaferri, A.; Passoni, M.

    2015-09-01

    Tungsten oxide nanowires have been synthesized by vacuum annealing in the range 500-710 °C from amorphous-like tungsten films, deposited on a Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the presence of a He background pressure. The oxygen required for the nanowires formation is already adsorbed in the W matrix before annealing, its amount depending on deposition parameters. Nanowire crystalline phase and stoichiometry depend on annealing temperature, ranging from W18O49-Magneli phase to monoclinic WO3. Sufficiently long annealing induces the formation of micrometer-long nanowires, up to 3.6 μm with an aspect ratio up to 90. Oxide nanowire growth appears to be triggered by the crystallization of the underlying amorphous W film, promoting their synthesis at low temperatures.

  19. Tungsten oxide nanowires grown on amorphous-like tungsten films.

    PubMed

    Dellasega, D; Pietralunga, S M; Pezzoli, A; Russo, V; Nasi, L; Conti, C; Vahid, M J; Tagliaferri, A; Passoni, M

    2015-09-11

    Tungsten oxide nanowires have been synthesized by vacuum annealing in the range 500-710 °C from amorphous-like tungsten films, deposited on a Si(100) substrate by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the presence of a He background pressure. The oxygen required for the nanowires formation is already adsorbed in the W matrix before annealing, its amount depending on deposition parameters. Nanowire crystalline phase and stoichiometry depend on annealing temperature, ranging from W18O49-Magneli phase to monoclinic WO3. Sufficiently long annealing induces the formation of micrometer-long nanowires, up to 3.6 μm with an aspect ratio up to 90. Oxide nanowire growth appears to be triggered by the crystallization of the underlying amorphous W film, promoting their synthesis at low temperatures. PMID:26292084

  20. Highly Transparent, Visible-Light Photodetector Based on Oxide Semiconductors and Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Shin, Seung Won; Lee, Kwang-Ho; Park, Jin-Seong; Kang, Seong Jun

    2015-09-01

    Highly transparent phototransistors that can detect visible light have been fabricated by combining indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) and quantum dots (QDs). A wide-band-gap IGZO film was used as a transparent semiconducting channel, while small-band-gap QDs were adopted to absorb and convert visible light to an electrical signal. Typical IGZO thin-film transistors (TFTs) did not show a photocurrent with illumination of visible light. However, IGZO TFTs decorated with QDs showed enhanced photocurrent upon exposure to visible light. The device showed a responsivity of 1.35×10(4) A/W and an external quantum efficiency of 2.59×10(4) under illumination by a 635 nm laser. The origin of the increased photocurrent in the visible light was the small band gap of the QDs combined with the transparent IGZO films. Therefore, transparent phototransistors based on IGZO and QDs were fabricated and characterized in detail. The result is relevant for the development of highly transparent photodetectors that can detect visible light. PMID:26293387

  1. Ambient atmosphere-processable, printable Cu electrodes for flexible device applications: structural welding on a millisecond timescale of surface oxide-free Cu nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sang-Jin; Jo, Yejin; Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Sun Sook; Kang, Young Hun; Jeon, Hye-Ji; Cho, Song Yun; Park, Jin-Seong; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin; Jeong, Sunho

    2015-03-01

    Recently, various functional devices based on printing technologies have been of paramount interest, owing to their characteristic processing advantages along with excellent device performance. In particular, printable metallic electrodes have drawn attention in a variety of optoelectronic applications; however, research into printable metallic nanoparticles has been limited mainly to the case of an environmentally stable Ag phase. Despite its earth-abundance and highly conductive nature, the Cu phase, to date, has not been exploited as an ambient atmosphere-processable, printable material due to its critical oxidation problem in air. In this study, we demonstrate a facile route for generating highly conductive, flexible Cu electrodes in air by introducing the well-optimized photonic sintering at a time frame of 10(-3) s, at which the photon energy, rather than conventional thermal energy, is instantly provided. It is elucidated here how the surface oxide-free, printed Cu particulate films undergo chemical structural/microstructural evolution depending on the instantly irradiated photon energy, and a successful demonstration is provided of large-area, flexible, printed Cu conductors on various substrates, including polyimide (PI), polyethersulfone (PES), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and paper. The applicability of the resulting printed Cu electrodes is evaluated via implementation into both flexible capacitor devices and indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) flexible thin-film transistors. PMID:25626472

  2. Transparent amorphous zinc oxide thin films for NLO applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawadzka, A.; P?ciennik, P.; Strzelecki, J.; Sahraoui, B.

    2014-11-01

    This review focuses on the growth and optical properties of amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin films. A high quality ZnO films fabricated by dip-coating (sol-gel) method were grown on quartz and glass substrates at temperature equal to 350 K. The amorphous nature of the films was verified by X-ray diffraction. Atomic Force Microscopy was used to evaluate the surface morphology of the films. The optical characteristics of amorphous thin films have been investigated in the spectral range 190-1100 nm. Measurement of the polarized optical properties was shows a high transmissivity (80-99%) and low absorptivity (<5%) in the visible and near infrared regions at different angles of incidence. Linear optical properties were investigated by classic and Time-Resolved Photoluminescence (TRPL) measurements. Photoluminescence spectrum exhibits a strong ultraviolet emission while the visible emission is very weak. An innovative TRPL technique has enabled the measurement of the photoluminescence decay time as a function of temperature. TRPL measurements reveal a multiexponential decay behavior typical for amorphous thin films. Second and third harmonic generation measurements were performed by means of the rotational Maker fringe technique using Nd:YAG laser at 1064 nm in picosecond regime for investigations of the nonlinear optical properties. The obtained values of second and third order nonlinear susceptibilities were found to be high enough for the potential applications in the optical switching devices based on refractive index changes. Presented spectra confirm high structural and optical quality of the investigated zinc oxide thin films.

  3. Amorphous oxide as a novel efficient catalyst for direct selective oxidation of methanol to dimethoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Royer, Sébastien; Sécordel, Xavier; Brandhorst, Markus; Dumeignil, Franck; Cristol, Sylvain; Dujardin, Christophe; Capron, Mickaël; Payen, Edmond; Dubois, Jean-Luc

    2008-02-21

    We report for the first time the use of an amorphous oxide catalyst for the selective oxidation of methanol in the gas phase, leading at 553 K to the production of dimethoxymethane with a selectivity as high as 90% at high methanol conversion (68%). PMID:18253530

  4. Lithium ion transport in a model of amorphous polyethylene oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Boinske, P. T.; Curtiss, L.; Halley, J. W.; Lin, B.; Sutjianto, A.; Chemical Engineering; Univ. of Minnesota

    1996-01-01

    We have made a molecular dynamics study of transport of a single lithium ion in a previously reported model of amorphous polyethylene oxide. New ab initio calculations of the interaction of the lithium ion with 1,2-dimethoxyethane and with dimethyl ether are reported which are used to determine force fields for the simulation. We report preliminary calculations of solvation energies and hopping barriers and a calculation of the ionic conductivity which is independent of any assumptions about the mechanism of ion transport. We also report some details of a study of transport of the trapped lithium ion on intermediate time and length scales.

  5. Bacterial adhesion on amorphous and crystalline metal oxide coatings.

    PubMed

    Almaguer-Flores, Argelia; Silva-Bermudez, Phaedra; Galicia, Rey; Rodil, Sandra E

    2015-12-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the influence of surface properties (surface energy, composition and topography) of biocompatible materials on the adhesion of cells/bacteria on solid substrates; however, few have provided information about the effect of the atomic arrangement or crystallinity. Using magnetron sputtering deposition, we produced amorphous and crystalline TiO2 and ZrO2 coatings with controlled micro and nanoscale morphology. The effect of the structure on the physical-chemical surface properties was carefully analyzed. Then, we studied how these parameters affect the adhesion of Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Our findings demonstrated that the nano-topography and the surface energy were significantly influenced by the coating structure. Bacterial adhesion at micro-rough (2.6 μm) surfaces was independent of the surface composition and structure, contrary to the observation in sub-micron (0.5 μm) rough surfaces, where the crystalline oxides (TiO2>ZrO2) surfaces exhibited higher numbers of attached bacteria. Particularly, crystalline TiO2, which presented a predominant acidic nature, was more attractive for the adhesion of the negatively charged bacteria. The information provided by this study, where surface modifications are introduced by means of the deposition of amorphous or crystalline oxide coatings, offers a route for the rational design of implant surfaces to control or inhibit bacterial adhesion. PMID:26354243

  6. Absorption of ac fields in amorphous indium-oxide films

    SciTech Connect

    Ovadyahu, Z.

    2014-08-20

    Absorption data from applied ac fields in Anderson-localized amorphous indium-oxide (In{sub x}O) films are shown to be frequency and disorder dependent. The absorption shows a roll-off at a frequency which is much lower than the electron-electron scattering rate of the material when it is in the diffusive regime. This is interpreted as evidence for discreteness of the energy spectrum of the deeply localized regime. This is consistent with recent many-body localization scenarios. As the metal-insulator transition is approached, the absorption shifts to higher frequencies. Comparing with the previously obtained results on the crystalline version of indium-oxide (In{sub 2}O{sub 3−x}) implies a considerably higher inelastic electron-phonon scattering rate in the amorphous material. The range over which the absorption versus frequency decreases may indicate that a wide distribution of localization length is a common feature in these systems.

  7. Optoelectronic properties of valence-state-controlled amorphous niobium oxide.

    PubMed

    Onozato, Takaki; Katase, Takayoshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Katayama, Shota; Matsushima, Koichi; Itagaki, Naho; Yoshida, Hisao; Ohta, Hiromichi

    2016-06-29

    In order to understand the optoelectronic properties of amorphous niobium oxide (a-NbO x ), we have investigated the valence states, local structures, electrical resistivity, and optical absorption of a-NbO x thin films with various oxygen contents. It was found that the valence states of Nb ion in a-NbO x films can be controlled from 5+  to 4+  by reducing oxygen pressure during film deposition at room temperature, together with changing the oxide-ion arrangement around Nb ion from Nb2O5-like to NbO2-like local structure. As a result, a four orders of magnitude reduction in the electrical resistivity of a-NbO x films was observed with decreasing oxygen content, due to the carrier generation caused by the appearance and increase of an oxygen-vacancy-related subgap state working as an electron donor. The tunable optoelectronic properties of a-NbO x films by valence-state-control with oxygen-vacancy formation will be useful for potential flexible optoelectronic device applications. PMID:27168317

  8. Oxidation kinetics of ion-amorphized (0001) 6H-SiC: Competition between oxidation and recrystallization processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggi, A.; Parisini, A.; Nipoti, R.; Solmi, S.

    2005-03-01

    The wet oxidation of (0001) Si face 6H-SiC preamorphized by Ar+ implantation has been investigated in the temperature range between 750 and 950°C. Electron microscopy analysis has been performed to obtain information on the evolution of the amorphous layer during the oxidation process. The oxidation rate of the amorphous substrate is linear in time and assumes the value VOx(α )=3.8×107exp(-1.6/kT)nm/min. Due to the concomitant oxidation and recrystallization processes occurring at the two opposite faces of the amorphous layer, this expression is valid up to about 910°C for amorphous layer thickness of a few hundreds nanometer and processing time of a few tens of minutes. At higher temperatures, our oxidation data support the existence of a sudden increasing of the recrystallization that strongly reduces the time of surviving of the amorphous region and, consequently, the oxide thickness. The procedure to determine, for any fixed amorphous thickness, the most suitable experimental conditions giving rise to the maximum oxide thickness (i.e., the temperature at which corresponds the shortest oxidation time), preserving at the same time the flatness of the oxidized surface, is reported.

  9. Electrical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Takashi; Katayama, Ryuichi; Yamakawa, Koki; Matsui, Kento; Saito, Masaru; Sugiyama, Shuhichiroh; Sichanugrist, Porponth; Nonomura, Shuichi; Konagai, Makoto

    2015-08-01

    The electrical characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide (a-SiOx:H) films was performed by electron spin resonance (ESR) and electrical conductivity measurements. In the ESR spectra of the a-SiOx:H films, two ESR peaks with g-values of 2.005 and 2.013 were observed. The ESR peak with the g-value of 2.013 was not observed in the ESR spectra of a-Si:H films. The photoconductivity of the a-SiOx:H films decreased with increasing spin density estimated from the ESR peak with the g-value of 2.005. On the other hand, photoconductivity was independent of spin density estimated from the ESR peak with the g-value of 2.013. The optical absorption coefficient spectra of the a-SiOx:H films were also measured. The spin density estimated from the ESR peak with the g-value of 2.005 increased proportionally with increasing optical absorption owing to the gap-state defect.

  10. Electrically conducting ternary amorphous fully oxidized materials and their application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giauque, Pierre (Inventor); Nicolet, Marc (Inventor); Gasser, Stefan M. (Inventor); Kolawa, Elzbieta A. (Inventor); Cherry, Hillary (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Electrically active devices are formed using a special conducting material of the form Tm--Ox mixed with SiO2 where the materials are immiscible. The immiscible materials are forced together by using high energy process to form an amorphous phase of the two materials. The amorphous combination of the two materials is electrically conducting but forms an effective barrier.

  11. Increased corrosion resistance of stent materials by converting current surface film of polycrystalline oxide into amorphous oxide.

    PubMed

    Shih, C C; Lin, S J; Chung, K H; Chen, Y L; Su, Y Y

    2000-11-01

    Current efforts of new stent technology have been aimed largely at the improvement of intravascular stent biocompatibility. Among the chemical characteristics of metallic stents, surface oxide corrosion properties are paramount. Using our unique technique, the currently marketed 316 L stainless steel and nitinol stent wires covered with polycrystalline oxide were chemically etched and then passivated to form amorphous oxide. Excellent metallic-stent corrosion resistance with an amorphous oxide surface was demonstrated in our previous in vitro study. For in vivo validation, we compared the corrosion behavior of different oxide surfaces on various forms of test wires in the abdominal aorta of mongrel dogs using open-circuit potential and cyclic anodic polarization measurements. After conduction, the retrieved test wires were observed under scanning electron microscope. No passivity breakdown was found for wires covered with amorphous oxide, while wires with polycrystalline oxide showed breakdown at potentials between +0.2 to + 0.6 V. It has been proven that severe pitting or crevice corrosion occurred on the surface of polycrystalline oxide, while the surface of amorphous oxide was free of degradations in our experiment. We have demonstrated that this amorphous oxide coating on metallic material provides better corrosion resistance, not only in vitro but also in vivo, and it is superior not only in strength safety but also in medical device biocompatibility. PMID:10951371

  12. Probing of 2 dimensional confinement-induced structural transitions in amorphous oxide thin film.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung Keun; Ahn, Chi Won

    2014-01-01

    Whereas the atomic structure of surface of crystals is known to be distinct from that of bulk, experimental evidence for thickness-induced structural transitions in amorphous oxides is lacking. We report the NMR result for amorphous alumina with varying thickness from bulk up to 5 nm, revealing the nature of structural transitions near amorphous oxide surfaces/interfaces. The coordination environments in the confined amorphous alumina thin film are distinct from those of bulk, highlighted by a decrease in the fractions of high-energy clusters (and thus the degree of disorder) with thickness. The result implies that a wide range of variations in amorphous structures may be identified by controlling its dimensionality. PMID:24569515

  13. Probing the role of Ga in amorphous conducting oxides through local structure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffitt, Stephanie; Zhu, Qimin; Ma, Qing; Buchholz, Donald; Chang, Robert; Mason, Thomas; Marks, Tobin; Bedzyk, Michael

    2015-03-01

    The study of amorphous (a-) conducting oxides is an emerging field. The lack of grain boundaries, smooth surfaces, and low temperature deposition position these materials as ideal candidates for large area applications and flexible electronics. Most impressively, these materials maintain high electron mobility in the amorphous state. These benefits have led the recent commercialization of a-IGZO (Ga and Zn doped indium oxide) as a replacement for a-Si as the channel layer of thin film transistors in display technology. Despite this success, fundamental understanding of structure-property relationships is still lacking and must be improved to guide further development of amorphous conducting oxides. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is one of the few tools that can be used to probe the structure of amorphous materials. Amorphous indium oxide doped with Ga (a-IGO) is a model system to help develop the role of dopants in amorphous oxides. An in depth XAS study was carried out to determine inter-atomic distances, coordination numbers, and structural disorder parameters as a function of Ga doping level. The correlation between XAS-derived structural features and the dopant-dependent evolution of both electrical properties and thermal stability of a-IGO will be discussed. This work is supported by the NSF MRSEC Program No. DMR1121262.

  14. Remarkably stable amorphous metal oxide grown on Zr-Cu-Be metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Young Su; Kim, Won Tae; Soon, Aloysius; Kim, Do Hyang

    2015-12-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of an aliovalent dopant upon stabilizing the amorphous oxide film. We added beryllium into the Zr50Cu50 metallic glass system, and found that the amorphous oxide layer of Be-rich phase can be stabilized even at elevated temperature above Tg of the glass matrix. The thermal stability of the amorphous oxide layer is substantially enhanced due to Be addition. As confirmed by high-temperature cross-section HR-TEM, fully disordered Be-added amorphous layer is observed, while the rapid crystallization is observed without Be. To understand the role of Be, we employed ab-initio molecular dynamics to compare the mobility of ions with/without Be dopant, and propose a disordered model where Be dopant occupies Zr vacancy and induces structural disorder to the amorphous phase. We find that the oxygen mobility is slightly suppressed due to Be dopant, and Be mobility is unexpectedly lower than that of oxygen, which we attribute to the aliovalent nature of Be dopant whose diffusion always accompany multiple counter-diffusion of other ions. Here, we explain the origin of superior thermal stability of amorphous oxide film in terms of enhanced structural disorder and suppressed ionic mobility due to the aliovalent dopant.

  15. Remarkably stable amorphous metal oxide grown on Zr-Cu-Be metallic glass.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Young Su; Kim, Won Tae; Soon, Aloysius; Kim, Do Hyang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of an aliovalent dopant upon stabilizing the amorphous oxide film. We added beryllium into the Zr50Cu50 metallic glass system, and found that the amorphous oxide layer of Be-rich phase can be stabilized even at elevated temperature above Tg of the glass matrix. The thermal stability of the amorphous oxide layer is substantially enhanced due to Be addition. As confirmed by high-temperature cross-section HR-TEM, fully disordered Be-added amorphous layer is observed, while the rapid crystallization is observed without Be. To understand the role of Be, we employed ab-initio molecular dynamics to compare the mobility of ions with/without Be dopant, and propose a disordered model where Be dopant occupies Zr vacancy and induces structural disorder to the amorphous phase. We find that the oxygen mobility is slightly suppressed due to Be dopant, and Be mobility is unexpectedly lower than that of oxygen, which we attribute to the aliovalent nature of Be dopant whose diffusion always accompany multiple counter-diffusion of other ions. Here, we explain the origin of superior thermal stability of amorphous oxide film in terms of enhanced structural disorder and suppressed ionic mobility due to the aliovalent dopant. PMID:26658671

  16. Remarkably stable amorphous metal oxide grown on Zr-Cu-Be metallic glass

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Ka Ram; Kim, Chang Eun; Yun, Young Su; Kim, Won Tae; Soon, Aloysius; Kim, Do Hyang

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the role of an aliovalent dopant upon stabilizing the amorphous oxide film. We added beryllium into the Zr50Cu50 metallic glass system, and found that the amorphous oxide layer of Be-rich phase can be stabilized even at elevated temperature above Tg of the glass matrix. The thermal stability of the amorphous oxide layer is substantially enhanced due to Be addition. As confirmed by high-temperature cross-section HR-TEM, fully disordered Be-added amorphous layer is observed, while the rapid crystallization is observed without Be. To understand the role of Be, we employed ab-initio molecular dynamics to compare the mobility of ions with/without Be dopant, and propose a disordered model where Be dopant occupies Zr vacancy and induces structural disorder to the amorphous phase. We find that the oxygen mobility is slightly suppressed due to Be dopant, and Be mobility is unexpectedly lower than that of oxygen, which we attribute to the aliovalent nature of Be dopant whose diffusion always accompany multiple counter-diffusion of other ions. Here, we explain the origin of superior thermal stability of amorphous oxide film in terms of enhanced structural disorder and suppressed ionic mobility due to the aliovalent dopant. PMID:26658671

  17. Performance regeneration of InGaZnO transistors with ultra-thin channels

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Binglei; Li, He; Zhang, Xijian E-mail: songam@sdu.edu.cn; Luo, Yi; Wang, Qingpu; Song, Aimin E-mail: songam@sdu.edu.cn

    2015-03-02

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) based on ultra-thin amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) semiconductors down to 4 nm were studied motivated by the increasing cost of indium. At and below 5 nm, it was found that the field-effect mobility was severely degraded, the threshold voltage increased, and the output characteristics became abnormal showing no saturated current. By encapsulating a layer of polymethyl methacrylate on the IGZO TFTs, the performance of the 5-nm-thick device was effectively recovered. The devices also showed much higher on/off ratios, improved hysteresis, and normal output characteristic curves as compared with devices not encapsulated. The stability of the encapsulated devices was also studied over a four month period.

  18. Plasma treatment effect on charge carrier concentrations and surface traps in a-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Jae-Sung; Xing Piao, Ming; Jang, Ho-Kyun; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Joo, Min-Kyu; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Choi, Yong-Hee

    2014-03-21

    Various plasma treatment effects such as oxygen (O{sub 2}), nitrogen (N{sub 2}), and argon (Ar) on amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs) are investigated. To study oxygen stoichiometry in a-IGZO TFTs with respect to various plasma environments, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was employed. The results showed that oxygen vacancies were reduced by O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} plasmas while they were increased after Ar plasma treatment. Additionally, the effects of plasma treatment on trap distribution in bulk and surface channels were explored by means of low-frequency noise analysis. Details of the mechanisms used for generating and restoring traps on the surface and bulk channel are presented.

  19. The effects of buffer layers on the performance and stability of flexible InGaZnO thin film transistors on polyimide substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Ok, Kyung-Chul; Park, Jin-Seong E-mail: jsparklime@hanyang.ac.kr; Ko Park, Sang-Hee; Kim, H. E-mail: jsparklime@hanyang.ac.kr; Hwang, Chi-Sun; Soo Shin, Hyun; Bae, Jonguk

    2014-02-10

    We demonstrated the fabrication of flexible amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) on high-temperature polyimide (PI) substrates, which were debonded from the carrier glass after TFT fabrication. The application of appropriate buffer layers on the PI substrates affected the TFT performance and stability. The adoption of the SiN{sub x}/AlO{sub x} buffer layers as water and hydrogen diffusion barriers significantly improved the device performance and stability against the thermal annealing and negative bias stress, compared to single SiN{sub x} or SiO{sub x} buffer layers. The substrates could be bent down to a radius of curvature of 15 mm and the devices remained normally functional.

  20. Amorphous mixed-metal hydroxide nanostructures for advanced water oxidation catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y. Q.; Liu, X. Y.; Yang, G. W.

    2016-02-01

    The design of highly efficient, durable, and earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial in order to promote energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we synthesize amorphous mixed-metal (Ni-Fe) hydroxide nanostructures with a homogeneous distribution of Ni/Fe as well as a tunable Ni/Fe ratio by a simple, facile, green and low-cost electrochemical technique, and we demonstrate that the synthesized amorphous nanomaterials possess ultrahigh activity and super long-term cycle stability in the OER process. The amorphous Ni0.71Fe0.29(OH)x nanostructure affords a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of a mere 0.296 V and a small Tafel slope of 58 mV dec-1, while no deactivation is detected in the CV testing even up to 30 000 cycles, which suggests the promising application of these amorphous nanomaterials in electrochemical oxidation. Meanwhile, the distinct catalytic activities among these amorphous Ni-Fe hydroxide nanostructures prompts us to take notice of the composition of the alloy hydroxides/oxides when studying their catalytic properties, which opens an avenue for the rational design and controllable preparation of such amorphous nanomaterials as advanced OER electrocatalysts.The design of highly efficient, durable, and earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial in order to promote energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we synthesize amorphous mixed-metal (Ni-Fe) hydroxide nanostructures with a homogeneous distribution of Ni/Fe as well as a tunable Ni/Fe ratio by a simple, facile, green and low-cost electrochemical technique, and we demonstrate that the synthesized amorphous nanomaterials possess ultrahigh activity and super long-term cycle stability in the OER process. The amorphous Ni0.71Fe0.29(OH)x nanostructure affords a current density of 10 mA cm-2 at an overpotential of a mere 0.296 V and a small Tafel slope of 58 mV dec-1, while no deactivation is detected in the CV testing even up to 30 000 cycles, which suggests the promising application of these amorphous nanomaterials in electrochemical oxidation. Meanwhile, the distinct catalytic activities among these amorphous Ni-Fe hydroxide nanostructures prompts us to take notice of the composition of the alloy hydroxides/oxides when studying their catalytic properties, which opens an avenue for the rational design and controllable preparation of such amorphous nanomaterials as advanced OER electrocatalysts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr08989a

  1. Direct /TEM/ observation of the catalytic oxidation of amorphous carbon by Pd particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorhead, R. D.; Poppa, H.; Heinemann, K.

    1980-01-01

    The catalytic oxidation of amorphous carbon substrates by Pd particles is observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy. Various modes of selective attack of the carbon substrate in the immediate neighborhood of Pd particles are observed, which can be correlated with different degrees of particle mobility. Using amorphous substrates we have been able to demonstrate that the particle-substrate interaction is influenced by the structure of the particle. This has not previously been noted.

  2. In situ grown, self-supported iron-cobalt-nickel alloy amorphous oxide nanosheets with low overpotential toward water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jiaqi; Chen, Zuofeng; Shi, Huijie; Zhao, Guohua

    2016-03-10

    Electrocatalytic water oxidation by in situ grown iron-cobalt-nickel ternary alloy amorphous oxides is reported. This catalytic material was prepared by simple anodization of an alloy plate followed by low-temperature annealing, which shows superior electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen evolution reaction with an overpotential of only 170 mV and a low Tafel slope. PMID:26962573

  3. Amorphous Ni-Co Binary Oxide with Hierarchical Porous Structure for Electrochemical Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Long, Chao; Zheng, Mingtao; Xiao, Yong; Lei, Bingfu; Dong, Hanwu; Zhang, Haoran; Hu, Hang; Liu, Yingliang

    2015-11-11

    A simple and outstanding approach is provided to fabricate amorphous structure Ni-Co binary oxide as supercapacitors electrode materials. We can easily obtain porous Ni-Co oxides composite materials via chemical bath deposition and subsequent calcination without any template or complicate operation procedures. The amorphous porous Ni-Co binary oxide exhibits brilliant electrochemical performance: first, the peculiar porous structure can effectively transport electrolytes and shorten the ion diffusion path; second, binary composition and amorphous character introduce more surface defects for redox reactions. It shows a high specific capacitance up to 1607 F g(-1) and can be cycled for 2000 cycles with 91% capacitance retention. In addition, the asymmetric supercapacitor delivers superior energy density of 28 W h kg(-1), and the maximum power density of 3064 W kg(-1) with a high energy density of 10 W h kg(-1). PMID:26099689

  4. Ambient atmosphere-processable, printable Cu electrodes for flexible device applications: structural welding on a millisecond timescale of surface oxide-free Cu nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Sang-Jin; Jo, Yejin; Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Sun Sook; Kang, Young Hun; Jeon, Hye-Ji; Cho, Song Yun; Park, Jin-Seong; Seo, Yeong-Hui; Ryu, Beyong-Hwan; Choi, Youngmin; Jeong, Sunho

    2015-02-01

    Recently, various functional devices based on printing technologies have been of paramount interest, owing to their characteristic processing advantages along with excellent device performance. In particular, printable metallic electrodes have drawn attention in a variety of optoelectronic applications; however, research into printable metallic nanoparticles has been limited mainly to the case of an environmentally stable Ag phase. Despite its earth-abundance and highly conductive nature, the Cu phase, to date, has not been exploited as an ambient atmosphere-processable, printable material due to its critical oxidation problem in air. In this study, we demonstrate a facile route for generating highly conductive, flexible Cu electrodes in air by introducing the well-optimized photonic sintering at a time frame of 10-3 s, at which the photon energy, rather than conventional thermal energy, is instantly provided. It is elucidated here how the surface oxide-free, printed Cu particulate films undergo chemical structural/microstructural evolution depending on the instantly irradiated photon energy, and a successful demonstration is provided of large-area, flexible, printed Cu conductors on various substrates, including polyimide (PI), polyethersulfone (PES), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and paper. The applicability of the resulting printed Cu electrodes is evaluated via implementation into both flexible capacitor devices and indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) flexible thin-film transistors.Recently, various functional devices based on printing technologies have been of paramount interest, owing to their characteristic processing advantages along with excellent device performance. In particular, printable metallic electrodes have drawn attention in a variety of optoelectronic applications; however, research into printable metallic nanoparticles has been limited mainly to the case of an environmentally stable Ag phase. Despite its earth-abundance and highly conductive nature, the Cu phase, to date, has not been exploited as an ambient atmosphere-processable, printable material due to its critical oxidation problem in air. In this study, we demonstrate a facile route for generating highly conductive, flexible Cu electrodes in air by introducing the well-optimized photonic sintering at a time frame of 10-3 s, at which the photon energy, rather than conventional thermal energy, is instantly provided. It is elucidated here how the surface oxide-free, printed Cu particulate films undergo chemical structural/microstructural evolution depending on the instantly irradiated photon energy, and a successful demonstration is provided of large-area, flexible, printed Cu conductors on various substrates, including polyimide (PI), polyethersulfone (PES), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and paper. The applicability of the resulting printed Cu electrodes is evaluated via implementation into both flexible capacitor devices and indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) flexible thin-film transistors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: X-ray diffraction results and the XPS Cu 2p3/2 spectrum for Cu nanoparticles, resistivity evolution in thermally treated Cu films, the energy dose and intensity of flash lamps used in this study, SEM images of Cu films photo-sintered at 3.0 kV for 1.5 ms, resistivity evolution in photo-sintered, drop-casted Cu films, the XPS O 1s spectrum of Cu films photo-sintered at 2.5 kV for 1.5 ms, adhesion test results for photo-sintered Cu films. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06816e

  5. Unipolar resistive switching behaviors in amorphous lutetium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xu; Xia, Yidong; Xu, Bo; Kong, Jizhou; Guo, Hongxuan; Li, Kui; Li, Haitao; Xu, Hanni; Chen, Kai; Yin, Jiang; Liu, Zhiguo

    2010-10-01

    The resistive switching properties in the amorphous Lu2O3 films deposited by pulsed laser deposition have been investigated. Well unipolar switching behaviors of Pt/Lu2O3/Pt stacks were obtained. The memory cells exhibited a high resistance ratio over 1×103, fast programming speed within 30 ns, and no obvious degradation after an endurance of 300 switching cycles and a duration of 3.2×106 s. The first-principles calculation indicates that the oxygen vacancies in cubic Lu2O3 will form defective energy level below the bottom of conduction band, and reduce the band gap. The absence of grain boundaries in the amorphous Lu2O3 films helps us attribute the switching mechanism of such stacks to the possible redistribution of defects related to oxygen vacancies along the filamentary paths during the resistive switching process.

  6. Amorphous mixed-metal hydroxide nanostructures for advanced water oxidation catalysts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Y Q; Liu, X Y; Yang, G W

    2016-02-25

    The design of highly efficient, durable, and earth-abundant catalysts for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is crucial in order to promote energy conversion and storage processes. Here, we synthesize amorphous mixed-metal (Ni-Fe) hydroxide nanostructures with a homogeneous distribution of Ni/Fe as well as a tunable Ni/Fe ratio by a simple, facile, green and low-cost electrochemical technique, and we demonstrate that the synthesized amorphous nanomaterials possess ultrahigh activity and super long-term cycle stability in the OER process. The amorphous Ni0.71Fe0.29(OH)x nanostructure affords a current density of 10 mA cm(-2) at an overpotential of a mere 0.296 V and a small Tafel slope of 58 mV dec(-1), while no deactivation is detected in the CV testing even up to 30 000 cycles, which suggests the promising application of these amorphous nanomaterials in electrochemical oxidation. Meanwhile, the distinct catalytic activities among these amorphous Ni-Fe hydroxide nanostructures prompts us to take notice of the composition of the alloy hydroxides/oxides when studying their catalytic properties, which opens an avenue for the rational design and controllable preparation of such amorphous nanomaterials as advanced OER electrocatalysts. PMID:26864279

  7. Aqueous ultracapacitors using amorphous MnO2 and reduced graphene oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mery, Adrien; Ghamouss, Fouad; Autret, Cécile; Farhat, Douaa; Tran-Van, François

    2016-02-01

    Herein, synthesis and characterization of amorphous MnO2 and application in asymmetric aqueous ultracapacitors are reported. Different amorphous manganese oxide (MnO2) materials were synthesized from the reduction of KMnO4 in different media such as ethanol (EtOH) or dimethylformamide (DMF). The electrochemical behavior of amorphous MnO2, labeled MnO2-Et and MnO2-DMF, were studied by using cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy, and galvanostatic cycling in aqueous electrolyte. XRD, BET, TEM, and SEM characterizations highlighted the amorphous nature and the nanostructuration of these MnO2 materials. BET measurement established that these amorphous MnO2 are mesoporous. In addition, MnO2-Et exhibits a larger specific surface area (168 m2 g-1), a narrower pore diameters distribution with lower diameters compared to MnO2-DMF. These results are in agreement with the electrochemical results. Indeed, MnO2-Et shows a higher specific capacitance and lower impedance in aqueous K2SO4 electrolyte. Furthermore, aqueous asymmetric ultracapacitors were assembled and studied using amorphous MnO2 as positive electrode and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) as negative electrode. These asymmetric systems exhibit an electrochemical stability for more than 20,000 galvanostatic cycles at current density of 1 A g-1 with an operating voltage of 2 V.

  8. Observation of the amorphous zinc oxide recrystalline process by molecular dynamics simulation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ken-Huang; Sun, Shih-Jye; Ju, Shin-Pon; Tsai, Jen-Yu; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The detailed structural variations of amorphous zinc oxide (ZnO) as well as wurtzite (B4) and zinc blende (B3) crystal structures during the temperature elevation process were observed by molecular dynamics simulation. The amorphous ZnO structure was first predicted through the simulated-annealing basin-hopping algorithm with the criterion to search for the least stable structure. The density and X-ray diffraction profiles of amorphous ZnO of the structure were in agreement with previous reports. The local structural transformation among different local structures and the recrystalline process of amorphous ZnO at higher temperatures are observed and can explain the structural transformation and recrystalline mechanism in a corresponding experiment [Bruncko et al., Thin Solid Films 520, 866-870 (2011)]. PMID:23509413

  9. Amorphous transparent conducting oxides in context: Work function survey, trends, and facile modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, T. C.; Zhu, Q.; Buchholz, D. B.; Martinson, A. B.; Chang, R. P. H.; Mason, T. O.

    2015-03-01

    The work functions of various amorphous and crystalline transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) were measured using Kelvin probe. The films, made by pulsed laser deposition, exhibited varying work functions dependent on the composition and deposition parameters. Tin oxide showed the largest work functions of the oxides measured, while zinc oxide showed the lowest. Binary and ternary combinations of the basis TCOs showed intermediate work functions dependent on the endpoint components. Amorphous TCOs, important in OPV and other technological applications, exhibited similar work functions to their crystalline counterparts. UV/ozone treatment of TCOs temporarily increased the work function, consistent with proposed defect mechanisms associated with near-surface changes in carrier content and Fermi level. Finally, a method for facile adjustment of the work function of commercial TCOs by atomic layer deposition (ALD) capping layers was presented, illustrated by the growth of zinc oxide layers on commercial crystalline ITO films.

  10. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOEpatents

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  11. Intrinsic stress evolution during amorphous oxide film growth on Al surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Flötotto, D. Wang, Z. M.; Jeurgens, L. P. H.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2014-03-03

    The intrinsic stress evolution during formation of ultrathin amorphous oxide films on Al(111) and Al(100) surfaces by thermal oxidation at room temperature was investigated in real-time by in-situ substrate curvature measurements and detailed atomic-scale microstructural analyses. During thickening of the oxide a considerable amount of growth stresses is generated in, remarkably even amorphous, ultrathin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films. The surface orientation-dependent stress evolutions during O adsorption on the bare Al surfaces and during subsequent oxide-film growth can be interpreted as a result of (i) adsorption-induced surface stress changes and (ii) competing processes of free volume generation and structural relaxation, respectively.

  12. Oxidation induced amorphous stabilization of the subsurface region in Zr-Cu metallic glass

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, K. R.; Park, J. M.; Park, S. H.; Na, M. Y.; Kim, K. C.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, W. T.

    2014-01-20

    In the present study, we demonstrate that selective surface oxidation of Zr{sub 70}Cu{sub 30} metallic glass can stabilize the amorphous structure in the subsurface region of the matrix. The oxidation proceeds by selective oxidation of Zr, forming monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} layer on the surface, and the subsurface layer becomes Cu-enriched due to back diffusion of Cu atoms from the oxide layer. Interestingly, in this system, the composition change in the subsurface region leads to enhancement of glass stability, forming of a double layered surface structure consisted of inner amorphous layer and outer monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} layer even when the remaining matrix is completely crystallized.

  13. Electrical and optical properties of sputtered amorphous vanadium oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Podraza, N. J.; Gauntt, B. D.; Motyka, M. A.; Horn, M. W.; Dickey, E. C.

    2012-04-01

    Amorphous vanadium oxide (VO{sub x}) is a component found in composite nanocrystalline VO{sub x} thin films. These types of composite films are used as thermistors in pulsed biased uncooled infrared imaging devices when containing face centered cubic vanadium monoxide phase crystallites, and substantial fractions of amorphous material in the composite are necessary to optimize device electrical properties. Similarly, optoelectronic devices exploiting the metal-to-semiconductor transition contain the room-temperature monoclinic or high-temperature (>68 deg. C) rutile vanadium dioxide phase. Thin films of VO{sub x} exhibiting the metal-to-semiconductor transition are typically polycrystalline or nanocrystalline, implying that significant amounts of disordered, amorphous material is present at grain boundaries or surrounding the crystallites and can impact the overall optical or electronic properties of the film. The performance of thin film material for either application depends on both the nature of the crystalline and amorphous components, and in this work we seek to isolate and study amorphous VO{sub x}. VO{sub x} thin films were deposited by pulsed dc reactive magnetron sputtering to produce amorphous materials with oxygen contents {>=}2, which were characterized electrically by temperature dependent current-voltage measurements and optically characterized by spectroscopic ellipsometry. Film resistivity, thermal activation energy, and complex dielectric function spectra from 0.75 to 6.0 eV were used to identify the impact of microstructural variations including composition and density.

  14. Photo-oxidation of polymer-like amorphous hydrogenated carbon under visible light illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Baxamusa, Salmaan; Laurence, Ted; Worthington, Matthew; Ehrmann, Paul

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), a polymer-like network typically synthesized by plasma chemical vapor deposition, has long been understood to exhibit optical absorption of visible light (λ > 400 nm). In this report we explain that this absorption is accompanied by rapid photo-oxidation (within minutes) that behaves in most respects like classic polymer photo-oxidation with the exception that it occurs under visible light illumination rather than ultraviolet illumination.

  15. Photo-oxidation of polymer-like amorphous hydrogenated carbon under visible light illumination

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Baxamusa, Salmaan; Laurence, Ted; Worthington, Matthew; Ehrmann, Paul

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), a polymer-like network typically synthesized by plasma chemical vapor deposition, has long been understood to exhibit optical absorption of visible light (? > 400 nm). In this report we explain that this absorption is accompanied by rapid photo-oxidation (within minutes) that behaves in most respects like classic polymer photo-oxidation with the exception that it occurs under visible light illumination rather than ultraviolet illumination.

  16. An amorphous phase formation at palladium / silicon oxide (Pd/SiOx) interface through electron irradiation - electronic excitation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Takeshi; Yamashita, Ryo; Yabuuchi, Atsushi; Lee, Jung-Goo

    2015-11-01

    A Pd-Si amorphous phase was formed at a palladium/silicon oxide (Pd/SiOx) interface at room temperature by electron irradiation at acceleration voltages ranging between 25 kV and 200 kV. Solid-state amorphization was stimulated without the electron knock-on effects. The total dose required for the solid-state amorphization decreases with decreasing acceleration voltage. This is the first report on electron irradiation induced metallic amorphous formation caused by the electronic excitation at metal/silicon oxide interface.

  17. Room-temperature fabrication of light-emitting thin films based on amorphous oxide semiconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Junghwan; Miyokawa, Norihiko; Ide, Keisuke; Toda, Yoshitake; Hiramatsu, Hidenori; Hosono, Hideo; Kamiya, Toshio

    2016-01-01

    We propose a light-emitting thin film using an amorphous oxide semiconductor (AOS) because AOS has low defect density even fabricated at room temperature. Eu-doped amorphous In-Ga-Zn-O thin films fabricated at room temperature emitted intense red emission at 614 nm. It is achieved by precise control of oxygen pressure so as to suppress oxygen-deficiency/excess-related defects and free carriers. An electronic structure model is proposed, suggesting that non-radiative process is enhanced mainly by defects near the excited states. AOS would be a promising host for a thin film phosphor applicable to flexible displays as well as to light-emitting transistors.

  18. Structural and electronic properties of amorphous ternary and quaternary oxide semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, K. Nocona; Khanal, Rabi; Medvedeva, Julia E.

    Amorphous structures of several multi-cation wide-bandgap oxides (In-Ga-Zn-O, In-Sc-O, In-Y-O, and In-La-O) were obtained via first-principles molecular dynamics liquid-quench approach using different cooling rates and different oxygen and metal compositions. A detailed comparison of the structural properties, namely, the distribution of metal-oxygen (M-O) and metal-metal (M-M) distances, bond angles, and coordination, allows us to determine how the MO polyhedra network is affected by the crystalline-to-amorphous transition. Furthermore, the role of oxygen non-stoichiometry in defect formation is investigated. Specifically, local structural defects associated with severe distortions in the metal-oxygen polyhedra, such as under-coordinated metal and oxygen atoms, or M-M bonds, appear in the electronic band structure of amorphous oxides. Both carrier-generating defects and carrier trapping/scattering defects are identified. The results help determine the optimal composition and preparation conditions (i.e., oxygen partial pressure, deposition temperature) in order to achieve the desired properties of the technologically-appealing amorphous oxide semiconductors. NSF-MRSEC.

  19. Intrinsic nature of visible-light absorption in amorphous semiconducting oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Youngho; Song, Hochul; Han, Seungwu; Nahm, Ho-Hyun; Jeon, Sang Ho; Cho, Youngmi

    2014-03-01

    To enlighten microscopic origin of visible-light absorption in transparent amorphous semiconducting oxides, the intrinsic optical property of amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} is investigated by considering dipole transitions within the quasiparticle band structure. In comparison with the crystalline InGaZnO{sub 4} with the optical gap of 3.6 eV, the amorphous InGaZnO{sub 4} has two distinct features developed in the band structure that contribute to significant visible-light absorption. First, the conduction bands are down-shifted by 0.55 eV mainly due to the undercoordinated In atoms, reducing the optical gap between extended states to 2.8 eV. Second, tail states formed by localized oxygen p orbitals are distributed over ∼0.5 eV near the valence edge, which give rise to substantial subgap absorption. The fundamental understanding on the optical property of amorphous semiconducting oxides based on underlying electronic structure will pave the way for resolving instability issues in recent display devices incorporating the semiconducting oxides.

  20. Photoluminescence Characteristics of Amorphous Silicon Nitride Nanoball Film Prevented from Oxidizing in Air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funatsu, Tomoki; Kato, Isamu

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) nanoball film emits photoluminescence only after being thermally oxidized, because the oxidized film is sufficiently transparent that excitation laser light can reach Si nanocrystal. We fabricated amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNH) nanoball film by reacting N2 plasma and SiH4 gas. Without being thermally oxidized, this film was highly transparent and exhibited photoluminescence. The source of this photoluminescence is presumed to be either the quantum size effect of Si nanocrystal or electronic transitions in siloxane (Si-O-Si), which is present at the interface between Si nanocrystal and SiO2. By coating the a-SiNH nanoball film with SiN film, we fabricated a-SiNH nanoball film that was siloxane-free but that exhibited photoluminescence. Hence, we attribute the observed photoluminescence to the quantum size effect of Si nanocrystal.

  1. High-k (k=30) amorphous hafnium oxide films from high rate room temperature deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Flora M.; Bayer, Bernhard C.; Hofmann, Stephan; Milne, William I.; Flewitt, Andrew J.; Dutson, James D.; Wakeham, Steve J.; Thwaites, Mike J.

    2011-06-20

    Amorphous hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) is deposited by sputtering while achieving a very high k{approx}30. Structural characterization suggests that the high k is a consequence of a previously unreported cubiclike short range order in the amorphous HfO{sub x} (cubic k{approx}30). The films also possess a high electrical resistivity of 10{sup 14} {Omega} cm, a breakdown strength of 3 MV cm{sup -1}, and an optical gap of 6.0 eV. Deposition at room temperature and a high deposition rate ({approx}25 nm min{sup -1}) makes these high-k amorphous HfO{sub x} films highly advantageous for plastic electronics and high throughput manufacturing.

  2. High thermal stability of the amorphous oxide in Ti44.5Cu44.5Zr7Be4 metallic glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung Hyun; Lim, Ka Ram; Na, Min Young; Kim, Kang Cheol; Kim, Won Tae; Kim, Do Hyang

    2015-11-01

    The oxidation behavior of Ti44.5Cu44.5Zr7Be4 metallic glass has been investigated. The oxide layer with a fully amorphous structure forms when heated up to the SCL temperature region, indicating that the presence of Be in the oxide layer improves the thermal stability of the amorphous oxide. The amorphous oxide is stable even when heated above the crystallization onset temperature. The thickness of the amorphous oxide layer reaches to ˜160 nm when heated up to 773 K. The oxide layer grows in both inward and outward directions, leaving Cu-enriched crystalline particles at the middle section of the oxide layer.

  3. Oxidative Damage and Energy Metabolism Disorder Contribute to the Hemolytic Effect of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Lizhen; Yu, Yongbo; Li, Yang; Yu, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Zou, Yang; Li, Qiuling; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-02-01

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been extensively used in biomedical applications due to their particular characteristics. The increased environmental and iatrogenic exposure of SiNPs gained great concerns on the biocompatibility and hematotoxicity of SiNPs. However, the studies on the hemolytic effects of amorphous SiNPs in human erythrocytes are still limited. In this study, amorphous SiNPs with 58 nm were selected and incubated with human erythrocytes for different times (30 min and 2 h) at various concentrations (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 μg/mL). SiNPs induced a dose-dependent increase in percent hemolysis and significantly increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, leading to oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) levels were detected by electron spin resonance (ESR), and the decreased elimination rates of ·OH showed SiNPs induced low antioxidant ability in human erythrocytes. Na+-K+ ATPase activity and Ca2+-Mg2+ ATPase activity were found remarkably inhibited after SiNP treatment, possibly causing energy sufficient in erythrocytes. Percent hemolysis of SiNPs was significantly decreased in the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It was concluded that amorphous SiNPs caused dose-dependent hemolytic effects in human erythrocytes. Oxidative damage and energy metabolism disorder contributed to the hemolytic effects of SiNPs in vitro.

  4. Oxidative Damage and Energy Metabolism Disorder Contribute to the Hemolytic Effect of Amorphous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lizhen; Yu, Yongbo; Li, Yang; Yu, Yang; Duan, Junchao; Zou, Yang; Li, Qiuling; Sun, Zhiwei

    2016-12-01

    Amorphous silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) have been extensively used in biomedical applications due to their particular characteristics. The increased environmental and iatrogenic exposure of SiNPs gained great concerns on the biocompatibility and hematotoxicity of SiNPs. However, the studies on the hemolytic effects of amorphous SiNPs in human erythrocytes are still limited. In this study, amorphous SiNPs with 58 nm were selected and incubated with human erythrocytes for different times (30 min and 2 h) at various concentrations (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 μg/mL). SiNPs induced a dose-dependent increase in percent hemolysis and significantly increased the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and decreased the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, leading to oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Hydroxyl radical (·OH) levels were detected by electron spin resonance (ESR), and the decreased elimination rates of ·OH showed SiNPs induced low antioxidant ability in human erythrocytes. Na(+)-K(+) ATPase activity and Ca(2+)-Mg(2+) ATPase activity were found remarkably inhibited after SiNP treatment, possibly causing energy sufficient in erythrocytes. Percent hemolysis of SiNPs was significantly decreased in the presence of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and adenosine diphosphate (ADP). It was concluded that amorphous SiNPs caused dose-dependent hemolytic effects in human erythrocytes. Oxidative damage and energy metabolism disorder contributed to the hemolytic effects of SiNPs in vitro. PMID:26831695

  5. Amorphous CoSn alloys decorated by Pt as high efficiency electrocatalysts for ethanol oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiangtai; Wang, Rongfang; Ji, Shan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Qizhao; Lei, Ziqiang

    2011-10-01

    This study examines the electro-catalytic behaviour of Pt decorating amorphous alloys in the electro-oxidation of ethanol. Pt decorated CoSn nanoparticles on carbon (denoted as Pt-CoSn/C) are prepared using a two-stage chemical synthesis (sol-gel preparation and Steady-state replacement method). The structure of Pt-CoSn/C nanoparticles is confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Under the same quantity of platinum, the Pt-CoSn/C nanoparticles have higher activity in alcohol oxidation than the Pt/C, PtRu/C and PtSn/C nanoparticles in cyclic voltammetry tests. The structure of Pt decorating amorphous CoSn alloys notably decreases the usage of Pt and enhances its catalytic activity at the same time.

  6. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, B.; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-12-01

    Here we report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5??104?S/m) and Hall mobility (>30?cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500?C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85??0.14?eV. This material shows emergent semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. Since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned.

  7. Electron-irradiation-induced crystallization at metallic amorphous/silicon oxide interfaces caused by electronic excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagase, Takeshi; Yamashita, Ryo; Lee, Jung-Goo

    2016-04-01

    Irradiation-induced crystallization of an amorphous phase was stimulated at a Pd-Si amorphous/silicon oxide (a(Pd-Si)/SiOx) interface at 298 K by electron irradiation at acceleration voltages ranging between 25 kV and 200 kV. Under irradiation, a Pd-Si amorphous phase was initially formed at the crystalline face-centered cubic palladium/silicon oxide (Pd/SiOx) interface, followed by the formation of a Pd2Si intermetallic compound through irradiation-induced crystallization. The irradiation-induced crystallization can be considered to be stimulated not by defect introduction through the electron knock-on effects and electron-beam heating, but by the electronic excitation mechanism. The observed irradiation-induced structural change at the a(Pd-Si)/SiOx and Pd/SiOx interfaces indicates multiple structural modifications at the metal/silicon oxide interfaces through electronic excitation induced by the electron-beam processes.

  8. Amorphous alumina oxidation protective coatings for Zircaloy based on a compositional gradient layer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sang Tae

    Waterside corrosion of the Zircaloy cladding encasing the uranium oxide pellets is one of the primary factors limiting high "burn up" of nuclear fuel in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). High "burn up" can significantly impact plant safety and economics. Amorphous aluminum oxide coatings with aluminum-based compositional gradient layers (CGLs) were fabricated to develop ceramic coating corrosion protection systems for Zircaloy. Aluminum films were deposited on Zircaloy substrates by electron-beam evaporation, and two-step heat treatments were performed at near the melting temperature of aluminum. Amorphous alumina coatings by rf magnetron sputtering were overcoated on the CGL structures. Morphological and compositional studies were completed using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX), and auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The AES depth profiles of the annealed coatings showed that gradient compositions of Al, Zr, and O were obtained. Glancing angle x-ray diffraction (GAXRD) analysis showed that a variety of intermetallic and oxide phases (such as Al3Zr, Al2Zr3, Al2O3, ZrO2 and Zr3O) were formed in the coatings during processing. The intermetallic layers improved the adhesion property of the alumina overcoating to Zircaloy substrate, and functioned as oxidation resistant layers. In spite of the successful construction of the compositional gradient layer system with a good adhesion and thermal stability, and the report about the stability of pure alumina and amorphous ceramics in hydrothermal conditions, the amorphous alumina coatings in our study were not stable under nuclear reactor conditions of subcritical water at 350°C and 20.1 MPa (3000 psi). We investigated the behavior of amorphous alumina thin films deposited on Zircaloy substrates in the near-supercritical water. When the coatings were exposed to the subcritical conditions, hydrothermally grown well-faceted crystallite formation was observed. Surface morphology and composition were characterized by FE SEM, AES and EDX. The crystallites were identified to be aluminum hydroxide, boehmite (gamma-AlOOH) by XRD spectra, peak shift in x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. We hypothesized the mechanism of the boehmite formation as the dissolution of amorphous alumina and the reprecipitation of boehmite during the cooling process.

  9. Analysis of high quality superconducting resonators: consequences for TLS properties in amorphous oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, J.; Faoro, L.; Lindström, T.

    2016-04-01

    1/f noise caused by microscopic two-level systems (TLS) is known to be very detrimental to the performance of superconducting quantum devices but the nature of these TLS is still poorly understood. Recent experiments with superconducting resonators indicates that interaction between TLS in the oxide at the film-substrate interface is not negligible. Here we present data on the loss and 1/f frequency noise from two different Nb resonators with and without Pt capping and discuss what conclusions can be drawn regarding the properties of TLS in amorphous oxides. We also estimate the concentration and dipole moment of the TLS.

  10. Mechanisms of lithium transport in amorphous polyethylene oxide.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuhua; Halley, J W; Curtiss, Larry; Redfern, Paul

    2005-02-01

    We report calculations using a previously reported model of lithium perchlorate in polyethylene oxide in order to understand the mechanism of lithium transport in these systems. Using an algorithm suggested by Voter, we find results for the diffusion rate which are quite close to experimental values. By analysis of the individual events in which large lithium motions occur during short times, we find that no single type of rearrangement of the lithium environment characterizes these events. We estimate the free energies of the lithium ion as a function of position during these events by calculation of potentials of mean force and thus derive an approximate map of the free energy as a function of lithium position during these events. The results are consistent with a Marcus-like picture in which the system slowly climbs a free energy barrier dominated by rearrangement of the polymer around the lithium ions, after which the lithium moves very quickly to a new position. Reducing the torsion forces in the model causes the diffusion rates to increase. PMID:15740341

  11. Selective Oxidation of Amorphous Carbon Layers without Damaging Embedded Single Wall Carbon Nanotube Bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Young Chul; Lim, Seong Chu

    2013-11-01

    Single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were synthesized by arc discharge, and then purified by selective oxidation of amorphous carbon layers that were found to encase SWCNT bundles and catalyst metal particles. In order to remove selectively the amorphous carbon layers with SWCNTs being intact, we have systematically investigated the thermal treatment conditions; firstly, setting the temperature by measuring the activation energies of SWCNTs and amorphous carbon layers, and then, secondly, finding the optimal process time. As a consequence, the optimal temperature and time for the thermal treatment was found to be 460 °C and 20 min, respectively. The complete elimination of surrounding amorphous carbon layers makes it possible to efficiently disperse the SWCNT bundles, resulting in high absorbance of SWCNT-ink. The SWCNTs which were thermal-treated at optimized temperature (460 °C) and duration (20 min) showed much better crystallinity, dispersibility, and transparent conducting properties, compared with as-synthesized and the nanotubes thermal-treated at different experimental conditions.

  12. Band gap structure modification of amorphous anodic Al oxide film by Ti-alloying

    SciTech Connect

    Canulescu, S. Schou, J.; Rechendorff, K.; Pleth Nielsen, L.; Borca, C. N.; Jones, N. C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Bordo, K.; Ambat, R.

    2014-03-24

    The band structure of pure and Ti-alloyed anodic aluminum oxide has been examined as a function of Ti concentration varying from 2 to 20 at. %. The band gap energy of Ti-alloyed anodic Al oxide decreases with increasing Ti concentration. X-ray absorption spectroscopy reveals that Ti atoms are not located in a TiO{sub 2} unit in the oxide layer, but rather in a mixed Ti-Al oxide layer. The optical band gap energy of the anodic oxide layers was determined by vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy in the energy range from 4.1 to 9.2 eV (300–135 nm). The results indicate that amorphous anodic Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has a direct band gap of 7.3 eV, which is about ∼1.4 eV lower than its crystalline counterpart (single-crystal Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Upon Ti-alloying, extra bands appear within the band gap of amorphous Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, mainly caused by Ti 3d orbitals localized at the Ti site.

  13. Towards a high efficiency amorphous silicon solar cell using molybdenum oxide as a window layer instead of conventional p-type amorphous silicon carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Il Park, Sang; Jae Baik, Seung; Im, Jong-San; Fang, Liang; Jeon, Jin-Wan; Su Lim, Koeng

    2011-08-01

    A thermally evaporated molybdenum oxide (MoO3) film was used as a window layer of a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell instead of the conventional p-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide (p-a-SiC:H) film. The short circuit current density (JSC) and fill factor were increased due to the wide optical band gap and high conductivity of the MoO3 film. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the fabricated MoO3 solar cell was increased to 6.21% compared to the typical a-Si:H solar cell (5.97%).

  14. Development of Pinhole-Free Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Protective Layers for Biomedical Device Applications

    PubMed Central

    Litvinov, Julia; Wang, Yi-Ju; George, Jinnie; Chinwangso, Pawilai; Brankovic, Stanko; Willson, Richard C.; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures. PMID:23682201

  15. Development of Pinhole-Free Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Protective Layers for Biomedical Device Applications.

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Julia; Wang, Yi-Ju; George, Jinnie; Chinwangso, Pawilai; Brankovic, Stanko; Willson, Richard C; Litvinov, Dmitri

    2013-06-15

    This paper describes synthesis of ultrathin pinhole-free insulating aluminum oxide layers for electronic device protection in corrosive liquid environments, such as phosphate buffered saline (PBS) or clinical fluids, to enable emerging biomedical applications such as biomolecular sensors. A pinhole-free 25-nm thick amorphous aluminum oxide layer has been achieved using ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron reactive sputtering of aluminum in oxygen/argon plasma followed by oxygen plasma post-processing. Deposition parameters were optimized to achieve the best corrosion protection of lithographically defined device structures. Electrochemical deposition of copper through the aluminum oxide layers was used to detect the presence (or absence) of pinholes. FTIR, XPS, and spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to characterize the material properties of the protective layers. Electrical resistance of the copper device structures protected by the aluminum oxide layers and exposed to a PBS solution was used as a metric to evaluate the long-term stability of these device structures. PMID:23682201

  16. Inverted polymer solar cells with amorphous indium zinc oxide as the electron-collecting electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Cheun, Hyeunseok; Kim, Jungbae; Zhou, Yinhua; Fang, Yunnan; Dindar, Amir; Shim, Jae Won; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Sandhage, Kenneth H.; Kippelen, Bernard

    2010-09-17

    We report on the fabrication and performance of polymer-based inverted solar cells utilizing amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) as the electron-collecting electrode. Amorphous IZO films of 200 nm thickness were deposited by room temperature sputtering in a high-purity argon atmosphere. The films possessed a high optical transmittance in the visible region (≥ 80%), a low resistivity (3.3 × 10-4 Ωcm), a low surface roughness (root mean square = 0.68 nm), and a low work function (4.46 ± 0.02 eV). Inverted solar cells with the structure a-IZO/P3HT: PCBM/PEDOT:PSS/Ag exhibited a power conversion efficiency of 3% estimated for AM 1.5G, 100 mW/cm2 illumination.

  17. Preparation and anti-oxidation characteristics of ZrSiO4-SiBCN(O) amorphous coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Baojun; Feng, Zelong; Hu, Shujuan; Zhang, Yue

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, a dense and seamless SiBCN(O) amorphous coating with a few ZrSiO4 particles is prepared by low-cost slurry method and sintered at 1573 K, namely ZrSiO4-SiBCN(O) amorphous coating. During its preparation process, by employing the polyborosilazane (PBSZ)-ethanol solution as the precursor, the sintering temperature of the coating is significantly reduced and its densification is greatly improved as well. The coating was heat-treated in stagnant laboratory air at 1773 K from 5 min to 8 h. It shows high oxidation protecting performance during oxidation and the oxidation mechanism includes three stages, that are active oxidation, defection healing and oxygen diffusion at 1773 K. It was also found that, by introducing the ZrSiO4 particles into the SiBCN(O) amorphous coating, the propagation of micro-cracks during its oxidation process is prominently inhibited.

  18. Cathodo- and photoluminescence increase in amorphous hafnium oxide under annealing in oxygen

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, E. V. Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Yelisseyev, A. P.

    2015-04-15

    Cathodo- and photoluminescence of amorphous nonstoichiometric films of hafnium oxide are studied with the aim to verify the hypothesis that oxygen vacancies are responsible for the luminescence. To produce oxygen vacancies, hafnium oxide was enriched in surplus metal during synthesis. To reduce the oxygen concentration, the film was annealed in oxygen. A qualitative control of the oxygen concentration was carried out by the refractive index. In the initial, almost stoichiometric films we observed a 2.7-eV band in cathodoluminescence. Annealing in oxygen results in a considerable increase in its intensity, as well as in the appearance of new bands at 1.87, 2.14, 3.40, and 3.6 eV. The observed emission bands are supposed to be due to single oxygen vacancies and polyvacancies in hafnium oxide. The luminescence increase under annealing in an oxygen atmosphere may be a result of the emission quenching effect.

  19. Cathodo- and photoluminescence increase in amorphous hafnium oxide under annealing in oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, E. V.; Zamoryanskaya, M. V.; Pustovarov, V. A.; Aliev, V. Sh.; Gritsenko, V. A.; Yelisseyev, A. P.

    2015-04-01

    Cathodo- and photoluminescence of amorphous nonstoichiometric films of hafnium oxide are studied with the aim to verify the hypothesis that oxygen vacancies are responsible for the luminescence. To produce oxygen vacancies, hafnium oxide was enriched in surplus metal during synthesis. To reduce the oxygen concentration, the film was annealed in oxygen. A qualitative control of the oxygen concentration was carried out by the refractive index. In the initial, almost stoichiometric films we observed a 2.7-eV band in cathodoluminescence. Annealing in oxygen results in a considerable increase in its intensity, as well as in the appearance of new bands at 1.87, 2.14, 3.40, and 3.6 eV. The observed emission bands are supposed to be due to single oxygen vacancies and polyvacancies in hafnium oxide. The luminescence increase under annealing in an oxygen atmosphere may be a result of the emission quenching effect.

  20. Transparent conducting oxides (TCO{close_quote}s) for amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, S.; Liang, H.; Gordon, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    The stability of various textured tin oxide and zinc oxide transparent conductors was evaluated against annealing in air, in vacuum or exposed to hydrogen plasma. Only fluorine-doped zinc oxide deposited by atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) had stable electrical and optical properties under all conditions. Thin layers of ZnO or TiO{sub 2} greatly improved the plasma resistance of SnO{sub 2}. A new TCO material, niobium-doped titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}:Nb) was able to withstand hydrogen plasmas with only slight increases in its optical absorption and conductivity. Composite TCO{close_quote}s consisting of glass/SnO{sub 2}:F/TiO{sub 2}:Nb were shown to provide good electrical contact to amorphous silicon solar cells. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  1. Highly bendable characteristics of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide transistors embedded in a neutral plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Chang Bum; Na, HyungIl; Yoo, Soon Sung; Park, Kwon-Shik

    2015-11-01

    The electromechanical response of an amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) fabricated on a polyimide substrate was investigated as a function of the neutral axis location and strain history of the bending system. Here, we demonstrate the pronounced bending characteristics of a-IGZO TFTs and their backplane under extreme mechanical strain when they are embedded in a neutral plane (NP). After being subjected to tensile stress, the devices positioned near the NP were observed to function well against a cyclic bending stress of 2 mm radius with 100,000 times, while TFTs farther from the neutral surface exhibited modified electrical properties.

  2. Amorphous iron–chromium oxide nanoparticles with long-term stability

    SciTech Connect

    Iacob, Mihail; Cazacu, Maria; Turta, Constantin; Doroftei, Florica; Botko, Martin; Čižmár, Erik; Zeleňáková, Adriana; Feher, Alexander

    2015-05-15

    Highlights: • Fe–Cr oxide nanoparticles with pre-established metals ratio were obtained. • The amorphous state and its long-term stability were highlighted by X-ray diffraction. • The average diameter of dried nanoparticles was 3.5 nm, as was estimated by TEM, AFM. • In hexane dispersion, nanoparticles with diameter in the range 2.33–4.85 nm were found. • Superparamagnetic state of NPs co-exists with diamagnetism of the organic layer. - Abstract: Iron–chromium nanoparticles (NPs) were obtained through the thermal decomposition of μ{sub 3}-oxo heterotrinuclear (FeCr{sub 2}O) acetate in the presence of sunflower oil and dodecylamine (DA) as surfactants. The average diameter of the NPs was 3.5 nm, as estimated on the basis of transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy images. Both techniques revealed the formation of roughly approximated spheres with some irregularities and agglomerations in larger spherical assemblies of 50–100 nm. In hexane, NPs with diameters in the 2.33–4.85 nm range are individually dispersed, as emphasized by dynamic light scattering measurements. The amorphous nature of the product was emphasized by X-ray powder diffraction. The study of the magnetic properties shows the presence of superparamagnetic state of iron–chromium oxide NPs and the diamagnetic contribution from DA layer forming a shell of NPs.

  3. Stoichiometry determined exchange interactions in amorphous ternary transition metal oxides: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Shu-jun; Yan, Shi-shen Zhang, Yun-peng; Zhao, Ming-wen; Kang, Shi-shou; Mei, Liang-mo

    2014-07-28

    Amorphous transition metal oxides exhibit exotic transport and magnetic properties, while the absence of periodic structure has long been a major obstacle for the understanding of their electronic structure and exchange interaction. In this paper, we have formulated a theoretical approach, which combines the melt-quench approach and the spin dynamic Monte-Carlo simulations, and based on it, we explored amorphous Co{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}O{sub 1−y} ternary transition metal oxides. Our theoretical results reveal that the microstructure, the magnetic properties, and the exchange interactions of Co{sub 0.5}Zn{sub 0.5}O{sub 1−y} are strongly determined by the oxygen stoichiometry. In the oxygen-deficient sample (y > 0), we have observed the long-range ferromagnetic spin ordering which is associated with the non-stoichiometric cobalt-rich region rather than metallic clusters. On the other hand, the microstructure of stoichiometric sample takes the form of continuous random networks, and no long-range ferromagnetism has been observed in it. Magnetization characterization of experimental synthesized Co{sub 0.61}Zn{sub 0.39}O{sub 1−y} films verifies the relation between the spin ordering and the oxygen stoichiometry. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of electrical transport shows a typical feature of semiconductors, in agreement with our theoretical results.

  4. Optimizing amorphous indium zinc oxide film growth for low residual stress and high electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Mukesh; Sigdel, A. K.; Gennett, T.; Berry, J. J.; Perkins, J. D.; Ginley, D. S.; Packard, C. E.

    2013-10-01

    With recent advances in flexible electronics, there is a growing need for transparent conductors with optimum conductivity tailored to the application and nearly zero residual stress to ensure mechanical reliability. Within amorphous transparent conducting oxide (TCO) systems, a variety of sputter growth parameters have been shown to separately impact film stress and optoelectronic properties due to the complex nature of the deposition process. We apply a statistical design of experiments (DOE) approach to identify growth parameter-material property relationships in amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin films and observed large, compressive residual stresses in films grown under conditions typically used for the deposition of highly conductive samples. Power, growth pressure, oxygen partial pressure, and RF power ratio (RF/(RF + DC)) were varied according to a full-factorial test matrix and each film was characterized. The resulting regression model and analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant contributions to the residual stress from individual growth parameters as well as interactions of different growth parameters, but no conditions were found within the initial growth space that simultaneously produced low residual stress and high electrical conductivity. Extrapolation of the model results to lower oxygen partial pressures, combined with prior knowledge of conductivity-growth parameter relationships in the IZO system, allowed the selection of two promising growth conditions that were both empirically verified to achieve nearly zero residual stress and electrical conductivities >1480 S/cm. This work shows that a-IZO can be simultaneously optimized for high conductivity and low residual stress.

  5. Amorphous Vanadium Oxide/Carbon Composite Positive Electrode for Rechargeable Aluminum Battery.

    PubMed

    Chiku, Masanobu; Takeda, Hiroki; Matsumura, Shota; Higuchi, Eiji; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2015-11-11

    Amorphous vanadium oxide/carbon composite (V2O5/C) was first applied to the positive electrode active material for rechargeable aluminum batteries. Electrochemical properties of V2O5/C were investigated by cyclic voltammetry and charge-discharge tests. Reversible reduction/oxidation peaks were observed for the V2O5/C electrode and the rechargeable aluminum cell showed the maximum discharge capacity over 200 mAh g(-1) in the first discharging. The XPS analyses after discharging and the following charging exhibited that the redox of vanadium ion in the V2O5/C active material occurred during discharging and charging, and the average valence of V changed between 4.14 and 4.85. PMID:26489385

  6. Crystalline to amorphous phase transition of tin oxide nanocrystals induced by SHI at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Vijay; Pratap, Deepti; Jain, Anshul; Agarwal, D. C.; Sulania, I.; Tripathi, A.; Chaudhary, R. J.; Chauhan, R. S.

    2012-06-05

    Tin oxide (SnO{sub 2}) thin films were deposited using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique on Si substrates. The as-deposited films were irradiated using 100 MeV Ag ions at different fluences ranging from 3x10{sup 13} to 3x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2} at an incidence angle of 75 deg. with respect to surface normal at liquid nitrogen (LN2) temperature. The as-deposited and irradiated films have been characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques to study the modifications in structural and surface morphological properties. Nanocrystalline film become completely amorphous and nanograins of tin oxide disappeared from the surface as indicated by XRD spectra and AFM micrographs respectively.

  7. Hydrogen plasma treatment for improved conductivity in amorphous aluminum doped zinc tin oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Morales-Masis, M. Ding, L.; Dauzou, F.; Jeangros, Q.; Hessler-Wyser, A.; Nicolay, S.; Ballif, C.

    2014-09-01

    Improving the conductivity of earth-abundant transparent conductive oxides (TCOs) remains an important challenge that will facilitate the replacement of indium-based TCOs. Here, we show that a hydrogen (H{sub 2})-plasma post-deposition treatment improves the conductivity of amorphous aluminum-doped zinc tin oxide while retaining its low optical absorption. We found that the H{sub 2}-plasma treatment performed at a substrate temperature of 50 °C reduces the resistivity of the films by 57% and increases the absorptance by only 2%. Additionally, the low substrate temperature delays the known formation of tin particles with the plasma and it allows the application of the process to temperature-sensitive substrates.

  8. Electronic structure and transport measurements of amorphous transition-metal oxides: observation of Fermi glass behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, I.; Miao, F.; Yang, J. Joshua; Yi, W.; Strachan, J. P.; Zhang, M.-X.; Pickett, M. D.; Medeiros-Ribeiro, G.; Williams, R. Stanley

    2012-04-01

    We characterized the conduction mechanisms in thin sputtered films of three representative binary Me-O (Me=Ta, W, and Nb) systems as a function of oxygen content, by combining in situ chemical state and electronic band structure studies from X-ray photoemission with temperature-dependent transport measurements. Despite certain differences, these amorphous films all displayed Fermi glass behavior following an oxidation-induced transition from metallic to hopping conduction, down to a sub-percolation threshold. The electron localization estimated from the band structure was in good agreement with that from the transport measurements, and the two were used to construct phase diagrams of conduction in the degree of oxidation-conductivity coordinates, which should prove important in the design of resistive switching and other electronic devices.

  9. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility.

    PubMed

    Malasi, A; Taz, H; Farah, A; Patel, M; Lawrie, B; Pooser, R; Baddorf, A; Duscher, G; Kalyanaraman, R

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 10(4) S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm(2)/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergent semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. Since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned. PMID:26670421

  10. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-12-16

    We report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 104 S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergentmore » semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. In conclusion, since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned.« less

  11. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    PubMed Central

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, B.; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 104 S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergent semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. Since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned. PMID:26670421

  12. Novel Iron-based ternary amorphous oxide semiconductor with very high transparency, electronic conductivity, and mobility

    SciTech Connect

    Malasi, A.; Taz, H.; Farah, A.; Patel, M.; Lawrie, Benjamin; Pooser, R.; Baddorf, A.; Duscher, G.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2015-12-16

    We report that ternary metal oxides of type (Me)2O3 with the primary metal (Me) constituent being Fe (66 atomic (at.) %) along with the two Lanthanide elements Tb (10 at.%) and Dy (24 at.%) can show excellent semiconducting transport properties. Thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition at room temperature followed by ambient oxidation showed very high electronic conductivity (>5 × 104 S/m) and Hall mobility (>30 cm2/V-s). These films had an amorphous microstructure which was stable to at least 500 °C and large optical transparency with a direct band gap of 2.85 ± 0.14 eV. This material shows emergent semiconducting behavior with significantly higher conductivity and mobility than the constituent insulating oxides. In conclusion, since these results demonstrate a new way to modify the behaviors of transition metal oxides made from unfilled d- and/or f-subshells, a new class of functional transparent conducting oxide materials could be envisioned.

  13. Ni-B amorphous alloy nanoparticles modified nanoporous Cu toward ethanol oxidation in alkaline medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shu-Jin; Zheng, Yi-Xiong; Yuan, Lin-Shan; Zhao, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Nanoporous Cu (NPC) prepared by dealloying CuZn alloy is used as an economic substrate for the fabrication of Ni-B alloy (Ni-B/NPC) by ultrasonic-assisted electroless technique. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrate the NPC has a bicontinuous network structure and the Ni-B/NPC alloy is amorphous structure with highly dispersed nanoparticles. Electrochemical performances are measured by cyclic voltammetry (CV), chronoamperometry (CA) and linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). The results suggest that the Ni-B/NPC electrode prepared for 5 min shows the highest electrochemical activity and its redox species coverage and proton diffusion coefficient are remarkably improved compared with the bulk Ni. Ethanol oxidation at the Ni-B/NPC electrode suggests the onset oxidation potential has a negative shift of 52 mV and the oxidation peak current increases by 19.4 times, and apparent activation energy decreases 4.75-30.60 kJ mol-1 at the same potential, in comparison with the bulk Ni. Additionally, the reaction rate constant for ethanol oxidation at the Ni-B/NPC electrode is improved by about one order of magnitude relative to the reported value. Finally, the Ni-B/NPC electrode has a stable redox behavior after complete activation and superior catalytic stability for ethanol oxidation.

  14. Thermal Transport in Graphene Oxide – From Ballistic Extreme to Amorphous Limit

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Xin; Wu, Xufei; Zhang, Teng; Go, David B.; Luo, Tengfei

    2014-01-01

    Graphene oxide is being used in energy, optical, electronic and sensor devices due to its unique properties. However, unlike its counterpart – graphene – the thermal transport properties of graphene oxide remain unknown. In this work, we use large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with reactive potentials to systematically study the role of oxygen adatoms on the thermal transport in graphene oxide. For pristine graphene, highly ballistic thermal transport is observed. As the oxygen coverage increases, the thermal conductivity is significantly reduced. An oxygen coverage of 5% can reduce the graphene thermal conductivity by ~90% and a coverage of 20% lower it to ~8.8 W/mK. This value is even lower than the calculated amorphous limit (~11.6 W/mK for graphene), which is usually regarded as the minimal possible thermal conductivity of a solid. Analyses show that the large reduction in thermal conductivity is due to the significantly enhanced phonon scattering induced by the oxygen defects which introduce dramatic structural deformations. These results provide important insight to the thermal transport physics in graphene oxide and offer valuable information for the design of graphene oxide-based materials and devices. PMID:24468660

  15. Transparent megahertz circuits from solution-processed composite thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wan, Da; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Tangsheng; Duan, Xiangfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Liao, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (~10 cm2 V-1 s-1), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm2 V-1 s-1. On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (fT = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics.Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (~10 cm2 V-1 s-1), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm2 V-1 s-1. On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (fT = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00602g

  16. X-ray absorption fine structure study of amorphous metal oxide thin films prepared by photochemical metalorganic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, Simon; Daryl Crozier, E.; Gordon, Robert A.; Budnik, Peter S.; Hill, Ross H.

    2011-05-01

    The oxidation state and local geometry of the metal centers in amorphous thin films of Fe 2O 3 (Fe 3+ oxidation state), CoFe 2O 4 (Co 2+/Fe 3+ oxidation states), and Cr 2O 3 (Cr 3+ oxidation state) are determined using K edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The metal oxide thin films were prepared by the solid-state photochemical decomposition of the relevant metal 2-ethylhexanoates, spin cast as thin films. No peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns, indicating the metal oxides are X-ray amorphous. The oxidation state of the metals is determined from the edge position of the K absorption edges, and in the case of iron-containing samples, an analysis of the pre-edge peaks. In all cases, the EXAFS analysis indicates the first coordination shell consists of oxygen atoms in an octahedral geometry, with a second shell consisting of metals. No higher shells are observed beyond 3.5 Å for all samples, indicating the metal oxides are truly amorphous, consistent with X-ray diffraction results.

  17. X-ray absorption fine structure study of amorphous metal oxide thin films prepared by photochemical metalorganic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Trudel, Simon; Crozier, E. Daryl; Gordon, Robert A.; Budnik, Peter S.; Hill, Ross H.

    2011-09-06

    The oxidation state and local geometry of the metal centers in amorphous thin films of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Fe{sup 3+} oxidation state), CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (Co{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} oxidation states), and Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (Cr{sup 3+} oxidation state) are determined using K edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy. The metal oxide thin films were prepared by the solid-state photochemical decomposition of the relevant metal 2-ethylhexanoates, spin cast as thin films. No peaks are observed in the X-ray diffraction patterns, indicating the metal oxides are X-ray amorphous. The oxidation state of the metals is determined from the edge position of the K absorption edges, and in the case of iron-containing samples, an analysis of the pre-edge peaks. In all cases, the EXAFS analysis indicates the first coordination shell consists of oxygen atoms in an octahedral geometry, with a second shell consisting of metals. No higher shells are observed beyond 3.5 {angstrom} for all samples, indicating the metal oxides are truly amorphous, consistent with X-ray diffraction results.

  18. High temperature mechanical and oxidation behavior of amorphous silicon carbonitride processed via chemical nanoprecursor route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Sandeep Rameshchandra

    Polymer precursor derived ceramics have been studied since last four decades. They promise higher purity and excellent properties with lower processing temperatures in comparison to the traditional route of processing ceramics from powders. The main focus in the literature for polymer derived materials has been on the study of cross linking and pyrolysis of precursors. Relatively fewer reports are available on processing bulk components and property characterization. The polymer precursor determines the nanostructure of the resulting amorphous material and is therefore termed nanoprecursor. In the present dissertation the processing of nanoprecursor to obtain bulk ceramics is studied, with development of an innovative process to fabricate dense defect free materials. The properties of these defect free materials are characterized. Commercially available oligo-ureamethylvinylsilazane (Ceraset(TM)-SN) was used in the present dissertation. The pyrolysis at 1000°C in nitrogen or argon resulted in an amorphous ceramic with chemical composition SiC 0.86N0.82. The specimens obtained by the new process are called cast specimens. Mechanical properties such as flexural strength, hardness, Young s modulus and fracture toughness were determined. The cast specimens showed much better properties as compared to nanoprecursor derived ceramics processed by methods published in the literature. Nanoprecursor derived SiCN show excellent creep resistance at 1350°C at uniaxial stresses ranging from 25--100 MPa. Though a small deformation was measured (~2% in 7 hours), careful analysis showed that this deformation was not creep deformation. The deformation was sintering like, but resulted mainly from the reduction of the activation volume of the amorphous material. The oxidation behavior of the silicon carbonitrides was studied. The material showed passive oxidation, in air at temperature of 1350°C and exhibited parabolic kinetics. Growth rate of the oxidation scale was about a factor of 4 higher than the lowest reported value of CVD Si3N 4 and SiC. Overall the nanoprecursor derived SiCN exhibits excellent thermo-mechanical properties and is a potential candidate for high temperature structural applications.

  19. Thermodynamic stability of intergranular amorphous films in bismuth-doped zinc oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Chiang, Y.M.

    1998-01-01

    It is shown that the solid-state equilibrium configuration of Bi-doped ZnO grain boundaries is a nanometer-thick amorphous film. Polycrystalline Bi-doped ZnO was investigated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The equilibrium state below the eutectic temperature and at 1 atm total pressure was approached from three different routes: samples were cooled from above the eutectic temperature (T{sub eutectic} = 740 C), processed entirely below the eutectic temperature, and desegregated by high applied pressure (1 GPa) followed by annealing at ambient pressure to restore segregation. In all instances, the final state is an amorphous intergranular film 1.0--1.5 nm in thickness. The results show that a thin intergranular film in this system has lower free energy than the crystal-crystal grain boundary. The implications of these results for creation of electrically active grain boundaries in zinc oxide varistors are discussed.

  20. Significant electrical control of amorphous oxide thin film transistors by an ultrathin Ti surface polarity modifier

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byungsu; Choi, Yonghyuk; Shin, Seokyoon; Jeon, Heeyoung; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-01-27

    We demonstrate an enhanced electrical stability through a Ti oxide (TiO{sub x}) layer on the amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) back-channel; this layer acts as a surface polarity modifier. Ultrathin Ti deposited on the a-IGZO existed as a TiO{sub x} thin film, resulting in oxygen cross-binding with a-IGZO surface. The electrical properties of a-IGZO thin film transistors (TFTs) with TiO{sub x} depend on the surface polarity change and electronic band structure evolution. This result indicates that TiO{sub x} on the back-channel serves as not only a passivation layer protecting the channel from ambient molecules or process variables but also a control layer of TFT device parameters.

  1. Performance enhancement of amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors by microwave annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; He, Jian; Li, Wei; Paine, David C.

    2015-12-01

    The effect of microwave annealing on the field effect mobility and threshold voltage of amorphous indium zinc oxide (a-IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) is reported. A control device with traditional hotplate annealing at 200 °C for 1 h was applied for comparison. The results show that both microwave annealing and low-temperature hotplate annealing increase the field effect mobility from 12.3 cm2/V s in as-deposited state to ∼19 cm2/V s in annealed state. However, the negative shift in threshold voltage with microwave annealing (from 0.23 V to -2.86 V) is smaller than that with low-temperature hotplate annealing (to -9 V). A mechanism related with the electrical properties of a-IZO material is proposed. This rapid low-temperature annealing technology makes a-IZO TFTs promising for use in flexible, transparent electronics.

  2. Contact resistance improvement using interfacial silver nanoparticles in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Rui; He, Jian; Song, Yang; Li, Wei; Zaslavsky, A.; Paine, D. C.

    2014-09-01

    We describe an approach to reduce the contact resistance at compositional conducting/semiconducting indium-zinc-oxide (IZO) homojunctions used for contacts in thin film transistors (TFTs). By introducing silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at the homojunction interface between the conducting IZO electrodes and the amorphous IZO channel, we reduce the specific contact resistance, obtained by transmission line model measurements, down to ∼10{sup −2 }Ω cm{sup 2}, ∼3 orders of magnitude lower than either NP-free homojunction contacts or solid Ag metal contacts. The resulting back-gated TFTs with Ag NP contacts exhibit good field effect mobility of ∼27 cm{sup 2}/V s and an on/off ratio >10{sup 7}. We attribute the improved contact resistance to electric field concentration by the Ag NPs.

  3. A novel composite material based on antimony(III) oxide and amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Zemnukhova, Ludmila A.; Panasenko, Alexander E.

    2013-05-01

    The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. It has been shown that the composition of the material is influenced by the ratio of the initial components and the acidity of the reaction medium. The morphology of the material particles and its specific surface area have been determined. The thermal and optic properties were also investigated. - Graphical abstract: Novel composite material containing amorphous silica and crystal antimony(III) oxide has been synthesized by hydrolysis of SbCl₃ and Na₂SiO₃ in an aqueous medium. Highlights: • The composite material nSb₂O₃·mSiO₂·xH₂O was prepared in an aqueous medium. • The composition of the material is controllable by a synthesis conditions. • The morphology of the material and its optic properties have been determined.

  4. Permanent optical doping of amorphous metal oxide semiconductors by deep ultraviolet irradiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Hyungtak; Cho, Young-Je; Bobade, Santosh M.; Park, Kyoung-Youn; Choi, Duck-Kyun; Kim, Jinwoo; Lee, Jaegab

    2010-05-31

    We report an investigation of two photon ultraviolet (UV) irradiation induced permanent n-type doping of amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) at room temperature. The photoinduced excess electrons were donated to change the Fermi-level to a conduction band edge under the UV irradiation, owing to the hole scavenging process at the oxide interface. The use of optically n-doped a-IGZO channel increased the carrier density to approx10{sup 18} cm{sup -3} from the background level of 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, as well as the comprehensive enhancement upon UV irradiation of a-IGZO thin film transistor parameters, such as an on-off current ratio at approx10{sup 8} and field-effect mobility at 22.7 cm{sup 2}/V s.

  5. Amorphous silicon waveguides grown by PECVD on an Indium Tin Oxide buried contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Sandro; Della Corte, Francesco G.; Summonte, Caterina

    2012-06-01

    Low-loss hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) waveguides were realized by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) on a transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layer which is intended to provide the buried contact in active devices, e.g. switches and modulators. In particular we propose a technological solution to overcome both the strong reduction in optical transmittance due to the very high extinction coefficient of metal contacts and, at the same time, the optical scattering induced by the texturization effect induced in α-Si:H films grown on TCO. The realized waveguides were characterized in terms of propagation losses at 1550 nm and surface roughness. The experimental performances have been compared to those obtained through calculations using an optical simulation package. The results are found to be in agreement with the experimental data.

  6. Mössbauer study of electrochemically deposited amorphous iron-sulfide-oxide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichimura, Masaya; Kajima, Takahiro; Kawai, Shoichi; Mibu, Ko

    2016-03-01

    Iron-sulfide-oxide thin films, which are promising candidates for solar cell materials, were deposited by electrochemical deposition. As-deposited and annealed films were characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman scattering at room temperature. The as-deposited film is amorphous, and the oxygen content is about 1/4 of the sulfur content (S/Fe ≈ 1.5, O/Fe ≈ 0.4). The Mössbauer spectrum for the as-deposited film is a doublet with a broad line profile having hyperfine parameters similar to those of FeS2 pyrite or marcasite. This indicates that Fe atoms are in the Fe2+ low-spin state, as in FeS2.

  7. Stoichiometric analysis of compositionally graded combinatorial amorphous thin film oxides using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Widjonarko, N. Edwin; Perkins, John D.; Leisch, Jennifer E.; Parilla, Philip A.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.; Berry, Joseph J.

    2010-07-15

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a recently developed locally destructive elemental analysis technique that can be used to analyze solid, liquid, and gaseous samples. In the system explored here, a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser ablates a small amount of the sample and spectral emission from the plume is analyzed using a set of synchronized spectrometers. We explore the use of LIBS to map the stoichiometry of compositionally graded amorphous indium zinc oxide thin-film libraries. After optimization of the experimental parameters (distance between lens and samples, spot size on the samples, etc.), the LIBS system was calibrated against inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy which resulted in a very consistent LIBS-based elemental analysis. Various parameters that need to be watched closely in order to produce consistent results are discussed. We also compare LIBS and x-ray fluorescence as techniques for the compositional mapping of libraries.

  8. Anodic Oxidation in Aluminum Electrode by Using Hydrated Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Film as Solid Electrolyte under High Electric Field.

    PubMed

    Yao, Manwen; Chen, Jianwen; Su, Zhen; Peng, Yong; Zou, Pei; Yao, Xi

    2016-05-01

    Dense and nonporous amorphous aluminum oxide (AmAO) film was deposited onto platinized silicon substrate by sol-gel and spin coating technology. The evaporated aluminum film was deposited onto the AmAO film as top electrode. The hydrated AmAO film was utilized as a solid electrolyte for anodic oxidation of the aluminum electrode (Al) film under high electric field. The hydrated AmAO film was a high efficiency electrolyte, where a 45 nm thick Al film was anodized completely on a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film. The current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and breakdown phenomena of a dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film with a 150 nm thick Al electrode pad were studied in this work. Breakdown voltage of the dry and hydrated 210 nm thick AmAO film were 85 ± 3 V (405 ± 14 MV m(-1)) and 160 ± 5 V (762 ± 24 MV m(-1)), respectively. The breakdown voltage of the hydrated AmAO film increased about twice, owing to the self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction). As an intuitive phenomenon of the self-healing behavior, priority anodic oxidation phenomena was observed in a 210 nm thick hydrated AmAO film with a 65 nm thick Al electrode pad. The results suggested that self-healing behavior (anodic oxidation reaction) was occurring nearby the defect regions of the films during I-V test. It was an effective electrical self-healing method, which would be able to extend to many other simple and complex oxide dielectrics and various composite structures. PMID:27070754

  9. Electron-beam-induced topographical, chemical, and structural patterning of amorphous titanium oxide films.

    PubMed

    Kern, P; Müller, Y; Patscheider, J; Michler, J

    2006-11-30

    Electrolytically deposited amorphous TiO2 films on steel are remarkably sensitive to electron beam (e-beam) irradiation at moderate energies at 20 keV, resulting in controlled local oxide reduction and crystallization, opening the possibility for local topographical, chemical, and structural modifications within a biocompatible, amorphous, and semiconducting matrix. The sensitivity is shown to vary significantly with the annealing temperature of as-deposited films. Well-defined irradiation conditions in terms of probe current IP (5 microA) and beam size were achieved with an electron probe microanalyzer. As shown by atomic force and optical microscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, wavelength-dispersive X-ray (WDX), and Auger analyses, e-beam exposure below 1 Acm-2 immediately leads to electron-stimulated oxygen desorption, resulting in a well-defined volume loss primarily limited to the irradiated zone under the electron probe and in a blue color shift in this zone because of the presence of Ti2O3. Irradiation at 5 Acm(-2) (IP = 5 microA) results in local crystallization into anatase phase within 1 s of exposure and in reduction to TiO after an extended exposure of 60 s. Further reduction to the metallic state could be observed after 60 s of exposure at approximately 160 Acm(-2). The local reduction could be qualitatively sensed with WDX analysis and Auger line scans. An estimation of the film temperature in the beam center indicates that crystallization occurs at less than 150 degrees C, well below the atmospheric crystallization temperature of the present films. The high e-beam sensitivity in combination with the well-defined volume loss from oxygen desorption allows for precise electron lithographic topographical patterning of the present oxides. Irradiation effects leading to the observed reduction and crystallization phenomena under moderate electron energies are discussed. PMID:17125324

  10. Temperature-dependent minority carrier lifetime of crystalline silicon wafers passivated by high quality amorphous silicon oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaba, Masahiro; Todoroki, Soichiro; Nakada, Kazuyoshi; Miyajima, Shinsuke

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effects of annealing on the temperature-dependent minority carrier lifetime of a crystalline silicon wafer passivated by hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide. The annealing significantly affects the lifetime and its temperature dependence. Our device simulations clearly indicate that valence band offset significantly affects the temperature dependence. We also found a slight increase in the interface defect density after annealing.

  11. Mesostructured amorphous manganese oxides: facile synthesis and highly durable elimination of low-concentration NO at room temperature in air.

    PubMed

    Du, Yanyan; Hua, Zile; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Meiying; Wang, Min; Wang, Jin; Cui, Xiangzhi; Zhang, Lingxia; Chen, Hangrong; Shi, Jianlin

    2015-04-01

    At a high space velocity of 120 000 mL g(-1) h(-1) and a relative humidity of 50-90%, 98% removal of 10 ppm NO has been achieved for over 237 h and no sign of deactivation was observed with mesostructured amorphous manganese oxides (AMO), due to the prevention of the catalyst active sites from deactivation. PMID:25728967

  12. Carrier Transport at Metal/Amorphous Hafnium-Indium-Zinc Oxide Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seoungjun; Gil, Youngun; Choi, Youngran; Kim, Kyoung-Kook; Yun, Hyung Joong; Son, Byoungchul; Choi, Chel-Jong; Kim, Hyunsoo

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, the carrier transport mechanism at the metal/amorphous hafnium-indium-zinc oxide (a-HIZO) interface was investigated. The contact properties were found to be predominantly affected by the degree of interfacial reaction between the metals and a-HIZO; that is, a higher tendency to form metal oxide phases leads to excellent Ohmic contact via tunneling, which is associated with the generated donor-like oxygen vacancies. In this case, the Schottky-Mott theory is not applicable. Meanwhile, metals that do not form interfacial metal oxide, such as Pd, follow the Schottky-Mott theory, which results in rectifying Schottky behavior. The Schottky characteristics of the Pd contact to a-HIZO can be explained in terms of the barrier inhomogeneity model, which yields a mean barrier height of 1.40 eV and a standard deviation of 0.14 eV. The work function of a-HIZO could therefore be estimated as 3.7 eV, which is in good agreement with the ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (3.68 eV). Our findings will be useful for establishing a strategy to form Ohmic or Schottky contacts to a-HIZO films, which will be essential for fabricating reliable high-performance electronic devices. PMID:26411354

  13. A tunable amorphous p-type ternary oxide system: The highly mismatched alloy of copper tin oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isherwood, Patrick J. M.; Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron; Walls, John M.

    2015-09-01

    The approach of combining two mismatched materials to form an amorphous alloy was used to synthesise ternary oxides of CuO and SnO2. These materials were analysed across a range of compositions, and the electronic structure was modelled using density functional theory. In contrast to the gradual reduction in optical band gap, the films show a sharp reduction in both transparency and electrical resistivity with copper contents greater than 50%. Simulations indicate that this change is caused by a transition from a dominant Sn 5s to Cu 3d contribution to the upper valence band. A corresponding decrease in energetic disorder results in increased charge percolation pathways: a "compositional mobility edge." Contributions from Cu(II) sub band-gap states are responsible for the reduction in optical transparency.

  14. A possible method for the characterization of amorphous slags: Recovery of refractory metal oxides from tin slags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaballah, I.; Allain, E.; Meyer-Joly, M.-Ch.; Malau, K.

    1992-06-01

    As X-ray, neutron scattering, and vibrational spectroscopy are not useful for amorphous solids characterization, microprobe analysis is used in determining the composition of these materials. The correlation coefficient matrix between the slag’s elements is obtained by a simple computer program which is commercially available. This matrix is employed for the constitution of the neighborhood of an element, which may be called the “pseudo-structure” (PS). The proposed method is a statistical view of the probable associations between the elements. It gives an insight into the amorphous solids' structure. The lixiviation of tin slags in order to recover the refractory metals they contain is used to illustrate the importance of the PS. A multistage acid-basic (AB) leaching leads to the dissolution of the matrix composed of Ca, Al, Fe, Mn, Si, ... oxides and the concentration of refractory metal oxides in the residues. The optimum tantalum and niobium recovery rates are 93 and 78 pct, respectively. The results of this research indicate that the leaching of the amorphous tin slag is a structure-sensitive operation. However, one may emphasize that the PS of amorphous solids is a simplification of the real neighborhood of ele-ments. It may be considered as a complement to other methods of investigation of the amorphous solids and may facilitate the hydrometallurgical process planning.

  15. Amorphous cobalt potassium phosphate microclusters as efficient photoelectrochemical water oxidation catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ye; Zhao, Chunsong; Dai, Xuezeng; Lin, Hong; Cui, Bai; Li, Jianbao

    2013-12-01

    A novel amorphous cobalt potassium phosphate hydrate compound (KCoPO4·H2O) is identified to be active photocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER) to facilitate hydrogen generation from water photolysis. It has been synthesized through a facile and cost-effective solution-based precipitation method using earth-abundant materials. Its highly porous structure and large surface areas are found to be responsible for the excellent electrochemical performance featuring a low OER onset at ˜550 mVSCE and high current density in alkaline condition. Unlike traditional cobalt-based spinel oxides (Co3O4, NiCo2O4) and phosphate (Co-Pi, Co(PO3)2) electrocatalysts, with proper energy band alignment for light-assisted water oxidation, cobalt potassium phosphate hydrate also exhibits robust visible-light response, generating a photocurrent density of ˜200 μA cm-2 at 0.7 VSCE. This catalyst could thus be considered as a promising candidate to perform photoelectrochemical water splitting.

  16. Preparation and magnetic properties of thin films containing mixtures of superparamagnetic nanocrystals encapsulated in amorphous metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trudel, Simon; Hill, Ross H.

    2007-03-01

    Nanocomposite thin films consisting of 1:1 mixtures of pre-formed CoFe 2O 4 and γ-Fe 2O 3 nanocrystals (NCs) encapsulated in amorphous aluminum oxide or titanium oxide have been prepared. The nanocrystals were prepared by the thermolysis of iron(III) acetylacetonate and cobalt(II) acetylacetonate in the presence of surfactants. The obtained NCs were codissolved in hexane solutions of either Al(OBu) 2(EtOacac) or Ti(O iPr) 2(acac) 2 and spin cast as thin films. Upon UV photolysis, the organic ligand was ejected from the film as volatile photoproducts, yielding amorphous metal oxide matrices which contain encapsulated nanocrystals. Zero-field cooled magnetization measurements confirm the presence of both nanocrystals, and show the presence of interparticle interactions.

  17. Lithium Storage in Microstructures of Amorphous Mixed-Valence Vanadium Oxide as Anode Materials.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Di; Zheng, Lirong; Xiao, Ying; Wang, Xia; Cao, Minhua

    2015-07-01

    Constructing three-dimensional (3 D) nanostructures with excellent structural stability is an important approach for realizing high-rate capability and a high capacity of the electrode materials in lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). Herein, we report the synthesis of hydrangea-like amorphous mixed-valence VOx microspheres (a-VOx MSs) through a facile solvothermal method followed by controlled calcination. The resultant hydrangea-like a-VOx MSs are composed of intercrossed nanosheets and, thus, construct a 3 D network structure. Upon evaluation as an anode material for LIBs, the a-VOx MSs show excellent lithium-storage performance in terms of high capacity, good rate capability, and long-term stability upon extended cycling. Specifically, they exhibit very stable cycling behavior with a highly reversible capacity of 1050 mA h g(-1) at a rate of 0.1 A g(-1) after 140 cycles. They also show excellent rate capability, with a capacity of 390 mA h g(-1) at a rate as high as 10 A g(-1) . Detailed investigations on the morphological and structural changes of the a-VOx MSs upon cycling demonstrated that the a-VOx MSs went through modification of the local VO coordinations accompanied with the formation of a higher oxidation state of V, but still with an amorphous state throughout the whole discharge/charge process. Moreover, the a-VOx MSs can buffer huge volumetric changes during the insertion/extraction process, and at the same time they remain intact even after 200 cycles of the charge/discharge process. Thus, these microspheres may be a promising anode material for LIBs. PMID:26018759

  18. Magnetic properties of Mn-oxide nanoparticles dispersed in an amorphous SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milivojević, D.; Babić-Stojić, B.; Jokanović, V.; Jagličić, Z.; Makovec, D.

    2011-03-01

    Samples of Mn-oxide nanoparticles dispersed in an amorphous SiO2 matrix with manganese concentration 0.7 and 3 at% have been synthesized by a sol-gel method. Transmission electron microscopy analysis has shown that the samples contain agglomerates of amorphous silica particles 10-20 nm in size. In silica matrix two types of Mn-rich particles are dispersed, smaller nanoparticles with dimensions between 3 and 10 nm, and larger crystalline areas consisting of aggregates of the smaller nanoparticles. High-temperature magnetic susceptibility study reveals that dominant magnetic phase at higher temperatures is λ-MnO2. At temperatures below TC=43 K strong ferrimagnetism originating from the minor Mn3O4 phase masks the relatively weak magnetism of λ-MnO2 with antiferromagnetic interactions. Magnetic field dependence of the maximum in the zero-field-cooled magnetization for both the samples in the vicinity of 40 K, and a frequency shift of the real component of the ac magnetic susceptibility in the sample with 3 at% Mn suggest that the magnetic moments of the smaller Mn3O4 nanoparticles with dimensions below 10 nm are exposed to thermally activated blocking process just below the Curie temperature TC. Appearance of a maximum in the zero-field-cooled magnetization for both the samples below 10 K indicates possible spin glass freezing of the magnetic moments at low temperatures which might occur in the geometrically frustrated Mn sublattice of the λ-MnO2 crystal structure.

  19. Water oxidation catalysis: an amorphous quaternary Ba-Sr-Co-Fe oxide as a promising electrocatalyst for the oxygen-evolution reaction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cuijuan; Berlinguette, Curtis P; Trudel, Simon

    2016-01-25

    We present an amorphous quaternary Ba-Sr-Co-Fe oxide (a-BSCF) with a specific stoichiometry, readily fabricated via a photochemical decomposition method. a-BSCF demonstrates high catalytic activity towards the oxygen-evolution reaction (OER). PMID:26659269

  20. In situ study of the crystallization from amorphous to cubic zirconium oxide : rieetveld and reverse monte carlo analyses.

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, F.; Chupas, P. J.; Lui, S. L. A.; Hanson, J. C.; Caliebe, W. A.; Lee, P. L.; Chan, S.-W.; X-Ray Science Division; Columbia Univ.; State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook; BNL

    2007-01-01

    The amorphous-to-cubic (a-c) crystallization of nanoZrO{sub 2} in a reducing environment was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Rietveld analysis was performed to study the changes in crystallite size and lattice parameter as the cubic phase emerged. The pair distribution function (PDF) was obtained from the Fourier transformation of the normalized XRD patterns. A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation was applied to provide details of the local structure during the crystallization process as well as to calculate partial PDFs of Zr-Zr and Zr-O during the crystallization. The number of Zr's next-nearest neighbors of Zr remains 12, whereas the number of O's as nearest neighbors of Zr increases from 6.7 to 7.3 as the material evolves from an amorphous into a cubic structure, suggesting the persistence of a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. These simulated atomic structures show that the local structure of the amorphous phase bears resemblance to the short-range arrangement of cubic ZrO{sub 2}, consistent with the results of X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at Zr L{sub II} and L{sub III}. The amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation is affected by the environment. Under an oxidizing condition, the amorphous phase crystallizes directly to tetragonal and subsequently to monoclinic zirconia.

  1. In situ Study of the Crystallization from Amorphous to Cubic Zirconium Oxide: Rietveld and Reverse Monte Carlo Analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,F.; Chupas, P.; Lui, S.; Hanson, J.; Caliebe, W.; Lee, P.; Chan, S.

    2007-01-01

    The amorphous-to-cubic (a-c) crystallization of nanoZrO{sub 2} in a reducing environment was studied by synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Rietveld analysis was performed to study the changes in crystallite size and lattice parameter as the cubic phase emerged. The pair distribution function (PDF) was obtained from the Fourier transformation of the normalized XRD patterns. A reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulation was applied to provide details of the local structure during the crystallization process as well as to calculate partial PDFs of Zr-Zr and Zr-O during the crystallization. The number of Zr's next-nearest neighbors of Zr remains 12, whereas the number of O's as nearest neighbors of Zr increases from 6.7 to 7.3 as the material evolves from an amorphous into a cubic structure, suggesting the persistence of a high concentration of oxygen vacancies. These simulated atomic structures show that the local structure of the amorphous phase bears resemblance to the short-range arrangement of cubic ZrO2, consistent with the results of X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) at Zr L{sub II} and L{sub III}. The amorphous-to-crystalline phase transformation is affected by the environment. Under an oxidizing condition, the amorphous phase crystallizes directly to tetragonal and subsequently to monoclinic zirconia.

  2. Codoping of zinc and tungsten for practical high-performance amorphous indium-based oxide thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kizu, Takio; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Miyanaga, Miki; Awata, Hideaki; Nabatame, Toshihide; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2015-09-01

    Using practical high-density sputtering targets, we investigated the effect of Zn and W codoping on the thermal stability of the amorphous film and the electrical characteristics in thin film transistors. zinc oxide is a potentially conductive component while W oxide is an oxygen vacancy suppressor in oxide films. The oxygen vacancy from In-O and Zn-O was suppressed by the W additive because of the high oxygen bond dissociation energy. With controlled codoping of W and Zn, we demonstrated a high mobility with a maximum mobility of 40 cm2/V s with good stability under a negative bias stress in InWZnO thin film transistors.

  3. Stabilization of FGD gypsum for its disposal in landfills using amorphous aluminium oxide as a fluoride retention additive.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Ayuso, E; Querol, X

    2007-09-01

    The applicability of amorphous aluminium oxide as a fluoride retention additive to flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) gypsum was studied as a way of stabilizing this by-product for its disposal in landfills. Using a batch method the sorption behaviour of amorphous aluminium oxide was evaluated at the pH (about 6.5) and background electrolyte conditions (high chloride and sulphate concentrations) found in FGD gypsum leachates. It was found that fluoride sorption on amorphous aluminium oxide was a very fast process with equilibrium attained within the first half an hour of interaction. The sorption process was well described by the Langmuir model, offering a maximum fluoride sorption capacity of 61.7 mg g(-1). Fluoride sorption was unaffected by chloride co-existing ions, while slightly decreased (about 20%) by competing sulphate ions. The use of amorphous aluminium oxide in the stabilization of FGD gypsum proved to greatly decreased its fluoride leachable content (in the range 5-75% for amorphous aluminium oxide doses of 0.1-2%, as determined by the European standard EN 12457-4 [EN-12457-4 Characterization of waste-leaching-compliance test for leaching of granular waste materials and sludges-Part 4: one stage batch test at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg for materials with particle size below 10mm (without or with size reduction)]), assuring the characterization of this by-product as a waste acceptable at landfills of non-hazardous wastes according to the Council Decision 2003/33/EC [Council Decision 2003/33/EC of 19 December 2002. Establishing criteria and procedures for the acceptance of waste at landfills pursuant to Article 16 of and Annex II to Directive 1999/31/EC] on landfill of wastes. Furthermore, as derived from column leaching studies, the proposed stabilization system proved to be highly effective in simulated conditions of disposal, displaying a fluoride leaching reduction value about 81% for an amorphous aluminium oxide added amount of 2%. PMID:17509651

  4. Controllable film densification and interface flatness for high-performance amorphous indium oxide based thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Ou-Yang, Wei E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Mitoma, Nobuhiko; Kizu, Takio; Gao, Xu; Lin, Meng-Fang; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Nabatame, Toshihide

    2014-10-20

    To avoid the problem of air sensitive and wet-etched Zn and/or Ga contained amorphous oxide transistors, we propose an alternative amorphous semiconductor of indium silicon tungsten oxide as the channel material for thin film transistors. In this study, we employ the material to reveal the relation between the active thin film and the transistor performance with aid of x-ray reflectivity study. By adjusting the pre-annealing temperature, we find that the film densification and interface flatness between the film and gate insulator are crucial for achieving controllable high-performance transistors. The material and findings in the study are believed helpful for realizing controllable high-performance stable transistors.

  5. Short Range Order Structural Investigations of Several Amorphous Lanthanide Hydrous Oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschnitzer, Dale Hugo

    Seven amorphous lanthanide hydrous oxides, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium, were synthesized in order to study their short range order. Synthesis procedures and peripheral investigations including X-ray powder diffraction, TGA, DSC, IR, and SEM are discussed in detail. The theory behind the X-ray scattering techniques and a detailed discussion of data treatment and normalization are also presented. A modified Siemens -K805 type F horizontal goniometer diffractometer with a custom monochromator and Kevex Si(Li) center-of-gravity solid state detector was employed for the data collection and is described in detail. The lanthanide systems Eu through Yb were nine -coordinated and the lutetium sample had a coordination number between 6 and 7 (6.4). Calculated Ln-O distances ranged from 2.46 down to 2.34 A. Also reported are Ln -Ln and O-O distances and O-Ln-O angles. Scattering profiles, interference functions, radial distribution functions, and pair functions are displayed for each of the studied compounds. In addition, structural modeling was performed to try to classify the coordination geometry. The systems Eu through Yb appear to closely match the tricapped trigonal prism geometry, D _{rm 3h}, of their corresponding trihydroxide counterparts. The lutetium sample appears to be a mixture of both six-coordinated octahedrally oriented metal centers and seven-coordinated monocapped trigonal prism oriented metal centers. The modeling techniques, as well as their pros and cons, are discussed.

  6. Short range order structural investigations of several amorphous lanthanide hydrous oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Leschnitzer, D.H.

    1992-01-01

    Seven amorphous lanthanide oxides, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, thulium, ytterbium, and lutetium, were synthesized in order to study their short range order. Synthesis procedures and peripheral investigations including X-ray powder diffraction, TGA, DSC, IR, and SEM are discussed in detail. The theory behind the X-ray scattering techniques and a detailed discussion of data treatment and normalization are also presented. A modified Siemens-K805 type F horizontal goniometer diffractometer with a custom monochromator and Kevex Si(Li) center-of-gravity solid state detector was employed for the data collection and is described in detail. The lanthanide systems Eu through Yb were nine-coordinated and the lutetium sample had a coordination number between 6 and 7 (6.4). Calculated Ln-O distances ranged from 2.46 down to 2.34 [angstrom]. Also reported are Ln-Ln and O-O distances and O-Ln-O angles. Scattering profiles, interference functions, radial distribution functions, and pair functions are displayed for each of the studied compounds. In addition, structural modeling was performed to try to classify the coordination geometry. The systems Eu through Yb appear to closely match the tricapped trigonal prism geometry, D[sub 3h], of their corresponding trihydroxide counterparts. The lutetium sample appears to be a mixture of both six-coordinated octahedrally oriented metal centers and seven-coordinated monocapped trigonal prism oriented metal centers. The modeling techniques, as well as their pros and cons, are discussed.

  7. Lithium perchlorate ion pairing in a model of amorphous polyethylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Halley, J.W.; Duan, Y.; Curtiss, L.A.; Baboul, A.G.

    1999-08-01

    We report a molecular dynamics study of pairing and dynamics of lithium cation and perchlorate anion in a previously reported model of amorphous polyethylene oxide. We are particularly interested in the question of whether these ions pair in the model, as previously reported experimentally. We calculate the potential of mean force between a lithium and perchlorate ion in the system for several temperatures when a pair of ions is at various separation distances in our model. We find evidence for two minima in the potential of mean force, one at lithium{endash}chlorine separations of 3.5 {Angstrom} and about 6.5 {Angstrom}. We studied the same system with five ion pairs in the system and again find two minima at the same separation distances but in this case there is evidence of entropic effects in the binding free energy of the pairs at 3.5 {Angstrom}. A study of radial distribution functions permits us to deduce information concerning the structure of the paired states. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  8. Moisture-assisted cracking and atomistic crack path meandering in oxidized hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Yusuke; King, Sean W.; Oliver, Mark; Dauskardt, Reinhold H.

    2013-02-01

    Moisture-assisted cracking of silica-derived materials results from a stress-enhanced reaction between water molecules and moisture-sensitive SiOSi bonds at the crack tip. We report the moisture-assisted cracking of oxidized hydrogenated amorphous silicon carbide films (a-SiCO:H) consisting of both moisture-sensitive SiOSi bonds and moisture-insensitive bonds. The sensitivity of the films to moisture-assisted cracking was observed to increase with the SiOSi bond density, ρSiOSi. This sensitivity was correlated with the number of SiOSi bonds ruptured, NSiOSi, through an atomistic kinetic fracture model. By comparing these correlated NSiOSi values with those estimated by a planar crack model, we demonstrated that at the atomistic scale the crack path meanders three-dimensionally so as to intercept the most SiOSi bonds. This atomistic crack path meandering was verified by a computational method based on graph theory and molecular dynamics. Our findings could provide a basis for better understanding of moisture-assisted cracking in materials consisting of other types of moisture-sensitive and moisture-insensitive bonds.

  9. Hydrogen evolution from a copper(I) oxide photocathode coated with an amorphous molybdenum sulphide catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-Guio, Carlos G.; Tilley, S. David; Vrubel, Heron; Grtzel, Michael; Hu, Xile

    2014-01-01

    Concerns over climate change resulting from accumulation of anthropogenic carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and the uncertainty in the amount of recoverable fossil fuel reserves are driving forces for the development of renewable, carbon-neutral energy technologies. A promising clean solution is photoelectrochemical water splitting to produce hydrogen using abundant solar energy. Here we present a simple and scalable technique for the deposition of amorphous molybdenum sulphide films as hydrogen evolution catalyst onto protected copper(I) oxide films. The efficient extraction of excited electrons by the conformal catalyst film leads to photocurrents of up to -5.7mAcm-2 at 0V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode (pH 1.0) under simulated AM 1.5 solar illumination. Furthermore, the photocathode exhibits enhanced stability under acidic environments, whereas photocathodes with platinum nanoparticles as catalyst deactivate more rapidly under identical conditions. The work demonstrates the potential of earth-abundant light-harvesting material and catalysts for solar hydrogen production.

  10. A physics-based model of threshold voltage for amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chi-Le; Chen, Wei-Feng; Zhou, Lei; Wu, Wei-Jing; Xu, Miao; Wang, Lei; Peng, Jun-Biao

    2016-03-01

    In the application of the Lambert W function, the surface potential for amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (AOS TFTs) under the subthreshold region is approximated by an asymptotic equation only considering the tail states. While the surface potential under the above-threshold region is approximated by another asymptotic equation only considering the free carriers. The intersection point between these two asymptotic equations represents the transition from the weak accumulation to the strong accumulation. Therefore, the gate voltage corresponding to the intersection point is defined as threshold voltage of AOS TFTs. As a result, an analytical expression for the threshold voltage is derived from this novel definition. It is shown that the threshold voltage achieved by the proposed physics-based model is agreeable with that extracted by the conventional linear extrapolation method. Furthermore, we find that the free charge per unit area in the channel starts increasing sharply from the threshold voltage point, where the concentration of the free carriers is a little larger than that of the localized carriers. The proposed model for the threshold voltage of AOS TFTs is not only physically meaningful but also mathematically convenient, so it is expected to be useful for characterizing and modeling AOS TFTs.

  11. Amorphous oxide alloys as interfacial layers with broadly tunable electronic structures for organic photovoltaic cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Nanjia; Kim, Myung-Gil; Loser, Stephen; Smith, Jeremy; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Guo, Xugang; Song, Charles; Jin, Hosub; Chen, Zhihua; Yoon, Seok Min; Freeman, Arthur J.; Chang, Robert P. H.; Facchetti, Antonio; Marks, Tobin J.

    2015-01-01

    In diverse classes of organic optoelectronic devices, controlling charge injection, extraction, and blocking across organic semiconductor–inorganic electrode interfaces is crucial for enhancing quantum efficiency and output voltage. To this end, the strategy of inserting engineered interfacial layers (IFLs) between electrical contacts and organic semiconductors has significantly advanced organic light-emitting diode and organic thin film transistor performance. For organic photovoltaic (OPV) devices, an electronically flexible IFL design strategy to incrementally tune energy level matching between the inorganic electrode system and the organic photoactive components without varying the surface chemistry would permit OPV cells to adapt to ever-changing generations of photoactive materials. Here we report the implementation of chemically/environmentally robust, low-temperature solution-processed amorphous transparent semiconducting oxide alloys, In-Ga-O and Ga-Zn-Sn-O, as IFLs for inverted OPVs. Continuous variation of the IFL compositions tunes the conduction band minima over a broad range, affording optimized OPV power conversion efficiencies for multiple classes of organic active layer materials and establishing clear correlations between IFL/photoactive layer energetics and device performance. PMID:26080437

  12. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  13. Determination of photocatalytic activity in amorphous and crystalline titanium oxide films prepared using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Cheng-Yang; Chiang, Bo-Sheng; Chang, Springfield; Liu, Day-Shan

    2011-01-01

    Hydro-oxygenated amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiO x:OH) films were prepared by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using precursors of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) and oxygen. The influences of chemical states and crystal quality on the photocatalytic activity were systematically investigated in the as-deposited and post-annealed films. The degree of the photocatalytic activity was deeply correlated with the porosity related to the hydroxyl (OH) groups in the as-deposited amorphous film. The crystallized anatase structures was observed from the 200 °C-deposited a-TiO x:OH film after a post-annealing treatment at 400 °C. The photocatalytic activity related to the film with anatase structure was markedly superior to that of an amorphous film with porous structures. The larger the crystal size of the anatase structure, the higher the photocatalytic activity obtained. At elevated annealed temperatures, the inferior anatase structure due to the crystalline transformation led to a low photocatalytic activity. It was concluded that the photocatalytic activity of an amorphous TiO x film prepared using PECVD was determined by the porosity originating from the functional OH groups in the film, whereas the crystalline quality of anatase phase in the annealed poly-TiO x film was crucial to the photocatalytic activity.

  14. Transparent megahertz circuits from solution-processed composite thin films.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xingqiang; Wan, Da; Wu, Yun; Xiao, Xiangheng; Guo, Shishang; Jiang, Changzhong; Li, Jinchai; Chen, Tangsheng; Duan, Xiangfeng; Fan, Zhiyong; Liao, Lei

    2016-04-14

    Solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductors have attracted considerable interest in large-area transparent electronics. However, due to its relative low carrier mobility (∼10 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1)), the demonstrated circuit performance has been limited to 800 kHz or less. Herein, we report solution-processed high-speed thin-film transistors (TFTs) and integrated circuits with an operation frequency beyond the megahertz region on 4 inch glass. The TFTs can be fabricated from an amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide/single-walled carbon nanotube (a-IGZO/SWNT) composite thin film with high yield and high carrier mobility of >70 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate that these TFTs can deliver an unprecedented operation frequency in solution-processed semiconductors, including an extrinsic cut-off frequency (fT = 102 MHz) and a maximum oscillation frequency (fmax = 122 MHz). Ring oscillators further demonstrated an oscillation frequency of 4.13 MHz, for the first time, realizing megahertz circuit operation from solution-processed semiconductors. Our studies represent an important step toward high-speed solution-processed thin film electronics. PMID:27009830

  15. Oxygen partial pressure influence on the character of InGaZnO thin films grown by PLD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yi; Wang, Li

    2012-11-01

    The amorphous oxide semiconductors (AOSs) are promising for emerging large-area optoelectronic applications because of capability of large-area, uniform deposition at low temperatures such as room temperature (RT). Indium-gallium-zinc oxide (InGaZnO) thin film is a promising amorphous semiconductors material in thin film transistors (TFT) for its excellent electrical properties. In our work, the InGaZnO thin films are fabricated on the SiO2 glass using pulsed laser deposition (PLD) in the oxygen partial pressure altered from 1 to 10 Pa at RT. The targets were prepared by mixing Ga2O3, In2O3, and ZnO powder at a mol ratio of 1: 7: 2 before the solid-state reactions in a tube furnace at the atmospheric pressure. The targets were irradiated by an Nd:YAG laser(355nm). Finally, we have three films of 270nm, 230nm, 190nm thick for 1Pa, 5Pa, 10Pa oxygen partial pressure. The product thin films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Hall-effect investigation. The comparative study demonstrated the character changes of the structure and electronic transport properties, which is probably occurred as a fact of the different oxygen partial pressure used in the PLD.

  16. Surface studies of crystalline and amorphous Zn-In-Sn-O transparent conducting oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Proffit, Diana E; Harvey, Steven P; Klein, Andreas; Schafranek, Robert; Emery, Jonathan D; Buchholz, D Bruce; Chang, Robert P.H.; Bedzyk, Michael J; Mason, Thomas O

    2012-11-29

    X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) studies were made of in situ RF magnetron-sputtered crystalline (c) and amorphous (a) Zn–In–Sn–O (ZITO) thin films, ex situ pulsed laser deposited c- and a-ZITO thin films, and bulk ZITO ceramics. Cosubstitution of Zn and Sn for In results in an increase of the In core level binding energy at a given Fermi level compared to that measured in undoped and Sn-doped In2O3 (ITO). In plots of work function vs. Fermi level, in situ c-ZITO and a-ZITO films have low ionization potentials (7.0–7.7 eV) that are similar to undoped In2O3. In contrast, dry-air-annealed in situ films, ex situ films, and bulk ceramics have higher ionization potentials (7.7–8.1 eV) that are more similar to ITO and match well with previous work on air-exposed surfaces. Kelvin Probe measurements were made of select a-ZITO films exposed to air and ultraviolet/ozone-treated so as to measure work functions under conditions commonly employed for device fabrication. Results (4.8–5.3 eV) were in good agreement with the UPS work functions of oxygen-exposed materials and with literature values. Lastly, a parallelogram plot of work function vs. Fermi level shows that a wider range of work functions is achievable in ZITO materials as compared to other transparent conducting oxides (Sb-doped SnO2, Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In2O3), making ZITO more versatile for applications.

  17. Ketjenblack carbon supported amorphous manganese oxides nanowires as highly efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reaction in alkaline solutions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jang-Soo; Park, Gi Su; Lee, Ho Il; Kim, Sun Tai; Cao, Ruiguo; Liu, Meilin; Cho, Jaephil

    2011-12-14

    A composite air electrode consisting of Ketjenblack carbon (KB) supported amorphous manganese oxide (MnOx) nanowires, synthesized via a polyol method, is highly efficient for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in a Zn-air battery. The low-cost and highly conductive KB in this composite electrode overcomes the limitations due to low electrical conductivity of MnOx while acting as a supporting matrix for the catalyst. The large surface area of the amorphous MnOx nanowires, together with other microscopic features (e.g., high density of surface defects), potentially offers more active sites for oxygen adsorption, thus significantly enhancing ORR activity. In particular, a Zn-air battery based on this composite air electrode exhibits a peak power density of ?190 mW/cm2, which is far superior to those based on a commercial air cathode with Mn3O4 catalysts. PMID:22050041

  18. Widespread oxidized and hydrated amorphous silicates in CR chondrites matrices: Implications for alteration conditions and H2 degassing of asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guillou, Corentin; Changela, Hitesh G.; Brearley, Adrian J.

    2015-06-01

    The CR chondrites carry one of the most pristine records of the solar nebula materials that accreted to form planetesimals. They have experienced very variable degrees of aqueous alteration, ranging from incipient alteration in their matrices to the complete hydration of all of their components. In order to constrain their chemical alteration pathways and the conditions of alteration, we have investigated the mineralogy and Fe oxidation state of silicates in the matrices of 8 CR chondrites, from type 3 to type 1. Fe-L edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) was performed on matrix FIB sections using synchrotron-based scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM). The Fe3+ / ∑ Fe ratio of submicron silicate particles was obtained and coordinated with TEM observations. In all the least altered CR chondrites (QUE 99177, EET 87770, EET 92042, LAP 02342, GRA 95229 and Renazzo), we find that the matrices consist of abundant submicron Fe-rich hydrated amorphous silicate grains, mixed with nanometer-sized phyllosilicates. The Fe3+ / ∑ Fe ratios of both amorphous and nanocrystalline regions are very high with values ranging from 68 to 78%. In the most altered samples (Al Rais and GRO 95577), fine-grained phyllosilicates also have a high Fe3+ / ∑ Fe ratio (around 70%), whereas the coarse, micrometer-sized phyllosilicates are less oxidized (down to 55%) and have a lower iron content. These observations suggest the following sequence: submicron Fe2+-amorphous silicate particles were the building blocks of CR matrices; after accretion they were quickly hydrated and oxidized, leading to a metastable, amorphous gel-like phase. Nucleation and growth of crystalline phyllosilicates was kinetically-limited in most type 3 and 2 CRs, but increased as alteration became more extensive in Al Rais and GRO 95577. The decreasing Fe3+ / ∑ Fe ratio is interpreted as a result of the transfer of Fe3+ from silicates to oxides during growth, while aqueous alteration progressed (higher temperature, longer duration, change of fluid composition). In a fully closed system, equilibrium thermodynamics suggest that the water to rock ratios, typically assumed to be low (<1) for chondrites, should primarily control the iron valency of the silicates and predict a lower Fe3+ / ∑ Fe ratio. Such a high Fe3+ / ∑ Fe value could be accounted for, however, if the system was partially open, at least with respect to H2 (and other gases as well). Rapid degassing of the fluid would have favored more oxidizing fluid conditions. Recently proposed scenarios involving some degree of water D/H increase through Rayleigh isotopic fractionation are supported by these results.

  19. Modeling the adsorption of mercury(II) on (hydr)oxides. 2: {alpha}-FeOOH (goethite) and amorphous silica

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnissel-Gissinger, P.; Alnot, M.; Ehrhardt, J.J.; Lickes, J.P.; Behra, P.

    1999-07-15

    The surface complexation model is used to describe sorption experiments of inorganic mercury(II) in the presence of an amorphous silica, Aerosil 200, or an iron (hydr)oxide, the goethite {alpha}-FeOOH (Bayferrox 910). In the simulations, one assumes the formation of a monodentate surface complex {triple_bond}S{single_bond}OHgOH and {triple_bond}S{single_bond}OHgCl, when chlorides are present in solution. Participation of the complex {triple_bond}S{single_bond}OHgCl has been especially evidenced. Comparisons with other data from the literature have been made to investigate the influence of the nature of the oxide on the mechanism of mercury(II) adsorption. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy was used to characterize the surface of the (hydr)oxides prior to adsorption and to observe when possible the mercury surface compounds.

  20. Metal-insulator transitions in IZO, IGZO, and ITZO films

    SciTech Connect

    Makise, Kazumasa; Hidaka, Kazuya; Ezaki, Syohei; Asano, Takayuki; Shinozaki, Bunju; Tomai, Shigekazu; Yano, Koki; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2014-10-21

    In this study, we measured the low-temperature resistivity of amorphous two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) indium-zinc oxide, indium-gallium-zinc oxide, and indium-tin-zinc oxide films with a wide range of carrier densities. To determine their critical characteristics at the metal-insulator transition (MIT), we used the Ioffe–Regel criterion. We found that the MIT occurs in a narrow range between k{sub F}ℓ =0.13 and k{sub F}ℓ =0.25, where k{sub F} and ℓ are the Fermi wave number and electron mean free path, respectively. For films in the insulating region, we analyzed ρ(T) using a procedure proposed by Zabrodskii and Zinov'eva. This analysis confirmed the occurrence of Mott and Efros–Shklovskii (ES) variable-range hopping. The materials studied show crossover behavior from exp(T{sub Mott}/T){sup 1/4} or exp(T{sub Mott}/T){sup 1/3} for Mott hopping conduction to exp(T{sub ES}/T){sup 1/2} for ES hopping conduction with decreasing temperature. For both 2D and 3D materials, we found that the relationship between T{sub Mott} and T{sub ES} satisfies T{sub ES}∝T{sub Mott}{sup 2/3}.

  1. Amorphous manganese-calcium oxides as a possible evolutionary origin for the CaMn₄ cluster in photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2011-06-01

    In this paper a few calcium-manganese oxides and calcium-manganese minerals are studied as catalysts for water oxidation. The natural mineral marokite is also studied as a catalyst for water oxidation for the first time. Marokite is made up of edge-sharing Mn(3+) in a distorted octahedral environment and eight-coordinate Ca(2+) centered polyhedral layers. The structure is similar to recent models of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II. Thus, the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II does not have an unusual structure and could be synthesized hydrothermally. Also in this paper, oxygen evolution is studied with marokite (CaMn₂O₄), pyrolusite (MnO₂) and compared with hollandite (Ba(0.2)Ca(0.15)K(0.3)Mn(6.9)Al(0.2)Si(0.3)O(16)), hausmannite (Mn₃O₄), Mn₂O₃.H₂O, Ca Mn₃O₆.H₂O, CaMn₄O₈.H₂O, CaMn₂O₄.H₂O and synthetic marokite (CaMn₂O₄). I propose that the origin of the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II resulted from absorption of calcium and manganese ions that were precipitated together in the archean oceans by protocyanobacteria because of changing pH from ~5 to ~8-10. As reported in this paper, amorphous calcium-manganese oxides with different ratios of manganese and calcium are effective catalysts for water oxidation. The bond types and lengths of the calcium and manganese ions in the calcium-manganese oxides are directly comparable to those in the OEC. This primitive structure of these amorphous calcium-manganese compounds could be changed and modified by environmental groups (amino acids) to form the oxygen evolving complex in photosystem II. PMID:20814743

  2. Effects of amorphous silica coating on cerium oxide nanoparticles induced pulmonary responses

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jane; Mercer, Robert R.; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cohen, Joel M.; Demokritou, Philip; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Recently cerium compounds have been used in a variety of consumer products, including diesel fuel additives, to increase fuel combustion efficiency and decrease diesel soot emissions. However, cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been detected in the exhaust, which raises a health concern. Previous studies have shown that exposure of rats to nanoscale CeO2 by intratracheal instillation (IT) induces sustained pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 or CeO2 coated with a nano layer of amorphous SiO2 (aSiO2/CeO2) by a single IT and sacrificed at various times post-exposure to assess potential protective effects of the aSiO2 coating. The first acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and BAL cells were collected and analyzed from all exposed animals. At the low dose (0.15 mg/kg), CeO2 but not aSiO2/CeO2 exposure induced inflammation. However, at the higher doses, both particles induced a dose-related inflammation, cytotoxicity, inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP at 1 day post-exposure. Morphological analysis of lung showed an increased inflammation, surfactant and collagen fibers after CeO2 (high dose at 3.5 mg/kg) treatment at 28 days post-exposure. aSiO2 coating significantly reduced CeO2-induced inflammatory responses in the airspace and appeared to attenuate phospholipidosis and fibrosis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed Ce and phosphorous (P) in all particle-exposed lungs, whereas Si was only detected in aSiO2/CeO2-exposed lungs up to 3 days after exposure, suggesting that aSiO2 dissolved off the CeO2 core, and some of the CeO2 was transformed to CePO4 with time. These results demonstrate that aSiO2 coating reduce CeO2-induced inflammation, phospholipidosis and fibrosis. PMID:26210349

  3. Effects of amorphous silica coating on cerium oxide nanoparticles induced pulmonary responses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jane; Mercer, Robert R; Barger, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Cohen, Joel M; Demokritou, Philip; Castranova, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    Recently cerium compounds have been used in a variety of consumer products, including diesel fuel additives, to increase fuel combustion efficiency and decrease diesel soot emissions. However, cerium oxide (CeO2) nanoparticles have been detected in the exhaust, which raises a health concern. Previous studies have shown that exposure of rats to nanoscale CeO2 by intratracheal instillation (IT) induces sustained pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to CeO2 or CeO2 coated with a nano layer of amorphous SiO2 (aSiO2/CeO2) by a single IT and sacrificed at various times post-exposure to assess potential protective effects of the aSiO2 coating. The first acellular bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and BAL cells were collected and analyzed from all exposed animals. At the low dose (0.15mg/kg), CeO2 but not aSiO2/CeO2 exposure induced inflammation. However, at the higher doses, both particles induced a dose-related inflammation, cytotoxicity, inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and tissue inhibitor of MMP at 1day post-exposure. Morphological analysis of lung showed an increased inflammation, surfactant and collagen fibers after CeO2 (high dose at 3.5mg/kg) treatment at 28days post-exposure. aSiO2 coating significantly reduced CeO2-induced inflammatory responses in the airspace and appeared to attenuate phospholipidosis and fibrosis. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis showed Ce and phosphorous (P) in all particle-exposed lungs, whereas Si was only detected in aSiO2/CeO2-exposed lungs up to 3days after exposure, suggesting that aSiO2 dissolved off the CeO2 core, and some of the CeO2 was transformed to CePO4 with time. These results demonstrate that aSiO2 coating reduce CeO2-induced inflammation, phospholipidosis and fibrosis. PMID:26210349

  4. Amorphous GeOx-Coated Reduced Graphene Oxide Balls with Sandwich Structure for Long-Life Lithium-Ion Batteries.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Ho; Jung, Kyeong Youl; Kang, Yun Chan

    2015-07-01

    Amorphous GeOx-coated reduced graphene oxide (rGO) balls with sandwich structure are prepared via a spray-pyrolysis process using polystyrene (PS) nanobeads as sacrificial templates. This sandwich structure is formed by uniformly coating the exterior and interior of few-layer rGO with amorphous GeOx layers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis reveals a Ge:O stoichiometry ratio of 1:1.7. The amorphous GeOx-coated rGO balls with sandwich structure have low charge-transfer resistance and fast Li(+)-ion diffusion rate. For example, at a current density of 2 A g(-1), the GeOx-coated rGO balls with sandwich and filled structures and the commercial GeO2 powders exhibit initial charge capacities of 795, 651, and 634 mA h g(-1), respectively; the corresponding 700th-cycle charge capacities are 758, 579, and 361 mA h g(-1). In addition, at a current density of 5 A g(-1), the rGO balls with sandwich structure have a 1600th-cycle reversible charge capacity of 629 mA h g(-1) and a corresponding capacity retention of 90.7%, as measured from the maximum reversible capacity at the 100th cycle. PMID:26047208

  5. Physico-chemical studies of cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanoparticles coated on amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNTs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johan, Mohd Rafie; Meriam Suhaimy, Syazwan Hanani; Yusof, Yusliza

    2014-01-01

    Amorphous carbon nanotubes (α-CNTs) were synthesized by a chemical reaction between ferrocene and ammonium chloride at a temperature (∼250 °C) in an air furnace. As- synthesized α-CNTs were purified with deionized water and hydrochloric acid. A purified α-CNTs were hybridized with cuprous oxide nanoparticles (Cu2O) through a simple chemical process. Morphology of the samples was analyzed with field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra showed the attachment of acidic functional groups onto the surface of α-CNTs and the formation of hybridized α-CNTs-Cu2O. Raman spectra reveal the amorphous nature of the carbon. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern confirmed the amorphous phase of the carbon and the formation of Cu2O crystalline phase. The coating of Cu2O was confirmed by FESEM, TEM, and XRD. Optical absorption of the samples has also been investigated and the quantum confinement effect was illustrated in the absorption spectra.

  6. Dispersion and interaction of graphene oxide in amorphous and semi-crystalline nano-composites: a PALS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Frans H. J.; Arza, Carlos R.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of dispersion and interaction of Graphene Oxide (GO) in semicrystalline Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) and glassy amorphous Poly(tBP-oda) is explored by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The ortho-Positronium lifetimes which represent the main free volume hole size of both polymers are mainly affected by the large differences in internal stresses built up by the shrinkage of the polymers during their preparation, restricted by the platelet structure of GO. The ortho-Positronium intensities, which represent the ortho-Positronium formation probabilities, suggest a strong dependency of on the dispersion of the nano-particles and their aspect ratio.

  7. Domain structure for an amorphous iridium-oxide water-oxidation catalyst characterized by X-ray pair distribution function analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jier; Blakemore, James D; Fazi, Diego; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Schley, Nathan D; Crabtree, Robert H; Brudvig, Gary W; Tiede, David M

    2014-02-01

    The domain structure of an amorphous, "blue layer" iridium-oxide water-oxidation catalyst film (BL) electrodeposited from the soluble precursor complex, [Cp*Ir(H2O)3]SO4, was characterized by X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. The results show that the experimental PDF can be fit remarkably well using a single Ir5O22 cluster extracted from the rutile lattice. The model includes distortions that indicate the presence of Ir(μ-O)3Ir or distorted Ir(μ-O)2Ir substructures, and hence deviations from a rutile structure. The five Ir atom cluster is suggested to represent the population-averaged distribution of metal-oxo clusters in the film. BL is found to be distinguished from other amorphous film water-oxidation catalysts because of the remarkably small domain size and homogeneity. As such, the blue layer catalyst provides a model for investigating ligand-determined metal-oxide cluster assembly and catalyst mechanism. PMID:24336574

  8. Controlled ambient and temperature treatment of InGaZnO thin film transistors for improved bias-illumination stress reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Vemuri, Rajitha N. P.; Hasin, Muhammad R.; Alford, T. L.

    2014-03-15

    The failure mechanisms arising from the instability in operation of indium gallium zinc oxide based thin film transistors (TFTs) upon prolonged real application stresses (bias and illumination) have been extensively studied and reported. Positive and negative gate bias conditions, along with high photonic energy wavelengths within visible light spectrum are used as stress conditions. The increased carrier concentration due to photonic excitation of defects within bandgap and ionization of deep level vacancies is compensated by the reduction in off currents under illumination due to the trapping of carriers in the intermetal dielectric. Band lowering at the source-channel junction due to accumulation of negative carriers repelled due to negative gate bias stress further causes high carrier flow into the channel and drives the devices into failure. The defect identification during failure and degradation assisted in proposing suitable low temperature post processing in specific ambients. Reliability tests after specific anneals in oxygen, vacuum, and forming gas ambients confirm the correlation of the defect type with anneal ambient. Annealed TFTs demonstrate high stabilities under illumination stresses and do not fail when subjected to combined stresses that cause failure in as-fabricated TFTs. Oxygen and forming gas anneals are impactful on the reliability and opens an area of study on donor and vacancy behavior in amorphous mixed oxide based TFTs. The subthreshold swing, field-effect mobilities, and off currents provide knowledge on best anneal practices by understanding role of hydrogen and oxygen in vacancy annihilation and transistor switching properties.

  9. High mobility and high stability glassy metal-oxynitride materials and devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eunha; Kim, Taeho; Benayad, Anass; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Gyeong-Su; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    In thin film technology, future semiconductor and display products with high performance, high density, large area, and ultra high definition with three-dimensional functionalities require high performance thin film transistors (TFTs) with high stability. Zinc oxynitride, a composite of zinc oxide and zinc nitride, has been conceded as a strong substitute to conventional semiconductor film such as silicon and indium gallium zinc oxide due to high mobility value. However, zinc oxynitride has been suffered from poor reproducibility due to relatively low binding energy of nitrogen with zinc, resulting in the instability of composition and its device performance. Here we performed post argon plasma process on zinc oxynitride film, forming nano-crystalline structure in stable amorphous matrix which hampers the reaction of oxygen with zinc. Therefore, material properties and device performance of zinc oxynitride are greatly enhanced, exhibiting robust compositional stability even exposure to air, uniform phase, high electron mobility, negligible fast transient charging and low noise characteristics. Furthermore, We expect high mobility and high stability zinc oxynitride customized by plasma process to be applicable to a broad range of semiconductor and display devices. PMID:27044371

  10. High mobility and high stability glassy metal-oxynitride materials and devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Eunha; Kim, Taeho; Benayad, Anass; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Gyeong-Su; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-04-01

    In thin film technology, future semiconductor and display products with high performance, high density, large area, and ultra high definition with three-dimensional functionalities require high performance thin film transistors (TFTs) with high stability. Zinc oxynitride, a composite of zinc oxide and zinc nitride, has been conceded as a strong substitute to conventional semiconductor film such as silicon and indium gallium zinc oxide due to high mobility value. However, zinc oxynitride has been suffered from poor reproducibility due to relatively low binding energy of nitrogen with zinc, resulting in the instability of composition and its device performance. Here we performed post argon plasma process on zinc oxynitride film, forming nano-crystalline structure in stable amorphous matrix which hampers the reaction of oxygen with zinc. Therefore, material properties and device performance of zinc oxynitride are greatly enhanced, exhibiting robust compositional stability even exposure to air, uniform phase, high electron mobility, negligible fast transient charging and low noise characteristics. Furthermore, We expect high mobility and high stability zinc oxynitride customized by plasma process to be applicable to a broad range of semiconductor and display devices.

  11. High mobility and high stability glassy metal-oxynitride materials and devices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunha; Kim, Taeho; Benayad, Anass; Hur, Jihyun; Park, Gyeong-Su; Jeon, Sanghun

    2016-01-01

    In thin film technology, future semiconductor and display products with high performance, high density, large area, and ultra high definition with three-dimensional functionalities require high performance thin film transistors (TFTs) with high stability. Zinc oxynitride, a composite of zinc oxide and zinc nitride, has been conceded as a strong substitute to conventional semiconductor film such as silicon and indium gallium zinc oxide due to high mobility value. However, zinc oxynitride has been suffered from poor reproducibility due to relatively low binding energy of nitrogen with zinc, resulting in the instability of composition and its device performance. Here we performed post argon plasma process on zinc oxynitride film, forming nano-crystalline structure in stable amorphous matrix which hampers the reaction of oxygen with zinc. Therefore, material properties and device performance of zinc oxynitride are greatly enhanced, exhibiting robust compositional stability even exposure to air, uniform phase, high electron mobility, negligible fast transient charging and low noise characteristics. Furthermore, We expect high mobility and high stability zinc oxynitride customized by plasma process to be applicable to a broad range of semiconductor and display devices. PMID:27044371

  12. Amorphous iron-(hydr) oxide networks at liquid/vapor interfaces: In situ X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, W.; Pleasants, J.; Bu, W.; Park, R.Y.; Kuzmenko, I.; Vaknin, D.

    2012-06-23

    Surface sensitive X-ray reflectivity (XR), fluorescence (XF), and grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXD) experiments were conducted to determine the accumulation of ferric iron Fe (III) or ferrous iron Fe (II) under dihexadecyl phosphate (DHDP) or arachidic acid (AA) Langmuir monolayers at liquid/vapor interfaces. Analysis of the X-ray reflectivity and fluorescence data of monolayers on the aqueous subphases containing FeCl3 indicates remarkably high levels of surface-bound Fe (III) in number of Fe3þ ions per molecule (DHDP or AA) that exceed the amount necessary to neutralize a hypothetically completely deprotonated monolayer (DHDP or AA). These results suggest that nano-scale iron (hydr) oxide complexes (oxides, hydroxides or oxyhydroxides) bind to the headgroups and effectively overcompensate the maximum possible charges at the interface. The lack of evidence of in-plane ordering in GIXD measurements and strong effects on the surface-pressure versus molecular area isotherms indicate that an amorphous network of iron (hydr) oxide complexes contiguous to the headgroups is formed. Similar experiments with FeCl2 generally resulted with the oxidation of Fe (II)–Fe (III) which consequently leads to ferric Fe (III) complexes binding albeit with less iron at the interface. Controlling the oxidation of Fe (II) changes the nature and amount of binding significantly. The implications to biomineralization of iron (hydr) oxides are briefly discussed.

  13. Preparation and properties of amorphous titania-coated zinc oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Liao Minhung . E-mail: liaomh@mail.tit.edu.tw; Hsu, C.-H.; Chen, D.-H. . E-mail: chendh@mail.ncku.edu.tw

    2006-07-15

    Amorphous TiO{sub 2}-coated ZnO nanoparticles were prepared by the solvothermal synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles in ethanol and the followed by sol-gel coating of TiO{sub 2} nanolayer. The analyses of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the resultant ZnO nanoparticles were hexagonal with a wurtzite structure and a mean diameter of about 60 nm. Also, after TiO{sub 2} coating, the TEM images clearly indicated the darker ZnO nanoparticles being surrounded by the lighter amorphous TiO{sub 2} layers. The zeta potential analysis revealed the pH dependence of zeta potentials for ZnO nanoparticles shifted completely to that for TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles after TiO{sub 2} coating, confirming the formation of core-shell structure and suggesting the coating of TiO{sub 2} was achieved via the adhesion of the hydrolyzed species Ti-O{sup -} to the positively charged surface of ZnO nanoparticles. Furthermore, the analyses of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectra were also conducted to confirm that amorphous TiO{sub 2} were indeed coated on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. In addition, the analyses of ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra revealed that the absorbance of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-coated ZnO nanoparticles at 375 nm gradually decreased with an increase in the Ti/Zn molar ratio and the time for TiO{sub 2} coating, and the emission intensity of ZnO cores could be significantly enhanced by the amorphous TiO{sub 2} shell. - Graphical abstract: Amorphous titania-coated ZnO nanoparticles with a core-shell structure were prepared. It was found that the emission intensity of ZnO cores could be significantly enhanced by the amorphous TiO{sub 2} shell.

  14. Amorphous silica nanoparticles trigger nitric oxide/peroxynitrite imbalance in human endothelial cells: inflammatory and cytotoxic effects

    PubMed Central

    Corbalan, J Jose; Medina, Carlos; Jacoby, Adam; Malinski, Tadeusz; Radomski, Marek W

    2011-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanism of noxious effects of amorphous silica nanoparticles on human endothelial cells. Methods Nanoparticle uptake was examined by transmission electron microscopy. Electrochemical nanosensors were used to measure the nitric oxide (NO) and peroxynitrite (ONOO−) released by a single cell upon nanoparticle stimulation. The downstream inflammatory effects were measured by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and flow cytometry, and cytotoxicity was measured by lactate dehydrogenase assay. Results We found that the silica nanoparticles penetrated the plasma membrane and rapidly stimulated release of cytoprotective NO and, to a greater extent, production of cytotoxic ONOO−. The low [NO]/[ONOO−] ratio indicated increased nitroxidative/oxidative stress and correlated closely with endothelial inflammation and necrosis. This imbalance was associated with nuclear factor κB activation, upregulation of key inflammatory factors, and cell death. These effects were observed in a nanoparticle size-dependent and concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion The [NO]/[ONOO−] imbalance induced by amorphous silica nanoparticles indicates a potentially deleterious effect of silica nanoparticles on vascular endothelium. PMID:22131828

  15. Amorphous TiO2-coated reduced graphene oxide hybrid nanostructures for polymer composites with low dielectric loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Wangshu; Zhang, Yihe; Yu, Li; Lv, Fengzhu; Liu, Leipeng; Zhang, Qian; An, Qi

    2015-10-01

    Nanocomposite of poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) incorporated with titanium dioxide-modified reduced graphene oxide sheets (rGO-TiO2/PVDF-HFP) was prepared by in situ assembling TiO2 on graphene oxide (GO), and its dielectric properties were carefully characterized. The GO layers were completely coated with amorphous TiO2. The dielectric permittivity increased stably as rGO-TiO2 content increased, and the loss was low at low frequencies. TiO2 inter-layer acted as an inter-particle barrier to prevent direct contact of rGO, which provided a new simple way for tuning the dielectric properties of polymer composites with low dielectric loss by controlling the structure of fillers.

  16. Photoresist-Free Fully Self-Patterned Transparent Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Obtained by Sol-Gel Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hyun Soo; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrated self-patterned solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) using photosensitive sol-gels. The photosensitive sol-gels were synthesized by adding ?-diketone compounds, i.e., benzoylacetone and acetylacetone, to sol-gels. The chemically modified photosensitive sol-gels showed a high optical absorption at specific wavelengths due to the formation of metal chelate bonds. Photoreactions of the modified solutions enabled a photoresist-free process. Moreover, Zn-Sn-O with a high Sn ratio, which is hard to wet-etch using conventional photolithography due to its chemical durability, was easily patterned via the self-patterning process. Finally, we fabricated a solution-processed oxide TFT that included fully self-patterned electrodes and an active layer.

  17. Photoresist-Free Fully Self-Patterned Transparent Amorphous Oxide Thin-Film Transistors Obtained by Sol-Gel Process

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hyun Soo; Rim, You Seung; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrated self-patterned solution-processed amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors (TFTs) using photosensitive sol-gels. The photosensitive sol-gels were synthesized by adding β-diketone compounds, i.e., benzoylacetone and acetylacetone, to sol-gels. The chemically modified photosensitive sol-gels showed a high optical absorption at specific wavelengths due to the formation of metal chelate bonds. Photoreactions of the modified solutions enabled a photoresist-free process. Moreover, Zn–Sn–O with a high Sn ratio, which is hard to wet-etch using conventional photolithography due to its chemical durability, was easily patterned via the self-patterning process. Finally, we fabricated a solution-processed oxide TFT that included fully self-patterned electrodes and an active layer. PMID:24686314

  18. Growth of ultrathin amorphous alumina films during the oxidation of NiAl(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Na; Qin, Hailang; Tong, Xiao; Zhou, Guangwen

    2013-12-01

    The effect of temperature on the oxidation of NiAl(100) is comparatively studied at 25 °C and 300 °C using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy to elucidate the effect of oxide-alloy interfacial reaction on the growth of ultrathin alumina thin films. The oxidation at 25 °C results in self-limiting aluminum oxide film growth to a less extent of the limiting thickness regimes with non-stoichiometric oxide films exhibiting a deficiency of Al cations, whereas for the oxidation at 300 °C the oxide films grow to a larger limiting thickness with relatively enriched with Al at the limiting thickness. The temperature dependent limiting thickness and composition of the oxide films are ascribed to the transport velocity of Al from deeper layers to the oxide/alloy interface during the oxide growth. For the oxidation at 25 °C the oxide film growth depletes Al and forms an underlying Ni-rich interfacial layer that blocks the supply of Al atoms to the oxide/substrate interface, whereas for the oxidation at 300 °C the enhanced diffusion rate maintains adequate supply of Al atoms to the oxide/alloy interface to sustain the oxide film growth to the full extent of the limiting thickness.

  19. Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

    2011-07-01

    Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity > 3000 S/cm.

  20. Amorphous Indium-Zinc-Oxide Transparent Conductors for Thin Film PV

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.; Gennett, T.; Galante, M.; Gillaspie, D.; Ginley, D.

    2011-01-01

    Amorphous InZnO's (a-IZO) basic PV applicability has now been demonstrated in prototype CIGS, Si Heterojunction (SiHJ) and organic photovoltaics (OPV). However, to move beyond initial demonstration devices, improved TCO properties and processibility of the a-IZO films are needed. Here, RF-superimposed DC sputtering was used to improve the reliable deposition of a-IZO with conductivity {sigma} >; 3000 S/cm.

  1. Complex nanospherulites of zinc oxide and native amorphous boron in the lunar regolith from Mare Crisium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokhov, A. V.; Kartashov, P. M.; Gornostaeva, T. A.; Asadulin, En. E.; Bogatikov, O. A.

    2013-01-01

    During the study of tea-colored impact glass fragments from the sample of lunar regolith delivered to Earth by the Luna 24 automatic station by transmission electron microscopy, the composition variations of the previously described high-carbonaceous film, the presence of at least three composition types of glasses, and unusual nanospherulites with Zn-B-N-O composition were discovered. As a part of a nonuniform high-carbonaceous oxygen-bearing film, sites enriched in either Na, S, Si, or Ca were detected. All these sites, as well as the whole film, are electron-amorphous; however, crystalline graphite was also found. Two types of nanospherulites are composed of amorphous ZnO and regular interstratifications of crystalline ZnO and amorphous boron layers with insignificant participation of adsorbed nitrogen. It is supposed that the formation of zinc-boron nanospherulites was caused by a fast-flowing explosive process and probably was modulated by high-frequency acoustic oscillations in a cloud of evaporated high-temperature ionized gas during the impact event.

  2. Wireless thin film transistor based on micro magnetic induction coupling antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Byoung Ok; Lee, Gwang Jun; Kang, Jong Gu; Kim, Seunguk; Choi, Ji-Woong; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Jang, Jae Eun

    2015-12-01

    A wireless thin film transistor (TFT) structure in which a source/drain or a gate is connected directly to a micro antenna to receive or transmit signals or power can be an important building block, acting as an electrical switch, a rectifier or an amplifier, for various electronics as well as microelectronics, since it allows simple connection with other devices, unlike conventional wire connections. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) TFT with magnetic antenna structure was fabricated and studied for this purpose. To enhance the induction coupling efficiency while maintaining the same small antenna size, a magnetic core structure consisting of Ni and nanowires was formed under the antenna. With the micro-antenna connected to a source/drain or a gate of the TFT, working electrical signals were well controlled. The results demonstrated the device as an alternative solution to existing wire connections which cause a number of problems in various fields such as flexible/wearable devices, body implanted devices, micro/nano robots, and sensors for the ‘internet of things’ (IoT).

  3. Wireless thin film transistor based on micro magnetic induction coupling antenna.

    PubMed

    Jun, Byoung Ok; Lee, Gwang Jun; Kang, Jong Gu; Kim, Seunguk; Choi, Ji-Woong; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Jang, Jae Eun

    2015-01-01

    A wireless thin film transistor (TFT) structure in which a source/drain or a gate is connected directly to a micro antenna to receive or transmit signals or power can be an important building block, acting as an electrical switch, a rectifier or an amplifier, for various electronics as well as microelectronics, since it allows simple connection with other devices, unlike conventional wire connections. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) TFT with magnetic antenna structure was fabricated and studied for this purpose. To enhance the induction coupling efficiency while maintaining the same small antenna size, a magnetic core structure consisting of Ni and nanowires was formed under the antenna. With the micro-antenna connected to a source/drain or a gate of the TFT, working electrical signals were well controlled. The results demonstrated the device as an alternative solution to existing wire connections which cause a number of problems in various fields such as flexible/wearable devices, body implanted devices, micro/nano robots, and sensors for the 'internet of things' (IoT). PMID:26691929

  4. MoS2-InGaZnO Heterojunction Phototransistors with Broad Spectral Responsivity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jaehyun; Kwak, Hyena; Lee, Youngbin; Kang, Yu-Seon; Cho, Mann-Ho; Cho, Jeong Ho; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Park, Seongjun; Lee, Hoo-Jeong; Kim, Hyoungsub

    2016-04-01

    We introduce an amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) heterostructure phototransistor consisting of solution-based synthetic molybdenum disulfide (few-layered MoS2, with a band gap of ∼1.7 eV) and sputter-deposited a-IGZO (with a band gap of ∼3.0 eV) films as a novel sensing element with a broad spectral responsivity. The MoS2 and a-IGZO films serve as a visible light-absorbing layer and a high mobility channel layer, respectively. Spectroscopic measurements reveal that appropriate band alignment at the heterojunction provides effective transfer of the visible light-induced electrons generated in the few-layered MoS2 film to the underlying a-IGZO channel layer with a high carrier mobility. The photoresponse characteristics of the a-IGZO transistor are extended to cover most of the visible range by forming a heterojunction phototransistor that harnesses a visible light responding MoS2 film with a small band gap prepared through a large-area synthetic route. The MoS2-IGZO heterojunction phototransistors exhibit a photoresponsivity of approximately 1.7 A/W at a wavelength of 520 nm (an optical power of 1 μW) with excellent time-dependent photoresponse dynamics. PMID:26989951

  5. Simple method to enhance positive bias stress stability of In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistors using a vertically graded oxygen-vacancy active layer.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Hoon; Kim, Yeong-Gyu; Yoon, Seokhyun; Hong, Seonghwan; Kim, Hyun Jae

    2014-12-10

    We proposed a simple method to deposit a vertically graded oxygen-vacancy active layer (VGA) to enhance the positive bias stress (PBS) stability of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs). We deposited a-IGZO films by sputtering (target composition; In2O3:Ga2O3:ZnO = 1:1:1 mol %), and the oxygen partial pressure was varied during deposition so that the front channel of the TFTs was fabricated with low oxygen partial pressure and the back channel with high oxygen partial pressure. Using this method, we were able to control the oxygen vacancy concentration of the active layer so that it varied with depth. As a result, the turn-on voltage shift following a 10 000 s PBS of optimized VGA TFT was drastically improved from 12.0 to 5.6 V compared with a conventional a-IGZO TFT, without a significant decrease in the field effect mobility. These results came from the self-passivation effect and decrease in oxygen-vacancy-related trap sites of the VGA TFTs. PMID:25402628

  6. Wireless thin film transistor based on micro magnetic induction coupling antenna

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Byoung Ok; Lee, Gwang Jun; Kang, Jong Gu; Kim, Seunguk; Choi, Ji-Woong; Cha, Seung Nam; Sohn, Jung Inn; Jang, Jae Eun

    2015-01-01

    A wireless thin film transistor (TFT) structure in which a source/drain or a gate is connected directly to a micro antenna to receive or transmit signals or power can be an important building block, acting as an electrical switch, a rectifier or an amplifier, for various electronics as well as microelectronics, since it allows simple connection with other devices, unlike conventional wire connections. An amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (α-IGZO) TFT with magnetic antenna structure was fabricated and studied for this purpose. To enhance the induction coupling efficiency while maintaining the same small antenna size, a magnetic core structure consisting of Ni and nanowires was formed under the antenna. With the micro-antenna connected to a source/drain or a gate of the TFT, working electrical signals were well controlled. The results demonstrated the device as an alternative solution to existing wire connections which cause a number of problems in various fields such as flexible/wearable devices, body implanted devices, micro/nano robots, and sensors for the ‘internet of things’ (IoT). PMID:26691929

  7. Microstructure development and hydrogen gas interaction of oxidized Zr65Pd35 and Zr60Pd35Ce5 amorphous alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Kato, Shiro; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Yogo, Toshinobu; Yamamura, Shin-ichi

    2016-01-01

    The microstructure of composites derived from amorphous Zr65Pd35 and Zr65Pd35Ce5 alloys was studied. X-ray diffractograms, Raman spectroscopy profiles and scanning electron micrographs indicated that the mixtures containing ZrO2, metallic Pd, and PdO were formed for both amorphous alloys after heat treatment in air. The amorphous Zr60Pd35Ce5 alloy at temperatures of 280-400 °C changed to the composites in which very small Pd precipitates with a diameter less than 100 nm were embedded in a ZrO2 matrix. The hydrogen-temperature-programmed reduction was applied to study the reactivity of hydrogen gas with the oxidized Zr60Pd35Ce5 material. A rapid hydrogen absorption and release behavior was observed on the composite derived from the amorphous alloy.

  8. Magnesium-Aluminum-Zirconium Oxide Amorphous Ternary Composite: A Dense and Stable Optical Coating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sahoo, N. K.; Shapiro, A. P.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work, the process parameter dependent optical and structural properties of MgO-Al(2)O(3)-ZrO(2) ternary mixed-composite material have been investigated. Optical properties were derived from spectrophotometric measurements. The surface morphology, grain size distributions, crystallographic phases and process dependent material composition of films have been investigated through the use of Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction analysis and Energy Dispersive X- ray (EDX) analysis. EDX analysis made evident the correlation between the optical constants and the process dependent compositions in the films. It is possible to achieve environmentally stable amorphous films with high packing density under certain optimized process conditions.

  9. Metal-induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide semiconductors for high mobility thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ah Young; Kim, Sang Tae; Ji, Hyuk; Shin, Yeonwoo; Jeong, Jae Kyeong

    2016-04-01

    Transition tantalum induced crystallization of amorphous zinc tin oxide (a-ZTO) was observed at low temperature annealing of 300 °C. Thin-film transistors (TFTs) with an a-ZTO channel layer exhibited a reasonable field-effect mobility of 12.4 cm2/V s, subthreshold swing (SS) of 0.39 V/decade, threshold voltage (VTH) of 1.5 V, and ION/OFF ratio of ˜107. A significant improvement in the field-effect mobility (up to ˜33.5 cm2/V s) was achieved for crystallized ZTO TFTs: this improvement was accomplished without compromising the SS, VTH, or ION/OFF ratio due to the presence of a highly ordered microstructure.

  10. Effects of pulse voltage on the formation of nanoporous Ti oxides by dealloying amorphous TiCu alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shengli; Pi, Lele; Xie, Guoqiang; Cui, Zhenduo; Yang, Xianjin; Inoue, Akihisa

    2013-03-01

    In present study, we prepared nanoporous Ti oxides by potentiostat and pulse dealloying TiCu amorphous alloy in HNO3 solution. The influence of applied voltage on the morphology was investigated by SEM. The mechanism of dealloying was also discussed. A multilayer nanoporous structure was fabricated using pulse dealloying. The ideal nanoporous structure with mean pore diameter of about 50-100 nm and mean pore wall thickness of about 50 nm was obtained using pulse dealloying with initial voltage of 1.0 V and pulse size of 0.4 V. The static currents for pulse dealloying are higher than those for potentiostat dealloying under the same initial potentials. The nanoporous surface is mainly composed of TiO, Ti2O3 and TiO2.

  11. Optical absorption and small-polaron hopping in oxygen deficient and lithium-ion-intercalated amorphous titanium oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, C. A.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Optical absorption in oxygen-deficient and Li+-ion inserted titanium oxide films was studied in the framework of small-polaron hopping. Non-stoichiometric TiOy films with 1.68 ≤ y ≤ 2.00 were deposited by reactive DC magnetron sputtering and were subjected to electrochemical intercalation of Li+-ions and charge-balancing electrons to obtain LixTiOy films with 0.12 ≤ x ≤ 0.34. Dispersion analysis was applied to calculate the complex dielectric function ɛ(ℏω) ≡ ɛ1(ℏω) + i ɛ2(ℏω) from numerical inversion of optical transmittance and reflectance spectra; a superposition of Tauc-Lorentz and Lorentz oscillator models was used for this purpose. Data on ɛ2(ℏω) were employed to calculate the optical conductivity and fit this property to a small-polaron model for disordered systems with strong electron-phonon interaction and involving transitions near the Fermi level. The introduction of oxygen vacancies and/or Li+ insertion yielded band gap widening by ˜0.20-0.35 eV, and both processes induced similar low-energy optical absorption. The small-polaron-based analysis indicated increases in the Fermi level by ˜0.15-0.3 eV for sub-stoichiometric and/or Li+-inserted films. This suggests the existence of polaronic Ti3+ states in the lower part of the conduction band arising from transfer of electrons from oxygen vacancies and/or inserted Li+ species. The present article is a sequel to an earlier paper on oxygen-deficient and/or Li+-inserted amorphous WOy thin films and forms part of a comprehensive investigation of optical absorption in amorphous transition metal oxides with different valence states of the metallic ions.

  12. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs of mice acutely exposed to amorphous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Yasin, Javed; Kazzam, Elsadig E; Ali, Badreldin H

    2016-01-01

    The use of amorphous silica (SiO2) in biopharmaceutical and industrial fields can lead to human exposure by injection, skin penetration, ingestion, or inhalation. However, the in vivo acute toxicity of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles (SiNPs) on multiple organs and the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 hours) effects of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm SiNPs (0.25 mg/kg) on systemic toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and brain of mice. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased by SiNPs in the lung, liver, kidney, and brain, but was not changed in the heart. Similarly, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly affected by SiNPs in all organs studied. While the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α was insignificantly increased in the liver and brain, its increase was statistically significant in the lung, heart, and kidney. SiNPs induced a significant elevation in pulmonary and renal interleukin 6 and interleukin-1 beta in the lung, liver, and brain. Moreover, SiNPs caused a significant increase in DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, in all the organs studied. SiNPs caused leukocytosis and increased the plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine aminotranferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. These results indicate that acute systemic exposure to SiNPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in several major organs, and highlight the need for thorough evaluation of SiNPs before they can be safely used in human beings. PMID:27022259

  13. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in multiple organs of mice acutely exposed to amorphous silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Yuvaraju, Priya; Beegam, Sumaya; Yasin, Javed; Kazzam, Elsadig E; Ali, Badreldin H

    2016-01-01

    The use of amorphous silica (SiO2) in biopharmaceutical and industrial fields can lead to human exposure by injection, skin penetration, ingestion, or inhalation. However, the in vivo acute toxicity of amorphous SiO2 nanoparticles (SiNPs) on multiple organs and the mechanisms underlying these effects are not well understood. Presently, we investigated the acute (24 hours) effects of intraperitoneally administered 50 nm SiNPs (0.25 mg/kg) on systemic toxicity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in the lung, heart, liver, kidney, and brain of mice. Lipid peroxidation was significantly increased by SiNPs in the lung, liver, kidney, and brain, but was not changed in the heart. Similarly, superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were significantly affected by SiNPs in all organs studied. While the concentration of tumor necrosis factor α was insignificantly increased in the liver and brain, its increase was statistically significant in the lung, heart, and kidney. SiNPs induced a significant elevation in pulmonary and renal interleukin 6 and interleukin-1 beta in the lung, liver, and brain. Moreover, SiNPs caused a significant increase in DNA damage, assessed by comet assay, in all the organs studied. SiNPs caused leukocytosis and increased the plasma activities of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine aminotranferase, and aspartate aminotransferase. These results indicate that acute systemic exposure to SiNPs causes oxidative stress, inflammation, and DNA damage in several major organs, and highlight the need for thorough evaluation of SiNPs before they can be safely used in human beings. PMID:27022259

  14. Effects of calcium and phosphate on uranium(IV) oxidation: Comparison between nanoparticulate uraninite and amorphous UIV-phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latta, Drew E.; Kemner, Kenneth M.; Mishra, Bhoopesh; Boyanov, Maxim I.

    2016-02-01

    The mobility of uranium in subsurface environments depends strongly on its redox state, with UIV phases being significantly less soluble than UVI minerals. This study compares the oxidation kinetics and mechanisms of two potential products of UVI reduction in natural systems, a nanoparticulate UO2 phase and an amorphous UIV-Ca-PO4 analog to ningyoite (CaUIV(PO4)2·1-2H2O). The valence of U was tracked by X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy (XANES), showing similar oxidation rate constants for UIVO2 and UIV-phosphate in solutions equilibrated with atmospheric O2 and CO2 at pH 7.0 (kobs,UO2 = 0.17 ± 0.075 h-1 vs. kobs,UIVPO4 = 0.30 ± 0.25 h-1). Addition of up to 400 μM Ca and PO4 decreased the oxidation rate constant by an order of magnitude for both UO2 and UIV-phosphate. The intermediates and products of oxidation were tracked by electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (pXRD), and extended X-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS). In the absence of Ca or PO4, the product of UO2 oxidation is Na-uranyl oxyhydroxide (under environmentally relevant concentrations of sodium, 15 mM NaClO4 and low carbonate concentration), resulting in low concentrations of dissolved UVI (<2.5 × 10-7 M). Oxidation of UIV-phosphate produced a Na-autunite phase (Na2(UO2)PO4·xH2O), resulting in similarly low dissolved U concentrations (<7.3 × 10-8 M). When Ca and PO4 are present in the solution, the EXAFS data and the solubility of the UVI phase resulting from oxidation of UO2 and UIV-phosphate are consistent with the precipitation of Na-autunite. Bicarbonate extractions and Ca K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy of oxidized solids indicate the formation of a Ca-UVI-PO4 layer on the UO2 surface and suggest a passivation layer mechanism for the decreased rate of UO2 oxidation in the presence of Ca and PO4. Interestingly, the extractions were unable to remove all of the oxidized U from partially oxidized UO2 solids, suggesting that oxidized U is distributed between the interior of the UO2 nanoparticles and the labile surface layer. Accounting for the entire pool of oxidized U by XANES is the likely reason for the higher UO2 oxidation rate constants determined here relative to prior studies. Our results suggest that the natural presence or addition of Ca and PO4 in groundwater could slow the rates of UIV oxidation, but that the rates are still fast enough to cause complete oxidation of UIV within days under fully oxygenated conditions.

  15. High mechanical endurance RRAM based on amorphous gadolinium oxide for flexible nonvolatile memory application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hongbin; Tu, Hailing; Wei, Feng; Shi, Zhitian; Xiong, Yuhua; Zhang, Yan; Du, Jun

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we use amorphous Gd2O3 as the switching layer for fabricated RRAM devices with novel high performance, excellent flexibility, and mechanical endurance properties as potential candidate memory for flexible electronics applications. The obtained Cu/Gd2O3/Pt devices on flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrates show bipolar switching characteristics, low voltage operation (<2 V) and long retention time (>106 s). No performance degradation occurs, and the stored information is not lost after the device has been bent to different angles and up to 104 times in the bending tests. Based on temperature-dependent switching characteristics, the formation of Cu conducting filaments stemming from electrochemical reactions is believed to be the reason for the resistance switching from a high resistance state to a low resistance state. The studies of the integrated experiment and mechanism lay the foundation for the development of high-performance flexible RRAM.

  16. Highly conductive p-type amorphous oxides from low-temperature solution processing

    SciTech Connect

    Li Jinwang; Tokumitsu, Eisuke; Koyano, Mikio; Mitani, Tadaoki; Shimoda, Tatsuya

    2012-09-24

    We report solution-processed, highly conductive (resistivity 1.3-3.8 m{Omega} cm), p-type amorphous A-B-O (A = Bi, Pb; B = Ru, Ir), processable at temperatures (down to 240 Degree-Sign C) that are compatible with plastic substrates. The film surfaces are smooth on the atomic scale. Bi-Ru-O was analyzed in detail. A small optical bandgap (0.2 eV) with a valence band maximum (VBM) below but very close to the Fermi level (binding energy E{sub VBM} = 0.04 eV) explains the high conductivity and suggests that they are degenerated semiconductors. The conductivity changes from three-dimensional to two-dimensional with decreasing temperature across 25 K.

  17. Surface modification of zinc oxide nanoparticles with amorphous silica alters their fate in the circulation.

    PubMed

    Konduru, Nagarjun V; Murdaugh, Kimberly M; Swami, Archana; Jimenez, Renato J; Donaghey, Thomas C; Demokritou, Philip; Brain, Joseph D; Molina, Ramon M

    2016-08-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) pharmacokinetics and biological effects are influenced by many factors, especially surface physicochemical properties. We assessed the effects of an amorphous silica coating on the fate of zinc after intravenous (IV) injection of neutron activated uncoated (65)ZnO or silica-coated (65)ZnO NPs in male Wistar Han rats. Groups of IV-injected rats were sequentially euthanized, and 18 tissues were collected and analyzed for (65)Zn radioactivity. The protein coronas on each ZnO NP after incubation in rat plasma were analyzed by SDS-PAGE gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry of selected gel bands. Plasma clearance for both NPs was biphasic with rapid initial and slower terminal clearance rates. Half-lives of plasma clearance of silica-coated (65)ZnO were shorter (initial - <1 min; terminal - 2.5 min) than uncoated (65)ZnO (initial - 1.9 min; terminal - 38 min). Interestingly, the silica-coated (65)ZnO group had higher (65)Zn associated with red blood cells and higher initial uptake in the liver. The (65)Zn concentrations in all the other tissues were significantly lower in the silica-coated than uncoated groups. We also found that the protein corona formed on silica-coated ZnO NPs had higher amounts of plasma proteins, particularly albumin, transferrin, A1 inhibitor 3, α-2-hs-glycoprotein, apoprotein E and α-1 antitrypsin. Surface modification with amorphous silica alters the protein corona, agglomerate size, and zeta potential of ZnO NPs, which in turn influences ZnO biokinetic behavior in the circulation. This emphasizes the critical role of the protein corona in the biokinetics, toxicology and nanomedical applications of NPs. PMID:26581431

  18. Widely bandgap tunable amorphous Cd-Ga-O oxide semiconductors exhibiting electron mobilities ≥10 cm2 V-1 s-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Chiyuki; Kimura, Yota; Suzuki, Issei; Omata, Takahisa; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-02-01

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors exhibit large electron mobilities; however, their bandgaps are either too large for solar cells or too small for deep ultraviolet applications depending on the materials system. Herein, we demonstrate that amorphous Cd-Ga-O semiconductors display bandgaps covering the entire 2.5-4.3 eV region while maintaining large electron mobilities ≥10 cm2 V-1 s-1. The band alignment diagram obtained by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the bandgap values reveal that these semiconductors form type-II heterojunctions with p-type Cu2O, which is suitable for solar cells and solar-blind ultraviolet sensors.

  19. Amorphous vanadium oxide matrixes supporting hierarchical porous Fe3O4/graphene nanowires as a high-rate lithium storage anode.

    PubMed

    An, Qinyou; Lv, Fan; Liu, Qiuqi; Han, Chunhua; Zhao, Kangning; Sheng, Jinzhi; Wei, Qiulong; Yan, Mengyu; Mai, Liqiang

    2014-11-12

    Developing electrode materials with both high energy and power densities holds the key for satisfying the urgent demand of energy storage worldwide. In order to realize the fast and efficient transport of ions/electrons and the stable structure during the charge/discharge process, hierarchical porous Fe3O4/graphene nanowires supported by amorphous vanadium oxide matrixes have been rationally synthesized through a facile phase separation process. The porous structure is directly in situ constructed from the FeVO4·1.1H2O@graphene nanowires along with the crystallization of Fe3O4 and the amorphization of vanadium oxide without using any hard templates. The hierarchical porous Fe3O4/VOx/graphene nanowires exhibit a high Coulombic efficiency and outstanding reversible specific capacity (1146 mAh g(-1)). Even at the high current density of 5 A g(-1), the porous nanowires maintain a reversible capacity of ∼500 mAh g(-1). Moreover, the amorphization and conversion reactions between Fe and Fe3O4 of the hierarchical porous Fe3O4/VOx/graphene nanowires were also investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Our work demonstrates that the amorphous vanadium oxides matrixes supporting hierarchical porous Fe3O4/graphene nanowires are one of the most attractive anodes in energy storage applications. PMID:25314630

  20. Oxyanion induced variations in domain structure for amorphous cobalt oxide oxygen evolving catalysts, resolved by X-ray pair distribution function analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Gihan; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Han, Ali; Chapman, Karena W; Chupas, Peter J; Du, Pingwu; Tiede, David M

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous thin film oxygen evolving catalysts, OECs, of first-row transition metals show promise to serve as self-assembling photoanode materials in solar-driven, photoelectrochemical `artificial leaf' devices. This report demonstrates the ability to use high-energy X-ray scattering and atomic pair distribution function analysis, PDF, to resolve structure in amorphous metal oxide catalyst films. The analysis is applied here to resolve domain structure differences induced by oxyanion substitution during the electrochemical assembly of amorphous cobalt oxide catalyst films, Co-OEC. PDF patterns for Co-OEC films formed using phosphate, Pi, methylphosphate, MPi, and borate, Bi, electrolyte buffers show that the resulting domains vary in size following the sequence Pi < MPi < Bi. The increases in domain size for CoMPi and CoBi were found to be correlated with increases in the contributions from bilayer and trilayer stacked domains having structures intermediate between those of the LiCoOO and CoO(OH) mineral forms. The lattice structures and offset stacking of adjacent layers in the partially stacked CoMPi and CoBi domains were best matched to those in the LiCoOO layered structure. The results demonstrate the ability of PDF analysis to elucidate features of domain size, structure, defect content and mesoscale organization for amorphous metal oxide catalysts that are not readily accessed by other X-ray techniques. PDF structure analysis is shown to provide a way to characterize domain structures in different forms of amorphous oxide catalysts, and hence provide an opportunity to investigate correlations between domain structure and catalytic activity. PMID:26634728

  1. Oxyanion induced variations in domain structure for amorphous cobalt oxide oxygen evolving catalysts, resolved by X-ray pair distribution function analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Gihan; Kokhan, Oleksandr; Han, Ali; Chapman, Karena W.; Chupas, Peter J.; Du, Pingwu; Tiede, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous thin film oxygen evolving catalysts, OECs, of first-row transition metals show promise to serve as self-assembling photoanode materials in solar-driven, photoelectrochemical ‘artificial leaf’ devices. This report demonstrates the ability to use high-energy X-ray scattering and atomic pair distribution function analysis, PDF, to resolve structure in amorphous metal oxide catalyst films. The analysis is applied here to resolve domain structure differences induced by oxyanion substitution during the electrochemical assembly of amorphous cobalt oxide catalyst films, Co-OEC. PDF patterns for Co-OEC films formed using phosphate, Pi, methylphosphate, MPi, and borate, Bi, electrolyte buffers show that the resulting domains vary in size following the sequence Pi < MPi < Bi. The increases in domain size for CoMPi and CoBi were found to be correlated with increases in the contributions from bilayer and trilayer stacked domains having structures intermediate between those of the LiCoOO and CoO(OH) mineral forms. The lattice structures and offset stacking of adjacent layers in the partially stacked CoMPi and CoBi domains were best matched to those in the LiCoOO layered structure. The results demonstrate the ability of PDF analysis to elucidate features of domain size, structure, defect content and mesoscale organization for amorphous metal oxide catalysts that are not readily accessed by other X-ray techniques. PDF structure analysis is shown to provide a way to characterize domain structures in different forms of amorphous oxide catalysts, and hence provide an opportunity to investigate correlations between domain structure and catalytic activity. PMID:26634728

  2. Generalized molybdenum oxide surface chemical state XPS determination via informed amorphous sample model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Mendoza-Sanchez, Beatriz; Fernandez, Vincent; Veenstra, Rick; Dukstiene, Nijole; Roberts, Adam; Fairley, Neal

    2015-01-01

    Accurate elemental oxidation state determination for the outer surface of a complex material is of crucial importance in many science and engineering disciplines, including chemistry, fundamental and applied surface science, catalysis, semiconductors and many others. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) is the primary tool used for this purpose. The spectral data obtained, however, is often very complex and can be subject to incorrect interpretation. Unlike traditional XPS spectra fitting procedures using purely synthetic spectral components, here we develop and present an XPS data processing method based on vector analysis that allows creating XPS spectral components by incorporating key information, obtained experimentally. XPS spectral data, obtained from series of molybdenum oxide samples with varying oxidation states and degree of crystallinity, were processed using this method and the corresponding oxidation states present, as well as their relative distribution was elucidated. It was shown that monitoring the evolution of the chemistry and crystal structure of a molybdenum oxide sample due to an invasive X-ray probe could be used to infer solutions to complex spectral envelopes.

  3. Photochromism of amorphous molybdenum oxide films with different initial Mo5+ relative concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhani, Mehdi; Foo, Yong L.; Hobley, Jonathan; Pan, Jisheng; Subramanian, Gomathy Sandhya; Yu, Xiaojiang; Rusydi, Andrivo; Gorelik, Sergey

    2013-05-01

    We report the effect of deposition conditions on the intrinsic color and photochromic properties of amorphous MoO3 thin films (a-films) deposited by R.F. unbalanced magnetron sputtering. Optical transmission spectroscopy was used to measure optical properties of the films. The conversion between Mo6+ and Mo5+ for as-deposited and UV irradiated films was characterized using XPS. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm that the results of XPS were consistent with the bulk of the films. It is shown that absorption coefficient of as-deposited films increases with Mo5+ content. The temporal evolution of absorption coefficients for all films under UV light irradiation is measured using optical transmission spectroscopy. The largest change in absorption was observed for the film with the highest initial Mo5+ content. The temporal evolution of absorption coefficients for all the films shows initial fast rise within first minute of irradiation. XPS and Raman results show that for all films Mo5+ content increases as a result of UV irradiation except for the film with the highest initial Mo5+ content, for which the Mo5+ content decreases relative to Mo6+ despite the fact that the absorption of the film continues to rise. Further understanding of this mechanism is important since it will lead to enhanced photochromism and extend the photo-colorability of the films beyond the point at which the conversion of Mo6+ to Mo5+ is saturated.

  4. Resistive Switching Behavior in Amorphous Aluminum Oxide Film Grown by Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Xiao-Tong; Zhu, Hui-Chao; Cai, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Jia-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Jiao

    2014-07-01

    The repeatable bipolar resistive switching phenomenon is observed in amorphous Al2O3 prepared by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition on ITO glass, with ITO as the bottom electrode and Ag as the top electrode. The crystal structure, morphology, composition and optical properties of Al2O3 thin films are investigated by x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectroscopy, respectively. The electronic character of Ag/Al2O3/ITO structure is tested by an Agilent B1500A. The device shows a typical bipolar resistive switching behavior under the dc voltage sweep mode at room temperature. The variation ratio between HRS and LRS is larger than nearly three orders of magnitude, which indicates the good potential of this structure in future resistive random access memory (ReRAM) applications. Based on the conductive filament model, the high electric field is considered the main reason for the resistive switching according to our measurements.

  5. Atomistic Texture of Amorphous Manganese Oxides for Electrochemical Water Splitting Revealed by Ab Initio Calculations Combined with X-ray Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Giuseppe; Zaharieva, Ivelina; Dau, Holger; Guidoni, Leonardo

    2015-08-19

    Amorphous transition-metal (hydr)oxides are considered as the most promising catalysts that promote the oxidation of water to molecular oxygen, protons, and "energized" electrons, and, in turn, as fundamental parts of "artificial leaves" that can be exploited for large scale generation of chemical fuels (e.g., hydrogen) directly from sunlight. We present here a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electrodeposited amorphous manganese oxides with different catalytic activities toward water oxidation (MnCats). Combining the information content of X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) measurements with the predictive power of ab initio calculations based on density functional theory, we have been able to identify the essential structural and electronic properties of MnCats. We have elucidated (i) the localization and structural connection of Mn(II), Mn(III), and Mn(IV) ions in such amorphous oxides and (ii) the distribution of protons at the MnCat/water interface. Our calculations result in realistic 3D models of the MnCat atomistic texture, formed by the interconnection of small planar Mn-oxo sheets cross-linked through different kinds of defective Mn atoms, isolated or arranged in closed cubane-like units. Essential for the catalytic activity is the presence of undercoordinated Mn(III)O5 units located at the boundary of the amorphous network, where they are ready to act as hole traps that trigger the oxidation of neighboring water molecules when the catalyst is exposed to an external positive potential. The present validation of a sound 3D model of MnCat improves the accuracy of XAFS fits and opens the way for the development of mechanistic schemes of its functioning beyond a speculative level. PMID:26226190

  6. Fabrication of ion conductive tin oxide-phosphate amorphous thin films by atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Suk Won; Jang, Dong Young; Kim, Jun Woo; Shim, Joon Hyung

    2015-07-15

    This work reports the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of tin oxide-phosphate films using tetrakis(dimethylamino)tin and trimethyl phosphate as precursors. The growth rates were 1.23–1.84 Å/cycle depending upon the deposition temperature and precursor combination. The ionic conductivity of the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films was evaluated by cross-plane impedance measurements in the temperature range of 50–300 °C under atmospheric air, with the highest conductivity measured as 1.92 × 10{sup −5} S cm{sup −1} at 300 °C. Furthermore, high-resolution x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy exhibited two O1s peaks that were classified as two subpeaks of hydroxyl ions and oxygen ions, revealing that the quantity of hydroxyl ions in the ALD tin oxide-phosphate films influences their ionic conductivity.

  7. Light induced instability mechanism in amorphous InGaZn oxide semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, John; Guo, Yuzheng

    2014-04-21

    A model of the negative bias illumination stress instability in InGaZn oxide is presented, based on the photo-excitation of electrons from oxygen interstitials. The O interstitials are present to compensate hydrogen donors. The O interstitials are found to spontaneously form in O-rich conditions for Fermi energies at the conduction band edge, much more easily that in related oxides. The excited electrons give rise to a persistent photoconductivity due to an energy barrier to recombination. The formation energy of the O interstitials varies with their separation from the H donors, which leads to a voltage stress dependence on the compensation.

  8. Integration of perovskite oxide dielectrics into complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor structures using amorphous TaSiN as oxygen diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mešić, Biljana; Schroeder, Herbert

    2011-09-01

    The high permittivity perovskite oxides have been intensively investigated for their possible application as dielectric materials for stacked capacitors in dynamic random access memory circuits. For the integration of such oxide materials into the CMOS world, a conductive diffusion barrier is indispensable. An optimized stack p++-Si/Pt/Ta21Si57N21/Ir was developed and used as the bottom electrode for the oxide dielectric. The amorphous TaSiN film as oxygen diffusion barrier showed excellent conductive properties and a good thermal stability up to 700 °C in oxygen ambient. The additional protective iridium layer improved the surface roughness after annealing. A 100-nm-thick (Ba,Sr)TiO3 film was deposited using pulsed laser deposition at 550 °C, showing very promising properties for application; the maximum relative dielectric constant at zero field is κ ≈ 470, and the leakage current density is below 10-6 A/cm2 for fields lower then ± 200 kV/cm, corresponding to an applied voltage of ± 2 V.

  9. The role of oxide interlayers in back reflector configurations for amorphous silicon solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demontis, V.; Sanna, C.; Melskens, J.; Santbergen, R.; Smets, A. H. M.; Damiano, A.; Zeman, M.

    2013-02-01

    Thin oxide interlayers are commonly added to the back reflector of thin-film silicon solar cells to increase their current. To gain more insight in the enhancement mechanism, we tested different back reflector designs consisting of aluminium-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) and/or hydrogenated silicon oxide (SiOx:H) interlayers with different metals (silver, aluminium, and chromium) in standard p-i-n a-Si:H solar cells. We use a unique inverse modeling approach to show that in most back reflectors the internal metal reflectance is lower than expected theoretically. However, the metal reflectance is increased by the addition of an oxide interlayer. Our experiments demonstrate that SiOx:H forms an interesting alternative interlayer because unlike the more commonly used ZnO:Al it can be deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition and it does not reduce the fill factor. The largest efficiency enhancement is obtained with a double interlayer of SiOx:H and ZnO:Al.

  10. Packing and the structural transformations in liquid and amorphous oxides from ambient to extreme conditions

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler, Anita; Salmon, Philip Stephen; Skinner, Lawrie Basil

    2014-01-01

    Liquid and glassy oxide materials play a vital role in multiple scientific and technological disciplines, but little is known about the part played by oxygen–oxygen interactions in the structural transformations that change their physical properties. Here we show that the coordination number of network-forming structural motifs, which play a key role in defining the topological ordering, can be rationalized in terms of the oxygen-packing fraction over an extensive pressure and temperature range. The result is a structural map for predicting the likely regimes of topological change for a range of oxide materials. This information can be used to forecast when changes may occur to the transport properties and compressibility of, e.g., fluids in planetary interiors, and is a prerequisite for the preparation of new materials following the principles of rational design. PMID:24982151

  11. Structure and Electronic Properties of Crystalline and Amorphous Zinc Indium Tin Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proffit, Diana Elizabeth

    The local structures and surface electronic properties of crystalline (c-) and amorphous (a-) Zn and Sn codoped In2O3 (ZITO) films were studied. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements confirm that Zn and Sn dopants occupy In sites in the bixbyite structure of c-ZITO. Also, Zn dopants are generally under-coordinated and some compensated Sn dopants are over-coordinated, as demonstrated by the trend in coordination numbers (CN) of CNSn>CNIn>CNZn. Aliovalent Sn dopants form Frank-Kostlin clusters, (2Sn•InO'' i)x , which can act as donors when reduced. XAS and anomalous X-ray scattering studies on a-ZITO show that the local structure in a-ZITO is somewhat different than that in c-ZITO, particularly around Zn. The Zn-O bond length is significantly smaller than in c-ZITO and Zn is 4-fold coordinated. The smaller coordination numbers in a-ZITO follow the same trend as in c-ZITO. Unlike in c-ZITO, variations in the Sn/Zn ratio do not alter the electrical properties of a-ZITO, although variations in deposition oxygen pressure do. The 3-D geometrical arrangement linking local structure units seems to play a key role in charge balancing ZITO. As measured by in situ grazing incidence wide angle X-ray scattering, ZITO crystallizes at a higher temperature than In2 O3 and Sn-doped In2O3. The difference is attributed to a higher activation energy, which may result from the unique structure around Zn in a-ZITO. Increasing the codoping level consistently increases crystallization temperature. For a given codoping level, the crystallization temperature during deposition is lower than that during post-deposition annealing. X-ray and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that a-ZITO and c-ZITO thin films have similar surface electronic properties. In situ a-ZITO and c-ZITO films have low ionization potentials that are similar to In2O3. However, dry-air-annealed in situ films, ex situ films, and bulk ceramics have higher ionization potentials that are similar to ITO and match well with previous results on air-exposed surfaces. Lastly, a parallelogram plot of work function versus Fermi level shows that a wider range of work functions is achievable in ZITO materials than in Sb-doped SnO2, Al-doped ZnO, and Sn-doped In2O3.

  12. In situ X-Ray Absorption Spectro-Electrochemical Study of Amorphous Tin-Based Composite Oxide Material

    SciTech Connect

    Mansour, A. N.; Mukerjee, S.; Yang, X. Q.; McBreen, J.

    1998-11-01

    We have measured the XAFS spectra of a sample of tin-based composite oxide (TCO) material with a nominal composition of Sn{sub 1.0}B{sub 0.56}P{sub 0.40}Al{sub 0.42}O{sub 3.47} during the discharge and charge cycles in an ''in situ'' configuration. Our results confirm the amorphous nature of TCO and show that Sn in TCO is coordinated with 3 oxygen atoms at a distance of 2.12 {angstrom}. Upon discharging, initially, Li interacts with the electrochemically active Sn-O center forming metallic Sn in the form of clusters containing just a few atoms. Upon further discharge, Li alloys with Sn forming initially highly dispersed forms of Li{sub 2}Sn{sub 5} and/or LiSn and then Li{sub 7}Sn{sub 3}, Li{sub 5}Sn{sub 2}, Li{sub 13}Sn{sub 5}, or Li{sub 7}Sn{sub 2}. The true nature of the formed alloys could be significantly different from that of the corresponding crystalline phases. Upon charging, metallic Sn is produced with a Sn-Sn distance intermediate to those of gray and white Sn.

  13. Amorphous polymeric anode materials from poly(acrylic acid) and tin(II) oxide for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Nakanishi, Shinji; Iba, Hideki; Itoh, Takahito

    2015-02-01

    The reaction of poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) and tin oxide (II) (SnO) provides an amorphous product (PSnA), which was found to be a promising precursor of an anode material for lithium ion batteries. The anode electrode composed of PSnA as the active material and polyimide as the binder showed a better cycling performance than the anode electrode using SnO as the active material. It is considered that the organic polymer chain present in PSnA might act as a buffer to the volume change in the active material during the charge-discharge cycles. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results of the electrode after delithiation revealed that nano-sized cubic tin (α-Sn) and tetragonal tin (β-Sn) particles are formed in the active material. Therefore, it is concluded that these nano-sized tin particles in the polymer matrix were effective for the storage and release of Li ions.

  14. Spectral and concentration dependences of the optical properties of thin layers of oxidized amorphous copper and nickel nanoparticles in the infrared spectral region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaĭrullina, A. Ya.; Ol'Shanskaya, T. V.; Yavsin, D. A.; Kozhevin, V. M.; Gurevich, S. A.

    2009-05-01

    The optical properties of thin layers of nanostructures based on oxidized amorphous copper and nickel granules are studied in the IR spectral region. The absorption spectra of layers are calculated taking into account luminescence. It is noted that the spectral features of the absorption coefficients of these nanostructures are determined by the enhanced absorption and luminescence of oxides in the vicinity of metal nanoparticles. A nonmonotonic concentration dependence of the absorption and transmission coefficients of oxidized copper nanoparticles on a silicon substrate in the IR region is found. The absorption maximum corresponds to the oxide shell layer that is half-filled with nanostructured metal. The concentration dependences of absorption coefficients of nanostructures based on oxidized nickel particles exhibit features at different wavelengths in the IR spectral region.

  15. Creation and control of two-dimensional electron gas using Al-based amorphous oxides/SrTiO₃ heterostructures grown by atomic layer deposition.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Woon; Liu, Yiqun; Heo, Jaeyeong; Gordon, Roy G

    2012-09-12

    The formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2-DEG) using SrTiO(3) (STO)-based heterostructures provides promising opportunities in oxide electronics. We realized the formation of 2-DEG using several amorphous layers grown by the atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique at 300 °C which is a process compatible with mass production and thereby can provide the realization of potential applications. We found that the amorphous LaAlO(3) (LAO) layer grown by the ALD process can generate 2-DEG (∼1 × 10(13)/cm(2)) with an electron mobility of 4-5 cm(2)/V·s. A much higher electron mobility was observed at lower temperatures. More remarkably, amorphous YAlO(3) (YAO) and Al(2)O(3) layers, which are not polar-perovskite-structured oxides, can create 2-DEG as well. 2-DEG was created by means of the important role of trimethylaluminum, Me(3)Al, as a reducing agent for STO during LAO and YAO ALD as well as the Al(2)O(3) ALD process at 300 °C. The deposited oxide layer also plays an essential role as a catalyst that enables Me(3)Al to reduce the STO. The electrons were localized very near to the STO surface, and the source of carriers was explained based on the oxygen vacancies generated in the STO substrate. PMID:22908907

  16. Effects of ionic liquids on cation dynamics in amorphous polyethylene oxide electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chattoraj, Joyjit; Diddens, Diddo; Heuer, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte material containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt for a wide temperature regime above and below the experimental crystallization temperature with and without N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (IL). The impact of the IL-concentration on the cation dynamics is studied. The increase of the cation mobility upon addition of IL is significant but temperature-independent. This can be related to distinct variations of the underlying transport properties as expressed within the previously introduced transport model of polymer electrolytes. Even for the largest IL concentration the transport model perfectly predicts the non-trivial time-dependence of the cationic mean square displacement for all temperatures. Finally, we compare our numerical and theoretical findings with the results of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. In this way we can exclusively relate the strong experimentally observed dependence of the low-temperature Li-diffusivity on the IL concentration to the impact of IL on crystallization.

  17. Effects of ionic liquids on cation dynamics in amorphous polyethylene oxide electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Chattoraj, Joyjit Diddens, Diddo; Heuer, Andreas

    2014-01-14

    We perform extensive molecular dynamics simulations of a poly(ethylene oxide)-based polymer electrolyte material containing lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide salt for a wide temperature regime above and below the experimental crystallization temperature with and without N-methyl-N-propylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ionic liquid (IL). The impact of the IL-concentration on the cation dynamics is studied. The increase of the cation mobility upon addition of IL is significant but temperature-independent. This can be related to distinct variations of the underlying transport properties as expressed within the previously introduced transport model of polymer electrolytes. Even for the largest IL concentration the transport model perfectly predicts the non-trivial time-dependence of the cationic mean square displacement for all temperatures. Finally, we compare our numerical and theoretical findings with the results of recent nuclear magnetic resonance experiments. In this way we can exclusively relate the strong experimentally observed dependence of the low-temperature Li-diffusivity on the IL concentration to the impact of IL on crystallization.

  18. Photo-induced oxidation and amorphization of trigonal tellurium: A means to engineer hybrid nanostructures and explore glass structure under spatial confinement

    SciTech Connect

    Vasileiadis, Thomas; Yannopoulos, Spyros N.

    2014-09-14

    Controlled photo-induced oxidation and amorphization of elemental trigonal tellurium are achieved by laser irradiation at optical wavelengths. These processes are monitored in situ by time-resolved Raman scattering and ex situ by electron microscopies. Ultrathin TeO₂ films form on Te surfaces, as a result of irradiation, with an interface layer of amorphous Te intervening between them. It is shown that irradiation, apart from enabling the controllable transformation of bulk Te to one-dimensional nanostructures, such as Te nanotubes and hybrid core-Te/sheath-TeO₂ nanowires, causes also a series of light-driven (athermal) phase transitions involving the crystallization of the amorphous TeO₂ layers and its transformation to a multiplicity of crystalline phases including the γ-, β-, and α-TeO₂ crystalline phases. The kinetics of the above photo-induced processes is investigated by Raman scattering at various laser fluences revealing exponential and non-exponential kinetics at low and high fluence, respectively. In addition, the formation of ultrathin (less than 10 nm) layers of amorphous TeO₂ offers the possibility to explore structural transitions in 2D glasses by observing changes in the short- and medium-range structural order induced by spatial confinement.

  19. Photo-induced oxidation and amorphization of trigonal tellurium: A means to engineer hybrid nanostructures and explore glass structure under spatial confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasileiadis, Thomas; Yannopoulos, Spyros N.

    2014-09-01

    Controlled photo-induced oxidation and amorphization of elemental trigonal tellurium are achieved by laser irradiation at optical wavelengths. These processes are monitored in situ by time-resolved Raman scattering and ex situ by electron microscopies. Ultrathin TeO2 films form on Te surfaces, as a result of irradiation, with an interface layer of amorphous Te intervening between them. It is shown that irradiation, apart from enabling the controllable transformation of bulk Te to one-dimensional nanostructures, such as Te nanotubes and hybrid core-Te/sheath-TeO2 nanowires, causes also a series of light-driven (athermal) phase transitions involving the crystallization of the amorphous TeO2 layers and its transformation to a multiplicity of crystalline phases including the ?-, ?-, and ?-TeO2 crystalline phases. The kinetics of the above photo-induced processes is investigated by Raman scattering at various laser fluences revealing exponential and non-exponential kinetics at low and high fluence, respectively. In addition, the formation of ultrathin (less than 10 nm) layers of amorphous TeO2 offers the possibility to explore structural transitions in 2D glasses by observing changes in the short- and medium-range structural order induced by spatial confinement.

  20. Amorphous Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Steven A.

    2010-01-01

    A proposed mobile robot, denoted the amorphous rover, would vary its own size and shape in order to traverse terrain by means of rolling and/or slithering action. The amorphous rover was conceived as a robust, lightweight alternative to the wheeled rover-class robotic vehicle heretofore used in exploration of Mars. Unlike a wheeled rover, the amorphous rover would not have a predefined front, back, top, bottom, or sides. Hence, maneuvering of the amorphous rover would be more robust: the amorphous rover would not be vulnerable to overturning, could move backward or sideways as well as forward, and could even narrow itself to squeeze through small openings.

  1. Electrical ferroelectric-like properties of amorphous thin films of ferroelectric oxides prepared by the sol-gel technique

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Cheng, C.H.; Mackenzie, J.D.

    1995-12-31

    Lead zirconate titanate [Pb(Zr{sub x}Ti{sub 1-x})O{sub 3}, or PZT], BaTiO{sub 3} and LiNbO{sub 3} thin films on silicon wafer and titanium foil were fabricated by the sol-gel technique. Amorphous LiNbO3 thin film was obtained at 150{degrees}C. Amorphous PZT and BaTiO{sub 3} thin films were obtained at the heat-treatment temperature of 350{degrees}C and 400{degrees}C, respectively. The microstructure of these films was determined by x-ray and electron diffractions and HRTEM technique. The electrical properties of these thin films were measured. For these amorphous thin films ferroelectric hysteresis loop and pyroelectric current were observed. The dielectric permittivity of amorphous thin films is much lower than those of corresponding polycrystalline materials.

  2. Layer-by-Layer Assembled 2D Montmorillonite Dielectrics for Solution-Processed Electronics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jian; Liu, Xiaolong; Geier, Michael L; McMorrow, Julian J; Jariwala, Deep; Beck, Megan E; Huang, Wei; Marks, Tobin J; Hersam, Mark C

    2016-01-01

    Layer-by-layer assembled 2D montmorillonite nanosheets are shown to be high-performance, solution-processed dielectrics. These scalable and spatially uniform sub-10 nm thick dielectrics yield high areal capacitances of ≈600 nF cm(-2) and low leakage currents down to 6 × 10(-9) A cm(-2) that enable low voltage operation of p-type semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotube and n-type indium gallium zinc oxide field-effect transistors. PMID:26514248

  3. Electric charging/discharging characteristics of super capacitor, using de-alloying and anodic oxidized Ti-Ni-Si amorphous alloy ribbons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Charging/discharging behaviors of de-alloyed and anodic oxidized Ti-Ni-Si amorphous alloy ribbons were measured as a function of current between 10 pA and 100 mA, using galvanostatic charge/discharging method. In sharp contrast to conventional electric double layer capacitor (EDLC), discharging behaviors for voltage under constant currents of 1, 10 and 100 mA after 1.8 ks charging at 100 mA show parabolic decrease, demonstrating direct electric storage without solvents. The supercapacitors, devices that store electric charge on their amorphous TiO2-x surfaces that contain many 70-nm sized cavities, show the Ragone plot which locates at lower energy density region near the 2nd cells, and RC constant of 800 s (at 1 mHz), which is 157,000 times larger than that (5 ms) in EDLC. PMID:24959106

  4. Dopant selection for control of charge carrier density and mobility in amorphous indium oxide thin-film transistors: Comparison between Si- and W-dopants

    SciTech Connect

    Mitoma, Nobuhiko E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Kizu, Takio; Lin, Meng-Fang; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito E-mail: TSUKAGOSHI.Kazuhito@nims.go.jp; Aikawa, Shinya; Ou-Yang, Wei; Gao, Xu; Fujiwara, Akihiko

    2015-01-26

    The dependence of oxygen vacancy suppression on dopant species in amorphous indium oxide (a-InO{sub x}) thin film transistors (TFTs) is reported. In a-InO{sub x} TFTs incorporating equivalent atom densities of Si- and W-dopants, absorption of oxygen in the host a-InO{sub x} matrix was found to depend on difference of Gibbs free energy of the dopants for oxidation. For fully oxidized films, the extracted channel conductivity was higher in the a-InO{sub x} TFTs containing dopants of small ionic radius. This can be explained by a reduction in the ionic scattering cross sectional area caused by charge screening effects.

  5. Electron tunnelling into amorphous germanium and silicon.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, C. W.; Clark, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Measurements of tunnel conductance versus bias, capacitance versus bias, and internal photoemission were made in the systems aluminum-oxide-amorphous germanium and aluminium-oxide-amorphous silicon. A function was extracted which expresses the deviation of these systems from the aluminium-oxide-aluminium system.

  6. New amorphous oxides as high capacity negative electrodes for lithium batteries: the Li xMVO 4 (M = Ni, Co, Cd, Zn; 1 < x ≤ 8) series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyomard, D.; Sigala, C.; de Gal La Salle, A.; Piffard, Y.

    The crystallized precursors LiMVO 4 (M = Co, Ni, Cd, Zn) are irreversibly transformed to lithiated amorphous oxides Li xMVO 4 ( x close to 8) during the first Li insertion in a lithium battery. Under low rate, these amorphous oxides cycle large amounts of Li per formula unit in the 0.02-3 V range (versus Li), with an average voltage in the order of 0.6 V for Li insertion and 1.4 V for Li extraction. In the case of Li xNiVO 4 at first Li extraction, for example, Δ x = 6.6 and Q = 980 Ah/kg (active material alone) or 900 Ah/kg (calculated with respect to the total mass: material + carbon black) or 4230 Ah/l (active material alone), more than 5.5 times the volumic capacity of graphite. The cycling behavior at fast rate ( C/6) was very good with a peculiar increase in capacity with cycle number after an initial decrease. Characterization of lithiated Li xNiVO 4 samples, performed with the use of local techniques such as X-ray absorption spectra (XAS) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), led to an evaluation of the average oxidation states of V and Ni and of the electronic transfer from Li to V and Ni. Results are compatible with the crystal chemistry of Ni and V oxides. The Li 'incorporation/extraction' process in the series Li xMVO 4 is not a destruction/reconstruction mechanism involving Li 2O and M and V metals. However, it seems to be different from a classical topotactic intercalation reaction.

  7. RF sputtering deposited a-IGZO films for LCD alignment layer application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. M.; Liu, C. Y.; Sahoo, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) inorganic films were deposited at a fixed oblique angle using radio-frequency sputtering on indium tin oxide (ITO) glass as alternative alignment layer for liquid crystal displays. A series of experiments have been carried out to reveal the physical characteristics of the a-IGZO films, such as optical transmittance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The special treatment a-IGZO films were used to fabricate liquid crystal (LC) cells and investigate the performances of these cells. Pretilt angles were measured with anti-parallel LC cells and voltage-transmittance (V-T) curve, contrast ratio, and response time were evaluated with optically compensated bend (OCB) LC cells. The electro-optical characteristics of the aligned homogenous LCs, and OCB mode cells based on the a-IGZO alignment layer were compared to those based on rubbing processed polyimide (PI). The results showed that the average transmittance in the visible wavelength range was higher than 90% for the a-IGZO alignment layer. The LC pretilt angle has been determined at about 6°. The evaluted cell critical voltage at maximum transmittance was 1.8 V, lower than the control cell using PI alignment layer. The OCB cell rise time and fall time were 1.55 ms and 3.49 ms, respectivly. A very quick response time of 5.04 ms has thus been achived. In addition, the study of V-T characteristics suggested higher contrast ratio for LCD display applications.

  8. Large-scale complementary macroelectronics using hybrid integration of carbon nanotubes and IGZO thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Haitian; Cao, Yu; Zhang, Jialu; Zhou, Chongwu

    2014-06-01

    Carbon nanotubes and metal oxide semiconductors have emerged as important materials for p-type and n-type thin-film transistors, respectively; however, realizing sophisticated macroelectronics operating in complementary mode has been challenging due to the difficulty in making n-type carbon nanotube transistors and p-type metal oxide transistors. Here we report a hybrid integration of p-type carbon nanotube and n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors to achieve large-scale (>1,000 transistors for 501-stage ring oscillators) complementary macroelectronic circuits on both rigid and flexible substrates. This approach of hybrid integration allows us to combine the strength of p-type carbon nanotube and n-type indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors, and offers high device yield and low device variation. Based on this approach, we report the successful demonstration of various logic gates (inverter, NAND and NOR gates), ring oscillators (from 51 stages to 501 stages) and dynamic logic circuits (dynamic inverter, NAND and NOR gates).

  9. Electrically programmable-erasable In-Ga-Zn-O thin-film transistor memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Shi-Bing; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistor (TFT) memory is very promising for transparent and flexible system-on-panel displays; however, electrical erasability has always been a severe challenge for this memory. In this article, we demonstrated successfully an electrically programmable-erasable memory with atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/Pt nanocrystals/Al2O3 gate stack under a maximal processing temperature of 300 oC. As the programming voltage was enhanced from 14 to 19 V for a constant pulse of 0.2 ms, the threshold voltage shift increased significantly from 0.89 to 4.67 V. When the programmed device was subjected to an appropriate pulse under negative gate bias, it could return to the original state with a superior erasing efficiency. The above phenomena could be attributed to Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling of electrons from the IGZO channel to the Pt nanocrystals during programming, and inverse tunnelling of the trapped electrons during erasing. In terms of 0.2-ms programming at 16 V and 350-ms erasing at -17 V, a large memory window of 3.03 V was achieved successfully. Furthermore, the memory exhibited stable repeated programming/erasing (P/E) characteristics and good data retention, i.e., for 2-ms programming at 14 V and 250-ms erasing at -14 V, a memory window of 2.08 V was still maintained after 103 P/E cycles, and a memory window of 1.1 V was retained after 105 s retention time.

  10. Crystalline/amorphous tungsten oxide core/shell hierarchical structures and their synergistic effect for optical modulation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, D; Xie, D; Shi, F; Wang, D H; Ge, X; Xia, X H; Wang, X L; Gu, C D; Tu, J P

    2015-12-15

    High-performance electrochromic films with large color contrast and fast switching speed are of great importance for developing advanced smart windows. In this work, crystalline/amorphous WO3 core/shell (c-WO3@a-WO3) nanowire arrays rationally are synthesized by combining hydrothermal and electrodeposition methods. The 1D c-WO3@a-WO3 core/shell hierarchical structures show a synergistic effect for the enhancement of optical modulation, especially in the infrared (IR) region. By optimizing the electrodeposition time of 400s, the core/shell array exhibits a significant optical modulation (70.3% at 750nm, 42.0% at 2000nm and 51.4% at 10μm), fast switching speed (3.5s and 4.8s), high coloration efficiency (43.2cm(2)C(-1) at 750nm) and excellent cycling performance (68.5% after 3000 cycles). The crystalline/amorphous nanostructured film can provide an alternative way for developing high-performance electrochromic materials. PMID:26321573

  11. Valence band offset in heterojunctions between crystalline silicon and amorphous silicon (sub)oxides (a-SiO{sub x}:H, 0 < x < 2)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebhaber, M.; Mews, M.; Schulze, T. F.; Korte, L. Rech, B.; Lips, K.

    2015-01-19

    The heterojunction between amorphous silicon (sub)oxides (a-SiO{sub x}:H, 0 < x < 2) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) is investigated. We combine chemical vapor deposition with in-system photoelectron spectroscopy in order to determine the valence band offset ΔE{sub V} and the interface defect density, being technologically important junction parameters. ΔE{sub V} increases from ≈0.3 eV for the a-Si:H/c-Si interface to >4 eV for the a-SiO{sub 2}/c-Si interface, while the electronic quality of the heterointerface deteriorates. High-bandgap a-SiO{sub x}:H is therefore unsuitable for the hole contact in heterojunction solar cells, due to electronic transport hindrance resulting from the large ΔE{sub V}. Our method is readily applicable to other heterojunctions.

  12. Bias tuning charge-releasing leading to negative differential resistance in amorphous gallium oxide/Nb:SrTiO3 heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, P. C.; Li, P. G.; Zhi, Y. S.; Guo, D. Y.; Pan, A. Q.; Zhan, J. M.; Liu, H.; Shen, J. Q.; Tang, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    Negative differential resistance (NDR) and bipolar resistive switching (RS) phenomena were observed in Au/Ga2O3-x/Nb:SrTiO3/Au heterostructures fabricated by growing amorphous gallium oxide thin films on 0.7%Nb-doped SrTiO3 substrates using pulsed laser deposition technique. The RS behavior is reproducible and stable without the forming process. The NDR phenomenon happened during the course of RS from low resistance state to high resistance state and was dependent much on the applied forward bias. The bias dependent charge releasing from oxygen vacancies was considered to contribute to the NDR behavior. The results show that there is a very close relationship between NDR and RS.

  13. Stability of amorphous hydrous manganese oxide in contrasting soils and implications for its use in chemical stabilization of metals/metalloids in contaminated soil environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettler, V.; Knytl, V.; Komarek, M.; Della Puppa, L.; Mihaljevic, M.; Sebek, O.

    2012-04-01

    Amorphous manganese oxides are known to be efficient sorbents in soils and thus useful in remediation technologies. A novel amorphous hydrous manganese oxide (HMO) was prepared by a modified procedure generally used for birnessite synthesis. Its long-term stability in view of possible applications for chemical stabilization of metals/metalloids in polluted soils was evaluated. HMO was sealed in experimental bags prepared from polyamide fabric (pore size 1 um) and placed in the pots containing 200 g of soil. Three contrasting soils were used (two cambisols with pH values of 4.2 and 5.4, respectively, and a chernozem with a pH of 7.3). Each pot was equipped with a rhizon pore water sampler and the water content was maintained at 80% WHC throughout the experiment. HMO and pore waters were sampled after 1, 7, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75 and 90 days of incubation. Up to 113 mg Mn/L was released into pore water at the beginning of the experiment in more acidic soils indicating a slight dissolution of HMO surfaces. Manganese release into the pore water stabilized after 15 days in agreement with mass loss measurements. Mass loss decreased again after 60 days of the incubation for the neutral soil due to the formation of secondary rhodochrosite (MnCO3) detected on the HMO surfaces by X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of HMO for trace metal retention in soils (e.g., Zn) slightly decreased after 60 days, probably due to the mineralogical transformation of the sorbent leading to decrease of binding surfaces. Nevertheless, only approximately 10% of HMO dissolved after 90 days of experiment showing that this sorbent can be relatively stable in the studied soils. Its binding capacity for metals/metalloids should be further tested in soils with elevated contaminant concentrations.

  14. Amorphous water.

    PubMed

    Angell, C Austen

    2004-01-01

    After providing some background material to establish the interest content of this subject, we summarize the many different ways in which water can be prepared in the amorphous state, making clear that there seems to be more than one distinct amorphous state to be considered. We then give some space to structural and spectroscopic characterization of the distinct states, recognizing that whereas there seems to be unambiguously two distinct states, there may be in fact be more, the additional states mimicking the structures of the higher-density crystalline polymorphs. The low-frequency vibrational properties of the amorphous solid states are then examined in some detail because of the gathering evidence that glassy water, while difficult to form directly from the liquid like other glasses, may have some unusual and almost ideal glassy features, manifested by unusually low states of disorder. This notion is pursued in the following section dealing with thermodynamic and relaxational properties, where the uniquely low excess entropy of the vitreous state of water is confirmed by three different estimates. The fact that the most nearly ideal glass known has no properly established glass transition temperature is highlighted, using known dielectric loss data for amorphous solid water (ASW) and relevant molecular glasses. Finally, the polyamorphism of glassy water, and the kinetic aspects of transformation from one form to the other, are reviewed. PMID:15117262

  15. I.~Reactively sputtered Ti-Si-N thin films for diffusion barrier applications. II.~Oxidation, diffusion and crystallization of an amorphous Zr(60)Al(15)Ni(25) alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xin

    Films of Ti-Si-N obtained by reactively sputtering a TiSisb2, a Tisb5Sisb3, or a Tisb3Si target are either amorphous or nanocrystalline in structure. The atomic density of some films exceeds 10sp{23} at./cmsp3. The room-temperature resistivity of the films increases with the Si and the N content. A thermal treatment in vacuum at 700sp°C for 1 hour decreases the resistivity of the Ti-rich films deposited from the Tisb5Sisb3 or the Tisb3Si target, but increases that of the Si-rich films deposited from the TiSisb2 target when the nitrogen content exceeds about 30 at. %. Tisb{34}Sisb{23}Nsb{43} deposited from the Tisb5Sisb3 target is an excellent diffusion barrier between Si and Cu. This film is a mixture of nanocrystalline TiN and amorphous SiNsbx. Resistivity measurement from 80 K to 1073 K reveals that this film is electrically semiconductor-like as-deposited, and that it becomes metal-like after an hour annealing at 1000sp°C in vacuum. A film of about 100 nm thick, with a resistivity of 660 muOmegacm, maintains the stability of Si nsp+p shallow junction diodes with a 400 nm Cu overlayer up to 850sp°C upon 30 min vacuum annealing. When used between Si and Al, the maximum temperature of stability is 550sp°C for 30 min. This film can be etched in a CFsb4/Osb2 plasma. The amorphous ternary metallic alloy Zrsb{60}Alsb{15}Nisb{25} was oxidized in dry oxygen in the temperature range 310sp°C to 410sp°C. Rutherford backscattering and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy studies suggest that during this treatment an amorphous layer of zirconium-aluminum-oxide is formed at the surface. Nickel is depleted from the oxide and enriched in the amorphous alloy below the oxide/alloy interface. The oxide layer thickness grows parabolically with the annealing duration, with a transport constant of 2.8 × 10sp{-5} msp2/s × exp(-1.7 eV/kT). The oxidation rate is most likely controlled by the Ni diffusion in the amorphous alloy. At later stages of the oxidation process, precipitates of nanocrystalline ZrOsb2 appear in the oxide near the interface. Finally, two intermetallic phases nucleate and grow simultaneously in the alloy, one at the interface and one within the alloy.

  16. An in-situ gas chromatography investigation into the suppression of oxygen gas evolution by coated amorphous cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles on oxide electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gim, Jihyeon; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Jo, Jeonggeun; Kim, Seokhun; Yoon, Jaegu; Kim, Donghan; Hong, Suk-Gi; Park, Jin-Hwan; Mathew, Vinod; Han, Junhee; Song, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jaekook

    2016-03-01

    The real time detection of quantitative oxygen release from the cathode is performed by in-situ Gas Chromatography as a tool to not only determine the amount of oxygen release from a lithium-ion cell but also to address the safety concerns. This in-situ gas chromatography technique monitoring the gas evolution during electrochemical reaction presents opportunities to clearly understand the effect of surface modification and predict on the cathode stability. The oxide cathode, 0.5Li2MnO3•0.5LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2, surface modified by amorphous cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles (a-CoPO4) is prepared by a simple co-precipitation reaction followed by a mild heat treatment. The presence of a 40 nm thick a-CoPO4 coating layer wrapping the oxide powders is confirmed by electron microscopy. The electrochemical measurements reveal that the a-CoPO4 coated overlithiated layered oxide cathode shows better performances than the pristine counterpart. The enhanced performance of the surface modified oxide is attributed to the uniformly coated Co-P-O layer facilitating the suppression of O2 evolution and offering potential lithium host sites. Further, the formation of a stable SEI layer protecting electrolyte decomposition also contributes to enhanced stabilities with lesser voltage decay. The in-situ gas chromatography technique to study electrode safety offers opportunities to investigate the safety issues of a variety of nanostructured electrodes.

  17. An in-situ gas chromatography investigation into the suppression of oxygen gas evolution by coated amorphous cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles on oxide electrode

    PubMed Central

    Gim, Jihyeon; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Jo, Jeonggeun; Kim, Seokhun; Yoon, Jaegu; Kim, Donghan; Hong, Suk-Gi; Park, Jin-Hwan; Mathew, Vinod; Han, Junhee; Song, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jaekook

    2016-01-01

    The real time detection of quantitative oxygen release from the cathode is performed by in-situ Gas Chromatography as a tool to not only determine the amount of oxygen release from a lithium-ion cell but also to address the safety concerns. This in-situ gas chromatography technique monitoring the gas evolution during electrochemical reaction presents opportunities to clearly understand the effect of surface modification and predict on the cathode stability. The oxide cathode, 0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2, surface modified by amorphous cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles (a-CoPO4) is prepared by a simple co-precipitation reaction followed by a mild heat treatment. The presence of a 40 nm thick a-CoPO4 coating layer wrapping the oxide powders is confirmed by electron microscopy. The electrochemical measurements reveal that the a-CoPO4 coated overlithiated layered oxide cathode shows better performances than the pristine counterpart. The enhanced performance of the surface modified oxide is attributed to the uniformly coated Co-P-O layer facilitating the suppression of O2 evolution and offering potential lithium host sites. Further, the formation of a stable SEI layer protecting electrolyte decomposition also contributes to enhanced stabilities with lesser voltage decay. The in-situ gas chromatography technique to study electrode safety offers opportunities to investigate the safety issues of a variety of nanostructured electrodes. PMID:27001370

  18. An in-situ gas chromatography investigation into the suppression of oxygen gas evolution by coated amorphous cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles on oxide electrode.

    PubMed

    Gim, Jihyeon; Song, Jinju; Kim, Sungjin; Jo, Jeonggeun; Kim, Seokhun; Yoon, Jaegu; Kim, Donghan; Hong, Suk-Gi; Park, Jin-Hwan; Mathew, Vinod; Han, Junhee; Song, Sun-Ju; Kim, Jaekook

    2016-01-01

    The real time detection of quantitative oxygen release from the cathode is performed by in-situ Gas Chromatography as a tool to not only determine the amount of oxygen release from a lithium-ion cell but also to address the safety concerns. This in-situ gas chromatography technique monitoring the gas evolution during electrochemical reaction presents opportunities to clearly understand the effect of surface modification and predict on the cathode stability. The oxide cathode, 0.5Li2MnO3∙0.5LiNi0.4Co0.2Mn0.4O2, surface modified by amorphous cobalt-phosphate nanoparticles (a-CoPO4) is prepared by a simple co-precipitation reaction followed by a mild heat treatment. The presence of a 40 nm thick a-CoPO4 coating layer wrapping the oxide powders is confirmed by electron microscopy. The electrochemical measurements reveal that the a-CoPO4 coated overlithiated layered oxide cathode shows better performances than the pristine counterpart. The enhanced performance of the surface modified oxide is attributed to the uniformly coated Co-P-O layer facilitating the suppression of O2 evolution and offering potential lithium host sites. Further, the formation of a stable SEI layer protecting electrolyte decomposition also contributes to enhanced stabilities with lesser voltage decay. The in-situ gas chromatography technique to study electrode safety offers opportunities to investigate the safety issues of a variety of nanostructured electrodes. PMID:27001370

  19. Chemical mechanical planarization of amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 using KClO4 as oxidizer in acidic slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Aodong; Song, Zhitang; Bo, Liu; Zhong, Min; Weili, Liu; Wang, Liangyong; Yan, Weixia; Lei, Yu; Wu, Guangping

    Amorphous Ge2Sb2Te5 (a-GST) chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) using KClO4 as the oxidizer in an acidicslurry is investigated in the present work. It is shown that the removal rate (RR ) of the a-GST firstly increases and thentends to saturate when the KClO4 concentration is greater than 0.8 wt%, but the static etch rate (SER) linearly increasesfrom low to high KClO4 concentration. To understand the oxidation-reaction capability of Ge, Sb and Te, depth profilesof composition of elements and etch morphology of a-GST immersed in the slurry for some time are measured,respectively. It is found that selective corrosion occurs among Ge, Sb and Te, and an accumulation of Te and loss of Gein a-GST surface region are obvious observed, especially at high KClO4 concentrations. Temperature dependent sheetresistance measurements of all the samples pre- and post-CMP reveal a similar trend, which implies a-GST CMP is ableto keep its characteristic well.

  20. Influence of molybdenum source/drain electrode contact resistance in amorphous zinc–tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Han, Dong-Suk; Kang, Yu-Jin; Park, Jae-Hyung; Jeon, Hyung-Tag; Park, Jong-Wan

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • We developed and investigated source/drain electrodes in oxide TFTs. • The Mo S/D electrodes showed good output characteristics. • Intrinsic TFT parameters were calculated by the transmission line method. - Abstract: This paper investigates the feasibility of a low-resistivity electrode material (Mo) for source/drain (S/D) electrodes in thin film transistors (TFTs). The effective resistances between Mo source/drain electrodes and amorphous zinc–tin-oxide (a-ZTO) thin film transistors were studied. Intrinsic TFT parameters were calculated by the transmission line method (TLM) using a series of TFTs with different channel lengths measured at a low source/drain voltage. The TFTs fabricated with Mo source/drain electrodes showed good transfer characteristics with a field-effect mobility of 10.23 cm{sup 2}/V s. In spite of slight current crowding effects, the Mo source/drain electrodes showed good output characteristics with a steep rise in the low drain-to-source voltage (V{sub DS}) region.

  1. A Novel Synthetic Route for the Preparation of an Amorphous Co/Fe Prussian Blue Coordination Compound with High Electrocatalytic Water Oxidation Activity.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Merve; Nune, Satya Vijaya Kumar; Karadas, Ferdi

    2016-05-01

    Co/Fe Prussian Blue coordination networks have recently been investigated for heterogeneous water oxidation catalysis. Despite their robustness and stability in both acidic and neutral media, the relatively low current density obtained is their main drawback as a result of their low surface concentration. A novel synthetic approach was employed using a pentacyanometalate-based metallopolymer for the preparation of amorphous Co/Fe coordination polymers to overcome this problem. The surface concentration was improved approximately 7-fold, which also resulted in an increase in the catalytic activity. A current density of 1 mA·cm(-2) was obtained only at η = 510 mV, while the same current density could be obtained at higher overpotentials (>600 mV) with conventional Prussian Blue analogues. IR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies were performed to investigate the stability of electrodes before and after the electrocatalytic process. The results of this study indicate that the rich and diverse chemistry of pentacyanometalates makes them potential candidates for application in heterogeneous water oxidation catalysis. PMID:27074106

  2. Investigation of the effects of deposition parameters on indium-free transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin-film transistors fabricated at low temperatures for flexible electronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alston, Robert; Iyer, Shanthi; Bradley, Tanina; Lewis, Jay; Cunningham, Garry; Forsythe, Eric

    2014-02-01

    Low temperature gallium tin zinc oxide (GSZO) based thin film transistors fabricated on silicon has been investigated as a potential indium free transparent amorphous oxide semiconductor thin film transistor (TAOS TFT) with potential device applications on plastic substrates. A comprehensive and detailed study on the performance of GSZO TFTs has been carried out by studying the effects of processing parameters such as deposition temperature and annealing temperature/duration, as well as the channel thickness with all temperatures held below 150 °C. Variety of characterization techniques, namely Rutherford backscattering (RBS), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and x-ray reflectivity (XRR) in addition to I-V and C-V measurements were employed to determine the effects of the above parameters on the composition and quality of the channel. Optimized TFT characteristics of ID=3×10-7 A, ION/OFF =2×106, VON ~ -2 V, SS ~ 1 V/dec and μFE = 0.14 cm2/V· s with a ΔVON of 3.3 V under 3 hours electrical stress were produced.

  3. Enhancement on photocatalytic activity of an amorphous titanium oxide film with nano-textured surface by selective-fluorination etching process

    SciTech Connect

    Shih, Pin-Chun; Huang, Cheng-Hao; Chen, Tai-Hong; Lai, Li-Wen; Lu, Yi-Shan; Liu, Day-Shan

    2014-04-01

    Highlights: • The amorphous TiO{sub x} film surface was modified via selective fluorination etching process. • The resulting nano-textured surface markedly enriched the specific surface area and surface acidity. • The photocatalytic activity was comparable to an annealed TiO{sub x} film with anatase structure. - Abstract: A selective-fluorination etching process achieved by an UV light pre-irradiation and the subsequently fluorination etching was developed to enhance the photocatalytic activity of a low-temperature deposited amorphous titanium oxide (a-TiO{sub x}) film. Textured surface on the a-TiO{sub x} films formed by this process were investigated using atomic force microscope and field emission scanning electron microscope. Evidence of the fluorine ions introduced into the a-TiO{sub x} films was examined using Fourier transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The etching thickness of the a-TiO{sub x} film was found to be deeply relevant to the film pre-irradiated by the UV light. An a-TiO{sub x} film with nano-textured surface, which was favorable to enlarge the specific surface area, thus was obtainable from the notable etching selectivity of the film pre-irradiated by UV light through a nano-sized mask. In addition, the surface acidity of the a-TiO{sub x} film was enhanced by the formation of the Ti-F chemical bonds originating from the fluorination etching process, which also was functional to facilitate the production of surface OH free radicals. Accordingly, the resulting fluorinated a-TiO{sub x} film with nano-textured surface performed a quality photocatalytic activity comparable to that of the high-temperature achieved TiO{sub x} film with anatase structures.

  4. Amorphic complexity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuhrmann, G.; Gröger, M.; Jäger, T.

    2016-02-01

    We introduce amorphic complexity as a new topological invariant that measures the complexity of dynamical systems in the regime of zero entropy. Its main purpose is to detect the very onset of disorder in the asymptotic behaviour. For instance, it gives positive value to Denjoy examples on the circle and Sturmian subshifts, while being zero for all isometries and Morse-Smale systems. After discussing basic properties and examples, we show that amorphic complexity and the underlying asymptotic separation numbers can be used to distinguish almost automorphic minimal systems from equicontinuous ones. For symbolic systems, amorphic complexity equals the box dimension of the associated Besicovitch space. In this context, we concentrate on regular Toeplitz flows and give a detailed description of the relation to the scaling behaviour of the densities of the p-skeletons. Finally, we take a look at strange non-chaotic attractors appearing in so-called pinched skew product systems. Continuous-time systems, more general group actions and the application to cut and project quasicrystals will be treated in subsequent work.

  5. Controlled aluminum-induced crystallization of an amorphous silicon thin film by using an oxide-layer diffusion barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Ji-Hyun; Kwak, Hyunmin; Kwon, Myeung Hoi

    2014-03-01

    Aluminum-induced crystallization (AIC) of amorphous silicon with an Al2O3 diffusion barrier was investigated for controlling Si crystallization and preventing layer exchange during the annealing process. An Al2O3 layer was deposited between the a-Si and the Al films (a-Si/Al2O3/Al/Glass) and was blasted with an air spray gun with alumina beads to form diffusion channels between the Si and the Al layers. During the annealing process, small grain Si x Al seeds were formed at the channels. Then, the Al2O3 diffusion barrier was restructured to close the channels and prevent further diffusion of Al atoms into the a-Si layer. A polycrystalline Si film with (111), (220) and (311) crystallization peaks in the X-ray diffraction pattern was formed by annealing at 560 °C in a conventional furnace. That film showed a p-type semiconducting behavior with good crystallinity and a large grain size of up to 14.8 µm. No layer conversion occurred between the Si and the Al layers, which had been the fundamental obstacle to the applications in the crystallization of a-Si films by using the AIC method.

  6. Electronic Structure of Low-Temperature Solution-Processed Amorphous Metal Oxide Semiconductors for Thin-Film Transistor Applications

    PubMed Central

    Socratous, Josephine; Banger, Kulbinder K; Vaynzof, Yana; Sadhanala, Aditya; Brown, Adam D; Sepe, Alessandro; Steiner, Ullrich; Sirringhaus, Henning

    2015-01-01

    The electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed indium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors is complex and remains insufficiently understood. As commonly observed, high device performance with mobility >1 cm2 V−1 s−1 is achievable after annealing in air above typically 250 °C but performance decreases rapidly when annealing temperatures ≤200 °C are used. Here, the electronic structure of low temperature, solution-processed oxide thin films as a function of annealing temperature and environment using a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, and photothermal deflection spectroscopy is investigated. The drop-off in performance at temperatures ≤200 °C to incomplete conversion of metal hydroxide species into the fully coordinated oxide is attributed. The effect of an additional vacuum annealing step, which is beneficial if performed for short times at low temperatures, but leads to catastrophic device failure if performed at too high temperatures or for too long is also investigated. Evidence is found that during vacuum annealing, the workfunction increases and a large concentration of sub-bandgap defect states (re)appears. These results demonstrate that good devices can only be achieved in low temperature, solution-processed oxides if a significant concentration of acceptor states below the conduction band minimum is compensated or passivated by shallow hydrogen and oxygen vacancy-induced donor levels. PMID:26190964

  7. Amorphous TiO₂ coatings stabilize Si, GaAs, and GaP photoanodes for efficient water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shu; Shaner, Matthew R; Beardslee, Joseph A; Lichterman, Michael; Brunschwig, Bruce S; Lewis, Nathan S

    2014-05-30

    Although semiconductors such as silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and gallium phosphide (GaP) have band gaps that make them efficient photoanodes for solar fuel production, these materials are unstable in aqueous media. We show that TiO2 coatings (4 to 143 nanometers thick) grown by atomic layer deposition prevent corrosion, have electronic defects that promote hole conduction, and are sufficiently transparent to reach the light-limited performance of protected semiconductors. In conjunction with a thin layer or islands of Ni oxide electrocatalysts, Si photoanodes exhibited continuous oxidation of 1.0 molar aqueous KOH to O2 for more than 100 hours at photocurrent densities of >30 milliamperes per square centimeter and ~100% Faradaic efficiency. TiO2-coated GaAs and GaP photoelectrodes exhibited photovoltages of 0.81 and 0.59 V and light-limiting photocurrent densities of 14.3 and 3.4 milliamperes per square centimeter, respectively, for water oxidation. PMID:24876492

  8. Effects of the amorphous oxide intergranular layer structure and bonding on the fracture toughness of a high purity silicon nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, A.; Kisielowski, C.; Hoffmann, M.J.; Ritchie, R.O.

    2002-11-18

    The microstructural evolution and structural characteristics and transitions in the thin grain-boundary oxide films in a silicon nitride ceramic, specifically between two adjacent grains and not the triple junctions, are investigated to find their effect on the macroscopic fracture properties. It is found that by heat treating a model Si3N4-2wt percent Y2O3 ceramic for {approx}200 hr at 1400 degrees C in air, the fracture toughness can be increased by {approx}100 percent, coincident with a change in fracture mechanism from transgranular to intergranular.

  9. Improving source/drain contact resistance of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using an n+-ZnO buffer layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, Chien-Hsiung; Wang, Shui-Jinn; Lin, Chieh; Wu, Chien-Hung; Chen, Yen-Han; Liu, Pang-Yi; Tu, Yung-Chun; Lin, Tseng-Hsing

    2016-06-01

    To avoid high temperature annealing in improving the source/drain (S/D) resistance (R DS) of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc-oxide (α-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) for flexible electronics, a simple and efficient technique using a sputtering-deposited n+-ZnO buffer layer (BL) sandwiched between the S/D electrode and the α-IGZO channel is proposed and demonstrated. It shows that the R DS of α-IGZO TFTs with the proposed n+-ZnO BL is reduced to 8.1 × 103 Ω as compared with 6.1 × 104 Ω of the conventional one. The facilitation of carrier tunneling between the S/D electrode and the α-IGZO channel through the use of the n+-ZnO BL to lower the effective barrier height therein is responsible for the R DS reduction. Effects of the chamber pressure on the carrier concentration of the sputtering-deposited n+-ZnO BL and the thickness of the BL on the degree of improvement in the performance of α-IGZO TFTs are analyzed and discussed.

  10. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wimmer, M.; Felix, R.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Wippler, D.; Mueck, A.; Meier, M.; Huepkes, J.; Lozac'h, M.; Ueda, S.; Sumiya, M.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kobayashi, K.; Baer, M.

    2013-07-08

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon 'window layer' (a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon ({mu}c-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 {+-} 0.27) eV and (-3.37 {+-} 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the {mu}c-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiO{sub x}:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a {mu}c-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  11. Comparison of electrorheological performance between urea-coated and graphene oxide-wrapped core-shell structured amorphous TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xufeng; Huo, Shuang; Qi, Min

    2016-01-01

    Polar molecules and graphene oxide (GO) have been used as the shell materials to prepare core-shell structured particles with enhanced electrorheological (ER) properties. Nevertheless, few studies compared the ER performance and stability of the suspensions with the two kinds of shell. In this study, urea and GO are used as the shell materials to prepare TiO2/urea and TiO2/GO core-shell particles-based ER fluids, respectively. Particle characterization results indicate the two kinds of core-shell structured particles present little change in size, morphology and crystal structure compared with the bare amorphous TiO2. Some polar groups are distributed on the surface of the two kinds of core-shell structured particles, which is responsible for their improved ER performance with respect to the bare TiO2 particles. The TiO2/GO particles-based ER fluid presents higher yield stress, lower leakage current density, better sedimentation stability but lower ER efficiency than the TiO2/urea particles-based sample. The larger surface area, stronger connection with the bare TiO2 particles, and larger number of polar groups of the GO-coating is the possible reason for the different properties of TiO2/GO particles-based ER fluid compared with the TiO2/urea particles-based sample.

  12. The pH-dependent long-term stability of an amorphous manganese oxide in smelter-polluted soils: implication for chemical stabilization of metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Ettler, Vojtěch; Tomášová, Zdeňka; Komárek, Michael; Mihaljevič, Martin; Šebek, Ondřej; Michálková, Zuzana

    2015-04-01

    An amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) and a Pb smelter-polluted agricultural soil amended with the AMO and incubated for 2 and 6 months were subjected to a pH-static leaching procedure (pH 3-8) to verify the chemical stabilization effect on metals and metalloids. The AMO stability in pure water was pH-dependent with the highest Mn release at pH 3 (47% dissolved) and the lowest at pH 8 (0.14% dissolved). Secondary rhodochrosite (MnCO3) was formed at the AMO surfaces at pH>5. The AMO dissolved significantly less after 6 months of incubation. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that "labile" fraction of As, Pb and Sb in soil significantly decreased after AMO amendment. The pH-static experiments indicated that no effect on leaching was observed for Cd and Zn after AMO treatments, whereas the leaching of As, Cu, Pb and Sb decreased down to 20%, 35%, 7% and 11% of the control, respectively. The remediation efficiency was more pronounced under acidic conditions and the time of incubation generally led to increased retention of the targeted contaminants. The AMO was found to be a promising agent for the chemical stabilization of polluted soils. PMID:25600581

  13. The silicon/zinc oxide interface in amorphous silicon-based thin-film solar cells: Understanding an empirically optimized contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlach, D.; Wilks, R. G.; Wippler, D.; Wimmer, M.; Lozac'h, M.; Félix, R.; Mück, A.; Meier, M.; Ueda, S.; Yoshikawa, H.; Gorgoi, M.; Lips, K.; Rech, B.; Sumiya, M.; Hüpkes, J.; Kobayashi, K.; Bär, M.

    2013-07-01

    The electronic structure of the interface between the boron-doped oxygenated amorphous silicon "window layer" (a-SiOx:H(B)) and aluminum-doped zinc oxide (ZnO:Al) was investigated using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and compared to that of the boron-doped microcrystalline silicon (μc-Si:H(B))/ZnO:Al interface. The corresponding valence band offsets have been determined to be (-2.87 ± 0.27) eV and (-3.37 ± 0.27) eV, respectively. A lower tunnel junction barrier height at the μc-Si:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface compared to that at the a-SiOx:H(B)/ZnO:Al interface is found and linked to the higher device performances in cells where a μc-Si:H(B) buffer between the a-Si:H p-i-n absorber stack and the ZnO:Al contact is employed.

  14. Influence of the Cation Ratio on Optical and Electrical Properties of Amorphous Zinc-Tin-Oxide Thin Films Grown by Pulsed Laser Deposition.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Sofie; Schlupp, Peter; Bonholzer, Michael; von Wenckstern, Holger; Grundmann, Marius

    2016-04-11

    Continuous composition spread (CCS) methods allow fast and economic exploration of composition dependent properties of multielement compounds. Here, a CCS method was applied for room temperature pulsed laser deposition (PLD) of amorphous zinc-tin-oxide to gain detailed insight into the influence of the zinc-to-tin cation ratio on optical and electrical properties of this ternary compound. Our CCS approach for a large-area offset PLD process utilizes a segmented target and thus makes target exchange or movable masks in the PLD chamber obsolete. Cation concentrations of 0.08-0.82 Zn/(Zn + Sn) were achieved across single 50 × 50 mm(2) glass substrates. The electrical conductivity increases for increasing tin content, and the absorption edge shifts to lower energies. The free carrier concentration can be tuned from 10(20) to 10(16) cm(-3) by variation of the cation ratio from 0.1 to 0.5 Zn/(Zn + Sn). PMID:27004935

  15. Damage-free back channel wet-etch process in amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistors using a carbon-nanofilm barrier layer.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dongxiang; Zhao, Mingjie; Xu, Miao; Li, Min; Chen, Zikai; Wang, Lang; Zou, Jianhua; Tao, Hong; Wang, Lei; Peng, Junbiao

    2014-07-23

    Amorphous indium-zinc-oxide thin film transistors (IZO-TFTs) with damage-free back channel wet-etch (BCE) process were investigated. A carbon (C) nanofilm was inserted into the interface between IZO layer and source/drain (S/D) electrodes as a barrier layer. Transmittance electron microscope images revealed that the 3 nm-thick C nanofilm exhibited a good corrosion resistance to a commonly used H3PO4-based etchant and could be easily eliminated. The TFT device with a 3 nm-thick C barrier layer showed a saturated field effect mobility of 14.4 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 0.21 V/decade, an on-to-off current ratio of 8.3 × 10(10), and a threshold voltage of 2.0 V. The favorable electrical performance of this kind of IZO-TFTs was due to the protection of the inserted C to IZO layer in the back-channel-etch process. Moreover, the low contact resistance of the devices was proved to be due to the graphitization of the C nanofilms after annealing. In addition, the hysteresis and thermal stress testing confirmed that the usage of C barrier nanofilms is an effective method to fabricate the damage-free BCE-type devices with high reliability. PMID:24969359

  16. Improvement in reliability of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide thin-film transistors with Teflon/SiO2 bilayer passivation under gate bias stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Ching-Lin; Tseng, Fan-Ping; Li, Bo-Jyun; Lin, Yu-Zuo; Wang, Shea-Jue; Lee, Win-Der; Huang, Bohr-Ran

    2016-02-01

    The reliability of amorphous indium–gallium–zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with Teflon/SiO2 bilayer passivation prepared under positive and negative gate bias stresses (PGBS and NGBS, respectively) was investigated. Heavier electrical degradation was observed under PGBS than under NGBS, indicating that the environmental effects under PGBS are more evident than those under NGBS. The device with bilayer passivation under PGBS shows two-step degradation. The positive threshold voltage shifts during the initial stressing period (before 500 s), owing to the charges trapped in the gate insulator or at the gate insulator/a-IGZO active layer interface. The negative threshold voltage shift accompanies the increase in subthreshold swing (SS) for the continuous stressing period (after 500 s) owing to H2O molecules from ambience diffused within the a-IGZO TFTs. It is believed that Teflon/SiO2 bilayer passivation can effectively improve the reliability of the a-IGZO TFTs without passivation even though the devices are stressed under gate bias.

  17. Using amorphous manganese oxide for remediation of smelter-polluted soils: a pH-dependent long-term stability study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettler, Vojtech; Tomasova, Zdenka; Komarek, Michael; Mihaljevic, Martin; Sebek, Ondrej

    2015-04-01

    In soil systems, manganese (Mn) oxides are commonly found to be powerful sorbents of metals and metalloids and are thus potentially useful in soil remediation. A novel amorphous manganese oxide (AMO) and a Pb smelter-polluted agricultural soil amended with the AMO and incubated for 2 and 6 months were subjected to a pH-static leaching procedure (pH = 3 - 8) to verify the chemical stabilization effect on metals and metalloids. The AMO stability in pure water was pH-dependent with the highest Mn release at pH 3 (47% dissolved) and the lowest at pH 8 (0.14% dissolved). Secondary rhodochrosite (MnCO3) was formed at the AMO surfaces at pH > 5. The AMO dissolved significantly less after 6 months of incubation. Sequential extraction analysis indicated that "labile" fraction of As, Pb and Sb in soil significantly decreased after AMO amendment. The pH-static experiments indicated that no effect on leaching was observed for Cd and Zn after AMO treatments, whereas the leaching of As, Cu, Pb and Sb decreased down to 20%, 35%, 7% and 11% of the control, respectively. The remediation efficiency was more pronounced under acidic conditions and the time of incubation generally led to increased retention of the targeted contaminants. The AMO was found to be a promising agent for the chemical stabilization of polluted soils and other in situ applications need to be evaluated. This study was supported by the Czech Science Foundation (GAČR 15-07117S).

  18. Transparent conducting oxide contacts for n-i-p and p-i-n amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hegedus, S.S.; Buchanan, W.A.; Eser, E.; Phillips, J.E.; Shafarman, W.N. |

    1997-02-01

    We investigate the effect of sputtered transparent conducting oxide (TCO) contacts on the device performance of ss/n-i-p/TCO and glass/SnO {sub 2}/p-i-n/TCO/Ag solar cells. TCO materials ITO and ZnO are compared, and found to have very similar transparency at the same sheet resistance. Sputtering ZnO with O{sub 2} in the Ar reduces FF for ss/n-i-p/ZnO devices, compared to sputtering without O{sub 2}. This is attributed to an interface not bulk effect. Sputtering ITO with O{sub 2} on the same devices increases J{sub SC} due to higher ITO transparency, compared to sputtering without O{sub 2} , but has no effect on FF. Based on curvature in the J(V) curve around V{sub OC}, the ZnO/p layer contact appears to be non-ohmic. For p-i-n/TCO/Ag devices, {mu}c-Si n-layers have much higher V{sub OC}, J{sub SC}, and FF for all variations of TCO/Ag back reflectors compared to an a-Si n-layer. Devices with ITO/Ag have lower V{sub OC} and J{sub SC} compared to devices with ZnO/Ag. Sputtering ZnO with O{sub 2} has no detrimental effect on devices with {mu}c-Si n-layers but severely reduces FF in devices with a-Si n-layers. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  19. Widely bandgap tunable amorphous Cd–Ga–O oxide semiconductors exhibiting electron mobilities ≥10 cm{sup 2 }V{sup −1 }s{sup −1}

    SciTech Connect

    Yanagi, Hiroshi; Sato, Chiyuki; Kimura, Yota; Suzuki, Issei; Omata, Takahisa; Kamiya, Toshio; Hosono, Hideo

    2015-02-23

    Amorphous oxide semiconductors exhibit large electron mobilities; however, their bandgaps are either too large for solar cells or too small for deep ultraviolet applications depending on the materials system. Herein, we demonstrate that amorphous Cd–Ga–O semiconductors display bandgaps covering the entire 2.5–4.3 eV region while maintaining large electron mobilities ≥10 cm{sup 2 }V{sup −1 }s{sup −1}. The band alignment diagram obtained by ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy and the bandgap values reveal that these semiconductors form type-II heterojunctions with p-type Cu{sub 2}O, which is suitable for solar cells and solar-blind ultraviolet sensors.

  20. Amorphous metal composites

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Martin A.; Lupinski, John H.

    1984-01-01

    An improved amorphous metal composite and process of making the composite. The amorphous metal composite comprises amorphous metal (e.g. iron) and a low molecular weight thermosetting polymer binder. The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  1. The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Mao Dongsen Lu Guanzhong

    2007-02-15

    The effect of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} addition on the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG/DTA). TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} mixed oxide was prepared by co-precipitation method with aqueous ammonia as the precipitation reagent. Boric acid was used as a source of boria, and boria contents varied from 2 to 20 wt%. The results indicate that the addition of small amount of boria (<8 wt%) hinders the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} into a crystalline ZrTiO{sub 4} compound, while a larger amount of boria ({>=}8 wt%) promotes the crystallization process. FT-IR spectroscopy and {sup 11}B MAS NMR results show that tetrahedral borate species predominate at low boria loading, and trigonal borate species increase with increasing boria loading. Thus it is concluded that highly dispersed tetrahedral BO{sub 4} units delay, while a build-up of trigonal BO{sub 3} promote, the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} to form ZrTiO{sub 4} crystals. - Graphical abstract: The addition of small amount of boria (<8 wt%) hinders the crystallization of amorphous TiO{sub 2}-ZrO{sub 2} into a crystalline ZrTiO{sub 4} compound, while the larger amount of boria ({>=}8 wt%) promotes the crystallization process.

  2. Amorphous Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussman, Gerald

    2002-03-01

    Digital computers have always been constructed to behave as precise arrangements of reliable parts, and our techniques for organizing computations depend upon this precision and reliability. Two emerging technologies, however, are begnning to undercut these assumptions about constructing and programming computers. These technologies -- microfabrication and bioengineering -- will make it possible to assemble systems composed of myriad information- processing units at almost no cost, provided: 1) that not all the units need to work correctly; and 2) that there is no need to manufacture precise geometrical arrangements or interconnection patterns among them. Microelectronic mechanical components are becoming so inexpensive to manufacture that we can anticipate combining logic circuits, microsensors, actuators, and communications devices integrated on the same chip to produce particles that could be mixed with bulk materials, such as paints, gels, and concrete. Imagine coating bridges or buildings with smart paint that can sense and report on traffic and wind loads and monitor structural integrity of the bridge. A smart paint coating on a wall could sense vibrations, monitor the premises for intruders, or cancel noise. Even more striking, there has been such astounding progress in understanding the biochemical mechanisms in individual cells, that it appears we'll be able to harness these mechanisms to construct digital- logic circuits. Imagine a discipline of cellular engineering that could tailor-make biological cells that function as sensors and actuators, as programmable delivery vehicles for pharmaceuticals, as chemical factories for the assembly of nanoscale structures. Fabricating such systems seem to be within our reach, even if it is not yet within our grasp Fabrication, however, is only part of the story. We can envision producing vast quantities of individual computing elements, whether microfabricated particles, engineered cells, or macromolecular computing agents constructed by engineered cells, but we have few ideas for programming them effectively: How can one engineer prespecified, coherent behavior from the cooperation of immense numbers of unreliable parts that are interconnected in unknown, irregular, and time-varying ways? This is the challenge of Amorphous Computing.

  3. Creation of high-refractive-index amorphous titanium oxide thin films from low-fractal-dimension polymeric precursors synthesized by a sol-gel technique with a hydrazine monohydrochloride catalyst.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Wataru; Nakamura, Satoshi; Sato, Takaaki; Murakami, Yasushi

    2012-08-21

    Amorphous titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) thin films exhibiting high refractive indices (n ≈ 2.1) and high transparency were fabricated by spin-coating titanium oxide liquid precursors having a weakly branched polymeric structure. The precursor solution was prepared from titanium tetra-n-butoxide (TTBO) via the catalytic sol-gel process with hydrazine monohydrochloride used as a salt catalyst, which serves as a conjugate acid-base pair catalyst. Our unique catalytic sol-gel technique accelerated the overall polycondensation reaction of partially hydrolyzed alkoxides, which facilitated the formation of liner polymer-like titanium oxide aggregates having a low fractal dimension of ca. (5)/(3), known as a characteristic of the so-called "expanded polymer chain". Such linear polymeric features are essential to the production of highly dense amorphous TiO(2) thin films; mutual interpenetration of the linear polymeric aggregates avoided the creation of void space that is often generated by the densification of high-fractal-dimension (particle-like) aggregates produced in a conventional sol-gel process. The mesh size of the titanium oxide polymers can be tuned either by water concentration or the reaction time, and the smaller mesh size in the liquid precursor led to a higher n value of the solid thin film, thanks to its higher local electron density. The reaction that required no addition of organic ligand to stabilize titanium alkoxides was advantageous to overcoming issues from organic residues such as coloration. The dense amorphous film structure suppressed light scattering loss owing to its extremely smooth surface and the absence of inhomogeneous grains or particles. Furthermore, the fabrication can be accomplished at a low heating temperature of <80 °C. Indeed, we successfully obtained a transparent film with a high refractive index of n = 2.064 (at λ = 633 nm) on a low-heat-resistance plastic, poly(methyl methacrylate), at 60 °C. The result offers an efficient route to high-refractive-index amorphous TiO(2) films as well as base materials for a wider range of applications. PMID:22817104

  4. Highly spectrum-selective ultraviolet photodetector based on p-NiO/n-IGZO thin film heterojunction structure.

    PubMed

    Li, H K; Chen, T P; Hu, S G; Li, X D; Liu, Y; Lee, P S; Wang, X P; Li, H Y; Lo, G Q

    2015-10-19

    Ultraviolet photodetector with p-n heterojunction is fabricated by magnetron sputtering deposition of n-type indium gallium zinc oxide (n-IGZO) and p-type nickel oxide (p-NiO) thin films on ITO glass. The performance of the photodetector is largely affected by the conductivity of the p-NiO thin film, which can be controlled by varying the oxygen partial pressure during the deposition of the p-NiO thin film. A highly spectrum-selective ultraviolet photodetector has been achieved with the p-NiO layer with a high conductivity. The results can be explained in terms of the "optically-filtering" function of the NiO layer. PMID:26480430

  5. Three-dimensionally stacked flexible integrated circuit: Amorphous oxide/polymer hybrid complementary inverter using n-type a-In-Ga-Zn-O and p-type poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene) thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kenji; Aoki, Takashi; Nakamura, Kiyoshi; Kamiya, Toshio; Nakanishi, Takashi; Hasegawa, Takayuki; Kimura, Mutsumi; Kawase, Takeo; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo

    2010-06-01

    A three-dimensional vertically-stacked flexible integrated circuit is demonstrated based on hybrid complementary inverters made of n-type In-Ga-Zn-O (a-IGZO) amorphous oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs) and p-type poly-(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene) (F8T2) polymer TFTs, where all the fabrication processes were performed at temperatures ≤120 °C. Saturation mobilities of the a-IGZO TFT and the F8T2 TFT are ˜3.2 and ˜1.7×10-3 cm2 V-1 s-1, respectively, from which we chose the appropriate dimensions of the TFTs so as to obtain a good balance for the inverter operation. The maximum voltage gain is ˜67, which is better than those reported for organic/oxide hybrid complementary inverters.

  6. Atomic-scale disproportionation in amorphous silicon monoxide.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Akihiko; Kohara, Shinji; Asada, Toshihiro; Arao, Masazumi; Yogi, Chihiro; Imai, Hideto; Tan, Yongwen; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    Solid silicon monoxide is an amorphous material which has been commercialized for many functional applications. However, the amorphous structure of silicon monoxide is a long-standing question because of the uncommon valence state of silicon in the oxide. It has been deduced that amorphous silicon monoxide undergoes an unusual disproportionation by forming silicon- and silicon-dioxide-like regions. Nevertheless, the direct experimental observation is still missing. Here we report the amorphous structure characterized by angstrom-beam electron diffraction, supplemented by synchrotron X-ray scattering and computer simulations. In addition to the theoretically predicted amorphous silicon and silicon-dioxide clusters, suboxide-type tetrahedral coordinates are detected by angstrom-beam electron diffraction at silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces, which provides compelling experimental evidence on the atomic-scale disproportionation of amorphous silicon monoxide. Eventually we develop a heterostructure model of the disproportionated silicon monoxide which well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the amorphous material. PMID:27172815

  7. Atomic-scale disproportionation in amorphous silicon monoxide

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Akihiko; Kohara, Shinji; Asada, Toshihiro; Arao, Masazumi; Yogi, Chihiro; Imai, Hideto; Tan, Yongwen; Fujita, Takeshi; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-01-01

    Solid silicon monoxide is an amorphous material which has been commercialized for many functional applications. However, the amorphous structure of silicon monoxide is a long-standing question because of the uncommon valence state of silicon in the oxide. It has been deduced that amorphous silicon monoxide undergoes an unusual disproportionation by forming silicon- and silicon-dioxide-like regions. Nevertheless, the direct experimental observation is still missing. Here we report the amorphous structure characterized by angstrom-beam electron diffraction, supplemented by synchrotron X-ray scattering and computer simulations. In addition to the theoretically predicted amorphous silicon and silicon-dioxide clusters, suboxide-type tetrahedral coordinates are detected by angstrom-beam electron diffraction at silicon/silicon-dioxide interfaces, which provides compelling experimental evidence on the atomic-scale disproportionation of amorphous silicon monoxide. Eventually we develop a heterostructure model of the disproportionated silicon monoxide which well explains the distinctive structure and properties of the amorphous material. PMID:27172815

  8. Is simulated amorphous'' silica really amorphous

    SciTech Connect

    Binggeli, N. , PHB Ecublens, 1015 Lausanne ); Chelikowsky, J.R. )

    1994-07-10

    We have carried out extensive molecular dynamics simulations for the pressure induced amorphization of quartz by means of a classical force-field model. In agreement with earlier simulations, we find that a phase transition occurs within the experimental pressure range of the amorphization. However, in contrast to the interpretation of previous simulations, we demonstrate that the new phase is [ital not] amorphous, since the correlation functions for the equilibrated structure can be shown to be consistent with those of a crystalline phase. In addition, two transformations to ordered structures are found to occur sequentially during the simulations. The first transformation is likely to be related to the recently discovered transition of quartz to an intermediate crystalline phase before its amorphization. The second transformation, instead, yields a compact, octahedrally coordinated Si sublattice. The latter may be an artifact of the pair-potential simulation. [copyright] 1994 American Institute of Physics

  9. Rapid preparation of solution-processed InGaZnO thin films by microwave annealing and photoirradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Heajeong; Ogura, Shintaro; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Yoshida, Manabu; Fukuda, Nobuko; Uemura, Sei

    2015-06-01

    We fabricated solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) by microwave (MW) annealing an IGZO precursor film followed by irradiating with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light. MW annealing allows more rapid heating of the precursor film than conventional annealing processes using a hot plate or electric oven and promotes the crystallization of IGZO. VUV irradiation was used to reduce the duration and temperature of the post-annealing step. Consequently, the IGZO TFTs fabricated through MW annealing for 5 min and VUV irradiation for 1 min exhibited an on/off current ratio of 108 and a field-effect mobility of 0.3 cm2 V-1 s-1. These results indicate that MW annealing and photoirradiation is an effective combination for annealing solution processed IGZO precursor films to prepare the semiconductor layers of TFTs.

  10. Monochromatic light-assisted erasing effects of In-Ga-Zn-O thin film transistor memory with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Zn-doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Sun; Zhang, Wen-Peng; Cui, Xing-Mei; Ding, Shi-Jin Sun, Qing-Qing; Zhang, Wei

    2014-03-10

    We studied how electrical erasing of indium gallium zinc oxide-thin-film-transistor memory was improved by adding concurrent irradiation with monochromatic light (ML). At fixed gate bias, irradiating at wavelengths of ≤500 nm increased the erasing window (ΔV{sub th-e}) significantly: At a gate bias of −20 V and an erasing time of 5 min, ML irradiation at 400 nm increased ΔV{sub th-e} from 0.29 to 3.21 V. ΔV{sub th-e} increased incrementally with gate bias, erasing time, and ML power density, particularly at short ML wavelengths. Analyzing our experimental results, we discuss the underlying erasure mechanisms.

  11. Solution-processed hybrid organic-inorganic complementary thin-film transistor inverter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Heajeong; Kuribara, Kazunori; Ogura, Shintaro; Fukuda, Nobuko; Yoshida, Manabu; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Uemura, Sei

    2016-04-01

    We investigated hybrid organic-inorganic complementary inverters with a solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) n-channel thin-film transistor (TFT) and p-channel TFTs using the high-uniformity polymer poly[2,5-bis(alkyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrolo-1,4(2H,5H)-dione-alt-5,5-di(thiophene-2-yl)-2,2-(E)-2-(2-(thiophen-2-yl)vinyl)thiophene] (PDVT-10). The IGZO TFT was fabricated at 150 °C for 1 min. It showed a high field-effect mobility of 0.9 cm2·V-1·s-1 and a high on/off current ratio of 107. A hybrid complementary inverter was fabricated by combining IGZO with a PDVT-10 thin-film transistor and its operation was confirmed.

  12. IGZO thin film transistor biosensors functionalized with ZnO nanorods and antibodies.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi-Chun; Yang, Chun-Hsu; Chen, Shu-Wen; Wu, Shou-Hao; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Huang, Jian-Jang

    2014-04-15

    We demonstrate a biosensor structure consisting of an IGZO (Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide) TFT (thin film transistor) and an extended sensing pad. The TFT acts as the sensing and readout device, while the sensing pad ensures the isolation of biological solution from the transistor channel layer, and meanwhile increases the sensing area. The biosensor is functionalized by first applying ZnO nanorods to increase the surface area for attracting electrical charges of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) antibodies. The device is able to selectively detect 36.2 fM of EGFR in the total protein solution of 0.1 ng/ml extracted from squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Furthermore, the conjugation duration of the functionalized device with EGFR can be limited to 3 min, implying that the biosensor has the advantage for real-time detection. PMID:24291267

  13. Uranium incorporation into amorphous silica.

    PubMed

    Massey, Michael S; Lezama-Pacheco, Juan S; Nelson, Joey M; Fendorf, Scott; Maher, Kate

    2014-01-01

    High concentrations of uranium are commonly observed in naturally occurring amorphous silica (including opal) deposits, suggesting that incorporation of U into amorphous silica may represent a natural attenuation mechanism and promising strategy for U remediation. However, the stability of uranium in opaline silicates, determined in part by the binding mechanism for U, is an important factor in its long-term fate. U may bind directly to the opaline silicate matrix, or to materials such as iron (hydr)oxides that are subsequently occluded within the opal. Here, we examine the coordination environment of U within opaline silica to elucidate incorporation mechanisms. Precipitates (with and without ferrihydrite inclusions) were synthesized from U-bearing sodium metasilicate solutions, buffered at pH ? 5.6. Natural and synthetic solids were analyzed with X-ray absorption spectroscopy and a suite of other techniques. In synthetic amorphous silica, U was coordinated by silicate in a double corner-sharing coordination geometry (Si at ? 3.8-3.9 ) and a small amount of uranyl and silicate in a bidentate, mononuclear (edge-sharing) coordination (Si at ? 3.1-3.2 , U at ? 3.8-3.9 ). In iron-bearing synthetic solids, U was adsorbed to iron (hydr)oxide, but the coordination environment also contained silicate in both edge-sharing and corner-sharing coordination. Uranium local coordination in synthetic solids is similar to that of natural U-bearing opals that retain U for millions of years. The stability and extent of U incorporation into opaline and amorphous silica represents a long-term repository for U that may provide an alternative strategy for remediation of U contamination. PMID:24984107

  14. Nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H. (Inventor); Allen, Donald R. (Inventor); Foley, James C. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    Compositions and methods for obtaining nanocrystal dispersed amorphous alloys are described. A composition includes an amorphous matrix forming element (e.g., Al or Fe); at least one transition metal element; and at least one crystallizing agent that is insoluble in the resulting amorphous matrix. During devitrification, the crystallizing agent causes the formation of a high density nanocrystal dispersion. The compositions and methods provide advantages in that materials with superior properties are provided.

  15. Electrochromic Properties of Li+-Intercalated Amorphous Tungsten (aWO3-x) and Titanium (aTiO2-x) Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triana, C. A.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    We report on electrochromic properties of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient amorphous films, denoted aWO3-x and aTiO2-x, under Li+-ion-electron inter/deintercalation. Optical characterization of the films in their as-deposited, fully intercalated (dark), and bleached states were performed by in-situ optical transmittance measurements. We explore electrochromism and optical absorption phenomena in the context of oxygen deficiency and nanostructure. Studies by cyclic voltammetry suggest good optical modulation and charge capacity upon Li+-ion-electron inter/deintercalation for almost stoichiometric films.

  16. Growth of amorphous zinc tin oxide films using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition from bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2propoxy)tin, diethylzinc, and oxygen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jeong Hwan; Lee, Byoung Kook; Jung, Eun Ae; Kim, Hyo-Suk; Kim, Seong Jun; Kim, Chang Gyoun; Chung, Taek-Mo; An, Ki-Seok

    2015-12-01

    Amorphous ZnSnOx (ZTO) films were prepared using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) in a temperature range of 100-200 °C. Metal-organic precursors of Sn(dmamp)2 (dmamp = bis(1-dimethylamino-2-methyl-2-propoxide) and diethylzinc were employed as sources of Sn and Zn, respectively, in combination with O2 plasma as a reactant. Sn levels in the ZTO films were controlled by varying the SnO2/ZnO cycle ratio from 0 to 8. According to the growth behaviour of the ZTO film by alternating SnO2 and ZnO PEALD cycles, it was observed that ZnO growth on Sn-rich ZTO film is retarded, whereas SnO2 growth is enhanced on Zn-rich ZTO film. The chemical states of the ZTO films were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); the chemical compositions of the ZTO films were characterised by XPS depth profiling. Grazing-angle X-ray diffraction revealed that the PEALD ZTO films possess an amorphous structure, irrespective of Sn levels from 20 to 59 at.%. ZTO films with intermediate Sn at.% exhibited smooth surface morphology compared to binary ZnO and SnO2 films. Additionally, the step coverage of a ZTO film deposited on hole pattern with an aspect ratio of 8 and opening diameter of 110 nm was about 93%, suggesting the realisation of self-limited growth.

  17. Resistive switching properties of amorphous Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 films grown on indium tin oxide/glass substrate using pulsed laser deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seong, Tae-Geun; Bum Choi, Kyu; Seo, In-Tae; Oh, Joon-Ho; Won Moon, Ji; Hong, Kwon; Nahm, Sahn

    2012-05-01

    Amorphous Pr0.7Ca0.3MnO3 (APCMO) films, which were grown on indium tin oxide (ITO)/glass at room temperature (RT), were n-type materials. The APCMO/ITO/glass device exhibited an average transparency of 77% in the visible range with a maximum transparency of 84% at a wavelength of 530 nm. The Pt/APCMO/ITO device showed stable bipolar resistive switching behavior over 200 cycles that did not degrade after 105 s at RT. The resistance of the APCMO film decreased in both low- and high-resistance states with increasing device area. The resistive switching behavior of the Pt/APCMO/ITO device can be explained by the trap-charged space-charge-limited current mechanism.

  18. Containerless Solidification of Amorphous Metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, M. C.; Johnson, W. L.

    1984-01-01

    Method produces large amorphous alloys. Spheres of amorphous metal alloys formed and collected after molten samples coated and cooled in drop tube. Coated spheres cooled acoustically and cryogenically. Amorphous specimens 5mm in diameter or larger possible.

  19. Amorphous-Carbon Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pouch, John J.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    1993-01-01

    Report describes structure, preparation, characterization, and applications of films of amorphous-carbon. Amorphous-carbon films potentially useful as masks in x-ray lithography, layers for passivation of high-speed microelectronic circuits, hard films to protect magnetic recording media and optical components from degradation by chemical etching or wear, and radiation detectors.

  20. Testing of flexible InGaZnO-based thin-film transistors under mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenrieder, N. S.; Cherenack, K. H.; Tröster, G.

    2011-08-01

    Thin-film transistors (TFTs) fabricated on flexible plastic substrates are an integral part of future flexible large-area electronic devices like displays and smart textiles. Devices for such applications require stable electrical performance under electrical stress and also during applied mechanical stress induced by bending of the flexible substrate. Mechanical stress can be tensile or compressive strain depending on whether the TFT is located outside or inside of the bending plane. Especially the impact of compressive bending on TFT performance is hard to measure, because the device is covered with the substrate in this case. We present a method which allows us to continuously measure the electrical performance parameters of amorphous Indium-Gallium-Zinc Oxide (a-IGZO) based TFTs exposed to arbitrary compressive and tensile bending radii. To measure the influence of strain on a TFT it is attached and electrically connected to a flexible carrier foil, which afterwards is fastened to two plates in our bending tester. The bending radius can be adjusted by changing the distance between these plates. Thus it is possible to apply bending radii in the range between a totally flat substrate and ≈1 mm, corresponding to a strain of ≈3.5%. The tested bottom-gate TFTs are especially designed for use with our bending tester and fabricated on 50 μm thick flexible Kapton® E polyimide substrates. To show the different application areas of our bending method we characterized our TFTs while they are bent to different tensile and compressive bending radii. These measurements show that the field effect mobilities and threshold voltages of the tested a-IGZO TFTs are nearly, but not absolutely, stable under applied strain, compared to the initial values the mobilities shift by ≈3.5% in the tensile case and ≈-1.5% in the compressive one, at a bending radius of 8 mm. We also measured the influence of repeated bending (2500 cycles over ≈70 h), where a shift of the performance parameters can be observed, too. The saturation mobility of the flat device decreases by 4.5%, and the threshold voltage raises 0.1 V. These results show that it is possible to characterize the influence of different kinds of bending on flexible thin-film devices in a very reliable way with one experimental setup.

  1. Osseointegration of bioactive microarc oxidized amorphous phase/TiO2 nanocrystals composited coatings on titanium after implantation into rabbit tibia.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Rui; Wei, Daqing; Yang, Haoyue; Cheng, Su; Feng, Wei; Li, Baoqiang; Wang, Yaming; Jia, Dechang; Zhou, Yu

    2014-05-01

    The amorphous phase/TiO2 nanocrystals (APTN) composited coatings were prepared on Ti implants for biomedical applications. The Ti implants without and with the APTN composited coatings both do not cause any adverse effects after implantation into the rabbit tibia. The osseointegration of Ti implants after covering the APTN coatings is improved pronouncedly, greatly increasing the interface bonding strength between the implants and newly formed bones. In addition, it is interesting that the newly formed bone tissues appear in the micro-pores of the APTN coatings, promoting the interface bonding between the implants and new bones by the mechanical interlock. Moreover, the Ti implant with the APTN coatings formed at higher applied voltage exhibit higher shear strength and displacement during the pushing out experiment probably due to its better osseointegration. PMID:24481533

  2. Hydrogen in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Peercy, P. S.

    1980-01-01

    The structural aspects of amorphous silicon and the role of hydrogen in this structure are reviewed with emphasis on ion implantation studies. In amorphous silicon produced by Si ion implantation of crystalline silicon, the material reconstructs into a metastable amorphous structure which has optical and electrical properties qualitatively similar to the corresponding properties in high-purity evaporated amorphous silicon. Hydrogen studies further indicate that these structures will accomodate less than or equal to 5 at.% hydrogen and this hydrogen is bonded predominantly in a monohydride (SiH/sub 1/) site. Larger hydrogen concentrations than this can be achieved under certain conditions, but the excess hydrogen may be attributed to defects and voids in the material. Similarly, glow discharge or sputter deposited amorphous silicon has more desirable electrical and optical properties when the material is prepared with low hydrogen concentration and monohydride bonding. Results of structural studies and hydrogen incorporation in amorphous silicon were discussed relative to the different models proposed for amorphous silicon.

  3. Innovative solid oxide fuel cells based on BaIn0.3Ti0.7O2.85 electrolyte and La2Mo2O9 amorphous reduced phase as anode material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buvat, Gaëtan; Quarez, Eric; Joubert, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    This article presents elaboration of electrolyte-supported solid oxide fuel cells based on the oxide ion conductor BaIn0.3Ti0.7O2.85 (BIT07) as electrolyte, the amorphous reduced phase of La2Mo2O9 (La2Mo2O7-y) as anode which presents a mixed ionic and electronic conduction in low pO2 and La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-δ (LSCF) as cathode. Electrode materials have been deposited by screen-printing on BIT07 substrate. In order to avoid chemical reactivity between BIT07 and La2Mo2O9, a thin layer of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (CGO) has been used. Electrochemical performance of the single cell has been characterized by I-V measurements and impedance spectroscopy. Encouraging performance of 40 mW cm-2 at 700 °C is obtained with a thick electrolyte layer. Finally, ageing test of the cell at 700 °C during 800 h has been done with a low rate of performance loss of 4.4 × 10-3% h-1. No degradation of the electrolyte material is reported and stability of the anode material after operating the fuel cell is discussed.

  4. Surface magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance of Co-rich amorphous and nanocrystalline (Co1-xFex)89 Zr7B4 ribbons with oxide layer formed by long-term exposure to air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eggers, Tatiana; Leary, Alex; McHenry, Michael; Skorvanek, Ivan; Srikanth, Hariharan; Phan, Manh-Huong

    The surface magnetic properties and magnetoimpedance (MI) of amorphous and nanocrystalline (Co1-xFex)89 Zr7B4 melt-spun ribbons with x = 0, 0.025, 0.05 & 0.1 was investigated. A 540°C heat treatment for 1 hour under a 2 T transverse field formed a large volume fraction of nanocrystalline phases in the ribbons, in addition to a well-defined transverse anisotropy indicated by x-ray diffraction and magneto-optical Kerr effect microscopy. After the heat treatment, the ribbon samples were exposed to open air for an extended period of time producing a visible oxide layer on the surfaces. High frequency magnetoimpedance measurements in the driving frequency range of 1-1000 MHz were made to characterize the potential impact of the surface oxide layer on the ac magnetization process. Unique field-dependent behavior of the real and imaginary components of the MI was found in nanocrystalline ribbons with higher Co content (x >= 0.05), showing multiple peaks above 50 MHz driving current.

  5. Chromic Mechanism in Amorphous WO3 Films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J. G.; Benson, D. K.; Tracy, C. E.; Deb, S. K.; Czanderna, A. W.

    1997-06-01

    We propose a new model for the chromic mechanism in amorphous tungsten oxide films (WO3-y .cntdot. nH2O). This model not only explains a variety of seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature that cannot be explained by existing models, it also has practical implications with respect to improving the coloring efficiency and durability of electrochromic devices. According to this model, a typical as-deposited tungsten oxide film has tungsten mainly in W6+ and W4+ states and can be represented as W6+(1-y) W4+(y)O(3-y) .cntdot. nH2O. The proposed chromic mechanism is based on the small polaron transition between the charge-induced W5+ state and the orignial W4+ state insteasd of the W5+ and W6+ states as suggested in previous models. The correlation between the electrochromic and photochromic behavior in amorphous tungsten oxide films is also discussed.

  6. Amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1998-06-09

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  7. Amorphous metal alloy

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1980-04-09

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  8. Fabrication of solution-processed amorphous indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors at low temperatures using deep-UV irradiation under wet conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jee Ho; Chae, Soo Sang; Yoo, Young Bum; Lee, Ji Hoon; Lee, Tae Il; Baik, Hong Koo

    2014-03-01

    We fabricated solution-processed indium zinc oxide (IZO) thin film transistors (TFTs) at annealing temperatures as low as 250 °C using deep UV (DUV) irradiation in water vapor medium. The DUV light decomposed the carbon compounds in the IZO films, and the hydroxyl radicals generated when water vapor reacted with ozone effectively oxidized the films. These phenomena were confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Finally, we fabricated DUV-treated IZO TFTs in water-vapor medium at 250 °C with a mobility of 1.2 cm2/Vs and an on/off current ratio of 2.66 × 106.

  9. Formation of amorphous materials

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, William L.; Schwarz, Ricardo B.

    1986-01-01

    Metastable amorphous or fine crystalline materials are formed by solid state reactions by diffusion of a metallic component into a solid compound or by diffusion of a gas into an intermetallic compound. The invention can be practiced on layers of metals deposited on an amorphous substrate or by intermixing powders with nucleating seed granules. All that is required is that the diffusion of the first component into the second component be much faster than the self-diffusion of the first component. The method is practiced at a temperature below the temperature at which the amorphous phase transforms into one or more crystalline phases and near or below the temperature at which the ratio of the rate of diffusion of the first component to the rate of self-diffusion is at least 10.sup.4. This anomalous diffusion criteria is found in many binary, tertiary and higher ordered systems of alloys and appears to be found in all alloy systems that form amorphous materials by rapid quenching. The method of the invention can totally convert much larger dimensional materials to amorphous materials in practical periods of several hours or less.

  10. Structural Amorphous Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Z. P.; Liu, C. T.; Thompson, J. R.; Porter, W. D.

    2004-06-01

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist’s dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed.

  11. Structural amorphous steels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Z P; Liu, C T; Thompson, J R; Porter, W D

    2004-06-18

    Recent advancement in bulk metallic glasses, whose properties are usually superior to their crystalline counterparts, has stimulated great interest in fabricating bulk amorphous steels. While a great deal of effort has been devoted to this field, the fabrication of structural amorphous steels with large cross sections has remained an alchemist's dream because of the limited glass-forming ability (GFA) of these materials. Here we report the discovery of structural amorphous steels that can be cast into glasses with large cross-section sizes using conventional drop-casting methods. These new steels showed interesting physical, magnetic, and mechanical properties, along with high thermal stability. The underlying mechanisms for the superior GFA of these materials are discussed. PMID:15245095

  12. High-performance low-cost back-channel-etch amorphous gallium-indium-zinc oxide thin-film transistors by curing and passivation of the damaged back channel.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Chul; Ahn, Seung-Eon; Lee, Ho-Nyeon

    2013-12-11

    High-performance, low-cost amorphous gallium-indium-zinc oxide (a-GIZO) thin-film-transistor (TFT) technology is required for the next generation of active-matrix organic light-emitting diodes. A back-channel-etch structure is the most appropriate device structure for high-performance, low-cost a-GIZO TFT technology. However, channel damage due to source/drain etching and passivation-layer deposition has been a critical issue. To solve this problem, the present work focuses on overall back-channel processes, such as back-channel N2O plasma treatment, SiOx passivation deposition, and final thermal annealing. This work has revealed the dependence of a-GIZO TFT characteristics on the N2O plasma radio-frequency (RF) power and frequency, the SiH4 flow rate in the SiOx deposition process, and the final annealing temperature. On the basis of these results, a high-performance a-GIZO TFT with a field-effect mobility of 35.7 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1), a subthreshold swing of 185 mV dec(-1), a switching ratio exceeding 10(7), and a satisfactory reliability was successfully fabricated. The technology developed in this work can be realized using the existing facilities of active-matrix liquid-crystal display industries. PMID:24221957

  13. Non-Arrhenius conduction due to the interface-trap-induced disorder in X-doped amorphous In-X-Zn oxides thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benwadih, Mohammed; Chroboczek, J. A.; Ghibaudo, Gérard; Coppard, Romain; Vuillaume, Dominique

    2015-02-01

    Thin film transistors, with channels composed of In-X-Zn oxides, IXZO, with X dopants: Ga, Sb, Be, Mg, Ag, Ca, Al, Ni, and Cu, were fabricated and their I-V characteristics were taken at selected temperatures in the 77 K < T < 300 K range. The low field mobility, μ, and the interface defect density, NST, were extracted from the characteristics for each of the studied IXZOs. At higher T, the mobility follows the Arrhenius law with an upward distortion, increasing as T is lowered, gradually transforming into the exp [-(T0/T)1/4] variation. We showed that μ(T, NST) follows μ0 exp[-Eaeff(T,NST)/kT], with T-dependent effective activation energy Eaeff(T, NST) accounts for the data, revealing a linear correlation between Eaeff and NST at higher T. Temperature variation of Eaeff(T, NST) was evaluated using a model assuming a random distribution of conduction mobility edge Ec values in the oxides, stemming from spatial fluctuations induced by disorder in the interface traps distribution. For a Gaussian distribution of Ec, the activation energy Eaeff(T, NST) varies linearly with 1/T, which accounts satisfactorily for the data obtained on all the studied IXZOs. The model also shows that Eaeff(T, NST) is a linear function of NST at a fixed T, which explains the exponential decrease of μ with NST.

  14. Amorphous semiconductor solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Dalal, Vikram L.

    1981-01-01

    A solar cell comprising a back electrical contact, amorphous silicon semiconductor base and junction layers and a top electrical contact includes in its manufacture the step of heat treating the physical junction between the base layer and junction layer to diffuse the dopant species at the physical junction into the base layer.

  15. Disorder-induced amorphization

    SciTech Connect

    Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Li, Mo

    1997-03-01

    Many crystalline materials undergo a crystalline-to-amorphous (c-a) phase transition when subjected to energetic particle irradiation at low temperatures. By focusing on the mean-square static atomic displacement as a generic measure of chemical and topological disorder, we are led quite naturally to a generalized version of the Lindemann melting criterion as a conceptual framework for a unified thermodynamic approach to solid-state amorphizing transformations. In its simplest form, the generalized Lindemann criterion assumes that the sum of the static and dynamic mean-square atomic displacements is constant along the polymorphous melting curve so that c-a transformations can be understood simply as melting of a critically-disordered crystal at temperatures below the glass transition temperature where the supercooled liquid can persist indefinitely in a configurationally-frozen state. Evidence in support of the generalized Lindemann melting criterion for amorphization is provided by a large variety of experimental observations and by molecular dynamics simulations of heat-induced melting and of defect-induced amorphization of intermetallic compounds.

  16. Amorphous silicon photovoltaic devices

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.; Lin, Guang H.; Ganguly, Gautam

    2004-08-31

    This invention is a photovoltaic device comprising an intrinsic or i-layer of amorphous silicon and where the photovoltaic device is more efficient at converting light energy to electric energy at high operating temperatures than at low operating temperatures. The photovoltaic devices of this invention are suitable for use in high temperature operating environments.

  17. Pulsed direct flame deposition and thermal annealing of transparent amorphous indium zinc oxide films as active layers in field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Kilian, Daniel; Polster, Sebastian; Vogeler, Isabell; Jank, Michael P M; Frey, Lothar; Peukert, Wolfgang

    2014-08-13

    Indium-zinc oxide (IZO) films were deposited via flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) by pulsewise shooting a Si/SiO2 substrate directly into the combustion area of the flame. Based on UV-vis measurements of thin-films deposited on glass substrates, the optimal deposition parameters with respect to low haze values and film thicknesses of around 100 nm were determined. Thermal annealing of the deposited films at temperatures between 300 and 700 °C was carried out and staggered bottom gate thin-film transistors (TFT) were fabricated. The thin films were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, and room-temperature photoluminescence measurements. The outcome of these investigations lead to two major requirements in order to implement a working TFT: (i) organic residues from the deposition process need to be removed and (ii) the net free charge carrier concentration has to be minimized by controlling the trap states in the semiconductor. The optimal annealing temperature was 300 °C as both requirements are fulfilled best in this case. This leads to field effect transistors with a low hysteresis, a saturation mobility of μSat = 0.1 cm(2)/(V s), a threshold voltage of Vth = -18.9 V, and an Ion/Ioff ratio on the order of 10(7). Depending on thermal treatment, the defect density changes significantly strongly influencing the transfer characteristics of the device. PMID:25029269

  18. More Evidence of the Importance of Amorphous Silicates in CM Carbonaceous Chondrites: New Observations from a Fine-Grained Rim in the CM2 Chondrite, TIL 91722

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brearley, A. J.; Le Guillou, C.

    2015-07-01

    A fine-grained rim in TIL 91722 contains abundant amorphous silicate material containing nanophase sulfides. Phyllosilicates are rare. The amorphous material has a high ferric iron content indicative of oxidation coupled with hydration.

  19. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Perez-Mendez, Victor; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

  20. Amorphous silicon radiation detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1992-11-17

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

  1. Amorphous alumina coatings: processing, structure and remarkable barrier properties.

    PubMed

    Samlor, Diane; Lazar, Ana-Maria; Aufray, Malenn; Tendero, Claire; Lacroix, Loc; Bguin, Jean-Denis; Caussat, Brigitte; Vergnes, Hugues; Alexis, Jol; Poquillon, Dominique; Pbre, Nadine; Gleizes, Alain; Vahlas, Constantin

    2011-09-01

    Amorphous aluminium oxide coatings were processed by metalorganic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD); their structural characteristics were determined as a function of the processing conditions, the process was modelled considering appropriate chemical kinetic schemes, and the properties of the obtained material were investigated and were correlated with the nanostructure of the coatings. With increasing processing temperature in the range 350 degrees C-700 degrees C, subatmospheric MOCVD of alumina from aluminium tri-isopropoxide (ATI) sequentially yields partially hydroxylated amorphous aluminium oxides, amorphous Al2O3 (415 degrees C-650 degrees C) and nanostructured gamma-Al2O3 films. A numerical model for the process allowed reproducing the non uniformity of deposition rate along the substrate zone due to the depletion of ATI. The hardness of the coatings prepared at 350 degrees C, 480 degrees C and 700 degrees C is 6 GPa, 11 GPa and 1 GPa, respectively. Scratch tests on films grown on TA6V titanium alloy reveal adhesive and cohesive failures for the amorphous and nanocrystalline ones, respectively. Alumina coating processed at 480 degrees C on TA6V yielded zero weight gain after oxidation at 600 degrees C in lab air. The surface of such low temperature processed amorphous films is hydrophobic (water contact angle 106 degrees), while the high temperature processed nanocrystalline films are hydrophilic (48 degrees at a deposition temperature of 700 degrees C). It is concluded that amorphous Al2O3 coatings can be used as oxidation and corrosion barriers at ambient or moderate temperature. Nanostructured with Pt or Ag nanoparticles, they can also provide anti-fouling or catalytic surfaces. PMID:22097590

  2. Nanomoulding with amorphous metals.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Golden; Tang, Hong X; Schroers, Jan

    2009-02-12

    Nanoimprinting promises low-cost fabrication of micro- and nano-devices by embossing features from a hard mould onto thermoplastic materials, typically polymers with low glass transition temperature. The success and proliferation of such methods critically rely on the manufacturing of robust and durable master moulds. Silicon-based moulds are brittle and have limited longevity. Metal moulds are stronger than semiconductors, but patterning of metals on the nanometre scale is limited by their finite grain size. Amorphous metals (metallic glasses) exhibit superior mechanical properties and are intrinsically free from grain size limitations. Here we demonstrate direct nanopatterning of metallic glasses by hot embossing, generating feature sizes as small as 13 nm. After subsequently crystallizing the as-formed metallic glass mould, we show that another amorphous sample of the same alloy can be formed on the crystallized mould. In addition, metallic glass replicas can also be used as moulds for polymers or other metallic glasses with lower softening temperatures. Using this 'spawning' process, we can massively replicate patterned surfaces through direct moulding without using conventional lithography. We anticipate that our findings will catalyse the development of micro- and nanoscale metallic glass applications that capitalize on the outstanding mechanical properties, microstructural homogeneity and isotropy, and ease of thermoplastic forming exhibited by these materials. PMID:19212407

  3. Optical multilayers with an amorphous fluoropolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Lindsey, E.F.

    1994-07-01

    Multilayered coatings were made by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, Teflon AF2400, together with other optical materials. A high reflector at 1064 run was made with ZnS and AF2400. An all-organic 1064-nm reflector was made from AF2400 and polyethylene. Oxide (HfO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2}) compatibility was also tested. Each multilayer system adhered to itself. The multilayers were influenced by coating stress and unintentional temperature rises during PVD deposition.

  4. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1980-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell incorporates a region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon fabricated by a glow discharge wherein said intrinsic region is compensated by P-type dopants in an amount sufficient to reduce the space charge density of said region under illumination to about zero.

  5. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, Robert A.; Mendez, Victor P.; Kaplan, Selig N.

    1988-01-01

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation.

  6. Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors

    DOEpatents

    Street, R.A.; Mendez, V.P.; Kaplan, S.N.

    1988-11-15

    Amorphous silicon ionizing particle detectors having a hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a--Si:H) thin film deposited via plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition techniques are utilized to detect the presence, position and counting of high energy ionizing particles, such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. 15 figs.

  7. Compensated amorphous silicon solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Devaud, Genevieve

    1983-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon over said substrate and having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the electrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF.sub.3 doped intrinsic layer.

  8. Amorphous and Cellular Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abelson, Harold; Sussman, Gerald J.; Knight, Thomas F., Jr

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this research is to create the architectural, algorithmic, and technological foundations for exploiting programmable materials. These are materials that incorporate vast numbers of programmable elements that react to each other and to their environment. Such materials can be fabricated economically, provided that the computing elements are amassed in bulk without arranging for precision interconnect and testing. In order to exploit programmable materials we must identify engineering principles for organizing and instructing myriad programmable entities to cooperate to robustly achieve pre-established goals, even though the individual entities are unreliable and interconnected in unknown, irregular, and time-varying ways. Progress in microfabrication and in bioengineering will make it possible to assemble such amorphous systems at almost no cost, provided that (1) the units need not all work correctly; (2) the units are identically programmed; and (3) there is no need to manufacture precise geometrical arrangements of the units or precise interconnections among them.

  9. Bulk amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.; Archuleta, J.I.; Sickafus, K.E.

    1998-12-01

    This is the final report for a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective of this work was to develop the competency for the synthesis of novel bulk amorphous alloys. The authors researched their synthesis methods and alloy properties, including thermal stability, mechanical, and transport properties. The project also addressed the development of vanadium-spinel alloys for structural applications in hostile environments, the measurement of elastic constants and thermal expansion in single-crystal TiAl from 300 to 750 K, the measurement of elastic constants in gallium nitride, and a study of the shock-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi alloys.

  10. Plasticity of amorphous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Lautz, Julian; Moseler, Michael; Pastewka, Lars

    2014-03-01

    We use molecular dynamics simulations to probe the plastic response of representative bulk volumes of amorphous carbon at densities from 2.0 g cm-3 to 3.3 g cm-3 in simple and triaxial shear. After an initial elastic response the samples yield with only little strain hardening or softening. Individual plastic events in this network forming glass are strikingly similar to those observed for bulk metallic glasses: We find that plasticity is carried by fundamental rearrangements of regions of around 100 atoms, the shear transformation zone. In the simple shear geometry, those events coalesce to form a shear-band on longer time scales. During plastic deformation, the material changes its hybridization by transforming sp3 carbon atoms to sp2. We provide evidence that this transformation of the structural state occurs before the material yields, hence weakening the material. This work was supported by the European Commission (Marie-Curie IOF 272619).

  11. Perspective on photovoltaic amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Luft, W.; Stafford, B.; von Roedern, B.

    1992-05-01

    Amorphous silicon is a thin film option that has the potential for a cost-effective product for large-scale utility photovoltaics application. The initial efficiencies for single-junction and multijunction amorphous silicon cells and modules have increased significantly over the past 10 years. The emphasis of research and development has changed to stabilized efficiency, especially that of multijunction modules. NREL has measured 6.3%--7.2% stabilized amorphous silicon module efficiencies for US products, and 8.1% stable efficiencies have been reported by Fuji Electric. This represents a significant increase over the stabilized efficiencies of modules manufactured only a few years ago. An increasing portion of the amorphous silicon US government funding is now for manufacturing technology development to reduce cost. The funding for amorphous silicon for photovoltaics by Japan over the last 5 years has been about 50% greater than that in the United State, and by Germany in the last 2--3 years more than twice that of the US Amorphous silicon is the only thin-film technology that is selling large-area commercial modules. The cost for amorphous silicon modules is now in the $4.50 range; it is a strong function of plant production capacity and is expected to be reduced to $1.00--1.50/W{sub p} for plants with 10 MW/year capacities. 10 refs.

  12. Optical multilayer films based on an amorphous fluoropolymer

    SciTech Connect

    Chow, R.; Loomis, G.E.; Ward, R.L.

    1996-01-01

    Multilayered coatings were made by physical vapor deposition (PVD) of a perfluorinated amorphous polymer, Teflon AF2400, and with other optical materials. A high reflector for 1064 nm light was made with ZnS and AF2400. An all-organic 1064 nm reflector was made from AF2400 and polyethylene. Oxide (HfO{sub 2} and SiO{sub 2}) compatibility with AF2400 was also tested. The multilayer morphologies were influenced by coating stress and unintentional temperature rises from the PVD process. Analysis by liquid nuclear magnetic resonance of the thin films showed slight compositional variations between the coating and starting materials of perfluorinated amorphous polymers.

  13. Containerless processing of amorphous ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, J. K. Richard; Krishnan, Shankar; Schiffman, Robert A.; Nordine, Paul C.

    1990-01-01

    The absence of gravity allows containerless processing of materials which could not otherwise be processed. High melting point, hard materials such as borides, nitrides, and refractory metals are usually brittle in their crystalline form. The absence of dislocations in amorphous materials frequently endows them with flexibility and toughness. Systematic studies of the properties of many amorphous materials have not been carried out. The requirements for their production is that they can be processed in a controlled way without container interaction. Containerless processing in microgravity could permit the control necessary to produce amorphous forms of hard materials.

  14. Adsorption of selenium by amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and manganese dioxide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Balistrieri, L.S.; Chao, T.T.

    1990-01-01

    This work compares and models the adsorption of selenium and other anions on a neutral to alkaline surface (amorphous iron oxyhydroxide) and an acidic surface (manganese dioxide). Selenium adsorption on these oxides is examined as a function of pH, particle concentration, oxidation state, and competing anion concentration in order to assess how these factors might influence the mobility of selenium in the environment. The data indicate that 1. 1) amorphous iron oxyhydroxide has a greater affinity for selenium than manganese dioxide, 2. 2) selenite [Se(IV)] adsorption increases with decreasing pH and increasing particle concentration and is stronger than selenate [Se(VI)] adsorption on both oxides, and 3. 3) selenate does not adsorb on manganese dioxide. The relative affinity of selenate and selenite for the oxides and the lack of adsorption of selenate on a strongly acidic surface suggests that selenate forms outer-sphere complexes while selenite forms inner-sphere complexes with the surfaces. The data also indicate that the competition sequence of other anions with respect to selenite adsorption at pH 7.0 is phosphate > silicate > molybdate > fluoride > sulfate on amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and molybdate ??? phosphate > silicate > fluoride > sulfate on manganese dioxide. The adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on these oxides as a function of pH indicates that the competition sequences reflect the relative affinities of these anions for the surfaces. The Triple Layer surface complexation model is used to provide a quantitative description of these observations and to assess the importance of surface site heterogeneity on anion adsorption. The modeling results suggest that selenite forms binuclear, innersphere complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide and monodentate, inner-sphere complexes with manganese dioxide and that selenate forms outer-sphere, monodentate complexes with amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. The heterogeneity of the oxide surface sites is reflected in decreasing equilibrium constants for selenite with increasing adsorption density and both experimental observations and modeling results suggest that manganese dioxide has fewer sites of higher energy for selenite adsorption than amorphous iron oxyhydroxide. Modeling and interpreting the adsorption of phosphate, molybdate, and silicate on the oxides are made difficult by the lack of constraint in choosing surface species and the fact that equally good fits can be obtained with different surface species. Finally, predictions of anion competition using the model results from single adsorbate systems are not very successful because the model does not account for surface site heterogeneity. Selenite adsorption data from a multi-adsorbate system could be fit if the equilibrium constant for selenite is decreased with increasing anion adsorption density. ?? 1990.

  15. Fabrication of amorphous diamond films

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, S.

    1995-12-12

    Amorphous diamond films having a significant reduction in intrinsic stress are prepared by biasing a substrate to be coated and depositing carbon ions thereon under controlled temperature conditions. 1 fig.

  16. Electrooptical properties and structural features of amorphous ITO

    SciTech Connect

    Amosova, L. P.

    2015-03-15

    Thin indium-tin oxide (ITO) films are deposited onto cold substrates by magnetron-assisted sputtering. The dependences of the structural, electrical, and optical properties of the films on the oxygen content in the atmosphere of sputtering and the growth rate are studied. It is shown that, if the substrate temperature is no higher than the ITO crystallization temperature and the conditions of growth deviate from the optimal relationship between the oxygen pressure and the growth rate, the resistance of the layers can be six or seven orders of magnitude higher than the resistance of conducting amorphous layers and reach hundreds of megaohms. At the same time, the optical properties of insulating layers in the visible spectral region are completely identical to the properties of the conducing amorphous modification. A conceptual model of defects responsible for the insulating properties of amorphous ITO is proposed.

  17. Complex Amorphous Dielectrics

    SciTech Connect

    van Dover, Robert Bruce

    2014-11-22

    This work focused on synthesizing a wide range of oxides containing two or more metals, and measuring their properties. Many simple metal oxides such as zirconium oxide, have been extensively studied in the past. We developed a technique in which we create a large number of compositions simultaneously and examine their behavior to understand trends and identify high performance materials. Superior performance generally comes in the form of increased responsiveness; in the materials we have studied this may mean more electrical charge for a given voltage in a capacitor, faster switching for a given drive in a transistor, more current for a given voltage in an ionic conductor, or more current for a given illumination in a solar cell. Some of the materials we have identified may find use in decreasing the power needed to operate integrated circuits, other materials could be useful for solar power or other forms of energy conversion.

  18. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Rong; Merz, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  19. Amorphous metal alloy and composite

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, R.; Merz, M.D.

    1985-01-29

    Amorphous metal alloys of the iron-chromium and nickel-chromium type have excellent corrosion resistance and high temperature stability and are suitable for use as a protective coating on less corrosion resistant substrates. The alloys are stabilized in the amorphous state by one or more elements of titanium, zirconium, hafnium, niobium, tantalum, molybdenum, and tungsten. The alloy is preferably prepared by sputter deposition.

  20. Irradiation-induced amorphization and order-disorder transformation in the tungsten delta-phase oxides Yb6W1O12 and Y6W1O12

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Ming; Uberuaga, Blas; Valdez, James; Sickafus, Kurt

    2008-01-01

    Polycrystalline Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} and Y{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} samples, which possess rhombohedral symmetry (structure known as the {delta}-phase, closely related to cubic fluorite structure), were irradiated with 280 keV Kr{sup ++} ions to fluences up to 2 x 10{sup 20} ions/m{sup 2} at cryogenic temperature (100 K). Ion irradiation damage effects in these samples were examined using grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Irradiation-induced amorphization in both compounds has been observed by GIXRD and TEM, while the amorphization dose for Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12} is lower than that for Yb{sub 6}W{sub 1}O{sub 12}. Experimental results also revealed that both irradiated samples experience an ordered rhombohedral to disordered cubic fluorite (O-D) transformation before amorphization. Factors influencing the irradiation damage response of these two compounds will be discussed in terms of cation radius ratio and cation antisite formation energy calculated by density functional theory (DFT).

  1. Amorphous carbon for photovoltaics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risplendi, Francesca; Grossman, Jeffrey C.

    2015-03-01

    All-carbon solar cells have attracted attention as candidates for innovative photovoltaic devices. Carbon-based materials such as graphene, carbon nanotubes (CNT) and amorphous carbon (aC) have the potential to present physical properties comparable to those of silicon-based materials with advantages such as low cost and higher thermal stability.In particular a-C structures are promising systems in which both sp2 and sp3 hybridization coordination are present in different proportions depending on the specific density, providing the possibility of tuning their optoelectronic properties and achieving comparable sunlight absorption to aSi. In this work we employ density functional theory to design suitable device architectures, such as bulk heterojunctions (BHJ) or pn junctions, consisting of a-C as the active layer material.Regarding BHJ, we study interfaces between aC and C nanostructures (such as CNT and fullerene) to relate their optoelectronic properties to the stoichiometry of aC. We demonstrate that the energy alignment between the a-C mobility edges and the occupied and unoccupied states of the CNT or C60 can be widely tuned by varying the aC density to obtain a type II interface.To employ aC in pn junctions we analyze the p- and n-type doping of a-C focusingon an evaluation of the Fermi level and work function dependence on doping.Our results highlight promising features of aC as the active layer material of thin-film solar cells.

  2. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Karthik

    2011-12-01

    Silicon Photonics is quickly proving to be a suitable interconnect technology for meeting the future goals of on-chip bandwidth and low power requirements. However, it is not clear how silicon photonics will be integrated into CMOS chips, particularly microprocessors. The issue of integrating photonic circuits into electronic IC fabrication processes to achieve maximum flexibility and minimum complexity and cost is an important one. In order to minimize usage of chip real estate, it will be advantageous to integrate in three-dimensions. Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is emerging as a promising material for the 3-D integration of silicon photonics for on-chip optical interconnects. In addition, a-Si:H film can be deposited using CMOS compatible low temperature plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process at any point in the fabrication process allowing maximum flexibility and minimal complexity. In this thesis, we demonstrate a-Si:H as a high performance alternate platform to crystalline silicon, enabling backend integration of optical interconnects in a hybrid photonic-electronic network-on-chip architecture. High quality passive devices are fabricated on a low-loss a-Si:H platform enabling wavelength division multiplexing schemes. We demonstrate a broadband all-optical modulation scheme based on free-carrier absorption effect, which can enable compact electro-optic modulators in a-Si:H. Furthermore, we comprehensively characterize the optical nonlinearities in a-Si:H and observe that a-Si:H exhibits enhanced nonlinearities as compared to crystalline silicon. Based on the enhanced nonlinearities, we demonstrate low-power four-wave mixing in a-Si:H waveguides enabling high speed all-optical devices in an a-Si:H platform. Finally, we demonstrate a novel data encoding scheme using thermal and all-optical tuning of silicon waveguides, increasing the spectral efficiency in an interconnect link.

  3. Solid state amorphization of pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Willart, J F; Descamps, M

    2008-01-01

    Amorphous solids are conventionally formed by supercooling liquids or by concentrating noncrystallizing solutes (spray-drying and freeze-drying). However, a lot of pharmaceutical processes may also directly convert compounds from crystal to noncrystal which may have desired or undesired consequences for their stability. The purpose of this short review paper is (i) to illustrate the possibility to amorphize one compound by several different routes (supercooling, dehydration of hydrate, milling, annealing of metastable crystalline forms), (ii) to examine factors that favor crystal to glass rather than crystal to crystal transformations, (iii) to discuss the role of possible amorphous intermediates in solid-solid conversions induced by milling, (iv) to address the issue of chemical stability in the course of solid state amorphization, (v) to discuss the nature of the amorphous state obtained by the nonconventional routes, (vi) to show the effect of milling conditions on glasses properties, and (vii) to attempt to rationalize the observed transformations using the concepts of effective temperature introduced in nonequilibrium physics. PMID:18954076

  4. Room temperature fabricated flexible NiO/IGZO pn diode under mechanical strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münzenrieder, Niko; Zysset, Christoph; Petti, Luisa; Kinkeldei, Thomas; Salvatore, Giovanni A.; Tröster, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Flexible electronic devices fabricated on plastic substrates require semiconductors, which can be deposited at low temperatures. While Indium-Gallium-Zinc-Oxide (IGZO) is a promising n-type oxide semiconductor, a p-type oxide semiconductor with similar performance is currently not available. Here, the room temperature deposition of nickel oxide (NiO) acting as a p-type oxide semiconductor on a flexible plastic foil is described. NiO exhibits a carrier density of +1.6 × 1017 cm-3 and a Hall mobility of 0.45 cm2/Vs. p-type NiO is combined with n-type IGZO to fabricate flexible pn diodes on a free-standing polyimide substrate. The diodes show an ideality factor of ≈3.2 and an on-off current-ratio of ≈104. The NiO/IGZO diodes stay fully operational when exposed to tensile or compressive mechanical strain of 0.25%, induced by bending to a radius of 10 mm. In addition, a 50 Hz AC signal was rectified using a flexible diode while flat and bent.

  5. Nanostructures having crystalline and amorphous phases

    DOEpatents

    Mao, Samuel S; Chen, Xiaobo

    2015-04-28

    The present invention includes a nanostructure, a method of making thereof, and a method of photocatalysis. In one embodiment, the nanostructure includes a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase in contact with the crystalline phase. Each of the crystalline and amorphous phases has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes a nanoparticle comprising a crystalline phase and an amorphous phase. The amorphous phase is in a selected amount. In another embodiment, the nanostructure includes crystalline titanium dioxide and amorphous titanium dioxide in contact with the crystalline titanium dioxide. Each of the crystalline and amorphous titanium dioxide has at least one dimension on a nanometer scale.

  6. Generalized melting criterion for amorphization

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, R. |; Lam, N.Q.; Okamoto, P.R.; Meshii, M.

    1992-12-01

    We present a thermodynamic model of solid-state amorphization based on a generalization of the well-known Lindemann criterion. The original Lindemann criterion proposes that melting occurs when the root-mean-square amplitude of thermal displacement exceeds a critical value. This criterion can be generalized to include solid-state amorphization by taking into account the static displacements. In an effort to verify the generalized melting criterion, we have performed molecular dynamics simulations of radiation-induced amorphization in NiZr, NiZr{sub 2}, NiTi and FeTi using embedded-atom potentials. The average shear elastic constant G was calculated as a function of the total mean-square atomic displacement following random atom-exchanges and introduction of Frenkel pairs. Results provide strong support for the generalized melting criterion.

  7. Amorphous-diamond electron emitter

    DOEpatents

    Falabella, Steven

    2001-01-01

    An electron emitter comprising a textured silicon wafer overcoated with a thin (200 .ANG.) layer of nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (a:D-N), which lowers the field below 20 volts/micrometer have been demonstrated using this emitter compared to uncoated or diamond coated emitters wherein the emission is at fields of nearly 60 volts/micrometer. The silicon/nitrogen-doped, amorphous-diamond (Si/a:D-N) emitter may be produced by overcoating a textured silicon wafer with amorphous-diamond (a:D) in a nitrogen atmosphere using a filtered cathodic-arc system. The enhanced performance of the Si/a:D-N emitter lowers the voltages required to the point where field-emission displays are practical. Thus, this emitter can be used, for example, in flat-panel emission displays (FEDs), and cold-cathode vacuum electronics.

  8. Processing Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductors from amorphous state

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, C. K.; Wong-Ng, W.; Cook, L. P.; Freiman, S. W.; Hwang, N. M.; Vaudin, M.; Hill, M. D.; Shull, R. D.; Shapiro, A. J.; Swartzendruber, L. J.

    1991-01-01

    The bismuth based high T sub c superconductors can be processed via an amorphous Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu oxide. The amorphous oxides were prepared by melting the constituent powders in an alumina crucible at 1200 C in air followed by pouring the liquid onto an aluminum plate, and rapidly pressing with a second plate. In the amorphous state, no crystalline phase was identified in the powder x ray diffraction pattern of the quenched materials. After heat treatment at high temperature the amorphous materials crystallized into a glass ceramic containing a large fraction of the Bi2Sr2Ca2Cu3O(x) phase T sub c = 110 K. The processing method, crystallization, and results of dc electrical resistivity and ac magnetic susceptibility measurements are discussed.

  9. Dissolution rates of amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates and their relevance to phosphate mobility on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Valerie M.

    Phosphate is an essential element for life on Earth, and therefore if life exists or ever existed on Mars it may have required phosphate. Amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates rapidly precipitate from acidic solutions and amorphous Al-phosphates likely control phosphate concentrations in some natural waters on Earth. Amorphous phases may be even more important on Mars than on Earth, and amorphous phosphates are therefore likely important in the phosphate cycle on Mars. Despite this importance, however, few dissolution rates exist for amorphous Al- and Fe- phosphates. In this study, dissolution rates of amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates were measured in flow-through reactors from steady state concentrations of Al, Fe and P. A pH--dependent rate law was calculated from the dissolution rates log R = log k -- npH, where R is the dissolution rate, k is intrinsic rate constant and n is the rate dependence on pH. For amorphous Al-phosphate, log k = -6.539 +/- 1.529, and n = 2.391 +/- 0.493. For amorphous Fe-phosphate, log k = -13.031 +/- 0.558, and n = 1.376 +/- 0.221. Amorphous Al-phosphate dissolves stoichiometrically under all conditions, and amorphous Fe-phosphate dissolves non-stoichiometrically, approaching stoichiometric dissolution as pH decreases, due potentially to Fe-oxides precipitating and armoring grain surfaces. Perhaps due to these effects, amorphous Al-phosphate dissolution rates are approximately three orders of magnitude faster than amorphous Fe-phosphate dissolution rates. Amorphous Al-phosphate dissolution rates measured in this study are also faster than published variscite dissolution rates. Dissolution rates of amorphous Al- and Fe-phosphates in this study therefore imply rapid phosphate release into acidic environments, suggesting phosphate mobility under Mars-relevant conditions.

  10. Annealing studies of amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Wiley, J.D.; Perepezko, J.H.; Nordman, J.E.

    1983-04-01

    Amorphous films of the alloys Ni-Nb, Ni-Mo, Mo-Si, and W-Si were sputter deposited on single-crystal semiconductor substrates. One-hour crystallization temperatures of the films were determined to within +-25/sup 0/C by annealing and x-ray diffraction measurements. Interdiffusion between Au or Cu overlayers and the amorphous films were studied by annealing combined with Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) profiling, and by Rutherford Backscatter (RBS) analysis. Supplementary measurements used to study structural relaxation and crystallization included resistivity as a function of temperature; DTA and DSC; and electron microscopy.

  11. Refractive indices for amorphous carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duley, W. W.

    1984-12-01

    Refractive indices, obtained over the wavelength range 700-130 nm, are given for an amorphous carbon with optical properties intermediate between those of diamond and graphite. The solid is formed via direct condensation from a gaseous medium containing C, C2, and C3 as well as trace quantities of linear polyyne molecules. Small amorphous carbon particles exhibit a high albedo in the extreme ultraviolet as required by observations of VUV scattering and, in hydrogenated form, they have significant IR absorption at 3.3-3.4 microns.

  12. Influence of irradiation spectrum and implanted ions on the amorphization of ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Snead, L.L.

    1995-12-31

    Polycrystalline Al2O3, magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4), MgO, Si3N4, and SiC were irradiated with various ions at 200-450 K, and microstructures were examined following irradiation using cross-section TEM. Amorphization was not observed in any of the irradiated oxide ceramics, despsite damage energy densities up to {similar_to}7 keV/atom (70 displacements per atom). On the other hand, SiC readily amorphized after damage levels of {similar_to}0.4 dpa at room temperature (RT). Si3N4 exhibited intermediate behavior; irradiation with Fe{sup 2+} ions at RT produced amorphization in the implanted ion region after damage levels of {similar_to}1 dpa. However, irradiated regions outside the implanted ion region did not amorphize even after damage levels > 5 dpa. The amorphous layer in the Fe-implanted region of Si3N4 did not appear if the specimen was simultaneoulsy irradiated with 1-MeV He{sup +} ions at RT. By comparison with published results, it is concluded that the implantation of certain chemical species has a pronounced effect on the amorphization threshold dose of all five materials. Intense ionizing radiation inhibits amorphization in Si3N4, but does not appear to significantly influence the amorphization of SiC.

  13. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T.; Lograsso, Thomas A.; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-01-01

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. Our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment. PMID:26563908

  14. Imprinting bulk amorphous alloy at room temperature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Song-Yi; Park, Eun-Soo; Ott, Ryan T; Lograsso, Thomas A; Huh, Moo-Young; Kim, Do-Hyang; Eckert, Jürgen; Lee, Min-Ha

    2015-01-01

    We present investigations on the plastic deformation behavior of a brittle bulk amorphous alloy by simple uniaxial compressive loading at room temperature. A patterning is possible by cold-plastic forming of the typically brittle Hf-based bulk amorphous alloy through controlling homogenous flow without the need for thermal energy or shaping at elevated temperatures. The experimental evidence suggests that there is an inconsistency between macroscopic plasticity and deformability of an amorphous alloy. Moreover, imprinting of specific geometrical features on Cu foil and Zr-based metallic glass is represented by using the patterned bulk amorphous alloy as a die. These results demonstrate the ability of amorphous alloys or metallic glasses to precisely replicate patterning features onto both conventional metals and the other amorphous alloys. Our work presents an avenue for avoiding the embrittlement of amorphous alloys associated with thermoplastic forming and yields new insight the forming application of bulk amorphous alloys at room temperature without using heat treatment. PMID:26563908

  15. Model for amorphous aggregation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stranks, Samuel D.; Ecroyd, Heath; van Sluyter, Steven; Waters, Elizabeth J.; Carver, John A.; von Smekal, Lorenz

    2009-11-01

    The amorphous aggregation of proteins is associated with many phenomena, ranging from the formation of protein wine haze to the development of cataract in the eye lens and the precipitation of recombinant proteins during their expression and purification. While much literature exists describing models for linear protein aggregation, such as amyloid fibril formation, there are few reports of models which address amorphous aggregation. Here, we propose a model to describe the amorphous aggregation of proteins which is also more widely applicable to other situations where a similar process occurs, such as in the formation of colloids and nanoclusters. As first applications of the model, we have tested it against experimental turbidimetry data of three proteins relevant to the wine industry and biochemistry, namely, thaumatin, a thaumatinlike protein, and α -lactalbumin. The model is very robust and describes amorphous experimental data to a high degree of accuracy. Details about the aggregation process, such as shape parameters of the aggregates and rate constants, can also be extracted.

  16. Comparison of structural and electrical properties of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} gate dielectrics for α-InGaZnO thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Tung-Ming Chen, Ching-Hung; Her, Jim-Long; Koyama, Keiichi

    2014-11-21

    We compared the structural properties and electrical characteristics of high-κ Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} gate dielectrics for amorphous indium-gallium-zinc oxide (α-InGaZnO) thin-film transistor (TFT) applications. The Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} film has a strong Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} (400) peak in the X-ray diffraction pattern, while the Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} sample shows a relatively weak Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} (102) peak. Atomic force microscopy reveals that the Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric exhibits a rougher surface (about three times) than Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} one. In X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, we found that the intensity of the O 1s peak corresponding to Lu(OH){sub x} for Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} film was higher than that of Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} film. Furthermore, compared with the Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} dielectric, the α-InGaZnO TFT using the Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} gate dielectric exhibited a lower threshold voltage (from 0.43 to 0.25 V), a higher I{sub on}/I{sub off} current ratio (from 3.5 × 10{sup 6} to 1.3 × 10{sup 8}), a smaller subthreshold swing (from 276 to 130 mV/decade), and a larger field-effect mobility (from 14.5 to 24.4 cm{sup 2}/V s). These results are probably due to the incorporation of TiO{sub x} into the Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} film to form a Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} structure featuring a smooth surface, a low moisture absorption, a high dielectric constant, and a low interface state density at the oxide/channel interface. Furthermore, the stability of Lu{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Lu{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} α-InGaZnO TFTs was investigated under positive gate-bias stress (PGBS) and negative gate-bias stress (NGBS). The threshold voltage of the TFT performed under NGBS is more degradation than that under PGBS. This behavior may be attributed to the electron charge trapping at the dielectric–channel interface under PGBS, whereas the oxygen vacancies occurred in the InGaZnO under NGBS.

  17. Tandem junction amorphous silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hanak, Joseph J.

    1981-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell has an active body with two or a series of layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in a tandem stacked configuration with one optical path and electrically interconnected by a tunnel junction. The layers of hydrogenated amorphous silicon arranged in tandem configuration can have the same bandgap or differing bandgaps.

  18. The Pressure-Induced Amorphous State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winters, Robert Raymond

    The structure and the degree of order present in amorphous materials still remains a largely unanswered question. This study uses the technique of pressure-induced amorphization to study the formation of and the structures present in amorphous solids. Crystalline solids are transformed in a smooth and continuous manner into a disordered state under the application of high hydrostatic pressures. These transformations are monitored in situ using x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy, and ex situ using high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The objective of this study is to understand the phenomenon of pressure-induced amorphization and probe the structure of amorphous materials. The first study is concerned with the pressure -induced amorphization of Pb(NO_3)_2 isomorphs and the crystalline compound Ca(NO _3)_2/NaNO_3. These compounds become amorphous when compressed to 10.0 GPa based on energy dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXD) measurements. Raman spectroscopy is used to interpret the transformation to the amorphous state. The transformation involves reorientation and compression of the nitrate ions. These studies emphasize the importance of nondirectional bonding and noncrystallographic packings in reversible pressure-induced amorphizations. Lastly, a suggestion is made for a relationship between pressure amorphized nitrates and melt quenched nitrate glasses based on an inherent structure in glasses. The second study looks at the widely studied pressure -induced amorphization of alpha-quartz with high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). alpha-Quartz becomes x-ray amorphous when compressed to 30.0 GPa. What the relationship is between pressure-amorphized alpha -quartz and melt quenched silica is of great interest. Our high resolution electron micrographs show that alpha-quartz subjected to 30.5 GPa is amorphous at the atomic level, as is conventional melt quenched silica, and therefore comparisons between the two are viable. The last study focuses on the intermetallic compound R-Al_5Li_3Cu. When it is compressed to 23.2 GPa at ambient temperature an amorphous phase is produced whose order can be described as defects in a curved space crystal. This result shows that a metallic crystal can be made amorphous by compression. This result also supports a structural relation between quasicrystals and amorphous metals based on icosahedral ordering. This work shows that pressure-induced amorphization is a widespread phenomenon and that it is a useful technique for examining the formation of amorphous solids. These results suggest that amorphous solids possess an extended structural order.

  19. Microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys important to their friction and wear behavior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, K.; Buckley, D. H.

    1983-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to examine the microstructure and surface chemistry of amorphous alloys, and their effects on tribological behavior. The results indicate that the surface oxide layers present on amorphous alloys are effective in providing low friction and a protective film against wear in air. Clustering and crystallization in amorphous alloys can be enhanced as a result of plastic flow during the sliding process at a low sliding velocity, at room temperature. Clusters or crystallines with sizes to 150 nm and a diffused honeycomb-shaped structure are produced on the wear surface. Temperature effects lead to drastic changes in surface chemistry and friction behavior of the alloys at temperatures to 750 C. Contaminants can come from the bulk of the alloys to the surface upon heating and impart to the surface oxides at 350 C and boron nitride above 500 C. The oxides increase friction while the boron nitride reduces friction drastically in vacuum.

  20. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Thomas D; Cheetham, Anthony K

    2014-05-20

    Crystalline metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are porous frameworks comprising an infinite array of metal nodes connected by organic linkers. The number of novel MOF structures reported per year is now in excess of 6000, despite significant increases in the complexity of both component units and molecular networks. Their regularly repeating structures give rise to chemically variable porous architectures, which have been studied extensively due to their sorption and separation potential. More recently, catalytic applications have been proposed that make use of their chemical tunability, while reports of negative linear compressibility and negative thermal expansion have further expanded interest in the field. Amorphous metal-organic frameworks (aMOFs) retain the basic building blocks and connectivity of their crystalline counterparts, though they lack any long-range periodic order. Aperiodic arrangements of atoms result in their X-ray diffraction patterns being dominated by broad "humps" caused by diffuse scattering and thus they are largely indistinguishable from one another. Amorphous MOFs offer many exciting opportunities for practical application, either as novel functional materials themselves or facilitating other processes, though the domain is largely unexplored (total aMOF reported structures amounting to under 30). Specifically, the use of crystalline MOFs to detect harmful guest species before subsequent stress-induced collapse and guest immobilization is of considerable interest, while functional luminescent and optically active glass-like materials may also be prepared in this manner. The ion transporting capacity of crystalline MOFs might be improved during partial structural collapse, while there are possibilities of preparing superstrong glasses and hybrid liquids during thermal amorphization. The tuning of release times of MOF drug delivery vehicles by partial structural collapse may be possible, and aMOFs are often more mechanically robust than crystalline materials, which is of importance for industrial applications. In this Account, we describe the preparation of aMOFs by introduction of disorder into their parent crystalline frameworks through heating, pressure (both hydrostatic and nonhydrostatic), and ball-milling. The main method of characterizing these amorphous materials (analysis of the pair distribution function) is summarized, alongside complementary techniques such as Raman spectroscopy. Detailed investigations into their properties (both chemical and mechanical) are compiled and compared with those of crystalline MOFs, while the impact of the field on the processing techniques used for crystalline MOF powders is also assessed. Crucially, the benefits amorphization may bring to existing proposed MOF applications are detailed, alongside the possibilities and research directions afforded by the combination of the unique properties of the amorphous domain with the versatility of MOF chemistry. PMID:24707980

  1. Deep ultraviolet laser direct write for patterning sol-gel InGaZnO semiconducting micro/nanowires and improving field-effect mobility

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hung-Cheng; Stehlin, Fabrice; Soppera, Olivier; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Chang-Hung; Wieder, Fernand; Ponche, Arnaud; Berling, Dominique; Yeh, Bo-Hung; Wang, Kuan-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) laser was used to directly write indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) precursor solution and form micro and nanoscale patterns. The directional DUV laser beam avoids the substrate heating and suppresses the diffraction effect. A IGZO precursor solution was also developed to fulfill the requirements for direct photopatterning and for achieving semi-conducting properties with thermal annealing at moderate temperature. The DUV-induced crosslinking of the starting material allows direct write of semi-conducting channels in thin-film transistors but also it improves the field-effect mobility and surface roughness. Material analysis has been carried out by XPS, FTIR, spectroscopic ellipsometry and AFM and the effect of DUV on the final material structure is discussed. The DUV irradiation step results in photolysis and a partial condensation of the inorganic network that freezes the sol-gel layer in a homogeneous distribution, lowering possibilities of thermally induced reorganization at the atomic scale. Laser irradiation allows high-resolution photopatterning and high-enough field-effect mobility, which enables the easy fabrication of oxide nanowires for applications in solar cell, display, flexible electronics, and biomedical sensors. PMID:26014902

  2. Deep ultraviolet laser direct write for patterning sol-gel InGaZnO semiconducting micro/nanowires and improving field-effect mobility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hung-Cheng; Stehlin, Fabrice; Soppera, Olivier; Zan, Hsiao-Wen; Li, Chang-Hung; Wieder, Fernand; Ponche, Arnaud; Berling, Dominique; Yeh, Bo-Hung; Wang, Kuan-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Deep-UV (DUV) laser was used to directly write indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (IGZO) precursor solution and form micro and nanoscale patterns. The directional DUV laser beam avoids the substrate heating and suppresses the diffraction effect. A IGZO precursor solution was also developed to fulfill the requirements for direct photopatterning and for achieving semi-conducting properties with thermal annealing at moderate temperature. The DUV-induced crosslinking of the starting material allows direct write of semi-conducting channels in thin-film transistors but also it improves the field-effect mobility and surface roughness. Material analysis has been carried out by XPS, FTIR, spectroscopic ellipsometry and AFM and the effect of DUV on the final material structure is discussed. The DUV irradiation step results in photolysis and a partial condensation of the inorganic network that freezes the sol-gel layer in a homogeneous distribution, lowering possibilities of thermally induced reorganization at the atomic scale. Laser irradiation allows high-resolution photopatterning and high-enough field-effect mobility, which enables the easy fabrication of oxide nanowires for applications in solar cell, display, flexible electronics, and biomedical sensors. PMID:26014902

  3. Amorphous molybdenum sulfides as hydrogen evolution catalysts.

    PubMed

    Morales-Guio, Carlos G; Hu, Xile

    2014-08-19

    Providing energy for a population projected to reach 9 billion people within the middle of this century is one of the most pressing societal issues. Burning fossil fuels at a rate and scale that satisfy our near-term demand will irreversibly damage the living environment. Among the various sources of alternative and CO2-emission-free energies, the sun is the only source that is capable of providing enough energy for the whole world. Sunlight energy, however, is intermittent and requires an efficient storage mechanism. Sunlight-driven water splitting to make hydrogen is widely considered as one of the most attractive methods for solar energy storage. Water splitting needs a hydrogen evolution catalyst to accelerate the rate of hydrogen production and to lower the energy loss in this process. Precious metals such as Pt are superior catalysts, but they are too expensive and scarce for large-scale applications. In this Account, we summarize our recent research on the preparation, characterization, and application of amorphous molybdenum sulfide catalysts for the hydrogen evolution reaction. The catalysts can be synthesized by electrochemical deposition under ambient conditions from readily available and inexpensive precursors. The catalytic activity is among the highest for nonprecious catalysts. For example, at a loading of 0.2 mg/cm(2), the optimal catalyst delivers a current density of 10 mA/cm(2) at an overpotential of 160 mV. The growth mechanism of the electrochemically deposited film catalysts was revealed by an electrochemical quartz microcrystal balance study. While different electrochemical deposition methods produce films with different initial compositions, the active catalysts are the same and are identified as a "MoS(2+x)" species. The activity of the film catalysts can be further promoted by divalent Fe, Co, and Ni ions, and the origins of the promotional effects have been probed. Highly active amorphous molybdenum sulfide particles can also be prepared from simple wet-chemical routes. Electron transport is sometimes slow in the particle catalysts, and an impedance model has been established to identify this slow electron transport. Finally, the amorphous molybdenum sulfide film catalyst has been integrated onto a copper(I) oxide photocathode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen evolution. The conformal catalyst efficiently extracts the excited electrons to give an impressive photocurrent density of -5.7 mA/cm(2) at 0 V vs RHE. The catalyst also confers good stability. PMID:25065612

  4. Buried oxide layer in silicon

    DOEpatents

    Sadana, Devendra Kumar; Holland, Orin Wayne

    2001-01-01

    A process for forming Silicon-On-Insulator is described incorporating the steps of ion implantation of oxygen into a silicon substrate at elevated temperature, ion implanting oxygen at a temperature below 200.degree. C. at a lower dose to form an amorphous silicon layer, and annealing steps to form a mixture of defective single crystal silicon and polycrystalline silicon or polycrystalline silicon alone and then silicon oxide from the amorphous silicon layer to form a continuous silicon oxide layer below the surface of the silicon substrate to provide an isolated superficial layer of silicon. The invention overcomes the problem of buried isolated islands of silicon oxide forming a discontinuous buried oxide layer.

  5. New bulk amorphous magnetic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiriac, H.; Lupu, N.

    2001-06-01

    The relationship between structure and magnetic properties of the melt-spun ribbons with thicknesses up to 200 ?m and rods having up to 3 mm diameter prepared by mould casting and suction casting techniques, of nominal compositions Fe 56Co 7Ni 7Zr 6M 1.5Nb 2.5B 20 (M=Zr, Ti, Ta or Mo) and Nd 50Fe 40Si 10- xAl x was investigated. Saturation magnetisations up to 1.1 T, coercive fields of about 5 A/m, magnetic permeabilities of 25 000-30 000 in the as-cast state were measured for the Fe-based amorphous alloys. The large values over 200 kA/m of the intrinsic coercive field at room temperature and over 600 kA/m at 200 K measured in low magnetic fields for the Nd-Fe-based X-ray amorphous alloys, and its dependence on temperature and cooling rate are ascribed to the existence of very small ferromagnetic clusters embedded in an Nd-rich matrix. The thermal treatments applied to the amorphous samples below the crystallisation temperature cause an improvement in the magnetic properties as a consequence of structural relaxation.

  6. Microstructure and Wear Behavior of Laser Clad Multi-layered Fe-based Amorphous Coatings on Steel Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Tanaji; Alavi, S. Habib; Biswas, Sourabh; Harimkar, Sandip P.

    2015-12-01

    Single and multi-layered (with two and three layers) coatings of Fe48Cr15Mo14Y2C15B6 amorphous alloy were applied to AISI 1018 steel substrates via laser cladding. XRD analysis indicated partial retention of the amorphous phase along with the formation of oxide and carbide phases. Cross-sectional SEM micrographs revealed relatively sound coatings laser clad with single layer of amorphous alloy; however, cracks and voids were observed in the two and three layered amorphous coatings. The specimens with single and two layered amorphous coatings exhibited surface hardness of about 650 VHN while the hardness of the specimens with three layered amorphous coatings (~1100 VHN) nearly equaled the hardness of previously reported sintered amorphous alloys of similar compositions. The ball-on-disc wear analysis demonstrated a reverse trend wherein the single and two layered amorphous coatings exhibited lower weight loss during the wear test cycle due to superior surface soundness while the three layered amorphous coatings showed aggravated wear due to internal voids and cracks.

  7. Negative effect of Au nanoparticles on an IGZO TFT-based nonvolatile memory device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Myung-Hoon; Yoo, Gwangwe; Lee, Jongtaek; Jeong, Seok-Won; Roh, Yonghan; Park, Jin-Hong; Kwon, Namyong; Jung, Woo-Shik

    2014-02-01

    In this letter, the electrical characteristics of nonvolatile memory devices based on back gatetype indium gallium zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated in terms of the Au nanoparticles (NPs) employed in the floating gate-stack of the device. The size of the Au NPs is controlled using a by 500 °C annealing process after the Au thin-film deposition. The size and the roughness of the Au NPs were observed by using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. In order to analyze the electrical properties according to Au NP size, we measured the current-voltage (I D -V G ) characteristics of the nonvolatile memory devices fabricated without Au NPs and with Au NPs of various sizes. The size of the Au NP increased, so did the surface roughness of the gate. This resulted in increased carrier scattering, which subsequently degraded the on-current of the memory device. In addition, inter-diffusion between the Au and the α-IGZO through the non-uniform Al2O3 tunneling layer seemed to further degrade the device performance.

  8. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ∼10 cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  9. Energy release properties of amorphous boron and boron-based propellant primary combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Daolun; Liu, Jianzhong; Xiao, Jinwu; Xi, Jianfei; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yanwei; Zhou, Junhu

    2015-07-01

    The microstructure of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products of boron-based fuel-rich propellant (hereafter referred to as primary combustion products) was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. Composition analysis of the primary combustion products was carried out by X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The energy release properties of amorphous boron and the primary combustion products were comparatively studied by laser ignition experimental system and thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry. The primary combustion products contain B, C, Mg, Al, B4C, B13C2, BN, B2O3, NH4Cl, H2O, and so on. The energy release properties of primary combustion products are different from amorphous boron, significantly. The full-time spectral intensity of primary combustion products at a wavelength of 580 nm is ~2% lower than that of amorphous boron. The maximum spectral intensity of the former at full wave is ~5% higher than that of the latter. The ignition delay time of primary combustion products is ~150 ms shorter than that of amorphous boron, and the self-sustaining combustion time of the former is ~200 ms longer than that of the latter. The thermal oxidation process of amorphous boron involves water evaporation (weight loss) and boron oxidation (weight gain). The thermal oxidation process of primary combustion products involves two additional steps: NH4Cl decomposition (weight loss) and carbon oxidation (weight loss). CL-20 shows better combustion-supporting effect than KClO4 in both the laser ignition experiments and the thermal oxidation experiments.

  10. X-ray Diffraction Techniques for Structural Determination of Amorphous Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, C K; Lian, T; Day, S D; Farmer, J C

    2006-10-16

    Prevention of corrosion is a vital goal for the Department of Defense when billions of dollars are spent every year. Corrosion resistant materials have applications in all sort of military vehicles, and more importantly in naval vessels and submarines which come in contact with the seawater. An important application of the corrosion resistant material is in the radioactive waste disposable field where the vessels or containers are expected to hold the radioactive toxic materials for thousands of years to surpass the half life of the radiation. It has been known that corrosion resistance can be improved by the used of structurally designed materials in the amorphous state where the atoms are arranged in a non-periodic conditions, even though, some local chemical short range ordering may occur in the amorphous arrangement. On the other hand, the final material can also be elementally tailored to specific application. This work documents in details the characterization effort for the amorphous materials using x-ray diffraction technique as part of the High Performance Corrosion-Resistant Material--Structural Amorphous Metal (HPCRM-SAM) program here at LLNL. The samples are in the form of powders, ribbons and coatings deposited onto parts. Some brief theoretical background is given in order to interpret the results, instrumentation will also be described. The results suggest that the formation of amorphous phase in the metal alloys powders greatly depends on the processing conditions. In most of the powders, especially lot No.06, the result indicates that the materials are amorphous with a very small amount of iron boron alloy. In the ribbon samples, all the samples and of different compositions as well are observed to be amorphous. In most cases, starting from an amorphous powder sample, the coatings are also observed to be amorphous with a small amount of iron oxide, probably due to exposure to air during the thermal spraying process.

  11. Structural Modelling of Two Dimensional Amorphous Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Avishek

    The continuous random network (CRN) model of network glasses is widely accepted as a model for materials such as vitreous silica and amorphous silicon. Although it has been more than eighty years since the proposal of the CRN, there has not been conclusive experimental evidence of the structure of glasses and amorphous materials. This has now changed with the advent of two-dimensional amorphous materials. Now, not only the distribution of rings but the actual atomic ring structure can be imaged in real space, allowing for greater charicterization of these types of networks. This dissertation reports the first work done on the modelling of amorphous graphene and vitreous silica bilayers. Models of amorphous graphene have been created using a Monte Carlo bond-switching method and MD method. Vitreous silica bilayers have been constructed using models of amorphous graphene and the ring statistics of silica bilayers has been studied.

  12. Narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Madan, A.; Mahan, A.H.

    1985-01-10

    Disclosed is a narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprising an alloy of amorphous silicon and a band gap narrowing element selected from the group consisting of Sn, Ge, and Pb, with an electron donor dopant selected from the group consisting of P, As, Sb, Bi and N. The process for producing the narrow band gap amorphous silicon semiconductor comprises the steps of forming an alloy comprising amorphous silicon and at least one of the aforesaid band gap narrowing elements in amount sufficient to narrow the band gap of the silicon semiconductor alloy below that of amorphous silicon, and also utilizing sufficient amounts of the aforesaid electron donor dopant to maintain the amorphous silicon alloy as an n-type semiconductor.

  13. Amorphous powders for inhalation drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    For inhalation drug delivery, amorphous powder formulations offer the benefits of increased bioavailability for poorly soluble drugs, improved biochemical stability for biologics, and expanded options of using various drugs and their combinations. However, amorphous formulations usually have poor physicochemical stability. This review focuses on inhalable amorphous powders, including the production methods, the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients with a highlight on stabilization of the particles. PMID:26780404

  14. Amorphous silicon solar cell allowing infrared transmission

    DOEpatents

    Carlson, David E.

    1979-01-01

    An amorphous silicon solar cell with a layer of high index of refraction material or a series of layers having high and low indices of refraction material deposited upon a transparent substrate to reflect light of energies greater than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon back into the solar cell and transmit solar radiation having an energy less than the bandgap energy of the amorphous silicon.

  15. Inelastic scattering from amorphous solids

    SciTech Connect

    Price, D.L.

    1985-08-01

    The potential of inelastic neutron scattering techniques for surveying various aspects of the dynamics of amorphous solids is briefly reviewed. The recent use of the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source to provide detailed information on the optical vibrations of glasses is discussed in more detail. The density of states represents an averaged quantity which gives information about the general characteristics of the structure and bonding. More extensive information can be obtained by studying the detailed wavevector dependence of the dynamic structure factor. 15 refs., 7 figs.

  16. Preparation of amorphous sulfide sieves

    DOEpatents

    Siadati, Mohammad H.; Alonso, Gabriel; Chianelli, Russell R.

    2006-11-07

    The present invention involves methods and compositions for synthesizing catalysts/porous materials. In some embodiments, the resulting materials are amorphous sulfide sieves that can be mass-produced for a variety of uses. In some embodiments, methods of the invention concern any suitable precursor (such as thiomolybdate salt) that is exposed to a high pressure pre-compaction, if need be. For instance, in some cases the final bulk shape (but highly porous) may be same as the original bulk shape. The compacted/uncompacted precursor is then subjected to an open-flow hot isostatic pressing, which causes the precursor to decompose and convert to a highly porous material/catalyst.

  17. Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Deb, S.K.; Czanderna, A.W.; Bechinger, C.

    1996-11-01

    The authors propose a new model for the chromic mechanism in amorphous tungsten oxide films (WO{sub 3{minus}y}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O). This model not only explains a variety of seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature that cannot be explained by existing models, it also has practical implications with respect to improving the coloring efficiency and durability of electrochromic devices. According to this model, a typical as-deposited tungsten oxide film has tungsten mainly in W{sup 6+} and W{sup 4+} states and can be represented as W{sub 1{minus}y}{sup 6+} W{sub y}{sup 4+}O{sub 3{minus}y}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O. The proposed chromic mechanism is based on the small polaron transition between the charge-induced W{sup 5+} state and the original W{sup 4+} state instead of the W{sup 5+} and W{sup 6+} states as suggested in previous models. The correlation between the electrochromic and photochromic behavior in amorphous tungsten oxide films is also discussed.

  18. Chromic mechanism in amorphous WO{sub 3} films

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.; Deb, S.K.; Czanderna, A.W.; Bechinger, C.

    1997-06-01

    The authors propose a new model for the chromic mechanism in amorphous tungsten oxide films (WO{sub 3{minus}y}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O). This model not only explains a variety of seemingly conflicting experimental results reported in the literature that cannot be explained by existing models, it also has practical implications with respect to improving the coloring efficiency and durability of electrochromic devices. According to this model, a typical as-deposited tungsten oxide film has tungsten mainly in W{sup 6{minus}} and W{sup 4{minus}} states and can be represented as W{sub 1{minus}y}{sup 6+} W{sub y}{sup 4+}O{sub 3{minus}y}{center_dot}nH{sub 2}O. The proposed chromic mechanism is based on the small polars transition between the charge-induced W{sup 5+} state and the original W{sup 4+} state instead of the W{sup 5+} and W{sup 6+} states as suggested in previous models. The correlation between the electrochromic and photochromic behavior in amorphous tungsten oxide films is also discussed.

  19. Modelling amorphous computations with transcription networks.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Zack Booth; Tsai, Timothy L; Nguyen, Nam; Chen, Xi; Ellington, Andrew D

    2009-08-01

    The power of electronic computation is due in part to the development of modular gate structures that can be coupled to carry out sophisticated logical operations and whose performance can be readily modelled. However, the equivalences between electronic and biochemical operations are far from obvious. In order to help cross between these disciplines, we develop an analogy between complementary metal oxide semiconductor and transcriptional logic gates. We surmise that these transcriptional logic gates might prove to be useful in amorphous computations and model the abilities of immobilized gates to form patterns. Finally, to begin to implement these computations, we design unique hairpin transcriptional gates and then characterize these gates in a binary latch similar to that already demonstrated by Kim et al. (Kim, White & Winfree 2006 Mol. Syst. Biol. 2, 68 (doi:10.1038/msb4100099)). The hairpin transcriptional gates are uniquely suited to the design of a complementary NAND gate that can serve as an underlying basis of molecular computing that can output matter rather than electronic information. PMID:19474083

  20. Modelling amorphous computations with transcription networks

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Zack Booth; Tsai, Timothy L.; Nguyen, Nam; Chen, Xi; Ellington, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01

    The power of electronic computation is due in part to the development of modular gate structures that can be coupled to carry out sophisticated logical operations and whose performance can be readily modelled. However, the equivalences between electronic and biochemical operations are far from obvious. In order to help cross between these disciplines, we develop an analogy between complementary metal oxide semiconductor and transcriptional logic gates. We surmise that these transcriptional logic gates might prove to be useful in amorphous computations and model the abilities of immobilized gates to form patterns. Finally, to begin to implement these computations, we design unique hairpin transcriptional gates and then characterize these gates in a binary latch similar to that already demonstrated by Kim et al. (Kim, White & Winfree 2006 Mol. Syst. Biol. 2, 68 (doi:10.1038/msb4100099)). The hairpin transcriptional gates are uniquely suited to the design of a complementary NAND gate that can serve as an underlying basis of molecular computing that can output matter rather than electronic information. PMID:19474083

  1. Laser surface treatment of amorphous metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katakam, Shravana K.

    Amorphous materials are used as soft magnetic materials and also as surface coatings to improve the surface properties. Furthermore, the nanocrystalline materials derived from their amorphous precursors show superior soft magnetic properties than amorphous counter parts for transformer core applications. In the present work, laser based processing of amorphous materials will be presented. Conventionally, the nanocrystalline materials are synthesized by furnace heat treatment of amorphous precursors. Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline materials due to their low cost and superior magnetic properties are the most widely used soft magnetic materials. However, achieving nanocrystalline microstructure in Fe-Si-B ternary system becomes very difficult owing its rapid growth rate at higher temperatures and sluggish diffusion at low temperature annealing. Hence, nanocrystallization in this system is achieved by using alloying additions (Cu and Nb) in the ternary Fe-Si-B system. Thus, increasing the cost and also resulting in reduction of saturation magnetization. laser processing technique is used to achieve extremely fine nanocrystalline microstructure in Fe-Si-B amorphous precursor. Microstructure-magnetic Property-laser processing co-relationship has been established for Fe-Si-B ternary system using analytical techniques. Laser processing improved the magnetic properties with significant increase in saturation magnetization and near zero coercivity values. Amorphous materials exhibit excellent corrosion resistance by virtue of their atomic structure. Fe-based amorphous materials are economical and due to their ease of processing are of potential interest to synthesize as coatings materials for wear and corrosion resistance applications. Fe-Cr-Mo-Y-C-B amorphous system was used to develop thick coatings on 4130 Steel substrate and the corrosion resistance of the amorphous coatings was improved. It is also shown that the mode of corrosion depends on the laser processing conditions. The microstructure evolution and the corrosion mechanisms operating are evaluated using post processing and post corrosion analysis.

  2. p-type amorphous silicon/liquid junction solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayers, W. M.

    1982-07-01

    The characteristics of p-type amorphous silicon, a low-cost material under consideration for use for the photoelectrodes of a liquid junction solar cell, and of such a cell based on this material, are investigated. Measurements of the decrease in cell photovoltage as the aqueous vanadium electrolyte drifts to more oxidizing potentials indicate that although surface states are present, they do not act to pin the Fermi level of p-type amorphous silicon. Experiments demonstrate an open circuit voltage of 0.41 V, short circuit current of 0.18 mA/sq cm and fill factor of 0.3 when the electrolyte potential is driven to -0.51 V (vs SCE). An efficiency of 0.06% is obtained at 40 mW/sq cm illumination. The cell was also able to sustain a 1.3 microamp/sq cm current density for over an hour with no indication of failure, demonstrating the stability of the electrode. p-type amorphous silicon is thus concluded to be a promising material for thin-film photocathodes, with its major limitation the low short-circuit current.

  3. Laterally inherently thin amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Zahidur R.; Kherani, Nazir P.

    2014-12-01

    This article reports on an amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunction photovoltaic cell concept wherein the heterojunction regions are laterally narrow and distributed amidst a backdrop of well-passivated crystalline silicon surface. The localized amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions consisting of the laterally thin emitter and back-surface field regions are precisely aligned under the metal grid-lines and bus-bars while the remaining crystalline silicon surface is passivated using the recently proposed facile grown native oxide-plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposited silicon nitride passivation scheme. The proposed cell concept mitigates parasitic optical absorption losses by relegating amorphous silicon to beneath the shadowed metallized regions and by using optically transparent passivation layer. A photovoltaic conversion efficiency of 13.6% is obtained for an untextured proof-of-concept cell illuminated under AM 1.5 global spectrum; the specific cell performance parameters are VOC of 666 mV, JSC of 29.5 mA-cm-2, and fill-factor of 69.3%. Reduced parasitic absorption, predominantly in the shorter wavelength range, is confirmed with external quantum efficiency measurement.

  4. Nonclassical crystallization of amorphous iron nanoparticles by radio frequency methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carroll, K. J.; Pitts, J. A.; Zhang, Kai; Pradhan, A. K.; Carpenter, E. E.

    2010-05-01

    Amorphous iron nanoparticles were synthesized using an aqueous reduction in iron(II) sulfate with sodium borohydride and sodium citrate. Various radio frequency (rf) exposure times were investigated in order to determine trends in nonclassical crystallization. RF times from 15 to 300 s revealed an increase in crystallite size from 5 to 60 nm, as determined by powder x-ray diffraction. Also, solvent optimization revealed that ethanol produced the largest trends for increasing crystallite size without total oxidation of the samples. Magnetic characterization by room temperature vibrating sample magnetometry and high resolution transmission microscopy was performed to verify magnetic properties and particle morphology.

  5. Fabrication of amorphous metal matrix composites by severe plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathaudhu, Suveen Nigel

    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) have displayed impressive mechanical properties, but the use and dimensions of material have been limited due to critical cooling rate requirements and low ductility. The application of severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) for consolidation of bulk amorphous metals (BAM) and amorphous metal matrix composites (AMMC) is investigated in this dissertation. The objectives of this research are (a) to better understand processing parameters which promote bonding between particles and (b) to determine by what mechanisms the plasticity is enhanced in bulk amorphous metal matrix composites consolidated by ECAE. To accomplish the objectives BAM and AMMCs were produced via ECAE consolidation of Vitreloy 106a (Zr58.5Nb2.8Cu15.6Ni12.8Al 10.3-wt%), ARLloy #1 (Hf71.3Cu16.2Ni7.6Ti 2.2Al2.6-wt%), and both of these amorphous alloys blended with crystalline phases of W, Cu and Ni. Novel instrumented extrusions and a host of post-processing material characterizations were used to evaluate processing conditions and material properties. The results show that ECAE consolidation at temperatures within the supercooled liquid region gives near fully dense (>99%) and well bonded millimeter scale BAM and AMMCs. The mechanical properties of the ECAE processed BMG are comparable to cast material: sigma f = 1640 MPa, ?f = 2.3%, E = 80 GPa for consolidated Vitreloy 106a as compared to sigmaf = 1800 MPa, ?f = 2.5%, E = 85 GPa for cast Vitreloy 106, and sigmaf = 1660 MPa, ? f = 2.0%, E = 97 GPa for ARLloy #1 as compared to sigma f = 2150 MPa, ?f < 2.5%, E = 102 GPa for Hf52 Cu17.9Ni14.6Ti5A10. The mechanical properties of AMMCs are substandard compared to those obtained from melt-infiltrated composites due to non-ideal particle bonding conditions such as surface oxides and crystalline phase morphology and chemistry. It is demonstrated that the addition of a dispersed crystalline phase to an amorphous matrix by ECAE powder consolidation increases the plasticity of the amorphous matrix by providing locations for generation and/or arrest of adiabatic shear bands. The ability of ECAE to consolidated BAM and AMMCs with improved plasticity opens the possibility of overcoming the size and plasticity limitations of the monolithic bulk metallic glasses.

  6. Optimization of Conductivity and Transparency in Amorphous In-Zn-O Transparent Conductors: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Perkins, J.; Berry, J.; van Hest, M.; Alleman, J.; Dabney, M.; Gedvilas, L.; Ginley, D. S.; Leenheer, A.; O'Hayre, R.

    2008-05-01

    Amorphous mixed metal oxide TCOs are of increasing interest due to the excellent opto-electronic properties and smoothness (RRMS < 0.5 nm) obtained for sputtered films deposited at less than 100 ..deg..C. Here, we have investigated the combined materials phase space of oxygen stoichiometry and metals composition (In:Zn ratio) and made two key discoveries.

  7. Charge transport in gap structures based on amorphous Al2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T. M.; Castro, R. A.; Khanin, S. D.

    2015-11-01

    The charge transport in amorphous layers of oxide of aluminum Al2O3 in the temperature range T=223-273K is studied. It was found the existence of hopping conduction mechanism in studied layers. The values of dispersion parameter s and activation energy EA are determined.

  8. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, R.B.

    1987-05-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  9. Fluorination of amorphous thin-film materials with xenon fluoride

    DOEpatents

    Weil, Raoul B.

    1988-01-01

    A method is disclosed for producing fluorine-containing amorphous semiconductor material, preferably comprising amorphous silicon. The method includes depositing amorphous thin-film material onto a substrate while introducing xenon fluoride during the film deposition process.

  10. XRD Technique: A way to disseminate structural changes in iron-based amorphous materials

    SciTech Connect

    Saw, C K; Lian, T; Day, D; Farmer, J

    2007-05-24

    Prevention of corrosion is a vital goal for the Department of Defense when billions of dollars are spent every year. Corrosion resistant materials have applications in all sort of military vehicles, and more importantly in naval vessels and submarines which come in contact with the seawater. It is known that corrosion resistance property can be improved by the used of structurally designed materials in the amorphous state where the atoms are arranged in a non-periodic fashion and specific atoms, tailored to the required properties can be interjected into the matrix for specific application. The XRD techniques reported here is to demonstrate the optimal conditions for characterization of these materials. The samples, which normally contain different compositions of Fe, Cr, B, Mo, Y, Mn, Si and W, are in the form of powders, ribbons and coatings. These results will be compared for the different forms of the sample which appears to correlate to the cooling rate during sample processing. In most cases, the materials are amorphous or amorphous with very small amount of crystallinity. In the ribbon samples for different compositions we observed that the materials are essentially amorphous. In most cases, starting from an amorphous powder sample, the coatings are also observed to be amorphous with a small amount of iron oxide on the surface, probably due to exposure to air.

  11. Amorphous-Metal-Film Diffusion Barriers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolet, M. A.

    1987-01-01

    Incorporation of N into Ni/W films reduces reactivity with Si substrate. Paper describes reactions between Si substrates and deposited amorphous Ni/W or Ni/N/W films. Thermal stability of amorphous Ni/W films as diffusion barriers in Si markedly improved by introduction of N into Ni/W films during deposition.

  12. Method of making amorphous metal composites

    DOEpatents

    Byrne, Martin A.; Lupinski, John H.

    1982-01-01

    The process comprises placing an amorphous metal in particulate form and a low molecular weight (e.g., 1000-5000) thermosetting polymer binder powder into a container, mixing these materials, and applying heat and pressure to convert the mixture into an amorphous metal composite.

  13. Glass forming ranges of amorphous alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Two main methods of synthesis of amorphous metallic alloys are based on the rapid solidification of molten alloys and on isothermal solid state reactions between pure metals. We discuss recent calculations for the glass forming range for both techniques and we compare the predicted homogeneity ranges of the amorphous phase with experiments. 10 refs., 2 figs.

  14. Electron beam recrystallization of amorphous semiconductor materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.

    1968-01-01

    Nucleation and growth of crystalline films of silicon, germanium, and cadmium sulfide on substrates of plastic and glass were investigated. Amorphous films of germanium, silicon, and cadmium sulfide on amorphous substrates of glass and plastic were converted to the crystalline condition by electron bombardment.

  15. Compensated amorphous-silicon solar cell

    DOEpatents

    Devaud, G.

    1982-06-21

    An amorphous silicon solar cell including an electrically conductive substrate, a layer of glow discharge deposited hydrogenated amorphous silicon having regions of differing conductivity with at least one region of intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The layer of hydrogenated amorphous silicon has opposed first and second major surfaces where the first major surface contacts the elecrically conductive substrate and an electrode for electrically contacting the second major surface. The intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon region is deposited in a glow discharge with an atmosphere which includes not less than about 0.02 atom percent mono-atomic boron. An improved N.I.P. solar cell is disclosed using a BF/sub 3/ doped intrinsic layer.

  16. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  17. Structure, thermodynamics, and crystallization of amorphous hafnia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Xuhui; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate theoretically amorphous hafnia using the first principles melt and quench method. We identify two types of amorphous structures of hafnia. Type I and type II are related to tetragonal and monoclinic hafnia, respectively. We find type II structure to show stronger disorder than type I. Using the phonon density of states, we calculate the specific heat capacity for type II amorphous hafnia. Using the nudged elastic band method, we show that the averaged transition barrier between the type II amorphous hafnia and monoclinic phase is approximately 0.09 eV/HfO2. The crystallization temperature is estimated to be 421 K. The calculations suggest an explanation for the low thermal stability of amorphous hafnia.

  18. Amorphization of sugar hydrates upon milling.

    PubMed

    Willart, J F; Dujardin, N; Dudognon, E; Danède, F; Descamps, M

    2010-07-19

    The possibility to amorphize anhydrous crystalline sugars, like lactose, trehalose and glucose, by mechanical milling was previously reported. We test here the possibility to amorphize the corresponding crystalline hydrates: lactose monohydrate, trehalose dihydrate and glucose monohydrate using fully identical milling procedures. The results show that only the first hydrate amorphizes while the other two remain structurally invariant. These different behaviours are attributed to the plasticizing effect of the structural water molecules which can decrease the glass transition temperature below the milling temperature. The results reveal clearly the fundamental role of the glass transition in the solid-state amorphization process induced by milling, and they also explain why crystalline hydrates are systematically more difficult to amorphize by milling than their anhydrous counterpart. The investigations have been performed by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction. PMID:20494339

  19. Coating of calcia-doped ceria with amorphous silica shell by seeded polymerization technique

    SciTech Connect

    El-Toni, Ahmed Mohamed . E-mail: el-toni@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.jp; Yin, Shu; Yabe, Shinryo; Sato, Tsugio

    2005-07-12

    Calcia-doped ceria is of potential interest as an ultraviolet (UV) radiation blocking material in personal care products. However, its high catalytic ability for oxidation of organic materials makes it difficult to use as a sunscreen material. Therefore, calcia-doped ceria was coated with amorphous silica by means of seeded polymerization technique in order to depress its oxidation catalytic ability. The catalytic ability as well as UV-shielding ability was investigated for coated particles.

  20. Locomotion of Amorphous Surface Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An amorphous robot includes a compartmented bladder containing fluid, a valve assembly, and an outer layer encapsulating the bladder and valve assembly. The valve assembly draws fluid from a compartment(s) and discharges the drawn fluid into a designated compartment to displace the designated compartment with respect to the surface. Another embodiment includes elements each having a variable property, an outer layer that encapsulates the elements, and a control unit. The control unit energizes a designated element to change its variable property, thereby moving the designated element. The elements may be electromagnetic spheres with a variable polarity or shape memory polymers with changing shape and/or size. Yet another embodiment includes an elongated flexible tube filled with ferrofluid, a moveable electromagnet, an actuator, and a control unit. The control unit energizes the electromagnet and moves the electromagnet via the actuator to magnetize the ferrofluid and lengthen the flexible tube.

  1. Locomotion of Amorphous Surface Robots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradley, Arthur T. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    An amorphous robot includes a compartmented bladder containing fluid, a valve assembly, and an outer layer encapsulating the bladder and valve assembly. The valve assembly draws fluid from a compartment(s) and discharges the drawn fluid into a designated compartment to displace the designated compartment with respect to the surface. Another embodiment includes elements each having a variable property, an outer layer that encapsulates the elements, and a control unit. The control unit energizes a designated element to change its variable property, thereby moving the designated element. The elements may be electromagnetic spheres with a variable polarity or shape memory polymers with changing shape and/or size. Yet another embodiment includes an elongated flexible tube filled with ferrofluid, a moveable electromagnet, an actuator, and a control unit. The control unit energizes the electromagnet and moves the electromagnet via the actuator to magnetize the ferrofluid and lengthen the flexible tube.

  2. Telegraph Noise in Amorphous Silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lust, Lisa Marie

    1995-01-01

    Switching between discrete resistance levels termed random telegraph switching noise (RTSN) is observed in the co-planar current of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). The temperature dependence, power spectrum characteristics, and the effects of illumination on RTSN in n-type and p -type doped samples are measured and indicate the noise originates from trap-mediated hydrogen motion. Rise times between the two level fluctuators yield activation energies and attempt to hop frequencies for microscopic hydrogen diffusion and have been independently confirmed by NMR measurements. A computational model based on inhomogeneous conduction mechanisms of percolation filaments is developed which includes the defect structure of a-Si:H. RTSN is observed in the simulated conductance fluctuations and further confirms the experimental results.

  3. Method of producing hydrogenated amorphous silicon film

    DOEpatents

    Wiesmann, Harold J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by thermally decomposing silane (SiH.sub.4) or other gases comprising H and Si, from a tungsten or carbon foil heated to a temperature of about 1400.degree.-1600.degree. C., in a vacuum of about 10.sup.-6 to 19.sup.-4 torr, to form a gaseous mixture of atomic hydrogen and atomic silicon, and depositing said gaseos mixture onto a substrate independent of and outside said source of thermal decomposition, to form hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The presence of an ammonia atmosphere in the vacuum chamber enhances the photoconductivity of the hydrogenated amorphous silicon film.

  4. Crystallization of amorphous solid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safarik, Douglas Joseph

    2003-06-01

    Below ˜130 K, H2O can exist for prolonged periods in a thermodynamically unstable, non-crystalline solid form known as amorphous solid water (ASW). When warmed to above 135 K, ASW crystallizes to the thermodynamically favored state, cubic ice I, on a laboratory time scale. Despite the relevance of ASW crystallization to a variety of scientific problems ranging from astrophysical phenomena to cryopreservation, the kinetics of this transformation are largely uncharacterized, and its mechanism is not fully understood. In the present work, the crystallization kinetics of vapor-deposited, nonporous ASW films less than one micron thick are investigated experimentally near 140 K. The amorphous to crystalline transition is characterized using a probe molecule, chlorodifluoromethane (CHF2Cl), whose adsorbed states and hence desorption kinetics are sensitive to the crystallinity of solid water surfaces. The transformation kinetics of very thick ASW films are found to be both independent of specimen size and consistent with simultaneous homogeneous nucleation and isotropic growth of crystalline ice grains. As the ASW film thickness is reduced from 385 nm to 55 nm, however, the rate of surface crystallization decelerates, in apparent conflict with a homogeneous nucleation and growth mechanism. In an attempt to explain this behavior, a geometrical model of phase transition kinetics at the surface of solids, with special consideration of finite specimen size in one dimension, is constructed. For materials in which nucleation occurs spatially randomly, phase change is predicted to decelerate when film thickness is reduced below the mean crystal grain size. This phenomenon originates from a reduction in the number of crystallites available to transform the surface as the sample becomes thinner. Good quantitative agreement between this simple model and the experimental data is attained using a minimum of kinetic parameters, suggesting it captures the essential physics of ASW crystallization. These model fits also yield preliminary estimates of crystalline ice growth and nucleation rates. Finally, an experimental protocol and corresponding model of phase change that together permit accurate quantification of nucleation and growth kinetics (when both processes occur simultaneously) is developed. Using the outlined methodology, crystalline ice growth and nucleation rates near 140 K are found to be ˜1 A/s and ˜1010 cm-3s -1, respectively, and to exhibit Arrhenius temperature dependencies with activation energies of ˜50 and ˜170 kJ/mol.

  5. Amorphous to Amorphous Form Transitions of Water Ice and Astrophysical Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter; Blake, David F.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We have combined Selected Area Electron Diffraction (SAED) and cryogenic techniques in an instrumental configuration that allows observing the structure of vapor deposited ice as it evolves during warmup. The ice is deposited in-situ inside an Hitachi H-500 H transmission electron microscope at a base pressure of 1-5 x 10(exp -7) torr on a thin amorphous carbon substrate at 15K or 86K and warmed up at a rate of 1-2 K/min. We find a progression of amorphous forms and well defined amorphous to amorphous transitions. Apart from the well known low-density form of ice, we confirm the presence of a high-density form and find a third amorphous form that coexists with cubic ice. We will report too on the amorphous to crystalline transition and the implications of these results for radical diffusion and gas retention observed in laboratory analog studies of interstellar and cometary ices.

  6. Pressure-induced reversible amorphization and an amorphousamorphous transition in Ge2Sb2Te5 phase-change memory material

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhimei; Zhou, Jian; Pan, Yuanchun; Song, Zhitang; Mao, Ho-Kwang; Ahuja, Rajeev

    2011-01-01

    Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) is a technologically very important phase-change material that is used in digital versatile disks-random access memory and is currently studied for the use in phase-change random access memory devices. This type of data storage is achieved by the fast reversible phase transition between amorphous and crystalline GST upon heat pulse. Here we report pressure-induced reversible crystalline-amorphous and polymorphic amorphous transitions in NaCl structured GST by ab initio molecular dynamics calculations. We have showed that the onset amorphization of GST starts at approximately 18GPa and the system become completely random at approximately 22GPa. This amorphous state has a cubic framework (c-amorphous) of sixfold coordinations. With further increasing pressure, the c-amorphous transforms to a high-density amorphous structure with trigonal framework (t-amorphous) and an average coordination number of eight. The pressure-induced amorphization is investigated to be due to large displacements of Te atoms for which weak TeTe bonds exist or vacancies are nearby. Upon decompressing to ambient conditions, the original cubic crystalline structure is restored for c-amorphous, whereas t-amorphous transforms to another amorphous phase that is similar to the melt-quenched amorphous GST. PMID:21670255

  7. Molecular dynamics study of the mechanical loss in amorphous pure and doped silica.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Rashid; Trinastic, Jonathan P; Cheng, H P

    2014-08-01

    Gravitational wave detectors and other precision measurement devices are limited by the thermal noise in the oxide coatings on the mirrors of such devices. We have investigated the mechanical loss in amorphous oxides by calculating the internal friction using classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We have implemented the trajectory bisection method and the non-local ridge method in the DL-POLY molecular dynamics simulation software to carry out those calculations. These methods have been used to locate the local potential energy minima that a system visits during a molecular dynamics trajectory and the transition state between any two consecutive minima. Using the numerically calculated barrier height distributions, barrier asymmetry distributions, relaxation times, and deformation potentials, we have calculated the internal friction of pure amorphous silica and silica mixed with other oxides. The results for silica compare well with experiment. Finally, we use the numerical calculations to comment on the validity of previously used theoretical assumptions. PMID:25106591

  8. Molecular dynamics study of the mechanical loss in amorphous pure and doped silica

    SciTech Connect

    Hamdan, Rashid; Trinastic, Jonathan P.; Cheng, H. P.

    2014-08-07

    Gravitational wave detectors and other precision measurement devices are limited by the thermal noise in the oxide coatings on the mirrors of such devices. We have investigated the mechanical loss in amorphous oxides by calculating the internal friction using classical, atomistic molecular dynamics simulations. We have implemented the trajectory bisection method and the non-local ridge method in the DL-POLY molecular dynamics simulation software to carry out those calculations. These methods have been used to locate the local potential energy minima that a system visits during a molecular dynamics trajectory and the transition state between any two consecutive minima. Using the numerically calculated barrier height distributions, barrier asymmetry distributions, relaxation times, and deformation potentials, we have calculated the internal friction of pure amorphous silica and silica mixed with other oxides. The results for silica compare well with experiment. Finally, we use the numerical calculations to comment on the validity of previously used theoretical assumptions.

  9. Surface morphology study of recrystallization dynamics of amorphous ZnO layers prepared on different substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haško, Daniel; Bruncko, Jaroslav; Uherek, František

    2014-06-01

    Amorphous oxides-based devices are exposed, during fabrication, to different processing conditions affecting their properties. Zinc oxide is a prospective candidate for transparent amorphous oxides, but its structure is changing under the influence of temperature. We investigated surface recrystallization of amorphous zinc oxide layers deposited onto fused silica, sapphire and Si substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The prepared three series of layers had highly nonequilibrium phase structures. Using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, the effect was studied of subsequent annealing at 200, 400, 600, 800 °C for 60 min upon the surface structural properties of the layers. The following parameters were analyzed: average roughness, RMS roughness and size of formed grains on selected places with 1 × 1 μm2 area. Surface structural analysis revealed that annealing led to recrystallization of the prepared layers and roughening of the structural features on the surface. With increasing annealing temperature, the calculated parameters were increasing. The average surface roughness of zinc oxide layers annealed at 800 °C is three times higher than that of the layers annealed at lower temperatures for all substrates used. The process dynamics of thermally caused recrystallization of the layers was different for each of the substrates used.

  10. Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Wong, Frank M. G.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Yang, Nancy; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Blue, Craig A.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Bayles, Robert; Perepezko, John H.; Kaufman, Larry; Schoenung, Julie; Ajdelsztajn, Leo

    2009-11-17

    A system for coating a surface comprises providing a source of amorphous metal, providing ceramic particles, and applying the amorphous metal and the ceramic particles to the surface by a spray. The coating comprises a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains one or more of the following elements in the specified range of composition: yttrium (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), chromium (14 to 18 atomic %), molybdenum (.gtoreq.7 atomic %), tungsten (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), boron (.ltoreq.5 atomic %), or carbon (.gtoreq.4 atomic %).

  11. Corrosion resistant amorphous metals and methods of forming corrosion resistant amorphous metals

    DOEpatents

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Wong, Frank M.G.; Haslam, Jeffery J.; Yang, Nancy; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Blue, Craig A.; Graeve, Olivia A.; Bayles, Robert; Perepezko, John H.; Kaufman, Larry; Schoenung, Julie; Ajdelsztajn, Leo

    2014-07-15

    A system for coating a surface comprises providing a source of amorphous metal, providing ceramic particles, and applying the amorphous metal and the ceramic particles to the surface by a spray. The coating comprises a composite material made of amorphous metal that contains one or more of the following elements in the specified range of composition: yttrium (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), chromium (14 to 18 atomic %), molybdenum (.gtoreq.7 atomic %), tungsten (.gtoreq.1 atomic %), boron (.ltoreq.5 atomic %), or carbon (.gtoreq.4 atomic %).

  12. Amorphization of Silicon Carbide by Carbon Displacement

    SciTech Connect

    Devanathan, Ram; Gao, Fei; Weber, William J.

    2004-05-10

    We have used molecular dynamics simulations to examine the possibility of amorphizing silicon carbide (SiC) by exclusively displacing C atoms. At a defect generation corresponding to 0.2 displacements per atom, the enthalpy surpasses the level of melt-quenched SiC, the density decreases by about 15%, and the radial distribution function shows a lack of long-range order. Prior to amorphization, the surviving defects are mainly C Frenkel pairs (67%), but Si Frenkel pairs (18%) and anti-site defects (15%) are also present. The results indicate that SiC can be amorphized by C sublattice displacements. Chemical short-range disorder, arising mainly from interstitial production, plays a significant role in the amorphization.

  13. Comprehensive phase characterization of crystalline and amorphous phases of a Class F fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Chancey, Ryan T.; Stutzman, Paul; Juenger, Maria C.G.; Fowler, David W.

    2010-01-15

    A comprehensive approach to qualitative and quantitative characterization of crystalline and amorphous constituent phases of a largely heterogeneous Class F fly ash is presented. Traditionally, fly ash composition is expressed as bulk elemental oxide content, generally determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. However, such analysis does not discern between relatively inert crystalline phases and highly reactive amorphous phases of similar elemental composition. X-ray diffraction was used to identify the crystalline phases present in the fly ash, and the Rietveld quantitative phase analysis method was applied to determine the relative proportion of each of these phases. A synergistic method of X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and multispectral image analysis was developed to identify and quantify the amorphous phases present in the fly ash.

  14. Near-infrared–driven decomposition of metal precursors yields amorphous electrocatalytic films

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Danielle A.; Dettelbach, Kevan E.; Hudkins, Jesse R.; Berlinguette, Curtis P.

    2015-01-01

    Amorphous metal-based films lacking long-range atomic order have found utility in applications ranging from electronics applications to heterogeneous catalysis. Notwithstanding, there is a limited set of fabrication methods available for making amorphous films, particularly in the absence of a conducting substrate. We introduce herein a scalable preparative method for accessing oxidized and reduced phases of amorphous films that involves the efficient decomposition of molecular precursors, including simple metal salts, by exposure to near-infrared (NIR) radiation. The NIR-driven decomposition process provides sufficient localized heating to trigger the liberation of the ligand from solution-deposited precursors on substrates, but insufficient thermal energy to form crystalline phases. This method provides access to state-of-the-art electrocatalyst films, as demonstrated herein for the electrolysis of water, and extends the scope of usable substrates to include nonconducting and temperature-sensitive platforms. PMID:26601148

  15. Opposite correlations between cation disordering and amorphization resistance in spinels versus pyrochlores

    SciTech Connect

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Chao; Valdez, James A.; Smith, Roger; Wang, Yongqiang; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2015-10-29

    Understanding and predicting radiation damage evolution in complex materials is crucial for developing next-generation nuclear energy sources. Here, using a combination of ion beam irradiation, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that, contrary to the behaviour observed in pyrochlores, the amorphization resistance of spinel compounds correlates directly with the energy to disorder the structure. Using a combination of atomistic simulation techniques, we ascribe this behaviour to structural defects on the cation sublattice that are present in spinel but not in pyrochlore. Specifically, because of these structural defects, there are kinetic pathways for the relaxation of disorder in spinel that are absent in pyrochlore. This leads to a direct correlation between amorphization resistance and disordering energetics in spinel, the opposite of that observed in pyrochlores. Furthermore, these results provide new insight into the origins of amorphization resistance in complex oxides beyond fluorite derivatives.

  16. Near-infrared-driven decomposition of metal precursors yields amorphous electrocatalytic films.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Danielle A; Dettelbach, Kevan E; Hudkins, Jesse R; Berlinguette, Curtis P

    2015-03-01

    Amorphous metal-based films lacking long-range atomic order have found utility in applications ranging from electronics applications to heterogeneous catalysis. Notwithstanding, there is a limited set of fabrication methods available for making amorphous films, particularly in the absence of a conducting substrate. We introduce herein a scalable preparative method for accessing oxidized and reduced phases of amorphous films that involves the efficient decomposition of molecular precursors, including simple metal salts, by exposure to near-infrared (NIR) radiation. The NIR-driven decomposition process provides sufficient localized heating to trigger the liberation of the ligand from solution-deposited precursors on substrates, but insufficient thermal energy to form crystalline phases. This method provides access to state-of-the-art electrocatalyst films, as demonstrated herein for the electrolysis of water, and extends the scope of usable substrates to include nonconducting and temperature-sensitive platforms. PMID:26601148

  17. Structural analysis of a completely amorphous {sup 238}Pu-doped zircon by neutron diffraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J. A.; Badyal, Y.; Price, D. C.; Hanchar, J. M.; Weber, W. J.; Materials Science Division; PNNL

    1999-01-01

    The structure of a completely amorphous zircon was determined by time-of-flight neutron diffraction at Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS). The sample of metamict zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), initially doped to 8.85 weight percent {sup 238}Pu, had been completely amorphized by alpha-recoil damage since its synthesis in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The measured diffraction structure factor, S(Q), indicated a completely amorphous sample, with no signs of residual zircon microcrystallinity. The pair distribution function obtained indicated that the structure was that of an oxide glass, retaining the Si-0, Zr-0, and O-O bond lengths of crystalline zircon.

  18. Structural analysis of a completely amorphous {sup 238}Pu-doped zircon by neutron diffraction.

    SciTech Connect

    Fortner, J. A.

    1998-12-16

    The structure of a completely amorphous zircon was determined by time-of-flight neutron diffraction at Argonne's Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS). The sample of metamict zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}),initially doped to 8.85 weight percent {sup 238}Pi, had been completely amorphized by alpha-recoil damage since its synthesis in 1981 at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The measured diffraction structure factor, S(Q), indicated a completely amorphous sample, with no signs of residual zircon microcrystallinity. The pair distribution function obtained indicated that the structure was that of an oxide glass, retaining the Si-0, Zr-0, and O-O bond lengths of crystalline zircon.

  19. Opposite correlations between cation disordering and amorphization resistance in spinels versus pyrochlores.

    PubMed

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Chao; Valdez, James A; Smith, Roger; Wang, Yongqiang; Sickafus, Kurt E

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and predicting radiation damage evolution in complex materials is crucial for developing next-generation nuclear energy sources. Here, using a combination of ion beam irradiation, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that, contrary to the behaviour observed in pyrochlores, the amorphization resistance of spinel compounds correlates directly with the energy to disorder the structure. Using a combination of atomistic simulation techniques, we ascribe this behaviour to structural defects on the cation sublattice that are present in spinel but not in pyrochlore. Specifically, because of these structural defects, there are kinetic pathways for the relaxation of disorder in spinel that are absent in pyrochlore. This leads to a direct correlation between amorphization resistance and disordering energetics in spinel, the opposite of that observed in pyrochlores. These results provide new insight into the origins of amorphization resistance in complex oxides beyond fluorite derivatives. PMID:26510750

  20. Opposite correlations between cation disordering and amorphization resistance in spinels versus pyrochlores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Chao; Valdez, James A.; Smith, Roger; Wang, Yongqiang; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2015-10-01

    Understanding and predicting radiation damage evolution in complex materials is crucial for developing next-generation nuclear energy sources. Here, using a combination of ion beam irradiation, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that, contrary to the behaviour observed in pyrochlores, the amorphization resistance of spinel compounds correlates directly with the energy to disorder the structure. Using a combination of atomistic simulation techniques, we ascribe this behaviour to structural defects on the cation sublattice that are present in spinel but not in pyrochlore. Specifically, because of these structural defects, there are kinetic pathways for the relaxation of disorder in spinel that are absent in pyrochlore. This leads to a direct correlation between amorphization resistance and disordering energetics in spinel, the opposite of that observed in pyrochlores. These results provide new insight into the origins of amorphization resistance in complex oxides beyond fluorite derivatives.

  1. Opposite correlations between cation disordering and amorphization resistance in spinels versus pyrochlores

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Chao; Valdez, James A.; Smith, Roger; Wang, Yongqiang; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2015-10-29

    Understanding and predicting radiation damage evolution in complex materials is crucial for developing next-generation nuclear energy sources. Here, using a combination of ion beam irradiation, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that, contrary to the behaviour observed in pyrochlores, the amorphization resistance of spinel compounds correlates directly with the energy to disorder the structure. Using a combination of atomistic simulation techniques, we ascribe this behaviour to structural defects on the cation sublattice that are present in spinel but not in pyrochlore. Specifically, because of these structural defects, there are kinetic pathways for the relaxation of disorder in spinelmore » that are absent in pyrochlore. This leads to a direct correlation between amorphization resistance and disordering energetics in spinel, the opposite of that observed in pyrochlores. Furthermore, these results provide new insight into the origins of amorphization resistance in complex oxides beyond fluorite derivatives.« less

  2. Opposite correlations between cation disordering and amorphization resistance in spinels versus pyrochlores

    PubMed Central

    Uberuaga, Blas Pedro; Tang, Ming; Jiang, Chao; Valdez, James A.; Smith, Roger; Wang, Yongqiang; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding and predicting radiation damage evolution in complex materials is crucial for developing next-generation nuclear energy sources. Here, using a combination of ion beam irradiation, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, we show that, contrary to the behaviour observed in pyrochlores, the amorphization resistance of spinel compounds correlates directly with the energy to disorder the structure. Using a combination of atomistic simulation techniques, we ascribe this behaviour to structural defects on the cation sublattice that are present in spinel but not in pyrochlore. Specifically, because of these structural defects, there are kinetic pathways for the relaxation of disorder in spinel that are absent in pyrochlore. This leads to a direct correlation between amorphization resistance and disordering energetics in spinel, the opposite of that observed in pyrochlores. These results provide new insight into the origins of amorphization resistance in complex oxides beyond fluorite derivatives. PMID:26510750

  3. Ductile crystalline–amorphous nanolaminates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yinmin; Li, Ju; Hamza, Alex V.; Barbee, Troy W.

    2007-01-01

    It is known that the room-temperature plastic deformation of bulk metallic glasses is compromised by strain softening and shear localization, resulting in near-zero tensile ductility. The incorporation of metallic glasses into engineering materials, therefore, is often accompanied by complete brittleness or an apparent loss of useful tensile ductility. Here we report the observation of an exceptional tensile ductility in crystalline copper/copper–zirconium glass nanolaminates. These nanocrystalline–amorphous nanolaminates exhibit a high flow stress of 1.09 ± 0.02 GPa, a nearly elastic-perfectly plastic behavior without necking, and a tensile elongation to failure of 13.8 ± 1.7%, which is six to eight times higher than that typically observed in conventional crystalline–crystalline nanolaminates (<2%) and most other nanocrystalline materials. Transmission electron microscopy and atomistic simulations demonstrate that shear banding instability no longer afflicts the 5- to 10-nm-thick nanolaminate glassy layers during tensile deformation, which also act as high-capacity sinks for dislocations, enabling absorption of free volume and free energy transported by the dislocations; the amorphous–crystal interfaces exhibit unique inelastic shear (slip) transfer characteristics, fundamentally different from those of grain boundaries. Nanoscale metallic glass layers therefore may offer great benefits in engineering the plasticity of crystalline materials and opening new avenues for improving their strength and ductility. PMID:17592136

  4. Structure of Amorphous Titania Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Chen, B.; Banfield, J. F.; Waychunas, G. A.

    2008-12-01

    Ultrafine (2 - 3 nm) titania (TiO2) nanoparticles show only diffuse scattering by both conventional powder x-ray diffraction and electron diffraction. We used synchrotron wide-angle x-ray scattering (WAXS) to probe the atomic correlations in this amorphous material. The atomic pair-distribution function (PDF) derived from Fourier transform of the WAXS data was used for reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) simulations of the atomic structure of the small nanoparticles. Molecular dynamics simulations were used to generate input structures for the RMC. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) simulations were used to screen candidate structures obtained from the RMC. The structure model that best describes both the WAXS and XAS data consists of particles with a highly distorted shell and a small strained anatase-like crystalline core. The average coordination number of Ti is 5.3 and the Ti-O bond length peaks at 1.940 Å. Relative to bulk titania, the reduction of the coordination number is primarily due to the truncation of the Ti-O octahedra at the titania nanoparticle surface, and the shortening of the Ti-O bond length is due to bond contraction in the distorted shell. Core-shell structures in ultrafine nanoparticles may be common in many materials (e.g. ZnS).

  5. Amorphous silicon-tellurium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shufflebotham, P. K.; Card, H. C.; Kao, K. C.; Thanailakis, A.

    1986-09-01

    Amorphous silicon-tellurium alloy thin films were fabricated by coevaporation over the composition range of 0-82 at. % Te. The electronic and optical properties of these films were systematically investigated over this same range of composition. The optical gap of these films was found to decrease monotonically with increasing Te content. Conduction near room temperature was due to extended state conduction, while variable range hopping dominated below 250 K. The incorporation of Te in concentrations of less than 1 at. % was found to produce an increase in the density of localized states at the Fermi level and a decrease in the activation energy. This was attributed to the Te being incorporated as a substitutional, fourfold coordinated, double donor in a-Si. At approximately 60 at. % Te, a decrease in the density of localized states at the Fermi level, and an increase in the activation energy and photoresponse was indicated. This was attributed to the possible formation of a less defective a-Si:Te compound.

  6. Ion-beam amorphization of semiconductors: A physical model based on the amorphous pocket population

    SciTech Connect

    Mok, K.R.C.; Jaraiz, M.; Martin-Bragado, I.; Rubio, J.E.; Castrillo, P.; Pinacho, R.; Barbolla, J.; Srinivasan, M.P.

    2005-08-15

    We introduce a model for damage accumulation up to amorphization, based on the ion-implant damage structures commonly known as amorphous pockets. The model is able to reproduce the silicon amorphous-crystalline transition temperature for C, Si, and Ge ion implants. Its use as an analysis tool reveals an unexpected bimodal distribution of the defect population around a characteristic size, which is larger for heavier ions. The defect population is split in both size and composition, with small, pure interstitial and vacancy clusters below the characteristic size, and amorphous pockets with a balanced mixture of interstitials and vacancies beyond that size.

  7. Amorphous Phases on the Surface of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rampe, E. B.; Morris, R. V.; Ruff, S. W.; Horgan, B.; Dehouck, E.; Achilles, C. N.; Ming, D. W.; Bish, D. L.; Chipera, S. J.

    2014-01-01

    Both primary (volcanic/impact glasses) and secondary (opal/silica, allophane, hisingerite, npOx, S-bearing) amorphous phases appear to be major components of martian surface materials based on orbital and in-situ measurements. A key observation is that whereas regional/global scale amorphous components include altered glass and npOx, local scale amorphous phases include hydrated silica/opal. This suggests widespread alteration at low water-to-rock ratios, perhaps due to snow/ice melt with variable pH, and localized alteration at high water-to-rock ratios. Orbital and in-situ measurements of the regional/global amorphous component on Mars suggests that it is made up of at least three phases: npOx, amorphous silicate (likely altered glass), and an amorphous S-bearing phase. Fundamental questions regarding the composition and the formation of the regional/global amorphous component(s) still remain: Do the phases form locally or have they been homogenized through aeolian activity and derived from the global dust? Is the parent glass volcanic, impact, or both? Are the phases separate or intimately mixed (e.g., as in palagonite)? When did the amorphous phases form? To address the question of source (local and/or global), we need to look for variations in the different phases within the amorphous component through continued modeling of the chemical composition of the amorphous phases in samples from Gale using CheMin and APXS data. If we find variations (e.g., a lack of or enrichment in amorphous silicate in some samples), this may imply a local source for some phases. Furthermore, the chemical composition of the weathering products may give insight into the formation mechanisms of the parent glass (e.g., impact glasses contain higher Al and lower Si [30], so we might expect allophane as a weathering product of impact glass). To address the question of whether these phases are separate or intimately mixed, we need to do laboratory studies of naturally altered samples made up of mixed phases (e.g., palagonite) and synthetic single phases to determine their short-range order structures and calculate their XRD patterns to use in models of CheMin data. Finally, to address the timing of the alteration, we need to study rocks on the martian surface of different ages that may contain glass (volcanic or impact) with MSL and future rovers to better understand how glass alters on the martian surface, if that alteration mechanism is universal, and if alteration spans across long periods of time or if there is a time past which unaltered glass remains.

  8. Understanding the Structure of Amorphous Thin Film Hafnia - Final Paper

    SciTech Connect

    Miranda, Andre

    2015-08-27

    Hafnium Oxide (HfO2) amorphous thin films are being used as gate oxides in transistors because of their high dielectric constant (κ) over Silicon Dioxide. The present study looks to find the atomic structure of HfO2 thin films which hasn’t been done with the technique of this study. In this study, two HfO2 samples were studied. One sample was made with thermal atomic layer deposition (ALD) on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a silicon wafer. The second sample was made with plasma ALD on top of a Chromium and Gold layer on a Silicon wafer. Both films were deposited at a thickness of 50nm. To obtain atomic structure information, Grazing Incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) was carried out on the HfO2 samples. Because of this, absorption, footprint, polarization, and dead time corrections were applied to the scattering intensity data collected. The scattering curves displayed a difference in structure between the ALD processes. The plasma ALD sample showed the broad peak characteristic of an amorphous structure whereas the thermal ALD sample showed an amorphous structure with characteristics of crystalline materials. This appears to suggest that the thermal process results in a mostly amorphous material with crystallites within. Further, the scattering intensity data was used to calculate a pair distribution function (PDF) to show more atomic structure. The PDF showed atom distances in the plasma ALD sample had structure up to 10 Å, while the thermal ALD sample showed the same structure below 10 Å. This structure that shows up below 10 Å matches the bond distances of HfO2 published in literature. The PDF for the thermal ALD sample also showed peaks up to 20 Å, suggesting repeating atomic spacing outside the HfO2 molecule in the sample. This appears to suggest that there is some crystalline structure within the thermal ALD sample.

  9. Amorphous Carbon-Boron Nitride Nanotube Hybrids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Jae Woo (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Wise, Kristopher E. (Inventor); Lin, Yi (Inventor); Connell, John (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method for joining or repairing boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs). In joining BNNTs, the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures. In repairing BNNTs, the damaged site of the nanotube structure is modified with amorphous carbon deposited by controlled electron beam irradiation to form well bonded hybrid a-C/BNNT structures at the damage site.

  10. Tests Of Amorphous-Silicon Photovoltaic Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Ronald G., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Progress in identification of strengths and weaknesses of amorphous-silicon technology detailed. Report describes achievements in testing reliability of solar-power modules made of amorphous-silicon photovoltaic cells. Based on investigation of modules made by U.S. manufacturers. Modules subjected to field tests, to accelerated-aging tests in laboratory, and to standard sequence of qualification tests developed for modules of crystalline-silicon cells.

  11. A Magnetic Sensor with Amorphous Wire

    PubMed Central

    He, Dongfeng; Shiwa, Mitsuharu

    2014-01-01

    Using a FeCoSiB amorphous wire and a coil wrapped around it, we have developed a sensitive magnetic sensor. When a 5 mm long amorphous wire with the diameter of 0.1 mm was used, the magnetic field noise spectrum of the sensor was about 30 pT/?Hz above 30 Hz. To show the sensitivity and the spatial resolution, the magnetic field of a thousand Japanese yen was scanned with the magnetic sensor. PMID:24940865

  12. Direct observation of microscopic change induced by oxygen vacancy drift in amorphous TiO2 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Hu Young; Lee, Jeong Yong; Choi, Sung-Yool

    2010-07-01

    To clarify the resistive switching and failure mechanisms in Al/amorphous TiO2/Al devices we investigate the microscopic change in amorphous titanium oxide films and interface layers after the set process according to film deposition temperatures. For low temperature (<150 °C) samples, the thickness of top interface layer decreased after the set process due to the dissociation of a top interface layer by uniform migration of oxygen vacancies. Meanwhile, for high temperature samples, crystalline TiO phases emerged in the failed state, meaning the formation of conducting paths from the local clustering of oxygen vacancies in nonhomogeneous titanium oxide film.

  13. Pressure-Induced Amorphization and Phase Transformations in LiAlSiO4 Eucryptite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang,J.; Zhao, Y.; Xu, H.; Zelinkskas, M.; Wang, L.; Wang, Y.; Uchida, T.

    2005-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study on pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in {beta}-eucryptite (LiAlSiO4) and on the equilibrium states of so-formed amorphous phase at elevated temperatures. Our results revealed that at 300 K {beta}-LiAlSiO4 underwent progressive amorphization at pressures above 4.5 GPa and became completely amorphous above 17.0 GPa. After release of pressure, {beta}-LiAlSiO4 that was partially amorphized at 7.5, 14.0, and 16.0 GPa reverted back to its original crystalline state. When subjected to a complete loss of long-range structural order, the system was recovered as an amorphous state and did not retain the so-called structural memory. Upon heating at high pressures, the partially or completely amorphous {beta}-LiAlSiO4 transformed into various crystalline phases at temperatures above 973 K: between 6.9 and 10.7 GPa it was decomposed into a mixture of LiAlSi2O6 and LiAlO2; at 15.3 GPa the two phases recombined to form a new phase with a spinel structure; and at 22 GPa the spinel phase of LiAlSiO4 was decomposed into its constituent oxides. The observed transformations are all of a reconstructive type and also involve profound changes in atomic coordination environments. A large activation energy barrier associated with coordination changes and a hindrance of atomic mobility at kinetically low temperatures are the primary factors that trigger the PIA.

  14. Wear Resistant Amorphous and Nanocomposite Steel Coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Branagan, Daniel James; Swank, William David; Haggard, Delon C; Fincke, James Russell; Sordelet, D.

    2001-10-01

    In this article, amorphous and nanocomposite thermally deposited steel coatings have been formed by using both plasma and high-velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) spraying techniques. This was accomplished by developing a specialized iron-based composition with a low critical cooling rate (?104 K/s) for metallic glass formation, processing the alloy by inert gas atomization to form micron-sized amorphous spherical powders, and then spraying the classified powder to form coatings. A primarily amorphous structure was formed in the as-sprayed coatings, independent of coating thickness. After a heat treatment above the crystallization temperature (568°C), the structure of the coatings self-assembled (i.e., devitrified) into a multiphase nanocomposite microstructure with 75 to 125 nm grains containing a distribution of 20 nm second-phase grain-boundary precipitates. Vickers microhardness testing revealed that the amorphous coatings were very hard (10.2 to 10.7 GPa), with further increases in hardness after devitrification (11.4 to 12.8 GPa). The wear characteristics of the amorphous and nanocomposite coatings were determined using both two-body pin-on-disk and three-body rubber wheel wet-slurry sand tests. The results indicate that the amorphous and nanocomposite steel coatings are candidates for a wide variety of wear-resistant applications.

  15. Optimization of transparent and reflecting electrodes for amorphous-silicon solar cells. Final subcontract report, 1 May 1991--30 April 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Gordon, R.G.; Hu, J.; Lacks, D.; Musher, J.; Thornton, J.; Liang, H.

    1994-07-01

    Fluorine-doped zinc oxide was shown to have the lowest absorption loss of any of the known transparent conductors. An apparatus was constructed to deposit textured, transparent, conductive, fluorine-doped zinc oxide layers with uniform thickness over a 10 cm by 10 cm area, using inexpensive, high-productivity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition. Amorphous silicon solar cells grown on these textured films show very high peak quantum efficiencies (over 90%). However, a significant contact resistance develops at the interface between the amorphous silicon and the zinc oxide. Transparent, conductive gallium-doped zinc oxide films were grown by APCVD at a low enough temperature (260{degree}C) to be deposited on amorphous silicon as a final conductive back contact to solar cells. A quantum-mechanical theory of bonding was developed and applied to some metal oxides; it forms a basis for understanding TCO structures and the stability of their interfaces with silicon.

  16. Amorphization of cobalt monoxide nanocrystals and related explosive gas sensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, L. H.; Xiao, J.; Yang, G. W.

    2015-10-01

    Amorphous nanomaterials have attracted attention due to their excellent performances, highly comparable to their crystalline counterparts. Sensor materials with amorphous phases are usually evaluated to be unsuitable for sensors because of poor performance. As a matter of fact, amorphous nanomaterials have rather unique sensor behaviors. Here, we report the amorphousization of cobalt monoxide (CoO) nanocrystals driven by a unique process involved in laser ablation in liquid (LAL). We also established that a fast and nonequilibrium process created by LAL results in the amorphousization of nanocrystals. The as-prepared amorphous CoO (a-CoO) nanoflakes possess a high aspect ratio, which showed good sensing of explosive gases. The fabricated gas sensor can detect CO and H2 at levels as low as 5 and 10 ppm, respectively, at 100 C. The performance characteristics of this sensor, including high sensitivity, low working temperature, and low detection limit, are superior to those of sensors made with crystalline phase oxides. Meanwhile, a temperature-dependent p-n transition was observed in the sensors response to CO, suggesting that the sensing properties can be tailored by changing the carrier type, thus tuning the selectivity of sensors to different gases. These findings demonstrate the potential applications of amorphous nanomaterials as gas sensor components.

  17. Amorphous calcium (ortho)phosphates.

    PubMed

    Dorozhkin, Sergey V

    2010-12-01

    Amorphous calcium phosphates (ACPs) represent a unique class of biomedically relevant calcium orthophosphate salts, having variable chemical but essentially identical glass-like physical properties, in which there is neither translational nor orientational long-range ordering of the atomic positions. Normally, ACPs are the first solid phases, precipitated after a rapid mixing of aqueous solutions containing ions of Ca(2+) and PO₄³⁻; however, other production techniques are known. Interestingly, ACPs prepared by wet-chemical techniques were found to have a relatively constant chemical composition over a relatively wide range of preparation conditions, which suggests the presence of a well-defined local structural unit, presumably with the structure of Ca₉(PO₄)₆ - so-called Posner cluster. However, the presence of similar clusters in ACPs produced by other techniques remains uncertain. All ACPs are thermodynamically unstable compounds and, unless stored in dry conditions or doped by stabilizers, spontaneously tend to transform to crystalline calcium orthophosphates, mainly to calcium apatites. This solution instability of ACPs and their easy transformation to crystalline phases are of a great biological relevance. Specifically, the initiating role ACPs play in matrix vesicle biomineralization raises the importance of ACPs from a mere laboratory curiosity to that of a key intermediate in skeletal calcification. In addition, due to significant chemical and structural similarities with calcified mammalian tissues, as well as excellent biocompatibility and bioresorbability, all types of ACPs are very promising candidates for the manufacture of artificial bone grafts. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the occurrence, preparation, composition, structure, major properties and biomedical applications of ACPs. To assist readers in looking for the specific details on ACPs, a great number of references have been collected and systematized. PMID:20609395

  18. Reversible amorphization and the catalytically active state of crystalline Co3O4 during oxygen evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bergmann, Arno; Martinez-Moreno, Elias; Teschner, Detre; Chernev, Petko; Gliech, Manuel; de Araújo, Jorge Ferreira; Reier, Tobias; Dau, Holger; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting catalysed by earth-abundant materials is pivotal for global-scale production of non-fossil fuels, yet our understanding of the active catalyst structure and reactivity is still insufficient. Here we report on the structurally reversible evolution of crystalline Co3O4 electrocatalysts during oxygen evolution reaction identified using advanced in situ X-ray techniques. At electrode potentials facilitating oxygen evolution, a sub-nanometre shell of the Co3O4 is transformed into an X-ray amorphous CoOx(OH)y which comprises di-μ-oxo-bridged Co3+/4+ ions. Unlike irreversible amorphizations, here, the formation of the catalytically-active layer is reversed by re-crystallization upon return to non-catalytic electrode conditions. The Co3O4 material thus combines the stability advantages of a controlled, stable crystalline material with high catalytic activity, thanks to the structural flexibility of its active amorphous oxides. We propose that crystalline oxides may be tailored for generating reactive amorphous surface layers at catalytic potentials, just to return to their stable crystalline state under rest conditions. PMID:26456525

  19. Reversible amorphization and the catalytically active state of crystalline Co3O4 during oxygen evolution.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Arno; Martinez-Moreno, Elias; Teschner, Detre; Chernev, Petko; Gliech, Manuel; de Arajo, Jorge Ferreira; Reier, Tobias; Dau, Holger; Strasser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Water splitting catalysed by earth-abundant materials is pivotal for global-scale production of non-fossil fuels, yet our understanding of the active catalyst structure and reactivity is still insufficient. Here we report on the structurally reversible evolution of crystalline Co3O4 electrocatalysts during oxygen evolution reaction identified using advanced in situ X-ray techniques. At electrode potentials facilitating oxygen evolution, a sub-nanometre shell of the Co3O4 is transformed into an X-ray amorphous CoOx(OH)y which comprises di-?-oxo-bridged Co(3+/4+) ions. Unlike irreversible amorphizations, here, the formation of the catalytically-active layer is reversed by re-crystallization upon return to non-catalytic electrode conditions. The Co3O4 material thus combines the stability advantages of a controlled, stable crystalline material with high catalytic activity, thanks to the structural flexibility of its active amorphous oxides. We propose that crystalline oxides may be tailored for generating reactive amorphous surface layers at catalytic potentials, just to return to their stable crystalline state under rest conditions. PMID:26456525

  20. Reversible amorphization and the catalytically active state of crystalline Co3O4 during oxygen evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergmann, Arno; Martinez-Moreno, Elias; Teschner, Detre; Chernev, Petko; Gliech, Manuel; de Araújo, Jorge Ferreira; Reier, Tobias; Dau, Holger; Strasser, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Water splitting catalysed by earth-abundant materials is pivotal for global-scale production of non-fossil fuels, yet our understanding of the active catalyst structure and reactivity is still insufficient. Here we report on the structurally reversible evolution of crystalline Co3O4 electrocatalysts during oxygen evolution reaction identified using advanced in situ X-ray techniques. At electrode potentials facilitating oxygen evolution, a sub-nanometre shell of the Co3O4 is transformed into an X-ray amorphous CoOx(OH)y which comprises di-μ-oxo-bridged Co3+/4+ ions. Unlike irreversible amorphizations, here, the formation of the catalytically-active layer is reversed by re-crystallization upon return to non-catalytic electrode conditions. The Co3O4 material thus combines the stability advantages of a controlled, stable crystalline material with high catalytic activity, thanks to the structural flexibility of its active amorphous oxides. We propose that crystalline oxides may be tailored for generating reactive amorphous surface layers at catalytic potentials, just to return to their stable crystalline state under rest conditions.