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Sample records for ampa receptor-lacking glutamatergic

  1. Impact of subanesthetic doses of ketamine on AMPA-mediated responses in rats: An in vivo electrophysiological study on monoaminergic and glutamatergic neurons

    PubMed Central

    El Iskandrani, Kareem S; Oosterhof, Chris A; Blier, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The rapid antidepressant action of a subanesthetic dose of ketamine in treatment-resistant patients represents the most striking recent breakthrough in the understanding of the antidepressant response. Evidence demonstrates tight interactions between the glutamatergic and monoaminergic systems. It is thus hypothesized that monoamine systems may play a role in the immediate/rapid effects of ketamine. In vivo electrophysiological recordings were carried in male rats following ketamine administration (10 and 25 mg/kg, i.p.) to first assess its effects on monoaminergic neuron firing. In a second series of experiments, the effects of ketamine administration on α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)- and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA)-evoked responses in hippocampus CA3 pyramidal neurons were also investigated using micro-iontophoretic applications. Although acute (~2 hours) ketamine administration did not affect the mean firing activity of dorsal raphe serotonin and ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons, it did increase that of locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons. In the latter brain region, while ketamine also enhanced bursting activity, it did increase population activity of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area. These effects of ketamine were prevented by the prior administration of the AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide. An increase in AMPA-evoked response of CA3 pyramidal neurons was also observed 30 minutes following acute ketamine administration. The present findings suggest that acute ketamine administration produces a rapid enhancement of catecholaminergic neurons firing activity through an amplification of AMPA transmission. These effects may play a crucial role in the antidepressant effects of ketamine observed shortly following its infusion in depressed patients. PMID:25759403

  2. Nuclear respiratory factor 1 co-regulates AMPA glutamate receptor subunit 2 and cytochrome c oxidase : Tight coupling of glutamatergic transmission and energy metabolism in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dhar, Shilpa S.; Liang, Huan Ling; Wong-Riley, Margaret T. T.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity, especially of the excitatory glutamatergic type, is highly dependent on energy from the oxidative pathway. We hypothesized that the coupling existed at the transcriptional level by having the same transcription factor to regulate a marker of energy metabolism, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) and an important subunit of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) glutamate receptors, GluR2 (Gria2). Nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) was a viable candidate because it regulates all COX subunits and potentially activates Gria2. By means of in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift, chromatin immunoprecipitation, and promoter mutational assays, we found that NRF-1 functionally bound to Gria2 promoter. Silencing of NRF-1 with small interference RNA prevented the depolarization-stimulated up-regulation of Gria2 and COX, and over-expression of NRF-1 rescued neurons from TTX-induced down-regulation of Gria2 and COX transcripts. Thus, neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled at the molecular level, and NRF-1 is a critical agent in this process. PMID:19166514

  3. NMDA and AMPA/kainate glutamatergic receptors in the prelimbic medial prefrontal cortex modulate the elaborated defensive behavior and innate fear-induced antinociception elicited by GABAA receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Salgado-Rohner, Carlos José; Biagioni, Audrey Francisco; Medeiros, Priscila; Hallak, Jaime Eduardo Cecílio; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA)/kainate receptors of the prelimbic (PL) division of the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) on the panic attack-like reactions evoked by γ-aminobutyric acid-A receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus (MH). Rats were pretreated with NaCl 0.9%, LY235959 (NMDA receptor antagonist), and NBQX (AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist) in the PL at 3 different concentrations. Ten minutes later, the MH was treated with bicuculline, and the defensive responses were recorded for 10 min. The antagonism of NMDA receptors in the PL decreased the frequency and duration of all defensive behaviors evoked by the stimulation of the MH and reduced the innate fear-induced antinociception. However, the pretreatment of the PL cortex with NBQX was able to decrease only part of defensive responses and innate fear-induced antinociception. The present findings suggest that the NMDA-glutamatergic system of the PL is critically involved in panic-like responses and innate fear-induced antinociception and those AMPA/kainate receptors are also recruited during the elaboration of fear-induced antinociception and in panic attack-related response. The activation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission of PL division of the MPFC during the elaboration of oriented behavioral reactions elicited by the chemical stimulation of the MH recruits mainly NMDA receptors in comparison with AMPA/kainate receptors. PMID:23349224

  4. The antidepressant-like effects of glutamatergic drugs ketamine and AMPA receptor potentiator LY 451646 are preserved in bdnf⁺/⁻ heterozygous null mice.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Jesse S O; Autio, Henri; Vesa, Liisa; Antila, Hanna; Lindemann, Lothar; Hoener, Marius C; Skolnick, Phil; Rantamäki, Tomi; Castrén, Eero

    2012-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that biogenic amine-based antidepressants act, at least in part, via regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling. Biogenic amine-based antidepressants increase BDNF synthesis and activate its signaling pathway through TrkB receptors. Moreover, the antidepressant-like effects of these molecules are abolished in BDNF deficient mice. Glutamate-based drugs, including the NMDA antagonist ketamine, and the AMPA receptor potentiator LY 451646, mimic the effects of antidepressants in preclinical tests with high predictive validity. In humans, a single intravenous dose of ketamine produces an antidepressant effect that is rapid, robust and persistent. In this study, we examined the role of BDNF in expression of the antidepressant-like effects of ketamine and an AMPA receptor potentiator (LY 451646) in the forced swim test (FST). Ketamine and LY 451646 produced antidepressant-like effects in the FST in mice at 45 min after a single injection, but no effects were observed one week after a single ketamine injection. As previously reported, the effects of imipramine in the forced swim test were blunted in heterozygous BDNF knockout (bdnf(+/-)) mice. However ketamine and LY 451646 produced similar antidepressant-like responses in wildtype and bdnf(+/-) mice. Neither ketamine nor LY 451646 significantly influenced the levels BDNF or TrkB phosphorylation in the hippocampus when assessed at 45 min or 7 days after the drug administration. These data demonstrate that under the conditions tested, neither ketamine nor the AMPA-potentiator LY 451656 activate BDNF signaling, but produce a characteristic antidepressant-like response in heterozygous bdnf(+/-) mice. These data indicate that unlike biogenic amine-based agents, BDNF signaling does not play a pivotal role in the antidepressant effects of glutamate-based compounds. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Anxiety and Depression'. PMID:21867718

  5. Calpain and the Glutamatergic Synapse

    PubMed Central

    Doshi, Shachee; Lynch, David R.

    2010-01-01

    Calpain is a ubiquitous protease found in different tissue types and in many organisms including mammals. It generally does not destroy its large variety of substrates, but more commonly disrupts their function. In neurons, many of its substrates become dysregulated as a result of cleavage of their regulatory domain by this protease, leading to altered signaling between cells. In glutamatergic synaptic transmission, direct targets of calpain include all of the major glutamate receptors: NMDA receptors, AMPA receptors and mGluR. By cleaving these receptors and associated intracellular proteins, calpain may regulate the physiology at glutamatergic synapses. As a result, calpain-mediated cleavage in neurons might not only be involved in pathological events like excitotoxicity, but may also have neuroprotective effects and roles in physiological synaptic transmission. PMID:19482714

  6. Activity Level-Dependent Synapse-Specific AMPA Receptor Trafficking Regulates Transmission Kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, J. Julius

    2009-01-01

    Central glutamatergic synapses may express AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors (AMPA-Rs) with distinct gating properties and exhibit different transmission dynamics, which are important for computing various synaptic inputs received at different populations of synapses. However, how glutamatergic synapses acquire AMPA-Rs with distinct kinetics to influence synaptic integration remains poorly understood. Here I report synapse-specific trafficking of distinct AMPA-Rs in rat cortical layer 4 stellate and layer 5 pyramidal neurons. The analysis indicates that in single layer 4 stellate neurons thalamocortical synapses generate faster synaptic responses than intracortical synapses. Moreover, GluR1-containing AMPA-Rs traffic selectively into intracortical synapses, and this process requires sensory experience-dependent activity and slows down transmission kinetics. GluR4-containing AMPA-Rs traffic more heavily into thalamocortical synapses than intracortical synapses, and this process requires spontaneous synaptic activity and speeds up transmission kinetics. GluR2-containing AMPA-Rs traffic equally into both thalamocortical and intracortical synapses, and this process requires no synaptic activity and resets transmission kinetics. Notably, synaptic trafficking of distinct AMPA-Rs differentially regulates synaptic integration. Thus, synapse-specific AMPA-R trafficking coarsely sets and synaptic activity finely tunes transmission kinetics and integration properties at different synapses in central neurons. PMID:19439609

  7. Assembly of AMPA receptors: mechanisms and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Quan; Salussolia, Catherine L; Wollmuth, Lonnie P

    2015-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) play a critical role in excitatory glutamatergic neurotransmission. The number and subunit composition of AMPARs at synapses determines the dynamics of fast glutamatergic signalling. Functional AMPARs on the cell surface are tetramers. Thus tetrameric assembly of AMPARs represents a promising target for modulating AMPAR-mediated signalling in health and disease. Multiple structural domains within the receptor influence AMPAR assembly. In a proposed model for AMPAR assembly, the amino-terminal domain underlies the formation of a dimer pool. The transmembrane domain facilitates the formation and enhances the stability of the tetramer. The ligand-binding domain influences assembly through a process referred to as ‘domain swapping’. We propose that this core AMPAR assembly process could be regulated by neuronal signals and speculate on possible mechanisms for such regulation. PMID:25556786

  8. AMPA/NMDA cooperativity and integration during a single synaptic event.

    PubMed

    Di Maio, Vito; Ventriglia, Francesco; Santillo, Silvia

    2016-10-01

    Coexistence of AMPA and NMDA receptors in glutamatergic synapses leads to a cooperative effect that can be very complex. This effect is dependent on many parameters including the relative and absolute number of the two types of receptors and biophysical parameters that can vary among synapses of the same cell. Herein we simulate the AMPA/NMDA cooperativity by using different number of the two types of receptors and considering the effect of the spine resistance on the EPSC production. Our results show that the relative number of NMDA with respect to AMPA produces a different degree of cooperation which depends also on the spine resistance. PMID:27299885

  9. Mechanisms for Antagonistic Regulation of AMPA and NMDA-D1 Receptor Complexes at Postsynaptic Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schumann, Johann; Scheler, Gabriele

    2004-01-01

    From the analysis of these pathways we conclude that postsynaptic processes that regulate synaptic transmission undergo significant cross-talk with respect to glutamatergic and neuromodulatory (dopamine) signals. The main hypothesis is that of a compensatory regulation, a competitive switch between the induction of increased AMPA conductance by CaMKII-dependent phosphorylation and reduced expression of PP2A, and increased D1 receptor sensitivity and expression by increased PKA, PP2A and decreased PP-1/calcineurin expression. Both types of plasticity are induced by NMDA receptor activation and increased internal calcium, they require different internal conditions to become expressed. Specifically we propose that AMPA regulation and D1 regulation are inversely coupled;The net result may be a bifurcation of synaptic state into predominantly AMPA or NMDA-D1 synapses. This could have functional consequences: stable connections for AMPA and conditional gating for NMDA-D1 synapses.

  10. Modulation of the glutamatergic transmission by Dopamine: a focus on Parkinson, Huntington and Addiction diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gardoni, Fabrizio; Bellone, Camilla

    2015-01-01

    Dopamine (DA) plays a major role in motor and cognitive functions as well as in reward processing by regulating glutamatergic inputs. In particular in the striatum the release of DA rapidly influences synaptic transmission modulating both AMPA and NMDA receptors. Several neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric disorders, including Parkinson, Huntington and addiction-related diseases, manifest a dysregulation of glutamate and DA signaling. Here, we will focus our attention on the mechanisms underlying the modulation of the glutamatergic transmission by DA in striatal circuits. PMID:25784855

  11. VTA glutamatergic inputs to nucleus accumbens drive aversion by acting on GABAergic interneurons.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jia; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui-Ling; Barker, David J; Miranda-Barrientos, Jorge; Morales, Marisela

    2016-05-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is best known for its dopamine neurons, some of which project to nucleus accumbens (nAcc). However, the VTA also has glutamatergic neurons that project to nAcc. The function of the mesoaccumbens glutamatergic pathway remains unknown. Here we report that nAcc photoactivation of mesoaccumbens glutamatergic fibers promotes aversion. Although we found that these mesoaccumbens glutamatergic fibers lack GABA, the aversion evoked by their photoactivation depended on glutamate- and GABA-receptor signaling, and not on dopamine-receptor signaling. We found that mesoaccumbens glutamatergic fibers established multiple asymmetric synapses on single parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons and that nAcc photoactivation of these fibers drove AMPA-mediated cellular firing of parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons. These parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons in turn inhibited nAcc medium spiny output neurons, thereby controlling inhibitory neurotransmission in nAcc. To our knowledge, the mesoaccumbens glutamatergic pathway is the first glutamatergic input to nAcc shown to mediate aversion instead of reward, and the first pathway shown to establish excitatory synapses on nAcc parvalbumin GABAergic interneurons. PMID:27019014

  12. Glutamatergic Retinal Waves

    PubMed Central

    Kerschensteiner, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous activity patterns propagate through many parts of the developing nervous system and shape the wiring of emerging circuits. Prior to vision, waves of activity originating in the retina propagate through the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) of the thalamus to primary visual cortex (V1). Retinal waves have been shown to instruct the wiring of ganglion cell axons in LGN and of thalamocortical axons in V1 via correlation-based plasticity rules. Across species, retinal waves mature in three stereotypic stages (I–III), in which distinct circuit mechanisms give rise to unique activity patterns that serve specific functions in visual system refinement. Here, I review insights into the patterns, mechanisms, and functions of stage III retinal waves, which rely on glutamatergic signaling. As glutamatergic waves spread across the retina, neighboring ganglion cells with opposite light responses (ON vs. OFF) are activated sequentially. Recent studies identified lateral excitatory networks in the inner retina that generate and propagate glutamatergic waves, and vertical inhibitory networks that desynchronize the activity of ON and OFF cells in the wavefront. Stage III wave activity patterns may help segregate axons of ON and OFF ganglion cells in the LGN, and could contribute to the emergence of orientation selectivity in V1. PMID:27242446

  13. Glutamatergic neuroplasticity in cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Uys, Joachim D; Reissner, Kathryn J

    2011-01-01

    Neuroadaptations among glutamatergic projections within the mesocorticolimbic circuits engaged by drugs of abuse have been described since the 1990s. There is now substantial evidence that drugs of abuse lead to long-term changes in glutamatergic signaling and encompass multiple levels of analysis. For example, cocaine induces changes in extracellular glutamate concentrations and in synaptic glutamatergic transmission. In addition, glutamate receptors are required for the expression of cocaine-related behaviors, and long-term changes have been reported in the expression of proteins at glutamatergic synapses, in glutamate-related redox regulation of neurons, and in glutamatergic synaptic and structural plasticity following chronic exposure to cocaine. In this chapter, we will describe the neurocircuitry involved, and will summarize evidence for adaptations in glutamatergic neuroplasticity as a mechanism for cocaine addiction. Finally, we will discuss progress in the development of glutamate-mediated pharmacotherapies for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:21199777

  14. Calcium permeable AMPA receptors and autoreceptors in external tufted cells of rat olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jie; Lowe, Graeme

    2007-01-01

    Glomeruli are functional units of the olfactory bulb responsible for early processing of odor information encoded by single olfactory receptor genes. Glomerular neural circuitry includes numerous external tufted (ET) cells whose rhythmic burst firing may mediate synchronization of bulbar activity with the inhalation cycle. Bursting is entrained by glutamatergic input from olfactory nerve terminals, so specific properties of ionotropic glutamate receptors on ET cells are likely to be important determinants of olfactory processing. Particularly intriguing is recent evidence that α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors of juxta-glomerular neurons may permeate calcium. This could provide a novel pathway for regulating ET cell signaling. We tested the hypothesis that ET cells express functional calcium-permeable AMPA receptors. In rat olfactory bulb slices, excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) in ET cells were evoked by olfactory nerve shock, and by uncaging glutamate. We found attenuation of AMPA/kainate EPSCs by 1-naphthyl acetyl-spermine (NAS), an open-channel blocker specific for calcium permeable AMPA receptors. Cyclothiazide strongly potentiated EPSCs, indicating a major contribution from AMPA receptors. The current-voltage (I-V) relation of uncaging EPSCs showed weak inward rectification which was lost after > ~ 10 min of whole-cell dialysis, and was absent in NAS. In kainate-stimulated slices, Co2+ ions permeated cells of the glomerular layer. Large AMPA EPSCs were accompanied by fluorescence signals in fluo-4 loaded cells, suggesting calcium permeation. Depolarizing pulses evoked slow tail currents with pharmacology consistent with involvement of calcium permeable AMPA autoreceptors. Tail currents were abolished by Cd2+ and NBQX, and were sensitive to NAS block. Glutamate autoreceptors were confirmed by uncaging intracellular calcium to evoke a large inward current. Our results provide evidence that calcium permeable AMPA

  15. Modulation of excitatory neurotransmission by neuronal/glial signalling molecules: interplay between purinergic and glutamatergic systems.

    PubMed

    Köles, László; Kató, Erzsébet; Hanuska, Adrienn; Zádori, Zoltán S; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Zelles, Tibor; Rubini, Patrizia; Illes, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter of the central nervous system (CNS), released both from neurons and glial cells. Acting via ionotropic (NMDA, AMPA, kainate) and metabotropic glutamate receptors, it is critically involved in essential regulatory functions. Disturbances of glutamatergic neurotransmission can be detected in cognitive and neurodegenerative disorders. This paper summarizes the present knowledge on the modulation of glutamate-mediated responses in the CNS. Emphasis will be put on NMDA receptor channels, which are essential executive and integrative elements of the glutamatergic system. This receptor is crucial for proper functioning of neuronal circuits; its hypofunction or overactivation can result in neuronal disturbances and neurotoxicity. Somewhat surprisingly, NMDA receptors are not widely targeted by pharmacotherapy in clinics; their robust activation or inhibition seems to be desirable only in exceptional cases. However, their fine-tuning might provide a promising manipulation to optimize the activity of the glutamatergic system and to restore proper CNS function. This orchestration utilizes several neuromodulators. Besides the classical ones such as dopamine, novel candidates emerged in the last two decades. The purinergic system is a promising possibility to optimize the activity of the glutamatergic system. It exerts not only direct and indirect influences on NMDA receptors but, by modulating glutamatergic transmission, also plays an important role in glia-neuron communication. These purinergic functions will be illustrated mostly by depicting the modulatory role of the purinergic system on glutamatergic transmission in the prefrontal cortex, a CNS area important for attention, memory and learning. PMID:26542977

  16. AMPA experimental communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckerman, D.; Fass, S.; Keon, T.; Sielman, P.

    1982-01-01

    The program was conducted to demonstrate the satellite communication advantages of Adaptive Phased Array Technology. A laboratory based experiment was designed and implemented to demonstrate a low earth orbit satellite communications system. Using a 32 element, L-band phased array augmented with 4 sets of weights (2 for reception and 2 for transmission) a high speed digital processing system and operating against multiple user terminals and interferers, the AMPA system demonstrated: communications with austere user terminals, frequency reuse, communications in the face of interference, and geolocation. The program and experiment objectives are described, the system hardware and software/firmware are defined, and the test performed and the resultant test data are presented.

  17. Noradrenergic modulation of masseter muscle activity during natural rapid eye movement sleep requires glutamatergic signalling at the trigeminal motor nucleus.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Peter B; Mir, Saba; Peever, John H

    2014-08-15

    Noradrenergic neurotransmission in the brainstem is closely coupled to changes in muscle activity across the sleep-wake cycle, and noradrenaline is considered to be a key excitatory neuromodulator that reinforces the arousal-related stimulus on motoneurons to drive movement. However, it is unknown if α-1 noradrenoceptor activation increases motoneuron responsiveness to excitatory glutamate (AMPA) receptor-mediated inputs during natural behaviour. We studied the effects of noradrenaline on AMPA receptor-mediated motor activity at the motoneuron level in freely behaving rats, particularly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, a period during which both AMPA receptor-triggered muscle twitches and periods of muscle quiescence in which AMPA drive is silent are exhibited. Male rats were subjected to electromyography and electroencephalography recording to monitor sleep and waking behaviour. The implantation of a cannula into the trigeminal motor nucleus of the brainstem allowed us to perfuse noradrenergic and glutamatergic drugs by reverse microdialysis, and thus to use masseter muscle activity as an index of motoneuronal output. We found that endogenous excitation of both α-1 noradrenoceptor and AMPA receptors during waking are coupled to motor activity; however, REM sleep exhibits an absence of endogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor activity. Importantly, exogenous α-1 noradrenoceptor stimulation cannot reverse the muscle twitch suppression induced by AMPA receptor blockade and nor can it elevate muscle activity during quiet REM, a phase when endogenous AMPA receptor activity is subthreshold. We conclude that the presence of an endogenous glutamatergic drive is necessary for noradrenaline to trigger muscle activity at the level of the motoneuron in an animal behaving naturally. PMID:24860176

  18. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor acutely inhibits AMPA-mediated currents in developing sensory relay neurons.

    PubMed

    Balkowiec, A; Kunze, D L; Katz, D M

    2000-03-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is expressed by many primary sensory neurons that no longer require neurotrophins for survival, indicating that BDNF may be used as a signaling molecule by the afferents themselves. Because many primary afferents also express glutamate, we investigated the possibility that BDNF modulates glutamatergic AMPA responses of newborn second-order sensory relay neurons. Perforated-patch, voltage-clamp recordings were made from dissociated neurons of the brainstem nucleus tractus solitarius (nTS), a region that receives massive primary afferent input from BDNF-containing neurons in the nodose and petrosal cranial sensory ganglia. Electrophysiological analysis was combined in some experiments with anterograde labeling of primary afferent terminals to specifically analyze responses of identified second-order neurons. Our data demonstrate that BDNF strongly inhibits AMPA-mediated currents in a large subset of nTS cells. Specifically, AMPA responses were either completely abolished or markedly inhibited by BDNF in 73% of postnatal day (P0) cells and in 82% of identified P5 second-order sensory relay neurons. This effect of BDNF is mimicked by NT-4, but not NGF, and blocked by the Trk tyrosine kinase inhibitor K252a, consistent with a requirement for TrkB receptor activation. Moreover, analysis of TrkB expression in culture revealed a close correlation between the percentage of nTS neurons in which BDNF inhibits AMPA currents and the percentage of neurons that exhibit TrkB immunoreactivity. These data document a previously undefined mechanism of acute modulation of AMPA responses by BDNF and indicate that BDNF may regulate glutamatergic transmission at primary afferent synapses. PMID:10684891

  19. Rewarding Effects of Optical Stimulation of Ventral Tegmental Area Glutamatergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui-Ling; Qi, Jia; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Huikun; Morales, Marisela

    2015-12-01

    Ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons play roles in reward and aversion. The VTA has three major neuronal phenotypes: dopaminergic, GABAergic, and glutamatergic. VTA glutamatergic neurons--expressing vesicular glutamate transporter-2 (VGluT2)--project to limbic and cortical regions, but also excite neighboring dopaminergic neurons. Here, we test whether local photoactivation of VTA VGluT2 neurons expressing Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) under the VGluT2 promoter causes place preference and supports operant responding for the stimulation. By using a Cre-dependent viral vector, ChR2 (tethered to mCherry) was expressed in VTA glutamatergic neurons of VGluT2::Cre mice. The mCherry distribution was evaluated by immunolabeling. By confocal microscopy, we detected expression of mCherry in VTA cell bodies and local processes. In contrast, VGluT2 expression was restricted to varicosities, some of them coexpressing mCherry. By electron microscopy, we determined that mCherry-VGluT2 varicosities correspond to axon terminals, forming asymmetric synapses on neighboring dopaminergic neurons. These findings indicate that ChR2 was present in terminals containing glutamatergic synaptic vesicles and involved in local synaptic connections. Photoactivation of VTA slices from ChR2-expressing mice induced AMPA/NMDA receptor-dependent firing of dopaminergic neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens. VTA photoactivation of ChR2-expressing mice reinforced instrumental behavior and established place preferences. VTA injections of AMPA or NMDA receptor antagonists blocked optical self-stimulation and place preference. These findings suggest a role in reward function for VTA glutamatergic neurons through local excitatory synapses on mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons. PMID:26631475

  20. Role of endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice.

    PubMed

    Egashira, Nobuaki; Shirakawa, Atsunori; Okuno, Ryoko; Mishima, Kenichi; Iwasaki, Katsunori; Oishi, Ryozo; Fujiwara, Michihiro

    2011-07-01

    We previously reported that systemic administration of the endocannabinoid anandamide inhibited the head-twitches induced by the hallucinogenic drug 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) in mice, which is mediated via the activation of 5-HT(2A) receptors. Endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems have been suggested to modulate the function of 5-HT(2A) receptors. In the present study, we further investigated the role of endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems in DOI-induced head-twitch response in mice. An anandamide transport inhibitor AM404 (0.3-3mg/kg, i.p.), a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor URB597 (0.1-10mg/kg, i.p.), a glutamate release inhibitor riluzole (0.3 and 1mg/kg, i.p.), a natural glutamate analog l-glutamylethylamide (theanine, 1 and 3mg/kg, p.o.) and an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist NBQX (0.01-0.3mg/kg, i.p.) significantly inhibited DOI-induced head-twitch response. The AMPA receptor positive modulator aniracetam (30 or 100mg/kg, p.o.) reversed inhibition of head-twitch response by NBQX and URB597. These findings indicated that endocannabinoid and glutamatergic systems participate in the mechanism of action of DOI to induce head-twitch response. PMID:21504759

  1. Glutamatergic signaling at the vestibular hair cell calyx synapse.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Soroush G; Pyott, Sonja J; Yu, Zhou; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2014-10-29

    In the vestibular periphery a unique postsynaptic terminal, the calyx, completely covers the basolateral walls of type I hair cells and receives input from multiple ribbon synapses. To date, the functional role of this specialized synapse remains elusive. There is limited data supporting glutamatergic transmission, K(+) or H(+) accumulation in the synaptic cleft as mechanisms of transmission. Here the role of glutamatergic transmission at the calyx synapse is investigated. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from calyx endings were performed in an in vitro whole-tissue preparation of the rat vestibular crista, the sensory organ of the semicircular canals that sense head rotation. AMPA-mediated EPSCs showed an unusually wide range of decay time constants, from <5 to >500 ms. Decay time constants of EPSCs increased (or decreased) in the presence of a glutamate transporter blocker (or a competitive glutamate receptor blocker), suggesting a role for glutamate accumulation and spillover in synaptic transmission. Glutamate accumulation caused slow depolarizations of the postsynaptic membrane potentials, and thereby substantially increased calyx firing rates. Finally, antibody labelings showed that a high percentage of presynaptic ribbon release sites and postsynaptic glutamate receptors were not juxtaposed, favoring a role for spillover. These findings suggest a prominent role for glutamate spillover in integration of inputs and synaptic transmission in the vestibular periphery. We propose that similar to other brain areas, such as the cerebellum and hippocampus, glutamate spillover may play a role in gain control of calyx afferents and contribute to their high-pass properties. PMID:25355208

  2. Glutamatergic Targets for Enhancing Extinction Learning in Drug Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Cleva, R.M; Gass, J.T; Widholm, J.J; Olive, M.F

    2010-01-01

    The persistence of the motivational salience of drug-related environmental cues and contexts is one of the most problematic obstacles to successful treatment of drug addiction. Behavioral approaches to extinguishing the salience of drug-associated cues, such as cue exposure therapy, have generally produced disappointing results which have been attributed to, among other things, the context specificity of extinction and inadequate consolidation of extinction learning. Extinction of any behavior or conditioned response is a process of new and active learning, and increasing evidence suggests that glutamatergic neurotransmission, a key component of the neural plasticity that underlies normal learning and memory, is also involved in extinction learning. This review will summarize findings from both animal and human studies that suggest that pharmacological enhancement of glutamatergic neurotransmission facilitates extinction learning in the context of drug addiction. Pharmacological agents that have shown potential efficacy include NMDA partial agonists, mGluR5 receptor positive allosteric modulators, inhibitors of the GlyT1 glycine transporter, AMPA receptor potentiators, and activators of the cystine-glutamate exchanger. These classes of cognition-enhancing compounds could potentially serve as novel pharmacological adjuncts to cue exposure therapy to increase success rates in attenuating cue-induced drug craving and relapse. PMID:21629446

  3. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases insulin level by regulating altered IP3 and AMPA receptor expression in the pancreatic islets of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Jayanarayanan, Sadanandan; Anju, Thoppil R; Smijin, Soman; Paulose, Cheramadathikudiyil Skaria

    2015-10-01

    Pancreatic islets, particularly insulin-secreting β cells, share common characteristics with neurons. Glutamate is one of the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and pancreas, and its action is mediated through glutamate receptors. In the present work, we analysed the role of vitamin D3 in the modulation of AMPA receptor subunit and their functional role in insulin release. Radio receptor binding study in diabetic rats showed a significant increase in AMPA receptor density. Insulin AMPA colabelling study showed an altered AMPA GluR2 and GluR4 subunit expression in the pancreatic beta cells. We also found lowered IP3 content and decreased IP3 receptor in pancreas of diabetic rats. The alterations in AMPA and IP3 receptor resulted in reduced cytosolic calcium level concentration, which further blocks Ca(2+)-mediated insulin release. Vitamin D3 supplementation restored the alteration in vitamin D receptor expression, AMPA receptor density and AMPA and IP3 receptor expression in the pancreatic islets that helps to restore the calcium-mediated insulin secretion. Our study reveals the antidiabetic property of vitamin D3 that is suggested to have therapeutic role through regulating glutamatergic function in diabetic rats. PMID:26054778

  4. Role of nucleus accumbens glutamatergic plasticity in drug addiction

    PubMed Central

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2013-01-01

    . Antagonism of the CP-AMPARs reduces cravings. It is necessary to pursue further exploration of the AMPA receptor subunit composition and variations at the level of the NAc for a better understanding of glutamatergic plastic changes. It is known that cocaine and morphine are able to induce changes in dendritic spine morphology by modifying actin cycling. These changes include an initial increase in spine head diameter and increases in AMPA receptor expression, followed by a second stage of spine head diameter retraction and reduction of the AMPA receptors’ expression in spines. Besides glutamate and dopamine, other factors, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can influence NAc activity and induce changes in dendritic spine density. BDNF also induces drug-related behaviors like self-administration and relapse. Neither apoptosis nor neurogenesis plays a relevant role in the neurobiological processes subjacent to cocaine addiction in adults (rodent or human). Different therapeutic drugs like N-acetylcysteine (NAC), modafinil, acamprosate, and topiramate have been tested in preclinical and/or clinical models for alleviating drug relapse. Moreover, these therapeutic drugs target the glutamatergic circuitry between the PFC and the NAc. NAC and acamprosate have shown inconsistent results in clinical trials. Modafinil and topiramate have shown some success, but more clinical trials are necessary. Based on the current review findings, it could be recommendable to explore therapeutic approaches that include synergism between different drugs and neurotransmitter systems. The discrepancy in the results of some therapeutic drugs between preclinical versus clinical trials for alleviating relapse or drug dependence could be linked to the scarce exploration of preclinical models that mimic polydrug abuse patterns, for example, cocaine plus alcohol. At the clinical level, the pattern of polydrug consumption is a phenomenon of considerable frequency. Finally, as a complement at

  5. Role of nucleus accumbens glutamatergic plasticity in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2013-01-01

    . Antagonism of the CP-AMPARs reduces cravings. It is necessary to pursue further exploration of the AMPA receptor subunit composition and variations at the level of the NAc for a better understanding of glutamatergic plastic changes. It is known that cocaine and morphine are able to induce changes in dendritic spine morphology by modifying actin cycling. These changes include an initial increase in spine head diameter and increases in AMPA receptor expression, followed by a second stage of spine head diameter retraction and reduction of the AMPA receptors' expression in spines. Besides glutamate and dopamine, other factors, like brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), can influence NAc activity and induce changes in dendritic spine density. BDNF also induces drug-related behaviors like self-administration and relapse. Neither apoptosis nor neurogenesis plays a relevant role in the neurobiological processes subjacent to cocaine addiction in adults (rodent or human). Different therapeutic drugs like N-acetylcysteine (NAC), modafinil, acamprosate, and topiramate have been tested in preclinical and/or clinical models for alleviating drug relapse. Moreover, these therapeutic drugs target the glutamatergic circuitry between the PFC and the NAc. NAC and acamprosate have shown inconsistent results in clinical trials. Modafinil and topiramate have shown some success, but more clinical trials are necessary. Based on the current review findings, it could be recommendable to explore therapeutic approaches that include synergism between different drugs and neurotransmitter systems. The discrepancy in the results of some therapeutic drugs between preclinical versus clinical trials for alleviating relapse or drug dependence could be linked to the scarce exploration of preclinical models that mimic polydrug abuse patterns, for example, cocaine plus alcohol. At the clinical level, the pattern of polydrug consumption is a phenomenon of considerable frequency. Finally, as a complement at the

  6. KCC2 Gates Activity-Driven AMPA Receptor Traffic through Cofilin Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Chevy, Quentin; Heubl, Martin; Goutierre, Marie; Backer, Stéphanie; Moutkine, Imane; Eugène, Emmanuel; Bloch-Gallego, Evelyne; Lévi, Sabine; Poncer, Jean Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Expression of the neuronal K/Cl transporter KCC2 is tightly regulated throughout development and by both normal and pathological neuronal activity. Changes in KCC2 expression have often been associated with altered chloride homeostasis and GABA signaling. However, recent evidence supports a role of KCC2 in the development and function of glutamatergic synapses through mechanisms that remain poorly understood. Here we show that suppressing KCC2 expression in rat hippocampal neurons precludes long-term potentiation of glutamatergic synapses specifically by preventing activity-driven membrane delivery of AMPA receptors. This effect is independent of KCC2 transporter function and can be accounted for by increased Rac1/PAK- and LIMK-dependent cofilin phosphorylation and actin polymerization in dendritic spines. Our results demonstrate that KCC2 plays a critical role in the regulation of spine actin cytoskeleton and gates long-term plasticity at excitatory synapses in cortical neurons. PMID:26631461

  7. Specificity protein 4 (Sp4) regulates the transcription of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 (Gria2).

    PubMed

    Priya, Anusha; Johar, Kaid; Nair, Bindu; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2014-06-01

    The alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are important glutamatergic receptors mediating fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. The regulation of the four subunits of AMPA receptors, GluA1-4, is poorly understood. Excitatory synaptic transmission is highly energy-demanding, and this energy is derived mainly from the oxidative pathway. Recently, we found that specificity factor regulates all subunits of cytochrome c oxidase (COX), a critical energy-generating enzyme. COX is also regulated by nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1), which transcriptionally controls the Gria2 (GluA2) gene of AMPA receptors. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that Sp-factors (Sp1, Sp3, and/or Sp4) also regulate AMPA subunit genes. If so, we wish to determine if Sp-factors and NRF-1 function via a complementary, concurrent and parallel, or a combination of complementary and concurrent/parallel mechanism. By means of multiple approaches, including electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, we found that Sp4, but not Sp1 or Sp3, regulates the Gria2, but not Gria1, 3, or 4, subunit gene of the AMPA receptor in a concurrent and parallel manner with NRF-1. Thus, Sp4 and NRF-1 both mediate the tight coupling between neuronal activity and energy metabolism at the transcriptional level. PMID:24576410

  8. Architecture of fully occupied GluA2 AMPA receptor-TARP complex elucidated by cryo-EM.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yan; Chen, Shanshuang; Yoshioka, Craig; Baconguis, Isabelle; Gouaux, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Fast excitatory neurotransmission in the mammalian central nervous system is largely carried out by AMPA-sensitive ionotropic glutamate receptors. Localized within the postsynaptic density of glutamatergic spines, AMPA receptors are composed of heterotetrameric receptor assemblies associated with auxiliary subunits, the most common of which are transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). The association of TARPs with AMPA receptors modulates receptor trafficking and the kinetics of receptor gating and pharmacology. Here we report the cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) structure of the homomeric rat GluA2 AMPA receptor saturated with TARP γ2 subunits, which shows how the TARPs are arranged with four-fold symmetry around the ion channel domain and make extensive interactions with the M1, M2 and M4 transmembrane helices. Poised like partially opened ‘hands’ underneath the two-fold symmetric ligand-binding domain (LBD) 'clamshells', one pair of TARPs is juxtaposed near the LBD dimer interface, whereas the other pair is near the LBD dimer-dimer interface. The extracellular ‘domains’ of TARP are positioned to not only modulate LBD clamshell closure, but also affect conformational rearrangements of the LBD layer associated with receptor activation and desensitization, while the TARP transmembrane domains buttress the ion channel pore. PMID:27368053

  9. Bipolar disorder: involvement of signaling cascades and AMPA receptor trafficking at synapses

    PubMed Central

    DU, JING; QUIROZ, JORGE; YUAN, PEIXIONG; ZARATE, CARLOS; MANJI, HUSSEINI K.

    2009-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that severe mood disorders are associated with impairment of structural plasticity and cellular resilience. Cumulative data demonstrate that mood stabilizers regulate intracellular signaling cascades, including protein kinase C (PKC), PKA, mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, glycogen synthase kinase 3-β (GSK3-β) and intracellular calcium, which are signaling pathways that regulate synaptic plasticity. In this context, it is noteworthy that a growing body of data indicates that the glutamatergic system, has a major role in neuronal plasticity and cellular resilience, might be involved in the pathophysiology and treatment of mood disorders. AMPA glutamate-receptor trafficking is important in synaptic plasticity and might play crucial roles in maintaining critical neuronal circuits associated with mood. Two clinically effective, structurally dissimilar, antimanic agents, lithium and valproate (VPA), down-regulate synaptic expression of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in hippocampus in chronically treated rats. This reduction in synaptic GluR1 by lithium and VPA is due to attenuated phosphorylation of GluR1 at a specific PKA site (residue 845 of GluR1), which is crucial for AMPA receptor insertion. By contrast, imipramine, which can provoke mania, increases synaptic expression of GluR1 in the hippocampus in vivo. Furthermore, there is ample evidence from preclinical and clinical research that the glutamatergic system is involved in the pathophysiology of mood disorders and that many of the somatic treatments used for mood disorders including antidepressants, mood stabilizers, atypical antipsychotic drugs and electroconvulsive therapy have both direct and indirect effects on the glutamatergic system. Given these findings, further research with medications that specifically affect the glutamatergic system is warranted. Recent studies in our lab have shown that riluzole, a FDA approved medicine that regulates the glutamatergic system, shows

  10. Stargazin is an AMPA receptor auxiliary subunit.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Wim; Nicoll, Roger A; Bredt, David S

    2005-01-11

    AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in brain and underlie aspects of synaptic plasticity. Numerous AMPA receptor-binding proteins have been implicated in AMPA receptor trafficking and anchoring. However, the relative contributions of these proteins to the composition of native AMPA receptor complexes in brain remain uncertain. Here, we use blue native gel electrophoresis to analyze the composition of native AMPA receptor complexes in cerebellar extracts. We identify two receptor populations: a functional form that contains the transmembrane AMPA receptor-regulatory protein stargazin and an apo-form that lacks stargazin. Limited proteolysis confirms assembly of stargazin with a large proportion of native AMPA receptors. In contrast, other AMPA receptor-interacting proteins, such as synapse-associated protein 97, glutamate receptor-interacting protein 1, protein kinase Calpha binding protein, N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein, AP2, and protein 4.1N, do not show significant association with AMPA receptor complexes on native gels. These data identify stargazin as an auxiliary subunit for a neurotransmitter-gated ion channel. PMID:15630087

  11. The inhibitory input to mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells is reciprocally modulated by Bergmann glial P2Y1 and AMPA receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Ramona; Jahn, Hannah M; Courjaret, Raphael; Messemer, Nanette; Kirchhoff, Frank; Deitmer, Joachim W

    2016-07-01

    Synaptic transmission has been shown to be modulated by glial functions, but the modes of specific glial action may vary in different neural circuits. We have tested the hypothesis, if Bergmann GLIA (BG) are involved in shaping neuronal communication in the mouse cerebellar cortex, using acutely isolated cerebellar slices of wild-type (WT) and of glia-specific receptor knockout mice. Activation of P2Y1 receptors by ADP (100 µM) or glutamatergic receptors by AMPA (0.3 µM) resulted in a robust, reversible and repeatable rise of evoked inhibitory input in Purkinje cells by 80% and 150%, respectively. The ADP-induced response was suppressed by prior application of AMPA, and the AMPA-induced response was suppressed by prior application of ADP. Genetic deletion or pharmacological blockade of either receptor restored the response to the other receptor agonist. Both ADP and AMPA responses were sensitive to Rose Bengal, which blocks vesicular glutamate uptake, and to the NMDA receptor antagonist D-AP5. Our results provide strong evidence that activation of both ADP and AMPA receptors, located on BGs, results in the release of glutamate, which in turn activates inhibitory interneurons via NMDA-type glutamate receptors. This infers that BG cells, by means of metabotropic signaling via their AMPA and P2Y1 receptors, which mutually suppress each other, would interdependently contribute to the fine-tuning of Purkinje cell activity in the cerebellar cortex. GLIA 2016. GLIA 2016;64:1265-1280. PMID:27144942

  12. Synaptic commitment: developmentally regulated reciprocal changes in hippocampal granule cell NMDA and AMPA receptors over the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiyong; Krause, Michael; Rao, Geeta; McNaughton, Bruce L; Barnes, C A

    2008-06-01

    Synaptic transmission in hippocampal field CA1 is largely N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDA(R)) dependent during the early postnatal period. It becomes increasingly mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptors until an adult ratio of AMPA to NMDA receptors is achieved. It is shown here that increases in the AMPA receptor (AMPA(R))-mediated field potential response continue over the life span of the F-344 rat at the perforant path-granule cell synapse in the dentate gyrus. In contrast, the NMDA(R)-dependent component of the response decreases with age between 1 and 27 mo, leading to an increase of AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio with age. One possible explanation of this age difference is that the AMPA(R)/NMDA(R) ratio can be modified by experience. To test the idea that the changed ratio is caused by the old rats' longer lives, an intensive 10-mo period of enrichment treatment was given to a group of animals, beginning at 3 mo of age. Compared with animals housed in standard cages, the enrichment treatment did not alter the glutamatergic response ratio measured with field potential recording methods. These data provide support for the conclusion that the observed change with age is developmentally regulated rather than experience dependent. Given the role of the NMDA(R) in synaptic plasticity, these changes suggest a progressive commitment of perforant path synapses to particular weights over the life span. One possible implication of this effect includes preservation of selected memories, ultimately at the expense of a reduced capacity to store new information. PMID:18417629

  13. Roles of the NMDA Receptor and EAAC1 Transporter in the Modulation of Extracellular Glutamate by Low and High Affinity AMPA Receptors in the Cerebellum in Vivo: Differential Alteration in Chronic Hyperammonemia.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Taoro, Lucas; Llansola, Marta; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-12-16

    The roles of high- and low-affinity AMPA receptors in modulating extracellular glutamate in the cerebellum remain unclear. Altered glutamatergic neurotransmission is involved in neurological alterations in hyperammonemia, which differently affects high- and low-affinity AMPA receptors. The aims were to assess by in vivo microdialysis (a) the effects of high- and low-affinity AMPA receptor activation on extracellular glutamate in the cerebellum; (b) whether chronic hyperammonemia alters extracellular glutamate modulation by high- and/or low-affinity AMPA receptors; and (c) the contribution of NMDA receptors and EAAC1 transporter to AMPA-induced changes in extracellular glutamate. In control rats, high affinity receptor activation does not affect extracellular glutamate but increases glutamate if NMDA receptors are blocked. Low affinity AMPA receptor activation increases transiently extracellular glutamate followed by reduction below basal levels and return to basal values. The reduction is associated with transient increased membrane expression of EAAC1 and is prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. Blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801 induces a transient increase in extracellular glutamate which is associated with reduced membrane expression of EAAC1 followed by increased membrane expression of the glutamate transporter GLT-1. Chronic hyperammonemia does not affect responses to activation of low affinity AMPA receptors. Activation of high affinity AMPA receptors increases extracellular glutamate in hyperammonemic rats by an NMDA receptor-dependent mechanism. In conclusion, these results show that there is a tightly controlled interplay between AMPA and NMDA receptors and an EAAC1 transporter in controlling extracellular glutamate. Hyperammonemia alters high- but not low-affinity AMPA receptors. PMID:26428532

  14. MODELING GLUTAMATERGIC SYNAPSES: INSIGHTS INTO MECHANISMS REGULATING SYNAPTIC EFFICACY

    PubMed Central

    BOUTEILLER, JEAN-MARIE C.; BAUDRY, MICHEL; ALLAM, SUSHMITA L.; GREGET, RENAUD J.; BISCHOFF, SERGE; BERGER, THEODORE W.

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampal formation is critically involved for the long-term storage of various forms of information, and it is widely believed that the phenomenon of long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission is a molecular/cellular mechanism participating in memory formation. Although several high level models of hippocampal function have been developed, they do not incorporate detailed molecular information of the type necessary to understand the contribution of individual molecular events to the mechanisms underlying LTP and learning and memory. We are therefore developing new technological tools based on mathematical modeling and computer simulation of the molecular processes taking place in realistic biological networks to reach such an understanding. This article briefly summarizes the approach we are using and illustrates it by presenting data regarding the effects of changing the number of AMPA receptors on various features of glutamatergic transmission, including NMDA receptor-mediated responses and paired-pulse facilitation. We conclude by discussing the significance of these results and providing some ideas for future directions with this approach. PMID:18763719

  15. Cocaine facilitates glutamatergic transmission and activates lateral habenular neurons.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Wanhong; Chen, Lixin; Wang, Liwei; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2013-07-01

    Cocaine administration can be both rewarding and aversive. While much effort has gone to investigating the rewarding effect, the mechanisms underlying cocaine-induced aversion remain murky. There is increasing evidence that the lateral habenula (LHb), a small epithalamic structure, plays a critical role in the aversive responses of many addictive drugs including cocaine. However, the effects of cocaine on LHb neurons are not well explored. Here we show that, in acute brain slices from rats, cocaine depolarized LHb neurons and accelerated their spontaneous firing. The AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptor antagonists, 6, 7-dinitroquinoxaline-2, 3-dione, DL-2-amino-5-phosphono-valeric acid, attenuated cocaine-induced acceleration. In addition, cocaine concentration-dependently enhanced glutamatergic excitation: enhanced the amplitude but reduced the paired pulse ratio of EPSCs elicited by electrical stimulations, and increased the frequency of spontaneous EPSCs in the absence and presence of tetrodotoxin. Dopamine and the agonists of dopamine D1 (SKF 38393) and D2 (quinpirole) receptors, as well as the dopamine transporter blocker (GBR12935), mimicked the effects of cocaine. Conversely, both D1 (SKF83566) and D2 (raclopride) antagonists substantially attenuated cocaine's effects on EPSCs and firing. Together, our results provide evidence that cocaine may act primarily via an increase in dopamine levels in the LHb that activates both D1 and D2 receptors. This leads to an increase in presynaptic glutamate release probability and LHb neuron activity. This may contribute to the aversive effect of cocaine observed in vivo. PMID:23347950

  16. Synaptic activity regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through different recycling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ning; Jeyifous, Okunola; Munro, Charlotte; Montgomery, Johanna M; Green, William N

    2015-01-01

    Changes in glutamatergic synaptic strength in brain are dependent on AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) recycling, which is assumed to occur through a single local pathway. In this study, we present evidence that AMPAR recycling occurs through different pathways regulated by synaptic activity. Without synaptic stimulation, most AMPARs recycled in dynamin-independent endosomes containing the GTPase, Arf6. Few AMPARs recycled in dynamin-dependent endosomes labeled by transferrin receptors (TfRs). AMPAR recycling was blocked by alterations in the GTPase, TC10, which co-localized with Arf6 endosomes. TC10 mutants that reduced AMPAR recycling had no effect on increased AMPAR levels with long-term potentiation (LTP) and little effect on decreased AMPAR levels with long-term depression. However, internalized AMPAR levels in TfR-containing recycling endosomes increased after LTP, indicating increased AMPAR recycling through the dynamin-dependent pathway with synaptic plasticity. LTP-induced AMPAR endocytosis is inconsistent with local recycling as a source of increased surface receptors, suggesting AMPARs are trafficked from other sites. PMID:25970033

  17. Posttranslational regulation of AMPA receptor trafficking and function

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wei; Roche, Katherine W.

    2011-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission is mediated by glutamate acting on AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors. The abundance of AMPA receptors at the synapse can be modulated through receptor trafficking, which dynamically regulates many fundamental brain functions, including learning and memory. Reversible posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation, palmitoylation and ubiquitination of AMPA receptor subunits are important regulatory mechanisms for controlling synaptic AMPA receptor expression and function. In this review, we highlight recent advances in the study of AMPA receptor posttranslational modifications and discuss how these modifications regulate AMPA receptor trafficking and function at synapses. PMID:22000952

  18. Developmental Nicotine Exposure Alters AMPA Neurotransmission in the Hypoglossal Motor Nucleus and Pre-Bötzinger Complex of Neonatal Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Stuti J.; Pilarski, Jason Q.; Harrison, Caitlyn M.; Fregosi, Ralph F.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental nicotine exposure (DNE) impacts central respiratory control in neonates born to smoking mothers. We previously showed that DNE enhances the respiratory motor response to bath application of AMPA to the brainstem, although it was unclear which brainstem respiratory neurons mediated these effects (Pilarski and Fregosi, 2009). Here we examine how DNE influences AMPA-type glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC) and the hypoglossal motor nucleus (XIIMN), which are neuronal populations located in the medulla that are necessary for normal breathing. Using rhythmic brainstem slices from neonatal rats, we microinjected AMPA into the pre-BötC or the XIIMN while recording from XII nerve rootlets (XIIn) as an index of respiratory motor output. DNE increased the duration of tonic activity and reduced rhythmic burst amplitude after AMPA microinjection into the XIIMN. Also, DNE led to an increase in respiratory burst frequency after AMPA injection into the pre-BötC. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of XII motoneurons showed that DNE increased motoneuron excitability but did not change inward currents. Immunohistochemical studies indicate that DNE reduced the expression of glutamate receptor subunits 2 and 3 (GluR2/3) in the XIIMN and the pre-BötC. Our data show that DNE alters AMPAergic synaptic transmission in both the XIIMN and pre-BötC, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unclear. We suggest that the DNE-induced reduction in GluR2/3 may represent an attempt to compensate for increased cell excitability, consistent with mechanisms underlying homeostatic plasticity. PMID:23392689

  19. The SOL-2/Neto auxiliary protein modulates the function of AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui; Mellem, Jerry E; Jensen, Michael; Brockie, Penelope J; Walker, Craig S; Hoerndli, Frédéric J; Hauth, Linda; Madsen, David M; Maricq, Andres V

    2012-09-01

    The neurotransmitter glutamate mediates excitatory synaptic transmission by gating ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). AMPA receptors (AMPARs), a subtype of iGluR, are strongly implicated in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. We previously discovered two classes of AMPAR auxiliary proteins in C. elegans that modify receptor kinetics and thus change synaptic transmission. Here, we have identified another auxiliary protein, SOL-2, a CUB-domain protein that associates with both the related auxiliary subunit SOL-1 and with the GLR-1 AMPAR. In sol-2 mutants, behaviors dependent on glutamatergic transmission are disrupted, GLR-1-mediated currents are diminished, and GLR-1 desensitization and pharmacology are modified. Remarkably, a secreted variant of SOL-1 delivered in trans can rescue sol-1 mutants, and this rescue depends on in cis expression of SOL-2. Finally, we demonstrate that SOL-1 and SOL-2 have an ongoing role in the adult nervous system to control AMPAR-mediated currents. PMID:22958824

  20. AMPA receptor synaptic plasticity induced by psychostimulants: the past, present, and therapeutic future

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, M. Scott; Chen, Billy T.; Bonci, Antonello

    2010-01-01

    Experience-dependent plasticity at excitatory synapses of the mesocorticolimbic system is a fundamental brain mechanism that enables adaptation to an ever-changing environment. These synaptic responses are critical for the planning and execution of adaptive behaviors that maximize survival. The mesocorticolimbic system mediates procurement of positive reinforcers such as food and sex; however, drugs of abuse re-sculpt this crucial circuitry to promote compulsive drug-seeking behavior. This review will discuss the long-term changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission that occur within the mesolimbic system following cocaine exposure. In addition, we will examine how these long-lasting neuroadaptations may drive the pathology of psychostimulant addiction. Finally, we review clinical trials that highlight antagonists at excitatory AMPA receptors as promising targets against cocaine abuse. PMID:20624588

  1. DCP-LA stimulates AMPA receptor exocytosis through CaMKII activation due to PP-1 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Takeshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nagata, Tetsu; Tanaka, Akito; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2009-10-01

    The linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) activated Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) by inhibiting protein phosphatase-1 (PP-1). DCP-LA induced a transient huge facilitation of synaptic transmission monitored from the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices, which was largely inhibited by the CaMKII inhibitor KN-93. DCP-LA potentiated kainate-evoked whole-cell membrane currents for Xenopus oocytes expressing alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors composed of the GluR1, GluR3, GluR1/GluR2, GluR1/GluR3, and GluR1/GluR2/GluR3 subunits, and the potentiation was significantly inhibited by KN-93. A similar potentiation was still found with mutant GluR1 (S831A) receptor lacking CaMKII phosphorylation site. The GluR1 and GluR2 subunits formed AMPA receptors in the rat hippocampus, and DCP-LA increased expression of both the subunits on the plasma membrane. The DCP-LA action was blocked by KN-93 and the exocytosis inhibitor botulinum toxin type A, but not by the endocytosis inhibitor phenylarsine oxide. DCP-LA, thus, appears to activate CaMKII through PP-1 inhibition, that stimulates AMPA receptor exocytosis to increase expression of the receptors on the plasma membrane, responsible for potentiate AMPA receptor responses and facilitation of hippocampal synaptic transmission. PMID:19492412

  2. NASA Adaptive Multibeam Phased Array (AMPA): An application study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittra, R.; Lee, S. W.; Gee, W.

    1982-01-01

    The proposed orbital geometry for the adaptive multibeam phased array (AMPA) communication system is reviewed and some of the system's capabilities and preliminary specifications are highlighted. Typical AMPA user link models and calculations are presented, the principal AMPA features are described, and the implementation of the system is demonstrated. System tradeoffs and requirements are discussed. Recommendations are included.

  3. Effect of VGLUT inhibitors on glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rodent hippocampus and prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Neale, S A; Copeland, C S; Salt, T E

    2014-07-01

    Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are known to be important in the uptake of glutamate into vesicles in the presynaptic terminal; thereby playing a role in synaptic function. VGLUT dysfunction has also been suggested in neurological and psychiatric disorders such as epilepsy and schizophrenia. A number of compounds have been identified as VGLUT inhibitors; however, little is known as to how these compounds affect synaptic transmission. We therefore investigated the effects of structurally unrelated VGLUT inhibitors on synaptic transmission in the rodent hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. In the CA1 and dentate gyrus regions of the in vitro slice preparation of mouse hippocampus, AMPA receptor-mediated field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were evoked in response to Schaffer collateral/commissural pathway stimulation. Application of the VGLUT inhibitors Rose Bengal (RB), Congo Red (CR) or Chicago Sky Blue 6B (CB) resulted in a concentration-related reduction of fEPSP amplitudes. RB (30μM) or CB (300μM) also depressed NMDA receptor-mediated responses in the CA1 region. The naturally occurring kynurenine Xanthurenic Acid (XA) is reported to be a VGLUT inhibitor. We found XA attenuated both AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission. The potency order of the VGLUT inhibitors was consistent with literature Ki values for VGLUT inhibition. Impaired glutamatergic neurotransmission is believed to contribute to schizophrenia, and VGLUTs have also been implicated in this disease. We therefore investigated the effect of VGLUT inhibition in the prefrontal cortex. Application of the VGLUT inhibitors RB or CB resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in the amplitude of glutamate receptor-mediated fEPSPs recorded in layer V/VI in response to stimulation in the forceps minor. We conclude that VGLUT inhibitors can modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the PFC and hippocampus. This could be important in the pathophysiology of nervous

  4. Glutamatergic system controls synchronization of spontaneous neuronal activity in the murine neonatal entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Unichenko, Petr; Yang, Jeng-Wei; Luhmann, Heiko J; Kirischuk, Sergei

    2015-07-01

    Synchronized spontaneous neuronal activity is a characteristic feature of the developing brain. Rhythmic network discharges in the neonatal medial entorhinal cortex (mEC) in vitro depend on activation of ionotropic glutamate receptors, but spontaneously active neurons are required for their initiation. Field potential recordings revealed synchronized neuronal activity in the mEC in vivo developmentally earlier than in vitro. We suggested that not only ionotropic receptors, but also other components of the glutamatergic system modulate neuronal activity in the mEC. Ca(2+) imaging was used to record neuronal activity in neonatal murine brain slices. Two types of spontaneous events were distinguished: global synchronous discharges (synchronous activity) and asynchronously (not synchronized with global discharges) active cells (asynchronous activity). AMPA receptor blockade strongly reduced the frequency of synchronous discharges, while NMDA receptor inhibition was less effective. AMPA and NMDA receptor blockade or activation of group 2/3 metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR2/3) completely suppressed synchronous discharges and increased the number of active cells. Blockade of glutamate transporters with DL-TBOA led to NMDA receptor-mediated hyper-synchronization of neuronal activity. Inhibition of NMDA receptors in the presence of DL-TBOA failed to restore synchronous discharges. The latter were partially reestablished only after blockade of mGluR2/3. We conclude that the glutamatergic system can influence neuronal activity via different receptors/mechanisms. As both NMDA and mGluR2/3 receptors have a high affinity for glutamate, changes in extracellular glutamate levels resulting for instance from glutamate transporter malfunction can balance neuronal activity in the mEC, affecting in turn synapse and network formation. PMID:25163767

  5. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 regulates the transcription of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 (Gria2).

    PubMed

    Priya, Anusha; Johar, Kaid; Nair, Bindu; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2014-12-01

    Neuronal activity is highly dependent on energy metabolism. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2) tightly couples neuronal activity and energy metabolism by transcriptionally co-regulating all 13 subunits of an important energy-generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), as well as critical subunits of excitatory NMDA receptors. AMPA receptors are another major class of excitatory glutamatergic receptors that mediate most of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. They are heterotetrameric proteins composed of various combinations of GluA1-4 subunits, with GluA2 being the most common one. We have previously shown that GluA2 (Gria2) is transcriptionally regulated by nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) and specificity protein 4 (Sp4), which also regulate all subunits of COX. However, it was not known if NRF-2 also couples neuronal activity and energy metabolism by regulating subunits of the AMPA receptors. By means of multiple approaches, including electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, chromatin immunoprecipitation, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, NRF-2 was found to functionally regulate the expression of Gria2, but not of Gria1, Gria3, or Gria4 genes in neurons. By regulating the GluA2 subunit of the AMPA receptor, NRF-2 couples energy metabolism and neuronal activity at the transcriptional level through a concurrent and parallel mechanism with NRF-1 and Sp4. PMID:25245478

  6. Redefining the classification of AMPA-selective ionotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Derek

    2012-01-01

    Abstract AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) represent the major excitatory neurotransmitter receptor in the developing and adult vertebrate CNS. They are crucial for the normal hardwiring of glutamatergic circuits but also fine tune synaptic strength by cycling into and out of synapses during periods of sustained patterned activity or altered homeostasis. AMPARs are grouped into two functionally distinct tetrameric assemblies based on the inclusion or exclusion of the GluA2 receptor subunit. GluA2-containing receptors are thought to be the most abundant AMPAR in the CNS, typified by their small unitary events, Ca2+ impermeability and insensitivity to polyamine block. In contrast, GluA2-lacking AMPARs exhibit large unitary conductance, marked divalent permeability and nano- to micromolar polyamine affinity. Here, I review evidence for the existence of a third class of AMPAR which, though similarly Ca2+ permeable, is characterized by its near-insensitivity to internal and external channel block by polyamines. This novel class of AMPAR is most notably found at multivesicular release synapses found in the avian auditory brainstem and mammalian retina. Curiously, these synapses lack NMDA-type iGluRs, which are conventionally associated with controlling AMPAR insertion. The lack of NMDARs suggests that a different set of rules may govern AMPAR cycling at these synapses. AMPARs with similar functional profiles are also found on some glial cells suggesting they may have a more widespread distribution in the mammalian CNS. I conclude by noting that modest changes to the ion-permeation pathway might be sufficient to retain divalent permeability whilst eliminating polyamine sensitivity. Consequently, this emerging AMPAR subclass need not be assembled from novel subunits, yet to be cloned, but could simply occur by varying the stoichiometry of existing proteins. PMID:22106175

  7. MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Controls Dendritic Complexity, Spine Morphogenesis, and Glutamatergic Synapse Maturation in the Hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Zhongming; Levitt, Pat

    2014-01-01

    The MET receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK), implicated in risk for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and in functional and structural circuit integrity in humans, is a temporally and spatially regulated receptor enriched in dorsal pallial-derived structures during mouse forebrain development. Here we report that loss or gain of function of MET in vitro or in vivo leads to changes, opposite in nature, in dendritic complexity, spine morphogenesis, and the timing of glutamatergic synapse maturation onto hippocampus CA1 neurons. Consistent with the morphological and biochemical changes, deletion of Met in mutant mice results in precocious maturation of excitatory synapse, as indicated by a reduction of the proportion of silent synapses, a faster GluN2A subunit switch, and an enhanced acquisition of AMPA receptors at synaptic sites. Thus, MET-mediated signaling appears to serve as a mechanism for controlling the timing of neuronal growth and functional maturation. These studies suggest that mistimed maturation of glutamatergic synapses leads to the aberrant neural circuits that may be associated with ASD risk. PMID:25471559

  8. A Monte Carlo model reveals independent signaling at central glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed Central

    Franks, Kevin M; Bartol, Thomas M; Sejnowski, Terrence J

    2002-01-01

    We have developed a biophysically realistic model of receptor activation at an idealized central glutamatergic synapse that uses Monte Carlo techniques to simulate the stochastic nature of transmission following release of a single synaptic vesicle. For the a synapse with 80 AMPA and 20 NMDA receptors, a single quantum, with 3000 glutamate molecules, opened approximately 3 NMDARs and 20 AMPARs. The number of open receptors varied directly with the total number of receptors, and the fraction of open receptors did not depend on the ratio of co-localized AMPARs and NMDARs. Variability decreased with increases in either total receptor number or quantal size, and differences between the variability of AMPAR and NMDAR responses were due solely to unequal numbers of receptors at the synapse. Despite NMDARs having a much higher affinity for glutamate than AMPARs, quantal release resulted in similar occupancy levels in both receptor types. Receptor activation increased with number of transmitter molecules released or total receptor number, whereas occupancy levels were only dependent on quantal size. Tortuous diffusion spaces reduced the extent of spillover and the activation of extrasynaptic receptors. These results support the conclusion that signaling is spatially independent within and between central glutamatergic synapses. PMID:12414671

  9. IL1RAPL1 Associated with Mental Retardation and Autism Regulates the Formation and Stabilization of Glutamatergic Synapses of Cortical Neurons through RhoA Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Takashi; Yoshida, Tomoyuki; Ra, Moonjin; Taguchi, Ryo; Mishina, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    Interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein-like 1 (IL1RAPL1) is associated with X-linked mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder. We found that IL1RAPL1 regulates synapse formation of cortical neurons. To investigate how IL1RAPL1 controls synapse formation, we here screened IL1RAPL1-interacting proteins by affinity chromatography and mass spectroscopy. IL1RAPL1 interacted with Mcf2-like (Mcf2l), a Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor, through the cytoplasmic Toll/IL-1 receptor domain. Knockdown of endogenous Mcf2l and treatment with an inhibitor of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), the downstream kinase of RhoA, suppressed IL1RAPL1-induced excitatory synapse formation of cortical neurons. Furthermore, we found that the expression of IL1RAPL1 affected the turnover of AMPA receptor subunits. Insertion of GluA1-containing AMPA receptors to the cell surface was decreased, whereas that of AMPA receptors composed of GluA2/3 was enhanced. Mcf2l knockdown and ROCK inhibitor treatment diminished the IL1RAPL1-induced changes of AMPA receptor subunit insertions. Our results suggest that Mcf2l-RhoA-ROCK signaling pathway mediates IL1RAPL1-dependent formation and stabilization of glutamatergic synapses of cortical neurons. PMID:23785489

  10. Zinc in the Glutamatergic Theory of Depression

    PubMed Central

    Młyniec, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Depression is a serious psychiatric illness that affects millions of people worldwide. Weeks of antidepressant therapy are required to relieve depressive symptoms, and new drugs are still being extensively researched. The latest studies have shown that in depression, there is an imbalance between the main excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) systems. Administration of antagonists of the glutamatergic system, including zinc, has shown an antidepressant effect in preclinical as well as clinical studies. Zinc inhibits the NMDA receptor via its binding site located on one of its subunits. This is thought to be the main mechanism explaining the antidepressant properties of zinc. In the present review, a link between zinc and the glutamatergic system is discussed in the context of depressive disorder. PMID:26412070

  11. Optogenetic stimulation reveals distinct modulatory properties of thalamostriatal vs corticostriatal glutamatergic inputs to fast-spiking interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Sciamanna, Giuseppe; Ponterio, Giulia; Mandolesi, Georgia; Bonsi, Paola; Pisani, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Parvalbumin-containing fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs) exert a powerful feed-forward GABAergic inhibition on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs), playing a critical role in timing striatal output. However, how glutamatergic inputs modulate their firing activity is still unexplored. Here, by means of a combined optogenetic and electrophysiological approach, we provide evidence for a differential modulation of cortico- vs thalamo-striatal synaptic inputs to FSIs in transgenic mice carrying light-gated ion channels channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) in glutamatergic fibers. Corticostriatal synapses show a postsynaptic facilitation, whereas thalamostriatal synapses present a postsynaptic depression. Moreover, thalamostriatal synapses exhibit more prominent AMPA-mediated currents than corticostriatal synapses, and an increased release probability. Furthermore, during current-evoked firing activity, simultaneous corticostriatal stimulation increases bursting activity. Conversely, thalamostriatal fiber activation shifts the canonical burst-pause activity to a more prolonged, regular firing pattern. However, this change in firing pattern was accompanied by a significant rise in the frequency of membrane potential oscillations. Notably, the responses to thalamic stimulation were fully abolished by blocking metabotropic glutamate 1 (mGlu1) receptor subtype, whereas both acetylcholine and dopamine receptor antagonists were ineffective. Our findings demonstrate that cortical and thalamic glutamatergic input differently modulate FSIs firing activity through specific intrinsic and synaptic properties, exerting a powerful influence on striatal outputs. PMID:26572101

  12. α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Occur at Postsynaptic Densities of AMPA Receptor-Positive and -Negative Excitatory Synapses in Rat Sensory Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Robert B.; Aoki, Chiye

    2010-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR) activation requires concurrent membrane depolarization, and glutamatergic synapses lacking AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are often considered “silent” in the absence of another source of membrane depolarization. During the second postnatal week, NMDA currents can be enhanced in rat auditory cortex through activation of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR). Electrophysiological results support a mainly presynaptic role for α7nAChR at these synapses. However, immunocytochemical evidence that α7nAChR is prevalent at postsynaptic sites of glutamatergic synapses in hippocampus and neocortex, along with emerging electrophysiological evidence for postsynaptic nicotinic currents in neocortex and hippocampus, has prompted speculation that α7nAChR allows for activation of NMDAR postsynaptically at synapses lacking AMPAR. Here we used dual immunolabeling and electron microscopy to examine the distribution of α7nAChR relative to AMPAR (GluR1, GluR2, and GluR3 subunits combined) at excitatory synapses in somatosensory cortex of adult and 1-week-old rats. α7nAChR occurred discretely over most of the thick postsynaptic densities in all cortical layers of both age groups. AMPAR immunoreactivity was also detectable at most synapses; its distribution was independent of that of α7nAChR. In both age groups, approximately one-quarter of asymmetrical synapses were α7nAChR positive and AMPAR negative. The variability of postsynaptic α7nAChR labeling density was greater at postnatal day (PD) 7 than in adulthood, and PD 7 neuropil contained a subset of small AMPA receptor-negative synapses with a high density of α7nAChR immunoreactivity. These observations support the idea that acetylcholine receptors can aid in activating glutamatergic synapses and work together with AMPA receptors to mediate postsynaptic excitation throughout life. PMID:12077196

  13. The function of glutamatergic synapses is not perturbed by severe knockdown of 4.1N and 4.1G expression.

    PubMed

    Wozny, Christian; Breustedt, Jörg; Wolk, Friederike; Varoqueaux, Frédérique; Boretius, Susann; Zivkovic, Aleksandar R; Neeb, Antje; Frahm, Jens; Schmitz, Dietmar; Brose, Nils; Ivanovic, Aleksandra

    2009-03-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors mediate fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain. Their surface expression at synapses between neurons is regulated in an activity-dependent and activity-independent manner. The protein machinery that regulates synaptic targeting, anchoring and turnover of AMPA receptors consists of several types of specialized scaffolding proteins. The FERM domain scaffolding proteins 4.1G and 4.1N were previously suggested to act jointly in binding and regulating synaptic trafficking of the AMPA receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR4. To determine the functions of 4.1G and 4.1N in vivo, we generated a mutant mouse line that lacks 4.1G entirely and expresses 4.1N at 22% of wild-type levels. These mice had combined 4.1G and 4.1N protein expression in the hippocampus at 12% of wild-type levels (equivalent to 8-10% of combined GluR1 and GluR4 expression levels). They show a moderate reduction in synaptosomal expression levels of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 at 3 weeks of age, but no change in basic glutamatergic synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Our study indicates that 4.1G and 4.1N do not have a crucial role in glutamatergic synaptic transmission and the induction and maintenance of long-term plastic changes in synaptic efficacy. PMID:19225127

  14. AMPA receptor desensitization is the determinant of AMPA receptor mediated excitotoxicity in purified retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Yong H; Mueller, Brett H; McGrady, Nolan R; Ma, Hai-Ying; Yorio, Thomas

    2015-03-01

    The ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGLuR) have been hypothesized to play a role in neuronal pathogenesis by mediating excitotoxic death. Previous studies on iGluR in the retina have focused on two broad classes of receptors: NMDA and non-NMDA receptors including the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and kainate receptor. In this study, we examined the role of receptor desensitization on the specific excitotoxic effects of AMPAR activation on primary retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). Purified rat RGCs were isolated from postnatal day 4-7 Sprague-Dawley rats. Calcium imaging was used to identify the functionality of the AMPARs and selectivity of the s-AMPA agonist. Phosphorylated CREB and ERK1/2 expression were performed following s-AMPA treatment. s-AMPA excitotoxicity was determined by JC-1 mitochondrial membrane depolarization assay, caspase 3/7 luciferase activity assay, immunoblot analysis for α-fodrin, and Live (calcein AM)/Dead (ethidium homodimer-1) assay. RGC cultures of 98% purity, lacking Iba1 and GFAP expression were used for the present studies. Isolated prenatal RGCs expressed calcium permeable AMPAR and s-AMPA (100 μM) treatment of cultured RGCs significantly increased phosphorylation of CREB but not that of ERK1/2. A prolonged (6 h) AMPAR activation in purified RGCs using s-AMPA (100 μM) did not depolarize the RGC mitochondrial membrane potential. In addition, treatment of cultured RGCs with s-AMPA, both in the presence and absence of trophic factors (BDNF and CNTF), did not increase caspase 3/7 activities or the cleavage of α-fodrin (neuronal apoptosis marker), as compared to untreated controls. Lastly, a significant increase in cell survival of RGCs was observed after s-AMPA treatment as compared to control untreated RGCs. However, preventing the desensitization of AMPAR with the treatment with either kainic acid (100 μM) or the combination of s-AMPA and cyclothiazide (50 μM) significantly reduced cell

  15. Superactivation of AMPA receptors by auxiliary proteins

    PubMed Central

    Carbone, Anna L.; Plested, Andrew J. R.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate receptors form complexes in the brain with auxiliary proteins, which control their activity during fast synaptic transmission through a seemingly bewildering array of effects. Here we devise a way to isolate the activation of complexes using polyamines, which enables us to show that transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) exert their effects principally on the channel opening reaction. A thermodynamic argument suggests that because TARPs promote channel opening, receptor activation promotes AMPAR-TARP complexes into a superactive state with high open probability. A simple model based on this idea predicts all known effects of TARPs on AMPA receptor function. This model also predicts unexpected phenomena including massive potentiation in the absence of desensitization and supramaximal recovery that we subsequently detected in electrophysiological recordings. This transient positive feedback mechanism has implications for information processing in the brain, because it should allow activity-dependent facilitation of excitatory synaptic transmission through a postsynaptic mechanism. PMID:26744192

  16. Perampanel Inhibition of AMPA Receptor Currents in Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao-Yin; Matt, Lucas; Hell, Johannes Wilhelm; Rogawski, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Perampanel is an aryl substituted 2-pyridone AMPA receptor antagonist that was recently approved as a treatment for epilepsy. The drug potently inhibits AMPA receptor responses but the mode of block has not been characterized. Here the action of perampanel on AMPA receptors was investigated by whole-cell voltage-clamp recording in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Perampanel caused a slow (τ∼1 s at 3 µM), concentration-dependent inhibition of AMPA receptor currents evoked by AMPA and kainate. The rates of block and unblock of AMPA receptor currents were 1.5×105 M−1 s−1 and 0.58 s−1, respectively. Perampanel did not affect NMDA receptor currents. The extent of block of non-desensitizing kainate-evoked currents (IC50, 0.56 µM) was similar at all kainate concentrations (3–100 µM), demonstrating a noncompetitive blocking action. Parampanel did not alter the trajectory of AMPA evoked currents indicating that it does not influence AMPA receptor desensitization. Perampanel is a selective negative allosteric AMPA receptor antagonist of high-affinity and slow blocking kinetics. PMID:25229608

  17. Overview of Glutamatergic Dysregulation in Central Pathologies

    PubMed Central

    Miladinovic, Tanya; Nashed, Mina G.; Singh, Gurmit

    2015-01-01

    As the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system, glutamate plays a key role in many central pathologies, including gliomas, psychiatric, neurodevelopmental, and neurodegenerative disorders. Post-mortem and serological studies have implicated glutamatergic dysregulation in these pathologies, and pharmacological modulation of glutamate receptors and transporters has provided further validation for the involvement of glutamate. Furthermore, efforts from genetic, in vitro, and animal studies are actively elucidating the specific glutamatergic mechanisms that contribute to the aetiology of central pathologies. However, details regarding specific mechanisms remain sparse and progress in effectively modulating glutamate to alleviate symptoms or inhibit disease states has been relatively slow. In this report, we review what is currently known about glutamate signalling in central pathologies. We also discuss glutamate’s mediating role in comorbidities, specifically cancer-induced bone pain and depression. PMID:26569330

  18. Glutamatergic Transmission: A Matter of Three

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Lozada, Zila; Ortega, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Glutamatergic transmission in the vertebrate brain requires the involvement of glia cells, in a continuous molecular dialogue. Glial glutamate receptors and transporters are key molecules that sense synaptic activity and by these means modify their physiology in the short and long term. Posttranslational modifications that regulate protein-protein interactions and modulate transmitter removal are triggered in glial cells by neuronal released glutamate. Moreover, glutamate signaling cascades in these cells are linked to transcriptional and translational control and are critically involved in the control of the so-called glutamate/glutamine shuttle and by these means in glutamatergic neurotransmission. In this contribution, we summarize our current understanding of the biochemical consequences of glutamate synaptic activity in their surrounding partners and dissect the molecular mechanisms that allow neurons to take control of glia physiology to ensure proper glutamate-mediated neuronal communication. PMID:26345375

  19. AMPA Receptors as Therapeutic Targets for Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin; Goodman, Lucy; Fourie, Chantelle; Schenk, Susan; Leitch, Beulah; Montgomery, Johanna M

    2016-01-01

    Almost every neurological disease directly or indirectly affects synapse function in the brain. However, these diseases alter synapses through different mechanisms, ultimately resulting in altered synaptic transmission and/or plasticity. Glutamate is the major neurotransmitter that mediates excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain through activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) receptors. These receptors have therefore been identified as a target for the development of therapeutic treatments for neurological disorders including epilepsy, neurodegenerative diseases, autism, and drug addiction. The fact that AMPA receptors play a dominant role throughout the brain raises the significant challenge of selectively targeting only those regions affected by disease, and clinical trials have raised doubt regarding the feasibility of specifically targeting AMPA receptors for new therapeutic options. Benzamide compounds that act as positive allosteric AMPA receptor modulators, known as AMPAkines, can act on specific brain regions and were initially proposed to revolutionize the treatment of cognitive deficits associated with neurological disorders. Their therapeutic potential has since declined due to inconsistent results in clinical trials. However, recent advances in basic biomedical research are significantly increasing our knowledge of AMPA receptor structure, binding sites, and interactions with auxiliary proteins. In particular, the large complex of postsynaptic proteins that interact with AMPA receptor subunits have been shown to control AMPA receptor insertion, location, pharmacology, synaptic transmission, and plasticity. These proteins are now being considered as alternative therapeutic target sites for modulating AMPA receptors in neurological disorders. PMID:26920691

  20. TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptors through lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Sumioka, Akio; Yan, Dan; Tomita, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate across synapses, constructing neural circuits in the brain. AMPA-type glutamate receptors are the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter receptors mediating fast synaptic transmission. AMPA receptors localize at synapses by forming protein complexes with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) and PSD-95-like MAGUKs. Among the three classes of ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPA-, NMDA, kainate-type), AMPA receptor activity is most regulatable by neuronal activity to adjust synaptic strength. Here, we mutated the prototypical TARP, stargazin, and found that TARP phosphorylation regulates synaptic AMPA receptor activity in vivo. We also found that stargazin interacts with negatively-charged lipid bilayers in its phosphorylation dependent manner, and that the lipid interaction inhibited stargazin binding to PSD-95. Cationic lipids dissociated stargazin from lipid bilayers and enhanced synaptic AMPA receptor activity in a stargazin phosphorylation-dependent manner. Thus, TARP phosphorylation plays a critical role in regulating AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission via a lipid bilayer interaction. PMID:20547132

  1. Eugenol reduces acute pain in mice by modulating the glutamatergic and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) pathways.

    PubMed

    Dal Bó, Wladmir; Luiz, Ana Paula; Martins, Daniel F; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Santos, Adair R S

    2013-10-01

    Eugenol is utilized together with zinc oxide in odontological clinical for the cementation of temporary prostheses and the temporary restoration of teeth and cavities. This work explored the antinociceptive effects of the eugenol in different models of acute pain in mice and investigated its possible modulation of the inhibitory (opioid) and excitatory (glutamatergic and pro-inflammatory cytokines) pathways of nociceptive signaling. The administration of eugenol (3-300 mg/kg, p.o., 60 min or i.p., 30 min) inhibited 82 ± 10% and 90 ± 6% of the acetic acid-induced nociception, with ID₅₀ values of 51.3 and 50.2 mg/kg, respectively. In the glutamate test, eugenol (0.3-100 mg/kg, i.p.) reduced the response behavior by 62 ± 5% with an ID₅₀ of 5.6 mg/kg. In addition, the antinociceptive effect of eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in the glutamate test was prevented by the i.p. treatment for mice with naloxone. The pretreatment of mice with eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was able to inhibit the nociception induced by the intrathecal (i.t.) injection of glutamate (37 ± 9%), kainic (acid kainite) (41 ± 12%), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) (55 ± 5%), and substance P (SP) (39 ± 8%). Furthermore, eugenol (10 mg/kg, i.p.) also inhibited biting induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, 65 ± 8%). These results extend our current knowledge of eugenol and confirm that it promotes significant antinociception against different mouse models of acute pain. The mechanism of action appears to involve the modulation of the opioid system and glutamatergic receptors (i.e., kainate and AMPA), and the inhibition of TNF-α. Thus, eugenol could represent an important compound in the treatment for acute pain. PMID:22775297

  2. Modulation of Glutamatergic Transmission by Sulfated Steroids: Role in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Valenzuela, C. Fernando; Partridge, L. Donald; Mameli, Manuel; Meyer, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that sulfated steroids regulate synaptic transmission by altering the function of postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. In recent years, evidence from several laboratories indicates that these agents also regulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission at the presynaptic level in an age-dependent manner. In developing neurons, pregnenolone sulfate (PREGS) increases the probability of glutamate release, as evidenced by an increase in the frequency of AMPA receptor-mediated miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents and a decrease in paired-pulse facilitation. In hippocampal slices from postnatal day 3–5 rats, this effect is mediated by an increase in Ca2+ levels in the axonal terminal that depends on presynaptic NMDA receptors. This is followed by delayed potentiation of postsynaptic AMPA receptor currents. Importantly, depolarization of postsynaptic neurons, inhibition of hydroxysteroid sulfatase activity and acute exposure to ethanol mimics the effect of exogenous PREGS application. This developmental form of synaptic plasticity cannot be observed in slices from rats older than postnatal day 6, when presynaptic NMDA receptors are no longer expressed in CA1 hippocampal region. Both in the CA1 hippocampal region and the dentate gyrus of more mature rats, PREGS, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate and hydroxysteroid sulfatase inhibitors increase paired-pulse facilitation, without affecting basal glutamate release probability. This effect depends on activation of σ1-like receptors and Gi/o and involves a target in the release machinery that is downstream of residual Ca2+. These presynaptic actions of sulfated steroids could play important roles in physiological processes ranging from synapse maturation to learning and memory, as well as pathophysiological conditions such as fetal alcohol spectrum disorder. PMID:17597219

  3. Neuroligin 1 modulates striatal glutamatergic neurotransmission in a pathway and NMDAR subunit-specific manner

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Felipe; Xuan, Zhong; Liu, Shunan; Powell, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    Together with its presynaptic partner Neurexin 1 (Nxn1), Neuroligin 1 (NL1) participates in synapse specification and synapse maintenance. We and others have shown that NL1 can also modulate glutamatergic synaptic function in the central nervous system of rodent models. These molecular/cellular changes can translate into altered animal behaviors that are thought to be analogous to symptomatology of neuropsychiatric disorders. For example, in dorsal striatum of NL1 deletion mice, we previously reported that the ratio N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) mediated synaptic currents to α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptor (AMPAR) mediated synaptic currents (NMDA/AMPA) is reduced in medium spiny neuron (MSNs). Importantly, this reduction in NMDA/AMPA ratio correlated with increased repetitive grooming. The striatum is the input nucleus of the basal ganglia (BG). Classical models of this circuitry imply that there are two principal pathways that render distinct and somewhat opposite striatal outputs critical to the function of these nuclei in modulating motor behavior. Thus, we set out to better characterize the effects of NL1 deletion on direct and indirect pathways of the dorsal striatum by genetically labeling MSNs participating in the direct and indirect pathways. We demonstrate that a decrease in NMDAR-mediated currents is limited to MSNs of the direct pathway. Furthermore, the decrease in NMDAR-mediated currents is largely due to a reduction in function of NMDARs containing the GluN2A subunit. In contrast, indirect pathway MSNs in NL1 knockout (KO) mice showed a reduction in the frequency of miniature excitatory neurotransmission not observed in the direct pathway. Thus, NL1 deletion differentially affects direct and indirect pathway MSNs in dorsal striatum. These findings have potential implications for striatal function in NL1 KO mice. PMID:26283958

  4. The neuronal K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 influences postsynaptic AMPA receptor content and lateral diffusion in dendritic spines

    PubMed Central

    Gauvain, Grégory; Chamma, Ingrid; Chevy, Quentin; Cabezas, Carolina; Irinopoulou, Theano; Bodrug, Natalia; Carnaud, Michèle; Lévi, Sabine; Poncer, Jean Christophe

    2011-01-01

    The K-Cl cotransporter KCC2 plays an essential role in neuronal chloride homeostasis, and thereby influences the efficacy and polarity of GABA signaling. Although KCC2 is expressed throughout the somatodendritic membrane, it is remarkably enriched in dendritic spines, which host most glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons. KCC2 has been shown to influence spine morphogenesis and functional maturation in developing neurons, but its function in mature dendritic spines remains unknown. Here, we report that suppressing KCC2 expression decreases the efficacy of excitatory synapses in mature hippocampal neurons. This effect correlates with a reduced postsynaptic aggregation of GluR1-containing AMPA receptors and is mimicked by a dominant negative mutant of KCC2 interaction with cytoskeleton but not by pharmacological suppression of KCC2 function. Single-particle tracking experiments reveal that suppressing KCC2 increases lateral diffusion of the mobile fraction of AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in spines but not in adjacent dendritic shafts. Increased diffusion was also observed for transmembrane but not membrane-anchored recombinant neuronal cell adhesion molecules. We suggest that KCC2, likely through interactions with the actin cytoskeleton, hinders transmembrane protein diffusion, and thereby contributes to their confinement within dendritic spines. PMID:21878564

  5. Loss of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors in synapses of tonic firing substantia gelatinosa neurons in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yishen; Derkach, Victor A; Smith, Peter A

    2016-05-01

    Synapses transmitting nociceptive information in the spinal dorsal horn undergo enduring changes following peripheral nerve injury. Indeed, such injury alters the expression of the GluA2 subunit of glutamatergic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the substantia gelatinosa and this predicts altered channel conductance and calcium permeability, leading to an altered function of excitatory synapses. We therefore investigated the functional properties of synaptic AMPA receptors in rat substantia gelatinosa neurons following 10-20d chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve; a model of neuropathic pain. We measured their single-channel conductance and sensitivity to a blocker of calcium permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs), IEM1460 (50μM). In putative inhibitory, tonic firing neurons, CCI reduced the average single-channel conductance of synaptic AMPAR from 14.4±3.5pS (n=12) to 9.2±1.0pS (n=10, p<0.05). IEM1460 also more effectively antagonized evoked, spontaneous and miniature EPSCs in tonic neurons from sham operated animals than in those from animals that had been subjected to CCI. By contrast, CCI did not change the effectiveness of IEM1460 in delay firing neurons although average single channel conductance was increased from 7.6±1.2pS (n=11) to 12.2±1.5pS (n=10, p<0.01). CCI thus elicits plastic changes in a specific set of glutamatergic synapses of substantia gelatinosa due to subunit recomposition and loss of GluA2-lacking CP-AMPAR. These insights reveal a molecular mechanism of nerve injury acting at synapses of inhibitory neurons to reduce their drive and therefore inhibitory tone in the spinal cord, therefore contributing to the central sensitization associated with neuropathic pain. PMID:26948545

  6. The effects of AMPA blockade on the spectral profile of human early visual cortex recordings studied with non-invasive MEG.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaraswamy, Suresh D; Routley, Bethany; Droog, Wouter; Singh, Krish D; Hamandi, Khalid

    2016-08-01

    The generation of gamma-band (>30 Hz) cortical activity is thought to depend on the reciprocal connections of excitatory glutamatergic principal cells with inhibitory GABAergic interneurons. Both in vitro and in vivo animal studies have shown that blockade of glutamatergic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors reduces the amplitude of gamma-band activity. In this registered report, we hypothesised that similar effects would be observed in humans following administration of perampanel, a first in class AMPA antagonist, used in the treatment of epilepsy. In a single-blind placebo-controlled crossover study, 20 healthy male participants completed two study days. On one day participants were given a 6 mg dose of perampanel and on the other an inactive placebo. magnetoencephalography (MEG) recordings of brain activity were taken before and two hours after drug administration, with activity in the visual cortex probed using a stimulation protocol known to induce gamma-band activity in the primary visual cortex. As hypothesised, our results indicated a decrease in gamma-band amplitudes following perampanel administration. The decreases in gamma-band amplitudes observed were temporally restricted to the early time-period of stimulus presentation (up to 400 msec) with no significant effects observed on early evoked responses or alpha rhythms. This suggests that the early time-window of induced visual gamma-band activity, thought to reflect input to the visual cortex from the lateral geniculate nucleus, is most sensitive to AMPA blocking drugs. PMID:27209006

  7. Expression of ionotropic glutamate receptors, AMPA, kainite and NMDA, in the pigeon retina.

    PubMed

    Atoji, Yasuro

    2015-07-01

    Glutamate is an excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate retina. A previous study found vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (vGluT2) mRNA in the pigeon retina, suggesting that bipolar and ganglion cells are glutamatergic. The present study examined the localization of ionotropic glutamate receptors to identify receptor cells in the pigeon retina using in situ hybridization histochemistry. Nine subunits of AMPA receptor (GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4), kainate receptor (GluK1, GluK2, and GluK4), and NMDA receptor (GluN1 and GluN2A) were found to be expressed in the inner nuclear layer (INL) and ganglion cell layers. GluA1, GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4 were primarily expressed in the inner half of INL, and the signal intensity was strong for GluA2, GluA3, and GluA4. GluK1 was intensely expressed in the outer half of INL, whereas GluK2 and GluK4 were mainly localized in the inner half of INL. GluN1 and GluN2A were moderately expressed in the inner half of INL. Horizontal cells expressed GluA3 and GluA4, and ganglion cells expressed all subunits examined. These results suggest that the glutamatergic neurotransmission in the pigeon retina is similar to that in mammals. PMID:25983186

  8. Dynamic Interaction of Stargazin-like TARPs with Cycling AMPA Receptors at Synapses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Susumu; Fukata, Masaki; Nicoll, Roger A.; Bredt, David S.

    2004-03-01

    Activity-dependent plasticity in the brain arises in part from changes in the number of synaptic AMPA receptors. Synaptic trafficking of AMPA receptors is controlled by stargazin and homologous transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs). We found that TARPs were stable at the plasma membrane, whereas AMPA receptors were internalized in a glutamate-regulated manner. Interaction with AMPA receptors involved both extra- and intracellular determinants of TARPs. Upon binding to glutamate, AMPA receptors detached from TARPs. This did not require ion flux or intracellular second messengers. This allosteric mechanism for AMPA receptor dissociation from TARPs may participate in glutamate-mediated internalization of receptors in synaptic plasticity.

  9. Ongoing intrinsic synchronous activity is required for the functional maturation of CA3-CA1 glutamatergic synapses.

    PubMed

    Huupponen, Johanna; Molchanova, Svetlana M; Lauri, Sari E; Taira, Tomi

    2013-11-01

    Fine-tuning of synaptic connectivity during development is guided by intrinsic activity of the immature networks characteristically consisting of intermittent bursts of synchronous activity. However, the role of synchronous versus asynchronous activity in synapse maturation in the brain is unclear. Here, we have pharmacologically prevented generation of synchronous activity in the immature rat CA3-CA1 circuitry in a manner that preserves unitary activity. Long-term desynchronization of the network resulted in weakening of AMPA-receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells. This weakening was dependent on protein phosphatases and mGluR activity, associated with an increase in the proportion of silent synapses and a decrease in the protein levels of GluA4 suggesting postsynaptic mechanisms of expression. The findings demonstrate that synchronous activity in the immature CA3-CA1 circuitry is critical for the induction and maintenance of glutamatergic synapses and underscores the importance of temporal activity patterns in shaping the synaptic circuitry during development. PMID:22941723

  10. What causes aberrant salience in schizophrenia? A role for impaired short-term habituation and the GRIA1 (GluA1) AMPA receptor subunit

    PubMed Central

    Barkus, C; Sanderson, DJ; Rawlins, JNP; Walton, ME; Harrison, PJ; Bannerman, DM

    2014-01-01

    The GRIA1 locus, encoding the GluA1 (also known as GluRA or GluR1) AMPA glutamate receptor subunit, shows genome-wide association to schizophrenia. As well as extending the evidence that glutamatergic abnormalities play a key role in the disorder, this finding draws attention to the behavioural phenotype of Gria1 knockout mice. These mice show deficits in short-term habituation. Importantly, under some conditions the attention being paid to a recently presented neutral stimulus can actually increase rather than decrease (sensitization). We propose that this mouse phenotype represents a cause of aberrant salience and, in turn, that aberrant salience (and the resulting positive symptoms) in schizophrenia may arise, at least in part, from a glutamatergic genetic predisposition and a deficit in short-term habituation. This proposal links an established risk gene with a psychological process central to psychosis, and is supported by findings of comparable deficits in short-term habituation in mice lacking the NMDAR receptor subunit Grin2a (which also shows association to schizophrenia). Since aberrant salience is primarily a dopaminergic phenomenon, the model supports the view that the dopaminergic abnormalities can be downstream of a glutamatergic aetiology. Finally, we suggest that, as illustrated here, the real value of genetically modified mice is not as ‘models of schizophrenia’, but as experimental tools which can link genomic discoveries with psychological processes, and help elucidate the underlying neural mechanisms. PMID:25224260

  11. Genetic analysis of glutamatergic function in Drosophila

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, B.A.; Kankel, D.R.

    1987-01-01

    Neurotransmitters are essential for communication between neurons and hence are vital in the overall integrative functioning of the nervous system. Previous work on acetylcholine metabolism in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, has also raised the possibility that transmitter metabolism may play a prominent role in either the achievement or maintenance of the normal structure of the central nervous system in this species. Unfortunately, acetylcholine is rather poorly characterized as a neurotransmitter in Drosophila; consequently, we have begun an analysis of the role of glutamate (probably the best characterized transmitter in this organism) in the formation and/or maintenance of nervous system structure. We present here the results of a series of preliminary analyses. To suggest where glutamatergic function may be localized, an examination of the spatial distribution of high affinity (/sup 3/H)-glutamate binding sites are presented. We present the results of an analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of enzymatic activities thought to be important in the regulation of transmitter-glutamate pools (i.e., glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase, glutaminase, and glutamate dehydrogenase). To begin to examine whether mutations in any of these functions are capable of affecting glutamatergic activity, we present the results of an initial genetic analysis of one enzymatic function, glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), chosen because of its differential distribution within the adult central nervous system and musculature.

  12. Persistent histamine excitation of glutamatergic preoptic neurons.

    PubMed

    Tabarean, Iustin V

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  13. Persistent Histamine Excitation of Glutamatergic Preoptic Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Tabarean, Iustin V.

    2012-01-01

    Thermoregulatory neurons of the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) represent a target at which histamine modulates body temperature. The mechanism by which histamine excites a population of MnPO neurons is not known. In this study it was found that histamine activated a cationic inward current and increased the intracellular Ca2+ concentration, actions that had a transient component as well as a sustained one that lasted for tens of minutes after removal of the agonist. The sustained component was blocked by TRPC channel blockers. Single-cell reverse transcription-PCR analysis revealed expression of TRPC1, TRPC5 and TRPC7 subunits in neurons excited by histamine. These studies also established the presence of transcripts for the glutamatergic marker Vglut2 and for the H1 histamine receptor in neurons excited by histamine. Intracellular application of antibodies directed against cytoplasmic sites of the TRPC1 or TRPC5 channel subunits decreased the histamine-induced inward current. The persistent inward current and elevation in intracellular Ca2+ concentration could be reversed by activating the PKA pathway. This data reveal a novel mechanism by which histamine induces persistent excitation and sustained intracellular Ca2+ elevation in glutamatergic MnPO neurons. PMID:23082195

  14. Gestational nicotine exposure regulates expression of AMPA and NMDA receptors and their signaling apparatus in developing and adult rat hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Dávila-García, Martha I.; Yarl, Weonpo; Gondré-Lewis, Marjorie C.

    2011-01-01

    Untimely activation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) by nicotine results in short- and long-term consequences on learning and behavior. In this study, the aim was to determine how prenatal nicotine exposure affects components of glutamatergic signaling in the hippocampus during postnatal development. We investigated regulation of both nAChRs and glutamate receptors for α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), from postnatal day (P) 1 to P63 after a temporally restricted exposure to saline or nicotine for 14 days in utero. We analyzed postsynaptic density components associated with AMPAR and NMDAR signaling: Calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα), Calmodulin (CaM), and postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95), as well as presynaptically localized synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25). At P1, there was significantly heightened expression of AMPAR subunit GluR1 but not GluR2, and of NMDAR subunits NR1, NR2a and NR2d but not NR2b. NR2c was not detectable. At P1, the postsynaptic proteins CaMKIIα, CaM, and PSD95 were also significantly upregulated, together with presynaptic SNAP25. This enhanced expression of glutamate receptors and signaling proteins was concomitant with elevated levels of [3H] Epibatidine (EB) binding in prenatal nicotine-exposed hippocampus, indicating that α4β2 nAChR may influence glutamatergic function in the hippocampus at P1. By P14, neither [3H]EB binding nor the expression levels of subunits GluR1, GluR2, NR1, NR2a, NR2b, NR2c, or NR2d seemed changed with prenatal nicotine. However, CaMKIIα was significantly upregulated with nicotine treatment while CaM showed downregulation at P14. The effects of nicotine persisted in young adult brains at P63. They exhibited significantly downregulated GluR2, NR1, and NR2c expression levels in hippocampal homogenates and a considerably muted overall distribution of [3H]AMPA binding in areas CA1, CA2, CA3, and the dentate

  15. Synergistic Regulation of Glutamatergic Transmission by Serotonin and Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors in Prefrontal Cortical Neurons*

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Eunice Y.; Qin, Luye; Wei, Jing; Liu, Wenhua; Liu, Aiyi; Yan, Zhen

    2014-01-01

    The monoamine system in the prefrontal cortex has been implicated in various mental disorders and has been the major target of anxiolytics and antidepressants. Clinical studies show that serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) produce better therapeutic effects than single selective reuptake inhibitors, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we found that low dose SNRIs, by acting on 5-HT1A and α2-adrenergic receptors, synergistically reduced AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and AMPAR surface expression in prefrontal cortex pyramidal neurons via a mechanism involving Rab5/dynamin-mediated endocytosis of AMPARs. The synergistic effect of SNRIs on AMPARs was blocked by inhibition of activator of G protein signaling 3, a G protein modulator that prevents reassociation of Gi protein α subunit and prolongs the βγ-mediated signaling pathway. Moreover, the depression of AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents by SNRIs required p38 kinase activity, which was increased by 5-HT1A and α2-adrenergic receptor co-activation in an activator of G protein signaling 3-dependent manner. These results have revealed a potential mechanism for the synergy between the serotonin and norepinephrine systems in the regulation of glutamatergic transmission in cortical neurons. PMID:25056951

  16. Developing Medications Targeting Glutamatergic Dysfunction in Autism: Progress to Date

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Lawrence K.; Hardan, Antonio Y.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacologic treatments targeting specific molecular mechanisms relevant for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are beginning to emerge in early drug development. This article reviews the evidence for the disruption of glutamatergic neurotransmission in animal models of social deficits and summarizes key pre-clinical and clinical efforts in developing pharmacologic interventions based on modulation of glutamatergic systems in individuals with ASD. Understanding the pathobiology of the glutamatergic system has led to the development of new investigational treatments for individuals with ASD. Specific examples of medications that modulate the glutamatergic system in preclinical and clinical studies are described. Finally, we will discuss the limitations of current strategies and future opportunities in developing medications targeting the glutamatergic system for treating individuals with ASD. PMID:26104862

  17. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Dawe, G. Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R.P.; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C.; Bowie, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Summary Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  18. The Sorting Receptor SorCS1 Regulates Trafficking of Neurexin and AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Savas, Jeffrey N.; Ribeiro, Luís F.; Wierda, Keimpe D.; Wright, Rebecca; DeNardo, Laura A.; Rice, Heather C.; Chamma, Ingrid; Wang, Yi-Zhi; Zemla, Roland; Lavallée-Adam, Mathieu; Vennekens, Kristel M.; O'Sullivan, Matthew L.; Antonios, Joseph K.; Hall, Elizabeth A.; Thoumine, Olivier; Attie, Alan D.; Ghosh, Anirvan; Yates, John R.; de Wit, Joris

    2015-01-01

    The formation, function, and plasticity of synapses require dynamic changes in synaptic receptor composition. Here we identify the sorting receptor SorCS1 as a key regulator of synaptic receptor trafficking. Four independent proteomic analyses identify the synaptic adhesion molecule neurexin and the AMPA glutamate receptor (AMPAR) as major proteins sorted by SorCS1. SorCS1 localizes to early and recycling endosomes and regulates neurexin and AMPAR surface trafficking. Surface proteome analysis of SorCS1-deficient neurons shows decreased surface levels of these, and additional, receptors. Quantitative in vivo analysis of SorCS1 knockout synaptic proteomes identifies SorCS1 as a global trafficking regulator and reveals decreased levels of receptors regulating adhesion and neurotransmission, including neurexins and AMPARs. Consequently, glutamatergic transmission at SorCS1–deficient synapses is reduced due to impaired AMPAR surface expression. SORCS1 mutations have been associated with autism and Alzheimer's disease, suggesting that perturbed receptor trafficking contributes to defects in synaptic composition and function underlying synaptopathies. PMID:26291160

  19. Distinct Structural Pathways Coordinate the Activation of AMPA Receptor-Auxiliary Subunit Complexes.

    PubMed

    Dawe, G Brent; Musgaard, Maria; Aurousseau, Mark R P; Nayeem, Naushaba; Green, Tim; Biggin, Philip C; Bowie, Derek

    2016-03-16

    Neurotransmitter-gated ion channels adopt different gating modes to fine-tune signaling at central synapses. At glutamatergic synapses, high and low activity of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is observed when pore-forming subunits coassemble with or without auxiliary subunits, respectively. Whether a common structural pathway accounts for these different gating modes is unclear. Here, we identify two structural motifs that determine the time course of AMPAR channel activation. A network of electrostatic interactions at the apex of the AMPAR ligand-binding domain (LBD) is essential for gating by pore-forming subunits, whereas a conserved motif on the lower, D2 lobe of the LBD prolongs channel activity when auxiliary subunits are present. Accordingly, channel activity is almost entirely abolished by elimination of the electrostatic network but restored via auxiliary protein interactions at the D2 lobe. In summary, we propose that activation of native AMPAR complexes is coordinated by distinct structural pathways, favored by the association/dissociation of auxiliary subunits. PMID:26924438

  20. [Molecular mechanisms for AMPA receptor trafficking].

    PubMed

    Fukata, Masaki; Fukata, Yuko

    2008-06-01

    Finely tuned synaptic transmission in the brain provides the molecular basis for learning and memory. The misregulation of synaptic transmission is involved in the pathogenesis of various neurological disorders like epilepsy. AMPA-typed glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate the most prominent form of excitatory neurotransmission in the brain. Dynamic regulation of AMPARs is thought to be a primary mechanism for controlling synaptic strength. We have analyzed the molecular mechanism for AMPAR-trafficking and function by focusing on PSD-95, a major postsynaptic scaffolding protein. Here, we review the novel regulatory mechanisms of AMPARs by 1) the PSD-95 palmitoylating enzyme, which determines the position of PSD-95 at postsynapses, and 2) the epilepsy related ligand/receptor, LGI1/ADAM22, identified as the PSD-95-interacting protein. PMID:18646599

  1. Clathrin-Independent Trafficking of AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Tigaret, Cezar M.; Mellor, Jack R.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is critical for neuronal function and plasticity. Although rapid forms of AMPAR internalization during long-term depression (LTD) require clathrin and dynamin, the mechanisms governing constitutive AMPAR turnover and internalization of AMPARs during slow homeostatic forms of synaptic plasticity remain unexplored. Here, we show that, in contrast to LTD, constitutive AMPAR internalization and homeostatic AMPAR downscaling in rat neurons do not require dynamin or clathrin function. Instead, constitutive AMPAR trafficking is blocked by a Rac1 inhibitor and is regulated by a dynamic nonstructural pool of F-actin. Our findings reveal a novel role for neuronal clathrin-independent endocytosis controlled by actin dynamics and suggest that the interplay between different modes of receptor endocytosis provides for segregation between distinct modes of neuronal plasticity. PMID:25810514

  2. Glutamatergic Neurons Induce Expression of Functional Glutamatergic Synapses in Primary Myotubes

    PubMed Central

    Ettorre, Michele; Lorenzetto, Erika; Laperchia, Claudia; Baiguera, Cristina; Branca, Caterina; Benarese, Manuela; Spano, PierFranco; Pizzi, Marina; Buffelli, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Background The functioning of the nervous system depends upon the specificity of its synaptic contacts. The mechanisms triggering the expression of the appropriate receptors on postsynaptic membrane and the role of the presynaptic partner in the differentiation of postsynaptic structures are little known. Methods and Findings To address these questions we cocultured murine primary muscle cells with several glutamatergic neurons, either cortical, cerebellar or hippocampal. Immunofluorescence and electrophysiology analyses revealed that functional excitatory synaptic contacts were formed between glutamatergic neurons and muscle cells. Moreover, immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence experiments showed that typical anchoring proteins of central excitatory synapses coimmunoprecipitate and colocalize with rapsyn, the acetylcholine receptor anchoring protein at the neuromuscular junction. Conclusions These results support an important role of the presynaptic partner in the induction and differentiation of the postsynaptic structures. PMID:22347480

  3. 3’-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin) Produces a Rapid and Robust Antidepressant Effect via Enhancing Prefrontal AMPA Receptor Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bai; Hou, Yangyang; Zhu, Ming; Bao, Hongkun; Nie, Jun; Zhang, Grace Y.; Shan, Liping; Yao, Yao; Du, Kai; Yang, Hongju; Li, Meizhang; Zheng, Bingrong; Xu, Xiufeng; Xiao, Chunjie; Du, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Background: The development of rapid and safe antidepressants for the treatment of major depression is in urgent demand. Converging evidence suggests that glutamatergic signaling seems to play important roles in the pathophysiology of depression. Methods: We studied the antidepressant effects of 3’-deoxyadenosine (3’-dA, Cordycepin) and the critical role of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor in male CD-1 mice via behavioral and biochemical experiments. After 3’-dA treatment, the phosphorylation and synaptic localization of the AMPA receptors GluR1 and GluR2 were determined in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus (HIP). The traditional antidepressant imipramine was applied as a positive control. Results: We found that an injection of 3’-dA led to a rapid and robust antidepressant effect, which was significantly faster and stronger than imipramine, after 45min in tail suspension and forced swim tests. This antidepressant effect remained after 5 days of treatment with 3’-dA. Unlike the psycho-stimulants, 3’-dA did not show a hyperactive effect in the open field test. After 45min or 5 days of treatment, 3’-dA enhanced GluR1 S845 phosphorylation in both the PFC and HIP. In addition, after 45min of treatment, 3’-dA significantly up-regulated GluR1 S845 phosphorylation and GluR1, but not GluR2 levels, at the synapses in the PFC. After 5 days of treatment, 3’-dA significantly enhanced GluR1 S845 phosphorylation and GluR1, but not GluR2, at the synapses in the PFC and HIP. Moreover, the AMPA-specific antagonist GYKI 52466 was able to block the rapid antidepressant effects of 3’-dA. Conclusion: This study identified 3’-dA as a novel rapid antidepressant with clinical potential and multiple beneficial mechanisms, particularly in regulating the prefrontal AMPA receptor signaling pathway. PMID:26443809

  4. Expression of Glutamatergic Genes in Healthy Humans across 16 Brain Regions; Altered Expression in the Hippocampus after Chronic Exposure to Alcohol or Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Rosser, Alexandra A.; Zhou, Zhifeng; Mash, Deborah C.; Yuan, Qiaoping; Goldman, David

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed global patterns of expression in genes related to glutamatergic neurotransmission (glutamatergic genes) in healthy human adult brain before determining the effects of chronic alcohol and cocaine exposure on gene expression in the hippocampus. RNA-Seq data from ‘BrainSpan’ was obtained across 16 brain regions from nine control adults. We also generated RNA-Seq data from postmortem hippocampus from eight alcoholics, eight cocaine addicts and eight controls. Expression analyses were undertaken of 28 genes encoding glutamate ionotropic (AMPA, kainate, NMDA) and metabotropic receptor subunits, together with glutamate transporters. The expression of each gene was fairly consistent across the brain with the exception of the cerebellum, the thalamic mediodorsal nucleus and the striatum. GRIN1, encoding the essential NMDA subunit, had the highest expression across all brain regions. Six factors accounted for 84% of the variance in global gene expression. GRIN2B (encoding GluN2B), was up-regulated in both alcoholics and cocaine addicts (FDR corrected p = 0.008). Alcoholics showed up-regulation of three genes relative to controls and cocaine addicts: GRIA4 (encoding GluA4), GRIK3 (GluR7) and GRM4 (mGluR4). Expression of both GRM3 (mGluR3) and GRIN2D (GluN2D) was up-regulated in alcoholics and down-regulated in cocaine addicts relative to controls. Glutamatergic genes are moderately to highly expressed throughout the brain. Six factors explain nearly all the variance in global gene expression. At least in the hippocampus, chronic alcohol use largely up-regulates glutamatergic genes. The NMDA GluN2B receptor subunit might be implicated in a common pathway to addiction, possibly in conjunction with the GABAB1 receptor subunit. PMID:25262781

  5. AMPA receptors in cerebellar granule cells during development in culture.

    PubMed

    Hack, N J; Sluiter, A A; Balázs, R

    1995-06-27

    The survival and maturation of differentiating cerebellar granule cells in culture are known to be promoted by excitatory amino acids (EAAs) which, however, compromise the survival of mature cells. In contrast to the trophic effect, the toxic effect of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxasolepropiate (AMPA) could only be elicited when the desensitisation of AMPA receptors was blocked, cyclothiazide being used in this study. Nevertheless, even under these conditions, toxicity induced by AMPA in contrast to kainate was, at 9 DIV, only half of the maximal toxicity attained by 13-16 DIV. Since cellular responses to AMPA depend so dramatically on the maturational stage of granule cells, we examined here whether this characteristic is related to developmental changes in AMPA receptor properties, which may result from changes in the subunit composition of the receptor. In contrast to toxicity, AMPA-induced 45Ca2+ influx (determined in the presence of cyclothiazide and the NMDA receptor blocker MK-801) reached a maximum already at 9 DIV. This also applied to a fraction of the 45Ca2+ uptake which persisted either after Cd2+ application or under Na(+)-free conditions and therefore presumably was mediated directly through AMPA receptor channels. Quantitative analysis of Western blots showed that the amounts of GluR4 and to a lesser extent GluR2/3/4c are substantial already at 2 DIV, remaining fairly constant until 9 DIV, followed by an increase by 16 DIV. However GluR1, which is hardly detectable in granule cells in vivo and is also low early in vitro, increased almost linearly with cultivation time.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7554232

  6. Metabotropic glutamatergic receptors and their ligands in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Pomierny-Chamioło, Lucyna; Rup, Kinga; Pomierny, Bartosz; Niedzielska, Ewa; Kalivas, Peter W; Filip, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Glutamatergic excitatory transmission is implicated in physiological and pathological conditions like learning, memory, neuronal plasticity and emotions, while glutamatergic abnormalities are reported in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, epilepsy, stroke, traumatic brain injury, depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and pain. Also, several lines of evidence have accumulated indicating a pivotal role for glutamatergic neurotransmission in mediating addictive behaviors. Among the proteins regulating glutamatergic transmission, the metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) are being developed as pharmacological targets for treating many neuropsychiatric disorders, including drug addiction. In this review we describe the molecular structure of mGluRs and their distribution, physiology and pharmacology in the central nervous system, as well as their use as targets in preclinical studies of drug addiction. PMID:24362085

  7. Extensive phosphorylation of AMPA receptors in neurons.

    PubMed

    Diering, Graham H; Heo, Seok; Hussain, Natasha K; Liu, Bian; Huganir, Richard L

    2016-08-16

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) function is a fundamental mechanism controlling synaptic strength during long-term potentiation/depression and homeostatic scaling. AMPAR function and membrane trafficking is controlled by protein-protein interactions, as well as by posttranslational modifications. Phosphorylation of the GluA1 AMPAR subunit at S845 and S831 play especially important roles during synaptic plasticity. Recent controversy has emerged regarding the extent to which GluA1 phosphorylation may contribute to synaptic plasticity. Here we used a variety of methods to measure the population of phosphorylated GluA1-containing AMPARs in cultured primary neurons and mouse forebrain. Phosphorylated GluA1 represents large fractions from 12% to 50% of the total population under basal and stimulated conditions in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a large fraction of synapses are positive for phospho-GluA1-containing AMPARs. Our results support the large body of research indicating a prominent role of GluA1 phosphorylation in synaptic plasticity. PMID:27482106

  8. Differential vesicular sorting of AMPA and GABAA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Chiu, Shu-Ling; Liu, Bian; Wu, Pei-Hsun; Delannoy, Michael; Lin, Da-Ting; Wirtz, Denis; Huganir, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    In mature neurons AMPA receptors cluster at excitatory synapses primarily on dendritic spines, whereas GABAA receptors cluster at inhibitory synapses mainly on the soma and dendritic shafts. The molecular mechanisms underlying the precise sorting of these receptors remain unclear. By directly studying the constitutive exocytic vesicles of AMPA and GABAA receptors in vitro and in vivo, we demonstrate that they are initially sorted into different vesicles in the Golgi apparatus and inserted into distinct domains of the plasma membrane. These insertions are dependent on distinct Rab GTPases and SNARE complexes. The insertion of AMPA receptors requires SNAP25–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes, whereas insertion of GABAA receptors relies on SNAP23–syntaxin1A/B–VAMP2 complexes. These SNARE complexes affect surface targeting of AMPA or GABAA receptors and synaptic transmission. Our studies reveal vesicular sorting mechanisms controlling the constitutive exocytosis of AMPA and GABAA receptors, which are critical for the regulation of excitatory and inhibitory responses in neurons. PMID:26839408

  9. Mechanism of Positive Allosteric Modulators Acting on AMPA Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Jin,R.; Clark, S.; Weeks, A.; Dudman, J.; Gouaux, E.; Partin, K.

    2005-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels involved in the modulation of synaptic strength are the AMPA, kainate, and NMDA glutamate receptors. Small molecules that potentiate AMPA receptor currents relieve cognitive deficits caused by neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and show promise in the treatment of depression. Previously, there has been limited understanding of the molecular mechanism of action for AMPA receptor potentiators. Here we present cocrystal structures of the glutamate receptor GluR2 S1S2 ligand-binding domain in complex with aniracetam [1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone] or CX614 (pyrrolidino-1, 3-oxazino benzo-1, 4-dioxan-10-one), two AMPA receptor potentiators that preferentially slow AMPA receptor deactivation. Both potentiators bind within the dimer interface of the nondesensitized receptor at a common site located on the twofold axis of molecular symmetry. Importantly, the potentiator binding site is adjacent to the 'hinge' in the ligand-binding core 'clamshell' that undergoes conformational rearrangement after glutamate binding. Using rapid solution exchange, patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments, we show that point mutations of residues that interact with potentiators in the cocrystal disrupt potentiator function. We suggest that the potentiators slow deactivation by stabilizing the clamshell in its closed-cleft, glutamate-bound conformation.

  10. Are AMPA receptor positive allosteric modulators potential pharmacotherapeutics for addiction?

    PubMed

    Watterson, Lucas R; Olive, M Foster

    2013-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are a diverse class of compounds that increase fast excitatory transmission in the brain. AMPA PAMs have been shown to facilitate long-term potentiation, strengthen communication between various cortical and subcortical regions, and some of these compounds increase the production and release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an activity-dependent manner. Through these mechanisms, AMPA PAMs have shown promise as broad spectrum pharmacotherapeutics in preclinical and clinical studies for various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In recent years, a small collection of preclinical animal studies has also shown that AMPA PAMs may have potential as pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts to extinction-based or cue-exposure therapies for the treatment of drug addiction. The present paper will review this preclinical literature, discuss novel data collected in our laboratory, and recommend future research directions for the possible development of AMPA PAMs as anti-addiction medications. PMID:24380895

  11. Are AMPA Receptor Positive Allosteric Modulators Potential Pharmacotherapeutics for Addiction?

    PubMed Central

    Watterson, Lucas R.; Olive, M. Foster

    2013-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are a diverse class of compounds that increase fast excitatory transmission in the brain. AMPA PAMs have been shown to facilitate long-term potentiation, strengthen communication between various cortical and subcortical regions, and some of these compounds increase the production and release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in an activity-dependent manner. Through these mechanisms, AMPA PAMs have shown promise as broad spectrum pharmacotherapeutics in preclinical and clinical studies for various neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. In recent years, a small collection of preclinical animal studies has also shown that AMPA PAMs may have potential as pharmacotherapeutic adjuncts to extinction-based or cue-exposure therapies for the treatment of drug addiction. The present paper will review this preclinical literature, discuss novel data collected in our laboratory, and recommend future research directions for the possible development of AMPA PAMs as anti-addiction medications. PMID:24380895

  12. Chronic hyperammonemia, glutamatergic neurotransmission and neurological alterations.

    PubMed

    Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Cauli, Omar; Hernández-Rabaza, Vicente; Agustí, Ana; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Giménez-Garzó, Carla; González-Usano, Alba; Felipo, Vicente

    2013-06-01

    This mini-review focus on our studies on alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission and their role in neurological alterations in rat models of chronic hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hyperammonemia impairs the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cGMP pathway in cerebellum, which is responsible for reduced learning ability. We studied the underlying mechanisms and designed treatments to restore the pathway and learning. This was achieved by treatment with: phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, cGMP, anti-inflammatories (ibuprofen), p38 inhibitors or GABAA receptor antagonists (bicuculline). Hyperammonemia alters signal transduction associated to metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Hypokinesia in hyperammonemia and HE is due to increased extracellular glutamate and mGluR1 activation in substantia nigra; blocking this receptor restores motor activity. The motor responses to mGluRs activation in nucleus accumbens (NAcc) are altered in hyperammonemia and HE, with reduced dopamine and increased glutamate release. This leads to activation of different neuronal circuits and enhanced motor responses. These studies show that altered responses to activation of NMDA receptors and mGluRs play essential roles in cognitive and motor alterations in hyperammonemia and HE and provide new treatments restoring cognitive and motor function. PMID:23010935

  13. Lrp4 in astrocytes modulates glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiang-Dong; Li, Lei; Liu, Fang; Huang, Zhi-Hui; Bean, Jonathan C; Jiao, Hui-Feng; Barik, Arnab; Kim, Seon-Myung; Wu, Haitao; Shen, Chengyong; Tian, Yun; Lin, Thiri W; Bates, Ryan; Sathyamurthy, Anupama; Chen, Yong-Jun; Yin, Dong-Min; Xiong, Lei; Lin, Hui-Ping; Hu, Jin-Xia; Li, Bao-Ming; Gao, Tian-Ming; Xiong, Wen-Cheng; Mei, Lin

    2016-08-01

    Neurotransmission requires precise control of neurotransmitter release from axon terminals. This process is regulated by glial cells; however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We found that glutamate release in the brain was impaired in mice lacking low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 4 (Lrp4), a protein that is critical for neuromuscular junction formation. Electrophysiological studies revealed compromised release probability in astrocyte-specific Lrp4 knockout mice. Lrp4 mutant astrocytes suppressed glutamatergic transmission by enhancing the release of ATP, whose level was elevated in the hippocampus of Lrp4 mutant mice. Consequently, the mutant mice were impaired in locomotor activity and spatial memory and were resistant to seizure induction. These impairments could be ameliorated by blocking the adenosine A1 receptor. The results reveal a critical role for Lrp4, in response to agrin, in modulating astrocytic ATP release and synaptic transmission. Our findings provide insight into the interaction between neurons and astrocytes for synaptic homeostasis and/or plasticity. PMID:27294513

  14. Alternative splicing of AMPA receptor subunits in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease and L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia.

    PubMed

    Kobylecki, Christopher; Crossman, Alan R; Ravenscroft, Paula

    2013-09-01

    Abnormal corticostriatal plasticity is a key mechanism of L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Antagonists at glutamatergic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors, such as IEM 1460, reduce induction and expression of dyskinesia in rat and non-human primate models of PD. AMPA receptor function is regulated by post-transcriptional splicing of subunit mRNA to produce flip and flop isoforms, which may therefore influence corticostriatal plasticity. The aim of this work was to evaluate alterations in alternative splicing of striatal AMPA receptor subunits in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of LID and PD. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received 12.5 μg 6-OHDA injections into the right medial forebrain bundle. In experiment 1, to assess acute dyskinesia, rats received L-DOPA/benserazide (6/15 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle for 21 days. In experiment 2, to assess dyskinesia priming, rats received vehicle, L-DOPA+vehicle or L-DOPA+IEM 1460 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) for 21 days. Animals were humanely killed 1h following final treatment in experiment 1, and 48 h following final treatment in experiment 2. Coronal sections of rostral striatum were processed for in situ hybridisation histochemistry, using oligonucleotide probes specific for the GluR1 and GluR2 subunits and their flip and flop isoforms. L-DOPA treatment increased GluR2-flip mRNA expression in the lesioned striatum of both groups; this was blocked by the Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor antagonist IEM 1460. GluR1-flip expression was increased after 48 h drug washout but not in acute LID. There were no changes in expression of flop isoforms. Alternative splicing of AMPAR subunits contributes to abnormal striatal plasticity in the induction and expression of LID. Increases in GluR2-flip expression depend on activation of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors, which are a potential target of anti-dyskinetic therapies. PMID:23360800

  15. Transferrin Receptor Controls AMPA Receptor Trafficking Efficiency and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ke; Lei, Run; Li, Qiong; Wang, Xin-Xin; Wu, Qian; An, Peng; Zhang, Jianchao; Zhu, Minyan; Xu, Zhiheng; Hong, Yang; Wang, Fudi; Shen, Ying; Li, Hongchang; Li, Huashun

    2016-01-01

    Transferrin receptor (TFR) is an important iron transporter regulating iron homeostasis and has long been used as a marker for clathrin mediated endocytosis. However, little is known about its additional function other than iron transport in the development of central nervous system (CNS). Here we demonstrate that TFR functions as a regulator to control AMPA receptor trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. The conditional knockout (KO) of TFR in neural progenitor cells causes mice to develop progressive epileptic seizure, and dramatically reduces basal synaptic transmission and long-term potentiation (LTP). We further demonstrate that TFR KO remarkably reduces the binding efficiency of GluR2 to AP2 and subsequently decreases AMPA receptor endocytosis and recycling. Thus, our study reveals that TFR functions as a novel regulator to control AMPA trafficking efficiency and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26880306

  16. Ganglioside Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Prendergast, Jillian; Umanah, George K.E.; Yoo, Seung-Wan; Lagerlöf, Olof; Motari, Mary G.; Cole, Robert N.; Huganir, Richard L.; Dawson, Ted M.; Dawson, Valina L.

    2014-01-01

    Gangliosides are major cell-surface determinants on all vertebrate neurons. Human congenital disorders of ganglioside biosynthesis invariably result in intellectual disability and are often associated with intractable seizures. To probe the mechanisms of ganglioside functions, affinity-captured ganglioside-binding proteins from rat cerebellar granule neurons were identified by quantitative proteomic mass spectrometry. Of the six proteins that bound selectively to the major brain ganglioside GT1b (GT1b:GM1 > 4; p < 10−4), three regulate neurotransmitter receptor trafficking: Thorase (ATPase family AAA domain-containing protein 1), soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (γ-SNAP), and the transmembrane protein Nicalin. Thorase facilitates endocytosis of GluR2 subunit-containing AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) in an ATPase-dependent manner; its deletion in mice results in learning and memory deficits (J. Zhang et al., 2011b). GluR2-containing AMPARs did not bind GT1b, but bound specifically to another ganglioside, GM1. Addition of noncleavable ATP (ATPγS) significantly disrupted ganglioside binding, whereas it enhanced AMPAR association with Thorase, NSF, and Nicalin. Mutant mice lacking GT1b expressed markedly higher brain Thorase, whereas Thorase-null mice expressed higher GT1b. Treatment of cultured hippocampal neurons with sialidase, which cleaves GT1b (and other sialoglycans), resulted in a significant reduction in the size of surface GluR2 puncta. These data support a model in which GM1-bound GluR2-containing AMPARs are functionally segregated from GT1b-bound AMPAR-trafficking complexes. Release of ganglioside binding may enhance GluR2-containing AMPAR association with its trafficking complexes, increasing endocytosis. Disrupting ganglioside biosynthesis may result in reduced synaptic expression of GluR2-contianing AMPARs resulting in intellectual deficits and seizure susceptibility in mice and humans. PMID:25253868

  17. Glutamatergic substrates of drug addiction and alcoholism1

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Justin T.; Foster Olive, M.

    2008-01-01

    The past two decades have witnessed a dramatic accumulation of evidence indicating that the excitatory amino acid glutamate plays an important role in drug addiction and alcoholism. The purpose of this review is to summarize findings on glutamatergic substrates of addiction, surveying data from both human and animal studies. The effects of various drugs of abuse on glutamatergic neurotransmission are discussed, as are the effects of pharmacological or genetic manipulation of various components of glutamate transmission on drug reinforcement, conditioned reward, extinction, and relapse-like behavior. In addition, glutamatergic agents that are currently in use or are undergoing testing in clinical trials for the treatment of addiction are discussed, including acamprosate, N-acetylcysteine, modafinil, topiramate, lamotrigine, gabapentin and mematine. All drugs of abuse appear to modulate glutamatergic transmission, albeit by different mechanisms, and this modulation of glutamate transmission is believed to result in long-lasting neuroplastic changes in the brain that may contribute to the perseveration of drug-seeking behavior and drug-associated memories. In general, attenuation of glutamatergic transmission reduces drug reward, reinforcement, and relapse-like behavior. On the other hand, potentiation of glutamatergic transmission appears to facilitate the extinction of drug-seeking behavior. However, attempts at identifying genetic polymorphisms in components of glutamate transmission in humans have yielded only a limited number of candidate genes that may serve as risk factors for the development of addiction. Nonetheless, manipulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission appears to be a promising avenue of research in developing improved therapeutic agents for the treatment of drug addiction and alcoholism. PMID:17706608

  18. Differential expression of postsynaptic NMDA and AMPA receptor subunits in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of the flinders sensitive line rat model of depression.

    PubMed

    Treccani, Giulia; Gaarn du Jardin, Kristian; Wegener, Gregers; Müller, Heidi Kaastrup

    2016-11-01

    Glutamatergic abnormalities have recently been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression, and the ionotropic glutamate receptors in particular have been suggested as possible underlying molecular determinants. The Flinders Sensitive Line (FSL) rats constitute a validated model of depression with dysfunctional regulation of glutamate transmission relatively to their control strain Flinders Resistant Line (FRL). To gain insight into how signaling through glutamate receptors may be altered in the FSL rats, we investigated the expression and phosphorylation of AMPA and NMDA receptor subunits in an enriched postsynaptic fraction of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Compared to the hippocampal postsynaptic fractions of FRL rats, FSL rats exhibited decreased and increased levels of the NMDA receptor subunits GluN2A and GluN2B, respectively, causing a lower ratio of GluN2A/GluN2B. The GluA2/GluA3 AMPA receptor subunit ratio was significantly decreased while the expression of the individual GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 subunits were unaltered including phosphorylation levels of GluA1 at S831 and S845. There were no changes in the prefrontal cortex. These results support altered expression of postsynaptic glutamate receptors in the hippocampus of FSL rats, which may contribute to the depressive-like phenotype of these rats. PMID:27262028

  19. Reduced sensory stimulation alters the molecular make-up of glutamatergic hair cell synapses in the developing cochlea.

    PubMed

    Barclay, M; Constable, R; James, N R; Thorne, P R; Montgomery, J M

    2016-06-14

    Neural activity during early development is known to alter innervation pathways in the central and peripheral nervous systems. We sought to examine how reduced sound-induced sensory activity in the cochlea affected the consolidation of glutamatergic synapses between inner hair cells (IHC) and the primary auditory neurons as these synapses play a primary role in transmitting sound information to the brain. A unilateral conductive hearing loss was induced prior to the onset of sound-mediated stimulation of the sensory hair cells, by rupturing the tympanic membrane and dislocating the auditory ossicles in the left ear of P11 mice. Auditory brainstem responses at P15 and P21 showed a 40-50-dB increase in thresholds for frequencies 8-32kHz in the dislocated ear relative to the control ear. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were subsequently used to examine the effect of this attenuation of sound stimulation on the expression of RIBEYE, which comprises the presynaptic ribbons, Shank-1, a postsynaptic scaffolding protein, and the GluA2/3 and 4 subunits of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. Our results show that dislocation did not alter the number of pre- or postsynaptic protein puncta. However, dislocation did increase the size of RIBEYE, GluA4, GluA2/3 and Shank-1 puncta, with postsynaptic changes preceding presynaptic changes. Our data suggest that a reduction in sound stimulation during auditory development induces plasticity in the molecular make-up of IHC glutamatergic synapses, but does not affect the number of these synapses. Up-regulation of synaptic proteins with sound attenuation may facilitate a compensatory increase in synaptic transmission due to the reduced sensory stimulation of the IHC. PMID:27012610

  20. A Shift in the Role of Glutamatergic Signaling in the Nucleus Accumbens Core with the Development of an Addicted Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Susan E.; Ramôa, Carolina; Garber, Garrett; Newman, Joshua; Toor, Shaun; Lynch, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Background While dopamine signaling in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) plays a well-established role in motivating cocaine use in early “non-addicted” stages, recent evidence suggests that other signaling pathways may be critical once addiction has developed. Given the importance of glutamatergic signaling in the NAc for drug-seeking and relapse, here we examined its role in motivating cocaine self-administration under conditions known to produce either a “non-addicted” or an “addicted” phenotype. Methods Following acquisition, male and female Sprague Dawley rats were given either short access (3 fixed-ratio 1 sessions, 20 infusions/day) or extended 24-hr access (10 days; 4 trials/hr; up to 96 infusions/day) to cocaine. Following a 14-day abstinence period, motivation for cocaine was assessed under a progressive-ratio schedule, and once stable, the effects of intra-NAc infusions of the glutamate AMPA/KA receptor antagonist CNQX (0.0, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1 μg/side) were determined. As an additional measure for the development of an addicted phenotype, separate groups of rats were screened under an extinction/cue-induced reinstatement procedure following abstinence from short versus extended access self-administration. Results Motivation for cocaine and levels of extinction and reinstatement responding were markedly higher following extended versus short access self-administration confirming the development of an addicted phenotype in the extended access group. CNQX dose-dependently reduced motivation for cocaine in the extended access group, but was without effect in the short access group. Conclusions These results suggest that the role of glutamatergic signaling in the NAc, though not essential for motivating cocaine use in “non-addicted” stages, becomes critical once addiction has developed. PMID:24629536

  1. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Megan E; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S; Andrade, Mary Ann; Toney, Glenn M

    2014-06-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P < 0.01) renal SNA and MAP in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P < 0.05) in DH rats. The latter was not explained by increased PVN expression of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit protein, increased PVN neuronal excitability, or decreased brain water content. Interestingly, PVN injection of the pan-specific excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) inhibitor DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid produced smaller sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses in DH rats, which was associated with reduced glial expression of EAAT2 in PVN. Like chronic hypertension and heart failure, dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  2. Diversity of Glutamatergic Synaptic Strength in Lateral Prefrontal versus Primary Visual Cortices in the Rhesus Monkey

    PubMed Central

    Luebke, Jennifer I.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding commonalities and differences in glutamatergic synaptic signaling is essential for understanding cortical functional diversity, especially in the highly complex primate brain. Previously, we have shown that spontaneous EPSCs differed markedly in layer 3 pyramidal neurons of two specialized cortical areas in the rhesus monkey, the high-order lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) and the primary visual cortex (V1). Here, we used patch-clamp recordings and confocal and electron microscopy to determine whether these distinct synaptic responses are due to differences in firing rates of presynaptic neurons and/or in the features of presynaptic or postsynaptic entities. As with spontaneous EPSCs, TTX-insensitive (action potential-independent) miniature EPSCs exhibited significantly higher frequency, greater amplitude, and slower kinetics in LPFC compared with V1 neurons. Consistent with these physiological differences, LPFC neurons possessed higher densities of spines, and the mean width of large spines was greater compared with those on V1 neurons. Axospinous synapses in layers 2–3 of LPFC had larger postsynaptic density surface areas and a higher proportion of large perforated synapses compared with V1. Axonal boutons in LPFC were also larger in volume and contained ∼1.6× more vesicles than did those in V1. Further, LPFC had a higher density of AMPA GluR2 receptor labeling than V1. The properties of spines and synaptic currents of individual layer 3 pyramidal neurons measured here were significantly correlated, consistent with the idea that significantly more frequent and larger synaptic currents are likely due to more numerous, larger, and more powerful synapses in LPFC compared with V1. PMID:25568107

  3. Acute and chronic cocaine differentially alter the subcellular distribution of AMPA GluR1 subunits in region-specific neurons within the mouse ventral tegmental area

    PubMed Central

    Lane, D.A.; Jaferi, A.; Kreek, M.J.; Pickel, V.M.

    2010-01-01

    Cocaine administration increases AMPA GluR1 expression and receptor-mediated activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Functionality is determined, however, by surface availability of these receptors in transmitter- and VTA-region-specific neurons, which may also be affected by cocaine. To test this hypothesis, we used electron microscopic immunolabeling of AMPA GluR1 subunits and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; the enzyme needed for dopamine synthesis), in the cortical-associated parabrachial (PB) and in the limbic-associated paranigral (PN) VTA of adult male C57BL/6 mice receiving either a single injection (acute) or repeated escalating-doses for 14 days (chronic) of cocaine. Acute cocaine resulted in opposing VTA-region-specific changes in TH-containing dopaminergic dendrites. TH-labeled dendrites within the PB VTA showed increased cytoplasmic GluR1 immunogold particle density consistent with decreased AMPA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission. Conversely, TH-labeled dendrites within the PN VTA showed greater surface expression of GluR1 with increases in both synaptic and plasmalemmal GluR1 immunogold density after a single injection of cocaine. These changes diminished in both VTA subregions after chronic cocaine administration. In contrast, non-TH-containing (presumably GABAergic) dendrites showed VTA-region-specific changes only after repeated cocaine administration such that synaptic GluR1 decreased in the PB, but increased in the PN VTA. Taken together, these findings provide ultrastructural evidence suggesting that chronic cocaine not only reverses the respective depression and facilitation of mesocortical (PB) and mesolimbic (PN) dopaminergic neurons elicited by acute cocaine, but also differentially affects synaptic availability of these receptors in non-dopaminergic neurons of each region. These adaptations may contribute to increased cocaine seeking/relapse and decreased reward that is reported with chronic cocaine use. PMID:20553819

  4. NMDA and AMPA receptors contribute similarly to temporal processing in mammalian retinal ganglion cells

    PubMed Central

    Stafford, Benjamin K; Manookin, Michael B; Singer, Joshua H; Demb, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Postsynaptic AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs, NMDARs) are commonly expressed at the same synapses. AMPARs are thought to mediate the majority of fast excitatory neurotransmission whereas NMDARs, with their relatively slower kinetics and higher Ca2+ permeability, are thought to mediate synaptic plasticity, especially in neural circuits devoted to learning and memory. In sensory neurons, however, the roles of AMPARs and NMDARs are less well understood. Here, we tested in the in vitro guinea pig retina whether AMPARs and NMDARs differentially support temporal contrast encoding by two ganglion cell types. In both OFF Alpha and Delta ganglion cells, contrast stimulation evoked an NMDAR-mediated response with a characteristic J-shaped I–V relationship. In OFF Delta cells, AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated responses could be modulated at low frequencies but were suppressed during 10 Hz stimulation, when responses were instead shaped by synaptic inhibition. With inhibition blocked, both AMPAR- and NMDAR-mediated responses could be modulated at 10 Hz, indicating that NMDAR kinetics do not limit temporal encoding. In OFF Alpha cells, NMDAR-mediated responses followed stimuli at frequencies up to ∼18 Hz. In both cell types, NMDAR-mediated responses to contrast modulation at 9–18 Hz showed delays of <10 ms relative to AMPAR-mediated responses. Thus, NMDARs combine with AMPARs to encode rapidly modulated glutamate release, and NMDAR kinetics do not limit temporal coding by OFF Alpha and Delta ganglion cells substantially. Furthermore, glutamatergic transmission is differentially regulated across bipolar cell pathways: in some, release is suppressed at high temporal frequencies by presynaptic inhibition. PMID:25217374

  5. MAGI-1 modulates AMPA receptor synaptic localization and behavioral plasticity in response to prior experience.

    PubMed

    Emtage, Lesley; Chang, Howard; Tiver, Rebecca; Rongo, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    It is well established that the efficacy of synaptic connections can be rapidly modified by neural activity, yet how the environment and prior experience modulate such synaptic and behavioral plasticity is only beginning to be understood. Here we show in C. elegans that the broadly conserved scaffolding molecule MAGI-1 is required for the plasticity observed in a glutamatergic circuit. This mechanosensory circuit mediates reversals in locomotion in response to touch stimulation, and the AMPA-type receptor (AMPAR) subunits GLR-1 and GLR-2, which are required for reversal behavior, are localized to ventral cord synapses in this circuit. We find that animals modulate GLR-1 and GLR-2 localization in response to prior mechanosensory stimulation; a specific isoform of MAGI-1 (MAGI-1L) is critical for this modulation. We show that MAGI-1L interacts with AMPARs through the intracellular domain of the GLR-2 subunit, which is required for the modulation of AMPAR synaptic localization by mechanical stimulation. In addition, mutations that prevent the ubiquitination of GLR-1 prevent the decrease in AMPAR localization observed in previously stimulated magi-1 mutants. Finally, we find that previously-stimulated animals later habituate to subsequent mechanostimulation more rapidly compared to animals initially reared without mechanical stimulation; MAGI-1L, GLR-1, and GLR-2 are required for this change in habituation kinetics. Our findings demonstrate that prior experience can cause long-term alterations in both behavioral plasticity and AMPAR localization at synapses in an intact animal, and indicate a new, direct role for MAGI/S-SCAM proteins in modulating AMPAR localization and function in the wake of variable sensory experience. PMID:19242552

  6. Differential reelin-induced enhancement of NMDA and AMPA receptor activity in the adult hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Shenfeng; Zhao, Lisa F; Korwek, Kimberly M; Weeber, Edwin J

    2006-12-13

    The developmental lamination of the hippocampus and other cortical structures requires a signaling cascade initiated by reelin and its receptors, apoER2 (apolipoprotein E receptor 2) and VLDLR (very-low-density lipoprotein receptor). However, the functional significance of continued reelin expression in the postnatal brain remains poorly understood. Here, we show that reelin application to adult mice hippocampal slices leads to enhanced glutamatergic transmission mediated by NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and AMPA receptors (AMPARs) through distinct mechanisms. Application of recombinant reelin enhanced NMDAR-mediated currents through postsynaptic mechanisms, as revealed by the variance-mean analysis of synaptic NMDAR currents, assessment of spontaneous miniature events, and the levels of NMDAR subunits at synaptic surface. In comparison, nonstationary fluctuation analysis of miniature AMPAR currents and quantification of synaptic surface proteins revealed that reelin-induced enhancement of AMPAR responses was mediated by increased AMPAR numbers. Reelin enhancement of synaptic NMDAR currents was abolished when receptor-associated protein (RAP) or the Src inhibitor 4-amino-5-(4-methylphenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]-pyrimidine (PP1) was bath applied and was abrogated by including PP1 in the recording electrodes. In comparison, including RAP or an inactive PP1 analog PP3 in the recording electrode was without effect. Interestingly, the increased AMPAR response after reelin application was not blocked by PP1 but was blocked by the phosphoinositide-3' kinase (PI3K) inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-1(4H)-benzopyran-4-one hydrochloride]. Furthermore, reelin-induced, PI3K-dependent AMPAR surface insertion was also observed in cultured hippocampal neurons. Together, these results reveal a differential functional coupling of reelin signaling with NMDAR and AMPAR function and define a novel mechanism for controlling synaptic strength and plasticity

  7. Differential regulation of AMPA receptor subunit trafficking by palmitoylation of two distinct sites.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takashi; Rumbaugh, Gavin; Huganir, Richard L

    2005-09-01

    Modification of AMPA receptor function is a major mechanism for the regulation of synaptic transmission and underlies several forms of synaptic plasticity. Post-translational palmitoylation is a reversible modification that regulates localization of many proteins. Here, we report that palmitoylation of the AMPA receptor regulates receptor trafficking. All AMPA receptor subunits are palmitoylated on two cysteine residues in their transmembrane domain (TMD) 2 and in their C-terminal region. Palmitoylation on TMD 2 is upregulated by the palmitoyl acyl transferase GODZ and leads to an accumulation of the receptor in the Golgi and a reduction of receptor surface expression. C-terminal palmitoylation decreases interaction of the AMPA receptor with the 4.1N protein and regulates AMPA- and NMDA-induced AMPA receptor internalization. Moreover, depalmitoylation of the receptor is regulated by activation of glutamate receptors. These data suggest that regulated palmitoylation of AMPA receptor subunits modulates receptor trafficking and may be important for synaptic plasticity. PMID:16129400

  8. Flotillin-1 promotes formation of glutamatergic synapses in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Swanwick, Catherine Croft; Shapiro, Marietta E; Vicini, Stefano; Wenthold, Robert J

    2010-11-01

    Synapse malformation underlies numerous neurodevelopmental illnesses, including autism spectrum disorders. Here we identify the lipid raft protein flotillin-1 as a promoter of glutamatergic synapse formation. We cultured neurons from the hippocampus, a brain region important for learning and memory, and examined them at two weeks in vitro, a time period rich with synapse formation. Double-label immunocytochemistry of native flot-1 with glutamatergic and GABAergic synapse markers showed that flot-1 was preferentially colocalized with the glutamatergic presynaptic marker vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), compared to the GABAergic presynaptic marker glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 (GAD-65). Triple-label immunocytochemistry of native flot-1, VGLUT1, and NR1, the obligatory subunit of NMDA receptors, indicates that Flot-1 was preferentially localized to synaptic rather than extrasynaptic NR1. Furthermore, electrophysiological results using whole-cell patch clamp showed that Flot-1 increased the frequency of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) but not miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs), whereas amplitude and decay kinetics of either type of synaptic current was not affected. Corresponding immunocytochemical data confirmed that the number of glutamatergic synapses increased with flot-1 overexpression. Overall, our anatomical and physiological results show that flot-1 enhances the formation of glutamatergic synapses but not GABAergic synapses, suggesting that the role of flot-1 in neurodevelopmental disorders should be explored. PMID:20669324

  9. Glutamatergic Modulators: The Future of Treating Mood Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Zarate, Carlos; Machado-Vieira, Rodrigo; Henter, Ioline; Ibrahim, Lobna; Diazgranados, Nancy; Salvadore, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Mood disorders such as bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder are common, chronic, and recurrent conditions affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Existing antidepressants and mood stabilizers used to treat these disorders are insufficient for many. Patients continue to have low remission rates, delayed onset of action, residual subsyndromal symptoms, and relapses. New therapeutic agents able to exert faster and sustained antidepressant or mood-stabilizing effects are urgently needed to treat these disorders. In this context, the glutamatergic system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders in unique clinical and neurobiological ways. In addition to evidence confirming the role of the glutamatergic modulators riluzole and ketamine as proof-of-concept agents in this system, trials with diverse glutamatergic modulators are under way. Overall, this system holds considerable promise for developing the next generation of novel therapeutics for the treatment of bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder. PMID:20825266

  10. Cannabinoid-glutamate interactions in the regulation of food intake in neonatal layer- type chicks: role of glutamate NMDA and AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Keyshams, Negar; Zendehdel, Morteza; Babapour, Vahab; Baghbanzadeh, Ali

    2016-06-01

    The involvement of the endocannabinoid system in the brain functions is likely the conclusion of its capability to interact with specific neurotransmitters in several brain regions. The present study was designed to examine the role of the glutamatergic system on cannabinoid-induced hyperphagia in chicken. In this survey 10 experiments designed to investigate interaction of cannabinoidergic and glutamatergic systems on feeding behavior in neonatal chickens. In experiment 1, chicken were intracerebroventricular (ICV) injected with saline, 2-AG (2-Arachidonoylglycerol, 5.28 nmol, CB1 receptors agonist), MK-801(NMDA receptor antagonist, 15 nmol) and co-administration of 2-AG + MK-801. In experiment 2, injection of saline, 2-AG (5.28 nmol), CNQX) AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist, 390 nmol) and their combination (2-AG + CNQX) was done. In Experiment 3, injections were saline, 2-AG (5.28 nmol), AIDA)mGluR1 antagonist, 2 nmol) and 2-AG + AIDA. Experiments 4 and 5 were similar to experiment 3, except birds injected with LY341495 (mGLUR2 glutamate antagonist, 150 nmol) and UBP1112 (mGLUR3 glutamate antagonist, 2 nmol) instead of AIDA. Experiments 6-10 followed the procedure similar to experiments 1-5, except chickens received ICV injection of CB65 (CB2 receptor agonist, 3 nmol), instead of 2-AG. Then the cumulative food intake measured until 120 min post injection. According to the results, ICV injection of 2-AG and CB65 significantly increased food intake (P < 0.001). Co-injection of 2-AG and MK-801 significantly amplified hyperphagic effect of CB1 receptors agonist(P < 0.001). Moreover, co-administration of CB65 plus CNQX significantly increased CB65- induced hyperphagia in FD3 neonatal layer-type chickens (P < 0.001). These results suggest there is an interaction between endocannabinoids and glutamatergic systems via NMDA and AMPA receptors in feeding behavior of neonatal layer-type chickens. PMID:27000110

  11. Ketamine as the prototype glutamatergic antidepressant: pharmacodynamic actions, and a systematic review and meta-analysis of efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Caddy, Caroline; Giaroli, Giovanni; White, Thomas P.; Shergill, Sukhwinder S.

    2014-01-01

    The burden of depressive disorders and the frequent inadequacy of their current pharmacological treatments are well established. The anaesthetic and hallucinogenic drug ketamine has provoked much interest over the past decade or so as an extremely rapidly acting antidepressant that does not modify ‘classical’ monoaminergic receptors. Current evidence has shown several ways through which it might exert therapeutic antidepressant actions: blockade of glutamatergic NMDA receptors and relative upregulation of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) subtypes may alter cortical connectivity patterns; through intracellular changes in protein expression, including the proteins mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF); and alteration of intracellular signalling cascades. The clinical evidence demonstrates rapid improvements in mood and suicidal thinking in most participants, although study numbers have generally been small and many trials are unblinded and methodologically weak. There is a small body of work to suggest ketamine might also augment electroconvulsive therapy and potentially have a role as a surgical anaesthetic in depressed patients. A major problem is that the effects of ketamine appear temporary, disappearing after days to weeks (although longer benefits have been sustained in some), and attempts to circumvent this through pharmacological augmentation have been disappointing thus far. These exciting data are providing new insights into neurobiological models of depression, and potentially opening up a new class of antidepressants, but there are significant practical and ethical issues about any future mainstream clinical role it might have. PMID:24688759

  12. Involvement of AMPA receptor desensitization in short-term synaptic depression at the calyx of Held in developing rats

    PubMed Central

    Koike-Tani, Maki; Kanda, Takeshi; Saitoh, Naoto; Yamashita, Takayuki; Takahashi, Tomoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and depression (PPD) are forms of short-term plasticity that are generally thought to reflect changes in transmitter release probability. However, desensitization of postsynaptic AMPA receptors (AMPARs) significantly contributes to PPD at many glutamatergic synapses. To clarify the involvement of AMPAR desensitization in synaptic PPD, we compared PPD with AMPAR desensitization, induced by paired-pulse glutamate application in patches excised from postsynaptic cells at the calyx of Held synapse of developing rats. We found that AMPAR desensitization contributed significantly to PPD before the onset of hearing (P10–12), but that its contribution became negligible after hearing onset. During postnatal development (P7–21) the recovery of AMPARs from desensitization became faster. Concomitantly, glutamate sensitivity of AMPAR desensitization declined. Single-cell reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated a developmental decline of GluR1 expression that correlated with speeding of the recovery of AMPARs from desensitization. Transmitter release probability declined during the second postnatal week (P7–14). Manipulation of the extracellular Ca2+/Mg2+ ratio, to match release probability at P7–8 and P13–15 synapses, revealed that the release probability is also an important factor determining the involvement of AMPAR desensitization in PPD. We conclude that the extent of involvement of AMPAR desensitization in short-term synaptic depression is determined by both pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:18339695

  13. Activation of AMPA receptor in the infralimbic cortex facilitates extinction and attenuates the heroin-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weisheng; Wang, Yiqi; Sun, Anna; Zhou, Linyi; Xu, Wenjin; Zhu, Huaqiang; Zhuang, Dingding; Lai, Miaojun; Zhang, Fuqiang; Zhou, Wenhua; Liu, Huifen

    2016-01-26

    Infralimbic cortex (IL) is proposed to suppress cocaine seeking after extinction, but whether the IL regulates the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking behavior is unknown. To address this issue, the male SD rats were trained to self-administer heroin under a FR1 schedule for consecutive 14 days, then the rats underwent 7 daily 2h extinction session in the operant chamber. The activation of IL by microinjection PEPA, an allosteric AMPA receptor potentiator into IL before each of extinction session facilitated the extinction responding after heroin self-administration, but did not alter the locomotor activity in an open field testing environment. Other rats were first trained under a FR1 schedule for heroin self-administration for 14 days, followed by 14 days of extinction training, and reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues was measured for 2h. Intra-IL microinjecting of PEPA at 15min prior to test inhibited the reinstatement of heroin-seeking induced by cues. Moreover, the expression of GluR1 in the IL and NAc remarkably increased after treatment with PEPA during the reinstatement. These finding suggested that activation of glutamatergic projection from IL to NAc shell may be involved in the extinction and reinstatement of heroin-seeking. PMID:26639425

  14. Challenges for and current status of research into positive modulators of AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Simon E; Bax, Benjamin D; Harries, Mark

    2010-01-01

    AMPA receptors consist of a family of hetero-oligomeric (tetrameric) receptors arising from four genes, each of which encodes a distinct receptor subunit (GluA1-4). Recombinant homo-tetrameric AMPA receptors, comprising four identical subunits, are functionally active and have been used in in vitro assays. However, the many different subunit permutations make possible the functional and anatomical diversity of AMPA receptors throughout the CNS. Furthermore, AMPA receptor subunit stoichiometry influences the biophysical and functional properties of the receptor. A number of chemically diverse positive modulators of AMPA receptor have been identified which potentiate AMPA receptor-mediated activity in vitro as well as improving cognitive performance in rodents and non-human primates with several being taken further in the clinic. This review article summarizes the current status in the research on positive allosteric modulation of AMPA receptors and outlines the challenges involved in identifying a chemically distinct series of AMPA receptor positive modulators, addressing the challenges created by the heterogeneity of the AMPA receptor populations and the development of structure-activity relationships driven by homomeric, recombinant systems on high-throughput platforms. We also review the role of X-ray crystallography in the selection and prioritization of targets for lead optimization for AMPA receptor positive modulators. PMID:20423333

  15. Glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the mesocorticolimbic system in addiction

    PubMed Central

    van Huijstee, Aile N.; Mansvelder, Huibert D.

    2015-01-01

    Addictive drugs remodel the brain’s reward circuitry, the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (DA) system, by inducing widespread adaptations of glutamatergic synapses. This drug-induced synaptic plasticity is thought to contribute to both the development and the persistence of addiction. This review highlights the synaptic modifications that are induced by in vivo exposure to addictive drugs and describes how these drug-induced synaptic changes may contribute to the different components of addictive behavior, such as compulsive drug use despite negative consequences and relapse. Initially, exposure to an addictive drug induces synaptic changes in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). This drug-induced synaptic potentiation in the VTA subsequently triggers synaptic changes in downstream areas of the mesocorticolimbic system, such as the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the prefrontal cortex (PFC), with further drug exposure. These glutamatergic synaptic alterations are then thought to mediate many of the behavioral symptoms that characterize addiction. The later stages of glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the NAc and in particular in the PFC play a role in maintaining addiction and drive relapse to drug-taking induced by drug-associated cues. Remodeling of PFC glutamatergic circuits can persist into adulthood, causing a lasting vulnerability to relapse. We will discuss how these neurobiological changes produced by drugs of abuse may provide novel targets for potential treatment strategies for addiction. PMID:25653591

  16. Serotonin modulates glutamatergic transmission to neurons in the lateral habenula

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Guiqin; Zuo, Wanhong; Wu, Liangzhi; Li, Wenting; Wu, Wei; Bekker, Alex; Ye, Jiang-Hong

    2016-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is bilaterally connected with serotoninergic raphe nuclei, and expresses high density of serotonin receptors. However, actions of serotonin on the excitatory synaptic transmission to LHb neurons have not been thoroughly investigated. The LHb contains two anatomically and functionally distinct regions: lateral (LHbl) and medial (LHbm) divisions. We compared serotonin’s effects on glutamatergic transmission across the LHb in rat brains. Serotonin bi-directionally and differentially modulated glutamatergic transmission. Serotonin inhibited glutamatergic transmission in higher percentage of LHbl neurons but potentiated in higher percentage of LHbm neurons. Magnitude of potentiation was greater in LHbm than in LHbl. Type 2 and 3 serotonin receptor antagonists attenuated serotonin’s potentiation. The serotonin reuptake blocker, and the type 2 and 3 receptor agonists facilitated glutamatergic transmission in both LHbl and LHbm neurons. Thus, serotonin via activating its type 2, 3 receptors, increased glutamate release at nerve terminals in some LHb neurons. Our data demonstrated that serotonin affects both LHbm and LHbl. Serotonin might play an important role in processing information between the LHb and its downstream-targeted structures during decision-making. It may also contribute to a homeostatic balance underlying the neural circuitry between the LHb and raphe nuclei. PMID:27033153

  17. Reduced Anterior Cingulate Cortex Glutamatergic Concentrations in Childhood Major Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirza, Yousha; Tang, Jennifer; Russell, Aileen; Banerjee, S. Preeya; Bhandari, Rashmi; Ivey, Jennifer; Rose, Michelle; Moore, Gregory J.; Rosenberg, David R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine in vivo glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Method: Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic ([.sup.1]H-MRS) examinations of the anterior cingulate cortex were conducted in 13 psychotropic-naive children and adolescents with MDD…

  18. Optogenetic Stimulation of Prefrontal Glutamatergic Neurons Enhances Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Gareth R. I.; Stuart, Sarah A.; Roloff, Eva v. L.; Teschemacher, Anja G.; Warburton, E. Clea

    2016-01-01

    Finding effective cognitive enhancers is a major health challenge; however, modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission has the potential to enhance performance in recognition memory tasks. Previous studies using glutamate receptor antagonists have revealed that the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a central role in associative recognition memory. The present study investigates short-term recognition memory using optogenetics to target glutamatergic neurons within the rodent mPFC specifically. Selective stimulation of glutamatergic neurons during the online maintenance of information enhanced associative recognition memory in normal animals. This cognitive enhancing effect was replicated by local infusions of the AMPAkine CX516, but not CX546, which differ in their effects on EPSPs. This suggests that enhancing the amplitude, but not the duration, of excitatory synaptic currents improves memory performance. Increasing glutamate release through infusions of the mGluR7 presynaptic receptor antagonist MMPIP had no effect on performance. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT These results provide new mechanistic information that could guide the targeting of future cognitive enhancers. Our work suggests that improved associative-recognition memory can be achieved by enhancing endogenous glutamatergic neuronal activity selectively using an optogenetic approach. We build on these observations to recapitulate this effect using drug treatments that enhance the amplitude of EPSPs; however, drugs that alter the duration of the EPSP or increase glutamate release lack efficacy. This suggests that both neural and temporal specificity are needed to achieve cognitive enhancement. PMID:27147648

  19. Targeting the Glutamatergic System to Treat Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Mathews, Daniel C.; Henter, Ioline D.; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a severe, debilitating medical illness that affects millions of individuals worldwide. The young age of onset and chronicity of the disorder has a significant impact on the long-term disability that affected individuals face. Most existing treatments have focused on the ‘monoamine hypothesis’ for rational design of compounds. However, patients continue to experience low remission rates, residual subsyndromal symptoms, relapses and overall functional impairment. In this context, growing evidence suggests that the glutamatergic system is uniquely central to the neurobiology and treatment of MDD. Here, we review data supporting the involvement of the glutamatergic system in the pathophysiology of MDD, and discuss the efficacy of glutamatergic agents as novel therapeutics. Preliminary clinical evidence has been promising, particularly with regard to the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist ketamine as a ‘proof-of-concept’ agent. The review also highlights potential molecular and inflammatory mechanisms that may contribute to the rapid antidepressant response seen with ketamine. Because existing pharmacological treatments for MDD are often insufficient for many patients, the next generation of treatments needs to be more effective, rapid acting and better tolerated than currently available medications. There is extant evidence that the glutamatergic system holds considerable promise for developing the next generation of novel and mechanistically distinct agents for the treatment of MDD. PMID:22731961

  20. Role of glutamatergic system in nerve agent intoxication

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchet, G.; Lallement, G.; Carpentier, P.; De Groot, D.; Bodjarian, N.

    1993-05-13

    Our recent studies concerning soman-induced seizures mechanisms and subsequent brain damage are reviewed. (1) Seizure activity was associated with transient increases of extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine (ACh) and with long-lasting releases of glutamate (Glu) in all limbic areas studied. (2) Preventive intraseptal application of atropine abolished the hippocampal increases of extracellular AChi and Glu indicating a key role of septum in triggering seizure activity. (3) Early increases of hippocampal AMPA receptor binding occurred before activation of NMDA receptors. (4) Pretreatment with NBQX, an antagonist of AMPA receptor, prevented convulsions and brain damage even without atropine. In the same conditions, no protection was afforded by TCP, a non-competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor. (5) On the contrary, in the presence of pyridostigmine and atropine, TCP blocked the seizures induced by 2 x LD50 of soman. The anticonvulsant potency of TCP was particularly obvious when administered curatively. (6) Mossy fibers sprouting takes place in the supragranular-molecular layers of rat hippocampus long after brain injury associated with abnormal neuronal excitability. (7) Altogether, it appears that an AMPA component is involved in combination with cholinergic mechanisms in initiating seizures. A subsequent and long-lasting recruitment of NMDA receptors is then essential in sustaining the seizures. New anticonvulsant and neuroprotective approaches using Glu antagonists against nerve agents intoxication are discussed.

  1. Seizure control by decanoic acid through direct AMPA receptor inhibition.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pishan; Augustin, Katrin; Boddum, Kim; Williams, Sophie; Sun, Min; Terschak, John A; Hardege, Jörg D; Chen, Philip E; Walker, Matthew C; Williams, Robin S B

    2016-02-01

    The medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet is an established treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy that increases plasma levels of decanoic acid and ketones. Recently, decanoic acid has been shown to provide seizure control in vivo, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we show that decanoic acid, but not the ketones β-hydroxybutryate or acetone, shows antiseizure activity in two acute ex vivo rat hippocampal slice models of epileptiform activity. To search for a mechanism of decanoic acid, we show it has a strong inhibitory effect on excitatory, but not inhibitory, neurotransmission in hippocampal slices. Using heterologous expression of excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA subunits in Xenopus oocytes, we show that this effect is through direct AMPA receptor inhibition, a target shared by a recently introduced epilepsy treatment perampanel. Decanoic acid acts as a non-competitive antagonist at therapeutically relevant concentrations, in a voltage- and subunit-dependent manner, and this is sufficient to explain its antiseizure effects. This inhibitory effect is likely to be caused by binding to sites on the M3 helix of the AMPA-GluA2 transmembrane domain; independent from the binding site of perampanel. Together our results indicate that the direct inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission by decanoic acid in the brain contributes to the anti-convulsant effect of the medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet. PMID:26608744

  2. Amyloid-β-Induced Dysregulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Guntupalli, Sumasri; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Anggono, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from neuropathological, genetic, animal model, and biochemical studies has indicated that the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is associated with, and probably induces, profound neuronal changes in brain regions critical for memory and cognition in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is considerable evidence that synapses are particularly vulnerable to AD, establishing synaptic dysfunction as one of the earliest events in pathogenesis, prior to neuronal loss. It is clear that excessive Aβ levels can disrupt excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity, mainly due to dysregulation of the AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors in the brain. Importantly, AMPA receptors are the principal glutamate receptors that mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. This is essential for synaptic plasticity, a cellular correlate of learning and memory, which are the cognitive functions that are most disrupted in AD. Here we review recent advances in the field and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie Aβ-induced dysfunction of AMPA receptor trafficking. This review focuses primarily on NMDA receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signaling. In particular, we highlight several mechanisms that underlie synaptic long-term depression as common signaling pathways that are hijacked by the neurotoxic effects of Aβ. PMID:27073700

  3. Stress Induces Pain Transition by Potentiation of AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changsheng; Yang, Ya; Liu, Sufang; Fang, Huaqiang; Zhang, Yong; Furmanski, Orion; Skinner, John; Xing, Ying; Johns, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic postsurgical pain is a serious issue in clinical practice. After surgery, patients experience ongoing pain or become sensitive to incident, normally nonpainful stimulation. The intensity and duration of postsurgical pain vary. However, it is unclear how the transition from acute to chronic pain occurs. Here we showed that social defeat stress enhanced plantar incision-induced AMPA receptor GluA1 phosphorylation at the Ser831 site in the spinal cord and greatly prolonged plantar incision-induced pain. Interestingly, targeted mutation of the GluA1 phosphorylation site Ser831 significantly inhibited stress-induced prolongation of incisional pain. In addition, stress hormones enhanced GluA1 phosphorylation and AMPA receptor-mediated electrical activity in the spinal cord. Subthreshold stimulation induced spinal long-term potentiation in GluA1 phosphomimetic mutant mice, but not in wild-type mice. Therefore, spinal AMPA receptor phosphorylation contributes to the mechanisms underlying stress-induced pain transition. PMID:25297100

  4. Seizure control by decanoic acid through direct AMPA receptor inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pishan; Augustin, Katrin; Boddum, Kim; Williams, Sophie; Sun, Min; Terschak, John A.; Hardege, Jörg D.; Chen, Philip E.

    2016-01-01

    See Rogawski (doi:10.1093/awv369) for a scientific commentary on this article.  The medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet is an established treatment for drug-resistant epilepsy that increases plasma levels of decanoic acid and ketones. Recently, decanoic acid has been shown to provide seizure control in vivo, yet its mechanism of action remains unclear. Here we show that decanoic acid, but not the ketones β-hydroxybutryate or acetone, shows antiseizure activity in two acute ex vivo rat hippocampal slice models of epileptiform activity. To search for a mechanism of decanoic acid, we show it has a strong inhibitory effect on excitatory, but not inhibitory, neurotransmission in hippocampal slices. Using heterologous expression of excitatory ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA subunits in Xenopus oocytes, we show that this effect is through direct AMPA receptor inhibition, a target shared by a recently introduced epilepsy treatment perampanel. Decanoic acid acts as a non-competitive antagonist at therapeutically relevant concentrations, in a voltage- and subunit-dependent manner, and this is sufficient to explain its antiseizure effects. This inhibitory effect is likely to be caused by binding to sites on the M3 helix of the AMPA-GluA2 transmembrane domain; independent from the binding site of perampanel. Together our results indicate that the direct inhibition of excitatory neurotransmission by decanoic acid in the brain contributes to the anti-convulsant effect of the medium chain triglyceride ketogenic diet. PMID:26608744

  5. Amyloid-β-Induced Dysregulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking.

    PubMed

    Guntupalli, Sumasri; Widagdo, Jocelyn; Anggono, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from neuropathological, genetic, animal model, and biochemical studies has indicated that the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is associated with, and probably induces, profound neuronal changes in brain regions critical for memory and cognition in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is considerable evidence that synapses are particularly vulnerable to AD, establishing synaptic dysfunction as one of the earliest events in pathogenesis, prior to neuronal loss. It is clear that excessive Aβ levels can disrupt excitatory synaptic transmission and plasticity, mainly due to dysregulation of the AMPA and NMDA glutamate receptors in the brain. Importantly, AMPA receptors are the principal glutamate receptors that mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission. This is essential for synaptic plasticity, a cellular correlate of learning and memory, which are the cognitive functions that are most disrupted in AD. Here we review recent advances in the field and provide insights into the molecular mechanisms that underlie Aβ-induced dysfunction of AMPA receptor trafficking. This review focuses primarily on NMDA receptor- and metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated signaling. In particular, we highlight several mechanisms that underlie synaptic long-term depression as common signaling pathways that are hijacked by the neurotoxic effects of Aβ. PMID:27073700

  6. Prolonged activation of phospholipase D in Chinese hamster ovary cells expressing platelet-activating-factor receptor lacking cytoplasmic C-terminal tail.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Nakashima, S; Adachi, T; Ito, Y; Takano, T; Shimizu, T; Nozawa, Y

    1997-10-01

    The mechanism and role of phospholipase D (PLD) activation by platelet-activating factor (PAF) were examined with Chinese hamster ovary cells stably expressing wild-type PAF receptor (WT-H cells) and truncated PAF receptor lacking the C-terminal cytoplasmic tail (D-H cells). Treatment of D-H cells with PAF resulted in the rapid formation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, which was followed by a sustained phase for more than 10 min. In these cells, PAF-induced PLD activation lasted for more than 20 min. In contrast, PLD activation in WT-H cells was transient. PAF stimulation caused the biphasic formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DG) in both types of cell. The first phase was rapid and transient, coinciding with the Ins(1,4,5)P3 peak. The second sustained phase of DG formation was attenuated by butanol, which produces phosphatidylbutanol at the expense of phosphatidic acid (PA) by transphosphatidylation activity of PLD, and by propranolol, a selective inhibitor for PA phosphohydrolase catalysing the conversion of PA into DG. The DG level returned nearly to basal at 20 min after PAF stimulation in WT-H cells, whereas in D-H cells the elevated DG level was sustained for more than 20 min. The profile of translocation of protein kinase Calpha (PKCalpha) to membrane was similar to that of DG formation. In WT-H cells, PKCalpha was transiently associated with membranes and then returned to the cytosol. However, in D-H cells PKCalpha was rapidly translocated to and remained in membranes for more than 20 min. Butanol suppressed this sustained translocation of PKCalpha. Furthermore the mRNA levels of c-fos and c-jun by PAF in WT-H cells were much lower than those in D-H cells. Propranolol and butanol at concentrations that inhibited the formation of DG suppressed the PAF-induced mRNA expression of c-fos and c-jun. Taken together, the prolonged PLD activation in D-H cells confirmed a primary role for phospholipase C/PKC in PLD activation by PAF. Furthermore the results obtained here suggest that

  7. Discovery of the First α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Receptor Antagonist Dependent upon Transmembrane AMPA Receptor Regulatory Protein (TARP) γ-8.

    PubMed

    Gardinier, Kevin M; Gernert, Douglas L; Porter, Warren J; Reel, Jon K; Ornstein, Paul L; Spinazze, Patrick; Stevens, F Craig; Hahn, Patric; Hollinshead, Sean P; Mayhugh, Daniel; Schkeryantz, Jeff; Khilevich, Albert; De Frutos, Oscar; Gleason, Scott D; Kato, Akihiko S; Luffer-Atlas, Debra; Desai, Prashant V; Swanson, Steven; Burris, Kevin D; Ding, Chunjin; Heinz, Beverly A; Need, Anne B; Barth, Vanessa N; Stephenson, Gregory A; Diseroad, Benjamin A; Woods, Tim A; Yu, Hong; Bredt, David; Witkin, Jeffrey M

    2016-05-26

    Transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs) are a family of scaffolding proteins that regulate AMPA receptor trafficking and function. TARP γ-8 is one member of this family and is highly expressed within the hippocampus relative to the cerebellum. A selective TARP γ-8-dependent AMPA receptor antagonist (TDAA) is an innovative approach to modulate AMPA receptors in specific brain regions to potentially increase the therapeutic index relative to known non-TARP-dependent AMPA antagonists. We describe here, for the first time, the discovery of a noncompetitive AMPA receptor antagonist that is dependent on the presence of TARP γ-8. Three major iteration cycles were employed to improve upon potency, CYP1A2-dependent challenges, and in vivo clearance. An optimized molecule, compound (-)-25 (LY3130481), was fully protective against pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions in rats without the motor impairment associated with non-TARP-dependent AMPA receptor antagonists. Compound (-)-25 could be utilized to provide proof of concept for antiepileptic efficacy with reduced motor side effects in patients. PMID:27067148

  8. Naturally occurring compounds affect glutamatergic neurotransmission in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Jung, Fernanda; Soares, Felix Antunes; Rotta, Liane Nanci; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2007-11-01

    Natural products, including those derived from plants, have largely contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Glutamate is the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system and it is also considered a nociceptive neurotransmitter, by acting on peripheral nervous system. For this reason, in this study we investigated the effects of the hydroalcoholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial), Phyllanthus (rutin and quercetine), Jathopha elliptica (jatrophone), Hedyosmum brasiliense (13HDS), Ocotea suaveolens (Tormentic acid), Protium kleinii (alphabeta-amyrin), Citrus paradise (naringin), soybean (genistein) and Crataeva nurvala (lupeol), described as having antinociceptive effects, on glutamatergic transmission parameters, such as [(3)H]glutamate binding, [(3)H]glutamate uptake by synaptic vesicles and astrocyte cultures, and synaptosomal [(3)H]glutamate release. All the glutamatergic parameters were affected by one or more of these compounds. Specifically, drimanial and polygodial presented more broad and profound effects, requiring more investigation on their mechanisms. The putative central side effects of these compounds, via the glutamatergic system, are discussed. PMID:17577666

  9. Glutamatergic and gabaergic neurotransmission and neuronal circuits in hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Cauli, Omar; Rodrigo, Regina; Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Monfort, Pilar; Piedrafita, Blanca; El Mlili, Nisrin; Boix, Jordi; Agustí, Ana; Felipo, Vicente

    2009-03-01

    Patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) may present different neurological alterations including impaired cognitive function and altered motor activity and coordination. HE may lead to coma and death. Many of these neurological alterations are the consequence of altered neurotransmission. Hyperammonemia is a main contributor to the alterations in neurotransmission and in neurological functions in HE. Both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission are altered in animal models of HE. We review some of these alterations, especially those alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission responsible for some specific neurological alterations in hyperammonemia and HE: the role 1) of excessive NMDA receptors activation in death induced by acute hyperammonemia; 2) of impaired function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway, associated to NMDA receptors, in cognitive impairment in chronic HE; 3) of increased extracellular glutamate and activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors in substantia nigra in hypokinesia in chronic HE. The therapeutic implications are discussed. We also review the alterations in the function of the neuronal circuits between basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex modulating motor activity and the role of sequential alterations in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in these alterations. HE would be a consequence of altered neuronal communication due to alterations in general neurotransmission involving different neurotransmitter systems in different neurons. PMID:19085094

  10. Reversal of novelty-induced hippocampal c-Fos expression in GluA1 subunit-deficient mice by chronic treatment targeting glutamatergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Maksimovic, Milica; Aitta-aho, Teemu; Korpi, Esa R

    2014-12-15

    Malfunction of glutamate transmission is implicated in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Gria1-/- mouse line with knocked-out GluA1 subunits of ionotropic AMPA glutamate receptor displays several behavioural features of schizoaffective disorder. Typically, these mice show hyperactivity provoked by environmental novelty, which is attenuated after 4-week treatment with the standard mood-stabilisers lithium and valproate and the mood-stabilising anticonvulsants topiramate and lamotrigine (Maksimovic, M., Vekovischeva, O.Y., Aitta-Aho, T., Korpi, E.R., 2014. Chronic treatment with mood-stabilizers attenuates abnormal hyperlocomotion of GluA1-subunit deficient mice. PloS One. 9, e100188). Here, we complement our study by treating these mice chronically with perampanel, a novel non-competitive antagonist of AMPA receptors, for 4 weeks at the dose of 60 mg/kg diet, and found reduced locomotor hyperactivity in the Gria1-/- animals, while not affecting the wild-type littermates. To study the cellular mechanism by which chronic treatments with glutamate-modulating mood-stabilizing drugs alleviate this hyperactivity, we used the immediate early gene c-Fos protein expression as a marker of neuronal activity in the brain. Chronic lithium, valproate and topiramate blunted the c-Fos expression especially in the dorsal hippocampus of the Gria1-/- mice, with all of them reducing the number of c-Fos-positive cells in the CA3 region and valproate and topiramate also in the dentate gyrus (DG). Lamotrigine and perampanel treatments had the same effect in the all CA1, CA3 and DG subfields of the dorsal hippocampus of Gria1-/- mice. The results suggest that abnormal (hippocampal) glutamatergic transmission underlies the hyperactive phenotype of the Gria1-/- mice in a novel environment, and based on the efficacies of the present chronic drug treatments, this mouse model may serve as a predictive tool for studying novel mood-stabilisers. PMID:25446922

  11. Role of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors and nitric oxide in the effects of flutriafol, a triazole fungicide, on the in vivo striatal dopamine release.

    PubMed

    Faro, Lilian R Ferreira; Alfonso, Miguel; Maués, Luis A L; Durán, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    Flutriafol is a triazole fungicide that induces spontaneous and depolarization-stimulated release of dopamine from rat striatum, although the neurochemical mechanism by which this fungicide induces this effect is unknown. The purpose of the present work was to assess the implication of ionotropic glutamatergic receptors and nitric oxide (NO) production in the flutriafol-induced dopamine release from rat striatum. To this, we have used non-competitive antagonists of NMDA (dizocilpine, MK-801), and (AMPA)/kainate (6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione, CNQX) receptors, or nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors (Nomega-nitro-L-arginine -L-NARG - and 7-nitro-indazol - 7-NI), to study the striatal dopamine release induced by flutriafol. Intrastriatal infusion of 6 mM flutriafol increased the dopamine levels to 984 ± 141%, with respect to basal levels. Infusion of flutriafol (6 mM) in MK-801 (500 μM) or CNQX (500 μM) pretreated animals, increased striatal dopamine levels to 489 ± 74% and 477 ± 78%, with respect to basal levels, respectively, these increases being 50.3% and 51.5% smaller than those induced by flutriafol in non-pretreated animals. Infusion of flutriafol (6 mM) in L-NARG (1 mM) or 7-NI (100 μM) pretreated animals, increased the extracellular dopamine levels to 400 ± 88.5 and 479 ± 69.4%, with respect to basal levels, respectively, these increases being 59.3 and 51% smaller than those induced by flutriafol in non-pretreated animals. In summary, flutriafol appears to act, at least in part, through an overstimulation of NMDA receptors with possible NO production to induce dopamine release, and the administration of NMDA and AMPA/kainate receptor antagonists and NOS inhibitors protects against flutriafol-induced dopamine release from rat striatum. PMID:23208429

  12. The modulation by 5-HT of glutamatergic inputs from the raphe pallidus to rat hypoglossal motoneurones, in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bouryi, Vitali A; Lewis, David I

    2003-01-01

    Decreases in the activity of 5-HT-containing caudal raphe neurones during sleep are thought to be partially responsible for the resultant disfacilitation of hypoglossal motoneurones. Whilst 5-HT has a direct excitatory action on hypoglossal motoneurones as a result of activation of 5-HT2 receptors, microinjection of 5-HT2 antagonists into the hypoglossal nucleus reduces motor activity to a much lesser extent compared to the suppression observed during sleep suggesting other transmitters co-localised in caudal raphe neurones may also be involved. The aim of the present study was therefore to characterise raphe pallidus inputs to hypoglossal motoneurones. Whole cell recordings were made from hypoglossal motoneurones in vitro. 5-HT evoked a direct membrane depolarisation (8.45 ± 3.8 mV, P < 0.001) and increase in cell input resistance (53 ± 40 %, P < 0.001) which was blocked by the 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin (2.40 ± 2.7 vs. 7.04 ± 4.6 mV). Stimulation within the raphe pallidus evoked a monosynaptic EPSC that was significantly reduced by the AMPA/kainateantagonist, NBQX (22.8 ± 16 % of control, P < 0.001). In contrast, the 5-HT2 antagonist, ritanserin, had no effect on the amplitude of these EPSCs (106 ± 31 % of control, P = n.s.). 5-HT reduced these EPSCs to 50.0 ± 13 % of control (P < 0.001), as did the 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT (52.5 ± 17 %, P < 0.001) and the 5-HT1B agonist, CP 93129 (40.6 ± 29 %, P < 0.01). 8-OH-DPAT and CP 93129 increased the paired pulse ratio (1.38 ± 0.27 to 1.91 ± 0.54, P < 0.05 & 1.27 ± 0.08 to 1.44 ± 0.13, P < 0.01 respectively) but had no effect on the postsynaptic glutamate response (99 ± 4.4 % and 100 ± 2.5 %, P = n.s.). They also increased the frequency (P < 0.001), but not the amplitude, of miniature glutamatergic EPSCs in hypoglossal motoneurones. These data demonstrate that raphe pallidus inputs to hypoglossal motoneurones are predominantly glutamatergic in nature, with 5-HT decreasing the release of glutamate from

  13. Synaptic AMPA receptor composition in development, plasticity and disease.

    PubMed

    Henley, Jeremy M; Wilkinson, Kevin A

    2016-06-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are assemblies of four core subunits, GluA1-4, that mediate most fast excitatory neurotransmission. The component subunits determine the functional properties of AMPARs, and the prevailing view is that the subunit composition also determines AMPAR trafficking, which is dynamically regulated during development, synaptic plasticity and in response to neuronal stress in disease. Recently, the subunit dependence of AMPAR trafficking has been questioned, leading to a reappraisal of this field. In this Review, we discuss what is known, uncertain, conjectured and unknown about the roles of the individual subunits, and how they affect AMPAR assembly, trafficking and function under both normal and pathological conditions. PMID:27080385

  14. Regulation of AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Synaptic Plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Anggono, Victor; Huganir, Richard L.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Dynamic changes in neuronal synaptic efficacy, termed synaptic plasticity, are thought to underlie information coding and storage in learning and memory. One major mechanism that regulates synaptic strength involves the tightly regulated trafficking of AMPARs into and out of synapses. The life cycle of AMPARs from their biosynthesis, membrane trafficking and synaptic targeting to their degradation are controlled by a series of orchestrated interactions with numerous intracellular regulatory proteins. Here we review recent progress made towards the understanding the regulation of AMPAR trafficking, focusing on the roles of several key intracellular AMPAR interacting proteins. PMID:22217700

  15. Routes, destinations and delays: recent advances in AMPA receptor trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Jeremy M.; Barker, Ellen A.; Glebov, Oleg O.

    2012-01-01

    Postsynaptic AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate most fast excitatory synaptic transmission and are crucial for many aspects of brain function, including learning, memory and cognition. The number, synaptic localization and subunit composition of synaptic AMPARs are tightly regulated by network activity and by the history of activity at individual synapses. Furthermore, aberrant AMPAR trafficking is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. AMPARs therefore represent a prime target for drug development and the mechanisms that control their synaptic delivery, retention and removal are the subject of extensive research. Here, we review recent findings that have provided new insights into AMPAR trafficking and that might lead to the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:21420743

  16. [Glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, E V; Popova, T S; Sal'nikov, P S

    2015-01-01

    The review include actual facts, demonstrating high probability of glutamatergic neurotransmitter system role in the regulation of the gastrointestinal tract motor activity. These facts suggest significant role of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system dysfunction in forming motor activity disorders of the digestive tract, including in patients in critical condition. The analysis is based on results of multiple experimental and clinical researches of glutamic acid and other components of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in central nervous system and autonomic nervous system (with the accent on the enteral nervous system) in normal conditions and with functioning changes of the glutamatergic neurotransmitter system in case of inflammation, hupoxia, stress and in critical condition. PMID:26852608

  17. Target- and input-dependent organization of AMPA and NMDA receptors in synaptic connections of the cochlear nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, María E.; Fukazawa, Yugo; Kamasawa, Naomi; Clarkson, Cheryl; Molnár, Elek; Shigemoto, Ryuichi

    2014-01-01

    We examined the synaptic structure, quantity and distribution of AMPA- and NMDA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs and NMDARs, respectively) in rat cochlear nuclei by a highly sensitive freeze-fracture replica labeling technique. Four excitatory synapses formed by two distinct inputs, auditory nerve (AN) and parallel fibers (PF), on different cell types were analyzed. These excitatory synapse types included AN synapses on bushy cells (AN-BC synapses) and fusiform cells (AN-FC synapses) and PF synapses on FC (PF-FC synapses) and cartwheel cell spines (PF-CwC synapses). Immunogold labeling revealed differences in synaptic structure as well as AMPAR and NMDAR number and/or density in both AN and PF synapses, indicating a target-dependent organization. The immunogold receptor labeling also identified differences in the synaptic organization of FCs based on AN or PF connections, indicating an input-dependent organization in FCs. Among the four excitatory synapse types, the AN-BC synapses were the smallest and had the most densely packed IMPs, whereas the PF-CwC synapses were the largest and had sparsely-packed IMPs. All four synapse types showed positive correlations between the IMP-cluster area and the AMPAR number, indicating a common intra-synapse-type relationship for glutamatergic synapses. Immunogold particles for AMPARs were distributed over the entire area of individual AN synapses, PF synapses often showed synaptic areas devoid of labeling. The gold-labeling for NMDARs occurred in a mosaic fashion, with less positive correlations between the IMP-cluster area and the NMDAR number. Our observations reveal target- and input-dependent features in the structure, number, and organization of AMPARs and NMDARs in AN and PF synapses. PMID:25041792

  18. Episodic sucrose intake during food restriction increases synaptic abundance of AMPA receptors in nucleus accumbens and augments intake of sucrose following restoration of ad libitum feeding.

    PubMed

    Peng, X-X; Lister, A; Rabinowitsch, A; Kolaric, R; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Ziff, E B; Carr, K D

    2015-06-01

    Weight-loss dieting often leads to loss of control, rebound weight gain, and is a risk factor for binge pathology. Based on findings that food restriction (FR) upregulates sucrose-induced trafficking of glutamatergic AMPA receptors to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) postsynaptic density (PSD), this study was an initial test of the hypothesis that episodic "breakthrough" intake of forbidden food during dieting interacts with upregulated mechanisms of synaptic plasticity to increase reward-driven feeding. Ad libitum (AL) fed and FR subjects consumed a limited amount of 10% sucrose, or had access to water, every other day for 10 occasions. Beginning three weeks after return of FR rats to AL feeding, when 24-h chow intake and rate of body weight gain had normalized, subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR consumed more sucrose during a four week intermittent access protocol than the two AL groups and the group that had access to water during FR. In an experiment that substituted noncontingent administration of d-amphetamine for sucrose, FR subjects displayed an enhanced locomotor response during active FR but a blunted response, relative to AL subjects, during recovery from FR. This result suggests that the enduring increase in sucrose consumption is unlikely to be explained by residual enhancing effects of FR on dopamine signaling. In a biochemical experiment which paralleled the sucrose behavioral experiment, rats with a history of sucrose intake during FR displayed increased abundance of pSer845-GluA1, GluA2, and GluA3 in the NAc PSD relative to rats with a history of FR without sucrose access and rats that had been AL throughout, whether they had a history of episodic sucrose intake or not. A history of FR, with or without a history of sucrose intake, was associated with increased abundance of GluA1. A terminal 15-min bout of sucrose intake produced a further increase in pSer845-GluA1 and GluA2 in subjects with a history of sucrose intake during FR

  19. Antidepressant Effects of AMPA and Ketamine Combination: Role of Hippocampal BDNF, Synapsin, and mTOR

    PubMed Central

    Akinfiresoye, Luli; Tizabi, Yousef

    2013-01-01

    Rationale A number of preclinical and clinical studies suggest ketamine, a glutamate NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptor antagonist, has a rapid and lasting antidepressant effect when administered either acutely or chronically. It has been postulated that this effect is due to stimulation of AMPA (alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl–4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors. Objective In this study, we tested whether AMPA alone has an antidepressant effect and if the combination of AMPA and ketamine provides added benefit in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression. Results Chronic AMPA treatment resulted in a dose dependent antidepressant effect in both the forced swim test (FST) and sucrose preference test. Moreover, chronic administration (10–11d) of combinations of AMPA and ketamine, at doses that were ineffective on their own, resulted in a significant antidepressant effect. The behavioral effects were associated with increases in hippocampal brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin, and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Conclusion These findings are the first to provide evidence for an antidepressant effect of AMPA, and suggest the usefulness of AMPA-ketamine combination in treatment of depression. Furthermore, these effects appear to be associated with increases in markers of hippocampal neurogenesis and synaptogenesis, suggesting a mechanism of their action. PMID:23732839

  20. Interaction with the unfolded protein response reveals a role for stargazin in biosynthetic AMPA receptor transport.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Wim; Nicoll, Roger A; Bredt, David S

    2005-02-01

    The transmembrane protein stargazin enhances levels of functional AMPA receptors at the neuronal plasma membrane and at synapses. To clarify the mechanism for this effect, we studied trafficking of the AMPA receptor subunit glutamate receptor 1 (GluR1) in transfected COS7 cells. GluR1 expressed poorly on the surface of these cells and was primarily retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Stargazin expression strongly increased the surface fraction of GluR1. This effect was not reduced by a dominant-negative dynamin mutant, suggesting that stargazin does not inhibit AMPA receptor endocytosis. Interestingly, upregulation of ER chaperones as part of the unfolded protein response (UPR) both mimicked and occluded the effect of stargazin, suggesting a role for stargazin in ER processing of AMPA receptors. Consistent with this idea, we detected UPR induction in cerebellar granule cells lacking stargazin. Finally, residual AMPA receptor currents in stargazin-deficient neurons were suppressed by inhibition of the UPR. These findings uncover a role for stargazin in AMPA receptor trafficking through the early compartments of the biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, they provide evidence for modulation of AMPA receptor trafficking by the UPR. PMID:15689545

  1. Urban contributions of glyphosate and its degradate AMPA to streams in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolpin, D.W.; Thurman, E.M.; Lee, E.A.; Meyer, M.T.; Furlong, E.T.; Glassmeyer, S.T.

    2006-01-01

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world, being routinely applied to control weeds in both agricultural and urban settings. Microbial degradation of glyphosate produces aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The high polarity and water-solubility of glyphosate and AMPA has, until recently, made their analysis in water samples problematic. Thus, compared to other herbicides (e.g. atrazine) there are relatively few studies on the environmental occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA. In 2002, treated effluent samples were collected from 10 wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to study the occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA. Stream samples were collected upstream and downstream of the 10 WWTPs. Two reference streams were also sampled. The results document the apparent contribution of WWTP effluent to stream concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA, with roughly a two-fold increase in their frequencies of detection between stream samples collected upstream and those collected downstream of the WWTPs. Thus, urban use of glyphosate contributes to glyphosate and AMPA concentrations in streams in the United States. Overall, AMPA was detected much more frequently (67.5%) compared to glyphosate (17.5%).

  2. Differential regulation of neurexin at glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Pregno, Giulia; Frola, Elena; Graziano, Stefania; Patrizi, Annarita; Bussolino, Federico; Arese, Marco; Sassoè-Pognetto, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Neurexins (Nrxs) have emerged as potential determinants of synaptic specificity, but little is known about their localization at central synapses. Here we show that Nrxs have a remarkably selective localization at distinct types of glutamatergic synapses and we reveal an unexpected ontogenetic regulation of Nrx expression at GABAergic synapses. Our data indicate that synapses are specified by molecular interactions that involve both Nrx-dependent and Nrx-independent mechanisms. We propose that differences in the spatio-temporal profile of Nrx expression may contribute to specify the molecular identity of synapses. PMID:23576952

  3. Glutamatergic treatment strategies for age-related memory disorders.

    PubMed

    Müller, W E; Scheuer, K; Stoll, S

    1994-01-01

    Age-related changes of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors have been found in cortical areas and in the hippocampus of many species. On the basis of a variety of experimental observations it has been suggested that the decrease of NMDA receptor density might be one of the causative factors of the cognitive decline with aging. Based on these findings several strategies have been developed to improve cognition by compensating the NMDA receptor deficits in aging. The most promising approaches are the indirect activation of glutamatergic neurotransmission by agonists of the glycine site or the restoration of the age-related deficit of receptor density by several nootropics. PMID:7997073

  4. Lateral Hypothalamic Area Glutamatergic Neurons and Their Projections to the Lateral Habenula Regulate Feeding and Reward

    PubMed Central

    Stamatakis, Alice M.; Van Swieten, Maaike; Basiri, Marcus L.; Blair, Grace A.; Kantak, Pranish

    2016-01-01

    The overconsumption of calorically dense, highly palatable foods is thought to be a major contributor to the worldwide obesity epidemic; however, the precise neural circuits that directly regulate hedonic feeding remain elusive. Here, we show that lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) glutamatergic neurons, and their projections to the lateral habenula (LHb), negatively regulate the consumption of palatable food. Genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons increased daily caloric intake and produced weight gain in mice that had access to a high-fat diet, while not altering general locomotor activity. Anterior LHA glutamatergic neurons send a functional glutamatergic projection to the LHb, a brain region involved in processing aversive stimuli and negative reward prediction outcomes. Pathway-specific, optogenetic stimulation of glutamatergic LHA-LHb circuit resulted in detectable glutamate-mediated EPSCs as well as GABA-mediated IPSCs, although the net effect of neurotransmitter release was to increase the firing of most LHb neurons. In vivo optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers produced a real-time place preference, whereas optogenetic stimulation of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers had the opposite effect. Furthermore, optogenetic inhibition of LHA-LHb glutamatergic fibers acutely increased the consumption of a palatable liquid caloric reward. Collectively, these results demonstrate that LHA glutamatergic neurons are well situated to bidirectionally regulate feeding and potentially other behavioral states via their functional circuit connectivity with the LHb and potentially other brain regions. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this study, we show that the genetic ablation of LHA glutamatergic neurons enhances caloric intake. Some of these LHA glutamatergic neurons project to the lateral habenula, a brain area important for generating behavioral avoidance. Optogenetic stimulation of this circuit has net excitatory effects on postsynaptic LHb neurons. This is the

  5. New medications for drug addiction hiding in glutamatergic neuroplasticity.

    PubMed

    Kalivas, P W; Volkow, N D

    2011-10-01

    The repeated use of drugs that directly or indirectly stimulate dopamine transmission carry addiction liability and produce enduring pathological changes in the brain circuitry that normally regulates adaptive behavioral responding to a changing environment. This circuitry is rich in glutamatergic projections, and addiction-related behaviors in animal models have been linked to impairments in excitatory synaptic plasticity. Among the best-characterized glutamatergic projection in this circuit is the prefrontal efferent to the nucleus accumbens. A variety of molecular adaptations have been identified in the prefrontal glutamate synapses in the accumbens, many of which are induced by different classes of addictive drugs. Based largely on work with cocaine, we hypothesize that the drug-induced adaptations impair synaptic plasticity in the cortico-accumbens projection, and thereby dysregulate the ability of addicts to control their drug-taking habits. Accordingly, we go on to describe the literature implicating the drug-induced changes in protein content or function that impinge upon synaptic plasticity and have been targeted in preclinical models of relapse and, in some cases, in pilot clinical trials. Based upon modeling drug-induced impairments in neuroplasticity in the cortico-accumbens pathway, we argue for a concerted effort to clinically evaluate the hypothesis that targeting glial and neuronal proteins regulating excitatory synaptic plasticity may prove beneficial in treating addiction. PMID:21519339

  6. Glia plasma membrane transporters: Key players in glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Flores-Méndez, Marco; Mendez-Flores, Orquidia G; Ortega, Arturo

    2016-09-01

    Glutamate, the main excitatory amino acid in the central nervous system, elicits its functions through the activation of specific membrane receptors that are expressed in neurons and glial cells. The re-cycling of this amino acid is carried out mostly through a continuous interplay between neurons and glia cells, given the fact that the removal of glutamate from the synaptic cleft depends mainly on glial glutamate transporters. Therefore, a functional and physical interaction between membrane transporters links glutamate uptake, transformation to glutamine and its release to the extra-synaptic space and its uptake to the pre-synaptic terminal. This sequence of events, best known as the glutamate/glutamine shuttle is central to glutamatergic transmission. In this sense, the uptake process triggers a complex series of biochemical cascades that modify the physiology of glial cells in the immediate, short and long term so as to be capable to take up, transform and release these amino acids in a regulated amount and in an appropriate time frame to sustain glutamatergic neurotransmission. Among the signaling cascades activated in glial cells by glutamate transporters, a sustained Na(+) and Ca(2+) influx, protein posttranslational modifications and gene expression regulation at the transcriptional and translational levels are present. Therefore, it is clear that the pivotal role of glial cells in the context of excitatory transmission has been constantly underestimated. PMID:27083407

  7. Glutamatergic dysfunctioning in Alzheimer's disease and related therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Zádori, Dénes; Veres, Gábor; Szalárdy, Levente; Klivényi, Péter; Toldi, József; Vécsei, László

    2014-01-01

    The impairment of glutamatergic neurotransmission plays an important role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The pathological process, which involves the production of amyloid-β peptides and hyperphosphorylated tau proteins, spreads over well-delineated neuroanatomical circuits. The gradual deterioration of proper synaptic functioning (via GluN2A-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors, NMDARs) and the development of excitotoxicity (via GluN2B-containing NMDARs) in these structures both accompany the disease pathogenesis. Although one of the most important therapeutic targets would be glutamate excitotoxicity, the application of conventional anti-glutamatergic agents could result in further deterioration of synaptic transmission and intolerable side-effects. With regard to NMDAR antagonists with tolerable side-effects, ion channel blockers with low affinity, glycine site agents, and specific antagonists of polyamine site and GluN2B subunit may come into play. However, in the mirror of experimental data, only the application of ion channel blockers with pronounced voltage dependency, low affinity, and rapid unblocking kinetics (e.g., memantine) and specific antagonists of the GluN2B subunit (e.g., ifenprodil and certain kynurenic acid amides) resulted in desirable symptom amelioration. Therefore we propose that these kinds of chemical agents may have therapeutic potential for present and future drug development. PMID:24670398

  8. Glutamatergic Model Psychoses: Prediction Error, Learning, and Inference

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, Philip R; Honey, Garry D; Krystal, John H; Fletcher, Paul C

    2011-01-01

    Modulating glutamatergic neurotransmission induces alterations in conscious experience that mimic the symptoms of early psychotic illness. We review studies that use intravenous administration of ketamine, focusing on interindividual variability in the profundity of the ketamine experience. We will consider this individual variability within a hypothetical model of brain and cognitive function centered upon learning and inference. Within this model, the brains, neural systems, and even single neurons specify expectations about their inputs and responding to violations of those expectations with new learning that renders future inputs more predictable. We argue that ketamine temporarily deranges this ability by perturbing both the ways in which prior expectations are specified and the ways in which expectancy violations are signaled. We suggest that the former effect is predominantly mediated by NMDA blockade and the latter by augmented and inappropriate feedforward glutamatergic signaling. We suggest that the observed interindividual variability emerges from individual differences in neural circuits that normally underpin the learning and inference processes described. The exact source for that variability is uncertain, although it is likely to arise not only from genetic variation but also from subjects' previous experiences and prior learning. Furthermore, we argue that chronic, unlike acute, NMDA blockade alters the specification of expectancies more profoundly and permanently. Scrutinizing individual differences in the effects of acute and chronic ketamine administration in the context of the Bayesian brain model may generate new insights about the symptoms of psychosis; their underlying cognitive processes and neurocircuitry. PMID:20861831

  9. New medications for drug addiction hiding in glutamatergic neuroplasticity

    PubMed Central

    Kalivas, PW; Volkow, ND

    2011-01-01

    The repeated use of drugs that directly or indirectly stimulate dopamine transmission carry addiction liability and produce enduring pathological changes in the brain circuitry that normally regulates adaptive behavioral responding to a changing environment. This circuitry is rich in glutamatergic projections, and addiction-related behaviors in animal models have been linked to impairments in excitatory synaptic plasticity. Among the best-characterized glutamatergic projection in this circuit is the prefrontal efferent to the nucleus accumbens. A variety of molecular adaptations have been identified in the prefrontal glutamate synapses in the accumbens, many of which are induced by different classes of addictive drugs. Based largely on work with cocaine, we hypothesize that the drug-induced adaptations impair synaptic plasticity in the cortico-accumbens projection, and thereby dysregulate the ability of addicts to control their drug-taking habits. Accordingly, we go on to describe the literature implicating the drug-induced changes in protein content or function that impinge upon synaptic plasticity and have been targeted in preclinical models of relapse and, in some cases, in pilot clinical trials. Based upon modeling drug-induced impairments in neuroplasticity in the cortico-accumbens pathway, we argue for a concerted effort to clinically evaluate the hypothesis that targeting glial and neuronal proteins regulating excitatory synaptic plasticity may prove beneficial in treating addiction. PMID:21519339

  10. [The role of the glutamatergic system in alcohol addiction].

    PubMed

    Spanagel, R

    2003-07-01

    New animal models have been developed which mimic several aspects of alcoholism. These models provide the basis to study the neurobiological mechanisms of "addicted behaviour". At least two different neurobiological pathways which are involved in the development and maintenance of addicted behaviour have been identified. The first pathway involves the opioidergic system and probably the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and may induce alcohol craving and relapse due to the mood enhancing, positive reinforcing effects of alcohol consumption. A second pathway involves several components of the glutamatergic system (in particular NMDA receptors) and may induce alcohol craving and relapse by negative motivational states including withdrawal and stress. In particular conditioned withdrawal and stress-induced relapse are mediated by a hypertrophic glutamatergic system. Thus it has recently been shown that the NMDA receptor modulator acamprosate inhibits conditioned abstinence behaviour in rats. Although more systematic work is needed to fully define these different neurobiological pathways involved in addicted behaviour, preclinical studies have identified low affinity non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonists as a novel potential generation of anti-relapse compounds and clinical studies have already been initiated in order to test these compounds in alcoholic patients. PMID:12947541

  11. More sensitivity of cortical GABAergic neurons than glutamatergic neurons in response to acidosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Fang; Wang, Chunyan; Su, Zhiqiang

    2016-05-25

    Acidosis impairs brain functions. Neuron-specific mechanisms underlying acidosis-induced brain dysfunction remain elusive. We studied the sensitivity of cortical GABAergic neurons and glutamatergic neurons to acidosis by whole-cell recording in brain slices. The acidification to the neurons was induced by perfusing artificial cerebral spinal fluid with lower pH. This acidification impairs excitability and synaptic transmission in the glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. Acidosis impairs spiking capacity in the GABAergic neurons more than in the glutamatergic neurons. Acidosis also strengthens glutamatergic synaptic transmission and attenuates GABAergic synaptic transmission on the GABAergic neurons more than the glutamatergic neurons, which results in the functional impairment of these GABAergic neurons. This acidosis-induced dysfunction predominantly in the cortical GABAergic neurons drives the homeostasis of neuronal networks toward overexcitation and exacerbates neuronal impairment. PMID:27116702

  12. Hippocampal Fast Glutamatergic Transmission Is Transiently Regulated by Corticosterone Pulsatility.

    PubMed

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Pasricha, Natasha; Smeets, Johanna A S; Kerkhofs, Amber; Mikasova, Lenka; Karst, Henk; Groc, Laurent; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that corticosteroid hormones (such as corticosterone) are released in ultradian pulses as a natural consequence of pituitary-adrenal interactions. All organs, including the brain, are thus exposed to pulsatile changes in corticosteroid hormone level, important to ensure full genomic responsiveness to stress-induced surges. However, corticosterone also changes neuronal excitability through rapid non-genomic pathways, particularly in the hippocampus. Potentially, background excitability of hippocampal neurons could thus be changed by pulsatile exposure to corticosteroids. It is currently unknown, though, how neuronal activity alters during a sequence of corticosterone pulses. To test this, hippocampal cells were exposed in vitro to four consecutive corticosterone pulses with a 60 min inter-pulse interval. During the pulses we examined four features of hippocampal signal transfer by the main excitatory transmitter glutamate-i.e., postsynaptic responses to spontaneous release of presynaptic vesicles, postsynaptic GluA2-AMPA receptor dynamics, basal (evoked) field responses, and synaptic plasticity, using a set of high resolution imaging and electrophysiological approaches. We show that the first pulse of corticosterone causes a transient increase in miniature EPSC frequency, AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity, while basal evoked field responses are unaffected. This pattern is not maintained during subsequent applications: responses become more variable, attenuate or even reverse over time, albeit with different kinetics for the various experimental endpoints. This may indicate that the beneficial effect of ultradian pulses on transcriptional regulation in the hippocampus is not consistently accompanied by short-term perturbations in background excitability. In general, this could be interpreted as a means to keep hippocampal neurons responsive to incoming signals related to environmental challenges. PMID:26741493

  13. Hippocampal Fast Glutamatergic Transmission Is Transiently Regulated by Corticosterone Pulsatility

    PubMed Central

    Smeets, Johanna A. S.; Kerkhofs, Amber; Mikasova, Lenka; Karst, Henk; Groc, Laurent; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In recent years it has become clear that corticosteroid hormones (such as corticosterone) are released in ultradian pulses as a natural consequence of pituitary-adrenal interactions. All organs, including the brain, are thus exposed to pulsatile changes in corticosteroid hormone level, important to ensure full genomic responsiveness to stress-induced surges. However, corticosterone also changes neuronal excitability through rapid non-genomic pathways, particularly in the hippocampus. Potentially, background excitability of hippocampal neurons could thus be changed by pulsatile exposure to corticosteroids. It is currently unknown, though, how neuronal activity alters during a sequence of corticosterone pulses. To test this, hippocampal cells were exposed in vitro to four consecutive corticosterone pulses with a 60 min inter-pulse interval. During the pulses we examined four features of hippocampal signal transfer by the main excitatory transmitter glutamate—i.e., postsynaptic responses to spontaneous release of presynaptic vesicles, postsynaptic GluA2-AMPA receptor dynamics, basal (evoked) field responses, and synaptic plasticity, using a set of high resolution imaging and electrophysiological approaches. We show that the first pulse of corticosterone causes a transient increase in miniature EPSC frequency, AMPA receptor trafficking and synaptic plasticity, while basal evoked field responses are unaffected. This pattern is not maintained during subsequent applications: responses become more variable, attenuate or even reverse over time, albeit with different kinetics for the various experimental endpoints. This may indicate that the beneficial effect of ultradian pulses on transcriptional regulation in the hippocampus is not consistently accompanied by short-term perturbations in background excitability. In general, this could be interpreted as a means to keep hippocampal neurons responsive to incoming signals related to environmental challenges. PMID:26741493

  14. Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptors in the Retina

    PubMed Central

    Diamond, Jeffrey S.

    2011-01-01

    The retina transforms light entering the eye into a sophisticated neural representation of our visual world. Specialized synapses, cells, and circuits in the retina have evolved to encode luminance, contrast, motion, and other complex visual features. Although a great deal has been learned about the cellular morphology and circuitry that underlies this image processing, many of the synapses in the retina remain incompletely understood. For example, excitatory synapses in the retina feature the full panoply of glutamate receptors, but in most cases specific roles for different receptor subtypes are unclear. In this brief review, I will discuss recent progress toward understanding how Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-GluARs) contribute to synaptic transmission and newly discovered forms of synaptic plasticity in the retina. PMID:21991245

  15. AMPA RECEPTOR POTENTIATORS: FROM DRUG DESIGN TO COGNITIVE ENHANCEMENT

    PubMed Central

    PARTIN, KATHRYN M.

    2014-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of ionotropic glutamate receptors have emerged as a target for treating cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration, but also mental illnesses such as major depressive disorder. The possibility of creating a new class of pharmaceutical agent to treat refractive mental health issues has compelled researchers to redouble their efforts to develop a safe, effective treatment for memory and cognition impairments. Coupled with the more robust research methodologies that have emerged, including more sophisticated high-throughput-screens, higher resolution structural biology techniques, and more focused assessment on pharmacokinetics, the development of positive modulators of AMPA receptors holds great promise. We describe recent approaches that improve our understanding of the basic physiology underlying memory and cognition, and their application towards promoting human health. PMID:25462292

  16. Cyclin Y inhibits plasticity-induced AMPA receptor exocytosis and LTP

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Eunsil; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Hur, Young-Na; Whitcomb, Daniel J.; Regan, Philip; Hong, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Hanna; Ho Suh, Young; Cho, Kwangwook; Park, Mikyoung

    2015-01-01

    Cyclin Y (CCNY) is a member of the cyclin protein family, known to regulate cell division in proliferating cells. Interestingly, CCNY is expressed in neurons that do not undergo cell division. Here, we report that CCNY negatively regulates long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic strength through inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking. CCNY is enriched in postsynaptic fractions from rat forebrain and is localized adjacent to postsynaptic sites in dendritic spines in rat hippocampal neurons. Using live-cell imaging of a pH-sensitive AMPA receptor, we found that during LTP-inducing stimulation, CCNY inhibits AMPA receptor exocytosis in dendritic spines. Furthermore, CCNY abolishes LTP in hippocampal slices. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that CCNY inhibits plasticity-induced AMPA receptor delivery to synapses and thereby blocks LTP, identifying a novel function for CCNY in post-mitotic cells. PMID:26220330

  17. Toxicity of AMPA to the earthworm Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 in tropical artificial soil.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Anahí; Brown, George Gardner; Sautter, Klaus Dieter; de Oliveira, Cintia Mara Ribas; de Vasconcelos, Eliane Carvalho; Niva, Cintia Carla; Bartz, Marie Luise Carolina; Bedano, José Camilo

    2016-01-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) - one of glyphosate's main metabolites - has been classified as persistent in soils, raising concern regarding the widespread use of glyphosate in agriculture and forestry. Glyphosate may have negative or neutral effects on soil biota, but no information is available on the toxicity of AMPA to soil invertebrates. Therefore our aim was to study the effect of AMPA on mortality and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei using standard soil ecotoxicological methods (ISO). Field-relevant concentrations of AMPA had no significant effects on mortality in acute or chronic assays. Except at the highest concentration tested, a significant biomass loss was observed compared to controls in the chronic assay. The number of juveniles and cocoons increased with higher concentrations of AMPA applied, but their mean weights decreased. This mass loss indicates higher sensitivity of juveniles than adults to AMPA. Our results suggest that earthworms coming from parents grown in contaminated soils may have reduced growth, limiting their beneficial roles in key soil ecosystem functions. Nevertheless, further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the sublethal effects observed here. PMID:26792548

  18. Toxicity of AMPA to the earthworm Eisenia andrei Bouché, 1972 in tropical artificial soil

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Anahí; Brown, George Gardner; Sautter, Klaus Dieter; Ribas de Oliveira, Cintia Mara; de Vasconcelos, Eliane Carvalho; Niva, Cintia Carla; Bartz, Marie Luise Carolina; Bedano, José Camilo

    2016-01-01

    Aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) - one of glyphosate’s main metabolites - has been classified as persistent in soils, raising concern regarding the widespread use of glyphosate in agriculture and forestry. Glyphosate may have negative or neutral effects on soil biota, but no information is available on the toxicity of AMPA to soil invertebrates. Therefore our aim was to study the effect of AMPA on mortality and reproduction of the earthworm species Eisenia andrei using standard soil ecotoxicological methods (ISO). Field-relevant concentrations of AMPA had no significant effects on mortality in acute or chronic assays. Except at the highest concentration tested, a significant biomass loss was observed compared to controls in the chronic assay. The number of juveniles and cocoons increased with higher concentrations of AMPA applied, but their mean weights decreased. This mass loss indicates higher sensitivity of juveniles than adults to AMPA. Our results suggest that earthworms coming from parents grown in contaminated soils may have reduced growth, limiting their beneficial roles in key soil ecosystem functions. Nevertheless, further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying the sublethal effects observed here. PMID:26792548

  19. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants. PMID:27155486

  20. Glutamatergic postsynaptic block by Pamphobeteus spider venoms in crayfish.

    PubMed

    Araque, A; Ferreira, W; Lucas, S; Buño, W

    1992-01-31

    The effects of toxins from venom glands of two south american spiders (Pamphobeteus platyomma and P. soracabae) on glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission were studied in the neuromuscular junction of the opener muscle of crayfish. The toxins selectively and reversibly blocked both excitatory postsynaptic currents and potentials in a dose-dependent manner. They also reversibly abolished glutamate-induced postsynaptic membrane depolarization. They had no effect on resting postsynaptic membrane conductance nor on postsynaptic voltage-gated currents. The synaptic facilitation and the frequency of miniature postsynaptic potentials were unaffected by the toxins, indicating that presynaptic events were not modified. Picrotoxin, a selective antagonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor, did not modify toxin effects. We conclude that both toxins specifically block the postsynaptic glutamate receptor-channel complex. PMID:1319261

  1. Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity by Glutamatergic Gliotransmission: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    De Pittà, Maurizio; Brunel, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Glutamatergic gliotransmission, that is, the release of glutamate from perisynaptic astrocyte processes in an activity-dependent manner, has emerged as a potentially crucial signaling pathway for regulation of synaptic plasticity, yet its modes of expression and function in vivo remain unclear. Here, we focus on two experimentally well-identified gliotransmitter pathways, (i) modulations of synaptic release and (ii) postsynaptic slow inward currents mediated by glutamate released from astrocytes, and investigate their possible functional relevance on synaptic plasticity in a biophysical model of an astrocyte-regulated synapse. Our model predicts that both pathways could profoundly affect both short- and long-term plasticity. In particular, activity-dependent glutamate release from astrocytes could dramatically change spike-timing-dependent plasticity, turning potentiation into depression (and vice versa) for the same induction protocol. PMID:27195153

  2. Glutamatergic Neurometabolites during Early Abstinence from Chronic Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tobias, Marc C.; Hudkins, Matthew; London, Edythe D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acute phase of abstinence from methamphetamine abuse is critical for rehabilitation success. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy has detected below-normal levels of glutamate+glutamine in anterior middle cingulate of chronic methamphetamine abusers during early abstinence, attributed to abstinence-induced downregulation of the glutamatergic systems in the brain. This study further explored this phenomenon. Methods: We measured glutamate+glutamine in additional cortical regions (midline posterior cingulate, midline precuneus, and bilateral inferior frontal cortex) putatively affected by methamphetamine. We examined the relationship between glutamate+glutamine in each region with duration of methamphetamine abuse as well as the depressive symptoms of early abstinence. Magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging was acquired at 1.5 T from a methamphetamine group of 44 adults who had chronically abused methamphetamine and a control group of 23 age-, sex-, and tobacco smoking-matched healthy volunteers. Participants in the methamphetamine group were studied as inpatients during the first week of abstinence from the drug and were not receiving treatment. Results: In the methamphetamine group, small but significant (5–15%, P<.05) decrements (vs control) in glutamate+glutamine were observed in posterior cingulate, precuneus, and right inferior frontal cortex; glutamate+glutamine in posterior cingulate was negatively correlated (P<.05) with years of methamphetamine abuse. The Beck Depression Inventory score was negatively correlated (P<.005) with glutamate+glutamine in right inferior frontal cortex. Conclusions: Our findings support the idea that glutamatergic metabolism is downregulated in early abstinence in multiple cortical regions. The extent of downregulation may vary with length of abuse and may be associated with severity of depressive symptoms emergent in early recovery. PMID:25522400

  3. Inflammatory and Glutamatergic Homeostasis Are Involved in Successful Aging.

    PubMed

    Hascup, Erin R; Wang, Feiya; Kopchick, John J; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-03-01

    Whole body studies using long-lived growth hormone receptor gene disrupted or knock out (GHR-KO) mice report global GH resistance, increased insulin sensitivity, reduced insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and cognitive retention in old-age, however, little is known about the neurobiological status of these mice. The aim of this study was to determine if glutamatergic and inflammatory markers that are altered in aging and/or age-related diseases and disorders, are preserved in mice that experience increased healthspan. We examined messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression levels in the brain of 4- to 6-, 8- to 10-, and 20- to 22-month GHR-KO and normal aging control mice. In the hippocampus, glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and anti-inflammatory nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFκB)-p50 were elevated in 8- to 10-month GHR-KO mice compared with age-matched controls. In the hypothalamus, NFκB-p50, NFκB-p65, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST), and 2-amino-3-(5-methyl-3-oxo 2,3-dihydro-1,2 oxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid receptor subunit 1 (GluA1) were elevated in 8- to 10- and/or 20- to 22-month GHR-KO mice when comparing genotypes. Finally, interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β) mRNA was reduced in 4- to 6- and/or 8- to 10-month GHR-KO mice compared with normal littermates in all brain areas examined. These data support the importance of decreased brain inflammation in early adulthood and maintained homeostasis of the glutamatergic and inflammatory systems in extended longevity. PMID:25711529

  4. ABNORMAL GLUTAMATERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION AND NEURONALGLIAL INTERACTIONS IN ACUTE MANIA

    PubMed Central

    Öngür, Dost; Jensen, J. Eric; Prescot, Andrew P.; Stork, Caitlin; Lundy, Miriam; Cohen, Bruce M.; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2008-01-01

    Background At excitatory synapses, glutamate released from neurons is taken up by glial cells and converted to glutamine, which is cycled back to neurons. Alterations in this system are believed to play a role in the pathophysiology of bipolar disorder, but they have not been characterized in vivo. We examined the glutamine/glutamate ratio, and levels of other metabolites in acute mania and schizophrenia in this exploratory study. Methods Data were obtained from 2×2×2cm voxels in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and parieto-occipital cortex (POC) using 2-dimensional J-resolved proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 4 Tesla, and analyzed using LCModel. Fifteen bipolar disorder patients with acute mania and seventeen schizophrenia patients with acute psychosis were recruited from an inpatient unit; twenty one matched healthy controls were also studied. Glutamine/glutamate ratio and N-acetylaspartate, creatine, choline, and myo-inositol levels were evaluated in a repeated-measures design. Medication effects and relationship to demographic and clinical variables were analyzed. Results Glutamine/glutamate ratio was significantly higher in ACC and POC in bipolar disorder, but not schizophrenia, compared with healthy controls. N-acetylaspartate was significantly lower in the ACC in schizophrenia. Patients on and off lithium, anticonvulsants, or benzodiazepines had similar glutamine/glutamate ratios. Conclusions The elevated glutamine/glutamate ratio is consistent with glutamatergic overactivity and/or defective neuronal-glial coupling in acute mania, although medication effects cannot be ruled out. Abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission and glial cell function in bipolar disorder may represent targets for novel therapeutic interventions. PMID:18602089

  5. Glyphosate-Resistant and Conventional Canola (Brassica napus L.) Responses to Glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) Treatment.

    PubMed

    Corrêa, Elza Alves; Dayan, Franck E; Owens, Daniel K; Rimando, Agnes M; Duke, Stephen O

    2016-05-11

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola contains two transgenes that impart resistance to the herbicide glyphosate: (1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and (2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimic acid-3-phosphate synthase. The objectives of this research were to determine the phytotoxicity of AMPA to canola, the relative metabolism of glyphosate to AMPA in GR and conventional non-GR (NGR) canola, and AMPA pool sizes in glyphosate-treated GR canola. AMPA applied at 1.0 kg ha(-1) was not phytotoxic to GR or NGR. At this AMPA application rate, NGR canola accumulated a higher concentration of AMPA in its tissues than GR canola. At rates of 1 and 3.33 kg ae ha(-1) of glyphosate, GR canola growth was stimulated. This stimulatory effect is similar to that of much lower doses of glyphosate on NGR canola. Both shikimate and AMPA accumulated in tissues of these glyphosate-treated plants. In a separate experiment in which young GR and NGR canola plants were treated with non-phytotoxic levels of [(14)C]-glyphosate, very little glyphosate was metabolized in NGR plants, whereas most of the glyphosate was metabolized to AMPA in GR plants at 7 days after application. Untreated leaves of GR plants accumulated only metabolites (mostly AMPA) of glyphosate, indicating that GOX activity is very high in the youngest leaves. These data indicate that more glyphosate is transformed to AMPA rapidly in GR canola and that the accumulated AMPA is not toxic to the canola plant. PMID:27092715

  6. PACSIN1 regulates the dynamics of AMPA receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Widagdo, Jocelyn; Fang, Huaqiang; Jang, Se Eun; Anggono, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into and out of synapses plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. We previously reported that the protein kinase C and casein kinase II substrate in neurons (PACSIN) forms a complex with AMPARs through its interaction with the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) to regulate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-induced AMPAR endocytosis and cerebellar long-term depression. However, the molecular mechanism by which PACSIN regulates the dynamics of AMPAR trafficking remains unclear. Using a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein, pHluorin, tagged to the extracellular domain of the GluA2 subunit of AMPARs, we demonstrate dual roles for PACSIN1 in controlling the internalization and recycling of GluA2 after NMDAR activation. Structure and function analysis reveals a requirement for the PACSIN1 F-BAR and SH3 domains in controlling these NMDAR-dependent processes. Interestingly, the variable region, which binds to PICK1, is not essential for NMDAR-dependent GluA2 internalization and is required only for the correct recycling of AMPARs. These results indicate that PACSIN is a versatile membrane deformation protein that links the endocytic and recycling machineries essential for dynamic AMPAR trafficking in neurons. PMID:27488904

  7. Actin-dependent mechanisms in AMPA receptor trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Hanley, Jonathan G.

    2014-01-01

    The precise regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) number and subtype at the synapse is crucial for the regulation of excitatory neurotransmission, synaptic plasticity and the consequent formation of appropriate neural circuits for learning and memory. AMPAR trafficking involves the dynamic processes of exocytosis, endocytosis and endosomal recycling, all of which involve the actin cytoskeleton. The actin cytoskeleton is highly dynamic and highly regulated by an abundance of actin-binding proteins and upstream signaling pathways that modulate actin polymerization and depolymerization. Actin dynamics generate forces that manipulate membranes in the process of vesicle biogenesis, and also for propelling vesicles through the cytoplasm to reach their destination. In addition, trafficking mechanisms exploit more stable aspects of the actin cytoskeleton by using actin-based motor proteins to traffic vesicular cargo along actin filaments. Numerous studies have shown that actin dynamics are critical for AMPAR localization and function. The identification of actin-binding proteins that physically interact with AMPAR subunits, and research into their mode of action is starting to shed light on the mechanisms involved. Such proteins either regulate actin dynamics to modulate mechanical forces exerted on AMPAR-containing membranes, or associate with actin filaments to target or transport AMPAR-containing vesicles to specific subcellular regions. In addition, actin-regulatory proteins that do not physically interact with AMPARs may influence AMPAR trafficking by regulating the local actin environment in the dendritic spine. PMID:25429259

  8. Unified quantitative model of AMPA receptor trafficking at synapses

    PubMed Central

    Czöndör, Katalin; Mondin, Magali; Garcia, Mikael; Heine, Martin; Frischknecht, Renato; Choquet, Daniel; Sibarita, Jean-Baptiste; Thoumine, Olivier R.

    2012-01-01

    Trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) plays a key role in synaptic transmission. However, a general framework integrating the two major mechanisms regulating AMPAR delivery at postsynapses (i.e., surface diffusion and internal recycling) is lacking. To this aim, we built a model based on numerical trajectories of individual AMPARs, including free diffusion in the extrasynaptic space, confinement in the synapse, and trapping at the postsynaptic density (PSD) through reversible interactions with scaffold proteins. The AMPAR/scaffold kinetic rates were adjusted by comparing computer simulations to single-particle tracking and fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments in primary neurons, in different conditions of synapse density and maturation. The model predicts that the steady-state AMPAR number at synapses is bidirectionally controlled by AMPAR/scaffold binding affinity and PSD size. To reveal the impact of recycling processes in basal conditions and upon synaptic potentiation or depression, spatially and temporally defined exocytic and endocytic events were introduced. The model predicts that local recycling of AMPARs close to the PSD, coupled to short-range surface diffusion, provides rapid control of AMPAR number at synapses. In contrast, because of long-range diffusion limitations, extrasynaptic recycling is intrinsically slower and less synapse-specific. Thus, by discriminating the relative contributions of AMPAR diffusion, trapping, and recycling events on spatial and temporal bases, this model provides unique insights on the dynamic regulation of synaptic strength. PMID:22331885

  9. Contextual learning requires synaptic AMPA receptor delivery in the hippocampus

    PubMed Central

    Mitsushima, Dai; Ishihara, Kouji; Sano, Akane; Kessels, Helmut W.; Takahashi, Takuya

    2011-01-01

    The hippocampus plays a central role in learning and memory. Although synaptic delivery of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs) contributes to experience-dependent synaptic strengthening, its role in hippocampus-dependent learning remains elusive. By combining viral-mediated in vivo gene delivery with in vitro patch-clamp recordings, we found that the inhibitory avoidance task, a hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-learning paradigm, delivered GluR1-containing AMPARs into CA3-CA1 synapses of the dorsal hippocampus. To block the synaptic delivery of endogenous AMPARs, we expressed a fragment of the GluR1-cytoplasmic tail (the 14-aa GluR1 membrane-proximal region with two serines mutated to phospho-mimicking aspartates: MPR-DD). MPR-DD prevented learning-driven synaptic AMPAR delivery in CA1 neurons. Bilateral expression of MPR-DD in the CA1 region of the rat impaired inhibitory avoidance learning, indicating that synaptic GluR1 trafficking in the CA1 region of the hippocampus is required for encoding contextual fear memories. The fraction of CA1 neurons that underwent synaptic strengthening positively correlated with the performance in the inhibitory avoidance fear memory task. These data suggest that the robustness of a contextual memory depends on the number of hippocampal neurons that participate in the encoding of a memory trace. PMID:21746893

  10. AMPA receptor regulation during synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hey-Kyoung; Kirkwood, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Discovery of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus of the rabbit hippocampus by Bliss and Lømo opened up a whole new field to study activity-dependent long-term synaptic modifications in the brain. Since then hippocampal synapses have been a key model system to study the mechanisms of different forms of synaptic plasticity. At least for the postsynaptic forms of LTP and long-term depression (LTD), regulation of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) has emerged as a key mechanism. While many of the synaptic plasticity mechanisms uncovered in at the hippocampal synapses apply to synapses across diverse brain regions, there are differences in the mechanisms that often reveal the specific functional requirements of the brain area under study. Here we will review AMPAR regulation underlying synaptic plasticity in hippocampus and neocortex. The main focus of this review will be placed on postsynaptic forms of synaptic plasticity that impinge on the regulation of AMPARs using hippocampal CA1 and primary sensory cortices as examples. And through the comparison, we will highlight the key similarities and functional differences between the two synapses. PMID:21856433

  11. Structure and organization of heteromeric AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Herguedas, Beatriz; García-Nafría, Javier; Cais, Ondrej; Fernández-Leiro, Rafael; Krieger, James; Ho, Hinze; Greger, Ingo H

    2016-04-29

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), which are central mediators of rapid neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity, predominantly exist as heteromers of the subunits GluA1 to GluA4. Here we report the first AMPAR heteromer structures, which deviate substantially from existing GluA2 homomer structures. Crystal structures of the GluA2/3 and GluA2/4 N-terminal domains reveal a novel compact conformation with an alternating arrangement of the four subunits around a central axis. This organization is confirmed by cysteine cross-linking in full-length receptors, and it permitted us to determine the structure of an intact GluA2/3 receptor by cryogenic electron microscopy. Two models in the ligand-free state, at resolutions of 8.25 and 10.3 angstroms, exhibit substantial vertical compression and close associations between domain layers, reminiscent of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. Model 1 resembles a resting state and model 2 a desensitized state, thus providing snapshots of gating transitions in the nominal absence of ligand. Our data reveal organizational features of heteromeric AMPARs and provide a framework to decipher AMPAR architecture and signaling. PMID:26966189

  12. PACSIN1 regulates the dynamics of AMPA receptor trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Widagdo, Jocelyn; Fang, Huaqiang; Jang, Se Eun; Anggono, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic trafficking of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into and out of synapses plays an important role in synaptic plasticity. We previously reported that the protein kinase C and casein kinase II substrate in neurons (PACSIN) forms a complex with AMPARs through its interaction with the protein interacting with C-kinase 1 (PICK1) to regulate NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-induced AMPAR endocytosis and cerebellar long-term depression. However, the molecular mechanism by which PACSIN regulates the dynamics of AMPAR trafficking remains unclear. Using a pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein, pHluorin, tagged to the extracellular domain of the GluA2 subunit of AMPARs, we demonstrate dual roles for PACSIN1 in controlling the internalization and recycling of GluA2 after NMDAR activation. Structure and function analysis reveals a requirement for the PACSIN1 F-BAR and SH3 domains in controlling these NMDAR-dependent processes. Interestingly, the variable region, which binds to PICK1, is not essential for NMDAR-dependent GluA2 internalization and is required only for the correct recycling of AMPARs. These results indicate that PACSIN is a versatile membrane deformation protein that links the endocytic and recycling machineries essential for dynamic AMPAR trafficking in neurons. PMID:27488904

  13. AMPA receptor signaling through BRAG2 and Arf6 critical for long-term synaptic depression.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Ralf; Berberich, Sven; Rathgeber, Louisa; Kolleker, Alexander; Köhr, Georg; Kornau, Hans-Christian

    2010-06-10

    Central nervous system synapses undergo activity-dependent alterations to support learning and memory. Long-term depression (LTD) reflects a sustained reduction of the synaptic AMPA receptor content based on targeted clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here we report a current-independent form of AMPA receptor signaling, fundamental for LTD. We found that AMPA receptors directly interact via the GluA2 subunit with the synaptic protein BRAG2, which functions as a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for the coat-recruitment GTPase Arf6. BRAG2-mediated catalysis, controlled by ligand-binding and tyrosine phosphorylation of GluA2, activates Arf6 to internalize synaptic AMPA receptors upon LTD induction. Furthermore, acute blockade of the GluA2-BRAG2 interaction and targeted deletion of BRAG2 in mature hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons prevents LTD in CA3-to-CA1 cell synapses, irrespective of the induction pathway. We conclude that BRAG2-mediated Arf6 activation triggered by AMPA receptors is the convergent step of different forms of LTD, thus providing an essential mechanism for the control of vesicle formation by endocytic cargo. PMID:20547133

  14. Pathogenic mechanism of an autism-associated neuroligin mutation involves altered AMPA-receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Chanda, S; Aoto, J; Lee, S-J; Wernig, M; Südhof, T C

    2016-02-01

    Neuroligins are postsynaptic cell-adhesion molecules that bind to presynaptic neurexins. Although the general synaptic role of neuroligins is undisputed, their specific functions at a synapse remain unclear, even controversial. Moreover, many neuroligin gene mutations were associated with autism, but the pathophysiological relevance of these mutations is often unknown, and their mechanisms of action uninvestigated. Here, we examine the synaptic effects of an autism-associated neuroligin-4 substitution (called R704C), which mutates a cytoplasmic arginine residue that is conserved in all neuroligins. We show that the R704C mutation, when introduced into neuroligin-3, enhances the interaction between neuroligin-3 and AMPA receptors, increases AMPA-receptor internalization and decreases postsynaptic AMPA-receptor levels. When introduced into neuroligin-4, conversely, the R704C mutation unexpectedly elevated AMPA-receptor-mediated synaptic responses. These results suggest a general functional link between neuroligins and AMPA receptors, indicate that both neuroligin-3 and -4 act at excitatory synapses but perform surprisingly distinct functions, and demonstrate that the R704C mutation significantly impairs the normal function of neuroligin-4, thereby validating its pathogenicity. PMID:25778475

  15. Cytosolic PLA2(alpha) activation in Purkinje neurons and its role in AMPA-receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Mashimo, Masato; Hirabayashi, Tetsuya; Murayama, Toshihiko; Shimizu, Takao

    2008-09-15

    Cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha) selectively releases arachidonic acid from membrane phospholipids and has been proposed to be involved in the induction of long-term depression (LTD), a form of synaptic plasticity in the cerebellum. This enzyme requires two events for its full activation: Ca(2+)-dependent translocation from the cytosol to organelle membranes in order to access phospholipids as substrates, and phosphorylation by several kinases. However, the subcellular distribution and activation of cPLA(2)alpha in Purkinje cells and the role of arachidonic acid in cerebellar LTD have not been fully elucidated. In cultured Purkinje cells, stimulation of AMPA receptors, but not metabotropic glutamate receptors, triggered translocation of cPLA(2)alpha to the somatic and dendritic Golgi compartments. This translocation required Ca(2+) influx through P-type Ca(2+) channels. AMPA plus PMA, a chemical method for inducing LTD, released arachidonic acid via phosphorylation of cPLA(2)alpha. AMPA plus PMA induced a decrease in surface GluR2 for more than 2 hours. Interestingly, this reduction was occluded by a cPLA(2)alpha-specific inhibitor. Furthermore, PMA plus arachidonic acid caused the prolonged internalization of GluR2 without activating AMPA receptors. These results suggest that cPLA(2)alpha regulates the persistent decrease in the expression of AMPA receptors, underscoring the role of cPLA(2)alpha in cerebellar LTD. PMID:18713832

  16. Stargazin regulates AMPA receptor trafficking through adaptor protein complexes during long-term depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Shinji; Kakegawa, Wataru; Budisantoso, Timotheus; Nomura, Toshihiro; Kohda, Kazuhisa; Yuzaki, Michisuke

    2013-11-01

    Long-term depression (LTD) underlies learning and memory in various brain regions. Although postsynaptic AMPA receptor trafficking mediates LTD, its underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely unclear. Here we show that stargazin, a transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein, forms a ternary complex with adaptor proteins AP-2 and AP-3A in hippocampal neurons, depending on its phosphorylation state. Inhibiting the stargazin-AP-2 interaction disrupts NMDA-induced AMPA receptor endocytosis, and inhibiting that of stargazin-AP-3A abrogates the late endosomal/lysosomal trafficking of AMPA receptors, thereby upregulating receptor recycling to the cell surface. Similarly, stargazin’s interaction with AP-2 or AP-3A is necessary for low-frequency stimulus-evoked LTD in CA1 hippocampal neurons. Thus, stargazin has a crucial role in NMDA-dependent LTD by regulating two trafficking pathways of AMPA receptors—transport from the cell surface to early endosomes and from early endosomes to late endosomes/lysosomes—through its sequential binding to AP-2 and AP-3A.

  17. Short-term repeated corticosterone administration enhances glutamatergic but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex.

    PubMed

    Kula, Joanna; Blasiak, Anna; Czerw, Anna; Tylko, Grzegorz; Sowa, Joanna; Hess, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that stress impairs performance of skilled reaching and walking tasks in rats due to the action of glucocorticoids involved in the stress response. Skilled reaching and walking are controlled by the primary motor cortex (M1); however, it is not known whether stress-related impairments in skilled motor tasks are related to functional and/or structural alterations within the M1. We studied the effects of single and repeated injections of corticosterone (twice daily for 7 days) on spontaneous excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs and sIPSCs) recorded from layer II/III pyramidal neurons in ex vivo slices of the M1, prepared 2 days after the last administration of the hormone. We also measured the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal cells and the protein levels of selected subunits of AMPA, NMDA, and GABAA receptors after repeated corticosterone administration. Repeatedly administered corticosterone induced an increase in the frequency but not in the amplitude of sEPSCs, while a single administration had no effect on the recorded excitatory currents. The frequency and amplitude of sIPSCs as well as the excitability of pyramidal cells were changed neither after single nor after repeated corticosterone administration. Treatment with corticosterone for 7 days did not modify the density of dendritic spines on pyramidal neurons. Corticosterone influenced neither the protein levels of GluA1, GluA2, GluN1, GluN2A, and GluN2B subunits of glutamate receptors nor those of α1, β2, and γ2 subunits of the GABAA receptor. The increase in sEPSCs frequency induced by repeated corticosterone administration faded out within 7 days. These data indicate that prolonged administration of exogenous corticosterone selectively and reversibly enhances glutamatergic, but not GABAergic transmission in the rat motor cortex. Our results suggest that corticosterone treatment results in an enhancement of spontaneous glutamate release from

  18. GSG1L suppresses AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic transmission and uniquely modulates AMPA receptor kinetics in hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Xinglong; Mao, Xia; Lussier, Marc P.; Hutchison, Mary Anne; Zhou, Liang; Hamra, F. Kent; Roche, Katherine W.; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Regulation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated synaptic transmission is a key mechanism for synaptic plasticity. In the brain, AMPARs assemble with a number of auxiliary subunits, including TARPs, CNIHs and CKAMP44, which are important for AMPAR forward trafficking to synapses. Here we report that the membrane protein GSG1L negatively regulates AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. Overexpression of GSG1L strongly suppresses, and GSG1L knockout (KO) enhances, AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission. GSG1L-dependent regulation of AMPAR synaptic transmission relies on the first extracellular loop domain and its carboxyl-terminus. GSG1L also speeds up AMPAR deactivation and desensitization in hippocampal CA1 neurons, in contrast to the effects of TARPs and CNIHs. Furthermore, GSG1L association with AMPARs inhibits CNIH2-induced slowing of the receptors in heterologous cells. Finally, GSG1L KO rats have deficits in LTP and show behavioural abnormalities in object recognition tests. These data demonstrate that GSG1L represents a new class of auxiliary subunit with distinct functional properties for AMPARs. PMID:26932439

  19. Anti-glutamatergic effect of riluzole: comparison with valproic acid.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-E; Kim, D-S; Kwak, S-E; Choi, H-C; Song, H-K; Choi, S-Y; Kwon, O-S; Kim, Y-I; Kang, T-C

    2007-06-15

    Riluzole, an anti-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis drug, known to decrease presynaptic glutamate release, is viewed as a candidate supplementary medication for epilepsy. In the present study, we compared the effects of riluzole and valproate (VPA) in the pilocarpine-induced limbic seizure model and in the gamma-hydroxybutyrate lactone (GBL)-induced absence seizure model. We applied immunohistochemical study for vesicular transporter 1 (VGLUT1) and extracellular recording in the rat dentate gyrus of both pilocarpine- and GBL-induced seizure models to measure effects of riluzole and VPA. Both VPA and riluzole treatments reduced VGLUT1 immunoreactivity. Riluzole treatment completely inhibited pre-ictal spikes and spike-wave discharges in the pilocarpine- and GBL-induced epilepsy models, whereas VPA partially inhibited these phenomena. In both seizure models, the anti-epileptic effects of VPA and riluzole are basically related to anti-glutamatergic (reducing field excitatory postsynaptic potential slope and excitability ratio), not GABAergic (paired-pulse inhibition) effect. Riluzole was more effective at reducing seizure activity in both epilepsy models than VPA. These results suggest that riluzole is a potential antiepileptic drug with activity against limbic seizure and absence seizure. PMID:17507170

  20. Mechanism-based design of 2,3-benzodiazepine inhibitors for AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Li

    2015-01-01

    2,3-Benzodiazepine (2,3-BDZ) compounds represent a group of structurally diverse, small-molecule antagonists of (R, S)-2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolyl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptors. Antagonists of AMPA receptors are drug candidates for potential treatment of a number of neurological disorders such as epilepsy, stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). How to make better inhibitors, such as 2,3-BDZs, has been an enduring quest in drug discovery. Among a few available tools to address this specific question for making better 2,3-BDZs, perhaps the best one is to use mechanistic clues from studies of the existing antagonists to design and discover more selective and more potent antagonists. Here I review recent work in this area, and propose some ideas in the continuing effort of developing newer 2,3-BDZs for tighter control of AMPA receptor activities in vivo. PMID:26713266

  1. D-Serine and Serine Racemase Are Associated with PSD-95 and Glutamatergic Synapse Stability.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong; Jacobi, Ariel A; Anderson, Stewart A; Lynch, David R

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is an endogenous coagonist at the glycine site of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), synthesized by serine racemase (SR) through conversion of L-serine. It is crucial for synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Our previous studies demonstrated specific loss of SR, D-serine-responsive synaptic NMDARs, and glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons lacking α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which promotes glutamatergic synapse formation and maturation during development. We thus hypothesize that D-serine and SR (D-serine/SR) are associated with glutamatergic synaptic development. Using morphological and molecular studies in cortical neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development. Endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95, but not presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), in glutamatergic synapses of cultured cortical neurons. Low-density astrocytes in cortical neuronal cultures lack SR expression but contain enriched D-serine in large vesicle-like structures, suggesting possible synthesis of D-serine in postsynaptic neurons and storage in astrocytes. More interestingly, endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95 in the postsynaptic terminals of glutamatergic synapses during early and late synaptic development, implicating involvement of D-serine/SR in glutamatergic synaptic development. Exogenous application of D-serine enhances the interactions of SR with PSD-95 and NR1, and increases the number of VGLUT1- and PSD-95-positive glutamatergic synapses, suggesting that exogenous D-serine enhances postsynaptic SR/PSD-95 signaling and stabilizes glutamatergic synapses during cortical synaptic development. This is blocked by NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) and 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK), a specific antagonist at the glycine site of NMDARs, demonstrating

  2. D-Serine and Serine Racemase Are Associated with PSD-95 and Glutamatergic Synapse Stability

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hong; Jacobi, Ariel A.; Anderson, Stewart A.; Lynch, David R.

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is an endogenous coagonist at the glycine site of synaptic NMDA receptors (NMDARs), synthesized by serine racemase (SR) through conversion of L-serine. It is crucial for synaptic plasticity and is implicated in schizophrenia. Our previous studies demonstrated specific loss of SR, D-serine-responsive synaptic NMDARs, and glutamatergic synapses in cortical neurons lacking α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which promotes glutamatergic synapse formation and maturation during development. We thus hypothesize that D-serine and SR (D-serine/SR) are associated with glutamatergic synaptic development. Using morphological and molecular studies in cortical neuronal cultures, we demonstrate that D-serine/SR are associated with PSD-95 and NMDARs in postsynaptic neurons and with glutamatergic synapse stability during synaptic development. Endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95, but not presynaptic vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), in glutamatergic synapses of cultured cortical neurons. Low-density astrocytes in cortical neuronal cultures lack SR expression but contain enriched D-serine in large vesicle-like structures, suggesting possible synthesis of D-serine in postsynaptic neurons and storage in astrocytes. More interestingly, endogenous D-serine and SR colocalize with PSD-95 in the postsynaptic terminals of glutamatergic synapses during early and late synaptic development, implicating involvement of D-serine/SR in glutamatergic synaptic development. Exogenous application of D-serine enhances the interactions of SR with PSD-95 and NR1, and increases the number of VGLUT1- and PSD-95-positive glutamatergic synapses, suggesting that exogenous D-serine enhances postsynaptic SR/PSD-95 signaling and stabilizes glutamatergic synapses during cortical synaptic development. This is blocked by NMDAR antagonist 2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5) and 7-chlorokynurenic acid (7-CK), a specific antagonist at the glycine site of NMDARs, demonstrating

  3. AMPA receptor antibodies in limbic encephalitis alter synaptic receptor location

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Meizan; Hughes, Ethan G.; Peng, Xiaoyu; Zhou, Lei; Gleichman, Amy J.; Shu, Huidy; Matà, Sabrina; Kremens, Daniel; Vitaliani, Roberta; Geschwind, Michael D.; Bataller, Luis; Kalb, Robert G.; Davis, Rebecca; Graus, Francesc; Lynch, David R.; Balice-Gordon, Rita; Dalmau, Josep

    2009-01-01

    Background Limbic encephalitis (LE) frequently associates with antibodies to cell surface antigens. Characterization of these antigens is important because it facilitates the diagnosis of those disorders that are treatment-responsive. We report a novel antigen of LE and the effect of patients' antibodies on neuronal cultures. Methods Clinical analysis of 10 patients with LE. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to identify the antigens. HEK293 cells expressing the antigens were used in immunocytochemistry and ELISA. The effect of patients' antibodies on cultures of live rat hippocampal neurons was determined with confocal microscopy. Results Median age was 60 years (38-87); 9 were women. Seven had tumors of the lung, breast or thymus. Nine patients responded to immunotherapy or oncological therapy but neurologic relapses, without tumor recurrence, were frequent and influenced the long-term outcome. One untreated patient died of LE. All patients had antibodies against neuronal cell surface antigens that by immunoprecipitation were found to be the GluR1 and GluR2 subunits of the AMPA receptor (AMPAR). HEK293 cells expressing GluR1/2 reacted with all patients' sera or CSF, providing a diagnostic test for the disorder. Application of antibodies to cultures of neurons significantly decreased the number of GluR2-containing AMPAR clusters at synapses with a smaller decrease in overall AMPAR cluster density; these effects were reversed after antibody removal. Conclusions Antibodies to GluR1/2 associate with LE that is often paraneoplastic, treatment-responsive, and has a tendency to relapse. Our findings support an antibody-mediated pathogenesis in which patients' antibodies alter the synaptic localization and number of AMPAR. PMID:19338055

  4. Cornichons modify channel properties of recombinant and glial AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Coombs, Ian D.; Soto, David; Zonouzi, Marzieh; Renzi, Massimiliano; Shelley, Chris; Farrant, Mark; Cull-Candy, Stuart G.

    2012-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors, which underlie a majority of excitatory synaptic transmission in the CNS, associate with transmembrane proteins that modify their intracellular trafficking and channel gating. For AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), significant advances have been made in our understanding of their regulation by transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). Less is known about the functional influence of cornichons – unrelated AMPAR-interacting proteins, identified by proteomic analysis. Here we confirm that cornichon homologs 2 and 3 (CNIH-2 and CNIH-3), but not CNIH-1, slow the deactivation and desensitization of both GluA2-containing calcium-impermeable (CI-) and GluA2-lacking calcium-permeable (CP-) AMPARs expressed in tsA201 cells. CNIH-2 and -3 also enhanced the glutamate sensitivity, single-channel conductance and calcium permeability of CP-AMPARs, while decreasing their block by intracellular polyamines. We examined the potential effects of CNIHs on native AMPARs by recording from rat optic nerve oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs), known to express a significant population of CP-AMPARs. These glial cells exhibited surface labelling with an anti-CNIH-2/3 antibody. Two features of their AMPAR-mediated currents – the relative efficacy of the partial agonist kainate (IKA/IGlu ratio 0.4), and a greater than five-fold potentiation of kainate responses by cyclothiazide – suggest AMPAR association with CNIHs. Additionally, overexpression of CNIH-3 in OPCs markedly slowed AMPAR desensitization. Together, our experiments support the view that CNIHs are capable of altering key properties of AMPARs and suggest that they may do so in glia. PMID:22815494

  5. AMPA receptor trafficking in inflammation-induced dorsal horn central sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Activity-dependent postsynaptic receptor trafficking is critical for long-term synaptic plasticity in brain, but it is unclear whether this mechanism actually mediates spinal cord dorsal horn central sensitization (a specific form of synaptic plasticity) that is associated with persistent pain. Recent studies have shown that peripheral inflammation drives changes in AMPA receptor subunit trafficking in dorsal horn and that such changes contribute to the hypersensitivity that underlies persistent pain. Here, we review current evidence to illustrate how spinal cord AMPA receptors participate in dorsal horn central sensitization associated with persistent pain. Understanding these mechanisms may allow development of novel therapeutic strategies for treating persistent pain. PMID:22466122

  6. Diabetic hyperglycemia reduces Ca2+ permeability of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in AII amacrine cells.

    PubMed

    Castilho, Áurea; Madsen, Eirik; Ambrósio, António F; Veruki, Margaret L; Hartveit, Espen

    2015-09-01

    There is increasing evidence that diabetic retinopathy is a primary neuropathological disorder that precedes the microvascular pathology associated with later stages of the disease. Recently, we found evidence for altered functional properties of synaptic α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors in A17, but not AII, amacrine cells in the mammalian retina, and the observed changes were consistent with an upregulation of the GluA2 subunit, a key determinant of functional properties of AMPA receptors, including Ca(2+) permeability and current-voltage (I-V) rectification properties. Here, we have investigated functional changes of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in AII amacrine cells evoked by diabetes. With patch-clamp recording of nucleated patches from retinal slices, we measured Ca(2+) permeability and I-V rectification in rats with ∼3 wk of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and age-matched, noninjected controls. Under bi-ionic conditions (extracellular Ca(2+) concentration = 30 mM, intracellular Cs(+) concentration = 171 mM), the reversal potential (Erev) of AMPA-evoked currents indicated a significant reduction of Ca(2+) permeability in diabetic animals [Erev = -17.7 mV, relative permeability of Ca(2+) compared with Cs(+) (PCa/PCs) = 1.39] compared with normal animals (Erev = -7.7 mV, PCa/PCs = 2.35). Insulin treatment prevented the reduction of Ca(2+) permeability. I-V rectification was examined by calculating a rectification index (RI) as the ratio of the AMPA-evoked conductance at +40 and -60 mV. The degree of inward rectification in patches from diabetic animals (RI = 0.48) was significantly reduced compared with that in normal animals (RI = 0.30). These results suggest that diabetes evokes a change in the functional properties of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors of AII amacrine cells. These changes could be representative for extrasynaptic AMPA receptors elsewhere in AII amacrine cells and suggest that synaptic and extrasynaptic AMPA

  7. The Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and its Degradation Product, Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA), in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scribner, E.; Meyer, M. T.

    2006-05-01

    Since 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has investigated the fate and transport of glyphosate and its degradation product, aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), in surface water, and more recently in tile-drain flow, soil, and wet deposition. According to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sources, glyphosate is among the world's most widely used herbicides. In 2004, glyphosate usage estimates indicated that between 103 and 113 million pounds were applied annually to crops in the United States. The use of glyphosate over a wide geographic area suggests that this herbicide might be a potential concern for air, water, and soil quality as well as measured in high concentrations in streams; therefore, it is important to monitor its fate and transport in ground-water/surface-water systems. National, regional, and field-scale studies conducted by the USGS National Water-Quality Assessment and Toxic Substance Hydrology Programs have studied the fate and transport of glyphosate in overland flow, tile- drain flow, surface water, soil, and wet-deposition samples. The samples were analyzed for glyphosate and AMPA by using derivatization and online solid-phase extraction with liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and LC/MS/MS methods developed by the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas. During spring, summer, and fall 2002 runoff periods in 50 Midwestern streams, glyphosate was detected at or above the 0.10 micrograms per liter detection limit in 35, 41, and 31 percent of samples, respectively. AMPA was detected in 53, 82, and 75 percent of samples, respectively. Results of 128 samples from a field study showed that glyphosate was transported as a narrow high- concentration pulse during the first period of runoff after application and that the concentration of glyphosate in runoff was greater than the concentration of AMPA. In tile-drain flow, glyphosate and AMPA were transported in a broad low-concentration pulse during these same

  8. The vesicular glutamate transporter-1 upstream promoter and first intron each support glutamatergic-specific expression in rat postrhinal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guo-rong; Li, Xu; Cao, Haiyan; Zhao, Hua; Geller, Alfred I.

    2011-01-01

    Multiple applications of direct gene transfer into neurons require restricting expression to glutamatergic neurons, or specific subclasses of glutamatergic neurons. Thus, it is desirable to develop and analyze promoters that support glutamatergic-specific expression. The three vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are found in different populations of neurons, and VGLUT1 is the predominant VGLUT in the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex. We previously reported on a plasmid (amplicon) Herpes Simplex Virus vector that contains a VGLUT1 promoter. This vector supports long-term expression in VGLUT1-containing glutamatergic neurons in rat postrhinal (POR) cortex, but does not support expression in VGLUT2-containing glutamatergic neurons in the ventral medial hypothalamus. This VGLUT1 promoter contains both the VGLUT1 upstream promoter and the VGLUT1 first intron. In this study, we begin to isolate and analyze the glutamatergic-specific regulatory elements in this VGLUT1 promoter. We show that the VGLUT1 upstream promoter and first intron each support glutamatergic-specific expression. We isolated a small, basal VGLUT1 promoter that does not support glutamatergic-specific expression. Next, we fused either the VGLUT1 upstream promoter or the first intron to this basal promoter. The VGLUT1 upstream promoter or the first intron, fused to the basal promoter, each supported glutamatergic-specific expression in POR cortex. PMID:21172319

  9. Glutamatergic Neurotransmission Links Sensitivity to Volatile Anesthetics with Mitochondrial Function.

    PubMed

    Zimin, Pavel I; Woods, Christian B; Quintana, Albert; Ramirez, Jan-Marino; Morgan, Philip G; Sedensky, Margaret M

    2016-08-22

    An enigma of modern medicine has persisted for over 150 years. The mechanisms by which volatile anesthetics (VAs) produce their effects (loss of consciousness, analgesia, amnesia, and immobility) remain an unsolved mystery. Many attractive putative molecular targets have failed to produce a significant effect when genetically tested in whole-animal models [1-3]. However, mitochondrial defects increase VA sensitivity in diverse organisms from nematodes to humans [4-6]. Ndufs4 knockout (KO) mice lack a subunit of mitochondrial complex I and are strikingly hypersensitive to VAs yet resistant to the intravenous anesthetic ketamine [7]. The change in VA sensitivity is the largest reported for a mammal. Limiting NDUFS4 loss to a subset of glutamatergic neurons recapitulates the VA hypersensitivity of Ndufs4(KO) mice, while loss in GABAergic or cholinergic neurons does not. Baseline electrophysiologic function of CA1 pyramidal neurons does not differ between Ndufs4(KO) and control mice. Isoflurane concentrations that anesthetize only Ndufs4(KO) mice (0.6%) decreased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents (sEPSCs) only in Ndufs4(KO) CA1 neurons, while concentrations effective in control mice (1.2%) decreased sEPSC frequencies in both control and Ndufs4(KO) CA1 pyramidal cells. Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were not differentially affected between genotypes. The effects of isoflurane were similar on evoked field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) and paired pulse facilitation (PPF) in KO and control hippocampal slices. We propose that CA1 presynaptic excitatory neurotransmission is hypersensitive to isoflurane in Ndufs4(KO) mice due to the inhibition of pre-existing reduced complex I function, reaching a critical reduction that can no longer meet metabolic demands. PMID:27498564

  10. ACUTE ETHANOL SUPPRESSES GLUTAMATERGIC NEUROTRANSMISSION THROUGH ENDOCANNABINOIDS IN HIPPOCAMPAL NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Basavarajappa, Balapal S.; Ninan, Ipe; Arancio, Ottavio

    2008-01-01

    Ethanol exposure during fetal development is a leading cause of long-term cognitive impairments. Studies suggest that ethanol exposure have deleterious effects on the hippocampus, a brain region that is important for learning and memory. Ethanol exerts its effects, in part, via alterations in glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is critical for the maturation of neuronal circuits during development. The current literature strongly supports the growing evidence that ethanol inhibits glutamate release in the neonatal CA1 hippocampal region. However, the exact molecular mechanism responsible for this effect is not well understood. In this study, we show that ethanol enhances endocannabinoid (EC) levels in cultured hippocampal neurons, possibly through calcium pathways. Acute ethanol depresses miniature postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequencies without affecting their amplitude. This suggests that ethanol inhibits glutamate release. The CB1 receptors (CB1Rs) present on presynaptic neurons are not altered by acute ethanol. The CB1R antagonist SR 141716A reverses ethanol-induced depression of mEPSC frequency. Drugs that are known to enhance the in vivo function of ECs occlude ethanol effects on mEPSC frequency. Chelation of postsynaptic calcium by EGTA antagonizes ethanol-induced depression of mEPSC frequency. The activation of CB1R with the selective agonist WIN55,212-2 also suppresses the mEPSC frequency. This WIN55,212-2 effect is similar to the ethanol effects and is reversed by SR141716A. In addition, tetani-induced excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) are depressed by acute ethanol. SR141716A significantly reverses ethanol effects on evoked EPSC amplitude in a dual recording preparation. These observations, taken together, suggest the participation of ECs as retrograde messengers in the ethanol-induced depression of synaptic activities. PMID:18796007

  11. Blockade of glutamatergic and GABAergic receptor channels by trimethyltin chloride

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Katharina; Diepgrond, Victoria; Ahnefeld, Maria; Wackerbeck, Christina; Madeja, Michael; Binding, Norbert; Musshoff, Ulrich

    2005-01-01

    Organotin compounds such as trimethyltin chloride (TMT) are among the most toxic of the organometallics. As their main target for toxicity is the central nervous system, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of TMT on receptor channels involved in various processes of synaptic transmission. The Xenopus oocyte expression system was chosen for direct assessment of TMT effects on voltage-operated potassium channels and glutamatergic and GABAergic receptors, and hippocampal slices from rat brain for analyzing TMT effects on identified synaptic sites. TMT was found to be ineffective, at 100 μmol l−1, against several potassium- and sodium-operated ion channel functions as well as the metabotropic glutamate receptor. The functions of the ionotropic glutamate and the GABAA receptor channels were inhibited by TMT in micromolar concentrations. Thus, at a maximum concentration of 100 μmol l−1, around 20–30% of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid and GABAA receptor-mediated ion currents and 35% of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated ion currents were blocked. In the hippocampal slice model, the inhibitory effects of TMT were much stronger than expected from the results on the ion channels. Bath application of TMT significantly reduced the amplitudes of evoked excitatory postsynaptic field potentials in a concentration-dependent and nonreversible manner.  Induction of long-term potentiation, recorded from the CA1 dendritic region, was inhibited by TMT and failed completely at a concentration of 10 μmol l−1. In general, TMT affects the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic processes in a receptor specific manner and is able to disturb the activity within a neuronal network. PMID:15655511

  12. Joint CP-AMPA and group I mGlu receptor activation is required for synaptic plasticity in dentate gyrus fast-spiking interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Hainmüller, Thomas; Krieglstein, Kerstin; Kulik, Akos; Bartos, Marlene

    2014-01-01

    Hippocampal principal cell (PC) assemblies provide the brain with a mnemonic representation of space. It is assumed that the formation of cell assemblies is supported by long-lasting modification of glutamatergic synapses onto perisomatic inhibitory interneurons (PIIs), which provide powerful feedback inhibition to neuronal networks. Repetitive activation of dentate gyrus PIIs by excitatory mossy fiber (MF) inputs induces Hebbian long-term potentiation (LTP). In contrast, long-term depression (LTD) emerges in the absence of PII activity. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity in PIIs. Here, we examined the role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors 1 and 5 (mGluRs1/5) in inducing plastic changes at MF-PII synapses. We found that mGluRs1/5 are located perisynaptically and that pharmacological block of mGluR1 or mGluR5 abolished MF-LTP. In contrast, their exogenous activation was insufficient to induce MF-LTP but cleared MF-LTD. No LTP could be elicited in PIIs loaded with blockers of G protein signaling and Ca2+-dependent PKC. Two-photon imaging revealed that the intracellular Ca2+ rise necessary for MF-LTP was largely mediated by Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs), but less by NMDA receptors or mGluRs1/5. Thus, our data indicate that fast Ca2+ signaling via CP-AMPARs and slow G protein-mediated signaling via mGluRs1/5 converge to a PKC-dependent molecular pathway to induce Hebbian MF-LTP. We further propose that Hebbian activation of mGluRs1/5 gates PIIs into a “readiness mode” to promote MF-LTP, which, in turn, will support timed PII recruitment, thereby assisting in PC assembly formation. PMID:25161282

  13. AMPA receptors undergo channel arrest in the anoxic turtle cortex.

    PubMed

    Pamenter, Matthew Edward; Shin, Damian Seung-Ho; Buck, Leslie Thomas

    2008-02-01

    Without oxygen, all mammals suffer neuronal injury and excitotoxic cell death mediated by overactivation of the glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). The western painted turtle can survive anoxia for months, and downregulation of NMDAR activity is thought to be neuroprotective during anoxia. NMDAR activity is related to the activity of another glutamate receptor, the alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR). AMPAR blockade is neuroprotective against anoxic insult in mammals, but the role of AMPARs in the turtle's anoxia tolerance has not been investigated. To determine whether AMPAR activity changes during hypoxia or anoxia in the turtle cortex, whole cell AMPAR currents, AMPAR-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs), and excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) were measured. The effect of AMPAR blockade on normoxic and anoxic NMDAR currents was also examined. During 60 min of normoxia, evoked peak AMPAR currents and the frequencies and amplitudes of EPSPs and EPSCs did not change. During anoxic perfusion, evoked AMPAR peak currents decreased 59.2 +/- 5.5 and 60.2 +/- 3.5% at 20 and 40 min, respectively. EPSP frequency (EPSP(f)) and amplitude decreased 28.7 +/- 6.4% and 13.2 +/- 1.7%, respectively, and EPSC(f) and amplitude decreased 50.7 +/- 5.1% and 51.3 +/- 4.7%, respectively. In contrast, hypoxic (Po(2) = 5%) AMPAR peak currents were potentiated 56.6 +/- 20.5 and 54.6 +/- 15.8% at 20 and 40 min, respectively. All changes were reversed by reoxygenation. AMPAR currents and EPSPs were abolished by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). In neurons pretreated with CNQX, anoxic NMDAR currents were reversibly depressed by 49.8 +/- 7.9%. These data suggest that AMPARs may undergo channel arrest in the anoxic turtle cortex. PMID:18056983

  14. Amygdalar glutamatergic neuronal systems play a key role on the hibernating state of hamsters

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Excitatory transmitting mechanisms are proving to play a critical role on neuronal homeostasis conditions of facultative hibernators such as the Syrian golden hamster. Indeed works have shown that the glutamatergic system of the main olfactory brain station (amygdala) is capable of controlling thermoregulatory responses, which are considered vital for the different hibernating states. In the present study the role of amygdalar glutamatergic circuits on non-hibernating (NHIB) and hibernating (HIB) hamsters were assessed on drinking stimuli and subsequently compared to expression variations of some glutamatergic subtype mRNA levels in limbic areas. For this study the two major glutamatergic antagonists and namely that of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), 3-(+)-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl-propyl-1-phosphonate (CPP) plus that of the acid α-amine-3-hydroxy-5-metil-4-isoxazol-propionic receptor (AMPAR) site, cyano-7-nitro-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX) were infused into the basolateral amygdala nucleus. Attempts were made to establish the type of effects evoked by amygdalar glutamatergic cross-talking processes during drinking stimuli, a response that may corroborate their major role at least during some stages of this physiological activity in hibernators. Results From the behavioral results it appears that the two glutamatergic compounds exerted distinct effects. In the first case local infusion of basolateral complexes (BLA) with NMDAR antagonist caused very great (p < 0.001) drinking rhythms while moderately increased feeding (p < 0.05) responses during arousal with respect to moderately increased drinking levels in euthermics. Conversely, treatment with CNQX did not modify drinking rhythms and so animals spent more time executing exploratory behaviors. These same antagonists accounted for altered glutamatergic transcription activities as displayed by greatly reduced GluR1, NR1 and GluR2 levels in hippocampus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMN) and

  15. Gephyrin expression and clustering affects the size of glutamatergic synaptic contacts

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wendou; De Blas, Angel L.

    2009-01-01

    We have recently shown that disrupting the expression and postsynaptic clustering of gephyrin in cultured hippocampal pyramidal cells, by either gephyrin RNAi (RNA interference) or overexpression of a dominant negative gephyrin-EGFP fusion protein, leads to decreased number of postsynaptic gephyrin and GABAA receptor clusters and to reduced GABAergic innervation of these cells. On the other hand, increasing gephyrin expression led to a small increase in the number of gephyrin and GABAA receptor clusters and to little or no effect on GABAergic innervation. We are now reporting that altering gephyrin expression and clustering affects the size but not the density of glutamatergic synaptic contacts. Knocking down gephyrin with gephyrin RNAi, or preventing gephyrin clustering by overexpression of the dominant negative gephyrin-EGFP fusion protein, leads to larger postsynaptic PSD-95 clusters and larger presynaptic glutamatergic terminals. On the other hand, overexpression of gephyrin leads to slightly smaller PSD-95 clusters and presynaptic glutamatergic terminals. The change in size of PSD-95 clusters were accompanied by a parallel change in the size of NR2-NMDA receptor clusters. It is concluded that the levels of expression and clustering of gephyrin, a protein that concentrates at the postsynaptic complex of the inhibitory synapses, not only has homotypic effects on GABAergic synaptic contacts, but also has heterotypic effects on glutamatergic synaptic contacts. We are proposing that gephyrin is a counterpart of the postsynaptic glutamatergic scaffold protein PSD-95 in regulating the number and/or size of the excitatory and inhibitory synaptic contacts. PMID:18199120

  16. Morphological changes of glutamatergic synapses in animal models of Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Villalba, Rosa M.; Mathai, Abraham; Smith, Yoland

    2015-01-01

    The striatum and the subthalamic nucleus (STN) are the main entry doors for extrinsic inputs to reach the basal ganglia (BG) circuitry. The cerebral cortex, thalamus and brainstem are the key sources of glutamatergic inputs to these nuclei. There is anatomical, functional and neurochemical evidence that glutamatergic neurotransmission is altered in the striatum and STN of animal models of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and that these changes may contribute to aberrant network neuronal activity in the BG-thalamocortical circuitry. Postmortem studies of animal models and PD patients have revealed significant pathology of glutamatergic synapses, dendritic spines and microcircuits in the striatum of parkinsonians. More recent findings have also demonstrated a significant breakdown of the glutamatergic corticosubthalamic system in parkinsonian monkeys. In this review, we will discuss evidence for synaptic glutamatergic dysfunction and pathology of cortical and thalamic inputs to the striatum and STN in models of PD. The potential functional implication of these alterations on synaptic integration, processing and transmission of extrinsic information through the BG circuits will be considered. Finally, the significance of these pathological changes in the pathophysiology of motor and non-motor symptoms in PD will be examined. PMID:26441550

  17. Interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cognitive and motor impairment in minimal hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Llansola, Marta; Montoliu, Carmina; Agusti, Ana; Hernandez-Rabaza, Vicente; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Gomez-Gimenez, Belen; Malaguarnera, Michele; Dadsetan, Sherry; Belghiti, Majedeline; Garcia-Garcia, Raquel; Balzano, Tiziano; Taoro, Lucas; Felipo, Vicente

    2015-09-01

    The cognitive and motor alterations in hepatic encephalopathy (HE) are the final result of altered neurotransmission and communication between neurons in neuronal networks and circuits. Different neurotransmitter systems cooperate to modulate cognitive and motor function, with a main role for glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in different brain areas and neuronal circuits. There is an interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cognitive and motor impairment in HE. This interplay may occur: (a) in different brain areas involved in specific neuronal circuits; (b) in the same brain area through cross-modulation of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission. We will summarize some examples of the (1) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in different areas in the basal ganglia-thalamus-cortex circuit in the motor alterations in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE); (2) interplay between glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission alterations in cerebellum in the impairment of cognitive function in MHE through altered function of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway. We will also comment the therapeutic implications of the above studies and the utility of modulators of glutamate and GABA receptors to restore cognitive and motor function in rats with hyperammonemia and hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:25447766

  18. URBAN CONTRIBUTIONS OF GLYSPHOSATE AND ITS DEGRADATE AMPA TO STREAMS IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Glyphosate is the most widely used herbicide in the world, being routinely applied to control weeds in both agricultural and urban settings. Microbial degradation of glyphosate produces aminomethyl phosphonic acid (AMPA). The high polarity and water-solubility of glyphosate and A...

  19. Glyphosate and AMPA adsorption in soils: laboratory experiments and pedotransfer rules.

    PubMed

    Sidoli, Pauline; Baran, Nicole; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael

    2016-03-01

    Adsorption of the herbicide glyphosate and its main metabolite AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid) was investigated on 17 different agricultural soils. Batch equilibration adsorption data are shown by Freundlich adsorption isotherms. Glyphosate adsorption is clearly affected by equilibration concentrations, but the nonlinear AMPA adsorption isotherms indicate saturation of the adsorption sites with increasing equilibrium concentrations. pHCaCl2 (i.e. experimental pH) is the major parameter governing glyphosate and AMPA adsorption in soils. However, considering pHCaCl2 values, available phosphate amount, and amorphous iron and aluminium oxide contents by using a nonlinear multiple regression equation, obtains the most accurate and powerful pedotransfer rule for predicting the adsorption constants for these two molecules. As amorphous iron and aluminium oxide contents in soil are not systematically determined, we also propose a pedotransfer rule with two variables-pHCaCl2 values and available phosphate amount-that remains acceptable for both molecules. Moreover, the use of the commonly measured pHwater or pHKCl values gives less accurate results compared to pHCaCl2 measurements. To our knowledge, this study is the first AMPA adsorption characterization for a significant number of temperate climate soils. PMID:26581693

  20. mTOR Is Essential for Corticosteroid Effects on Hippocampal AMPA Receptor Function and Fear Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xiong, Hui; Casse, Frédéric; Zhou, Yang; Zhou, Ming; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Joëls, Marian; Martin, Stéphane; Krugers, Harm J.

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoid hormones, via activation of their receptors, promote memory consolidation, but the exact underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We examined how corticosterone regulates AMPA receptors (AMPARs), which are crucial for synaptic plasticity and memory formation. Combining a live imaging fluorescent recovery after photobleaching approach…

  1. Enhanced AMPA Receptor Function Promotes Cerebellar Long-Term Depression Rather than Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.; Hansel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar…

  2. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript…

  3. Glyphosate-resistant and conventional canola (Brassica napus L.)responses to glyphosate and AMPA treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola expresses two transgenes: 1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshiki...

  4. Involvement of AMPA receptors in the antidepressant-like effects of dextromethorphan in mice.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linda; Matsumoto, Rae R

    2015-12-15

    Dextromethorphan (DM) is an antitussive with rapid acting antidepressant potential based on pharmacodynamic similarities to ketamine. Building upon our previous finding that DM produces antidepressant-like effects in the mouse forced swim test (FST), the present study aimed to establish the antidepressant-like actions of DM in the tail suspension test (TST), another well-established model predictive of antidepressant efficacy. Additionally, using the TST and FST, we investigated the role of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in the antidepressant-like properties of DM because accumulating evidence suggests that AMPA receptors play an important role in the pathophysiology of depression and may contribute to the efficacy of antidepressant medications, including that of ketamine. We found that DM displays antidepressant-like effects in the TST similar to the conventional and fast acting antidepressants characterized by imipramine and ketamine, respectively. Moreover, decreasing the first-pass metabolism of DM by concomitant administration of quinidine (CYP2D6 inhibitor) potentiated antidepressant-like actions, implying DM itself has antidepressant efficacy. Finally, in both the TST and FST, pretreatment with the AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzo[f]quinoxaline-7-sulfonamide) significantly attenuated the antidepressant-like behavior elicited by DM. Together, the data show that DM exerts antidepressant-like actions through AMPA receptors, further suggesting DM may act as a safe and effective fast acting antidepressant drug. PMID:25804358

  5. Enhanced AMPA receptor activity increases operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement.

    PubMed

    Cannady, Reginald; Fisher, Kristen R; Durant, Brandon; Besheer, Joyce; Hodge, Clyde W

    2013-01-01

    Long-term alcohol exposure produces neuroadaptations that contribute to the progression of alcohol abuse disorders. Chronic alcohol consumption results in strengthened excitatory neurotransmission and increased α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate receptors (AMPA) receptor signaling in animal models. However, the mechanistic role of enhanced AMPA receptor activity in alcohol-reinforcement and alcohol-seeking behavior remains unclear. This study examined the role of enhanced AMPA receptor function using the selective positive allosteric modulator, aniracetam, in modulating operant alcohol self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Male alcohol-preferring (P-) rats, trained to self-administer alcohol (15%, v/v) versus water were pre-treated with aniracetam to assess effects on maintenance of alcohol self-administration. To determine reinforcer specificity, P-rats were trained to self-administer sucrose (0.8%, w/v) versus water, and effects of aniracetam were tested. The role of aniracetam in modulating relapse of alcohol-seeking was assessed using a response contingent cue-induced reinstatement procedure in P-rats trained to self-administer 15% alcohol. Aniracetam pre-treatment significantly increased alcohol-reinforced responses relative to vehicle treatment. This increase was not attributed to aniracetam-induced hyperactivity as aniracetam pre-treatment did not alter locomotor activity. AMPA receptor involvement was confirmed because 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (AMPA receptor antagonist) blocked the aniracetam-induced increase in alcohol self-administration. Aniracetam did not alter sucrose-reinforced responses in sucrose-trained P-rats, suggesting that enhanced AMPA receptor activity is selective in modulating the reinforcing function of alcohol. Finally, aniracetam pre-treatment potentiated cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior versus vehicle-treated P-rats. These data suggest that enhanced glutamate activity at AMPA

  6. Occurrence of glyphosate and AMPA in an agricultural watershed from the southeastern region of Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lupi, Leonardo; Miglioranza, Karina S B; Aparicio, Virginia C; Marino, Damian; Bedmar, Francisco; Wunderlin, Daniel A

    2015-12-01

    Glyphosate (GLY) and AMPA concentrations were determined in sandy soil profiles, during pre- and post-application events in two agricultural soybean fields (S1 and S2). Streamwater and sediment samples were also analyzed. Post-application sampling was carried out one month later from the event. Concentrations of GLY+AMPA in surface soils (0-5 cm depth) during pre-application period showed values 20-fold higher (0.093-0.163 μg/g d.w.) than control area (0.005 μg/g d.w.). After application event soils showed markedly higher pesticide concentrations. A predominance of AMPA (80%) was observed in S1 (early application), while 34% in S2 for surface soils. GLY+AMPA concentrations decreased with depth and correlated strongly with organic carbon (r between 0.74 and 0.88, p<0.05) and pH (r between -0.81 and -0.76, p<0.001). The slight enrichment of pesticides observed from 25 cm depth to deeper layer, in addition to the alkaline pH along the profile, is of high concern about groundwater contamination. Sediments from pre-application period showed relatively lower pesticide levels (0.0053-0.0263 μg/g d.w.) than surface soil with a predominance of glyphosate, indicating a limited degradation. Levels of contaminants (mainly AMPA) in streamwater (ND-0.5 ng/mL) denote the low persistence of these compounds. However, a direct relationship in AMPA concentration was observed between sediment and streamwater. Despite the known relatively short half-life of glyphosate in soils, GLY+AMPA occurrence is registered in almost all matrices at different sampling times (pre- and post-application events). The physicochemical characteristics (organic carbon, texture, pH) and structure of soils and sediment in addition to the time elapsed from application determined the behavior of these contaminants in the environment. As a whole, the results warn us about vertical transport trough soil profile with the possibility of reaching groundwater. PMID:26254069

  7. Glutamatergic Neurometabolites in Clozapine-Responsive and -Resistant Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Meghan Elizabeth; Anderson, Valerie Margaret; Pillai, Avinesh; Kydd, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    scaled to creatine in the putamen may represent a marker of response to clozapine. Future studies should investigate glutamatergic anomalies prior to clozapine initiation and following successful treatment. PMID:25603859

  8. Long-term potentiation alters the modulator pharmacology of AMPA-type glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bin; Brücher, Fernando A; Colgin, Laura Lee; Lynch, Gary

    2002-06-01

    Changes in the biophysical properties of AMPA-type glutamate receptors have been proposed to mediate the expression of long-term potentiation (LTP). The present study tested if, as predicted from this hypothesis, AMPA receptor modulators differentially affect potentiated versus control synaptic currents. Whole cell recordings were collected from CA1 pyramidal neurons in hippocampal slices from adult rats. Within-neuron comparisons were made of the excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) elicited by two separate groups of Schaffer-collateral/commissural synapses. LTP was induced by theta burst stimulation in one set of inputs; cyclothiazide (CTZ), a drug that acts on the desensitization kinetics of AMPA receptors, was infused 30 min later. The decay time constants of the potentiated EPSCs prior to drug infusion were slightly, but significantly, shorter than those of control EPSCs. CTZ slowed the decay of the EPSCs, as reported in prior studies, and did so to a significantly greater degree in the potentiated synapses. Additionally, infusion of CTZ resulted in significantly greater effects on amplitude in potentiated pathways as compared with control pathways. The interaction between LTP and CTZ was also obtained in a separate set of experiments in which GABA receptor antagonists were used to block inhibitory postsynaptic currents. Additionally, there was no significant change in paired-pulse facilitation in the presence of CTZ, indicating that presynaptic effects of the drug were negligible. These findings provide new evidence that LTP modifies AMPA receptor kinetics. Candidates for the changes responsible for the observed effects of LTP were evaluated using a model of AMPA receptor kinetics; a simple increase in the channel opening rate provided the most satisfactory match with the LTP data. PMID:12037181

  9. Signalling mechanism for somatostatin receptor 5-mediated suppression of AMPA responses in rat retinal ganglion cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qin-Qin; Sheng, Wen-Long; Zhang, Gong; Weng, Shi-Jun; Yang, Xiong-Li; Zhong, Yong-Mei

    2016-08-01

    Somatostatin (SRIF) is involved in a variety of physiological functions via the activation of five subtypes of specific receptors (sst1-5). Here, we investigated the effects of SRIF on AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated currents (AMPA currents) in isolated rat retinal ganglion cells (GCs) using patch-clamp techniques. Immunofluorescence double labelling demonstrated the expression of sst5 in rat GCs. Consistent to this, whole cell AMPA currents of GCs were dose-dependently suppressed by SRIF, and the effect was reversed by the sst5 antagonist BIM-23056. Intracellular dialysis of GDP-β-S or pre-incubation with the Gi/o inhibitor pertussis toxin (PTX) abolished the SRIF effect. The SRIF effect was mimicked by the administration of either 8-Br-cAMP or forskolin, but was eliminated by the protein kinase A (PKA) antagonists H-89/KT5720/Rp-cAMP. Moreover, SRIF increased intracellular Ca(2+) levels and did not suppress the AMPA currents when GCs were infused with an intracellular Ca(2+)-free solution or in the presence of ryanodine receptor modulators caffeine/ryanodine. Furthermore, the SRIF effect was eliminated when the activity of calmodulin (CaM), calcineurin and protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) was blocked with W-7, FK-506 and okadaic acid, respectively. SRIF persisted to suppress the AMPA currents when cGMP-protein kinase G (PKG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI)-/phosphatidylcholine (PC)-phospholipase C (PLC) signalling pathways were blocked. In rat flat-mount retinas, SRIF suppressed AMPAR-mediated light-evoked excitatory postsynaptic currents (L-EPSCs) in GCs. We conclude that a distinct Gi/o/cAMP-PKA/ryanodine/Ca(2+)/CaM/calcineurin/PP1 signalling pathway comes into play due to the activation of sst5 to mediate the SRIF effect on GCs. PMID:26969240

  10. S-palmitoylation regulates AMPA receptors trafficking and function: a novel insight into synaptic regulation and therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun; Wu, Pengfei; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jianguo

    2014-01-01

    Glutamate acting on AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptor (AMPAR) mediates the majority of fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the mammalian central nervous system. Dynamic regulation of AMPAR by post-translational modifications is one of the key elements that allow the nervous system to adapt to environment stimulations. S-palmitoylation, an important lipid modification by post-translational addition of a long-chain fatty acid to a cysteine residue, regulates AMPA receptor trafficking, which dynamically affects multiple fundamental brain functions, such as learning and memory. In vivo, S-palmitoylation is controlled by palmitoyl acyl transferases and palmitoyl thioesterases. In this review, we highlight advances in the mechanisms for dynamic AMPA receptors palmitoylation, and discuss how palmitoylation affects AMPA receptors function at synapses in recent years. Pharmacological regulation of S-palmitoylation may serve as a novel therapeutic strategy for neurobiological diseases. PMID:26579419

  11. The essential role of AMPA receptor GluR2 subunit RNA editing in the normal and diseased brain.

    PubMed

    Wright, Amanda; Vissel, Bryce

    2012-01-01

    α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors are comprised of different combinations of GluA1-GluA4 (also known asGluR1-GluR4 and GluR-A to GluR-D) subunits. The GluA2 subunit is subject to RNA editing by the ADAR2 enzyme, which converts a codon for glutamine (Gln; Q), present in the GluA2 gene, to a codon for arginine (Arg; R) found in the mRNA. AMPA receptors are calcium (Ca(2+))-permeable if they contain the unedited GluA2(Q) subunit or if they lack the GluA2 subunit. While most AMPA receptors in the brain contain the edited GluA2(R) subunit and are therefore Ca(2+)-impermeable, recent evidence suggests that Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors are important in synaptic plasticity, learning, and disease. Strong evidence supports the notion that Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors are usually GluA2-lacking AMPA receptors, with little evidence to date for a significant role of unedited GluA2 in normal brain function. However, recent detailed studies suggest that Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors containing unedited GluA2 do in fact occur in neurons and can contribute to excitotoxic cell loss, even where it was previously thought that there was no unedited GluA2.This review provides an update on the role of GluA2 RNA editing in the healthy and diseased brain and summarizes recent insights into the mechanisms that control this process. We suggest that further studies of the role of unedited GluA2 in normal brain function and disease are warranted, and that GluA2 editing should be considered as a possible contributing factor when Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors are observed. PMID:22514516

  12. Brainstem Origins of Glutamatergic Innervation of the Rat Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Ziegler, Dana R.; Edwards, Monica R.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Herman, James P.; Cullinan, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence document a role for glutamatergic input to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) in stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis. However, the neuro-anatomical origins of the glutamatergic input have yet to be definitively determined. We have previously shown that vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) is the predominant VGLUT isoform expressed in the basal forebrain and brainstem, including PVH-projecting regions, and that the PVH is preferentially innervated by VGLUT2-immunoreactive terminals/boutons. The present study employed a dual-labeling approach, combining immunolabeling for a retrograde tract tracer, Fluoro-Gold (FG), with in situ hybridization for VGLUT2 mRNA, to map the brainstem and caudal forebrain distribution of glutamatergic PVH-projecting neurons. The present report presents evidence for substantial dual labeling in the periaqueductal gray, caudal portions of the zona incerta and subparafascicular nucleus, and the lateral parabrachial nucleus. The current data also suggest that relatively few PVH-projecting neurons in ascending raphe nuclei, nucleus of the solitary tract, or ventrolateral medulla are VGLUT2 positive. The data reveal multiple brainstem origins of glutamatergic input to PVH that are positioned to play a role in transducing a diverse range of stressful stimuli. PMID:22247025

  13. Reduced Anterior Cingulate Glutamatergic Concentrations in Childhood Ocd and Major Depression Versus Healthy Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, David R.; Mirza, Yousha; Russell, Aileen; Tang, Jennifer; Smith, Janet M.; Banerjee, Preeya S.; Bhandari, Rashmi; Rose, Michelle; Ivey, Jennifer; Boyd, Courtney; Moore, Gregory J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine in vivo glutamatergic neurochemical alterations in the anterior cingulate cortex of pediatric patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) without major depressive disorder (MDD) versus pediatric patients with MDD without OCD and healthy controls. Method: Single-voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic examinations…

  14. Glutamatergic Effects of Divalproex in Adolescents with Mania: A Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Patel, Nick C.; Chu, Wen-Jang; Lee, Jing-Huei; Adler, Caleb M.; Kim, Mi Jung; Bryan, Holly S.; Alfieri, David C.; Welge, Jeffrey A.; Blom, Thomas J.; Nandagopal, Jayasree J.; Strakowski, Stephen M.; DelBello, Melissa P.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ([superscript 1]H MRS) to evaluate the in vivo effects of extended-release divalproex sodium on the glutamatergic system in adolescents with bipolar disorder, and to identify baseline neurochemical predictors of clinical remission. Method: Adolescents with bipolar disorder who were…

  15. Abnormally increased surface expression of AMPA receptors in the cerebellum, cortex and striatum of Cln3(-/-) mice.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Attila D; Hof, Caitlin; Pearce, David A

    2015-10-21

    Mutations in the CLN3 gene cause a fatal neurodegenerative disorder, juvenile CLN3 disease. Exploring the cause of the motor coordination deficit in the Cln3(-/-) mouse model of the disease we have previously found that attenuation of AMPA receptor activity in 1-month-old Cln3(-/-) mice significantly improves their motor coordination [20]. To elucidate the mechanism of the abnormally increased AMPA receptor function in Cln3(-/-) mice, we examined the surface expression of AMPA receptors using surface cross-linking in brain slices from 1-month-old wild type (WT) and Cln3(-/-) mice. In surface cross-linked brain samples, Western blotting for AMPA receptor subunits revealed significantly increased surface levels of GluA1 and GluA2 in the cerebellum, and of GluA2 in the cortex and striatum of Cln3(-/-) mice as compared to WT mice. Expression levels of the GluA4 subunit were similar in the cerebellum of WT and Cln3(-/-) mice. While intracellular GluA1 levels in the WT and Cln3(-/-) cerebellum or cortex were similar, the intracellular expression of GluA1 in the Cln3(-/-) striatum was decreased to 56% of the WT level. Our results show a prominent increase in AMPA receptor surface expression in the brain of Cln3(-/-) mice and suggest that CLN3 is involved in the regulation of AMPA receptor surface expression. PMID:26375929

  16. Myelin Proteolipid Protein Complexes with αv Integrin and AMPA Receptors In Vivo and Regulates AMPA-Dependent Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Migration through the Modulation of Cell-Surface GluR2 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Harlow, Danielle E.; Saul, Katherine E.; Komuro, Hitoshi

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies, stimulation of ionotropic AMPA/kainate glutamate receptors on cultured oligodendrocyte cells induced the formation of a signaling complex that includes the AMPA receptor, integrins, calcium-binding proteins, and, surprisingly, the myelin proteolipid protein (PLP). AMPA stimulation of cultured oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) also caused an increase in OPC migration. The current studies focused primarily on the formation of the PLP–αv integrin–AMPA receptor complex in vivo and whether complex formation impacts OPC migration in the brain. We found that in wild-type cerebellum, PLP associates with αv integrin and the calcium-impermeable GluR2 subunit of the AMPA receptor, but in mice lacking PLP, αv integrin did not associate with GluR2. Live imaging studies of OPC migration in ex vivo cerebellar slices demonstrated altered OPC migratory responses to neurotransmitter stimulation in the absence of PLP and GluR2 or when αv integrin levels were reduced. Chemotaxis assays of purified OPCs revealed that AMPA stimulation was neither attractive nor repulsive but clearly increased the migration rate of wild-type but not PLP null OPCs. AMPA receptor stimulation of wild-type OPCs caused decreased cell-surface expression of the GluR2 AMPA receptor subunit and increased intracellular Ca2+ signaling, whereas PLP null OPCs did not reduce GluR2 at the cell surface or increase Ca2+ signaling in response to AMPA treatment. Together, these studies demonstrate that PLP is critical for OPC responses to glutamate signaling and has important implications for OPC responses when levels of glutamate are high in the extracellular space, such as following demyelination. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT After demyelination, such as occurs in multiple sclerosis, remyelination of axons is often incomplete, leading to loss of neuronal function and clinical disability. Remyelination may fail because oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) do not completely migrate into

  17. Jun-B expression in Purkinje cells by conjunctive stimulation of climbing fibre and AMPA.

    PubMed

    Yamamori, T; Mikawa, S; Kado, R

    1995-03-27

    Co-application of alpha-amino-3-hydro-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionate (AMPA) and 8-bromo cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) which cause long-term desensitization also induces c-Fos and Jun-B expression in Purkinje cells of cerebellar slices [Nakazawa K, Karachot L, Nakabeppu Y et al. NeuroReport 4, 1275-1278 (1993)]. Here, we report an increased local induction of Jun-B immunoreactivity in Purkinje cells in vivo when electrical stimulation of the inferior olive nucleus (IOn) was conjunctively applied with AMPA on the vermis. The present data further supports the idea that conjunctive heterosynaptic inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells can trigger active gene transcription thus possibly contributing to cerebellar long-term plasticity. They also demonstrate that Jun-B may be a useful transcriptional marker to study cerebellar coincidence phenomena. PMID:7541656

  18. Mechanisms of disease: motoneuron disease aggravated by transgenic expression of a functionally modified AMPA receptor subunit.

    PubMed

    Kuner, Rohini; Groom, Anthony J; Müller, Gerald; Kornau, Hans-Christian; Stefovska, Vanya; Bresink, Iris; Hartmann, Bettina; Tschauner, Karsten; Waibel, Stefan; Ludolph, Albert C; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Seeburg, Peter H; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2005-08-01

    To reveal whether increased Ca2+ permeability of glutamate AMPA channels triggered by the transgene for GluR-B(N) induces decline in motor functions and neurodegeneration in the spinal cord, we evaluated growth, motor coordination, and spinal reflexes in transgenic GluR-B(N) and wild-type (wt) mice. To reveal whether the transgenic GluR-B(N) expression aggravates the course of motoneuron disease in SOD1 mice, we mated heterozygous GluR-B(N) and SOD1 [C57BL6Ico-TgN(hSOD1-G93A)1Gur] mice to generate double-transgenic progeny. The phenotypic sequelae in mice carrying mutations were evaluated by monitoring growth, motor coordination, and survival. Neuronal degeneration was assessed by morphological and stereological analysis of spinal cord and brain. We found that transgenic expression in mice of GluR-B(N)-containing glutamate AMPA receptors with increased Ca2+ permeability leads to a late-onset degeneration of neurons in the spinal cord and decline of motor functions. Neuronal death progressed over the entire life span, but manifested clinically in late adulthood, resembling the course of a slow neurodegenerative disorder. Additional transgenic expression of mutated human SOD1 accelerated disease progression, aggravated severity of motor decline, and decreased survival. These observations reveal that moderate, but persistently elevated Ca2+ influx via glutamate AMPA channels causes degeneration of spinal motoneurons and motor decline over the span of life. These features resemble the course of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans and suggest that modified function of glutamate AMPA channels may be causally linked to pathogenesis of ALS. PMID:16179532

  19. Discovery and Characterization of AMPA Receptor Modulators Selective for TARP-γ8.

    PubMed

    Maher, Michael P; Wu, Nyantsz; Ravula, Suchitra; Ameriks, Michael K; Savall, Brad M; Liu, Changlu; Lord, Brian; Wyatt, Ryan M; Matta, Jose A; Dugovic, Christine; Yun, Sujin; Ver Donck, Luc; Steckler, Thomas; Wickenden, Alan D; Carruthers, Nicholas I; Lovenberg, Timothy W

    2016-05-01

    Members of the α-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate the majority of fast synaptic transmission within the mammalian brain and spinal cord, representing attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we describe novel AMPA receptor modulators that require the presence of the accessory protein CACNG8, also known as transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory protein γ8 (TARP-γ8). Using calcium flux, radioligand binding, and electrophysiological assays of wild-type and mutant forms of TARP-γ8, we demonstrate that these compounds possess a novel mechanism of action consistent with a partial disruption of the interaction between the TARP and the pore-forming subunit of the channel. One of the molecules, 5-[2-chloro-6-(trifluoromethoxy)phenyl]-1,3-dihydrobenzimidazol-2-one (JNJ-55511118), had excellent pharmacokinetic properties and achieved high receptor occupancy following oral administration. This molecule showed strong, dose-dependent inhibition of neurotransmission within the hippocampus, and a strong anticonvulsant effect. At high levels of receptor occupancy in rodent in vivo models, JNJ-55511118 showed a strong reduction in certain bands on electroencephalogram, transient hyperlocomotion, no motor impairment on rotarod, and a mild impairment in learning and memory. JNJ-55511118 is a novel tool for reversible AMPA receptor inhibition, particularly within the hippocampus, with potential therapeutic utility as an anticonvulsant or neuroprotectant. The existence of a molecule with this mechanism of action demonstrates the possibility of pharmacological targeting of accessory proteins, increasing the potential number of druggable targets. PMID:26989142

  20. Cochlear nucleus neurons redistribute synaptic AMPA and glycine receptors in response to monaural conductive hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Whiting, Brittany; Moiseff, Andrew; Rubio, María E.

    2009-01-01

    Neurons restore their function in response to external or internal perturbations and maintain neuronal or network stability through a homeostatic scaling mechanism. Homeostatic responses at synapses along the auditory system would be important for adaptation to normal and abnormal fluctuations in the sensory environment. We investigated at the electron microscopic level and after postembedding immunogold labeling whether projection neurons in the cochlear nucleus responded to modifications of auditory nerve activity. After unilaterally reducing the level of auditory inputs by ~ 20 dB by monaural earplugging, auditory nerve synapses on bushy cells somata and basal dendrites of fusiform cells of the ventral and dorsal cochlear nucleus, respectively, upregulated GluR3 AMPA receptor subunit, while inhibitory synapses decreased the expression of GlyRα1 subunit. These changes in expression levels were fully reversible once the earplug was removed, indicating that activity affects the trafficking of receptors at synapses. Excitatory synapses on apical dendrites of fusiform cells (parallel fibers) with different synaptic AMPA receptor subunit composition, were not affected by sound attenuation, as the expression levels of AMPA receptor subunits were the same as in normal hearing littermates. GlyRα1 subunit expression at inhibitory synapses on apical dendrites of fusiform cells was also found unaffected. Furthermore, fusiform and bushy cells of the contralateral side to the earplugging upregulated the GluR3 subunit at auditory nerve synapses. These results show that cochlear nucleus neurons innervated by the auditory nerve, are able to respond to small changes in sound levels by redistributing specific AMPA and glycine receptor subunits. PMID:19646510

  1. Glyphosate and AMPA contents in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Aimar, Silvia; De Gerónimo, Eduardo; Buschiazzo, Daniel; Mendez, Mariano; Costa, José Luis

    2014-05-01

    Wind erosion of soils is an important event in arid and semiarid regions of Argentina. The magnitude of wind erosion occurring under different management practices is relatively well known in this region but less information is available on the quality of the eroded material. Considering that the intensification of agriculture may increase the concentrations of substances in the eroded material, producing potential negative effects on the environment, we analyzed the amount of glyphosate and AMPA in sediments produced by wind erosion of agricultural soils of Argentina. Wind eroded materials were collected by means of BSNE samplers in two loess sites of the semiarid region of Argentina: Chaco and La Pampa. Samples were collected from 1 ha square fields at 13.5, 50 and 150 cm height. Results showed that at higher heights the concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA were mostly higher. The glyphosate concentration was more variable and higher in Chaco (0.66 to 313 µg kg-1) than in La Pampa (4.17 to 114 µg kg-1). These results may be due to the higher use of herbicides in Chaco, where the predominant crops are soybeans and corn, produced under no-tillage. Under these conditions the use of glyphosate for weeds control is a common practice. Conversely, AMPA concentrations were higher in La Pampa (13.1 to 101.3 µg kg-1) than in Chaco (1.3 to 83 µg kg-1). These preliminary results show high concentrations of glyphosate and AMPA in wind eroded materials of agricultural soils of Argentina. More research is needed to confirm these high concentrations in other conditions in order to detect the temporal and spatial distribution patterns of the herbicide.

  2. Late-onset motoneuron disease caused by a functionally modified AMPA receptor subunit.

    PubMed

    Kuner, Rohini; Groom, Anthony J; Bresink, Iris; Kornau, Hans-Christian; Stefovska, Vanya; Müller, Gerald; Hartmann, Bettina; Tschauner, Karsten; Waibel, Stefan; Ludolph, Albert C; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Seeburg, Peter H; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2005-04-19

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disorder of the central nervous system in middle and old age that leads to progressive loss of spinal motoneurons. Transgenic mice overexpressing mutated human Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) reproduce clinical features of the familial form of ALS. However, changes in SOD1 activity do not correlate with severity of motor decline in sporadic cases, indicating that targets unrelated to superoxide metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. We show here that transgenic expression in mice of GluR-B(N)-containing L-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptors with increased Ca(2+) permeability leads to late-onset degeneration of neurons in the spinal cord and decline of motor functions. Neuronal death progresses over the entire lifespan but manifests clinically in late adulthood, resembling the course of a slow neurodegenerative disorder. Additional transgenic expression of mutated human SOD1 accelerates disease progression, aggravates the severity of motor decline, and decreases survival. These observations link persistently elevated Ca(2+) influx through AMPA channels with progressive motor decline and late-onset degeneration of spinal motoneurons, indicating that functionally altered AMPA channels may be causally related to pathogenesis of sporadic ALS in humans. PMID:15827116

  3. Late-onset motoneuron disease caused by a functionally modified AMPA receptor subunit

    PubMed Central

    Kuner, Rohini; Groom, Anthony J.; Bresink, Iris; Kornau, Hans-Christian; Stefovska, Vanya; Müller, Gerald; Hartmann, Bettina; Tschauner, Karsten; Waibel, Stefan; Ludolph, Albert C.; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Seeburg, Peter H.; Turski, Lechoslaw

    2005-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disorder of the central nervous system in middle and old age that leads to progressive loss of spinal motoneurons. Transgenic mice overexpressing mutated human Cu2+/Zn2+ superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) reproduce clinical features of the familial form of ALS. However, changes in SOD1 activity do not correlate with severity of motor decline in sporadic cases, indicating that targets unrelated to superoxide metabolism contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. We show here that transgenic expression in mice of GluR-B(N)-containing l-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-proprionate (AMPA) receptors with increased Ca2+ permeability leads to late-onset degeneration of neurons in the spinal cord and decline of motor functions. Neuronal death progresses over the entire lifespan but manifests clinically in late adulthood, resembling the course of a slow neurodegenerative disorder. Additional transgenic expression of mutated human SOD1 accelerates disease progression, aggravates the severity of motor decline, and decreases survival. These observations link persistently elevated Ca2+ influx through AMPA channels with progressive motor decline and late-onset degeneration of spinal motoneurons, indicating that functionally altered AMPA channels may be causally related to pathogenesis of sporadic ALS in humans. PMID:15827116

  4. X-ray structures of AMPA receptor-cone snail toxin complexes illuminate activation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Dürr, Katharina L; Gouaux, Eric

    2014-08-29

    AMPA-sensitive glutamate receptors are crucial to the structural and dynamic properties of the brain, to the development and function of the central nervous system, and to the treatment of neurological conditions from depression to cognitive impairment. However, the molecular principles underlying AMPA receptor activation have remained elusive. We determined multiple x-ray crystal structures of the GluA2 AMPA receptor in complex with a Conus striatus cone snail toxin, a positive allosteric modulator, and orthosteric agonists, at 3.8 to 4.1 angstrom resolution. We show how the toxin acts like a straightjacket on the ligand-binding domain (LBD) "gating ring," restraining the domains via both intra- and interdimer cross-links such that agonist-induced closure of the LBD "clamshells" is transduced into an irislike expansion of the gating ring. By structural analysis of activation-enhancing mutants, we show how the expansion of the LBD gating ring results in pulling forces on the M3 helices that, in turn, are coupled to ion channel gating. PMID:25103405

  5. in Silico investigation of the structural requirements for the AMPA receptor antagonism by quinoxaline derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Azam, Faizul; Abugrain, Ismaiel Mohamed; Sanalla, Mohamed Hussin; Elnaas, Radwan Fatahalla; Rajab, Ibrahim Abdassalam Ibn

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate receptors have been implicated in various neurological disorders and their antagonism offers a suitable approach for the treatment of such disorders. The field of drug design and discovery aims to find best medicines to prevent, treat and cure diseases quickly and efficiently. In this regard, computational tools have helped medicinal chemists modify and optimize molecules to potent drug candidates with better pharmacokinetic profiles, and guiding biologists and pharmacologists to explore new disease genes as well as novel drug targets. In the present study, to understand the structural requirements for AMPA receptor antagonism, molecular docking study was performed on 41 structurally diverse antagonists based on quinoxaline nucleus. Lamarckian genetic algorithm methodology was employed for docking simulations using AutoDock 4.2 program. The results obtained signify that the molecular docking approach is reliable and produces a good correlation coefficient (r2 = 0.6) between experimental and docking predicted AMPA receptor antagonistic activity. The aromatic moiety of quinoxaline core has been proved to be vital for hydrophobic contacts exhibiting - interactions in docked conformations. However, polar moieties such as carboxylic group and 1,2,4-triazole moieties were noted to be sites for hydrophilic interactions in terms of hydrogen bonding with the receptor. These analyses can be exploited to design and develop novel AMPA receptor antagonists for the treatment of different neurological disorders. PMID:24250113

  6. Targeting of GLUR4-containing AMPA receptors to synaptic sites during in vitro classical conditioning.

    PubMed

    Mokin, M; Keifer, J

    2004-01-01

    The synaptic delivery of GluR4-containing AMPA receptors during in vitro classical conditioning of a neural correlate of an eyeblink response was examined by fluorescence imaging of punctate staining for glutamate receptor subunits and the presynaptic marker synaptophysin. There was a significant increase in GluR4-containing AMPA receptors to synaptic sites after conditioning as determined by colocalization of GluR4 subunit puncta with synaptophysin. Moreover, the trafficking of these receptor subunits requires NMDA receptor activation as it was blocked by D,L-2-amino-5-phosphonovaleric acid (AP-5). In contrast, colocalization of NR1 subunits with synaptophysin was stable regardless of whether the preparations had undergone conditioning or had been treated by AP-5. The enhanced colocalization of GluR4 and synaptophysin was accompanied by an increase in both the total number and size of puncta for both proteins, suggesting greater synthesis and aggregation during conditioning. Western blot analysis confirmed upregulation of synaptophysin and GluR4 following conditioning. These data support the hypothesis that GluR4-containing AMPA receptors are delivered to synaptic sites during conditioning. Further, they suggest coordinate presynaptic and postsynaptic modifications during in vitro classical conditioning. PMID:15350635

  7. Synergy of AMPA and NMDA Receptor Currents in Dopaminergic Neurons: A Modeling Study.

    PubMed

    Zakharov, Denis; Lapish, Christopher; Gutkin, Boris; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons display two modes of firing: low-frequency tonic and high-frequency bursts. The high frequency firing within the bursts is attributed to NMDA, but not AMPA receptor activation. In our models of the DA neuron, both biophysical and abstract, the NMDA receptor current can significantly increase their firing frequency, whereas the AMPA receptor current is not able to evoke high-frequency activity and usually suppresses firing. However, both currents are produced by glutamate receptors and, consequently, are often co-activated. Here we consider combined influence of AMPA and NMDA synaptic input in the models of the DA neuron. Different types of neuronal activity (resting state, low frequency, or high frequency firing) are observed depending on the conductance of the AMPAR and NMDAR currents. In two models, biophysical and reduced, we show that the firing frequency increases more effectively if both receptors are co-activated for certain parameter values. In particular, in the more quantitative biophysical model, the maximal frequency is 40% greater than that with NMDAR alone. The dynamical mechanism of such frequency growth is explained in the framework of phase space evolution using the reduced model. In short, both the AMPAR and NMDAR currents flatten the voltage nullcline, providing the frequency increase, whereas only NMDA prevents complete unfolding of the nullcline, providing robust firing. Thus, we confirm a major role of the NMDAR in generating high-frequency firing and conclude that AMPAR activation further significantly increases the frequency. PMID:27252643

  8. Synergy of AMPA and NMDA Receptor Currents in Dopaminergic Neurons: A Modeling Study

    PubMed Central

    Zakharov, Denis; Lapish, Christopher; Gutkin, Boris; Kuznetsov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    Dopaminergic (DA) neurons display two modes of firing: low-frequency tonic and high-frequency bursts. The high frequency firing within the bursts is attributed to NMDA, but not AMPA receptor activation. In our models of the DA neuron, both biophysical and abstract, the NMDA receptor current can significantly increase their firing frequency, whereas the AMPA receptor current is not able to evoke high-frequency activity and usually suppresses firing. However, both currents are produced by glutamate receptors and, consequently, are often co-activated. Here we consider combined influence of AMPA and NMDA synaptic input in the models of the DA neuron. Different types of neuronal activity (resting state, low frequency, or high frequency firing) are observed depending on the conductance of the AMPAR and NMDAR currents. In two models, biophysical and reduced, we show that the firing frequency increases more effectively if both receptors are co-activated for certain parameter values. In particular, in the more quantitative biophysical model, the maximal frequency is 40% greater than that with NMDAR alone. The dynamical mechanism of such frequency growth is explained in the framework of phase space evolution using the reduced model. In short, both the AMPAR and NMDAR currents flatten the voltage nullcline, providing the frequency increase, whereas only NMDA prevents complete unfolding of the nullcline, providing robust firing. Thus, we confirm a major role of the NMDAR in generating high-frequency firing and conclude that AMPAR activation further significantly increases the frequency. PMID:27252643

  9. The Influence of Synaptic Size on AMPA Receptor Activation: A Monte Carlo Model

    PubMed Central

    Montes, Jesus; Peña, Jose M.; DeFelipe, Javier; Herreras, Oscar; Merchan-Perez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and electron microscope studies have shown that synapses are functionally and morphologically heterogeneous and that variations in size of synaptic junctions are related to characteristics such as release probability and density of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. The present article focuses on how these morphological variations impact synaptic transmission. We based our study on Monte Carlo computational simulations of simplified model synapses whose morphological features have been extracted from hundreds of actual synaptic junctions reconstructed by three-dimensional electron microscopy. We have examined the effects that parameters such as synaptic size or density of AMPA receptors have on the number of receptors that open after release of a single synaptic vesicle. Our results indicate that the maximum number of receptors that will open after the release of a single synaptic vesicle may show a ten-fold variation in the whole population of synapses. When individual synapses are considered, there is also a stochastical variability that is maximal in small synapses with low numbers of receptors. The number of postsynaptic receptors and the size of the synaptic junction are the most influential parameters, while the packing density of receptors or the concentration of extrasynaptic transporters have little or no influence on the opening of AMPA receptors. PMID:26107874

  10. The influence of synaptic size on AMPA receptor activation: a Monte Carlo model.

    PubMed

    Montes, Jesus; Peña, Jose M; DeFelipe, Javier; Herreras, Oscar; Merchan-Perez, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Physiological and electron microscope studies have shown that synapses are functionally and morphologically heterogeneous and that variations in size of synaptic junctions are related to characteristics such as release probability and density of postsynaptic AMPA receptors. The present article focuses on how these morphological variations impact synaptic transmission. We based our study on Monte Carlo computational simulations of simplified model synapses whose morphological features have been extracted from hundreds of actual synaptic junctions reconstructed by three-dimensional electron microscopy. We have examined the effects that parameters such as synaptic size or density of AMPA receptors have on the number of receptors that open after release of a single synaptic vesicle. Our results indicate that the maximum number of receptors that will open after the release of a single synaptic vesicle may show a ten-fold variation in the whole population of synapses. When individual synapses are considered, there is also a stochastical variability that is maximal in small synapses with low numbers of receptors. The number of postsynaptic receptors and the size of the synaptic junction are the most influential parameters, while the packing density of receptors or the concentration of extrasynaptic transporters have little or no influence on the opening of AMPA receptors. PMID:26107874

  11. Developmental Regulation of the Toxin Sensitivity of Ca2+ -Permeable AMPA Receptors in Cortical Glia

    PubMed Central

    Meucci, Olimpia; Fatatis, Alessandro; Holzwarth, James A.; Miller, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    We examined the properties of glutamate agonist-induced Ca2+ fluxes in cultured CG-4 and O-2A progenitor cells from rat cortex. Kainate-induced Ca2+ fluxes in these cells were found to be attributable to the activation of AMPA receptors. Thus, these fluxes were enhanced by cyclothiazide but not by concanavalin A and were blocked completely by GYKI-53655. We simultaneously examined kainate-induced Ca2+ entry and Na+ currents in these cells under voltage-clamp conditions. Both of these parameters were blocked by Joro spider toxin (JSTx) in undifferentiated cells. However, neither JSTx nor Argiotoxin 636 effectively blocked either parameter in cells differentiated into type II astrocytes. This change in toxin sensitivity occurred slowly over a period of several days. Similar results were obtained in Ca2+ -imaging studies. When cells were differentiated into oligodendrocytes, they showed an intermediate sensitivity to block by JSTx as assessed using imaging and voltage-clamp studies. Analysis of the expression of AMPA-receptor subunits showed an increase in the concentration of glutamate receptor-2 (GluR2) in CG-4 cells as they differentiated into type II astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. These results demonstrate that the AMPA receptors in cells of the O-2A lineage flux appreciable amounts of Ca2+ but may contain variable amounts of edited GluR2 subunits. PMID:8551336

  12. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation and cell-surface localization in concert with pain-related behavior

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel Z.; Chung, Jin M.; Chung, Kyungsoon; Kang, Myoung-Goo

    2012-01-01

    Sensitization of dorsal horn neurons (DHNs) in the spinal cord is dependent on pain-related synaptic plasticity and causes persistent pain. The DHN sensitization is mediated by a signal transduction pathway initiated by the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDA-Rs). Recent studies have shown that elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of GluA2 subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPA-Rs) are a part of the signaling pathway for DHN sensitization. However, the relationship between ROS and AMPA-R phosphorylation and trafficking is not known. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ROS scavengers on the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of GluA1 and GluA2. Intrathecal NMDA- and intradermal capsaicin-induced hyperalgesic mice were used for this study since both pain models share the NMDA-R activation-dependent DHN sensitization in the spinal cord. Our behavioral, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that: 1) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased the phosphorylation of AMPA-Rs at GluA1 (S818, S831, and S845) and GluA2 (S880) subunits, 2) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased cell-surface localization of GluA1 but decreased that of GluA2, and 3) reduction of ROS levels by ROS scavengers PBN or TEMPOL reversed these changes in AMPA-Rs, as well as pain-related behavior. Given that AMPA-R trafficking to the cell surface and synapse is regulated by NMDA-R activation-dependent phosphorylation of GluA1 and GluA2, our study suggests that the ROS-dependent changes in the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of AMPA-Rs are necessary for DHN sensitization and thus pain-related behavior. We further suggest that ROS reduction will ameliorate these molecular changes and pain. PMID:22770842

  13. Functional Connectome Analysis of Dopamine Neuron Glutamatergic Connections in Forebrain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Mingote, Susana; Chuhma, Nao; Kusnoor, Sheila V.; Field, Bianca; Deutch, Ariel Y.

    2015-01-01

    In the ventral tegmental area (VTA), a subpopulation of dopamine neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 and make glutamatergic connections to nucleus accumbens (NAc) and olfactory tubercle (OT) neurons. However, their glutamatergic connections across the forebrain have not been explored systematically. To visualize dopamine neuron forebrain projections and to enable photostimulation of their axons independent of transmitter status, we virally transfected VTA neurons with channelrhodopsin-2 fused to enhanced yellow fluorescent protein (ChR2-EYFP) and used DATIREScre mice to restrict expression to dopamine neurons. ChR2-EYFP-expressing neurons almost invariably stained for tyrosine hydroxylase, identifying them as dopaminergic. Dopamine neuron axons visualized by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence projected most densely to the striatum, moderately to the amygdala and entorhinal cortex (ERC), sparsely to prefrontal and cingulate cortices, and rarely to the hippocampus. Guided by ChR2-EYFP fluorescence, we recorded systematically from putative principal neurons in target areas and determined the incidence and strength of glutamatergic connections by activating all dopamine neuron terminals impinging on recorded neurons with wide-field photostimulation. This revealed strong glutamatergic connections in the NAc, OT, and ERC; moderate strength connections in the central amygdala; and weak connections in the cingulate cortex. No glutamatergic connections were found in the dorsal striatum, hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, or prefrontal cortex. These results indicate that VTA dopamine neurons elicit widespread, but regionally distinct, glutamatergic signals in the forebrain and begin to define the dopamine neuron excitatory functional connectome. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Dopamine neurons are important for the control of motivated behavior and are involved in the pathophysiology of several major neuropsychiatric disorders. Recent studies have shown that some ventral midbrain

  14. Sources and Input Pathways of Glyphosate and its Degradation Product AMPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischofberger, S.; Hanke, I.; Wittmer, I.; Singer, H.; Stamm, C.

    2009-04-01

    Despite being the pesticide used in the largest quantities worldwide, the environmental relevance of glyphosate has been considered low for many years. Reasons for this assessment were the observations that glyphosate degrades quickly into its degradation product AMPA and that it sorbs strongly to soil particles. Hence, little losses to water bodies had been expected. Research during the last few years however contradicts this expectation. Although glyphosate is a dominant pesticide used in agriculture, recent studies on other pesticides revealed that urban sources may play a significant role for water quality. Therefore this study compares glyphosate input into streams from agricultural and urban sources. For that purpose, a catchment of an area of 25 km2 was selected. It has by about 12'000 inhabitants and about 15 % of the area is used as arable land. Four sampling sites were selected in the river system in order to reflect different urban and agricultural sources. Additionally, we sampled a combined sewer overflow, a rain sewer and the outflow of a waste water treatment plant. At each site discharge was measured continuously from March to November 2007. During 16 rain events samples were taken by automatic devices at a high temporal resolution. To analyze the concentration of glyphosate and its degradation product AMPA, the samples were derivatized with FMOC-Cl at low pH conditions and then filtrated. The solid phase extraction was conducted with Strata-X sorbent cartridge. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected with API 4000 after the chromatography with X bridge column C18. To assure the data quality, interne standards of Glyphosate and AMPA were added to every sample. The limit of detection and quantification for glyphosate and AMPA are bellow 1ng/l. We analyzed two rain events at a high resolution for all stations and several events at the outlet of the catchment. We measured high glyphosate concentration in urban and agriculture dominated catchments with up to

  15. Tweaking Subtype Selectivity and Agonist Efficacy at (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) Receptors in a Small Series of BnTetAMPA Analogues.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang-Yan; Larsen, Younes; Navarrete, Cristina Vara; Jensen, Anders A; Nielsen, Birgitte; Al-Musaed, Ali; Frydenvang, Karla; Kastrup, Jette Sandholm; Pickering, Darryl S; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2016-03-10

    A series of analogues of the (S)-2-Amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl)propionic acid (AMPA) receptor agonist BnTetAMPA (5b) were synthesized and characterized pharmacologically in radioligand binding assays at native and cloned AMPA receptors and functionally by two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology at the four homomeric AMPA receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The analogues 6 and 7 exhibit very different pharmacological profiles with binding affinity preference for the subtypes GluA1 and GluA3, respectively. X-ray crystal structures of three ligands (6, 7, and 8) in complex with the agonist binding domain (ABD) of GluA2 show that they induce full domain closure despite their low agonist efficacies. Trp767 in GluA2 ABD could be an important determinant for partial agonism of this compound series at AMPA receptors, since agonist efficacy also correlated with the location of the Trp767 side chain. PMID:26862980

  16. Tissue Plasminogen Activator Expression Is Restricted to Subsets of Excitatory Pyramidal Glutamatergic Neurons.

    PubMed

    Louessard, Morgane; Lacroix, Alexandre; Martineau, Magalie; Mondielli, Gregoire; Montagne, Axel; Lesept, Flavie; Lambolez, Bertrand; Cauli, Bruno; Mothet, Jean-Pierre; Vivien, Denis; Maubert, Eric

    2016-09-01

    Although the extracellular serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is involved in pathophysiological processes such as learning and memory, anxiety, epilepsy, stroke, and Alzheimer's disease, information about its regional, cellular, and subcellular distribution in vivo is lacking. In the present study, we observed, in healthy mice and rats, the presence of tPA in endothelial cells, oligodendrocytes, mastocytes, and ependymocytes, but not in pericytes, microglial cells, and astrocytes. Moreover, blockage of the axo-dendritic transport unmasked tPA expression in neurons of cortical and hippocampal areas. Interestingly, combined electrophysiological recordings, single-cell reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and immunohistological analyses revealed that the presence of tPA is restricted to subsets of excitatory pyramidal glutamatergic neurons. We further evidenced that tPA is stored in synaptobrevin-2-positive glutamatergic synaptic vesicles. Based on all these data, we propose the existence of tPA-ergic neurons in the mature brain. PMID:26377106

  17. Proteomic screening of glutamatergic mouse brain synaptosomes isolated by fluorescence activated sorting

    PubMed Central

    Biesemann, Christoph; Grønborg, Mads; Luquet, Elisa; Wichert, Sven P; Bernard, Véronique; Bungers, Simon R; Cooper, Ben; Varoqueaux, Frédérique; Li, Liyi; Byrne, Jennifer A; Urlaub, Henning; Jahn, Olaf; Brose, Nils; Herzog, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    For decades, neuroscientists have used enriched preparations of synaptic particles called synaptosomes to study synapse function. However, the interpretation of corresponding data is problematic as synaptosome preparations contain multiple types of synapses and non-synaptic neuronal and glial contaminants. We established a novel Fluorescence Activated Synaptosome Sorting (FASS) method that substantially improves conventional synaptosome enrichment protocols and enables high-resolution biochemical analyses of specific synapse subpopulations. Employing knock-in mice with fluorescent glutamatergic synapses, we show that FASS isolates intact ultrapure synaptosomes composed of a resealed presynaptic terminal and a postsynaptic density as assessed by light and electron microscopy. FASS synaptosomes contain bona fide glutamatergic synapse proteins but are almost devoid of other synapse types and extrasynaptic or glial contaminants. We identified 163 enriched proteins in FASS samples, of which FXYD6 and Tpd52 were validated as new synaptic proteins. FASS purification thus enables high-resolution biochemical analyses of specific synapse subpopulations in health and disease. PMID:24413018

  18. ADAR-mediated RNA editing suppresses sleep by acting as a brake on glutamatergic synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, J. E.; Paluch, J.; Dickman, D. K.; Joiner, W. J.

    2016-01-01

    It has been postulated that synaptic potentiation during waking is offset by a homoeostatic reduction in net synaptic strength during sleep. However, molecular mechanisms to support such a process are lacking. Here we demonstrate that deficiencies in the RNA-editing gene Adar increase sleep due to synaptic dysfunction in glutamatergic neurons in Drosophila. Specifically, the vesicular glutamate transporter is upregulated, leading to over-activation of NMDA receptors, and the reserve pool of glutamatergic synaptic vesicles is selectively expanded in Adar mutants. Collectively these changes lead to sustained neurotransmitter release under conditions that would otherwise result in synaptic depression. We propose that a shift in the balance from synaptic depression towards synaptic potentiation in sleep-promoting neurons underlies the increased sleep pressure of Adar-deficient animals. Our findings provide a plausible molecular mechanism linking sleep and synaptic plasticity. PMID:26813350

  19. Synapse-associated protein-97 isoform-specific regulation of surface AMPA receptors and synaptic function in cultured neurons.

    PubMed

    Rumbaugh, Gavin; Sia, Gek-Ming; Garner, Craig C; Huganir, Richard L

    2003-06-01

    Members of the synapse-associated protein-97 (SAP97) family of scaffold proteins have been implicated as central organizers of synaptic junctions to build macromolecular signaling complexes around specific postsynaptic neurotransmitter receptors. In this regard, SAP97 has been suggested to regulate the synaptic localization of glutamate receptor type 1 subunits of the AMPA-type glutamate receptors. To test this hypothesis directly, we assessed the effects of SAP97 overexpression on surface expression of synaptic AMPA receptors. We find that recombinant SAP97 not only becomes concentrated at synaptic junctions but also leads to an increase in synaptic AMPA receptors, spine enlargement, and an increase in miniature EPSC (mEPSC) frequency, indicating that SAP97 has both postsynaptic and presynaptic effects on synaptic transmission. Synaptic targeting of SAP97, increased surface AMPA receptors, and increased mEPSC frequency are dependent on the presence of specific alternatively spliced sequences in SAP97 that encode a protein 4.1 binding site. These results suggest that SAP97 can affect the synaptic recruitment of AMPA receptors and spine morphology and that these effects may be regulated by alternative splicing. PMID:12805297

  20. Postsynaptic Plasticity Triggered by Ca²⁺-Permeable AMPA Receptor Activation in Retinal Amacrine Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mean-Hwan; von Gersdorff, Henrique

    2016-02-01

    Amacrine cells are thought to be a major locus for mechanisms of light adaptation and contrast enhancement in the retina. However, the potential for plasticity in their AMPA receptor currents remains largely unknown. Using paired patch-clamp recordings between bipolar cell terminals and amacrine cells, we have simultaneously measured presynaptic membrane capacitance changes and EPSCs. Repetitive bipolar cell depolarizations, designed to maintain the same amount of exocytosis, nevertheless significantly potentiated evoked EPSCs in a subpopulation of amacrine cells. Likewise, repetitive iontophoresis (or puffs) of glutamate (or AMPA) onto the dendrites of amacrine cells also significantly potentiated evoked currents and [Ca(2+)]i rises. However, strong postsynaptic Ca(2+) buffering with BAPTA abolished the potentiation and selective antagonists of Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors also blocked the potentiation of AMPA-mediated currents. Together these results suggest that Ca(2+) influx via Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptors can elicit a rapid form of postsynaptic plasticity in a subgroup of amacrine cell dendrites. PMID:26804991

  1. Water deprivation activates a glutamatergic projection from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus to the rostral ventrolateral medulla

    PubMed Central

    Stocker, Sean D.; Simmons, Johnny R.; Toney, Glenn M.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2010-01-01

    Elevated sympathetic outflow contributes to the maintenance of blood pressure in water-deprived rats. The neural circuitry underlying this response may involve activation of a pathway from the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM). We sought to determine whether the PVH-RVLM projection activated by water deprivation is glutamatergic and/or contains vasopressin- or oxytocin-neurophysins. Vesicular glutamate transporter2 (VGLUT2) mRNA was detected by in situ hybridization in the majority of PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with cholera-toxin subunit B (CTB; 85% on average with regional differences). Very few RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were immunoreactive for oxytocin- or vasopressin-associated neurophysin. Injection of biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) into the PVH produced clusters of BDA-positive nerve terminals within the ipsilateral RVLM that were immunoreactive (ir) for the VGLUT2 protein. Some of these terminals made close appositions with tyrosine-hydroxylase-ir dendrites (presumptive C1 cells). In water-deprived rats (n=4), numerous VGLUT2 mRNA-positive PVH neurons retrogradely labeled from the ipsilateral RVLM with CTB were c-Fos-ir (16–40% depending on PVH region). In marked contrast, few glutamatergic, RVLM-projecting PVH neurons were c-Fos-ir in control rats (n=3; 0–3% depending on PVH region). Most (94 ± 4%) RVLM-projecting PVH neurons activated by water deprivation contained VGLUT2 mRNA. In summary, the majority of PVH neurons that innervate the RVLM are glutamatergic and this population includes the neurons that are activated by water deprivation. One mechanism by which water deprivation may increase the sympathetic outflow is the activation of a glutamatergic pathway from the PVH to the RVLM. PMID:16374796

  2. Glutamatergic Signaling from the Parabrachial Nucleus Plays a Critical Role in Hypercapnic Arousal

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, S.; Pedersen, N. P.; Yokota, S.; Hur, E.E.; Fuller, P. M.; Lazarus, M.; Chamberlin, N.L.; Saper, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of arousal from apneas during sleep in patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) are not well understood. However, respiratory chemosensory pathways converge on the parabrachial nucleus (PB), which sends glutamatergic projections to a variety of forebrain structures critical to arousal including the basal forebrain, lateral hypothalamus, midline thalamus, and cerebral cortex. We tested the role of glutamatergic signaling in this pathway by developing an animal model for repetitive CO2 arousals (RCA) and investigating the effect of deleting the gene for the vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (Vglut2) from neurons in the PB. We used mice with lox P sequences flanking exon2 of the Vglut2 gene, in which adeno-associated viral vectors containing genes encoding Cre recombinase and green fluorescent protein were microinjected into the PB to permanently and selectively disrupt Vglut2 expression while labeling the affected neurons. We recorded sleep in these mice and then investigated the arousals during RCA. Vglut2 deletions that included the external lateral and lateral crescent subdivisions of the lateral PB more than doubled the latency to arousal and resulted in failure to arouse by 30 s in over 30% of trials. By contrast, deletions that involved the medial PB subdivision had minimal effects on arousal during hypercapnia but instead increased NREM sleep by about 43% during the dark period, and increased delta power in the EEG during NREM sleep by about 50%. Our results suggest that glutamatergic neurons in the lateral PB are necessary for arousals from sleep in response to CO2, while medial PB glutamatergic neurons play an important role in promoting spontaneous waking. PMID:23637157

  3. Differential Control of Cocaine Self-Administration by GABAergic and Glutamatergic CB1 Cannabinoid Receptors.

    PubMed

    Martín-García, Elena; Bourgoin, Lucie; Cathala, Adeline; Kasanetz, Fernando; Mondesir, Miguel; Gutiérrez-Rodriguez, Ana; Reguero, Leire; Fiancette, Jean-François; Grandes, Pedro; Spampinato, Umberto; Maldonado, Rafael; Piazza, Pier Vincenzo; Marsicano, Giovanni; Deroche-Gamonet, Véronique

    2016-08-01

    The type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) modulates numerous neurobehavioral processes and is therefore explored as a target for the treatment of several mental and neurological diseases. However, previous studies have investigated CB1 by targeting it globally, regardless of its two main neuronal localizations on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons. In the context of cocaine addiction this lack of selectivity is critical since glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal transmission is involved in different aspects of the disease. To determine whether CB1 exerts different control on cocaine seeking according to its two main neuronal localizations, we used mutant mice with deleted CB1 in cortical glutamatergic neurons (Glu-CB1) or in forebrain GABAergic neurons (GABA-CB1). In Glu-CB1, gene deletion concerns the dorsal telencephalon, including neocortex, paleocortex, archicortex, hippocampal formation and the cortical portions of the amygdala. In GABA-CB1, it concerns several cortical and non-cortical areas including the dorsal striatum, nucleus accumbens, thalamic, and hypothalamic nuclei. We tested complementary components of cocaine self-administration, separating the influence of primary and conditioned effects. Mechanisms underlying each phenotype were explored using in vivo microdialysis and ex vivo electrophysiology. We show that CB1 expression in forebrain GABAergic neurons controls mouse sensitivity to cocaine, while CB1 expression in cortical glutamatergic neurons controls associative learning processes. In accordance, in the nucleus accumbens, GABA-CB1 receptors control cocaine-induced dopamine release and Glu-CB1 receptors control AMPAR/NMDAR ratio; a marker of synaptic plasticity. Our findings demonstrate a critical distinction of the altered balance of Glu-CB1 and GABA-CB1 activity that could participate in the vulnerability to cocaine abuse and addiction. Moreover, these novel insights advance our understanding of CB1 neuropathophysiology. PMID:26612422

  4. Efficient derivation of cortical glutamatergic neurons from human pluripotent stem cells: a model system to study neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Vazin, Tandis; Ball, K Aurelia; Lu, Hui; Park, Hyungju; Ataeijannati, Yasaman; Head-Gordon, Teresa; Poo, Mu-ming; Schaffer, David V

    2014-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is among the most prevalent forms of dementia affecting the aging population, and pharmacological therapies to date have not been successful in preventing disease progression. Future therapeutic efforts may benefit from the development of models that enable basic investigation of early disease pathology. In particular, disease-relevant models based on human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) may be promising approaches to assess the impact of neurotoxic agents in AD on specific neuronal populations and thereby facilitate the development of novel interventions to avert early disease mechanisms. We implemented an efficient paradigm to convert hPSCs into enriched populations of cortical glutamatergic neurons emerging from dorsal forebrain neural progenitors, aided by modulating Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling. Since AD is generally known to be toxic to glutamatergic circuits, we exposed glutamatergic neurons derived from hESCs to an oligomeric pre-fibrillar forms of Aβ known as "globulomers", which have shown strong correlation with the level of cognitive deficits in AD. Administration of such Aβ oligomers yielded signs of the disease, including cell culture age-dependent binding of Aβ and cell death in the glutamatergic populations. Furthermore, consistent with previous findings in postmortem human AD brain, Aβ-induced toxicity was selective for glutamatergic rather than GABAeric neurons present in our cultures. This in vitro model of cortical glutamatergic neurons thus offers a system for future mechanistic investigation and therapeutic development for AD pathology using human cell types specifically affected by this disease. PMID:24055772

  5. Glutamatergic Monopolar Interneurons Provide a Novel Pathway of Excitation in the Mouse Retina.

    PubMed

    Della Santina, Luca; Kuo, Sidney P; Yoshimatsu, Takeshi; Okawa, Haruhisa; Suzuki, Sachihiro C; Hoon, Mrinalini; Tsuboyama, Kotaro; Rieke, Fred; Wong, Rachel O L

    2016-08-01

    Excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the CNS are distinguished by several features, including morphology, transmitter content, and synapse architecture [1]. Such distinctions are exemplified in the vertebrate retina. Retinal bipolar cells are polarized glutamatergic neurons receiving direct photoreceptor input, whereas amacrine cells are usually monopolar inhibitory interneurons with synapses almost exclusively in the inner retina [2]. Bipolar but not amacrine cell synapses have presynaptic ribbon-like structures at their transmitter release sites. We identified a monopolar interneuron in the mouse retina that resembles amacrine cells morphologically but is glutamatergic and, unexpectedly, makes ribbon synapses. These glutamatergic monopolar interneurons (GluMIs) do not receive direct photoreceptor input, and their light responses are strongly shaped by both ON and OFF pathway-derived inhibitory input. GluMIs contact and make almost as many synapses as type 2 OFF bipolar cells onto OFF-sustained A-type (AOFF-S) retinal ganglion cells (RGCs). However, GluMIs and type 2 OFF bipolar cells possess functionally distinct light-driven responses and may therefore mediate separate components of the excitatory synaptic input to AOFF-S RGCs. The identification of GluMIs thus unveils a novel cellular component of excitatory circuits in the vertebrate retina, underscoring the complexity in defining cell types even in this well-characterized region of the CNS. PMID:27426514

  6. Plasticity-Related Gene 1 Affects Mouse Barrel Cortex Function via Strengthening of Glutamatergic Thalamocortical Transmission.

    PubMed

    Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Baumgart, Jan; Roskoden, Thomas; Schneider, Patrick; Sommer, Angela; Horta, Guilherme; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes; Luhmann, Heiko J

    2016-07-01

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific protein that modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we investigated the functional role of PRG-1 in adolescent and adult mouse barrel cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with wild-type (WT) animals, PRG-1-deficient (KO) mice showed specific behavioral deficits in tests assessing sensorimotor integration and whisker-based sensory discrimination as shown in the beam balance/walking test and sandpaper tactile discrimination test, respectively. At P25-31, spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex in vivo was higher in KO mice compared with WT littermates, but not at P16-19. At P16-19, sensory evoked cortical responses in vivo elicited by single whisker stimulation were comparable in KO and WT mice. In contrast, at P25-31 evoked responses were smaller in amplitude and longer in duration in WT animals, whereas KO mice revealed no such developmental changes. In thalamocortical slices from KO mice, spontaneous activity was increased already at P16-19, and glutamatergic thalamocortical inputs to Layer 4 spiny stellate neurons were potentiated. We conclude that genetic ablation of PRG-1 modulates already at P16-19 spontaneous and evoked excitability of the barrel cortex, including enhancement of thalamocortical glutamatergic inputs to Layer 4, which distorts sensory processing in adulthood. PMID:26980613

  7. Elucidating the Role of AII Amacrine Cells in Glutamatergic Retinal Waves

    PubMed Central

    Firl, Alana; Ke, Jiang-Bin; Zhang, Lei; Fuerst, Peter G.; Singer, Joshua H.

    2015-01-01

    Spontaneous retinal activity mediated by glutamatergic neurotransmission—so-called “Stage 3” retinal waves—drives anti-correlated spiking in ON and OFF RGCs during the second week of postnatal development of the mouse. In the mature retina, the activity of a retinal interneuron called the AII amacrine cell is responsible for anti-correlated spiking in ON and OFF α-RGCs. In mature AIIs, membrane hyperpolarization elicits bursting behavior. Here, we postulated that bursting in AIIs underlies the initiation of glutamatergic retinal waves. We tested this hypothesis by using two-photon calcium imaging of spontaneous activity in populations of retinal neurons and by making whole-cell recordings from individual AIIs and α-RGCs in in vitro preparations of mouse retina. We found that AIIs participated in retinal waves, and that their activity was correlated with that of ON α-RGCs and anti-correlated with that of OFF α-RGCs. Though immature AIIs lacked the complement of membrane conductances necessary to generate bursting, pharmacological activation of the M-current, a conductance that modulates bursting in mature AIIs, blocked retinal wave generation. Interestingly, blockade of the pacemaker conductance Ih, a conductance absent in AIIs but present in both ON and OFF cone bipolar cells, caused a dramatic loss of spatial coherence of spontaneous activity. We conclude that during glutamatergic waves, AIIs act to coordinate and propagate activity generated by BCs rather than to initiate spontaneous activity. PMID:25632142

  8. Plasticity-Related Gene 1 Affects Mouse Barrel Cortex Function via Strengthening of Glutamatergic Thalamocortical Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Unichenko, Petr; Kirischuk, Sergei; Yang, Jenq-Wei; Baumgart, Jan; Roskoden, Thomas; Schneider, Patrick; Sommer, Angela; Horta, Guilherme; Radyushkin, Konstantin; Nitsch, Robert; Vogt, Johannes; Luhmann, Heiko J.

    2016-01-01

    Plasticity-related gene-1 (PRG-1) is a brain-specific protein that modulates glutamatergic synaptic transmission. Here we investigated the functional role of PRG-1 in adolescent and adult mouse barrel cortex both in vitro and in vivo. Compared with wild-type (WT) animals, PRG-1-deficient (KO) mice showed specific behavioral deficits in tests assessing sensorimotor integration and whisker-based sensory discrimination as shown in the beam balance/walking test and sandpaper tactile discrimination test, respectively. At P25-31, spontaneous network activity in the barrel cortex in vivo was higher in KO mice compared with WT littermates, but not at P16-19. At P16-19, sensory evoked cortical responses in vivo elicited by single whisker stimulation were comparable in KO and WT mice. In contrast, at P25-31 evoked responses were smaller in amplitude and longer in duration in WT animals, whereas KO mice revealed no such developmental changes. In thalamocortical slices from KO mice, spontaneous activity was increased already at P16-19, and glutamatergic thalamocortical inputs to Layer 4 spiny stellate neurons were potentiated. We conclude that genetic ablation of PRG-1 modulates already at P16-19 spontaneous and evoked excitability of the barrel cortex, including enhancement of thalamocortical glutamatergic inputs to Layer 4, which distorts sensory processing in adulthood. PMID:26980613

  9. A novel transient glutamatergic population migrating from the pallial-subpallial boundary contributes to neocortical development.

    PubMed

    Teissier, Anne; Griveau, Amélie; Vigier, Lisa; Piolot, Tristan; Borello, Ugo; Pierani, Alessandra

    2010-08-01

    The generation of a precise number of neural cells and the determination of their laminar fate are tightly controlled processes during development of the cerebral cortex. Using genetic tracing in mice, we have identified a population of glutamatergic neurons generated by Dbx1-expressing progenitors at the pallial-subpallial boundary predominantly at embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5) and subsequent to Cajal-Retzius cells. We show that these neurons migrate tangentially to populate the cortical plate (CP) at all rostrocaudal and mediolateral levels by E14.5. At birth, they homogeneously populate cortical areas and represent <5% of cortical cells. However, they are distributed into neocortical layers according to their birthdates and express the corresponding markers of glutamatergic differentiation (Tbr1, ER81, Cux2, Ctip2). Notably, this population dies massively by apoptosis at the completion of corticogenesis and represents 50% of dying neurons in the postnatal day 0 cortex. Specific genetic ablation of these transient Dbx1-derived CP neurons leads to a 20% decrease in neocortical cell numbers in perinatal animals. Our results show that a previously unidentified transient population of glutamatergic neurons migrates from extraneocortical regions over long distance from their generation site and participates in neocortical radial growth in a non-cell-autonomous manner. PMID:20685999

  10. Odor Preference Learning and Memory Modify GluA1 Phosphorylation and GluA1 Distribution in the Neonate Rat Olfactory Bulb: Testing the AMPA Receptor Hypothesis in an Appetitive Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cui, Wen; Darby-King, Andrea; Grimes, Matthew T.; Howland, John G.; Wang, Yu Tian; McLean, John H.; Harley, Carolyn W.

    2011-01-01

    An increase in synaptic AMPA receptors is hypothesized to mediate learning and memory. AMPA receptor increases have been reported in aversive learning models, although it is not clear if they are seen with memory maintenance. Here we examine AMPA receptor changes in a cAMP/PKA/CREB-dependent appetitive learning model: odor preference learning in…

  11. Sources of aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in urban and rural catchments in Ontario, Canada: Glyphosate or phosphonates in wastewater?

    PubMed

    Struger, J; Van Stempvoort, D R; Brown, S J

    2015-09-01

    Correlation analysis suggests that occurrences of AMPA in streams of southern Ontario are linked mainly to glyphosate in both urban and rural settings, rather than to wastewater sources, as some previous studies have suggested. For this analysis the artificial sweetener acesulfame was analyzed as a wastewater indicator in surface water samples collected from urban and rural settings in southern Ontario, Canada. This interpretation is supported by the concurrence of seasonal fluctuations of glyphosate and AMPA concentrations. Herbicide applications in larger urban centres and along major transportation corridors appear to be important sources of glyphosate and AMPA in surface water, in addition to uses of this herbicide in rural and mixed use areas. Fluctuations in concentrations of acesulfame and glyphosate residues were found to be related to hydrologic events. PMID:26187493

  12. FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL POSITIVE ALLOSTERIC MODULATOR OF AMPA RECEPTORS DERIVED FROM A STRUCTURE-BASED DRUG DESIGN STRATEGY

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Jonathan E.; Benveniste, Morris; Maclean, John K. F.; Partin, Kathryn M.; Jamieson, Craig

    2012-01-01

    Positive allosteric modulators of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors facilitate synaptic plasticity and can improve various forms of learning and memory. These modulators show promise as therapeutic agents for the treatment of neurological disorders such as schizophrenia, ADHD, and mental depression. Three classes of positive modulator, the benzamides, the thiadiazides, and the biarylsulfonamides differentially occupy a solvent accessible binding pocket at the interface between the two subunits that form the AMPA receptor ligand-binding pocket. Here, we describe the electrophysiological properties of a new chemotype derived from a structure-based drug design strategy (SBDD), which makes similar receptor interactions compared to previously reported classes of modulator. This pyrazole amide derivative, JAMI1001A, with a promising developability profile, efficaciously modulates AMPA receptor deactivation and desensitization of both flip and flop receptor isoforms. PMID:22735771

  13. Cisplatin induces neuronal activation and increases central AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit gene expression in mice.

    PubMed

    Holland, Ruby A; Leonard, John J; Kensey, Nicholas A; Hannikainen, Paavali A; De Jonghe, Bart C

    2014-09-01

    Although rats and mice do not vomit, these species are widely studied as models of energy balance and sickness behavior. Previous work has shown that rats exhibit similar neuroanatomical activation of brain and visceral afferent pathways following cisplatin chemotherapy compared to vomiting species. However, the neural response to cisplatin in mice is understudied. Here, food intake, body weight, and central c-Fos immunofluorescence were analyzed in the hindbrains of male C57BL/6 mice following IP saline or cisplatin (5mg/kg, and 20mg/kg doses). As glutamate receptor signaling is classically linked to inhibitory feeding pathways in the rodent, gene expression of selected α-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subunits were assessed in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC), parabrachial nucleus (PBN), amygdala, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST). Our results show dose-dependent reductions in food intake and body weight following cisplatin treatment, as well as increases in cisplatin-induced c-Fos in the PBN and throughout the DVC. Quantitative PCR analysis shows cisplatin-induced increases in NMDA receptor subunit expression, particularly NR2B, in the DVC, PBN, BNST, and amygdala. In addition, upregulation of AMPA receptor subunits (GluA1 and/or GluA2) were observed in all regions examined except the amygdala. Taken together, these results suggest similar neural pathways mediating cisplatin effects in mice compared to other well-studied species, which are likely mediated by central upregulation of AMPA and NMDA receptors. PMID:24582677

  14. Agmatine produces antidepressant-like effects by activating AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling.

    PubMed

    Neis, Vivian Binder; Moretti, Morgana; Bettio, Luis Eduardo B; Ribeiro, Camille M; Rosa, Priscila Batista; Gonçalves, Filipe Marques; Lopes, Mark William; Leal, Rodrigo Bainy; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-06-01

    The activation of AMPA receptors and mTOR signaling has been reported as mechanisms underlying the antidepressant effects of fast-acting agents, specially the NMDA receptor antagonist ketamine. In the present study, oral administration of agmatine (0.1mg/kg), a neuromodulator that has been reported to modulate NMDA receptors, caused a significant reduction in the immobility time of mice submitted to the tail suspension test (TST), an effect prevented by the administration of DNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist, 2.5μg/site, i.c.v.), BDNF antibody (1μg/site, i.c.v.), K-252a (TrkB receptor antagonist, 1μg/site, i.c.v.), LY294002 (PI3K inhibitor, 10nmol/site, i.c.v.) or rapamycin (selective mTOR inhibitor, 0.2nmol/site, i.c.v.). Moreover, the administration of lithium chloride (non-selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 10mg/kg, p.o.) or AR-A014418 (selective GSK-3β inhibitor, 0.01μg/site, i.c.v.) in combination with a sub-effective dose of agmatine (0.0001mg/kg, p.o.) reduced the immobility time in the TST when compared with either drug alone. Furthermore, increased immunocontents of BDNF, PSD-95 and GluA1 were found in the prefrontal cortex of mice just 1h after agmatine administration. These results indicate that the antidepressant-like effect of agmatine in the TST may be dependent on the activation of AMPA and TrkB receptors, PI3K and mTOR signaling as well as inhibition of GSK-3β, and increase in synaptic proteins. The results contribute to elucidate the complex signaling pathways involved in the antidepressant effect of agmatine and reinforce the pivotal role of these molecular targets for antidepressant responses. PMID:27061850

  15. Depth distribution of glyphosate and AMPA under diferent tillage system and soils in long-term experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis; De Geronimo, Eduardo

    2016-04-01

    Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl glycine) is a post-emergence, non-selective, foliar herbicide. Around 200 million liters of this herbicide are applied every year in Argentina, where the main agricultural practice is no-till (NT), accounting for 78 % of the cultivated land. In this work, we studied the depth distribution of glyphosate in long-term experiments (more than 15 years) at different locations under NT and conventional tillage (CT). Samples from 0-2, 2-5, 5-10, 10-15, and 15-20 cm depth with four replication and two treatments NT CT at three locations: Balcarce (BA) a loam soil, Bordenave (BO) a sandy loam soil y Marcos Juarez a silty loam soil (MJ). The glyphosate concentration in the first 2 cm of soil was, on the average, 70% greater than in the next 2-5 cm. The mass of glyphosate in CT was higher at 2 to 10 cm depth. The depth concentration of AMPA follows the same trend than glyphosate, although its average concentration at 0-2 cm depth is 28 times higher than the glyphosate concentration at 2-5 cm (glyphosate = 147 ppb and AMPA = 4100 ppb). Beside the AMPA concentration at 0-2 cm depth is greater in NT than in CT, the mass of AMPA is higher in CT only for the Balcarce location. To our knowledge, this study is the first dealing with the depth distribution of glyphosate concentration in soils under different soil managements. In the present study, it was demonstrated that glyphosate and AMPA are present in soils under agricultural activity with maximum concentration in the first two cm of soil and the AMPA concentration at this depth is greater in NT than in CT.

  16. Restoring Light Sensitivity in Blind Retinae Using a Photochromic AMPA Receptor Agonist

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Retinal degenerative diseases can have many possible causes and are currently difficult to treat. As an alternative to therapies that require genetic manipulation or the implantation of electronic devices, photopharmacology has emerged as a viable approach to restore visual responses. Here, we present a new photopharmacological strategy that relies on a photoswitchable excitatory amino acid, ATA. This freely diffusible molecule selectively activates AMPA receptors in a light-dependent fashion. It primarily acts on amacrine and retinal ganglion cells, although a minor effect on bipolar cells has been observed. As such, it complements previous pharmacological approaches based on photochromic channel blockers and increases the potential of photopharmacology in vision restoration. PMID:26495755

  17. Characterization of glutamatergic neurons in the rat atrial intrinsic cardiac ganglia that project to the cardiac ventricular wall.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Miller, Kenneth E

    2016-08-01

    The intrinsic cardiac nervous system modulates cardiac function by acting as an integration site for regulating autonomic efferent cardiac output. This intrinsic system is proposed to be composed of a short cardio-cardiac feedback control loop within the cardiac innervation hierarchy. For example, electrophysiological studies have postulated the presence of sensory neurons in intrinsic cardiac ganglia (ICG) for regional cardiac control. There is still a knowledge gap, however, about the anatomical location and neurochemical phenotype of sensory neurons inside ICG. In the present study, rat ICG neurons were characterized neurochemically with immunohistochemistry using glutamatergic markers: vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 (VGLUT1; VGLUT2), and glutaminase (GLS), the enzyme essential for glutamate production. Glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT1/VGLUT2/GLS) in the ICG that have axons to the ventricles were identified by retrograde tracing of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) injected in the ventricular wall. Co-labeling of VGLUT1, VGLUT2, and GLS with the vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT) was used to evaluate the relationship between post-ganglionic autonomic neurons and glutamatergic neurons. Sequential labeling of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in adjacent tissue sections was used to evaluate the co-localization of VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 in ICG neurons. Our studies yielded the following results: (1) ICG contain glutamatergic neurons with GLS for glutamate production and VGLUT1 and 2 for transport of glutamate into synaptic vesicles; (2) atrial ICG contain neurons that project to ventricle walls and these neurons are glutamatergic; (3) many glutamatergic ICG neurons also were cholinergic, expressing VAChT; (4) VGLUT1 and VGLUT2 co-localization occurred in ICG neurons with variation of their protein expression level. Investigation of both glutamatergic and cholinergic ICG neurons could help in better understanding the function of the intrinsic cardiac

  18. Repeated restraint stress-induced atrophy of glutamatergic pyramidal neurons and decreases in glutamatergic efflux in the rat amygdala are prevented by the antidepressant agomelatine.

    PubMed

    Grillo, C A; Risher, M; Macht, V A; Bumgardner, A L; Hang, A; Gabriel, C; Mocaër, E; Piroli, G G; Fadel, J R; Reagan, L P

    2015-01-22

    Major depressive illness is among the most prevalent neuropsychiatric disorders and is associated with neuroplasticity deficits in limbic structures such as the amygdala. Since exposure to stressful life events is proposed to contribute to depressive illness, our recent studies examined the effects of stress on amygdalar neuroplasticity. These studies determined that repeated stress elicits deficits in glutamatergic activity in the amygdala, neuroplasticity deficits that can be prevented by some but not all antidepressants. In view of these observations, the goal of the current study was to determine the effects of repeated restraint stress (RRS) on the dendritic architecture of pyramidal neurons in the rat basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (CBL), as well as glutamate efflux in the CBL and central nucleus of the amygdala (CMX) via in vivo microdialysis. We also examined the ability of the antidepressant agomelatine to prevent RRS-induced neuroplasticity deficits. Compared with control rats, rats subjected to RRS exhibited atrophy of CBL pyramidal neurons, including decreases in total dendritic length, branch points, and dendritic complexity index. In addition, glutamate efflux was significantly reduced in the CMX of rats subjected to RRS, thereby identifying a potential neurochemical consequence of stress-induced dendritic atrophy of CBL pyramidal neurons. Lastly, an acute stress challenge increased corticosterone (CORT) levels in the CBL, suggesting that stress-induced increases in CORT levels may contribute to the neuroanatomical and neurochemical effects of RRS in the CBL. Importantly, these RRS-induced changes were prevented by daily agomelatine administration. These results demonstrate that the neuroanatomical and neurochemical properties of glutamatergic neurons in the rat amygdala are adversely affected by repeated stress and suggest that the therapeutic effects of agomelatine may include protection of structural and neurochemical plasticity in limbic

  19. AMPA receptor trafficking and the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Henley, Jeremy M; Wilkinson, Kevin A

    2013-03-01

    Even in healthy individuals there is an inexorable agerelated decline in cognitive function. This is due, in large part, to reduced synaptic plasticity caused by changes in the molecular composition of the postsynaptic membrane. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are glutamate-gated cation channels that mediate the overwhelming majority of fast excitatory transmission in the brain. Changes in AMPAR number and/or function are a core feature of synaptic plasticity and age-related cognitive decline, AMPARs are highly dynamic proteins that are subject to highly controlled trafficking, recycling, and/or degradation and replacement. This active regulation of AMPAR synthesis, targeting, synaptic dwell time, and degradation is fundamentally important for memory formation and storage. Further, aberrant AMPAR trafficking and consequent detrimental changes in synapses are strongly implicated in many brain diseases, which represent a vast social and economic burden. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the molecular and cellular AMPA receptor trafficking events that control synaptic responsiveness and plasticity, and highlight what is known currently known about how these processes change with age and disease. PMID:23576886

  20. The AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 regulates dendritic architecture of motor neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inglis, Fiona M.; Crockett, Richard; Korada, Sailaja; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Hollmann, Michael; Kalb, Robert G.

    2002-01-01

    The morphology of the mature motor neuron dendritic arbor is determined by activity-dependent processes occurring during a critical period in early postnatal life. The abundance of the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 in motor neurons is very high during this period and subsequently falls to a negligible level. To test the role of GluR1 in dendrite morphogenesis, we reintroduced GluR1 into rat motor neurons at the end of the critical period and quantitatively studied the effects on dendrite architecture. Two versions of GluR1 were studied that differed by the amino acid in the "Q/R" editing site. The amino acid occupying this site determines single-channel conductance, ionic permeability, and other essential electrophysiologic properties of the resulting receptor channels. We found large-scale remodeling of dendritic architectures in a manner depending on the amino acid occupying the Q/R editing site. Alterations in the distribution of dendritic arbor were not prevented by blocking NMDA receptors. These observations suggest that the expression of GluR1 in motor neurons modulates a component of the molecular substrate of activity-dependent dendrite morphogenesis. The control of these events relies on subunit-specific properties of AMPA receptors.

  1. Facilitation of AMPA Receptor Synaptic Delivery as a Molecular Mechanism for Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Puelles, Cristina; Pereda-Peréz, Inmaculada; Franco, Ana; Sandi, Carmen; Suárez, Luz M.; Solís, José M.; Alonso-Nanclares, Lidia; Martín, Eduardo D.; Merino-Serrais, Paula; Borcel, Erika; Li, Shizhong; Chen, Yongshuo; Gonzalez-Soriano, Juncal; Berezin, Vladimir; Bock, Elisabeth; DeFelipe, Javier; Esteban, José A.

    2012-01-01

    Cell adhesion molecules and downstream growth factor-dependent signaling are critical for brain development and synaptic plasticity, and they have been linked to cognitive function in adult animals. We have previously developed a mimetic peptide (FGL) from the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) that enhances spatial learning and memory in rats. We have now investigated the cellular and molecular basis of this cognitive enhancement, using biochemical, morphological, electrophysiological, and behavioral analyses. We have found that FGL triggers a long-lasting enhancement of synaptic transmission in hippocampal CA1 neurons. This effect is mediated by a facilitated synaptic delivery of AMPA receptors, which is accompanied by enhanced NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation (LTP). Both LTP and cognitive enhancement are mediated by an initial PKC activation, which is followed by persistent CaMKII activation. These results provide a mechanistic link between facilitation of AMPA receptor synaptic delivery and improved hippocampal-dependent learning, induced by a pharmacological cognitive enhancer. PMID:22363206

  2. AMPA receptor trafficking and the mechanisms underlying synaptic plasticity and cognitive aging

    PubMed Central

    Henley, Jeremy M.; Wilkinson, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    Even in healthy individuals there is an inexorable agerelated decline in cognitive function. This is due, in large part, to reduced synaptic plasticity caused by changes in the molecular composition of the postsynaptic membrane. AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are glutamate-gated cation channels that mediate the overwhelming majority of fast excitatory transmission in the brain. Changes in AMPAR number and/or function are a core feature of synaptic plasticity and age-related cognitive decline, AMPARs are highly dynamic proteins that are subject to highly controlled trafficking, recycling, and/or degradation and replacement. This active regulation of AMPAR synthesis, targeting, synaptic dwell time, and degradation is fundamentally important for memory formation and storage. Further, aberrant AMPAR trafficking and consequent detrimental changes in synapses are strongly implicated in many brain diseases, which represent a vast social and economic burden. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the molecular and cellular AMPA receptor trafficking events that control synaptic responsiveness and plasticity, and highlight what is known currently known about how these processes change with age and disease. PMID:23576886

  3. Estrous Cycle-Dependent Phasic Changes in the Stoichiometry of Hippocampal Synaptic AMPA Receptors in Rats.

    PubMed

    Tada, Hirobumi; Koide, Mayu; Ara, Wakana; Shibata, Yusuke; Funabashi, Toshiya; Suyama, Kumiko; Goto, Takahisa; Takahashi, Takuya

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive function can be affected by the estrous cycle. However, the effect of the estrous cycle on synaptic functions is poorly understood. Here we show that in female rats, inhibitory-avoidance (IA) task (hippocampus-dependent contextual fear-learning task) drives GluA2-lacking Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) into the hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses during all periods of the estrous cycle except the proestrous period, when estrogen levels are high. In addition, IA task failed to drive CP-AMPARs into the CA3-CA1 synapses of ovariectomized rats only when estrogen was present. Thus, changes in the stoichiometry of AMPA receptors during learning depend on estrogen levels. Furthermore, the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) after IA task was prevented during the proestrous period, while intact LTP is still expressed after IA task during other period of the estrous cycle. Consistent with this finding, rats conditioned by IA training failed to acquire hippocampus-dependent Y-maze task during the proestrous period. On the other hand, during other estrous period, rats were able to learn Y-maze task after IA conditioning. These results suggest that high estrogen levels prevent the IA learning-induced delivery of CP-AMPARs into hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses and limit synaptic plasticity after IA task, thus preventing the acquisition of additional learning. PMID:26121335

  4. Post-anesthesia AMPA receptor potentiation prevents anesthesia-induced learning and synaptic deficits.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lianyan; Cichon, Joseph; Ninan, Ipe; Yang, Guang

    2016-06-22

    Accumulating evidence has shown that repeated exposure to general anesthesia during critical stages of brain development results in long-lasting behavioral deficits later in life. To date, there has been no effective treatment to mitigate the neurotoxic effects of anesthesia on brain development. By performing calcium imaging in the mouse motor cortex, we show that ketamine anesthesia causes a marked and prolonged reduction in neuronal activity during the period of post-anesthesia recovery. Administration of the AMPAkine drug CX546 [1-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-ylcarbonyl)piperidine] to potentiate AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptor activity during emergence from anesthesia in mice enhances neuronal activity and prevents long-term motor learning deficits induced by repeated neonatal anesthesia. In addition, we show that CX546 administration also ameliorates various synaptic deficits induced by anesthesia, including reductions in synaptic expression of NMDA (N-methyl-d-aspartate) and AMPA receptor subunits, motor training-evoked neuronal activity, and dendritic spine remodeling associated with motor learning. Together, our results indicate that pharmacologically enhancing neuronal activity during the post-anesthesia recovery period could effectively reduce the adverse effects of early-life anesthesia. PMID:27334260

  5. A eukaryotic specific transmembrane segment is required for tetramerization in AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Salussolia, Catherine L; Gan, Quan; Kazi, Rashek; Singh, Puja; Allopenna, Janet; Furukawa, Hiro; Wollmuth, Lonnie P

    2013-06-01

    Most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system is mediated by glutamate acting through ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). iGluRs (AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subtypes) are tetrameric assemblies, formed as a dimer of dimers. Still, the mechanism underlying tetramerization--the necessary step for the formation of functional receptors that can be inserted into the plasma membrane--is unknown. All eukaryotic compared to prokaryotic iGluR subunits have an additional transmembrane segment, the M4 segment, which positions the physiologically critical C-terminal domain on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits lacking M4 do not express on the plasma membrane. Here, we show that these constructs are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, the major cellular compartment mediating protein oligomerization. Using approaches to assay the native oligomeric state of AMPAR subunits, we find that subunits lacking M4 or containing single amino acid substitutions along an "interacting" face of the M4 helix that block surface expression no longer tetramerize in either homomeric or heteromeric assemblies. In contrast, subunit dimerization appears to be largely intact. These experiments define the M4 segment as a unique functional unit in AMPARs that is required for the critical dimer-to-tetramer transition. PMID:23739980

  6. Tlx3 promotes glutamatergic neuronal subtype specification through direct interactions with the chromatin modifier CBP.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Atsushi; Patel, Dharmeshkumar; Wilson, Sarah M; Koehler, Karl R; Khanna, Rajesh; Hashino, Eri

    2015-01-01

    Nervous system development relies on the generation of precise numbers of excitatory and inhibitory neurons. The homeodomain transcription factor, T-cell leukemia 3 (Tlx3), functions as the master neuronal fate regulator by instructively promoting the specification of glutamatergic excitatory neurons and suppressing the specification of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAergic) neurons. However, how Tlx3 promotes glutamatergic neuronal subtype specification is poorly understood. In this study, we found that Tlx3 directly interacts with the epigenetic co-activator cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB)-binding protein (CBP) and that the Tlx3 homeodomain is essential for this interaction. The interaction between Tlx3 and CBP was enhanced by the three amino acid loop extension (TALE)-class homeodomain transcription factor, pre-B-cell leukemia transcription factor 3 (Pbx3). Using mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells stably expressing Tlx3, we found that the interaction between Tlx3 and CBP became detectable only after these Tlx3-expressing ES cells were committed to a neural lineage, which coincided with increased Pbx3 expression during neural differentiation from ES cells. Forced expression of mutated Tlx3 lacking the homeodomain in ES cells undergoing neural differentiation resulted in significantly reduced expression of glutamatergic neuronal subtype markers, but had little effect on the expression on pan neural markers. Collectively, our results strongly suggest that functional interplay between Tlx3 and CBP plays a critical role in neuronal subtype specification, providing novel insights into the epigenetic regulatory mechanism that modulates the transcriptional efficacy of a selective set of neuronal subtype-specific genes during differentiation. PMID:26258652

  7. Prenatal exposure of ethanol induces increased glutamatergic neuronal differentiation of neural progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prenatal ethanol exposure during pregnancy induces a spectrum of mental and physical disorders called fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). The central nervous system is the main organ influenced by FASD, and neurological symptoms include mental retardation, learning abnormalities, hyperactivity and seizure susceptibility in childhood along with the microcephaly. In this study, we examined whether ethanol exposure adversely affects the proliferation of NPC and de-regulates the normal ratio between glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal differentiation using primary neural progenitor culture (NPC) and in vivo FASD models. Methods Neural progenitor cells were cultured from E14 embryo brain of Sprague-Dawley rat. Pregnant mice and rats were treated with ethanol (2 or 4 g/kg/day) diluted with normal saline from E7 to E16 for in vivo FASD animal models. Expression level of proteins was investigated by western blot analysis and immunocytochemical assays. MTT was used for cell viability. Proliferative activity of NPCs was identified by BrdU incorporation, immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. Results Reduced proliferation of NPCs by ethanol was demonstrated using BrdU incorporation, immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis. In addition, ethanol induced the imbalance between glutamatergic and GABAergic neuronal differentiation via transient increase in the expression of Pax6, Ngn2 and NeuroD with concomitant decrease in the expression of Mash1. Similar pattern of expression of those transcription factors was observed using an in vivo model of FASD as well as the increased expression of PSD-95 and decreased expression of GAD67. Conclusions These results suggest that ethanol induces hyper-differentiation of glutamatergic neuron through Pax6 pathway, which may underlie the hyper-excitability phenotype such as hyperactivity or seizure susceptibility in FASD patients. PMID:21073715

  8. Tinking Glutamatergically: Changing Concepts of Schizophrenia Based Upon Changing Neurochemical Models

    PubMed Central

    Kantrowitz, Joshua T.; Javitt, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical concepts of mental illness have always been modulated by underlying theoretical considerations. For the past fifty years, schizophrenia has been considered primarily a disease of dopaminergic neurotransmission. Although this conceptualization has helped greatly in explaining the clinical effects of psychostimulants and guiding the clinical use of both typical and atypical antipsychotics, it has nevertheless shaded how we look at the disorder from both a pathophysiological and therapeutic perspective. For example, most explanatory research in schizophrenia has focused on dopamine-rich regions of the brain, with little investigation of regions of the brain that are relatively dopamine poor. Starting approximately twenty years ago, an alternative formulation of schizophrenia was proposed based upon actions of the “dissociative anesthetic” class of psychotomimetic agents, including phencyclidine (PCP), ketamine and various designer drugs. These compounds induce psychosis by blocking neurotransmission at N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors, suggesting an alternative model for pathogenesis in schizophrenia. As opposed to dopamine, the glutamatergic system is widely distributed throughout the brain and plays a prominent role in sensory processing as well as in subsequent stages of cortical analysis. Glutamatergic theories of schizophrenia, thus, predict that cortical dysfunction will be regionally diffuse but process specific. In addition, NMDA receptors incorporate binding sites for specific endogenous brain compounds, including the amino acids glycine and D-serine and the redox modulator glutathione, and interact closely with dopaminergic, cholinergic and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic systems. Glutamatergic theories, thus, open new potential approaches for treatment of schizophrenia, most of which are only now entering clinical evaluation. PMID:20880830

  9. Functional recovery after cervical spinal cord injury: Role of neurotrophin and glutamatergic signaling in phrenic motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Gill, Luther C; Gransee, Heather M; Sieck, Gary C; Mantilla, Carlos B

    2016-06-01

    Cervical spinal cord injury (SCI) interrupts descending neural drive to phrenic motoneurons causing diaphragm muscle (DIAm) paralysis. Recent studies using a well-established model of SCI, unilateral spinal hemisection of the C2 segment of the cervical spinal cord (SH), provide novel information regarding the molecular and cellular mechanisms of functional recovery after SCI. Over time post-SH, gradual recovery of rhythmic ipsilateral DIAm activity occurs. Recovery of ipsilateral DIAm electromyogram (EMG) activity following SH is enhanced by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool. Delivery of exogenous BDNF either via intrathecal infusion or via mesenchymal stem cells engineered to release BDNF similarly enhance recovery. Conversely, recovery after SH is blunted by quenching endogenous BDNF with the fusion-protein TrkB-Fc in the region of the phrenic motoneuron pool or by selective inhibition of TrkB kinase activity using a chemical-genetic approach in TrkB(F616A) mice. Furthermore, the importance of BDNF signaling via TrkB receptors at phrenic motoneurons is highlighted by the blunting of recovery by siRNA-mediated downregulation of TrkB receptor expression in phrenic motoneurons and by the enhancement of recovery evident following virally-induced increases in TrkB expression specifically in phrenic motoneurons. BDNF/TrkB signaling regulates synaptic plasticity in various neuronal systems, including glutamatergic pathways. Glutamatergic neurotransmission constitutes the main inspiratory-related, excitatory drive to motoneurons, and following SH, spontaneous neuroplasticity is associated with increased expression of ionotropic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in phrenic motoneurons. Evidence for the role of BDNF/TrkB and glutamatergic signaling in recovery of DIAm activity following cervical SCI is reviewed. PMID:26506253

  10. Differential alterations of cortical glutamatergic binding sites in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type

    SciTech Connect

    Chalmers, D.T.; Dewar, D.; Graham, D.I.; Brooks, D.N.; McCulloch, J. )

    1990-02-01

    Involvement of cortical glutamatergic mechanisms in senile dementia of the Alzheimer type (SDAT) has been investigated with quantitative ligand-binding autoradiography. The distribution and density of Na(+)-dependent glutamate uptake sites and glutamate receptor subtypes--kainate, quisqualate, and N-methyl-D-aspartate--were measured in adjacent sections of frontal cortex obtained postmortem from six patients with SDAT and six age-matched controls. The number of senile plaques was determined in the same brain region. Binding of D-(3H)aspartate to Na(+)-dependent uptake sites was reduced by approximately 40% throughout SDAT frontal cortex relative to controls, indicating a general loss of glutamatergic presynaptic terminals. (3H)Kainate receptor binding was significantly increased by approximately 70% in deep layers of SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls, whereas this binding was unaltered in superficial laminae. There was a positive correlation (r = 0.914) between kainate binding and senile plaque number in deep cortical layers. Quisqualate receptors, as assessed by 2-amino-3-hydroxy-5-(3H)methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid binding, were unaltered in SDAT frontal cortex compared with controls. There was a small reduction (25%) in N-methyl-D-aspartate-sensitive (3H)glutamate binding only in superficial cortical layers of SDAT brains relative to control subjects. (3H)Glutamate binding in SDAT subjects was unrelated to senile plaque number in superficial cortical layers (r = 0.104). These results indicate that in the presence of cortical glutamatergic terminal loss in SDAT plastic alterations occur in some glutamate receptor subtypes but not in others.

  11. Glutamatergic synapse formation is promoted by α7-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Lozada, Adrian F; Wang, Xulong; Gounko, Natalia V; Massey, Kerri A; Duan, Jingjing; Liu, Zhaoping; Berg, Darwin K

    2012-05-30

    Glutamate is the primary excitatory transmitter in adult brain, acting through synapses on dendritic spines and shafts. Early in development, however, when glutamatergic synapses are only beginning to form, nicotinic cholinergic excitation is already widespread; it is mediated by acetylcholine activating nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) that generate waves of activity across brain regions. A major class of nAChRs contributing at this time is a species containing α7 subunits (α7-nAChRs). These receptors are highly permeable to calcium, influence a variety of calcium-dependent events, and are diversely distributed throughout the developing CNS. Here we show that α7-nAChRs unexpectedly promote formation of glutamatergic synapses during development. The dependence on α7-nAChRs becomes clear when comparing wild-type (WT) mice with mice constitutively lacking the α7-nAChR gene. Ultrastructural analysis, immunostaining, and patch-clamp recording all reveal synaptic deficits when α7-nAChR input is absent. Similarly, nicotinic activation of α7-nAChRs in WT organotypic culture, as well as cell culture, increases the number of glutamatergic synapses. RNA interference demonstrates that the α7-nAChRs must be expressed in the neuron being innervated for normal innervation to occur. Moreover, the deficits persist throughout the developmental period of major de novo synapse formation and are still fully apparent in the adult. GABAergic synapses, in contrast, are undiminished in number under such conditions. As a result, mice lacking α7-nAChRs have an altered balance in the excitatory/inhibitory input they receive. This ratio represents a fundamental feature of neural networks and shows for the first time that endogenous nicotinic cholinergic signaling plays a key role in network construction. PMID:22649244

  12. Glutamatergic regulation prevents hippocampal-dependent age-related cognitive decline through dendritic spine clustering

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Ana C.; Lambert, Hilary K.; Grossman, Yael S.; Dumitriu, Dani; Waldman, Rachel; Jannetty, Sophia K.; Calakos, Katina; Janssen, William G.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Morrison, John H.

    2014-01-01

    The dementia of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) results primarily from degeneration of neurons that furnish glutamatergic corticocortical connections that subserve cognition. Although neuron death is minimal in the absence of AD, age-related cognitive decline does occur in animals as well as humans, and it decreases quality of life for elderly people. Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to synapse loss and/or alterations of synaptic proteins that impair function in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These synaptic alterations are likely reversible, such that maintenance of synaptic health in the face of aging is a critically important therapeutic goal. Here, we show that riluzole can protect against some of the synaptic alterations in hippocampus that are linked to age-related memory loss in rats. Riluzole increases glutamate uptake through glial transporters and is thought to decrease glutamate spillover to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors while increasing synaptic glutamatergic activity. Treated aged rats were protected against age-related cognitive decline displayed in nontreated aged animals. Memory performance correlated with density of thin spines on apical dendrites in CA1, although not with mushroom spines. Furthermore, riluzole-treated rats had an increase in clustering of thin spines that correlated with memory performance and was specific to the apical, but not the basilar, dendrites of CA1. Clustering of synaptic inputs is thought to allow nonlinear summation of synaptic strength. These findings further elucidate neuroplastic changes in glutamatergic circuits with aging and advance therapeutic development to prevent and treat age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25512503

  13. M-type potassium channels modulate Schaffer collateral-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jianli; Kapur, Jaideep

    2012-08-15

    Previous studies have suggested that muscarinic receptor activation modulates glutamatergic transmission. M-type potassium channels mediate the effects of muscarinic activation in the hippocampus, and it has been proposed that they modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We tested whether M1 muscarinic receptor activation enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission via the inhibition of the M-type potassium channels that are present in Schaffer collateral axons and terminals. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. The M1 receptor agonist, NcN-A-343, increased the frequency of mEPSCs, but did not alter their amplitude. The M-channel blocker XE991 and its analogue linopirdine also increased the frequency of mEPSCs. Flupirtine, which opens M-channels, had the opposite effect. XE991 did not enhance mEPSCs frequency in a calcium-free external medium. Blocking P/Q- and N-type calcium channels abolished the effect of XE991 on mEPSCs. These data suggested that the inhibition of M-channels increases presynaptic calcium-dependent glutamate release in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effects of these agents on the membrane potentials of presynaptic CA3 pyramidal neurons were studied using current clamp recordings; activation of M1 receptors and blocking M-channels depolarized neurons and increased burst firing. The input resistance of CA3 neurons was increased by the application of McN-A-343 and XE991; these effects were consistent with the closure of M-channels. Muscarinic activation inhibits M-channels in CA3 pyramidal neurons and its efferents – Schaffer collateral, which causes the depolarization, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and ultimately elevates the intracellular calcium concentration to increase the release of glutamate on CA1 pyramidal neurons. PMID:22674722

  14. Glutamatergic regulation prevents hippocampal-dependent age-related cognitive decline through dendritic spine clustering.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Ana C; Lambert, Hilary K; Grossman, Yael S; Dumitriu, Dani; Waldman, Rachel; Jannetty, Sophia K; Calakos, Katina; Janssen, William G; McEwen, Bruce S; Morrison, John H

    2014-12-30

    The dementia of Alzheimer's disease (AD) results primarily from degeneration of neurons that furnish glutamatergic corticocortical connections that subserve cognition. Although neuron death is minimal in the absence of AD, age-related cognitive decline does occur in animals as well as humans, and it decreases quality of life for elderly people. Age-related cognitive decline has been linked to synapse loss and/or alterations of synaptic proteins that impair function in regions such as the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. These synaptic alterations are likely reversible, such that maintenance of synaptic health in the face of aging is a critically important therapeutic goal. Here, we show that riluzole can protect against some of the synaptic alterations in hippocampus that are linked to age-related memory loss in rats. Riluzole increases glutamate uptake through glial transporters and is thought to decrease glutamate spillover to extrasynaptic NMDA receptors while increasing synaptic glutamatergic activity. Treated aged rats were protected against age-related cognitive decline displayed in nontreated aged animals. Memory performance correlated with density of thin spines on apical dendrites in CA1, although not with mushroom spines. Furthermore, riluzole-treated rats had an increase in clustering of thin spines that correlated with memory performance and was specific to the apical, but not the basilar, dendrites of CA1. Clustering of synaptic inputs is thought to allow nonlinear summation of synaptic strength. These findings further elucidate neuroplastic changes in glutamatergic circuits with aging and advance therapeutic development to prevent and treat age-related cognitive decline. PMID:25512503

  15. The mesencephalic locomotor region sends a bilateral glutamatergic drive to hindbrain reticulospinal neurons in a tetrapod.

    PubMed

    Ryczko, Dimitri; Auclair, Francois; Cabelguen, Jean-Marie; Dubuc, Réjean

    2016-05-01

    In vertebrates, stimulation of the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) on one side evokes symmetrical locomotor movements on both sides. How this occurs was previously examined in detail in a swimmer using body undulations (lamprey), but in tetrapods the downstream projections from the MLR to brainstem neurons are not fully understood. Here we examined the brainstem circuits from the MLR to identified reticulospinal neurons in the salamander Notophthalmus viridescens. Using neural tracing, we show that the MLR sends bilateral projections to the middle reticular nucleus (mRN, rostral hindbrain) and the inferior reticular nucleus (iRN, caudal hindbrain). Ca(2+) imaging coupled to electrophysiology in in vitro isolated brains revealed very similar responses in reticulospinal neurons on both sides to a unilateral MLR stimulation. As the strength of MLR stimulation was increased, the responses increased in size in reticulospinal neurons of the mRN and iRN, but the responses in the iRN were smaller. Bath-application or local microinjections of glutamatergic antagonists markedly reduced reticulospinal neuron responses, indicating that the MLR sends glutamatergic inputs to reticulospinal neurons. In addition, reticulospinal cells responded to glutamate microinjections and the size of the responses paralleled the amount of glutamate microinjected. Immunofluorescence coupled with anatomical tracing confirmed the presence of glutamatergic projections from the MLR to reticulospinal neurons. Overall, we show that the brainstem circuits activated by the MLR in the salamander are organized similarly to those previously described in lampreys, indicating that the anatomo-physiological features of the locomotor drive are well conserved in vertebrates. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:1361-1383, 2016. © 2015 The Authors The Journal of Comparative Neurology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26470600

  16. Inhibition of Protein Phosphatase 2A: Focus on the Glutamatergic System.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Eduardo R; Leuzy, Antoine; Souza, Diogo O; Portela, Luis V

    2016-08-01

    In a recent review published in Molecular Neurobiology, Kamat and colleagues (Mol Neurobiol. 2014 Dec;50(3):852-65) highlighted the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in Okadaic acid (OKA)-induced neurotoxicity. In this review, the authors underline a wide range of pathological signaling pathways involved in OKA-induced neurotoxicity; however, the role of glutamate was only briefly described. We believe that the hyperactivation of the glutamatergic system is a key pathophysiological player in OKA-induced neurotoxicity and deserves serious attention. In this commentary, we propose an integrative model linking glutamate and PP2A and put forward some unanswered questions. PMID:26141124

  17. The AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel robustly rescues amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology in sporadic ALS model mice

    PubMed Central

    Akamatsu, Megumi; Yamashita, Takenari; Hirose, Naoki; Teramoto, Sayaka; Kwak, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Both TDP-43 pathology and failure of RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2, are etiology-linked molecular abnormalities that concomitantly occur in the motor neurons of the majority of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). AR2 mice, in which an RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is conditionally knocked out in the motor neurons, exhibit a progressive ALS phenotype with TDP-43 pathology in the motor neurons through a Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism. Therefore, amelioration of the increased Ca2+ influx by AMPA receptor antagonists may be a potential ALS therapy. Here, we showed that orally administered perampanel, a selective, non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist significantly prevented the progression of the ALS phenotype and normalized the TDP-43 pathology-associated death of motor neurons in the AR2 mice. Given that perampanel is an approved anti-epileptic drug, perampanel is a potential candidate ALS drug worthy of a clinical trial. PMID:27350567

  18. Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA Receptor Subunit Alters the Expression of Short-Term Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, David J.; Sprengel, Rolf; Seeburg, Peter H.; Bannerman, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Deletion of the GluA1 AMPA receptor subunit selectively impairs short-term memory for spatial locations. We further investigated this deficit by examining memory for discrete nonspatial visual stimuli in an operant chamber. Unconditioned suppression of magazine responding to visual stimuli was measured in wild-type and GluA1 knockout mice.…

  19. Identification of an ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1/GRIA1 polymorphism in crossbred beef cows differing in fertility

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A proposed functional polymorphism in the ionotropic glutamate receptor AMPA1 (GRIA1) has been reported to influence antral follicle numbers and fertility in cows. Repeat Breeder cows that fail to produce a calf in multiple seasons have been reported to have reduced numbers of small (1-3 mm) antral ...

  20. The AMPA receptor antagonist perampanel robustly rescues amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathology in sporadic ALS model mice.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Megumi; Yamashita, Takenari; Hirose, Naoki; Teramoto, Sayaka; Kwak, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Both TDP-43 pathology and failure of RNA editing of AMPA receptor subunit GluA2, are etiology-linked molecular abnormalities that concomitantly occur in the motor neurons of the majority of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). AR2 mice, in which an RNA editing enzyme adenosine deaminase acting on RNA 2 (ADAR2) is conditionally knocked out in the motor neurons, exhibit a progressive ALS phenotype with TDP-43 pathology in the motor neurons through a Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA receptor-mediated mechanism. Therefore, amelioration of the increased Ca(2+) influx by AMPA receptor antagonists may be a potential ALS therapy. Here, we showed that orally administered perampanel, a selective, non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist significantly prevented the progression of the ALS phenotype and normalized the TDP-43 pathology-associated death of motor neurons in the AR2 mice. Given that perampanel is an approved anti-epileptic drug, perampanel is a potential candidate ALS drug worthy of a clinical trial. PMID:27350567

  1. Basal Levels of AMPA Receptor GluA1 Subunit Phosphorylation at Threonine 840 and Serine 845 in Hippocampal Neurons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babiec, Walter E.; Guglietta, Ryan; O'Dell, Thomas J.

    2016-01-01

    Dephosphorylation of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) GluA1 subunits at two sites, serine 845 (S845) and threonine 840 (T840), is thought to be involved in NMDA receptor-dependent forms of long-term depression (LTD). Importantly, the notion that dephosphorylation of these sites contributes to LTD assumes that a significant fraction of GluA1 subunits are…

  2. Glyphosate-resistant and conventional canola (Brassica napus L.)responses to glyphosate and Aminomethylphosphonic Acid (AMPA) treatment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Glyphosate-resistant (GR) canola expresses two transgenes: 1) the microbial glyphosate oxidase gene (gox) encoding the glyphosate oxidase enzyme (GOX) that metabolizes glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and 2) cp4 that encodes a GR form of the glyphosate target enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshiki...

  3. Modelling fate and transport of glyphosate and AMPA in the Meuse catchment to assess the contribution of different pollution sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, Nele; Seuntjens, Piet

    2013-04-01

    Large river basins have multiple sources of pesticides and usually the pollution sources are spread over the entire catchment. The cumulative effect of pesticides entering the river system in upstream areas and the formation of persistent degradation products can compromise downstream water use e.g. raw water quality for drinking water abstractions. For assessments at catchment scale pesticide fluxes coming from different sources and sub basins need to be taken into account. To improve management strategies, a sound understanding of the sources, emission routes, transport, environmental fate and conversion of pesticides is needed. In the Netherlands, the Meuse river basin is an important source for drinking water production. The river suffers from elevated concentrations of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA). For AMPA it is rather unclear to what extent the pollution is related to glyphosate degradation and what is the contribution of other sources, especial phosphonates in domestic and industrial waste water. Based on the available monitoring data only it is difficult to distinguish between AMPA sources in such a large river basin. This hampers interpretation and decision making for water quality management in the Meuse catchment. Here, application of water quality models is very useful to obtain complementary information and insights. Modelling allows accounting for temporal and spatial variability in discharge and concentrations as well as distinguishing the contribution from conversion processes. In this study, a model for the river Meuse was developed and applied to assess the contribution of tributary and transnational influxes, glyphosate degradation and other sources to the AMPA pollution.

  4. AMPA receptor-mediated alterations of intracellular calcium homeostasis in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells in vitro: correlates to dark cell degeneration.

    PubMed

    Strahlendorf, J C; Brandon, T; Miles, R; Strahlendorf, H K

    1998-11-01

    In the rat cerebellar slice preparation in vitro, excessive DL-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-receptor activation elicits a characteristic type of excitotoxicity of Purkinje cells (PCs) known as dark cell degeneration (DCD). DCD models neurotoxicity of PCs and hippocampal pyramidal neurons in vivo following hyperexcitable states. The intent of this study was to: a) determine whether AMPA-induced neurotoxicity of PCs is correlated with temporally and spatially restricted rises in intracellular Ca2+ and b) whether GYKI 52466 and nominal external Ca2+, conditions that reduced expression of AMPA-elicited DCD, altered the induced Ca2+ patterns. Employing the Ca2+-sensitive dye Fluo-3 and a confocal laser scanning microscope, we evaluated changes in intracellular Ca2+ within PCs in a cerebellar slice preparation. AMPA application alone (30 microM for 30 min) caused a significant initial rise in perinuclear and cytoplasmic Ca2+ that returned to control levels during the latter part of the AMPA exposure period. Following removal of AMPA (expression period), perinuclear and cytoplasmic Ca2+ displayed a significant delayed rise peaking transiently 60 min after AMPA removal. The efficacy of GYKI 52466 and nominal external Ca2+ conditions to attenuate AMPA-induced DCD was correlated to reductions in AMPA-induced transient elevations in perinuclear and cytoplasmic Ca2+ levels during the expression phase and to a lesser extent during the exposure period. The present data suggest that during the expression phase, the delayed perinuclear and cytoplasmic Ca2+ transient may be the harbinger of impending loss of Ca2+ homeostasis and cell damage. PMID:9814545

  5. Reinforcement-Related Regulation of AMPA Glutamate Receptor Subunits in the Ventral Tegmental Area Enhances Motivation for Cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kwang Ho; Edwards, Scott; Graham, Danielle L.; Larson, Erin B.; Whisler, Kimberly N.; Simmons, Diana; Friedman, Allyson K.; Walsh, Jessica J.; Rahman, Zia; Monteggia, Lisa M.; Eisch, Amelia J.; Neve, Rachael L.; Nestler, Eric J.; Han, Ming-Hu; Self, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic cocaine use produces numerous biological changes in brain, but relatively few are functionally associated with cocaine reinforcement. Here we show that daily intravenous cocaine self-administration, but not passive cocaine administration, induces dynamic up-regulation of the AMPA glutamate receptor subunits GluR1 and GluR2 in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of rats. Increases in GluR1 protein and GluR1S845 phosphorylation are associated with increased GluR1 mRNA in self-administering animals, while increased GluR2 protein levels occurred despite substantial decreases in GluR2 mRNA. We investigated the functional significance of GluR1 up-regulation in the VTA on cocaine self-administration using localized viral-mediated gene transfer. Over-expression of GluR1WT in rat VTA primarily infected dopamine neurons (75%), and increased AMPA receptor-mediated membrane rectification in these neurons with AMPA application. Similar GluR1WT over-expression potentiated locomotor responses to intra-VTA AMPA, but not NMDA, infusions. In cocaine self-administering animals, over-expression of GluR1WT in the VTA markedly increased the motivation for cocaine injections on a progressive ratio schedule of cocaine reinforcement. In contrast, over-expression of protein kinase A-resistant GluR1S845A in the VTA reduced peak rates of cocaine self-administration on a fixed ratio reinforcement schedule. Neither viral vector altered sucrose self-administration, and over-expression of GluR1WT or GluR1S845A in the adjacent substantia nigra had no effect on cocaine self-administration. Taken together, these results suggest that dynamic regulation of AMPA receptors in the VTA during cocaine self-administration contributes to cocaine addiction by acting to facilitate subsequent cocaine use. PMID:21613507

  6. Concomitant manipulation of murine NMDA- and AMPA-receptors to produce pro-cognitive drug effects in mice.

    PubMed

    Vignisse, Julie; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Grigoriev, Vladimir; Bolkunov, Alexei; Proshin, Alexey; Bettendorff, Lucien; Bachurin, Sergey; Strekalova, Tatyana

    2014-02-01

    Bifunctional drug therapy targeting distinct receptor signalling systems can generate increased efficacy at lower concentrations compared to monofunctional therapy. Non-competitive blockade of the NMDA receptors or the potentiation of AMPA receptors is well documented to result in memory enhancement. Here, we compared the efficacy of the low-affinity NMDA receptor blocker memantine or the positive modulator of AMPA receptor QXX (in C57BL/6J at 1 or 5mg/kg, ip) with new derivatives of isothiourea (0.5-1 mg/kg, ip) that have bifunctional efficacy. Low-affinity NMDA blockade by these derivatives was achieved by introducing greater flexibility into the molecule, and AMPA receptor stimulation was produced by a sulfamide-containing derivative of isothiourea. Contextual learning was examined in a step-down avoidance task and extinction of contextual memory was studied in a fear-conditioning paradigm. Memantine enhanced contextual learning while QXX facilitated memory extinction; both drugs were effective at 5 mg/kg. The new derivative IPAC-5 elevated memory scores in both tasks at the dose 0.5 mg/kg and exhibited the lowest IC₅₀ values of NMDA receptor blockade and highest potency of AMPA receptor stimulation. Thus, among the new drugs tested, IPAC-5 replicated the properties of memantine and QXX in one administration with increased potency. Our data suggest that a concomitant manipulation of NMDA- and AMPA-receptors results in pro-cognitive effects and supports the concept bifunctional drug therapy as a promising strategy to replace monofunctional therapies with greater efficacy and improved compliance. PMID:23993168

  7. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, in a range of animal models

    PubMed Central

    Gigler, G; Móricz, K; ágoston, M; Simó, A; Albert, M; Benedek, A; Kapus, G; Kertész, S; Vegh, M; Barkóczy, J; Markó, B; Szabó, G; Matucz, É; Gacsályi, I; Lévay, G; Hársing, L G; Szénási, G

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: Blockade of AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) receptors is a good treatment option for a variety of central nervous system disorders. The present study evaluated the neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332, a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist, as a potential drug candidate. Experimental approach: AMPA antagonist effects of EGIS-8332 were measured using patch-clamp techniques. Neuroprotective and anticonvulsant effects of EGIS-8332 were evaluated in various experimental models, relative to those of GYKI 53405. Key results: EGIS-8332 inhibited AMPA currents in rat cerebellar Purkinje cells and inhibited the AMPA- and quisqualate-induced excitotoxicity in primary cultures of telencephalon neurons (IC50=5.1-9.0 μM), in vitro. Good anticonvulsant actions were obtained in maximal electroshock-, sound- and chemically-induced seizures (range of ED50=1.4-14.0 mg kg−1 i.p.) in mice. Four days after transient global cerebral ischaemia, EGIS-8332 decreased neuronal loss in the hippocampal CA1 area in gerbils and rats. EGIS-8332 dose-dependently reduced cerebral infarct size after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice and rats (minimum effective dose=3 mg kg−1 i.p.). Side effects of EGIS-8332 emerged much above its pharmacologically active doses. A tendency for better efficacy of GYKI 53405 than that of EGIS-8332 was observed in anticonvulsant tests that reached statistical significance in few cases, while the contrary was perceived in cerebral ischaemia tests. Conclusions and implications: EGIS-8332 seems suitable for further development for the treatment of epilepsy, ischaemia and stroke based on its efficacy in a variety of experimental disease models, and on its low side effect potential. PMID:17603549

  8. Auxiliary Subunit GSG1L Acts to Suppress Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptor Function

    PubMed Central

    McGee, Thomas P.; Bats, Cécile

    2015-01-01

    AMPA-type glutamate receptors are ligand-gated cation channels responsible for a majority of the fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the brain. Their behavior and calcium permeability depends critically on their subunit composition and the identity of associated auxiliary proteins. Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) contribute to various forms of synaptic plasticity, and their dysfunction underlies a number of serious neurological conditions. For CP-AMPARs, the prototypical transmembrane AMPAR regulatory protein stargazin, which acts as an auxiliary subunit, enhances receptor function by increasing single-channel conductance, slowing channel gating, increasing calcium permeability, and relieving the voltage-dependent block by endogenous intracellular polyamines. We find that, in contrast, GSG1L, a transmembrane auxiliary protein identified recently as being part of the AMPAR proteome, acts to reduce the weighted mean single-channel conductance and calcium permeability of recombinant CP-AMPARs, while increasing polyamine-dependent rectification. To examine the effects of GSG1L on native AMPARs, we manipulated its expression in cerebellar and hippocampal neurons. Transfection of GSG1L into mouse cultured cerebellar stellate cells that lack this protein increased the inward rectification of mEPSCs. Conversely, shRNA-mediated knockdown of endogenous GSG1L in rat cultured hippocampal pyramidal neurons led to an increase in mEPSC amplitude and in the underlying weighted mean single-channel conductance, revealing that GSG1L acts to suppress current flow through native CP-AMPARs. Thus, our data suggest that GSG1L extends the functional repertoire of AMPAR auxiliary subunits, which can act not only to enhance but also diminish current flow through their associated AMPARs. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) are an important group of receptors for the neurotransmitter glutamate. These receptors contribute to various forms of

  9. Glyphosate and AMPA in U.S. streams, groundwater, precipitation and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, William A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Dietze, Julie E.

    2014-01-01

    Herbicides containing glyphosate are used in more than 130 countries on more than 100 crops. In the United States (U.S.), agricultural use of glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] has increased from less than 10,000 metric tons per year (active ingredient) in 1993 to more than 70,000 metric tons per year in 2006. In 2006, glyphosate accounted for about 20 percent of all herbicide use (by weight of active ingredient). Glyphosate formulations such as Roundup® are used in homes and in agriculture. Part of the reason for the popularity of glyphosate is the perception that it is an “environmentally benign” herbicide that has low toxicity and little mobility or persistence in the environment. The U.S. Geological Survey developed an analytical method using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry that can detect small amounts of glyphosate and its primary degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in water and sediment. Results from more than 2,000 samples collected from locations distributed across the U.S. indicate that glyphosate is more mobile and occurs more widely in the environment than was previously thought. Glyphosate and AMPA were detected (reporting limits between 0.1 and 0.02 micrograms per liter) in samples collected from surface water, groundwater, rainfall, soil water, and soil, at concentrations from less than 0.1 to more than 100 micrograms per liter. Glyphosate was detected more frequently in rain (86%), ditches and drains (71%), and soil (63%); and less frequently in groundwater (3%) and large rivers (18%). AMPA was detected more frequently in rain (86%), soil (82%), and large rivers (78%); and less frequently in groundwater (8%) and wetlands or vernal pools (37%). Most observed concentrations of glyphosate were well below levels of concern for humans or wildlife, and none exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Maximum Contaminant Level of 700 micrograms per liter. However, the ecosystem effects of chronic low

  10. Brain glutamatergic characteristics of pediatric offspring of parents with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Singh, Manpreet; Spielman, Daniel; Adleman, Nancy; Alegria, Dylan; Howe, Meghan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki

    2010-05-30

    We wished to determine whether decreases in prefrontal glutamate concentrations occur in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder with and at high risk for mania. Sixty children and adolescents, 9-18 years old, of parents with bipolar I or II disorder (20 offspring with established history of mania, "BD", 20 offspring with symptoms subsyndromal to mania, "SS", and 20 healthy controls "HC") were examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T to study glutamatergic metabolite concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A signal for reductions in absolute glutamate concentrations in the ACC was seen in the BD compared with HC and SS groups. No other statistically significant differences among groups were found. Offspring of parents with BD with prior histories of mania may have disruptions in glutamatergic function compared with HC or children at risk for BD who have not yet developed mania. Longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm whether prefrontal glutamate decreases only after the onset of full mania. PMID:20413280

  11. Brain glutamatergic characteristics of pediatric offspring of parents with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Manpreet; Spielman, Daniel; Adleman, Nancy; Alegria, Dylan; Howe, Meghan; Reiss, Allan; Chang, Kiki

    2010-01-01

    We wished to determine whether decreases in prefrontal glutamate concentrations occur in offspring of parents with bipolar disorder with and at high risk for mania. Sixty children and adolescents, 9-18 years old, of parents with bipolar I or II disorder (20 offspring with established history of mania,“BD”, 20 offspring with symptoms subsyndromal to mania, “SS”, and 20 healthy controls “HC”) were examined using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 3T to study glutamatergic metabolite concentrations in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). A signal for reductions in absolute glutamate concentrations in the ACC was seen in the BD compared to HC and SS groups. No other statistically significant differences among groups were found. Offspring of parents with BD with prior histories of mania may have disruptions in glutamatergic function compared to healthy controls or children at risk for BD who have not yet developed mania. Longitudinal studies are necessary to confirm whether prefrontal glutamate decreases only after the onset of full mania. PMID:20413280

  12. MeCP2 Controls Excitatory Synaptic Strength by Regulating Glutamatergic Synapse Number

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hsiao-Tuan; Zoghbi, Huda Y.; Rosenmund, Christian

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY MeCP2 is a transcriptional repressor critical for normal neurological function. Prior studies demonstrated that either loss or doubling of MeCP2 results in postnatal neurodevelopmental disorders. To understand the impact of MeCP2 expression on neuronal function, we studied the synaptic properties of individual neurons from mice that either lack or express twice the normal levels of MeCP2. Hippocampal glutamatergic neurons that lack MeCP2 display a 46% reduction in synaptic response whereas neurons with doubling of MeCP2 exhibit a two-fold enhancement in synaptic response. Further analysis shows that these changes were primarily due to the number of synapses formed. These results reveal that MeCP2 is a key rate-limiting factor in regulating glutamatergic synapse formation in early postnatal development, and that changes in excitatory synaptic strength may underlie global network alterations in neurological disorders due to altered MeCP2 levels. PMID:17920015

  13. Glutamatergic function in the resting awake human brain is supported by uniformly high oxidative energy

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Fahmeed; Fulbright, Robert K; Shulman, Robert G; Rothman, Douglas L

    2013-01-01

    Rodent 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies show that glutamatergic signaling requires high oxidative energy in the awake resting state and allowed calibration of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signal in terms of energy relative to the resting energy. Here, we derived energy used for glutamatergic signaling in the awake resting human. We analyzed human data of electroencephalography (EEG), positron emission tomography (PET) maps of oxygen (CMRO2) and glucose (CMRglc) utilization, and calibrated fMRI from a variety of experimental conditions. CMRglc and EEG in the visual cortex were tightly coupled over several conditions, showing that the oxidative demand for signaling was four times greater than the demand for nonsignaling events in the awake state. Variations of CMRO2 and CMRglc from gray-matter regions and networks were within ±10% of means, suggesting that most areas required similar energy for ubiquitously high resting activity. Human calibrated fMRI results suggest that changes of fMRI signal in cognitive studies contribute at most ±10% CMRO2 changes from rest. The PET data of sleep, vegetative state, and anesthesia show metabolic reductions from rest, uniformly >20% across, indicating no region is selectively reduced when consciousness is lost. Future clinical investigations will benefit from using quantitative metabolic measures. PMID:23299240

  14. Noradrenergic refinement of glutamatergic neuronal circuits in the lateral superior olivary nucleus before hearing onset

    PubMed Central

    Hirao, Kenzo; Eto, Kei; Nakahata, Yoshihisa; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Nagai, Taku

    2015-01-01

    Neuronal circuit plasticity during development is fundamental for precise network formation. Pioneering studies of the developmental visual cortex indicated that noradrenaline (NA) is crucial for ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period in the visual cortex. Recent research demonstrated tonotopic map formation by NA during the critical period in the auditory system, indicating that NA also contributes to synaptic plasticity in this system. The lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory system receives glutamatergic input from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and undergoes circuit remodeling during postnatal development. LSO is innervated by noradrenergic afferents and is therefore a suitable model to study the function of NA in refinement of neuronal circuits. Chemical lesions of the noradrenergic system and chronic inhibition of α2-adrenoceptors in vivo during postnatal development in mice disrupted functional elimination and strengthening of VCN-LSO afferents. This was potentially mediated by activation of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors and inhibition of glutamate release because NA presynaptically suppressed excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) through α2-adrenoceptors during the first two postnatal weeks in an in vitro study. Furthermore, NA and α2-adrenoceptor agonist induced long-term suppression of EPSCs and decreased glutamate release. These results suggest that NA has a critical role in synaptic refinement of the VCN-LSO glutamatergic pathway through failure of synaptic transmission. Because of the ubiquitous distribution of NA afferents and the extensive expression of α2-adrenoceptors throughout the immature brain, this phenomenon might be widespread in the developing central nervous system. PMID:26203112

  15. Noradrenergic refinement of glutamatergic neuronal circuits in the lateral superior olivary nucleus before hearing onset.

    PubMed

    Hirao, Kenzo; Eto, Kei; Nakahata, Yoshihisa; Ishibashi, Hitoshi; Nagai, Taku; Nabekura, Junichi

    2015-09-01

    Neuronal circuit plasticity during development is fundamental for precise network formation. Pioneering studies of the developmental visual cortex indicated that noradrenaline (NA) is crucial for ocular dominance plasticity during the critical period in the visual cortex. Recent research demonstrated tonotopic map formation by NA during the critical period in the auditory system, indicating that NA also contributes to synaptic plasticity in this system. The lateral superior olive (LSO) in the auditory system receives glutamatergic input from the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) and undergoes circuit remodeling during postnatal development. LSO is innervated by noradrenergic afferents and is therefore a suitable model to study the function of NA in refinement of neuronal circuits. Chemical lesions of the noradrenergic system and chronic inhibition of α2-adrenoceptors in vivo during postnatal development in mice disrupted functional elimination and strengthening of VCN-LSO afferents. This was potentially mediated by activation of presynaptic α2-adrenoceptors and inhibition of glutamate release because NA presynaptically suppressed excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) through α2-adrenoceptors during the first two postnatal weeks in an in vitro study. Furthermore, NA and α2-adrenoceptor agonist induced long-term suppression of EPSCs and decreased glutamate release. These results suggest that NA has a critical role in synaptic refinement of the VCN-LSO glutamatergic pathway through failure of synaptic transmission. Because of the ubiquitous distribution of NA afferents and the extensive expression of α2-adrenoceptors throughout the immature brain, this phenomenon might be widespread in the developing central nervous system. PMID:26203112

  16. Glycoprotein M6a is present in glutamatergic axons in adult rat forebrain and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ben; Werner, Hauke B; Flügge, Gabriele

    2008-03-01

    Glycoprotein M6a is a neuronally expressed member of the proteolipid protein (PLP) family of tetraspans. In vitro studies suggested a potential role in neurite outgrowth and spine formation and previous investigations have identified M6a as a stress-regulated gene. To investigate whether the distribution of M6a correlates with neuronal structures susceptible to alterations in response to stress, we localized M6a expression in neurons of hippocampal formation, prefrontal cortex and cerebellum using in situ hybridization and confocal immunofluorescence microscopy. In situ hybridization confirmed that M6a is expressed in dentate gyrus and cerebellar granule neurons and in hippocampal and cortical pyramidal neurons. Confocal microscopy localized M6a immunoreactivity to distinct sites within axonal membranes, but not in dendrites or neuronal somata. Moreover, M6a colocalized with synaptic markers of glutamatergic, but not GABAergic nerve terminals. M6a expression in the adult brain is particularly strong in unmyelinated axonal fibers, i.e. cerebellar parallel and hippocampal mossy fibers. In contrast, myelinated axons exhibit only minimal M6a immunoreactivity localized exclusively to terminal regions. The present neuroanatomical data demonstrate that M6a is an axonal component of glutamatergic neurons and that it is localized to distinct sites of the axonal plasma membrane of pyramidal and granule cells. PMID:18241840

  17. Melatonin receptor activation increases glutamatergic synaptic transmission in the rat medial lateral habenula.

    PubMed

    Evely, Katherine M; Hudson, Randall L; Dubocovich, Margarita L; Haj-Dahmane, Samir

    2016-05-01

    Melatonin (MLT) is secreted from the pineal gland and mediates its physiological effects through activation of two G protein-coupled receptors, MT1 and MT2 . These receptors are expressed in several brain areas, including the habenular complex, a pair of nuclei that relay information from forebrain to midbrain and modulate a plethora of behaviors, including sleep, mood, and pain. However, so far, the precise mechanisms by which MLT control the function of habenula neurons remain unknown. Using whole cell recordings from male rat brain slices, we examined the effects of MLT on the excitability of medial lateral habenula (MLHb) neurons. We found that MLT had no significant effects on the intrinsic excitability of MLHb neurons, but profoundly increased the amplitude of glutamate-mediated evoked excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSC). The increase in strength of glutamate synapses onto MLHb neurons was mediated by an increase in glutamate release. The MLT-induced increase in glutamatergic synaptic transmission was blocked by the competitive MT1 /MT2 receptor antagonist luzindole (LUZ). These results unravel a potential cellular mechanism by which MLT receptor activation enhances the excitability of MLHb neurons. The MLT-mediated control of glutamatergic inputs to the MLHb may play a key role in the modulation of various behaviors controlled by the habenular complex. PMID:26799638

  18. ASIC-dependent LTP at multiple glutamatergic synapses in amygdala network is required for fear memory

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Po-Han; Chien, Ta-Chun; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Lien, Cheng-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Genetic variants in the human ortholog of acid-sensing ion channel-1a subunit (ASIC1a) gene are associated with panic disorder and amygdala dysfunction. Both fear learning and activity-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) of cortico-basolateral amygdala (BLA) synapses are impaired in ASIC1a-null mice, suggesting a critical role of ASICs in fear memory formation. In this study, we found that ASICs were differentially expressed within the amygdala neuronal population, and the extent of LTP at various glutamatergic synapses correlated with the level of ASIC expression in postsynaptic neurons. Importantly, selective deletion of ASIC1a in GABAergic cells, including amygdala output neurons, eliminated LTP in these cells and reduced fear learning to the same extent as that found when ASIC1a was selectively abolished in BLA glutamatergic neurons. Thus, fear learning requires ASIC-dependent LTP at multiple amygdala synapses, including both cortico-BLA input synapses and intra-amygdala synapses on output neurons. PMID:25988357

  19. Optogenetic fMRI in the mouse hippocampus: Hemodynamic response to brief glutamatergic stimuli.

    PubMed

    Lebhardt, Philipp; Hohenberg, Christian Clemm von; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Kelsch, Wolfgang; Sartorius, Alexander

    2016-03-01

    The combination of optogenetics with functional magnetic resonance imaging is a promising tool to study the causal relationship between specific neuronal populations and global brain activity. We employed this technique to study the brain response to recruitment of glutamatergic neurons in the mouse hippocampus. The light-sensitive protein channelrhodopsin-2 was expressed in α-CamKII-positive glutamatergic neurons in the left hippocampus (N = 10). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed during local laser stimulation, with stimulus duration of 1 second. The hemodynamic response to these stimuli was analyzed on a whole-brain level. In a secondary analysis, we examined the impact of the stimulation locus on the dorso-ventral axis within the hippocampal formation. The hemodynamic response in the mouse hippocampus had an earlier peak and a shorter duration compared to those observed in humans. Photostimulation was associated with significantly increased blood oxygen level-dependent signal in group statistics: bilaterally in the hippocampus, frontal lobe and septum, ipsilaterally in the nucleus accumbens and contralaterally in the striatum. More dorsal position of the laser fiber was associated with a stronger activation in projection regions (insular cortex and striatum). The characterization of brain-region-specific hemodynamic response functions may enable more precise interpretation of future functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments. PMID:26661158

  20. Behavioural and molecular endophenotypes in psychotic disorders reveal heritable abnormalities in glutamatergic neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Scoriels, L; Salek, R M; Goodby, E; Grainger, D; Dean, A M; West, J A; Griffin, J L; Suckling, J; Nathan, P J; Lennox, B R; Murray, G K; Bullmore, E T; Jones, P B

    2015-01-01

    Psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia are biologically complex and carry huge population morbidity due to their prevalence, persistence and associated disability. Defined by features such as delusions and hallucinations, they involve cognitive dysfunction and neurotransmitter dysregulations that appear mostly to involve the dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems. A number of genetic and environmental factors are associated with these disorders but it has been difficult to identify the biological pathways underlying the principal symptoms. The endophenotype concept of stable, heritable traits that form a mechanistic link between genes and an overt expression of the disorder has potential to reduce the complexity of psychiatric phenotypes. In this study, we used a genetically sensitive design with individuals with a first episode of psychosis, their non-affected first-degree relatives and non-related healthy controls. Metabolomic analysis was combined with neurocognitive assessment to identify multilevel endophenotypic patterns: one concerned reaction times during the performance of cognitive and emotional tests that have previously been associated with the glutamate neurotransmission system, the other involved metabolites involved directly and indirectly in the co-activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, a major receptor of the glutamate system. These cognitive and metabolic endophenotypes may comprise a single construct, such that genetically mediated dysfunction in the glutamate system may be responsible for delays in response to cognitive and emotional functions in psychotic disorders. This focus on glutamatergic neurotransmission should guide drug discovery and experimental medicine programmes in schizophrenia and related disorders. PMID:25826115

  1. Glutamatergic Antipsychotic Drugs: A New Dawn in the Treatment of Schizophrenia?

    PubMed Central

    Stone, James M.

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence for glutamate abnormalities in schizophrenia support the development of novel antipsychotic agents targeting this system. Early studies investigating modulation of the glutamate system using glycine, D-serine and sarcosine in patients with schizophrenia have demonstrated significant effects, particularly on negative symptoms, conventionally thought to be refractory to antipsychotic drug treatment. Drugs targeting the glutamate system also have a completely different side-effect profile to dopamine D2 antagonists, with no propensity to extrapyramidal side effects, prolactinaemia or weight gain. It has been hypothesized that glutamatergic drugs may be of benefit to the 20–30% of individuals with schizophrenia who fail to show any response to dopaminergic agents, and may be particularly useful in the early stages of the illness, where they may be disease-modifying. A number of glutamatergic compounds have been reported as having promising results in phase II drug trials. If these reach the clinic, they will represent the first truly novel approach to pharmacotherapy in schizophrenia for more than 50 years. PMID:23983922

  2. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning.

    PubMed

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca(2+) signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. PMID:27374604

  3. Glial abnormalities in substance use disorders and depression: Does shared glutamatergic dysfunction contribute to comorbidity?

    PubMed Central

    Niciu, Mark J.; Henter, Ioline D.; Sanacora, Gerard; Zarate, Carlos A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Preclinical and clinical research in neuropsychiatric disorders, particularly mood and substance use disorders, have historically focused on neurons; however, glial cells – astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes – also play key roles in these disorders. Methods Peer-reviewed PubMed/Medline articles published through December 2012 were identified using the following keyword combinations: glia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes/glia, microglia, substance use, substance abuse, substance dependence, alcohol, opiate, opioid, cocaine, psychostimulants, stimulants, and glutamate. Results Depressive and substance use disorders are highly comorbid, suggesting a common or overlapping aetiology and pathophysiology. Reduced astrocyte cell number occurs in both disorders. Altered glutamate neurotransmission and metabolism – specifically changes in the levels/activity of transporters, receptors, and synaptic proteins potentially related to synaptic physiology – appear to be salient features of both disorders. Glial cell pathology may also underlie the pathophysiology of both disorders via impaired astrocytic production of neurotrophic factors. Microglial/neuroinflammatory pathology is also evident in both depressive and substance use disorders. Finally, oligodendrocyte impairment decreases myelination and impairs expression of myelin-related genes in both substance use and depressive disorders. Conclusions Glial-mediated glutamatergic dysfunction is a common neuropathological pathway in both substance use and depression. Therefore, glutamatergic neuromodulation is a rational drug target in this comorbidity. PMID:24024876

  4. Repeated social defeat stress enhances glutamatergic synaptic plasticity in the VTA and cocaine place conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Stelly, Claire E; Pomrenze, Matthew B; Cook, Jason B; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Enduring memories of sensory cues associated with drug intake drive addiction. It is well known that stressful experiences increase addiction vulnerability. However, it is not clear how repeated stress promotes learning of cue-drug associations, as repeated stress generally impairs learning and memory processes unrelated to stressful experiences. Here, we show that repeated social defeat stress in rats causes persistent enhancement of long-term potentiation (LTP) of NMDA receptor-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the ventral tegmental area (VTA). Protein kinase A-dependent increase in the potency of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate-induced Ca2+ signaling underlies LTP facilitation. Notably, defeated rats display enhanced learning of contextual cues paired with cocaine experience assessed using a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm. Enhancement of LTP in the VTA and cocaine CPP in behaving rats both require glucocorticoid receptor activation during defeat episodes. These findings suggest that enhanced glutamatergic plasticity in the VTA may contribute, at least partially, to increased addiction vulnerability following repeated stressful experiences. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15448.001 PMID:27374604

  5. Switching from Contextual to Tone Fear Conditioning and Vice Versa: The Key Role of the Glutamatergic Hippocampal-Lateral Septal Neurotransmission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calandreau, Ludovic; Desgranges, Bertrand; Jaffard, Robert; Desmedt, Aline

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present experiment was to directly assess the role of the glutamatergic hippocampal-lateral septal (HPC-LS) neurotransmission in tone and contextual fear conditioning. We found that pretraining infusion of glutamatergic acid into the lateral septum promotes tone conditioning and concomitantly disrupts contextual conditioning.…

  6. A glutamatergic reward input from the dorsal raphe to ventral tegmental area dopamine neurons

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Jia; Zhang, Shiliang; Wang, Hui-Ling; Wang, Huikun; de Jesus Aceves Buendia, Jose; Hoffman, Alexander F.; Lupica, Carl R.; Seal, Rebecca P.; Morales, Marisela

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stimulation of the dorsal raphe (DR) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) activates the fibers of the same reward pathway but the phenotype of this pathway and the direction of the reward-relevant fibers have not been determined. Here we report rewarding effects following activation of a DR-originating pathway consisting of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGluT3) containing neurons that form asymmetric synapses onto VTA dopamine neurons that project to nucleus accumbens. Optogenetic VTA activation of this projection elicits AMPA-mediated synaptic excitatory currents in VTA mesoaccumbens dopaminergic neurons and causes dopamine release innucleus accumbens. Activation also reinforces instrumental behavior and establishes conditioned place preferences. These findings indicate that the DR-VGluT3 pathway to VTA utilizes glutamate as a neurotransmitter and is a substrate linking the DR—one of the most sensitive reward sites in the brain—to VTA dopaminergic neurons. PMID:25388237

  7. Effects of nootropics on the EEG in conscious rats and their modification by glutamatergic inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Vorobyov, Vasily; Kaptsov, Vladimir; Kovalev, Georgy; Sengpiel, Frank

    2011-05-30

    To study the effects of acute and repeated injections of nootropics and to learn how glutamate receptors might be involved in their mediation, the frequency spectra of cortical and hippocampal electroencephalogram (EEG) were analyzed in non-narcotized rats subcutaneously injected repeatedly with Piracetam (400mg/kg) or its analogue, Noopept (0.2mg/kg), after intracerebroventricular infusions of saline (5 μl) or the antagonists of NMDA and quisqualate/AMPA receptors: CPP (0.1 nmol) and GDEE (1 μmol), respectively. Piracetam increased alpha/beta1 EEG activity in the left frontal cortex, and alpha activity in both the right cortex and hippocampus, with a 10-min latency and 40-min duration. Noopept increased alpha/beta1 activity, with 30-min latency and 40-min duration in all brain areas. CPP pretreatment eliminated Piracetam EEG effects; reduced Noopept effects in the cortex and completely suppressed them in the hippocampus. After four injections of Piracetam, EEG effects were very small in the cortex, and completely lacking in the hippocampus, while GDEE pretreatment partially recovered them. The effect of Noopept in the alpha/beta1 ranges was replaced by increased beta2 activity after the eighth injection, while no effects were observed after the ninth one. GDEE pretreatment restored the effect of Noopept in the beta2 frequency range. These results demonstrate similarities in EEG effects and their mediatory mechanisms for Piracetam and its much more effective analogue, Noopept. Activation of NMDA receptors is involved in the effects of a single injection of the nootropics, whereas activation of quisqualate/AMPA receptors is associated with the decrease in their efficacy after repeated use. PMID:21414388

  8. Elucidation of AMPA receptor-stargazin complexes by cryo-electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Edward C; Yelshanskaya, Maria V; Grassucci, Robert A; Frank, Joachim; Sobolevsky, Alexander I

    2016-07-01

    AMPA-subtype ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs) mediate fast excitatory neurotransmission and contribute to high cognitive processes such as learning and memory. In the brain, AMPAR trafficking, gating, and pharmacology is tightly controlled by transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). Here, we used cryo-electron microscopy to elucidate the structural basis of AMPAR regulation by one of these auxiliary proteins, TARP γ2, or stargazin (STZ). Our structures illuminate the variable interaction stoichiometry of the AMPAR-TARP complex, with one or two TARP molecules binding one tetrameric AMPAR. Analysis of the AMPAR-STZ binding interfaces suggests that electrostatic interactions between the extracellular domains of AMPAR and STZ play an important role in modulating AMPAR function through contact surfaces that are conserved across AMPARs and TARPs. We propose a model explaining how TARPs stabilize the activated state of AMPARs and how the interactions between AMPARs and their auxiliary proteins control fast excitatory synaptic transmission. PMID:27365450

  9. Transport of AMPA receptors during long-term potentiation is impaired in rats with hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Pilar; Piedrafita, Blanca; Felipo, Vicente

    2009-12-01

    Cognitive function is impaired in patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Learning ability is also impaired in rats with hepatic encephalopathy due to portacaval shunts. Long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampus, considered the basis of some forms of learning and memory, is impaired in rats with portacaval shunt. We analyzed the mechanisms by which LTP is impaired in these rats. In control rats, application of the tetanus to induce LTP increases phosphorylation of Thr286 of calcium-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II. This activates the kinase which phosphorylates the GluR1 subunit of AMPA receptors in Ser831 and induces its translocation to the post-synaptic densities. All these steps are completely prevented in rats with hepatic encephalopathy in which the tetanus does not induce phosphorylation of CaMKII or GluR1 nor translocation of this subunit to the post-synaptic membrane. This would explain the impairment in LTP in these rats. PMID:19450629

  10. Ca2+ Permeable AMPA Channels in Diseases of the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Since the discovery and molecular characterization of Ca2+-permeable AMPA channels just over two decades ago, a large body of evidence has accumulated implicating contributions of these unusual glutamate activated channels to selective neurodegeneration in certain conditions, including ischemia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Factors likely involved in their contributions to disease include their distinct patterns of expression in certain neuronal populations, their upregulation via various mechanisms in response to disease associated stresses, and their high permeability to Zn2+ as well as to Ca2+. However, full characterization of their contributions to certain diseases as well as development of therapeutics has been limited by the lack of selective and bioavailable blockers of these channels that can be employed in animals or humans. This review summarizes some of the clues that have emerged over recent years to the contributions of these channels in disease. PMID:22102834

  11. The effect of AMPA receptor blockade on spatial information acquisition, consolidation and expression in juvenile rats.

    PubMed

    Tzakis, Nikolaos; Bosnic, Tim; Ritchie, Thomas; Dixon, Kaylyn; Holahan, Matthew R

    2016-09-01

    Improvement on spatial tasks in rats is observed during a late, postnatal developmental period (post-natal day (PND) 18 - PND 20). The developmental emergence of this spatial function occurs in conjunction with hippocampal connectivity changes and enhanced hippocampal-AMPA receptor-mediated synaptic responses. The current work investigated the effect of AMPAr blockade on the emergence and long-term storage of spatial information in juvenile rats and associated neural activity patterns in the dorsal hippocampus CA1 region. Male, Long Evans rats between the ages of PND 18 and PND 20 were systemically (i.p.) administered the AMPAr antagonist, NBQX, (0, 5 or 10mg/kg) every day prior to hidden platform water maze training (PND 18, 19 and 20), every day immediately post-training or immediately before the probe test (PND 41). NBQX administration prior to training prolonged latencies, pathlength and increased thigmotaxis during the acquisition phase. Administration of NBQX immediately posttraining had no effect on the day-to-day performance. When given a probe test 3weeks later, the saline group across all conditions spent more time in the target quadrant. Rats treated with pretraining 5mg NBQX dose showed a preference for the target quadrant while the posttraining and pretesting 5mg NBQX doses impaired the target quadrant preference. Groups injected with 10mg of NBQX pretraining, posttraining or pretesting did not show a preference for the target quadrant. c-Fos labeling in the CA1 reflected these differences in probe performance in that groups showing greater than chance dwell time in the target quadrant showed more c-Fos labeling in the CA1 region than groups that did not show a target quadrant preference. These findings provide support for the critical role of AMPA receptor-mediated function in the organization and long-term storage of spatial memories acquired during the juvenile period. PMID:27353718

  12. Modeling of slow glutamate diffusion and AMPA receptor activation in the cerebellar glomerulus.

    PubMed

    Saftenku, E E

    2005-06-01

    Synaptic conductances are influenced markedly by the geometry of the space surrounding the synapse since the transient glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft is determined by this geometry. Our paper is an attempt to understand the reasons for slow glutamate diffusion in the cerebellar glomerulus, a structure situated around the enlarged mossy fiber terminal in the cerebellum and surrounded by a glial sheath. For this purpose, analytical expressions for glutamate diffusion in the glomerulus were considered in models with two-, three-, and fractional two-three-dimensional (2D-3D) geometry with an absorbing boundary. The time course of average glutamate concentration in the synaptic cleft of the mossy fiber-granule cell connection was calculated for both direct release of glutamate from the same synaptic unit, and for cumulative spillover of glutamate from neighboring release sites. Several kinetic schemes were examined, and the parameters of the diffusion models were estimated by identifying theoretical activation of AMPA receptors with direct release and spillover components of published experimental AMPA receptor-mediated EPSCs. For model selection, the correspondence of simulated paired-pulse ratio and EPSC increase after prevention of desensitization to experimental values were also taken into consideration. Our results suggest at least a 7- to 10-fold lower apparent diffusion coefficient of glutamate in the porous medium of the glomerulus than in water. The modeling of glutamate diffusion in the 2D-3D geometry gives the best fit of experimental EPSCs. We show that it could be only partly explained by normal diffusion of glutamate in the complex geometry of the glomerulus. We assume that anomalous diffusion of glutamate occurs in the glomerulus. A good match of experimental estimations and theoretical parameters, obtained in the simulations that use an approximation of anomalous diffusion by a solution for fractional Brownian motion, confirms our

  13. Novel AMPA and kainate receptor antagonists containing the pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline ring system: Synthesis and structure-activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Varano, Flavia; Catarzi, Daniela; Colotta, Vittoria; Lenzi, Ombretta; Filacchioni, Guido; Galli, Alessandro; Costagli, Chiara

    2008-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis and AMPA, Gly/NMDA, and KA receptor binding affinities of a new set of 1,9-disubstituted-8-chloro-pyrazolo[1,5-c]quinazoline-2-carboxylates 2-34. Binding data show that, in general, compounds 2-34 bind to the AMPA receptor with good affinity and selectivity. In particular, the obtained results indicate that the contemporary presence of a 1,2-dicarboxylic acid moiety and suitable benzo-substituents on the PQZ system is important to gain selective AMPA receptor antagonists. Moreover, this study shows that the presence of a 2-carboxybenzoylamino substituent at position-9 (compounds 33-34) is important for obtaining selective KA receptor antagonists. Some selected compounds were also tested for their functional antagonistic activity at both AMPA and NMDA receptor-ion channels. PMID:18063372

  14. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulate AMPA receptor phosphorylation and cell-surface localization in concert with pain-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel Z; Chung, Jin M; Chung, Kyungsoon; Kang, Myoung-Goo

    2012-09-01

    Sensitization of dorsal horn neurons (DHNs) in the spinal cord is dependent on pain-related synaptic plasticity and causes persistent pain. The DHN sensitization is mediated by a signal transduction pathway initiated by the activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDA-Rs). Recent studies have shown that elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phosphorylation-dependent trafficking of GluA2 subunit of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate receptors (AMPA-Rs) are a part of the signaling pathway for DHN sensitization. However, the relationship between ROS and AMPA-R phosphorylation and trafficking is not known. Thus, this study investigated the effects of ROS scavengers on the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of GluA1 and GluA2. Intrathecal NMDA- and intradermal capsaicin-induced hyperalgesic mice were used for this study since both pain models share the NMDA-R activation-dependent DHN sensitization in the spinal cord. Our behavioral, biochemical, and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that: 1) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased the phosphorylation of AMPA-Rs at GluA1 (S818, S831, and S845) and GluA2 (S880) subunits; 2) NMDA-R activation in vivo increased cell-surface localization of GluA1 but decreased that of GluA2; and 3) reduction of ROS levels by ROS scavengers PBN (N-tert-butyl-α-phenylnitrone) or TEMPOL (4-hydroxy-2, 2, 6, 6-tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl) reversed these changes in AMPA-Rs, as well as pain-related behavior. Given that AMPA-R trafficking to the cell surface and synapse is regulated by NMDA-R activation-dependent phosphorylation of GluA1 and GluA2, our study suggests that the ROS-dependent changes in the phosphorylation and cell-surface localization of AMPA-Rs are necessary for DHN sensitization and thus, pain-related behavior. We further suggest that ROS reduction will ameliorate these molecular changes and pain. PMID:22770842

  15. Analysis of Synaptotagmin, SV2, and Rab3 Expression in Cortical Glutamatergic and GABAergic Axon Terminals

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Luca; Fattorini, Giorgia; Giovedí, Silvia; Melone, Marcello; Bosco, Federica; Benfenati, Fabio; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic release machineries can be differentiated on the basis of the nature and amount of proteins they express, by performing a quantitative analysis of the degree of co-localization of synaptotagmin (SYT) 1 and 2, synaptic vesicle protein 2 (SV2) A and B, and Rab3a and c in VGLUT1+, VGLUT2+, and VGAT+ terminals and synaptic vesicles (SVs) in rat cerebral cortex. Co-localization studies showed that VGLUT1 puncta had high levels of SV2A and B and of Rab3c, intermediate levels of SYT1, and low levels of SYT2 and Rab3c; VGLUT2 puncta exhibited intermediate levels of all presynaptic proteins studied; whereas vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT) puncta had high levels of SV2A and SYT2, intermediate levels of SYT1, Rab3a, and Rab3c, and low levels of SV2B. Since SV2B is reportedly expressed by glutamatergic neurons and we observed SV2B expression in VGAT puncta, we performed electron microscopic studies and found SV2B positive axon terminals forming symmetric synapses. Immunoisolation studies showed that the expression levels of the protein isoforms varied in the three populations of SVs. Expression of SYT1 was highest in VGLUT1–SVs, while SYT2 expression was similar in the three SV groups. Expression of SV2A was similarly high in all three SV populations, except for SV2B levels that were very low in VGAT SVs. Finally, Rab3a levels were similar in the three SV groups, while Rab3c levels were highest in VGLUT1–SVs. These quantitative results extend our previous studies on the differential expression of presynaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals and indicate that heterogeneity of the respective release machineries can be generated by the differential complement of SV proteins involved in distinct stages of the release process. PMID:22275882

  16. Regulation of AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit surface expression by a 4. 1N-linked actin cytoskeletal association.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Liang, F; Walensky, L D; Huganir, R L

    2000-11-01

    The synaptic localization, clustering, and immobilization of neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels play important roles in synapse formation and synaptic transmission. Although several proteins have been identified that interact with AMPA receptors and that may regulate their synaptic targeting, little is known about the interaction of AMPA receptors with the cytoskeleton. In studies examining the interaction of the AMPA receptor GluR1 subunit with neuronal proteins, we determined that GluR1 interacts with the 4.1G and 4.1N proteins, homologs of the erythrocyte membrane cytoskeletal protein 4.1. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and a heterologous cell system, we demonstrated that both 4.1G and 4.1N bind to a membrane proximal region of the GluR1 C terminus, and that a region within the C-terminal domain of 4.1G or 4.1N is sufficient to mediate the interaction. We also found that 4.1N can associate with GluR1 in vivo and colocalizes with AMPA receptors at excitatory synapses. Disruption of the interaction of GluR1 with 4.1N or disruption of actin filaments decreased the surface expression of GluR1 in heterologous cells. Moreover, disruption of actin filaments in cultured cortical neurons dramatically reduced the level of surface AMPA receptors. These results suggest that protein 4.1N may link AMPA receptors to the actin cytoskeleton. PMID:11050113

  17. A population of glomerular glutamatergic neurons controls sensory information transfer in the mouse olfactory bulb

    PubMed Central

    Tatti, Roberta; Seal, Rebecca P.; Edwards, Robert H.; Rodriguez, Ivan; Carleton, Alan

    2014-01-01

    In sensory systems, peripheral organs convey sensory inputs to relay networks where information is shaped by local microcircuits before being transmitted to cortical areas. In the olfactory system, odorants evoke specific patterns of sensory neuron activity which are transmitted to output neurons in olfactory bulb glomeruli. How sensory information is transferred and shaped at this level remains still unclear. Here we employ mouse genetics, 2-photon microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, to identify a novel population of glutamatergic neurons (VGLUT3+) in the glomerular layer of the adult mouse olfactory bulb as well as several of their synaptic targets. Both peripheral and serotoninergic inputs control VGLUT3+ neurons firing. Furthermore, we show that VGLUT3+ neurons photostimulation in vivo strongly suppresses both spontaneous and odor-evoked firing of bulbar output neurons. In conclusion, we identify and characterize here a microcircuit controlling the transfer of sensory information at an early stage of the olfactory pathway. PMID:24804702

  18. The NMDA receptor complex: a multifunctional machine at the glutamatergic synapse

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xuelai; Jin, Wu Yang; Wang, Yu Tian

    2014-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) are part of a large multiprotein complex at the glutamatergic synapse. The assembly of NMDARs with synaptic proteins offers a means to regulate NMDAR channel properties and receptor trafficking, and couples NMDAR activation to distinct intracellular signaling pathways, thus contributing to the versatility of NMDAR functions. Receptor-protein interactions at the synapse provide a dynamic and powerful mechanism for regulating synaptic efficacy, but can also contribute to NMDAR overactivation-induced excitotoxicity and cellular damage under pathological conditions. An emerging concept is that by understanding the mechanisms and functions of disease-specific protein-protein interactions in the NMDAR complex, we may be able to develop novel therapies based on protein-NMDAR interactions for the treatment of brain diseases in which NMDAR dysfunction is at the root of their pathogenesis. PMID:24959120

  19. The sesquiterpenes polygodial and drimanial in vitro affect glutamatergic transport in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Martini, Lucia Helena; Cereser, Lucas; Junior, Isaac Zanonato; Jardim, Fluvia Melina Alves; Vendite, Deusa Aparecida; Frizzo, Marcos Emilio dos Santos; Yunes, Rosendo A; Calixto, João Batista; Wofchuk, Susana; Souza, Diogo O

    2006-03-01

    Natural products including those derived from plants, have over the years greatly contributed to the development of therapeutic drugs. Polygodial and drimanial are sesquiterpenes isolated from the bark of the plant Drymis Winteri (Winteraceae) that exhibit antinociceptive properties. Since peripheral glutamate presents nociceptive actions, in this study it was investigated the effects of hydroalcooholic extracts from Drymis winteri (polygodial and drimanial) on the glutamatergic system in rat brain. Polygodial and drimanial inhibited glutamate uptake by astrocytes, as well as by cortical, hippocampal and striatal slices, and increased synaptosomal glutamate release. These concurrent effects would predispose to an increase in the extracellular glutamate concentrations, leading to possible neurotoxic effects (excitotoxicity) of these natural compounds, which would suggest the need for some caution in their therapeutic application. PMID:16733820

  20. Synaptic and Behavioral Profile of Multiple Glutamatergic Inputs to the Nucleus Accumbens

    PubMed Central

    Britt, Jonathan P.; Benaliouad, Faiza; McDevitt, Ross A.; Stuber, Garret D.; Wise, Roy A.; Bonci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Excitatory afferents to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) are thought to facilitate reward seeking by encoding reward-associated cues. Selective activation of different glutamatergic inputs to the NAc can produce divergent physiological and behavioral responses, but mechanistic explanations for these pathway-specific effects are lacking. Here, we compared the innervation patterns and synaptic properties of ventral hippocampus, basolateral amygdala, and prefrontal cortex input to the NAc. Ventral hippocampal input was found to be uniquely localized to the medial NAc shell, where it was predominant and selectively potentiated following cocaine exposure. In vivo, bidirectional optogenetic manipulations of this pathway attenuated and enhanced cocaine-induced locomotion. Challenging the idea that any of these inputs encode motivationally-neutral information, activation of each discrete pathway reinforced instrumental behaviors. Finally, direct optical activation of medium spiny neurons proved to be capable of supporting self-stimulation, demonstrating that behavioral reinforcement is an explicit consequence of strong excitatory drive to the NAc. PMID:23177963

  1. Isolation of Sensory Neurons of Aplysia californica for Patch Clamp Recordings of Glutamatergic Currents

    PubMed Central

    Fieber, Lynne A.; Carlson, Stephen L.; Kempsell, Andrew T.; Greer, Justin B.; Schmale, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    The marine gastropod mollusk Aplysia californica has a venerable history as a model of nervous system function, with particular significance in studies of learning and memory. The typical preparations for such studies are ones in which the sensory and motoneurons are left intact in a minimally dissected animal, or a technically elaborate neuronal co-culture of individual sensory and motoneurons. Less common is the isolated neuronal preparation in which small clusters of nominally homogeneous neurons are dissociated into single cells in short term culture. Such isolated cells are useful for the biophysical characterization of ion currents using patch clamp techniques, and targeted modulation of these conductances. A protocol for preparing such cultures is described. The protocol takes advantage of the easily identifiable glutamatergic sensory neurons of the pleural and buccal ganglia, and describes their dissociation and minimal maintenance in culture for several days without serum. PMID:23892672

  2. Mixed cholinergic/glutamatergic neuromuscular innervation of Onychophora: a combined histochemical/electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Stern, Michael; Bicker, Gerd

    2008-08-01

    Morphological and molecular phylogenetic data show that the Onychophora are close relatives of the Arthropoda. However, onychophoran neuromuscular junctions have been reported to employ acetylcholine, as in annelids, nematodes, and other bilaterians, rather than glutamate, as in arthropods. Here, we show that the large longitudinal muscles of Peripatoides respond indeed only to acetylcholine, whereas the oblique and ring muscles of the body wall are sensitive both to acetylcholine and to L-glutamate. Moreover, cytochemical staining reveals both acetylcholinesterase- and glutamate-positive synaptic boutons on oblique and ring muscles. These novel findings agree with a phylogenetic position of onychophorans basal to that of the arthropods. Although the glutamatergic phenotype of excitatory neuromuscular transmission may be a characteristic feature of arthropods and present even in a subset of onychophoran motor neurons, the motor neurons of the longitudinal muscles still retain the cholinergic phenotype typical for annelids and other taxa. PMID:18563449

  3. The role of glutamatergic pathway between septum and hippocampus in the memory formation

    PubMed Central

    Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad Reza; Nasehi, Mohammad; Haeri-Rohani, Ali; Eidi, Akram

    2013-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a subtype of glutamate receptor that is presented in highest density in the hippocampus and septum. NMDA receptors of the septum and the hippocampus are involved in cognitive performance, especially in learning and memory processes. The septum nucleus and hippocampal formation are two regions of the limbic system. The septum and the hippocampus are anatomically and functionally connected to each other. These areas made the septo-hippocampal and hippocampo-septal pathways, which are implicated in the cognitive processes. The activity of septal and hippocampal neurons is modulated by several neurotransmitters such as glutamate. Thus, changes in the glutamatergic transmission in the septum and hippocampus may influence learning and memory processes in these pathways.

  4. Analysis of Synaptic Gene Expression in the Neocortex of Primates Reveals Evolutionary Changes in Glutamatergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Muntané, Gerard; Horvath, Julie E.; Hof, Patrick R.; Ely, John J.; Hopkins, William D.; Raghanti, Mary Ann; Lewandowski, Albert H.; Wray, Gregory A.; Sherwood, Chet C.

    2015-01-01

    Increased relative brain size characterizes the evolution of primates, suggesting that enhanced cognition plays an important part in the behavioral adaptations of this mammalian order. In addition to changes in brain anatomy, cognition can also be regulated by molecular changes that alter synaptic function, but little is known about modifications of synapses in primate brain evolution. The aim of the current study was to investigate the expression patterns and evolution of 20 synaptic genes from the prefrontal cortex of 12 primate species. The genes investigated included glutamate receptors, scaffolding proteins, synaptic vesicle components, as well as factors involved in synaptic vesicle release and structural components of the nervous system. Our analyses revealed that there have been significant changes during primate brain evolution in the components of the glutamatergic signaling pathway in terms of gene expression, protein expression, and promoter sequence changes. These results could entail functional modifications in the regulation of specific genes related to processes underlying learning and memory. PMID:24408959

  5. Mice deficient of glutamatergic signaling from intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells exhibit abnormal circadian photoentrainment.

    PubMed

    Purrier, Nicole; Engeland, William C; Kofuji, Paulo

    2014-01-01

    Several aspects of behavior and physiology, such as sleep and wakefulness, blood pressure, body temperature, and hormone secretion exhibit daily oscillations known as circadian rhythms. These circadian rhythms are orchestrated by an intrinsic biological clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus which is adjusted to the daily environmental cycles of day and night by the process of photoentrainment. In mammals, the neuronal signal for photoentrainment arises from a small subset of intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs) that send a direct projection to the SCN. ipRGCs also mediate other non-image-forming (NIF) visual responses such as negative masking of locomotor activity by light, and the pupillary light reflex (PLR) via co-release of neurotransmitters glutamate and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating peptide (PACAP) from their synaptic terminals. The relative contribution of each neurotransmitter system for the circadian photoentrainment and other NIF visual responses is still unresolved. We investigated the role of glutamatergic neurotransmission for circadian photoentrainment and NIF behaviors by selective ablation of ipRGC glutamatergic synaptic transmission in mice. Mutant mice displayed delayed re-entrainment to a 6 h phase shift (advance or delay) in the light cycle and incomplete photoentrainment in a symmetrical skeleton photoperiod regimen (1 h light pulses between 11 h dark periods). Circadian rhythmicity in constant darkness also was reduced in some mutant mice. Other NIF responses such as the PLR and negative masking responses to light were also partially attenuated. Overall, these results suggest that glutamate from ipRGCs drives circadian photoentrainment and negative masking responses to light. PMID:25357191

  6. VGluT1+ Neuronal Glutamatergic Signaling Regulates Postnatal Developmental Maturation of Cortical Protoplasmic Astroglia

    PubMed Central

    Morel, Lydie; Higashimori, Haruki; Tolman, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    Functional maturation of astroglia is characterized by the development of a unique, ramified morphology and the induction of important functional proteins, such as glutamate transporter GLT1. Although pathways regulating the early fate specification of astroglia have been characterized, mechanisms regulating postnatal maturation of astroglia remain essentially unknown. Here we used a new in vivo approach to illustrate and quantitatively analyze developmental arborization of astroglial processes. Our analysis found a particularly high increase in the number of VGluT1+ neuronal glutamatergic synapses that are ensheathed by processes from individual developing astroglia from postnatal day (P) 14 to P26, when astroglia undergo dramatic postnatal maturation. Subsequent silencing of VGluT1+ synaptic activity in VGluT1 KO mice significantly reduces astroglial domain growth and the induction of GLT1 in the cortex, but has no effect on astroglia in the hypothalamus, where non-VGluT1+ synaptic signaling predominates. In particular, electron microscopy analysis showed that the loss of VGluT1+ synaptic signaling significantly decreases perisynaptic enshealthing of astroglial processes on synapses. To further determine whether synaptically released glutamate mediates VGluT1+ synaptic signaling, we pharmacologically inhibited and genetically ablated metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs, especially mGluR5) in developing cortical astroglia and found that developmental arborization of astroglial processes and expression of functional proteins, such as GLT1, is significantly decreased. In summary, our genetic analysis provides new in vivo evidence that VGluT1+ glutamatergic signaling, mediated by the astroglial mGluR5 receptor, regulates the functional maturation of cortical astroglia during development. These results elucidate a new mechanism for regulating the developmental formation of functional neuron-glia synaptic units. PMID:25122895

  7. Coincident Glutamatergic and Cholinergic Inputs Transiently Depress Glutamate Release at Rat Schaffer Collateral Synapses

    PubMed Central

    Gipson, Keith E.; Yeckel, Mark F.

    2010-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus, together with subcortical and cortical areas, is responsible for some forms of learning and memory. Proper hippocampal function depends on the highly dynamic nature of its circuitry, including the ability of synapses to change their strength for brief to long periods of time. In this study, we focused on a transient depression of glutamatergic synaptic transmission at Schaffer collateral synapses in acute hippocampal slices. The depression of evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) amplitudes, herein called transient depression, follows brief trains of synaptic stimulation in stratum radiatum of CA1 and lasts for 2–3 min. Depression results from a decrease in presynaptic glutamate release, as NMDA-receptor–mediated EPSCs and composite EPSCs are depressed similarly and depression is accompanied by an increase in the paired-pulse ratio. Transient depression is prevented by blockade of metabotropic glutamate and acetylcholine receptors, presumably located presynaptically. These two receptor types—acting together— cause depression. Blockade of a single receptor type necessitates significantly stronger conditioning trains for triggering depression. Addition of an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor enables depression from previously insufficient conditioning trains. Furthermore, a strong coincident, but not causal, relationship existed between presynaptic depression and postsynaptic internal Ca2+ release, emphasizing the potential importance of functional interactions between presynaptic and postsynaptic effects of convergent cholinergic and glutamatergic inputs to CA1. These convergent afferents, one intrinsic to the hippocampus and the other likely originating in the medial septum, may regulate CA1 network activity, the induction of long-term synaptic plasticity, and ultimately hippocampal function. PMID:17303811

  8. Stress-induced altered cholinergic-glutamatergic interactions in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Pavlovsky, Lev; Bitan, Yifat; Shalev, Hadar; Serlin, Yonatan; Friedman, Alon

    2012-09-01

    Psychological stress may lead to long-lasting brain dysfunction, specifically altered emotional and cognitive capabilities. Previous studies have demonstrated persistent changes in the expression of key cholinergic genes in the neocortex and hippocampus following stress with muscarinic receptor-mediated enhanced excitability. In the present study we examined cholinergic-mediated glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus of mice after exposure to stress and its potential role in synaptic plasticity and altered behavior. Adult male mice were tested one month after repeated forced swimming test. Non-treated age-matched animals served as controls. Electrophysiological recordings were performed in the acute in-vitro slice preparation. CA1 pyramidal neurons were recorded using whole cell patch configuration. Extracellular recordings were done in response to Shaffer collaterals (SC) or stratum orien (SO) stimulation. Animal behavior in response to inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was tested in open field paradigms. In whole cell patch recordings the frequency of excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) was significantly increased in response to muscarinic activation in stress-exposed animals. This enhanced cholinergic-modulated excitatory transmission is associated with facilitation of long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to tetanic stimulation at the SO but not at the SC. Stress-related behavioral modulation via central cholinergic pathways was enhanced by the central AChE inhibitor, physostigmine, thus further supporting the notion that stress is associated with long lasting hypersensitivity to acetylcholine. Our results revealed a pathway-specific enhancement of cholinergic-dependent glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampus after stress. These changes may underlie specific hippocampal malfunction, including cognitive and emotional disturbances, as observed in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PMID:22796599

  9. Baseline effects of transcranial direct current stimulation on glutamatergic neurotransmission and large-scale network connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Michael A.; Coffman, Brian A.; Gasparovic, Charles; Calhoun, Vince D.; Trumbo, Michael C.; Clark, Vincent P.

    2015-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) modulates glutamatergic neurotransmission and can be utilized as a novel treatment intervention for a multitude of populations. However, the exact mechanism by which tDCS modulates the brain’s neural architecture, from the micro to macro scales, have yet to be illuminated. Using a within-subjects design, resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) were performed immediately before and after the administration of anodal tDCS over right parietal cortex. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was used to decompose fMRI scans into 75 brain networks, from which 12 resting-state networks were identified that had significant voxel-wise functional connectivity to anatomical regions of interest. 1H-MRS was used to obtain estimates of combined glutamate and glutamine (Glx) concentrations from bilateral intraparietal sulcus. Paired sample t-tests showed significantly increased Glx under the anodal electrode, but not in homologous regions of the contralateral hemisphere. Increases of within-network connectivity were observed within the superior parietal, inferior parietal, left frontal-parietal, salience and cerebellar intrinsic networks, and decreases in connectivity were observed in the anterior cingulate and the basal ganglia (p < 0.05, FDR-corrected). Individual differences in Glx concentrations predicted network connectivity in most of these networks. The observed relationships between glutamatergic neurotransmission and network connectivity may be used to guide future tDCS protocols that aim to target and alter neuroplastic mechanisms in healthy individuals as well as those with psychiatric and neurologic disorders. PMID:25312829

  10. Heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses are abundant in goldfish brain

    PubMed Central

    Rash, John E.; Kamasawa, Naomi; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Yasumura, Thomas; O'Brien, John; Nannapaneni, Srikant; Pereda, Alberto E.; Nagy, James I.

    2014-01-01

    Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at “large myelinated club ending” synapses on Mauthner cells of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to evoke short-latency electrical “pre-potentials” immediately preceding their accompanying glutamate-induced depolarizations, making these the first unambiguously identified “mixed” (i.e., chemical plus electrical) synapses in the vertebrate CNS. We recently showed that gap junctions at these synapses exhibit asymmetric electrical resistance (i.e., electrical rectification), which we correlated with total molecular asymmetry of connexin composition in their apposing gap junction hemiplaques, with Cx35 restricted to axon terminal hemiplaques and Cx34.7 restricted to apposing Mauthner cell plasma membranes. We now show that similarly heterotypic neuronal gap junctions are abundant throughout goldfish brain, with labeling exclusively for Cx35 in presynaptic hemiplaques and exclusively for Cx34.7 in postsynaptic hemiplaques. Moreover, the vast majority of these asymmetric gap junctions occur at glutamatergic axon terminals. The widespread distribution of heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses throughout goldfish brain and spinal cord implies that pre- vs. postsynaptic asymmetry at electrical synapses evolved early in the chordate lineage. We propose that the advantages of the molecular and functional asymmetry of connexins at electrical synapses that are so prominently expressed in the teleost CNS are unlikely to have been abandoned in higher vertebrates. However, to create asymmetric coupling in mammals, where most gap junctions are composed of Cx36 on both sides, would require some other mechanism, such as differential phosphorylation of connexins on opposite sides of the same gap junction or

  11. Lamina-specific contribution of glutamatergic and GABAergic potentials to hippocampal sharp wave-ripple complexes

    PubMed Central

    Schönberger, Jan; Draguhn, Andreas; Both, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The mammalian hippocampus expresses highly organized patterns of neuronal activity which form a neuronal correlate of spatial memories. These memory-encoding neuronal ensembles form on top of different network oscillations which entrain neurons in a state- and experience-dependent manner. The mechanisms underlying activation, timing and selection of participating neurons are incompletely understood. Here we studied the synaptic mechanisms underlying one prominent network pattern called sharp wave-ripple complexes (SPW-R) which are involved in memory consolidation during sleep. We recorded SPW-R with extracellular electrodes along the different layers of area CA1 in mouse hippocampal slices. Contribution of glutamatergic excitation and GABAergic inhibition, respectively, was probed by local application of receptor antagonists into s. radiatum, pyramidale and oriens. Laminar profiles of field potentials show that GABAergic potentials contribute substantially to sharp waves and superimposed ripple oscillations in s. pyramidale. Inhibitory inputs to s. pyramidale and s. oriens are crucial for action potential timing by ripple oscillations, as revealed by multiunit-recordings in the pyramidal cell layer. Glutamatergic afferents, on the other hand, contribute to sharp waves in s. radiatum where they also evoke a fast oscillation at ~200 Hz. Surprisingly, field ripples in s. radiatum are slightly slower than ripples in s. pyramidale, resulting in a systematic shift between dendritic and somatic oscillations. This complex interplay between dendritic excitation and perisomatic inhibition may be responsible for the precise timing of discharge probability during the time course of SPW-R. Together, our data illustrate a complementary role of spatially confined excitatory and inhibitory transmission during highly ordered network patterns in the hippocampus. PMID:25202239

  12. Glutamatergic transmission aberration: a major cause of behavioral deficits in a murine model of Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurjinder; Sharma, Ajay; Xu, Wenjin; Gerum, Scott; Alldred, Melissa J; Subbanna, Shivakumar; Basavarajappa, Balapal S; Pawlik, Monika; Ohno, Masuo; Ginsberg, Stephen D; Wilson, Donald A; Guilfoyle, David N; Levy, Efrat

    2014-04-01

    Trisomy 21, or Down's syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of intellectual disability. Altered neurotransmission in the brains of DS patients leads to hippocampus-dependent learning and memory deficiency. Although genetic mouse models have provided important insights into the genes and mechanisms responsible for DS-specific changes, the molecular mechanisms leading to memory deficits are not clear. We investigated whether the segmental trisomy model of DS, Ts[Rb(12.1716)]2Cje (Ts2), exhibits hippocampal glutamatergic transmission abnormalities and whether these alterations cause behavioral deficits. Behavioral assays demonstrated that Ts2 mice display a deficit in nest building behavior, a measure of hippocampus-dependent nonlearned behavior, as well as dysfunctional hippocampus-dependent spatial memory tested in the object-placement and the Y-maze spontaneous alternation tasks. Magnetic resonance spectra measured in the hippocampi revealed a significantly lower glutamate concentration in Ts2 as compared with normal disomic (2N) littermates. The glutamate deficit accompanied hippocampal NMDA receptor1 (NMDA-R1) mRNA and protein expression level downregulation in Ts2 compared with 2N mice. In concert with these alterations, paired-pulse analyses suggested enhanced synaptic inhibition and/or lack of facilitation in the dentate gyrus of Ts2 compared with 2N mice. Ts2 mice also exhibited disrupted synaptic plasticity in slice recordings of the hippocampal CA1 region. Collectively, these findings imply that deficits in glutamate and NMDA-R1 may be responsible for impairments in synaptic plasticity in the hippocampus associated with behavioral dysfunctions in Ts2 mice. Thus, these findings suggest that glutamatergic deficits have a significant role in causing intellectual disabilities in DS. PMID:24719089

  13. Glutamatergic mechanisms associated with stress-induced amygdala excitability and anxiety-related behavior.

    PubMed

    Masneuf, Sophie; Lowery-Gionta, Emily; Colacicco, Giovanni; Pleil, Kristen E; Li, Chia; Crowley, Nicole; Flynn, Shaun; Holmes, Andrew; Kash, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    The neural factors underlying individual differences in susceptibility to chronic stress remain poorly understood. Preclinical studies demonstrate that mouse strains vary greatly in anxiety-related responses to chronic stress in a manner paralleled by differential stress-induced changes in glutamatergic signaling in the basolateral amygdala (BLA). Previous work has also shown that alterations in the amygdala gene expression of the GluN1 NMDA and the GluK1 kainate receptors are associated with stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior in the C57BL/6J mouse strain. Using in vivo behavioral pharmacological and ex vivo physiological approaches, the aim of the current study was to further elucidate changes in glutamate neurotransmission in the BLA caused by stress and to test the functional roles of GluN1 and GluK1 in mediating stress-related changes in behavior. Results showed that stress-induced alterations in anxiety-like behavior (light/dark exploration test) were absent following bilateral infusion of the GluK1 agonist ATPA into the BLA. Intra-BLA infusion of the competitive NMDA antagonist AP5 produced a generalized behavioral disinhibition/locomotor hyperactivity, irrespective of stress. Slice electrophysiological recordings showed that ATPA augmented BLA GABAergic neurotransmission and that stress increased the amplitude of network-dependent spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents and amplitude of GABAergic miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents in BLA. These findings could indicate stress-induced BLA glutamatergic neuronal network hyperexcitability and a compensatory increase in GABAergic neurotransmission, suggesting that GluK1 agonism augmented GABAergic inhibition to prevent behavioral sequelae of stress. Current data could have implications for developing novel therapeutic approaches, including GluK1 agonists, for stress-related anxiety disorders. PMID:24796255

  14. Alteration of the Centromedial Amygdala Glutamatergic Synapses by the BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Galvin, Christopher; Lee, Francis S; Ninan, Ipe

    2015-08-01

    Fear expression is mediated by an activation of the centromedial amygdala (CEm), the major output nucleus of the amygdaloid complex. Consistently, fear extinction is associated with an increased synaptic inhibition as well as a suppression of the excitability of the CEm neurons. However, little is known about the role of CEm glutamatergic synapses in fear regulation and anxiety-like behaviors. The BDNF Val66Met, a single-nucleotide polymorphism in the human BDNF gene, impairs fear extinction and leads to anxiety-like symptoms. To determine whether the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism affects the CEm excitatory synapses, we examined basal glutamatergic synaptic transmission and plasticity in the CEm neurons of BDNF Val66Met knock-in (BDNF(Met/Met)) mice. The BDNF Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism exerted an opposite effect on non-NMDA and NMDA receptor transmission with a potentiation of the former and a suppression of the latter. In addition, the decay time of NMDA currents was decreased in BDNF(Met/Met) mice, suggesting a modification of NMDA receptor subunit composition. Unlike the wild-type mice that exhibited a potentiation of non-NMDA receptor transmission following fear conditioning and a depotentiation upon fear extinction, BDNF(Met/Met) mice failed to show this experience-dependent synaptic plasticity in the CEm neurons. Our results suggest that the elevated non-NMDA receptor transmission, the suppression of NMDA receptor transmission, and an impairment of synaptic plasticity in the CEm neurons might contribute to the fear extinction deficit and increased anxiety-like symptoms in BDNF Val66Met carriers. PMID:25786582

  15. Heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses are abundant in goldfish brain.

    PubMed

    Rash, J E; Kamasawa, N; Vanderpool, K G; Yasumura, T; O'Brien, J; Nannapaneni, S; Pereda, A E; Nagy, J I

    2015-01-29

    Gap junctions provide for direct intercellular electrical and metabolic coupling. The abundance of gap junctions at "large myelinated club ending (LMCE)" synapses on Mauthner cells (M-cells) of the teleost brain provided a convenient model to correlate anatomical and physiological properties of electrical synapses. There, presynaptic action potentials were found to evoke short-latency electrical "pre-potentials" immediately preceding their accompanying glutamate-induced depolarizations, making these the first unambiguously identified "mixed" (i.e., chemical plus electrical) synapses in the vertebrate CNS. We recently showed that gap junctions at these synapses exhibit asymmetric electrical resistance (i.e., electrical rectification), which we correlated with total molecular asymmetry of connexin composition in their apposing gap junction hemiplaques, with connexin35 (Cx35) restricted to axon terminal hemiplaques and connexin34.7 (Cx34.7) restricted to apposing M-cell plasma membranes. We now show that similarly heterotypic neuronal gap junctions are abundant throughout goldfish brain, with labeling exclusively for Cx35 in presynaptic hemiplaques and exclusively for Cx34.7 in postsynaptic hemiplaques. Moreover, the vast majority of these asymmetric gap junctions occur at glutamatergic axon terminals. The widespread distribution of heterotypic gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses throughout goldfish brain and spinal cord implies that pre- vs. postsynaptic asymmetry at electrical synapses evolved early in the chordate lineage. We propose that the advantages of the molecular and functional asymmetry of connexins at electrical synapses that are so prominently expressed in the teleost CNS are unlikely to have been abandoned in higher vertebrates. However, to create asymmetric coupling in mammals, where most gap junctions are composed of connexin36 (Cx36) on both sides, would require some other mechanism, such as differential phosphorylation of connexins on

  16. The role of AMPA receptors in postsynaptic mechanisms of synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Chater, Thomas E.; Goda, Yukiko

    2014-01-01

    In the mammalian central nervous system, excitatory glutamatergic synapses harness neurotransmission that is mediated by ion flow through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs). AMPARs, which are enriched in the postsynaptic membrane on dendritic spines, are highly dynamic, and shuttle in and out of synapses in an activity-dependent manner. Changes in their number, subunit composition, phosphorylation state, and accessory proteins can all regulate AMPARs and thus modify synaptic strength and support cellular forms of learning. Furthermore, dysregulation of AMPAR plasticity has been implicated in various pathological states and has important consequences for mental health. Here we focus on the mechanisms that control AMPAR plasticity, drawing particularly from the extensive studies on hippocampal synapses, and highlight recent advances in the field along with considerations for future directions. PMID:25505875

  17. Reversible Palmitoylation Regulates Surface Stability of AMPA Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens in Response to Cocaine in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Van Dolah, Dustin K.; Mao, Li-Min; Shaffer, Christopher; Guo, Ming-Lei; Fibuch, Eugene E.; Chu, Xiang-Ping; Buch, Shilpa; Wang, John Q.

    2010-01-01

    Background Palmitoylation is emerging as one of the most important posttranslational modifications of excitatory synaptic proteins in mammalian brain cells. As a reversible and regulatable modification sensitive to changing synaptic inputs, palmitoylation of ionotropic glutamate receptors contributes to not only the modulation of normal receptor and synaptic activities, but also the pathogenesis of various neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, we report that palmitoylation of the AMPA receptor is regulated by the psychostimulant, cocaine, and such regulation is involved in cocaine action. Methods We tested palmitoylation and surface expression of AMPA receptors in striatal neurons and psychomotor behavior in responses to cocaine in rats. Results All four AMPA receptor subunits (GluA1-4 or GluR1-4) are palmitoylated in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of adult rats. Among them, GluA1 and GluA3 are preferentially upregulated in their palmitoylation levels by a systemic injection of cocaine. The upregulated GluA1 and 3 palmitoylation is a transient and reversible event. Consequently, it increases the susceptibility of surface-expressed GluA1 and 3 to internalization trafficking, leading to a temporal loss of surface receptor expression. Blockade of the regulated GluA1/3 palmitoylation with a palmitoylation inhibitor in the local NAc reverses the loss of surface GluA1/3. The inhibition of palmitoylation also concurrently sustains behavioral responsivity to cocaine. Conclusions Our data identify a novel drug-palmitoylation coupling in the center of limbic reward circuits. Through palmitoylating selective AMPA receptor subunits, cocaine activity-dependently regulates trafficking and subcellular localization of the receptor in NAc neurons and dynamically controls psychomotor sensitivity to the psychoactive drug in vivo. PMID:21216391

  18. Reversal of aging-related emotional memory deficits by norepinephrine via regulating the stability of surface AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yi; Zhou, Jun; Li, Ming-Xing; Wu, Peng-Fei; Hu, Zhuang-Li; Ni, Lan; Jin, You; Chen, Jian-Guo; Wang, Fang

    2015-04-01

    Aging-related emotional memory deficit is a well-known complication in Alzheimer's disease and normal aging. However, little is known about its molecular mechanism. To address this issue, we examined the role of norepinephrine (NE) and its relevant drug desipramine in the regulation of hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), surface expression of AMPA receptor, and associative fear memory in rats. We found that there was a defective regulation of NE content and AMPA receptor trafficking during fear conditioning, which were accompanied by impaired emotional memory and LTP in aged rats. Furthermore, we also found that the exogenous upregulation of NE ameliorated the impairment of LTP and emotional memory via enhancing AMPA receptor trafficking in aged rats, and the downregulation of NE impaired LTP in adult rats. Finally, acute treatment with NE or desipramine rescued the impaired emotional memory in aged rats. These results imply a pivotal role for NE in synaptic plasticity and associative fear memory in aging rats and suggest that desipramine is a potential candidate for treating aging-related emotional memory deficit. PMID:25564942

  19. Impaired Associative Fear Learning in Mice with Complete Loss or Haploinsufficiency of AMPA GluR1 Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Feyder, Michael; Wiedholz, Lisa; Sprengel, Rolf; Holmes, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that l-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA) glutamate receptors containing the GluR1 subunit contribute to the molecular mechanisms associated with learning. AMPA GluR1 glutamate receptor knockout mice (KO) exhibit abnormal hippocampal and amygdala plasticity, and deficits on various assays for cognition including Pavlovian fear conditioning. Here we examined associative fear learning in mice with complete absence (KO) or partial loss (heterozygous mutant, HET) of GluR1 on multiple fear conditioning paradigms. After multi-trial delay or trace conditioning, KO displayed impaired tone and context fear recall relative to WT, whereas HET were normal. After one-trial delay conditioning, both KO and HET showed impaired tone and context recall. HET and KO showed normal nociceptive sensitivity in the hot plate and tail flick tests. These data demonstrate that the complete absence of GluR1 subunit-containing receptors prevents the formation of associative fear memories, while GluR1 haploinsufficiency is sufficient to impair one-trial fear learning. These findings support growing evidence of a major role for GluR1-containing AMPA receptors in amygdala-mediated forms of learning and memory. PMID:18958186

  20. Minocycline, a microglial inhibitor, blocks spinal CCL2-induced heat hyperalgesia and augmentation of glutamatergic transmission in substantia gelatinosa neurons

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Several lines of evidence suggest that CCL2 could initiate the hyperalgesia of neuropathic pain by causing central sensitization of spinal dorsal horn neurons and facilitating nociceptive transmission in the spinal dorsal horn. The cellular and molecular mechanisms by which CCL2 enhances spinal pain transmission and causes hyperalgesia remain unknown. The substantia gelatinosa (lamina II) of the spinal dorsal horn plays a critical role in nociceptive transmission. An activated spinal microglia, which is believed to release pro-inflammatory cytokines including TNF-α, plays an important role in the development of neuropathic pain, and CCL2 is a key mediator for spinal microglia activation. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that spinal CCL2 causes the central sensitization of substantia gelatinosa neurons and enhances spinal nociceptive transmission by activating the spinal microglia and augmenting glutamatergic transmission in lamina II neurons. Methods CCL2 was intrathecally administered to 2-month-old male rats. An intrathecal injection of CCL2 induced heat hyperalgesia, which was assessed using the hot plate test. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings substantia gelatinosa neurons in spinal cord slices were performed to record glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) and GABAergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs). Results The hot plate test showed that 1 day after the intrathecal injection of CCL2 (1 μg), the latency of hind-paw withdrawal caused by a heat stimulus was significantly reduced in rats. One day after the intrathecal administration of CCL2, the amplitude of the evoked glutamatergic EPSCs and the frequency of spontaneous glutamatergic miniature EPSCs (mEPSCs) were significantly increased in outer lamina II neurons. Intrathecal co-injection of minocycline, a specific inhibitor of microglial activation, and CCL2 blocked the CCL2-induced reduction in the latency of hind-paw withdrawal and thermal hyperalgesia

  1. Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor Agonist LY379268 Regulates AMPA Receptor Trafficking in Prefrontal Cortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min-Juan; Li, Yan-Chun; Snyder, Melissa A.; Wang, Huaixing; Li, Feng; Gao, Wen-Jun

    2013-01-01

    Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists have emerged as potential treatment drugs for schizophrenia and other neurological disorders, whereas the mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here we examined the effects of LY379268 (LY37) on the expression and trafficking of the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits GluA1 and GluA2 in prefrontal neurons. We show that LY37 significantly increased the surface and total expression of both GluA1 and GluA2 subunits in cultured prefrontal neurons and in vivo. This effect was mimicked by the selective mGluR2 agonist LY395756 and was blocked by mGluR2/3 antagonist LY341495. Moreover, we found that both GluA1 and GluA2 subunits were colocalized with PSD95 but not synapsin I, suggesting a postsynaptic localization. Consistently, treatment with LY37 significantly increased the amplitude, but not frequency, of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents. Further, actinomycin-D blocked LY37's effects, suggesting a transcriptional regulation. In addition, application of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3β) inhibitor completely blocked LY37's effect on GluA2 surface expression, whereas GSK-3β inhibitor itself induced decreases in the surface and total protein levels of GluA1, but not GluA2 subunits. This suggests that GSK-3β differentially mediates GluA1 and GluA2 trafficking. Further, LY37 significantly increased the phosphorylation, but not total protein, of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Neither ERK1/2 inhibitor PD98059 alone nor PD98059 combined with LY37 treatment induced changes in GluA1 or GluA2 surface expression or total protein levels. Our data thus suggest that mGluR2/3 agonist regulates postsynaptic AMPA receptors by affecting the synaptic trafficking of both GluA1 and GluA2 subunits and that the regulation is likely through ERK1/2 signaling in GluA1 and/or both ERK1/2 and GSK-3β signaling pathways in the GluA2 subunit. PMID:23593498

  2. Positive AMPA receptor modulation rapidly stimulates BDNF release and increases dendritic mRNA translation.

    PubMed

    Jourdi, Hussam; Hsu, Yu-Tien; Zhou, Miou; Qin, Qingyu; Bi, Xiaoning; Baudry, Michel

    2009-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulates local dendritic mRNA translation and is involved in formation and consolidation of memory. 2H,3H,6aH-pyrrolidino[2'',1''-3',2']1,3-oxazino[6',5'-5,4]-benzo[e]1,4-dioxan-10-one (CX614), one of the best-studied positive AMPA receptor modulators (also known as ampakines), increases BDNF mRNA and protein and facilitates long-term potentiation (LTP) induction. Several other ampakines also improve performance in various behavioral and learning tasks. Since local dendritic protein synthesis has been implicated in LTP stabilization and in memory consolidation, this study investigated whether CX614 could influence synaptic plasticity by upregulating dendritic protein translation. CX614 treatment of primary neuronal cultures and acute hippocampal slices rapidly activated the translation machinery and increased local dendritic protein synthesis. CX614-induced activation of translation was blocked by K252a [(9S,10R,12R)-2,3,9,10,11,12-hexahydro-10-hydroxy-9-methyl-1-oxo-9,12-epoxy-1H-diindolo[1,2,3-fg:3',2',1'-kl]pyrrolo[3,4-i][1,6]benzodiazocine-10-carboxylic acid methyl ester], CNQX, APV, and TTX, and was inhibited in the presence of an extracellular BDNF scavenger, TrkB-Fc. The acute effect of CX614 on translation was mediated by increased BDNF release as demonstrated with a BDNF scavenging assay using TrkB-Fc during CX614 treatment of cultured primary neurons and was blocked by nifedipine, ryanodine, and lack of extracellular Ca(2+) in acute hippocampal slices. Finally, CX614, like BDNF, rapidly increased dendritic translation of an exogenous translation reporter. Together, our results demonstrate that positive modulation of AMPA receptors rapidly stimulates dendritic translation, an effect mediated by BDNF secretion and TrkB receptor activation. They also suggest that increased BDNF secretion and stimulation of local protein synthesis contribute to the effects of ampakines on synaptic plasticity. PMID:19587275

  3. Tracing the origin and mobilization of Glyphosate and AMPA in a vineyard catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Payraudeau, Sylvain; Imfeld, Gwenaël; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Pesticides residues are often found in storm-water runoff in agricultural areas. There are several pathways along which pesticides may be transported from their application point towards the river. Although the primary target of pesticide application is the agricultural area, wind drift transports pesticide droplets to non-target areas. Furthermore, miss-operation of application machines results in the deposition of pesticides at filter strips or roads from where they can be washed off. Therefore, it may be difficult to identify the origin of pesticides in storm-water runoff. However, management of water quality requires that critical source areas are clearly delineated in order to effectively reduce water pollution. In the Rouffach catchment, a 42.7 ha vineyard catchment in France, Glyphosate and its transformation product AMPA occurred frequently and in high concentrations in runoff water during rainfall-runoff events in 2008. In order to identify the source areas of Glyphosate residue pollution and its mobilization, we used here a combination of sampling data analysis techniques and distributed pollutant transfer modelling. Available sampling data allowed for an analysis by Normalized Cumulative Loads (NCL) at a high temporal resolution (10 min). The results imply that pollutant mobilization took place mainly at the beginning of an event. This First Flush suggests a wash off of substances from impervious surfaces such as roads. This assumption was confirmed by local hydrological knowledge about infiltration rates in the vineyard, which were not exceeded by rainfall intensities in most considered events. Additionally, the distributed process-based reactive transport model ZIN-AgriTra was used as a learning tool to evaluate the pesticide mobilization and export processes. The hydrological model was successfully calibrated and validated for long high-resolution time series of discharge data. Pesticide export modelling focused on the first rainfall-runoff event

  4. Losses of glyphosate and AMPA via drainflow in a typical Belgian residential area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ting; Boënne, Wesley; van Griensven, Ann; Seuntjens, Piet; Bronders, Jan; Desmet, Nele

    2014-05-01

    Urban hard surfaces are considered as important facilitators for pesticide transport into urban streams. To obtain concurrent high-resolution data for a detailed investigation on the losses of pesticide runoff from hard surfaces, a monitoring campaign was performed in a typical Belgian residential area (9.5 ha) between 7 May and 7 August, 2013. The campaign yielded a concurrent dataset of rainfall (1-mm rainfall interval), discharge (1-min interval), glyphosate application by the residents and the occurrences of glyphosate and its major degradation product - aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in the separated storm drainage outflow during 12 rainfall events. In addition, detailed information was obtained on the spatial characteristics of the study area. The resulting dataset allows us to investigate the relevance of catchment hydrology, urban surface properties and pesticide application to the transport and losses of glyphosate in a residential environment. During the campaign, glyphosate was only applied by local residents, mainly on their private driveways. As a result of their continuous use, both glyphosate and AMPA were detected in all analysed outflow samples, with maximum concentrations of 6.1 μg/L and 5.8 μg/L, respectively. Overall, the storm drainage system collected 0.43% of the applied amount of glyphosate. However, this loss rate varied considerably among rainfall events, ranging from 0.04% to 23.36%. According to statistical analysis of the 12 rainfall events, the loss rate was significantly correlated with three factors: the application amount prior to a rainfall event (p < 0.005), rainfall amount during the event (p < 0.02) and the weighted lag time between glyphosate application and the start of the rainfall event (negatively, p < 0.05). A regression analysis showed that these three factors can explain more than 85% of the variation in the loss rate of glyphosate. Furthermore, three types of glyphosate runoff were classified by a clustering

  5. Differential effects of chronic hyperammonemia on modulation of the glutamate-nitric oxide-cGMP pathway by metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and low and high affinity AMPA receptors in cerebellum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Llansola, Marta; Reznikov, Vitaliy; Boix, Jordi; Felipo, Vicente

    2012-07-01

    Previous studies show that chronic hyperammonemia impairs learning ability of rats by impairing the glutamate-nitric oxide (NO)-cyclic guanosine mono-phosphate (cGMP) pathway in cerebellum. Three types of glutamate receptors cooperate in modulating the NO-cGMP pathway: metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), (RS)-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors. The aim of this work was to assess whether hyperammonemia alters the modulation of this pathway by mGluR5 and AMPA receptors in cerebellum in vivo. The results support that in control rats: (1) low AMPA concentrations (0.1mM) activate nearly completely Ca(2+)-permeable (glutamate receptor subunit 2 (GluR2)-lacking) AMPA receptors and the NO-cGMP pathway; (2) higher AMPA concentrations (0.3 mM) also activate Ca(2+)-impermeable (GluR2-containing) AMPA receptors, leading to activation of NMDA receptors and of NO-cGMP pathway. Moreover, the data support that chronic hyperammonemia: (1) reduces glutamate release and activation of the glutamate-NO-cGMP pathway by activation of mGluR5; (2) strongly reduces the direct activation by AMPA receptors of the NO-cGMP pathway, likely due to reduced entry of Ca(2+) through GluR2-lacking, high affinity AMPA receptors; (3) strongly increases the indirect activation of the NO-cGMP pathway by high affinity AMPA receptors, likely due to increased entry of Na(+) through GluR2-lacking AMPA receptors and NMDA receptors activation; (4) reduces the indirect activation of the NO-cGMP pathway by low affinity AMPA receptors, likely due to reduced activation of NMDA receptors. PMID:22521775

  6. Calcium Binding to PICK1 is Essential for the Intracellular Retention of AMPA Receptors Underlying LTD

    PubMed Central

    Citri, Ami; Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Ma, Cong; Morishita, Wade; Fang, Scarlett; Rizo, Josep; Malenka, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent LTD in the hippocampus is mediated primarily by the calcium-dependent removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) from the postsynaptic density. The AMPAR-binding, PDZ and BAR domain containing protein PICK1 has been implicated in the regulation of AMPAR trafficking underlying several forms of synaptic plasticity. Using a strategy involving shRNA-mediated knockdown of PICK1 and its replacement with recombinant PICK1, we performed a detailed structure-function analysis of the role of PICK1 in hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the underlying NMDAR-induced AMPAR trafficking. We found that PICK1 is not necessary for maintenance of the basal synaptic complement of AMPARs or expression of either mGluR-LTD or NMDAR-dependent LTP. Rather, PICK1 function is specific to NMDAR-dependent LTD and the underlying AMPAR trafficking. Furthermore, while PICK1 does not regulate the initial phase of NMDAR-induced AMPAR endocytosis, it is required for intracellular retention of internalized AMPARs. Detailed biophysical analysis of an N-terminal acidic motif indicated that it is involved in intramolecular electrostatic interactions that are disrupted by calcium. Mutations that interfered with the calcium-induced structural changes in PICK1 precluded LTD and the underlying NMDAR-induced intracellular retention of AMPARs. These findings support a model whereby calcium-induced modification of PICK1 structure is critical for its function in the retention of internalized AMPARs that underlies the expression of hippocampal NMDAR-dependent LTD. PMID:21147983

  7. Regulation of AMPA receptor subunit GluA1 surface expression by PAK3 phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Natasha K.; Thomas, Gareth M.; Luo, Junjie; Huganir, Richard L.

    2015-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) are the major excitatory receptors of the brain and are fundamental to synaptic plasticity, memory, and cognition. Dynamic recycling of AMPARs in neurons is regulated through several types of posttranslational modification, including phosphorylation. Here, we identify a previously unidentified signal transduction cascade that modulates phosphorylation of serine residue 863 (S863) in the GluA1 AMPAR subunit and controls surface trafficking of GluA1 in neurons. Activation of the EphR–Ephrin signal transduction pathway enhances S863 phosphorylation. Further, EphB2 can interact with Zizimin1, a guanine–nucleotide exchange factor that activates Cdc42 and stimulates S863 phosphorylation in neurons. Among the numerous targets downstream of Cdc42, we determined that the p21-activated kinase-3 (PAK3) phosphorylates S863 in vitro. Moreover, specific loss of PAK3 expression and pharmacological inhibition of PAK both disrupt activity-dependent phosphorylation of S863 in cortical neurons. EphB2, Cdc42, and PAKs are broadly capable of controlling dendritic spine formation and synaptic plasticity and are implicated in multiple cognitive disorders. Collectively, these data delineate a novel signal cascade regulating AMPAR trafficking that may contribute to the molecular mechanisms that govern learning and cognition. PMID:26460013

  8. Shisa6 traps AMPA receptors at postsynaptic sites and prevents their desensitization during synaptic activity

    PubMed Central

    Klaassen, Remco V.; Stroeder, Jasper; Coussen, Françoise; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Petersen, Jennifer D.; Renancio, Cedric; Schmitz, Leanne J. M.; Normand, Elisabeth; Lodder, Johannes C.; Rotaru, Diana C.; Rao-Ruiz, Priyanka; Spijker, Sabine; Mansvelder, Huibert D.; Choquet, Daniel; Smit, August B.

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking and biophysical properties of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the brain depend on interactions with associated proteins. We identify Shisa6, a single transmembrane protein, as a stable and directly interacting bona fide AMPAR auxiliary subunit. Shisa6 is enriched at hippocampal postsynaptic membranes and co-localizes with AMPARs. The Shisa6 C-terminus harbours a PDZ domain ligand that binds to PSD-95, constraining mobility of AMPARs in the plasma membrane and confining them to postsynaptic densities. Shisa6 expressed in HEK293 cells alters GluA1- and GluA2-mediated currents by prolonging decay times and decreasing the extent of AMPAR desensitization, while slowing the rate of recovery from desensitization. Using gene deletion, we show that Shisa6 increases rise and decay times of hippocampal CA1 miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Shisa6-containing AMPARs show prominent sustained currents, indicating protection from full desensitization. Accordingly, Shisa6 prevents synaptically trapped AMPARs from depression at high-frequency synaptic transmission. PMID:26931375

  9. Calcineurin Mediates Synaptic Scaling Via Synaptic Trafficking of Ca2+-Permeable AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seonil; Ziff, Edward B.

    2014-01-01

    Homeostatic synaptic plasticity is a negative-feedback mechanism for compensating excessive excitation or inhibition of neuronal activity. When neuronal activity is chronically suppressed, neurons increase synaptic strength across all affected synapses via synaptic scaling. One mechanism for this change is alteration of synaptic AMPA receptor (AMPAR) accumulation. Although decreased intracellular Ca2+ levels caused by chronic inhibition of neuronal activity are believed to be an important trigger of synaptic scaling, the mechanism of Ca2+-mediated AMPAR-dependent synaptic scaling is not yet understood. Here, we use dissociated mouse cortical neurons and employ Ca2+ imaging, electrophysiological, cell biological, and biochemical approaches to describe a novel mechanism in which homeostasis of Ca2+ signaling modulates activity deprivation-induced synaptic scaling by three steps: (1) suppression of neuronal activity decreases somatic Ca2+ signals; (2) reduced activity of calcineurin, a Ca2+-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase, increases synaptic expression of Ca2+-permeable AMPARs (CPARs) by stabilizing GluA1 phosphorylation; and (3) Ca2+ influx via CPARs restores CREB phosphorylation as a homeostatic response by Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release from the ER. Therefore, we suggest that synaptic scaling not only maintains neuronal stability by increasing postsynaptic strength but also maintains nuclear Ca2+ signaling by synaptic expression of CPARs and ER Ca2+ propagation. PMID:24983627

  10. AMPA Receptor-Induced Local Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Signaling Mediates Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Andrew N.; Overman, Justine J.; Zhong, Sheng; Mueller, Rudolf; Lynch, Gary; Carmichael, S. Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of adult disability. Recovery after stroke shares similar molecular and cellular properties with learning and memory. A main component of learning-induced plasticity involves signaling through AMPA receptors (AMPARs). We systematically tested the role of AMPAR function in motor recovery in a mouse model of focal stroke. AMPAR function controls functional recovery beginning 5 d after the stroke. Positive allosteric modulators of AMPARs enhance recovery of limb control when administered after a delay from the stroke. Conversely, AMPAR antagonists impair motor recovery. The contributions of AMPARs to recovery are mediated by release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in periinfarct cortex, as blocking local BDNF function in periinfarct cortex blocks AMPAR-mediated recovery and prevents the normal pattern of motor recovery. In contrast to a delayed AMPAR role in motor recovery, early administration of AMPAR agonists after stroke increases stroke damage. These findings indicate that the role of glutamate signaling through the AMPAR changes over time in stroke: early potentiation of AMPAR signaling worsens stroke damage, whereas later potentiation of the same signaling system improves functional recovery. PMID:21389231

  11. Enhanced AMPA receptor function promotes cerebellar long-term depression rather than potentiation

    PubMed Central

    van Beugen, Boeke J.; Qiao, Xin; Simmons, Dana H.; De Zeeuw, Chris I.

    2014-01-01

    Ampakines are allosteric modulators of AMPA receptors that facilitate hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP) and learning, and have been considered for the treatment of cognition and memory deficits. Here, we show that the ampakine CX546 raises the amplitude and slows the decay time of excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) at cerebellar parallel fiber (PF) to Purkinje cell synapses, thus resembling CX546 effects described at hippocampal synapses. Using the fluorescent calcium indicator dye Oregon Green BAPTA-2 and an ultra-high-speed CCD camera, we also monitored calcium transients in Purkinje cell dendrites. In the presence of CX546 in the bath, PF-evoked calcium transients were enhanced and prolonged, suggesting that CX546 not only enhances synaptic transmission, but also boosts dendritic calcium signaling at cerebellar synapses. In contrast to previous observations in the hippocampus, however, CX546 applied during cerebellar recordings facilitates long-term depression (LTD) rather than LTP at PF synapses. These findings show that ampakines selectively modify the LTP–LTD balance depending on the brain area and type of synapse, and may provide tools for the targeted regulation of synaptic memories. PMID:25403454

  12. Developmental origin dictates interneuron AMPA and NMDA receptor subunit composition and plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Matta, Jose A; Pelkey, Kenneth A; Craig, Michael T; Chittajallu, Ramesh; Jeffries, Brian W; McBain, Chris J

    2014-01-01

    Disrupted excitatory synapse maturation in GABAergic interneurons may promote neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. However, establishing developmental programs for nascent synapses in GABAergic cells is confounded by their sparsity, heterogeneity and late acquisition of subtype-defining characteristics. We investigated synaptic development in mouse interneurons targeting cells by lineage from medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) or caudal ganglionic eminence (CGE) progenitors. MGE-derived interneuron synapses were dominated by GluA2-lacking AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs), with little contribution from NMDA-type receptors (NMDARs) throughout development. In contrast, CGE-derived cell synapses had large NMDAR components and used GluA2-containing AMPARs. In neonates, both MGE- and CGE-derived interneurons expressed primarily GluN2B subunit–containing NMDARs, which most CGE-derived interneurons retained into adulthood. However, MGE-derived interneuron NMDARs underwent a GluN2B-to-GluN2A switch that could be triggered acutely with repetitive synaptic activity. Our findings establish ganglionic eminence–dependent rules for early synaptic integration programs of distinct interneuron cohorts, including parvalbumin- and cholecystokinin-expressing basket cells. PMID:23852113

  13. Subsynaptic AMPA Receptor Distribution Is Acutely Regulated by Actin-Driven Reorganization of the Postsynaptic Density

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Justin M.; Blanpied, Thomas A.

    2012-01-01

    AMPA receptors (AMPARs) mediate synaptic transmission and plasticity during learning, development, and disease. Mechanisms determining subsynaptic receptor position are poorly understood but are key determinants of quantal size. We used a series of live-cell, high-resolution imaging approaches to measure protein organization within single postsynaptic densities in rat hippocampal neurons. By photobleaching receptors in synapse subdomains, we found that most AMPARs do not freely diffuse within the synapse, indicating they are embedded in a matrix that determines their subsynaptic position. However, time lapse analysis revealed that synaptic AMPARs are continuously repositioned in concert with plasticity of this scaffold matrix rather than simply by free diffusion. Using a fluorescence correlation analysis, we found that across the lateral extent of single PSDs, component proteins were differentially distributed, and this distribution was continually adjusted by actin treadmilling. The C-terminal PDZ ligand of GluA1 did not regulate its mobility or distribution in the synapse. However, glutamate receptor activation promoted subsynaptic mobility. Strikingly, subsynaptic immobility of both AMPARs and scaffold molecules remained essentially intact even after loss of actin filaments. We conclude that receptors are actively repositioned at the synapse by treadmilling of the actin cytoskeleton, an influence which is transmitted only indirectly to receptors via the pliable and surprisingly dynamic internal structure of the PSD. PMID:22238102

  14. Regulation of AMPA receptor extrasynaptic insertion by 4.1N, phosphorylation and palmitoylation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Da-Ting; Makino, Yuichi; Sharma, Kamal; Hayashi, Takashi; Neve, Rachael; Takamiya, Kogo; Huganir, Richard L

    2009-07-01

    The insertion of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) into the plasma membrane is an important step in the synaptic delivery of AMPARs during the expression of synaptic plasticity. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating AMPAR insertion remain elusive. By directly visualizing individual insertion events of the AMPAR subunit GluR1 in rodents, we found that the protein 4.1N was required for activity-dependent GluR1 insertion. Protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation of the serine 816 (S816) and S818 residues of GluR1 enhanced 4.1N binding to GluR1 and facilitated GluR1 insertion. In addition, palmitoylation of GluR1 C811 residue modulated PKC phosphorylation and GluR1 insertion. Finally, disrupting 4.1N-dependent GluR1 insertion decreased surface expression of GluR1 and the expression of long-term potentiation. Our study uncovers a previously unknown mechanism that governs activity-dependent GluR1 trafficking, reveals an interaction between AMPAR palmitoylation and phosphorylation, and underscores the functional importance of 4.1N in AMPAR trafficking and synaptic plasticity. PMID:19503082

  15. AMPA receptor plasticity in the nucleus accumbens after repeated exposure to cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Marina E.; Ferrario, Carrie R.

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on cocaine-induced postsynaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) involving changes in AMPA receptor (AMPAR) transmission. First, fundamental properties of AMPAR in the NAc are reviewed. Then, we provide a detailed and critical analysis of literature demonstrating alterations in AMPAR transmission in association with behavioral sensitization to cocaine and cocaine self-administration. We conclude that cocaine exposure leads to changes in AMPAR transmission that depend on many factors including whether exposure is contingent or non-contingent, the duration of withdrawal, and whether extinction training has occurred. The relationship between changes in AMPAR transmission and responding to cocaine or cocaine-paired cues can also be affected by these variables. However, after prolonged withdrawal in the absence of extinction training, our findings and others lead us to propose that AMPAR transmission is enhanced, resulting in stronger responding to drug-paired cues. Finally, many results indicate that the state of synaptic transmission in the NAc after cocaine exposure is associated with impairment of AMPAR-dependent plasticity. This may contribute to a broad range of addiction-related behavioral changes. PMID:20109488

  16. Domain Architecture of a Calcium-Permeable AMPA Receptor in a Ligand-Free Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Midgett, Charles R.; Gill, Avinash; Madden, Dean R.

    2012-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels couple the free energy of agonist binding to the gating of selective transmembrane ion pores, permitting cells to regulate ion flux in response to external chemical stimuli. However, the stereochemical mechanisms responsible for this coupling remain obscure. In the case of the ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs), the modular nature of receptor subunits has facilitated structural analysis of the N-terminal domain (NTD), and of multiple conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Recently, the crystallographic structure of an antagonist-bound form of the receptor was determined. However, disulfide trapping of this conformation blocks channel opening, suggesting that channel activation involves additional quaternary packing arrangements. To explore the conformational space available to iGluR channels, we report here a second, clearly distinct domain architecture of homotetrameric, calcium-permeable AMPA receptors, determined by single-particle electron microscopy of untagged and fluorescently tagged constructs in a ligand-free state. It reveals a novel packing of NTD dimers, and a separation of LBD dimers across a central vestibule. In this arrangement, which reconciles diverse functional observations, agonist-induced cleft closure across LBD dimers can be converted into a twisting motion that provides a basis for receptor activation. PMID:22232575

  17. Differential Expression of AMPA Subunits Induced by NMDA Intrahippocampal Injection in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fachim, Helene A.; Pereira, Adriana C.; Iyomasa-Pilon, Melina M.; Rosa, Maria L. N. M.

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is involved in excitotoxic mechanisms by interacting with different receptors. Such interactions result in neuronal death associated with several neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). The aim of this work was to study the time course of changes in the expression of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits of glutamate amino-acid-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors in rat hippocampus induced by NMDA intrahippocampal injection. Rats were submitted to stereotaxic surgery for NMDA or saline (control) microinjection into dorsal hippocampus and the parameters were evaluated 24 h, 1, 2, and 4 weeks after injection. The extension and efficacy of the NMDA-induced injury were evaluated by Morris water maze (MWM) behavioral test and Nissl staining. The expression of GluR1 and GluR2 receptors, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal marker (NeuN) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry. It was observed the impairment of learning and memory functions, loss of neuronal cells, and glial proliferation in CA1 area of NMDA compared with control groups, confirming the injury efficacy. In addition, NMDA injection induced distinct changes in GluR1 and GluR2 expression over the time. In conclusion, such changes may be related to the complex mechanism triggered in response to NMDA injection resulting in a local injury and in the activation of neuronal plasticity. PMID:26912994

  18. Shisa6 traps AMPA receptors at postsynaptic sites and prevents their desensitization during synaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Remco V; Stroeder, Jasper; Coussen, Françoise; Hafner, Anne-Sophie; Petersen, Jennifer D; Renancio, Cedric; Schmitz, Leanne J M; Normand, Elisabeth; Lodder, Johannes C; Rotaru, Diana C; Rao-Ruiz, Priyanka; Spijker, Sabine; Mansvelder, Huibert D; Choquet, Daniel; Smit, August B

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking and biophysical properties of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) in the brain depend on interactions with associated proteins. We identify Shisa6, a single transmembrane protein, as a stable and directly interacting bona fide AMPAR auxiliary subunit. Shisa6 is enriched at hippocampal postsynaptic membranes and co-localizes with AMPARs. The Shisa6 C-terminus harbours a PDZ domain ligand that binds to PSD-95, constraining mobility of AMPARs in the plasma membrane and confining them to postsynaptic densities. Shisa6 expressed in HEK293 cells alters GluA1- and GluA2-mediated currents by prolonging decay times and decreasing the extent of AMPAR desensitization, while slowing the rate of recovery from desensitization. Using gene deletion, we show that Shisa6 increases rise and decay times of hippocampal CA1 miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs). Shisa6-containing AMPARs show prominent sustained currents, indicating protection from full desensitization. Accordingly, Shisa6 prevents synaptically trapped AMPARs from depression at high-frequency synaptic transmission. PMID:26931375

  19. Role of TARP interaction in S-SCAM-mediated regulation of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Danielson, Eric; Metallo, Jacob; Lee, Sang H

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolding proteins are involved in the incorporation, anchoring, maintenance, and removal of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) at synapses, either through a direct interaction with AMPARs or via indirect association through auxiliary subunits of transmembrane AMPAR regulatory proteins (TARPs). Synaptic scaffolding molecule (S-SCAM) is a newly characterized member of the scaffolding proteins critical for the regulation and maintenance of AMPAR levels at synapses, and directly binds to TARPs through a PDZ interaction. However, the functional significance of S-SCAM-TARP interaction in the regulation of AMPARs has not been tested. Here we show that overexpression of the C-terminal peptide of TARP-γ2 fused to EGFP abolished the S-SCAM-mediated enhancement of surface GluA2 expression. Conversely, the deletion of the PDZ-5 domain of S-SCAM that binds TARPs greatly attenuated the S-SCAM-induced increase of surface GluA2 expression. In contrast, the deletion of the guanylate kinase domain of S-SCAM did not show a significant effect on the regulation of AMPARs. Together, these results suggest that S-SCAM is regulating AMPARs through TARPs. PMID:22878254

  20. X-ray structure, symmetry and mechanism of an AMPA-subtype glutamate receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolevsky, Alexander I.; Rosconi, Michael P.; Gouaux, Eric

    2010-02-02

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors mediate most excitatory neurotransmission in the central nervous system and function by opening a transmembrane ion channel upon binding of glutamate. Despite their crucial role in neurobiology, the architecture and atomic structure of an intact ionotropic glutamate receptor are unknown. Here we report the crystal structure of the {alpha}-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA)-sensitive, homotetrameric, rat GluA2 receptor at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution in complex with a competitive antagonist. The receptor harbours an overall axis of two-fold symmetry with the extracellular domains organized as pairs of local dimers and with the ion channel domain exhibiting four-fold symmetry. A symmetry mismatch between the extracellular and ion channel domains is mediated by two pairs of conformationally distinct subunits, A/C and B/D. Therefore, the stereochemical manner in which the A/C subunits are coupled to the ion channel gate is different from the B/D subunits. Guided by the GluA2 structure and site-directed cysteine mutagenesis, we suggest that GluN1 and GluN2A NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors have a similar architecture, with subunits arranged in a 1-2-1-2 pattern. We exploit the GluA2 structure to develop mechanisms of ion channel activation, desensitization and inhibition by non-competitive antagonists and pore blockers.

  1. The Fate and Transport of Glyphosate and AMPA into Surface Waters of Agricultural Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coupe, R.; Kalkhoff, S.; Capel, P.; Gregoire, C.

    2010-12-01

    Glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] is a herbicide used widely throughout the world in the production of many crops, but is particularly heavily used on crops which are genetically modified to be glyphosate tolerant: predominately soybeans, corn, potatoes, and cotton. Glyphosate is used extensively in almost all agricultural areas of the United States, and annual application has increased from less than 10,000 Mg in 1992 to more than 80,000 Mg in 2007. The greatest areal use is in the Midwest where glyphosate is applied on genetically modified corn and soybeans. Although use is increasing, the characterization of glyphosate transport on the watershed scale is lacking. Glyphosate, and its degradate AMPA [aminomethylphosphoric acid], was frequently detected in the surface waters of four agricultural watersheds. The load as a percent of use of glyphosate ranged from 0.009 to 0.86 percent and can be related to three factors: source strength, hydrology, and flowpath. Glyphosate use within a watershed results in some occurrence in surface water at the part per billion level; however watersheds most at risk for the offsite transport of glyphosate are those with high application rates, rainfall that results in overland runoff, and a flowpath that does not include transport through the soil.

  2. Morphological, biophysical and synaptic properties of glutamatergic neurons of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Punnakkal, Pradeep; Schoultz, Carolin; Haenraets, Karen; Wildner, Hendrik; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Interneurons of the spinal dorsal horn are central to somatosensory and nociceptive processing. A mechanistic understanding of their function depends on profound knowledge of their intrinsic properties and their integration into dorsal horn circuits. Here, we have used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT2) gene (vGluT2::eGFP mice) to perform a detailed electrophysiological and morphological characterisation of excitatory dorsal horn neurons, and to compare their properties to those of GABAergic (Gad67::eGFP tagged) and glycinergic (GlyT2::eGFP tagged) neurons. vGluT2::eGFP was detected in about one-third of all excitatory dorsal horn neurons and, as demonstrated by the co-expression of vGluT2::eGFP with different markers of subtypes of glutamatergic neurons, probably labelled a representative fraction of these neurons. Three types of dendritic tree morphologies (vertical, central, and radial), but no islet cell-type morphology, were identified in vGluT2::eGFP neurons. vGluT2::eGFP neurons had more depolarised action potential thresholds and longer action potential durations than inhibitory neurons, while no significant differences were found for the resting membrane potential, input resistance, cell capacitance and after-hyperpolarisation. Delayed firing and single action potential firing were the single most prevalent firing patterns in vGluT2::eGFP neurons of the superficial and deep dorsal horn, respectively. By contrast, tonic firing prevailed in inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal horn. Capsaicin-induced synaptic inputs were detected in about half of the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and occurred more frequently in superficial than in deep dorsal horn neurons. Primary afferent-evoked (polysynaptic) inhibitory inputs were found in the majority of glutamatergic and glycinergic neurons, but only in less than half of the GABAergic population. Excitatory

  3. Reduced glycine transporter type 1 expression leads to major changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission of CA1 hippocampal neurones in mice

    PubMed Central

    Martina, Marzia; Turcotte, Marie-Eve B; Halman, Samantha; Tsai, Guochuan; Tiberi, Mario; Coyle, Joseph T; Bergeron, Richard

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of persistent elevation of synaptic glycine at Schaffer collateral–CA1 synapses of the hippocampus, we studied the glutamatergic synaptic transmission in acute brain slices from mice with reduced expression of glycine transporter type 1 (GlyT1+/−) as compared to wild type (WT) littermates using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of CA1 pyramidal cells. We observed faster decay kinetics, reduced ifenprodil sensitivity and increased zinc-induced antagonism in N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) currents of GlyT1+/− mice. Moreover, the ratio α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR)/NMDAR was decreased in mutants compared to WT. Surprisingly, this change was associated with a reduction in the number of AMPARs expressed at the CA1 synapses in the mutants compared to WT. Overall, these findings highlight the importance of GlyT1 in regulating glutamatergic neurotransmission. PMID:15661817

  4. The Planar Cell Polarity Transmembrane Protein Vangl2 Promotes Dendrite, Spine and Glutamatergic Synapse Formation in the Mammalian Forebrain.

    PubMed

    Okerlund, Nathan D; Stanley, Robert E; Cheyette, Benjamin N R

    2016-07-01

    The transmembrane protein Vangl2, a key regulator of the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, is involved in dendrite arbor elaboration, dendritic spine formation and glutamatergic synapse formation in mammalian central nervous system neurons. Cultured forebrain neurons from Vangl2 knockout mice have simpler dendrite arbors, fewer total spines, less mature spines and fewer glutamatergic synapse inputs on their dendrites than control neurons. Neurons from mice heterozygous for a semidominant Vangl2 mutation have similar but not identical phenotypes, and these phenotypes are also observed in Golgi-stained brain tissue from adult mutant mice. Given increasing evidence linking psychiatric pathophysiology to these subneuronal sites and structures, our findings underscore the relevance of core PCP proteins including Vangl2 to the underlying biology of major mental illnesses and their treatment. PMID:27606324

  5. Structure-Activity Relationships of JMV4463, a Vectorized Cathepsin D Inhibitor with Antiproliferative Properties: The Unique Role of the AMPA-Based Vector.

    PubMed

    Vezenkov, Lubomir L; Sanchez, Clément A; Bellet, Virginie; Martin, Vincent; Maynadier, Marie; Bettache, Nadir; Lisowski, Vincent; Martinez, Jean; Garcia, Marcel; Amblard, Muriel; Hernandez, Jean-François

    2016-02-01

    Cathepsin D (CathD) is overexpressed and secreted by several solid tumors and stimulates their growth, the mechanism of which is still not understood. In this context, the pepstatin bioconjugate JMV4463 [Ac-arg-O2 Oc-(Val)3-Sta-Ala-Sta-(AMPA)4-NH2; O2 Oc=8-amino-3,6-dioxaoctanoyl, Sta=statine, AMPA=ortho-aminomethylphenylacetyl], containing a new kind of cell-penetrating vector, was previously shown to exhibit potent antiproliferative effects in vitro and to delay the onset of tumors in vivo. In this study, we performed a structure-activity relationship analysis to evaluate the significance of the inhibitor and vector moieties of JMV4463. By modifying both statine residues of pepstatin we found that the antiproliferative activity is correlated with CathD inhibition, supporting a major role of the catalytic activity of intracellular CathD in cancer cell proliferation. Replacing the vector composed of four AMPA units with other vectors was found to abolish cytotoxicity, although all of the conjugates enabled pepstatin transport into cells. In addition, the AMPA4 vector must be localized at the C terminus of the bioconjugate. The unexpected importance of the vector structure and position for cytotoxic action suggests that AMPA4 enables pepstatin to inhibit the proteolysis of critical CathD substrates involved in cell proliferation via a unique mechanism of action. PMID:26639308

  6. Glutamatergic Metabolites, Volume and Cortical Thickness in Antipsychotic-Naive Patients with First-Episode Psychosis: Implications for Excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Plitman, Eric; Patel, Raihaan; Chung, Jun Ku; Pipitone, Jon; Chavez, Sofia; Reyes-Madrigal, Francisco; Gómez-Cruz, Gladys; León-Ortiz, Pablo; Chakravarty, M Mallar; de la Fuente-Sandoval, Camilo; Graff-Guerrero, Ariel

    2016-09-01

    Neuroimaging studies investigating patients with schizophrenia often report appreciable volumetric reductions and cortical thinning, yet the cause of these deficits is unknown. The association between subcortical and cortical structural alterations, and glutamatergic neurometabolites is of particular interest due to glutamate's capacity for neurotoxicity; elevated levels may be related to neuroanatomical compromise through an excitotoxic process. To this end, we explored the relationships between glutamatergic neurometabolites and structural measures in antipsychotic-naive patients experiencing their first non-affective episode of psychosis (FEP). Sixty antipsychotic-naive patients with FEP and 60 age- and sex-matched healthy controls underwent a magnetic resonance imaging session, which included a T1-weighted volumetric image and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the precommissural dorsal caudate. Group differences in precommissural caudate volume (PCV) and cortical thickness (CT), and the relationships between glutamatergic neurometabolites (ie, glutamate+glutamine (Glx) and glutamate) and these structural measures, were examined. PCV was decreased in the FEP group (p<0.001), yet did not differ when controlling for total brain volume. Cortical thinning existed in the FEP group within frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, and limbic regions at a 5% false discovery rate. Glx levels were negatively associated with PCV only in the FEP group (p=0.018). The observed relationship between Glx and PCV in the FEP group is supportive of a focal excitotoxic mechanism whereby increased levels of glutamatergic markers are related to local structural losses. This process may be related to the prominent structural deficits that exist in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27272768

  7. Acute and chronic ethanol exposure differentially regulate CB1 receptor function at glutamatergic synapses in the rat basolateral amygdala.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Stacey L; Alexander, Nancy J; Bluett, Rebecca J; Patel, Sachin; McCool, Brian A

    2016-09-01

    The endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) system has been suggested to play a key role in ethanol preference and intake, the acute effects of ethanol, and in the development of withdrawal symptoms following ethanol dependence. Ethanol-dependent alterations in glutamatergic signaling within the lateral/basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) are critical for the development and expression of withdrawal-induced anxiety. Notably, the eCB system significantly regulates both glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic activity within the BLA. Chronic ethanol exposure significantly alters eCB system expression within regions critical to the expression of emotionality and anxiety-related behavior, including the BLA. Here, we investigated specific interactions between the BLA eCB system and its functional regulation of synaptic activity during acute and chronic ethanol exposure. In tissue from ethanol naïve-rats, a prolonged acute ethanol exposure caused a dose dependent inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic activity via a presynaptic mechanism that was occluded by CB1 antagonist/inverse agonists SR141716a and AM251. Importantly, this acute ethanol inhibition was attenuated following 10 day chronic intermittent ethanol vapor exposure (CIE). CIE exposure also significantly down-regulated CB1-mediated presynaptic inhibition at glutamatergic afferent terminals but spared CB1-inhibition of GABAergic synapses arising from local inhibitory-interneurons. CIE also significantly elevated BLA N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA or anandamide) levels and decreased CB1 receptor protein levels. Collectively, these data suggest a dynamic regulation of the BLA eCB system by acute and chronic ethanol. PMID:26707595

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor activation of CaM-kinase kinase via transient receptor potential canonical channels induces the translation and synaptic incorporation of GluA1-containing calcium-permeable AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Fortin, Dale A; Srivastava, Taasin; Dwarakanath, Diya; Pierre, Philippe; Nygaard, Sean; Derkach, Victor A; Soderling, Thomas R

    2012-06-13

    Glutamatergic synapses in early postnatal development transiently express calcium-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs). Although these GluA2-lacking receptors are essential and are elevated in response to brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), little is known regarding molecular mechanisms that govern their expression and synaptic insertion. Here we show that BDNF-induced GluA1 translation in rat primary hippocampal neurons requires the activation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) via calcium calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK). Specifically, BDNF-mediated phosphorylation of threonine 308 (T308) in AKT, a known substrate of CaMKK and an upstream activator of mTOR-dependent translation, was prevented by (1) pharmacological inhibition of CaMKK with STO-609, (2) overexpression of a dominant-negative CaMKK, or (3) short hairpin-mediated knockdown of CaMKK. GluA1 surface expression induced by BDNF, as assessed by immunocytochemistry using an extracellular N-terminal GluA1 antibody or by surface biotinylation, was impaired following knockdown of CaMKK or treatment with STO-609. Activation of CaMKK by BDNF requires transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels as SKF-96365, but not the NMDA receptor antagonist d-APV, prevented BDNF-induced GluA1 surface expression as well as phosphorylation of CaMKI, AKT(T308), and mTOR. Using siRNA we confirmed the involvement of TRPC5 and TRPC6 subunits in BDNF-induced AKT(T308) phosphorylation. The BDNF-induced increase in mEPSC was blocked by IEM-1460, a selected antagonist of CP-AMPARs, as well as by the specific repression of acute GluA1 translation via siRNA to GluA1 but not GluA2. Together these data support the conclusion that newly synthesized GluA1 subunits, induced by BDNF, are readily incorporated into synapses where they enhance the expression of CP-AMPARs and synaptic strength. PMID:22699894

  9. Prenatal NMDA Receptor Antagonism Impaired Proliferation of Neuronal Progenitor, Leading to Fewer Glutamatergic Neurons in the Prefrontal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Narusawa, Shiho; Aoyama, Yuki; Ikawa, Natsumi; Lu, Lingling; Nagai, Taku; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Nabeshima, Toshitaka

    2012-01-01

    N-methyl--aspartate (NMDA) receptor is a glutamate receptor which has an important role on mammalian brain development. We have reported that prenatal treatment with phencyclidine (PCP), a NMDA receptor antagonist, induces long-lasting behavioral deficits and neurochemical changes. However, the mechanism by which the prenatal antagonism of NMDA receptor affects neurodevelopment, resulting in behavioral deficits, has remained unclear. Here, we report that prenatal NMDA receptor antagonism impaired the proliferation of neuronal progenitors, leading to a decrease in the progenitor pool in the ventricular and the subventricular zone. Furthermore, using a PCR array focused on neurogenesis and neuronal stem cells, we evaluated changes in gene expression causing the impairment of neuronal progenitor proliferation and found aberrant gene expression, such as Notch2 and Ntn1, in prenatal PCP-treated mice. Consequently, the density of glutamatergic neurons in the prefrontal cortex was decreased, probably resulting in glutamatergic hypofunction. Prenatal PCP-treated mice displayed behavioral deficits in cognitive memory and sensorimotor gating until adulthood. These findings suggest that NMDA receptors regulate the proliferation and maturation of progenitor cells for glutamatergic neuron during neurodevelopment, probably via the regulation of gene expression. PMID:22257896

  10. Glutamatergic vestibular neurons express Fos after vestibular stimulation and project to the NTS and the PBN in rats.

    PubMed

    Cai, Yi-Ling; Ma, Wen-Ling; Li, Min; Guo, Jun-Sheng; Li, Yi-Qian; Wang, Li-Gang; Wang, Wei-Zhong

    2007-05-01

    In this study, retrograde tracing method combined with phosphate-activated glutaminase (PAG) and Fos immunofluorescence histochemistry was used to identify glutamatergic vestibular nucleus (VN) neurons receiving vestibular inputs and projecting to the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) and the parabrachial nucleus (PBN). Conscious animals were subjected to 120 min Ferris-wheel like rotation stimulation. Neuronal activation was assessed by Fos expression in the nucleus of VN neurons. After Fluoro-gold (FG) injection into the caudal NTS, approximately 48% FG-labeled VN neurons were immunoreactive for PAG, and about 14% PAG/FG double-labeled neurons co-existed with Fos. Following FG injection into the PBN, approximately 56% FG-labeled VN neurons were double-labeled with PAG, and about 12% of the PAG/FG double-labeled neurons also expressed Fos. Careful examination of the typology and distribution pattern of these PAG-immunoreactive neurons indicated that the vast majority of these neurons were glutamatergic rather than GABAergic. These results suggest that PAG-immunoreactive VN neurons might constitute excitatory glutamatergic VN-NTS and VN-PBN transmission pathways and these pathways might be involved in vestibulo-autonomic reflexes during vestibular stimulation. PMID:17412503

  11. Prenatal Nicotine Exposure Impairs the Proliferation of Neuronal Progenitors, Leading to Fewer Glutamatergic Neurons in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, Yuki; Toriumi, Kazuya; Mouri, Akihiro; Hattori, Tomoya; Ueda, Eriko; Shimato, Akane; Sakakibara, Nami; Soh, Yuka; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Nagai, Taku; Kim, Hyoung-Chun; Hiramatsu, Masayuki; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi

    2016-01-01

    Cigarette smoking during pregnancy is associated with various disabilities in the offspring such as attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, learning disabilities, and persistent anxiety. We have reported that nicotine exposure in female mice during pregnancy, in particular from embryonic day 14 (E14) to postnatal day 0 (P0), induces long-lasting behavioral deficits in offspring. However, the mechanism by which prenatal nicotine exposure (PNE) affects neurodevelopment, resulting in behavioral deficits, has remained unclear. Here, we report that PNE disrupted the proliferation of neuronal progenitors, leading to a decrease in the progenitor pool in the ventricular and subventricular zones. In addition, using a cumulative 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine labeling assay, we evaluated the rate of cell cycle progression causing the impairment of neuronal progenitor proliferation, and uncovered anomalous cell cycle kinetics in mice with PNE. Accordingly, the density of glutamatergic neurons in the medial prefrontal cortex (medial PFC) was reduced, implying glutamatergic dysregulation. Mice with PNE exhibited behavioral impairments in attentional function and behavioral flexibility in adulthood, and the deficits were ameliorated by microinjection of D-cycloserine into the PFC. Collectively, our findings suggest that PNE affects the proliferation and maturation of progenitor cells to glutamatergic neuron during neurodevelopment in the medial PFC, which may be associated with cognitive deficits in the offspring. PMID:26105135

  12. Overexpression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 attenuates tonically active glutamatergic input to the rostral ventrolateral medulla in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang-Kai; Shen, Du; Hao, Qiang; Yu, Qiang; Wu, Zhao-Tang; Deng, Yu; Chen, Yan-Fang; Yuan, Wen-Jun; Hu, Qi-Kuan; Su, Ding-Feng

    2014-01-01

    The rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) plays a key role in cardiovascular regulation. It has been reported that tonically active glutamatergic input to the RVLM is increased in hypertensive rats, whereas angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the brain has been suggested to be beneficial to hypertension. This study was designed to determine the effect of ACE2 gene transfer into the RVLM on tonically active glutamatergic input in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Lentiviral particles containing enhanced green fluorescent protein (lenti-GFP) or ACE2 (lenti-ACE2) were injected bilaterally into the RVLM. Both protein expression and activity of ACE2 in the RVLM were increased in SHRs after overexpression of ACE2. A significant reduction in blood pressure and heart rate in SHRs was observed 6 wk after lenti-ACE2 injected into the RVLM. The concentration of glutamate in microdialysis fluid from the RVLM was significantly reduced by an average of 61% in SHRs with lenti-ACE2 compared with lenti-GFP. ACE2 overexpression significantly attenuated the decrease in blood pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity evoked by bilateral injection of the glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid (2.7 nmol in 100 nl) into the RVLM in SHRs. Therefore, we suggest that ACE2 overexpression in the RVLM attenuates the enhanced tonically active glutamatergic input in SHRs, which may be an important mechanism underlying the beneficial effect of central ACE2 to hypertension. PMID:24838502

  13. Glutamatergic Mechanisms of Comorbidity Between Acute Stress and Cocaine Self-administration

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Keller, Constanza; Kupchik, Yonatan; Gipson, Cassandra D; Brown, Robyn M; Spencer, Sade; Bollati, Flavia; Esparza, Maria A; Roberts-Wolfe, Doug; Heinsbroek, Jasper; Bobadilla, Ana-Clara; Cancela, Liliana M; Kalivas, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining if the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate mediated synaptic currents, and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined if acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport, and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  14. Control of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn by the nucleoside transporter ENT1.

    PubMed

    Ackley, Michael A; Governo, Ricardo J M; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Baldwin, Stephen A; King, Anne E

    2003-04-15

    Adenosine modulates nociceptive processing in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In other tissues, membrane transporters influence profoundly the extracellular levels of adenosine. To investigate the putative role of nucleoside transporters in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, we employed immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of substantia gelatinosa neurons in slices of rat spinal cord in vitro. The rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT1) was revealed by antibody staining to be abundant in neonatal and mature dorsal horn, especially within laminae I-III. This was confirmed by immunoblots of dorsal horn homogenate. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), a potent non-transportable inhibitor of rENT1, attenuated synaptically evoked EPSCs onto lamina II neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of an adenosine A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine produced a parallel rightward shift in the NBMPR concentration-effect curve. The effects of NBMPR were partially reversed by adenosine deaminase, which facilitates the metabolic degradation of adenosine. The modulation by NBMPR of evoked EPSCs was mimicked by exogenous adenosine or the selective A1 receptor agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl adenosine. NBMPR reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked currents, an effect that is consistent with presynaptic modulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that nucleoside transporters are able to critically modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. PMID:12611914

  15. Mystixin-7 Peptide Protects Ionotropic Glutamatergic Mechanisms against Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactivation of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid type glutamate receptors (NMDARs) causes glutamate excitotoxicity, a process potentially important for many neurological diseases. This study aims to investigate protective effects of the synthetic corticotrophin-releasing factor-like peptide, mystixin-7 (MTX), on model glutamate-induced excitotoxicity in vitro. The technique online monitoring of electrophysiological parameters (excitatory glutamatergic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic (AMPAR) and NMDAR-dependent postsynaptic mechanisms) in the olfactory cortex slices was used. Application of L-glutamate in toxic concentration (20 mM) on slices evoked hyperactivation of NMDARs and weaker activation of the AMPARs. Upon further action agonist, the excessive activation of glutamate receptors was replaced by their irreversible blockade. Pretreatment of the slices using MTX in different concentrations (50 and 100 mg/mL) protected both NMDARs and AMPARs from glutamate-induced damage. An enzymatic treatment of MTX reduced hyperactivation of both NMDARs and AMPARs. The present study demonstrated that MTX minipeptide protected the functioning of both NMDARs and AMPARs against glutamate-induced damage. The MTX peptide is a prospective candidate for elaborated medication in treatment of neurological diseases. PMID:27504123

  16. Morphine disinhibits glutamatergic input to VTA dopamine neurons and promotes dopamine neuron excitation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ming; Zhao, Yanfang; Yang, Hualan; Luan, Wenjie; Song, Jiaojiao; Cui, Dongyang; Dong, Yi; Lai, Bin; Ma, Lan; Zheng, Ping

    2015-01-01

    One reported mechanism for morphine activation of dopamine (DA) neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the disinhibition model of VTA-DA neurons. Morphine inhibits GABA inhibitory neurons, which shifts the balance between inhibitory and excitatory input to VTA-DA neurons in favor of excitation and then leads to VTA-DA neuron excitation. However, it is not known whether morphine has an additional strengthening effect on excitatory input. Our results suggest that glutamatergic input to VTA-DA neurons is inhibited by GABAergic interneurons via GABAB receptors and that morphine promotes presynaptic glutamate release by removing this inhibition. We also studied the contribution of the morphine-induced disinhibitory effect on the presynaptic glutamate release to the overall excitatory effect of morphine on VTA-DA neurons and related behavior. Our results suggest that the disinhibitory action of morphine on presynaptic glutamate release might be the main mechanism for morphine-induced increase in VTA-DA neuron firing and related behaviors. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09275.001 PMID:26208338

  17. Tangential migration of glutamatergic neurons and cortical patterning during development: Lessons from Cajal-Retzius cells.

    PubMed

    Barber, Melissa; Pierani, Alessandra

    2016-08-01

    Tangential migration is a mode of cell movement, which in the developing cerebral cortex, is defined by displacement parallel to the ventricular surface and orthogonal to the radial glial fibers. This mode of long-range migration is a strategy by which distinct neuronal classes generated from spatially and molecularly distinct origins can integrate to form appropriate neural circuits within the cortical plate. While it was previously believed that only GABAergic cortical interneurons migrate tangentially from their origins in the subpallial ganglionic eminences to integrate in the cortical plate, it is now known that transient populations of glutamatergic neurons also adopt this mode of migration. These include Cajal-Retzius cells (CRs), subplate neurons (SPs), and cortical plate transient neurons (CPTs), which have crucial roles in orchestrating the radial and tangential development of the embryonic cerebral cortex in a noncell-autonomous manner. While CRs have been extensively studied, it is only in the last decade that the molecular mechanisms governing their tangential migration have begun to be elucidated. To date, the mechanisms of SPs and CPTs tangential migration remain unknown. We therefore review the known signaling pathways, which regulate parameters of CRs migration including their motility, contact-redistribution and adhesion to the pial surface, and discuss this in the context of how CR migration may regulate their signaling activity in a spatial and temporal manner. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 847-881, 2016. PMID:26581033

  18. Glutamatergic mechanisms of comorbidity between acute stress and cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Keller, C; Kupchik, Y M; Gipson, C D; Brown, R M; Spencer, S; Bollati, F; Esparza, M A; Roberts-Wolfe, D J; Heinsbroek, J A; Bobadilla, A-C; Cancela, L M; Kalivas, P W

    2016-08-01

    There is substantial comorbidity between stress disorders and substance use disorders (SUDs), and acute stress augments the locomotor stimulant effect of cocaine in animal models. Here we endeavor to understand the neural underpinnings of comorbid stress disorders and drug use by determining whether the glutamatergic neuroadaptations that characterize cocaine self-administration are induced by acute stress. Rats were exposed to acute (2 h) immobilization stress, and 3 weeks later the nucleus accumbens core was examined for changes in glutamate transport, glutamate-mediated synaptic currents and dendritic spine morphology. We also determined whether acute stress potentiated the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Acute stress produced an enduring reduction in glutamate transport and potentiated excitatory synapses on medium spiny neurons. Acute stress also augmented the acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Importantly, by restoring glutamate transport in the accumbens core with ceftriaxone the capacity of acute stress to augment the acquisition of cocaine self-administration was abolished. Similarly, ceftriaxone treatment prevented stress-induced potentiation of cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, ceftriaxone did not reverse stress-induced synaptic potentiation, indicating that this effect of stress exposure did not underpin the increased acquisition of cocaine self-administration. Reversing acute stress-induced vulnerability to self-administer cocaine by normalizing glutamate transport poses a novel treatment possibility for reducing comorbid SUDs in stress disorders. PMID:26821978

  19. Transient Muscarinic and Glutamatergic Stimulation of Neural Stem Cells Trigger Acute and Persistent Changes in Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Samarasinghe, Ranmal A.; Kanuparthi, Prasad S.; Greenamyre, J. Timothy; DeFranco, Donald B.; Di Maio, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    While aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation may contribute to epileptogenesis, the mechanisms linking an initial epileptic insult to subsequent changes in cell fate remain elusive. Using both mouse and human iPSC-derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs), we found that a combined transient muscarinic and mGluR1 stimulation inhibited overall neurogenesis but enhanced NPSC differentiation into immature GABAergic cells. If treated NPSCs were further passaged, they retained a nearly identical phenotype upon differentiation. A similar profusion of immature GABAergic cells was seen in rats with pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed abnormal de-synchrony of Ca++ transients and altered gap junction intercellular communication following combined muscarinic/glutamatergic stimulation, which was associated with either acute site-specific dephosphorylation of connexin 43 or a long-term enhancement of its degradation. Therefore, epileptogenic stimuli can trigger acute and persistent changes in cell fate by altering distinct mechanisms that function to maintain appropriate intercellular communication between coupled NPSCs. PMID:25003306

  20. Transient muscarinic and glutamatergic stimulation of neural stem cells triggers acute and persistent changes in differentiation.

    PubMed

    Samarasinghe, Ranmal A; Kanuparthi, Prasad S; Timothy Greenamyre, J; DeFranco, Donald B; Di Maio, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    While aberrant cell proliferation and differentiation may contribute to epileptogenesis, the mechanisms linking an initial epileptic insult to subsequent changes in cell fate remain elusive. Using both mouse and human iPSC-derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs), we found that a combined transient muscarinic and mGluR1 stimulation inhibited overall neurogenesis but enhanced NPSC differentiation into immature GABAergic cells. If treated NPSCs were further passaged, they retained a nearly identical phenotype upon differentiation. A similar profusion of immature GABAergic cells was seen in rats with pilocarpine-induced chronic epilepsy. Furthermore, live cell imaging revealed abnormal de-synchrony of Ca(++) transients and altered gap junction intercellular communication following combined muscarinic/glutamatergic stimulation, which was associated with either acute site-specific dephosphorylation of connexin 43 or a long-term enhancement of its degradation. Therefore, epileptogenic stimuli can trigger acute and persistent changes in cell fate by altering distinct mechanisms that function to maintain appropriate intercellular communication between coupled NPSCs. PMID:25003306

  1. ENT1 inhibition attenuates epileptic seizure severity via regulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zucai; Xu, Ping; Chen, Yalan; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Yanke; Lv, Yaodong; Luo, Jing; Fang, Min; Zhang, Jun; Wang, Jing; Wang, Kewei; Wang, Xuefeng; Chen, Guojun

    2015-03-01

    Type 1 equilibrative nucleoside transporter (ENT1) promotes glutamate release by inhibition of adenosine signaling. However, whether ENT1 plays a role in epileptic seizure that involves elevated glutamatergic neurotransmission is unknown. Here, we report that both seizure rats and patients show increased expression of ENT1. Intrahippocampal injection of a specific inhibitor of ENT1, nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBTI), attenuates seizure severity and prolongs onset latency. In order to examine whether NBTI would be effective as antiepileptic after peripheral application, we injected NBTI intraperitoneally, and the results were similar to those obtained after intrahippocampal injection. NBTI administration leads to suppressed neuronal firing in seizure rats. In addition, increased mEPSC in seizure are inhibited by NBTI. Finally, NBTI results in deactivation of phosphorylated cAMP-response element-binding protein in the seizure rats. These results indicate that ENT1 plays an important role in the development of seizure. Inhibition of ENT1 might provide a novel therapeutic approach toward the control of epileptic seizure. PMID:25490964

  2. Ammonia impairs glutamatergic communication in astroglial cells: protective role of resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Bobermin, Larissa Daniele; Hansel, Gisele; Scherer, Emilene B S; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2015-12-01

    Ammonia is a key toxin in the precipitation of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with liver failure. In response to ammonia, various toxic events are triggered in astroglial cells, and alterations in brain glutamate communication are common. Resveratrol is a polyphenolic compound that has been extensively studied in pathological events because it presents several beneficial effects, including some in the central nervous system (CNS). We previously described that resveratrol is able to significantly modulate glial functioning and has a protective effect during ammonia challenge in vitro. In this study, we addressed the mechanisms by which resveratrol can protect C6 astroglial cells from glutamatergic alterations induced by ammonia. Resveratrol was able to prevent all the effects triggered by ammonia: (i) decrease in glutamate uptake activity and expression of the EAAC1 glutamate transporter, the main glutamate transporter present in C6 cells; (ii) increase of glutamate release, which was also dependent on the activation of the Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter NKCC1; (iii) reduction in GS activity and intracellular GSH content; and (iv) impairment of Na(+)K(+)-ATPase activity. Interestingly, resveratrol, per se, also positively modulated the astroglial functions evaluated. Moreover, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase 1 (HO1), an enzyme that is part of the cellular defense system, mediated some of the effects of resveratrol. In conclusion, the mechanisms of the putative protective role of resveratrol against ammonia toxicity involve the modulation of pathways and molecules related to glutamate communication in astroglial cells. PMID:26318273

  3. Work plan for determining the occurrence of glyphosate, its transformation product AMPA, other herbicide compounds, and antibiotics in midwestern United States streams, 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Battaglin, W.A.; Thurman, E.M.; Kolpin, D.W.; Scribner, E.A.; Sandstrom, M.W.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the distribution of glyphosate and its primary transformation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in midwestern streams during post-application and harvest-season runoff events. Water samples will be collected in 2002 during two post-herbicide-application runoff events and one harvest-season runoff event from 53 sites on streams in the Midwestern United States. All samples will be analyzed at the U.S. Geological Survey Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, for glyphosate and 20 other herbicides. Samples will also be analyzed for a glyphosate transformation product (AMPA) and 26 other herbicide transformation products, using GC/MS or HPLC/MS. Selected samples will be analyzed for 36 antibiotics or antibiotic transformational products. Results from this study will represent the first broad-scale investigation of glyphosate and AMPA in U.S. water resources.

  4. Ca(2+)-permeable AMPA and NMDA receptor channels in basket cells of rat hippocampal dentate gyrus.

    PubMed Central

    Koh, D S; Geiger, J R; Jonas, P; Sakmann, B

    1995-01-01

    1. Glutamate receptor (GluR) channels were studied in basket cells in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampal slices. Basket cells were identified by their location, dendritic morphology and high frequency of action potentials generated during sustained current injection. 2. Dual-component currents were activated by fast application of glutamate to outside-out membrane patches isolated from basket cell somata (10 microM glycine, no external Mg2+). The fast component was selectively blocked by 6-cyano-7-nitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX), the slow component by D-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (D-AP5). This suggests that the two components were mediated by alpha-amino-3- hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptor (AMPAR)/kainate receptor and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) channels, respectively. The mean ratio of the peak current of the NMDAR component to that of the AMPAR/kainate receptor component was 0.22 (1 ms pulses of 10 mM glutamate). 3. The AMPAR/kainate receptor component, which was studied in isolation in the presence of D-AP5, was identified as AMPAR mediated on the basis of the preferential activation by AMPA as compared with kainate, the weak desensitization of kainate-activated currents, the cross-desensitization between AMPA and kainate, and the reduction of desensitization by cyclothiazide. 4. Deactivation of basket cell AMPARs following 1 ms pulses of glutamate occurred with a time constant (tau) of 1.2 +/- 0.1 ms (mean +/- S.E.M.). During 100 ms glutamate pulses AMPARs desensitized with a tau of 3.7 +/- 0.2ms. 5. The peak current-voltage (I-V) relation of AMPAR-mediated currents in Na(+)-rich extracellular solution showed a reversal potential of -4.0 +/- 2.6 mV and was characterized by a a doubly rectifying shape. The conductance of single AMPAR channels was estimated as 22.6 +/- 1.6 pS using non-stationary fluctuation analysis. AMPARs expressed in hippocampal basket cells were highly Ca2+ permeable (PCa/PK = 1.79). 6. NMDARs in

  5. Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Kopach, Olga; Kao, Sheng-Chin; Petralia, Ronald S.; Belan, Pavel; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Voitenko, Nana

    2011-01-01

    Peripheral inflammation alters AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit trafficking and increases AMPAR Ca2+ permeability at synapses of spinal dorsal horn neurons. However, it is unclear whether AMPAR trafficking at extrasynaptic sites of these neurons also changes under persistent inflammatory pain conditions. Using patch-clamp recording combined with Ca2+ imaging and cobalt staining, we found that, under normal conditions, an extrasynaptic pool of AMPARs in rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of spinal dorsal horn predominantly consists of GluR2-containing Ca2+-impermeable receptors. Maintenance of complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation was associated with a marked enhancement of AMPA-induced currents and [Ca2+]i transients in SG neurons, while, as we previously showed, the amplitude of synaptically evoked AMPAR-mediated currents was not changed 24 h after CFA. These findings indicate that extrasynaptic AMPARs are upregulated and their Ca2+ permeability increases dramatically. This increase occurred in SG neurons characterized by intrinsic tonic firing properties, but not in those exhibited strong adaptation. This increase was also accompanied by an inward rectification of AMPA-induced currents and enhancement of sensitivity to a highly selective Ca2+-permeable AMPAR blocker, IEM-1460. Electron microcopy and biochemical assays additionally showed an increase in the amount of GluR1 at extrasynaptic membranes in dorsal horn neurons 24 h post-CFA. Taken together, our findings suggest that CFA-induced inflammation increases functional expression and proportion of extrasynaptic GluR1-containing Ca2+-permeable AMPARs in tonically firing excitatory dorsal horn neurons. We suggest that the altered extrasynaptic AMPAR trafficking might participate in the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:21282008

  6. Inflammation alters trafficking of extrasynaptic AMPA receptors in tonically firing lamina II neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Kopach, Olga; Kao, Sheng-Chin; Petralia, Ronald S; Belan, Pavel; Tao, Yuan-Xiang; Voitenko, Nana

    2011-04-01

    Peripheral inflammation alters AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunit trafficking and increases AMPAR Ca(2+) permeability at synapses of spinal dorsal horn neurons. However, it is unclear whether AMPAR trafficking at extrasynaptic sites of these neurons also changes under persistent inflammatory pain conditions. Using patch-clamp recording combined with Ca(2+) imaging and cobalt staining, we found that, under normal conditions, an extrasynaptic pool of AMPARs in rat substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of spinal dorsal horn predominantly consists of GluR2-containing Ca(2+)-impermeable receptors. Maintenance of complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced inflammation was associated with a marked enhancement of AMPA-induced currents and [Ca(2+)](i) transients in SG neurons, while, as we previously showed, the amplitude of synaptically evoked AMPAR-mediated currents was not changed 24 h after CFA. These findings indicate that extrasynaptic AMPARs are upregulated and their Ca(2+) permeability increases dramatically. This increase occurred in SG neurons characterized by intrinsic tonic firing properties, but not in those exhibited strong adaptation. This increase was also accompanied by an inward rectification of AMPA-induced currents and enhancement of sensitivity to a highly selective Ca(2+)-permeable AMPAR blocker, IEM-1460. Electron microcopy and biochemical assays additionally showed an increase in the amount of GluR1 at extrasynaptic membranes in dorsal horn neurons 24h post-CFA. Taken together, our findings indicate that CFA-induced inflammation increases functional expression and proportion of extrasynaptic GluR1-containing Ca(2+)-permeable AMPARs in tonically firing excitatory dorsal horn neurons, suggesting that the altered extrasynaptic AMPAR trafficking might participate in the maintenance of persistent inflammatory pain. PMID:21282008

  7. ANTIDEPRESSANT-LIKE EFFECTS OF LOW KETAMINE DOSE IS ASSOCIATED WITH INCREASED HIPPOCAMPAL AMPA/NMDA RECEPTOR DENSITY RATIO IN FEMALE WISTAR-KYOTO RATS

    PubMed Central

    Tizabi, Yousef; Bhatti, Babur H; Manaye, Kebreten F; Das, Jharna R; Akinfiresoye, Luli

    2012-01-01

    Preclinical as well as limited clinical studies indicate that ketamine, a non-competitive glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist, may exert a quick and prolonged antidepressant effect. It has been postulated that ketamine action is due to inhibition of NMDA and stimulation of AMPA receptors. Here, we sought to determine whether ketamine would exert antidepressant effects in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, a putative animal model of depression and whether this effect would be associated with changes in AMPA/NMDA receptor densities in the hippocampus. Adult female WKY rats and their control Wistar rats were subjected to acute and chronic ketamine doses and their locomotor activity (LMA) and immobility in the forced swim test (FST) were evaluated. Hippocampal AMPA and NMDA receptor densities were also measured following a chronic ketamine dose. Ketamine, both acutely (0.5–5.0 mg/kg ip) and chronically (0.5–2.5 mg/kg daily for 10 days) resulted in a dose-dependent and prolonged decrease in immobility in the FST in WKY rats only, suggesting an antidepressant-like effect in this model. Chronic treatment with an effective dose of ketamine also resulted in an increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density ratio in the hippocampus of WKY rats. LMA was not affected by any ketamine treatment in either strain. These results indicate a rapid and lasting antidepressant-like effect of a low ketamine dose in WKY rat model of depression. Moreover, the increase in AMPA/NMDA receptor density in hippocampus could be a contributory factor to behavioral effects of ketamine. These findings suggest potential therapeutic benefit in simultaneous reduction of central NMDA and elevation of AMPA receptor function in treatment of depression. PMID:22521815

  8. Molecular Dissection of the Interaction between the AMPA Receptor and Cornichon Homolog-3

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, Natalie F.; Cais, Ondrej; Maruo, Tomohiko; Savas, Jeffrey N.; Zaika, Elena I.; Azumaya, Caleigh M.; Yates, John R.; Greger, Ingo

    2014-01-01

    Cornichon homologs (CNIHs) are AMPA-type glutamate receptor (AMPAR) auxiliary subunits that modulate AMPAR ion channel function and trafficking. Mechanisms underlying this interaction and functional modulation of the receptor complex are currently unclear. Here, using proteins expressed from mouse and rat cDNA, we show that CNIH-3 forms a stable complex with tetrameric AMPARs and contributes to the transmembrane density in single-particle electron microscopy structures. Peptide array-based screening and in vitro mutagenesis identified two clusters of conserved membrane-proximal residues in CNIHs that contribute to AMPAR binding. Because CNIH-1 binds to AMPARs but modulates gating at a significantly lower magnitude compared with CNIH-3, these conserved residues mediate a direct interaction between AMPARs and CNIHs. In addition, residues in the extracellular loop of CNIH-2/3 absent in CNIH-1/4 are critical for both AMPAR interaction and gating modulation. On the AMPAR extracellular domains, the ligand-binding domain and possibly a stretch of linker, connecting the ligand-binding domain to the fourth membrane-spanning segment, is the principal contact point with the CNIH-3 extracellular loop. In contrast, the membrane-distal N-terminal domain is less involved in AMPAR gating modulation by CNIH-3 and AMPAR binding to CNIH-3. Collectively, our results identify conserved residues in the membrane-proximal region of CNIHs that contribute to AMPAR binding and an additional unique segment in the CNIH-2/3 extracellular loop required for both physical interaction and gating modulation of the AMPAR. Consistent with the dissociable properties of binding and gating modulation, we identified a mutant CNIH-3 that preserves AMPAR binding capability but has attenuated activity of gating modulation. PMID:25186755

  9. Dysregulation of AMPA receptor transmission in the nucleus accumbens in animal models of cocaine addiction

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Marina E.

    2014-01-01

    Plasticity of glutamate transmission in neuronal circuits involving the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is now recognized to play a critical role in cocaine addiction. NAc neurons are excited primarily by AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) and this is required for cocaine seeking. This review will briefly describe AMPAR properties and trafficking, with a focus on studies in NAc neurons, and then consider mechanisms by which cocaine may alter AMPAR transmission. Two examples will be discussed that may be important in two different stages of addiction: learning about drugs and drug-related cues during the period of drug exposure, and persistent vulnerability to craving and relapse after abstinence is achieved. The first example is drawn from studies of cultured NAc neurons. Elevation of DA levels (as would occur following cocaine exposure) facilitates activity-dependent strengthening of excitatory synapses onto medium spiny neurons, the main cell type and projection neuron of the NAc. This occurs because activation of D1-class receptors primes AMPAR for synaptic insertion, creating a temporal window in which stimuli related to cocaine-taking are more efficacious at eliciting synaptic plasticity and thus being encoded into memory. The second example involves rat models of cocaine addiction. Cell surface and synaptic expression of AMPAR on NAc neurons is persistently increased after withdrawal from repeated cocaine exposure. We hypothesize that this increases the reactivity of NAc neurons to glutamate inputs from cortex and limbic structures, facilitating the ability of these inputs to trigger cocaine seeking and thus contributing to the persistent vulnerability to relapse that characterizes addiction. PMID:20361291

  10. Evidence that Subanesthetic Doses of Ketamine Cause Sustained Disruptions of NMDA and AMPA-Mediated Frontoparietal Connectivity in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alexander D.; Jackson, Laura E.; Hall, Judith; Moran, Rosalyn; Saxena, Neeraj

    2015-01-01

    Following the discovery of the antidepressant properties of ketamine, there has been a recent resurgence in the interest in this NMDA receptor antagonist. Although detailed animal models of the molecular mechanisms underlying ketamine's effects have emerged, there are few MEG/EEG studies examining the acute subanesthetic effects of ketamine infusion in man. We recorded 275 channel MEG in two experiments (n = 25 human males) examining the effects of subanesthetic ketamine infusion. MEG power spectra revealed a rich set of significant oscillatory changes compared with placebo sessions, including decreases in occipital, parietal, and anterior cingulate alpha power, increases in medial frontal theta power, and increases in parietal and cingulate cortex high gamma power. Each of these spectral effects demonstrated their own set of temporal dynamics. Dynamic causal modeling of frontoparietal connectivity changes with ketamine indicated a decrease in NMDA and AMPA-mediated frontal-to-parietal connectivity. AMPA-mediated connectivity changes were sustained for up to 50 min after ketamine infusion had ceased, by which time perceptual distortions were absent. The results also indicated a decrease in gain of parietal pyramidal cells, which was correlated with participants' self-reports of blissful state. Based on these results, we suggest that the antidepressant effects of ketamine may depend on its ability to change the balance of frontoparietal connectivity patterns. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In this paper, we found that subanesthetic doses of ketamine, similar to those used in antidepressant studies, increase anterior theta and gamma power but decrease posterior theta, delta, and alpha power, as revealed by magnetoencephalographic recordings. Dynamic causal modeling of frontoparietal connectivity changes with ketamine indicated a decrease in NMDA and AMPA-mediated frontal-to-parietal connectivity. AMPA-mediated connectivity changes were sustained for up to 50 min after

  11. Dissociation of μ- and δ-opioid inhibition of glutamatergic synaptic transmission in superficial dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is anatomical and behavioural evidence that μ- and δ-opioid receptors modulate distinct nociceptive modalities within the superficial dorsal horn. The aim of the present study was to examine whether μ- and δ-opioid receptor activation differentially modulates TRP sensitive inputs to neurons within the superficial dorsal horn. To do this, whole cell patch clamp recordings were made from lamina I - II neurons in rat spinal cord slices in vitro to examine the effect of opioids on TRP agonist-enhanced glutamatergic spontaneous miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). Results Under basal conditions the μ-opioid agonist DAMGO (3 μM) reduced the rate of miniature EPSCs in 68% of neurons, while the δ- and κ-opioid agonists deltorphin-II (300 nM) and U69593 (300 nM) did so in 13 - 17% of neurons tested. The TRP agonists menthol (400 μM) and icilin (100 μM) both produced a Ca2+-dependent increase in miniature EPSC rate which was unaffected by the voltage dependent calcium channel (VDCC) blocker Cd2+. The proportion of neurons in which deltorphin-II reduced the miniature EPSC rate was enhanced in the presence of icilin (83%), but not menthol (0%). By contrast, the proportion of DAMGO and U69593 responders was unaltered in the presence of menthol (57%, 0%), or icilin (57%, 17%). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that δ-opioid receptor activation selectively inhibits inputs activated by icilin, whereas μ-opioid receptor activation has a more widespread effect on synaptic inputs to neurons in the superficial dorsal horn. These findings suggest that δ-opioids may provide a novel analgesic approach for specific, TRPA1-like mediated pain modalities. PMID:20977770

  12. Glutamatergic neuron-targeted loss of LGI1 epilepsy gene results in seizures

    PubMed Central

    Boillot, Morgane; Huneau, Clément; Marsan, Elise; Lehongre, Katia; Navarro, Vincent; Ishida, Saeko; Dufresnois, Béatrice; Ozkaynak, Ekim; Garrigue, Jérôme; Miles, Richard; Martin, Benoit; Leguern, Eric; Anderson, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Leucin-rich, glioma inactivated 1 (LGI1) is a secreted protein linked to human seizures of both genetic and autoimmune aetiology. Mutations in the LGI1 gene are responsible for autosomal dominant temporal lobe epilepsy with auditory features, whereas LGI1 autoantibodies are involved in limbic encephalitis, an acquired epileptic disorder associated with cognitive impairment. We and others previously reported that Lgi1-deficient mice have early-onset spontaneous seizures leading to premature death at 2–3 weeks of age. Yet, where and when Lgi1 deficiency causes epilepsy remains unknown. To address these questions, we generated Lgi1 conditional knockout (cKO) mice using a set of universal Cre-driver mouse lines. Selective deletion of Lgi1 was achieved in glutamatergic pyramidal neurons during embryonic (Emx1-Lgi1cKO) or late postnatal (CaMKIIα-Lgi1cKO) developmental stages, or in gamma amino butyric acidergic (GABAergic) parvalbumin interneurons (PV-Lgi1cKO). Emx1-Lgi1cKO mice displayed early-onset and lethal seizures, whereas CaMKIIα-Lgi1cKO mice presented late-onset occasional seizures associated with variable reduced lifespan. In contrast, neither spontaneous seizures nor increased seizure susceptibility to convulsant were observed when Lgi1 was deleted in parvalbumin interneurons. Together, these data showed that LGI1 depletion restricted to pyramidal cells is sufficient to generate seizures, whereas seizure thresholds were unchanged after depletion in gamma amino butyric acidergic parvalbumin interneurons. We suggest that LGI1 secreted from excitatory neurons, but not parvalbumin inhibitory neurons, makes a major contribution to the pathogenesis of LGI1-related epilepsies. Our data further indicate that LGI1 is required from embryogenesis to adulthood to achieve proper circuit functioning. PMID:25234641

  13. Maternal milk as methylmercury source for suckling mice: neurotoxic effects involved with the cerebellar glutamatergic system.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, C B; Schwalm, F D; Cereser, V; Abreu, F; Oliveira, A; Bizarro, L; Rocha, J B T; Frizzo, M E S; Souza, D O; Farina, M

    2004-09-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a highly neurotoxic compound and several studies have reported intoxication signs in children whose mothers were exposed to this environmental toxicant. Although it is well established that the in utero exposure to MeHg causes neurological deficits in animals and humans, there is no evidence of the exclusive contribution of lactational exposure to MeHg as a possible cause of neurotoxicity in the offspring. In this study, we investigated the exclusive contribution of MeHg exposure through maternal milk on biochemical parameters related to the glutamatergic homeostasis (glutamate uptake by slices) and to the oxidative stress (total and nonprotein sulfhydryl groups, nonprotein hydroperoxides, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities) in the cerebellum of suckling mice (Swiss albino). The same parameters were also evaluated in the cerebellum of mothers. Our results showed, for the first time, that lactational exposure to MeHg caused a high percent of inhibition (50%) on glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in pups. Contrarily, this effect was not observed in mothers, which were submitted to a direct oral exposure to MeHg (15 mg/l in drinking water). In addition, behavioral/functional changes were observed in the weaning mice exposed to MeHg. It was observed an increase in the levels of nonprotein hydroperoxides in cerebellum, and this increase was negatively correlated to the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices. This study indicates that (1) the exposure of lactating mice to MeHg causes inhibition of the glutamate uptake by cerebellar slices in the offspring; (2) this inhibitory effect seems to be related to increased levels of hydroperoxide. PMID:15201443

  14. Differential expression of metabotropic glutamate and GABA receptors at neocortical glutamatergic and GABAergic axon terminals

    PubMed Central

    Bragina, Luca; Bonifacino, Tiziana; Bassi, Silvia; Milanese, Marco; Bonanno, Giambattista; Conti, Fiorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Metabotropic glutamate (Glu) receptors (mGluRs) and GABAB receptors are highly expressed at presynaptic sites. To verify the possibility that the two classes of metabotropic receptors contribute to axon terminals heterogeneity, we studied the localization of mGluR1α, mGluR5, mGluR2/3, mGluR7, and GABAB1 in VGLUT1-, VGLUT2-, and VGAT- positive terminals in the cerebral cortex of adult rats. VGLUT1-positive puncta expressed mGluR1α (∼5%), mGluR5 (∼6%), mGluR2/3 (∼22%), mGluR7 (∼17%), and GABAB1 (∼40%); VGLUT2-positive terminals expressed mGluR1α (∼10%), mGluR5 (∼11%), mGluR2/3 (∼20%), mGluR7 (∼28%), and GABAB1 (∼25%); whereas VGAT-positive puncta expressed mGluR1α (∼27%), mGluR5 (∼24%), mGluR2/3 (∼38%), mGluR7 (∼31%), and GABAB1 (∼19%). Control experiments ruled out the possibility that postsynaptic mGluRs and GABAB1 might have significantly biased our results. We also performed functional assays in synaptosomal preparations, and showed that all agonists modify Glu and GABA levels, which return to baseline upon exposure to antagonists. Overall, these findings indicate that mGluR1α, mGluR5, mGluR2/3, mGluR7, and GABAB1 expression differ significantly between glutamatergic and GABAergic axon terminals, and that the robust expression of heteroreceptors may contribute to the homeostatic regulation of the balance between excitation and inhibition. PMID:26388733

  15. Simulation of Postsynaptic Glutamate Receptors Reveals Critical Features of Glutamatergic Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Greget, Renaud; Pernot, Fabien; Bouteiller, Jean-Marie C.; Ghaderi, Viviane; Allam, Sushmita; Keller, Anne Florence; Ambert, Nicolas; Legendre, Arnaud; Sarmis, Merdan; Haeberle, Olivier; Faupel, Michel; Bischoff, Serge; Berger, Theodore W.; Baudry, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Activation of several subtypes of glutamate receptors contributes to changes in postsynaptic calcium concentration at hippocampal synapses, resulting in various types of changes in synaptic strength. Thus, while activation of NMDA receptors has been shown to be critical for long-term potentiation (LTP) and long term depression (LTD) of synaptic transmission, activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) has been linked to either LTP or LTD. While it is generally admitted that dynamic changes in postsynaptic calcium concentration represent the critical elements to determine the direction and amplitude of the changes in synaptic strength, it has been difficult to quantitatively estimate the relative contribution of the different types of glutamate receptors to these changes under different experimental conditions. Here we present a detailed model of a postsynaptic glutamatergic synapse that incorporates ionotropic and mGluR type I receptors, and we use this model to determine the role of the different receptors to the dynamics of postsynaptic calcium with different patterns of presynaptic activation. Our modeling framework includes glutamate vesicular release and diffusion in the cleft and a glutamate transporter that modulates extracellular glutamate concentration. Our results indicate that the contribution of mGluRs to changes in postsynaptic calcium concentration is minimal under basal stimulation conditions and becomes apparent only at high frequency of stimulation. Furthermore, the location of mGluRs in the postsynaptic membrane is also a critical factor, as activation of distant receptors contributes significantly less to calcium dynamics than more centrally located ones. These results confirm the important role of glutamate transporters and of the localization of mGluRs in postsynaptic sites in their signaling properties, and further strengthen the notion that mGluR activation significantly contributes to postsynaptic calcium dynamics only following

  16. In vivo and in vitro effects of multiple sclerosis immunomodulatory therapeutics on glutamatergic excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Luchtman, Dirk; Gollan, René; Ellwardt, Erik; Birkenstock, Jérôme; Robohm, Kerstin; Siffrin, Volker; Zipp, Frauke

    2016-03-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), a candidate downstream mechanism for neuronal injury is glutamate (Glu)-induced excitotoxicity, leading to toxic increases in intraneuronal Ca(2+) . Here, we used in vivo two-photon imaging in the brain of TN-XXL transgenic Ca(2+) reporter mice to test whether promising oral MS therapeutics, namely fingolimod, dimethyl fumarate, and their respective metabolites fingolimod-phosphate and monomethyl fumarate, can protect neurons against acute glutamatergic excitotoxic damage. We also assessed whether these drugs can protect against excitotoxicity in vitro using primary cortical neurons, and whether they can directly inhibit Glu release from pathogenic T-helper 17 lymphocytes. In vivo, direct and acute (1 h) administration of 100 mM Glu to the brainstem resulted in a rapid and significant up-regulation in neuronal Ca(2+) signaling as well as morphological excitotoxic changes that were attenuated by the NMDA-receptor antagonist MK801. Direct CNS administration of MS drugs prior to Glu significantly delayed or reduced, but did not prevent the neuronal Ca(2+) increase or morphological changes. In vitro, prolonged (24 h) treatment of primary neurons with the fumarates significantly protected against neurotoxicity induced by Glu as well as NMDA, similar to MK801. Furthermore, monomethyl fumerate significantly reduced Glu release from pathogenic T-helper 17 lymphocytes. Overall, these data suggest that MS drugs may mediate neuroprotection via excitotoxicity modulating effects. Evidence suggests MS pathogenesis may involve neuronal excitotoxicity, induced by local release of glutamate. However, current MS drugs, including dimethyl fumerate (DMF) and fingolimod (FTY720) are largely anti-inflammatory and not yet fully tested for their neuroprotective potential. Here, we show that the drugs, in particular DMF metabolite monomethyl fumerate (MMF), protect neurons by excitotoxicity modulating effects. Th17, T-helper 17. PMID:26662167

  17. Evidence for a glutamatergic projection from the zona incerta to the basal ganglia of rats.

    PubMed

    Heise, Claire E; Mitrofanis, John

    2004-01-19

    This study explores the organisation and neurochemical nature of the projections from the zona incerta (ZI) to the basal ganglia. Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetised with ketamine (100 mg/kg) and Rompun (10 mg/kg), and injections of cholera toxin subunit B were made into each of the following nuclei: the ZI, the substantia nigra (SN), the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PpT), and the entopeduncular nucleus (Ep). Brains were aldehyde fixed, sectioned, and processed using standard methods. Tracer-labelled sections were then doubly labelled with antibodies to glutamate (Glu), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), parvalbumin (Pv), or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD; the latter two are markers for GABAergic cells); these neurochemicals characterise most types of ZI cells. After ZI injections, labelling was nonuniform across the different basal ganglia nuclei. The bulk of labelling, both anterograde and retrograde, was seen in the SN and PpT and, to a lesser extent, within the other nuclei of the basal ganglia (e.g., caudate-putamen, globus pallidus, subthalamus, Ep). In the SN, labelling was found in both major parts of the nucleus, the pars compacta and pars reticulata. Within the PpT, however, the bulk of labelling was limited to only one of the two sectors of the nucleus, namely, the pars dissipata (PpTd). The pars compacta of the PpT (PpTc) remained largely free of labelled profiles. After CTb injections into three basal ganglia nuclei (SN, PpT, Ep), most labelled cells in the ZI were glutamate+ and very few were NOS+ or gamma-aminobutyric acidergic. Overall, the results indicate that the ZI is in a position to influence preferentially the activity of the SN and PpTd of the basal ganglia via an excitatory, glutamatergic input. PMID:14689481

  18. Comparison of spike parameters from optically identified GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons in sparse cortical cultures

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Keiko; Blanquie, Oriane; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J.; Sinning, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Primary neuronal cultures share many typical features with the in vivo situation, including similarities in distinct electrical activity patterns and synaptic network interactions. Here, we use multi-electrode array (MEA) recordings from spontaneously active cultures of wildtype and glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67)-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice to evaluate which spike parameters differ between GABAergic interneurons and principal, putatively glutamatergic neurons. To analyze this question we combine MEA recordings with optical imaging in sparse cortical cultures to assign individual spikes to visually-identified single neurons. In our culture system, excitatory and inhibitory neurons are present at a similar ratio as described in vivo, and spike waveform characteristics and firing patterns are fully developed after 2 weeks in vitro. Spike amplitude, but not other spike waveform parameters, correlated with the distance between the recording electrode and the location of the assigned neuron’s soma. Cluster analysis of spike waveform properties revealed no particular cell population that may be assigned to putative inhibitory or excitatory neurons. Moreover, experiments in primary cultures from transgenic GAD67-GFP mice, which allow optical identification of GABAergic interneurons and thus unambiguous assignment of extracellular signals, did not reveal any significant difference in spike timing and spike waveform parameters between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. Despite of our detailed characterization of spike waveform and temporal spiking properties we could not identify an unequivocal electrical parameter to discriminate between individual excitatory and inhibitory neurons in vitro. Our data suggest that under in vitro conditions cellular classifications of single neurons on the basis of their extracellular firing properties should be treated with caution. PMID:25642167

  19. Notch1 Regulates Hippocampal Plasticity Through Interaction with the Reelin Pathway, Glutamatergic Transmission and CREB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Brai, Emanuele; Marathe, Swananda; Astori, Simone; Fredj, Naila Ben; Perry, Elisabeth; Lamy, Christophe; Scotti, Alessandra; Alberi, Lavinia

    2015-01-01

    Notch signaling plays a crucial role in adult brain function such as synaptic plasticity, memory and olfaction. Several reports suggest an involvement of this pathway in neurodegenerative dementia. Yet, to date, the mechanism underlying Notch activity in mature neurons remains unresolved. In this work, we investigate how Notch regulates synaptic potentiation and contributes to the establishment of memory in mice. We observe that Notch1 is a postsynaptic receptor with functional interactions with the Reelin receptor, apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (ApoER2) and the ionotropic receptor, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR). Targeted loss of Notch1 in the hippocampal CA fields affects Reelin signaling by influencing Dab1 expression and impairs the synaptic potentiation achieved through Reelin stimulation. Further analysis indicates that loss of Notch1 affects the expression and composition of the NMDAR but not AMPAR. Glutamatergic signaling is further compromised through downregulation of CamKII and its secondary and tertiary messengers resulting in reduced cAMP response element-binding (CREB) signaling. Our results identify Notch1 as an important regulator of mechanisms involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. These findings emphasize the possible involvement of this signaling receptor in dementia. Highlights In this paper, we propose a mechanism for Notch1-dependent plasticity that likely underlies the function of Notch1 in memory formation: Notch1 interacts with another important developmental pathway, the Reelin cascade. Notch1 regulates both NMDAR expression and composition. Notch1 influences a cascade of cellular events culminating in CREB activation. PMID:26635527

  20. Enhancement by citral of glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission in adult rat substantia gelatinosa neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lan; Fujita, Tsugumi; Jiang, Chang-Yu; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2016-02-10

    Although citral, which is abundantly present in lemongrass, has various actions including antinociception, how citral affects synaptic transmission has not been examined as yet. Citral activates in heterologous cells transient receptor potential vanilloid-1, ankyrin-1, and melastatin-8 (TRPV1, TRPA1, and TRPM8, respectively) channels, the activation of which in the spinal lamina II [substantia gelatinosa (SG)] increases the spontaneous release of L-glutamate from nerve terminals. It remains to be examined what types of transient receptor potential channel in native neurons are activated by citral. With a focus on transient receptor potential activation, we examined the effect of citral on glutamatergic spontaneous excitatory transmission using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to SG neurons in adult rat spinal cord slices. Bath-applied citral for 3 min increased the frequency of spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current in a concentration-dependent manner (half-maximal effective concentration=0.58 mM), with a small increase in its amplitude. The spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current frequency increase produced by citral was repeated at a time interval of 30 min, albeit this action recovered with a slow time course after washout. The presynaptic effect of citral was inhibited by TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031, but not by voltage-gated Na-channel blocker tetrodotoxin, TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine, and TRPM8 antagonist BCTC. It is concluded that citral increases spontaneous L-glutamate release in SG neurons by activating TRPA1 channels. Considering that the SG plays a pivotal role in modulating nociceptive transmission from the periphery, the citral activity could contribute toward at least a part of the modulation. PMID:26720890

  1. Inhibitory control of ascending glutamatergic projections to the lamprey respiratory rhythm generator.

    PubMed

    Cinelli, Elenia; Mutolo, Donatella; Contini, Massimo; Pantaleo, Tito; Bongianni, Fulvia

    2016-06-21

    Neurons within the vagal motoneuron region of the lamprey have been shown to modulate respiratory activity via ascending excitatory projections to the paratrigeminal respiratory group (pTRG), the proposed respiratory rhythm generator. The present study was performed on in vitro brainstem preparations of the lamprey to provide a characterization of ascending projections within the whole respiratory motoneuron column with regard to the distribution of neurons projecting to the pTRG and related neurochemical markers. Injections of Neurobiotin were performed into the pTRG and the presence of glutamate, GABA and glycine immunoreactivity was investigated by double-labeling experiments. Interestingly, retrogradely labeled neurons were found not only in the vagal region, but also in the facial and glossopharyngeal motoneuron regions. They were also present within the sensory octavolateral area (OLA). The results show for the first time that neurons projecting to the pTRG are immunoreactive for glutamate, surrounded by GABA-immunoreactive structures and associated with the presence of glycinergic cells. Consistently, GABAA or glycine receptor blockade within the investigated regions increased the respiratory frequency. Furthermore, microinjections of agonists and antagonists of ionotropic glutamate receptors and of the GABAA receptor agonist muscimol showed that OLA neurons do not contribute to respiratory rhythm generation. The results provide evidence that glutamatergic ascending pathways to the pTRG are subject to a potent inhibitory control and suggest that disinhibition is one important mechanism subserving their function. The general characteristics of inhibitory control involved in rhythmic activities, such as respiration, appear to be highly conserved throughout vertebrate evolution. PMID:27058146

  2. The NG2 Protein Is Not Required for Glutamatergic Neuron-NG2 Cell Synaptic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Passlick, Stefan; Trotter, Jacqueline; Seifert, Gerald; Steinhäuser, Christian; Jabs, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    NG2 glial cells (as from now NG2 cells) are unique in receiving synaptic input from neurons. However, the components regulating formation and maintenance of these neuron-glia synapses remain elusive. The transmembrane protein NG2 has been considered a potential mediator of synapse formation and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) clustering, because it contains 2 extracellular Laminin G/Neurexin/Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin domains, which in neurons are crucial for formation of transsynaptic neuroligin-neurexin complexes. NG2 is connected via Glutamate Receptor-Interacting Protein with GluA2/3-containing AMPARs, thereby possibly mediating receptor clustering in glial postsynaptic density. To elucidate the role of NG2 in neuron-glia communication, we investigated glutamatergic synaptic transmission in juvenile and aged hippocampal NG2 cells of heterozygous and homozygous NG2 knockout mice. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses readily formed in the absence of NG2. Short-term plasticity, synaptic connectivity, postsynaptic AMPAR current kinetics, and density were not affected by NG2 deletion. During development, an NG2-independent acceleration of AMPAR current kinetics and decreased synaptic connectivity were observed. Our results indicate that the lack of NG2 does not interfere with genesis and basic properties of neuron-glia synapses. In addition, we demonstrate frequent expression of neuroligins 1-3 in juvenile and aged NG2 cells, suggesting a role of these molecules in synapse formation between NG2 glia and neurons. PMID:25100858

  3. Abundance of gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in adult Mosquitofish spinal cord neurons

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Velez, Jose L.; Rodriguez-Alvarado, Melanie; Torres-Vazquez, Irma I.; Fraser, Scott E.; Yasumura, Thomas; Vanderpool, Kimberly G.; Rash, John E.; Rosa-Molinar, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    “Dye-coupling”, whole-mount immunohistochemistry for gap junction channel protein connexin 35 (Cx35), and freeze-fracture replica immunogold labeling (FRIL) reveal an abundance of electrical synapses/gap junctions at glutamatergic mixed synapses in the 14th spinal segment that innervates the adult male gonopodium of Western Mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis (Mosquitofish). To study gap junctions’ role in fast motor behavior, we used a minimally-invasive neural-tract-tracing technique to introduce gap junction-permeant or -impermeant dyes into deep muscles controlling the gonopodium of the adult male Mosquitofish, a teleost fish that rapidly transfers (complete in <20 mS) spermatozeugmata into the female reproductive tract. Dye-coupling in the 14th spinal segment controlling the gonopodium reveals coupling between motor neurons and a commissural primary ascending interneuron (CoPA IN) and shows that the 14th segment has an extensive and elaborate dendritic arbor and more gap junctions than do other segments. Whole-mount immunohistochemistry for Cx35 results confirm dye-coupling and show it occurs via gap junctions. Finally, FRIL shows that gap junctions are at mixed synapses and reveals that >50 of the 62 gap junctions at mixed synapses are in the 14th spinal segment. Our results support and extend studies showing gap junctions at mixed synapses in spinal cord segments involved in control of genital reflexes in rodents, and they suggest a link between mixed synapses and fast motor behavior. The findings provide a basis for studies of specific roles of spinal neurons in the generation/regulation of sex-specific behavior and for studies of gap junctions’ role in regulating fast motor behavior. Finally, the CoPA IN provides a novel candidate neuron for future studies of gap junctions and neural control of fast motor behaviors. PMID:25018700

  4. Remodeling of glial coverage of glutamatergic synapses in the rat nucleus tractus solitarii after ozone inhalation.

    PubMed

    Chounlamountry, Keodavanh; Boyer, Bénédicte; Penalba, Virginie; François-Bellan, Anne-Marie; Bosler, Olivier; Kessler, Jean-Pierre; Strube, Caroline

    2015-09-01

    Besides the well-described inflammatory and dysfunction effects on the respiratory tract, accumulating evidence indicates that ozone (O3 ) exposure also affects central nervous system functions. However, the mechanisms through which O3 exerts toxic effects on the brain remain poorly understood. We previously showed that O3 exposure caused a neuronal activation in regions of the rat nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) overlapping terminal fields of vagal lung afferents. Knowing that O3 exposure can impact astrocytic protein expression, we decided to investigate whether it may induce astroglial cellular alterations in the NTS. Using electron microscopy and immunoblot techniques, we showed that in O3 -exposed animals, the astrocytic coverage of NTS glutamatergic synapses was 19% increased while the astrocyte volume fraction and membrane density were not modified. Moreover, the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100β, which are known to be increased in reactive astroglia, did not change. These results indicate that O3 inhalation induces a glial plasticity that is restricted to the peri-synaptic coverage without overall astroglial activation. Taken together, these findings, along with our previous observations, support the conclusion that O3 -induced pulmonary inflammation results in a specific activation of vagal lung afferents rather than non-specific overall brain alterations mediated by blood-borne agents. Exposure to ozone, a major atmospheric pollutant, induces an increase in the glial coverage of neurons that is restricted to peri-synaptic compartments. This observation does not support the view that the ozone-induced neuronal disorders are related to non-specific overall brain alterations. It rather argues for a specific activation of the vagus nerve in response to pulmonary inflammation. PMID:26083406

  5. Differential involvement of glutamatergic and catecholaminergic activity within the amygdala during taste aversion retrieval on memory expression and updating.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Osorio-Gómez; Kioko, Guzmán-Ramos; Federico, Bermúdez-Rattoni

    2016-07-01

    During memory retrieval, consolidated memories are expressed and destabilized in order to maintain or update information through a memory reconsolidation process. Despite the key role of the amygdala during memory acquistion and consolidation, the participation of neurotransmitter signals in memory retrieval is poorly understood. Hence, we used conditioned taste aversion and in vivo microdialysis to evaluate changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine concentrations within the amygdala during memory retrieval. We observed that exposure to an aversive-conditioned stimulus induced an augmentation in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine levels within the amygdala, while exposure to a familiar and safe stimulus did not induce changes in these neurotransmitters levels. Also, we evaluated the amygdalar blockade of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA), β-adrenergic and dopamine D1 receptors in memory retrieval and updating. Results showed that during retrieval, behavioural expression was impaired by intra-amygdalar blockade of AMPA and β-adrenergic receptors, whereas NMDA, D1 and β-adrenergic receptors blockade hindered memory updating. In summary, during conditioned taste aversion retrieval there was an increase in the extracellular levels of glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine within the amygdala, and their receptors activity were differentially involved in the behavioural expression and memory updating during retrieval. PMID:27018173

  6. Loss of D2 Dopamine Receptor Function Modulates Cocaine-Induced Glutamatergic Synaptic Potentiation in the Ventral Tegmental Area

    PubMed Central

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello

    2013-01-01

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  7. Loss of D2 dopamine receptor function modulates cocaine-induced glutamatergic synaptic potentiation in the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Anuradha; Argilli, Emanuela; Bonci, Antonello; Whistler, Jennifer L

    2013-07-24

    Potentiation of glutamate responses is a critical synaptic response to cocaine exposure in ventral tegmental area (VTA) neurons. However, the mechanism by which cocaine exposure promotes potentiation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and subsequently AMPA receptors (AMPARs) is not fully understood. In this study we demonstrate that repeated cocaine treatment causes loss of D2 dopamine receptor functional responses via interaction with lysosome-targeting G-protein-associated sorting protein1 (GASP1). We also show that the absence of D2 downregulation in GASP1-KO mice prevents cocaine-induced potentiation of NMDAR currents, elevation of the AMPA/NMDA ratio, and redistribution of NMDAR and AMPAR subunits to the membrane. As a pharmacological parallel, coadministration of the high-affinity D2 agonist, aripiprazole, reduces not only functional downregulation of D2s in response to cocaine but also potentiation of NMDAR and AMPAR responses in wild-type mice. Together these data suggest that functional loss of D2 receptors is a critical mechanism mediating cocaine-induced glutamate plasticity in VTA neurons. PMID:23884939

  8. Postnatal development and sensory experience synergistically underlie the excitatory/inhibitory features of hippocampal neural circuits: Glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Talaei, S A; Azami, A; Salami, M

    2016-03-24

    During a postnatal critical period balance of excitation/inhibition in the developing brain is highly regulated by environmental signals. Compared to the visual cortex, rare document includes effects of sensory experience on the hippocampus, which is also bombarded by sensory signals. In this study, basic and tetanized field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) were recorded in CA1 area of hippocampus of light-(LR) and dark-reared (DR) rats (at 2, 4 and 6weeks of age). Also, we assessed age- and activity-dependent changes in the N-Methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors subunit compositions and, GABA producing enzymes. While the sensory deprivation increased amplitude of baseline fEPSPs, it decreased degree of potentiation of post-tetanus responses. Expression of GluA1 and GluA2 subunits of AMPA receptors was increased across age in DR rats. In contrast to LR rats, mRNA and protein expression of GluN1, GluN2A and GluN2B subunits of NMDA receptors was decreased in DR ones. Also, dark rearing diminished expression of GABA synthesis enzymes GAD65 and GAD67. These results indicate that, sensory experience adjusts synaptic plasticity and might also affect the balance of excitation/inhibition in the hippocampus. PMID:26804241

  9. Deficiency of Lipoprotein Lipase in Neurons Decreases AMPA Receptor Phosphorylation and Leads to Neurobehavioral Abnormalities in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Tian; Taussig, Matthew D.; DiPatrizio, Nicholas V.; Astarita, Giuseppe; Piomelli, Daniele; Bergman, Bryan C.; Dell’Acqua, Mark L.; Eckel, Robert H.; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism have been found in several neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer’s disease. Lipoprotein lipase (LPL) hydrolyzes triacylglycerides in lipoproteins and regulates lipid metabolism in multiple organs and tissues, including the central nervous system (CNS). Though many brain regions express LPL, the functions of this lipase in the CNS remain largely unknown. We developed mice with neuron-specific LPL deficiency that became obese on chow by 16 wks in homozygous mutant mice (NEXLPL-/-) and 10 mo in heterozygous mice (NEXLPL+/-). In the present study, we show that 21 mo NEXLPL+/- mice display substantial cognitive function decline including poorer learning and memory, and increased anxiety with no difference in general motor activities and exploratory behavior. These neurobehavioral abnormalities are associated with a reduction in the 2-amino-3-(3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazol-4-yl) propanoic acid (AMPA) receptor subunit GluA1 and its phosphorylation, without any alterations in amyloid β accumulation. Importantly, a marked deficit in omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the hippocampus precedes the development of the neurobehavioral phenotype of NEXLPL+/- mice. And, a diet supplemented with n-3 PUFA can improve the learning and memory of NEXLPL+/- mice at both 10 mo and 21 mo of age. We interpret these findings to indicate that LPL regulates the availability of PUFA in the CNS and, this in turn, impacts the strength of synaptic plasticity in the brain of aging mice through the modification of AMPA receptor and its phosphorylation. PMID:26263173

  10. Antioxidant NAC and AMPA/KA receptor antagonist DNQX inhibited JNK3 activation following global ischemia in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hui; Zhang, Guangyi; Li, Hongchun; Zhang, Quanguang

    2003-06-01

    c-Jun N-terminal kinase-3 (JNK3), the only neural-specific isoform, may play an important role in excitotoxicity and neuronal injury. To analyze the variation of JNK3 activation, levels of phospho-JNK3 were measured at various time points of ischemia and selected time points of reperfusion, respectively. Our study illustrated that JNK3 was rapidly activated and translocated from cytosol to nucleus during ischemia. During reperfusion, two peaks of JNK3 activation occurred at 30 min and 3 days, respectively. To further define the mechanism of JNK3 activation, antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC), alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainate (KA) receptor antagonist 6,7-dinitro-quinoxaline-2,3(1H,4H)-dione (DNQX), N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist ketamine and L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channel (L-VGCC) antagonist nifedipine were given to the rats 20 min prior to ischemia. The results showed that NAC obviously inhibited JNK3 activation during the early reperfusion, whereas DNQX preferably attenuated JNK3 activation during the latter reperfusion. Ketamine and nifedipine had no significant effects on JNK3 activation during reperfusion. Consequently, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and AMPA/KA receptor were closely associated with JNK3 activation following global ischemia. PMID:12767482

  11. Spatial Relationships between GABAergic and Glutamatergic Synapses on the Dendrites of Distinct Types of Mouse Retinal Ganglion Cells across Development

    PubMed Central

    Bleckert, Adam; Parker, Edward D.; Kang, YunHee; Pancaroglu, Raika; Soto, Florentina; Lewis, Renate; Craig, Ann Marie; Wong, Rachel O. L.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal output requires a concerted balance between excitatory and inhibitory (I/E) input. Like other circuits, inhibitory synaptogenesis in the retina precedes excitatory synaptogenesis. How then do neurons attain their mature balance of I/E ratios despite temporal offset in synaptogenesis? To directly compare the development of glutamatergic and GABAergic synapses onto the same cell, we biolistically transfected retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) with PSD95CFP, a marker of glutamatergic postsynaptic sites, in transgenic Thy1­YFPγ2 mice in which GABAA receptors are fluorescently tagged. We mapped YFPγ2 and PSD95CFP puncta distributions on three RGC types at postnatal day P12, shortly before eye opening, and at P21 when robust light responses in RGCs are present. The mature IGABA/E ratios varied among ON-Sustained (S) A-type, OFF-S A-type, and bistratified direction selective (DS) RGCs. These ratios were attained at different rates, before eye-opening for ON-S and OFF-S A-type, and after eye-opening for DS RGCs. At both ages examined, the IGABA/E ratio was uniform across the arbors of the three RGC types. Furthermore, measurements of the distances between neighboring PSD95CFP and YFPγ2 puncta on RGC dendrites indicate that their local relationship is established early in development, and cannot be predicted by random organization. These close spatial associations between glutamatergic and GABAergic postsynaptic sites appear to represent local synaptic arrangements revealed by correlative light and EM reconstructions of a single RGC's dendrites. Thus, although RGC types have different IGABA/E ratios and establish these ratios at separate rates, the local relationship between excitatory and inhibitory inputs appear similarly constrained across the RGC types studied. PMID:23922756

  12. Involvement of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the antidepressant-like effect of zinc in the chronic unpredictable stress model of depression.

    PubMed

    Manosso, Luana M; Moretti, Morgana; Colla, André R; Ribeiro, Camille M; Dal-Cim, Tharine; Tasca, Carla I; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-03-01

    Stress and excessive glutamatergic neurotransmission have been implicated in the pathophysiology of depression. Therefore, this study was aimed at investigating the influence of zinc on depressive-like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS), on alterations in glutamate-induced toxicity and immunocontent of proteins involved in the control of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the hippocampus of mice. Mice were subjected to CUS procedure for 14 days. From the 8th to the 14th day, mice received zinc chloride (ZnCl2) (10 mg/kg) or fluoxetine (10 mg/kg, positive control) once a day by oral route. CUS caused a depressive-like behavior evidenced by the increased immobility time in the tail suspension test (TST), which was prevented by treatment with ZnCl2 or fluoxetine. Ex vivo exposure of hippocampal slices to glutamate (10 mM) resulted in a significant decrease on cell viability; however, neither CUS procedure nor drug treatments altered this reduction. No alterations in the immunocontents of GLT-1 and GFAP or p-Akt were observed in any experimental group. The ratio of p-Akt/AKT was also not altered in any group. However, Akt immunocontent was increased in stressed mice and in animals treated with ZnCl2 (stressed or non-stressed mice) and EAAC1 immunocontent was increased in stressed mice treated with ZnCl2, fluoxetine or vehicle and in non-stressed mice treated with ZnCl2 and fluoxetine. These findings indicate a robust effect of zinc in reversing behavioral alteration induced by CUS in mice, through a possible modulation of the glutamatergic neurotransmission, extending literature data regarding the mechanisms underlying its antidepressant-like action. PMID:26747027

  13. Sonic hedgehog and retinoic Acid induce bone marrow-derived stem cells to differentiate into glutamatergic neural cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhenhai; Wu, Shixing; Liu, Zhen; Lin, Haiyan; Chen, Lei; Yuan, Xinli; Zhang, Zhiying; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Chuansen

    2015-01-01

    Studies have showed that transplanted stem cells in the inner ear won't regenerate to replace the damaged sensory hair cells. They can spontaneously differentiate into mesenchymal cells and fibrocytes in the damaged inner ear. Only mature sensory cells of MSCs-derived possess the great potency for cell transplantation in the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss. So, we try to establish an efficient generation of the glutamatergic sensory neural phenotype for the cell transplantation of the hearing loss. We isolated MSCs from femoral and tibial bones according to their adherence to culture dishes. After purification, proliferation, and passaged, cells became homogeneous in appearance, showing more uniformity and grew in a monolayer with a typical spindle-shape morphology. The cell surface markers were assessed using FACS to characterize the isolated cells. For neural induction to harvest the glutamatergic sensory neurons, passage 3 MSCs were incubated with preinduced medium for 24 hr, and neural-induced medium for an additional 14 days. The cells exhibit a typical neural shape. RT-PCR analysis indicated that the mRNA levels of the neural cell marker nestin, Tau, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, GluR-3, and GluR-4 were higher compared with primary MSCs. Immunohistochemistry and western-blotting proofed that nestin, MAP-2, β-tubulin III, and GluR-4 proteins indeed exhibit their expression difference in the induced cells compared to the MSCs. We show an efficient protocol by the combined applications of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) and Retinoic Acid (RA) to induce MSCs to differentiate into the glutamatergic sensory neuron which were identified from the morphological, biochemical, and molecular characteristics. PMID:24547891

  14. Glutamatergic and GABAergic energy metabolism measured in the rat brain by (13) C NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 T.

    PubMed

    Duarte, João M N; Gruetter, Rolf

    2013-09-01

    Energy metabolism supports both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission processes. This study investigated the specific contribution of astrocytic metabolism to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) synthesis and inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission that remained to be ilucidated in vivo. Therefore, we measured (13)C incorporation into brain metabolites by dynamic (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy at 14.1 T in rats under α-chloralose anaesthesia during infusion of [1,6-(13)C]glucose. The enhanced sensitivity at 14.1 T allowed to quantify incorporation of (13) C into the three aliphatic carbons of GABA non-invasively. Metabolic fluxes were determined with a mathematical model of brain metabolism comprising glial, glutamatergic and GABAergic compartments. GABA synthesis rate was 0.11 ± 0.01 μmol/g/min. GABA-glutamine cycle was 0.053 ± 0.003 μmol/g/min and accounted for 22 ± 1% of total neurotransmitter cycling between neurons and glia. Cerebral glucose oxidation was 0.47 ± 0.02 μmol/g/min, of which 35 ± 1% and 7 ± 1% was diverted to the glutamatergic and GABAergic tricarboxylic acid cycles, respectively. The remaining fraction of glucose oxidation was in glia, where 12 ± 1% of the TCA cycle flux was dedicated to oxidation of GABA. 16 ± 2% of glutamine synthesis was provided to GABAergic neurons. We conclude that substantial metabolic activity occurs in GABAergic neurons and that glial metabolism supports both glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in the living rat brain. PMID:23745684

  15. Glucocorticoid receptors in the prefrontal cortex regulate dopamine efflux to stress via descending glutamatergic feedback to the ventral tegmental area.

    PubMed

    Butts, Kelly A; Phillips, Anthony G

    2013-09-01

    Enhanced dopamine (DA) efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a well-documented response to acute stress. We have previously shown that glucocorticoid receptors in the mPFC regulate stress-evoked DA efflux but the underlying mechanism is unknown. DA neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) receive excitatory input from and send reciprocal projections to the mPFC. We hypothesize that blockade of prefrontal glucocorticoid receptors can reduce activity of descending glutamatergic input to the VTA, thereby attenuating stress-evoked DA efflux in the mPFC. Using in vivo microdialysis, we demonstrate that acute tail-pinch stress leads to a significant increase in glutamate efflux in the VTA. Blockade of prefrontal glucocorticoid receptors with the selective antagonist CORT 108297 attenuates stress-evoked glutamate efflux in the VTA together with DA efflux in the mPFC. Furthermore, blockade of ionotrophic glutamate receptors in the VTA attenuates stress-evoked DA efflux in the mPFC. We also examine the possible role of glucocorticoid-induced synthesis and release of endocannabinoids acting presynaptically via cannabinoid CB1 receptors to inhibit GABA release onto prefrontal pyramidal cells, thus enhancing descending glutamatergic input to the VTA leading to an increase in mPFC DA efflux during stress. However, administration of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist into the mPFC does not attenuate stress-evoked DA efflux in the mPFC. Taken together, our data indicate that glucocorticoids act locally within the mPFC to modulate mesocortical DA efflux by potentiation of glutamatergic drive onto DA neurons in the VTA. PMID:23590841

  16. Melamine Alters Glutamatergic Synaptic Transmission of CA3-CA1 Synapses Presynaptically Through Autophagy Activation in the Rat Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Xi; Zhang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Melamine is an industrial chemical that can cause central nervous system disorders including excitotoxicity and cognitive impairment. Its illegal use in powdered baby formula was the focus of a milk scandal in China in 2008. One of our previous studies showed that melamine impaired glutamatergic transmission in rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. However, the underlying mechanism of action of melamine is unclear, and it is unknown if the CA3-CA1 pathway is directly involved. In the present study, a whole-cell patch-clamp technique was employed to investigate the effect of melamine on the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway in vitro. Both the evoked excitatory postsynaptic current (eEPSC) and the paired-pulse ratio (PPR) were recorded. Furthermore, we examined whether autophagy was involved in glutamatergic transmission alterations induced by melamine. Our data showed that melamine significantly increased the amplitude of eEPSCs in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor did not prevent the increase in eEPSC amplitude. In addition, the PPR was remarkably decreased by a melamine concentration of 5 × 10(-5) g/mL. It was found that autophagy could be activated by melamine and an autophagy inhibitor, 3-MA, prevented the melamine-induced increase in eEPSC amplitude. Overall, our results show that melamine presynaptically alters glutamatergic synaptic transmission of hippocampal CA3-CA1 synapses in vitro and this is likely associated with autophagy alteration. PMID:26530910

  17. Heterogeneity of glutamatergic and GABAergic release machinery in cerebral cortex: analysis of synaptogyrin, vesicle-associated membrane protein, and syntaxin.

    PubMed

    Bragina, L; Giovedì, S; Barbaresi, P; Benfenati, F; Conti, F

    2010-02-01

    To define whether cortical glutamatergic and GABAergic release machineries can be differentiated on the basis of the nature and amount of proteins they express, we studied the degree of co-localization of synaptogyrin (SGYR) 1 and 3, vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) 1 and 2, syntaxin (STX) 1A and 1B in vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT)1-, VGLUT2- and vesicular GABA transporter (VGAT)-positive (+) puncta and synaptic vesicles in the rat cerebral cortex. Co-localization studies showed that SGYR1 and 3 were expressed in about 90% of VGLUT1+, 70% of VGLUT2+ and 80% of VGAT+ puncta; VAMP1 was expressed in approximately 45% of VGLUT1+, 55% of VGLUT2+, and 80% of VGAT+ puncta; VAMP2 in about 95% of VGLUT1+, 75% of VGLUT2+, and 80% of VGAT+ puncta; STX1A in about 65% of VGLUT1+, 30% of VGLUT2+, and 3% of VGAT+ puncta, and STX1B in approximately 45% of VGLUT1+, 35% of VGLUT2+, and 70% of VGAT+ puncta. Immunoisolation studies showed that while STX1A was completely segregated and virtually absent from VGAT synaptic vesicles, STX1B, VAMP1/VAMP2, SGYR1/SGYR3 showed a similar pattern with the highest expression in VGLUT1 immunoisolated vesicles and the lowest in VGAT immunoisolated vesicles. Moreover, we studied the localization of STX1B at the electron microscope and found that a population of axon terminals forming symmetric synapses were STX1B-positive.These results extend our previous observations on the differential expression of presynaptic proteins involved in neurotransmitter release in GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals and indicate that heterogeneity of glutamatergic and GABAergic release machinery can be contributed by both the presence or absence of a given protein in a nerve terminal and the amount of protein expressed by synaptic vesicles. PMID:19909789

  18. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6) negatively regulates the surface delivery and synaptic function of AMPA receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Mengping; Zhang, Jian; Jia, Moye; Yang, Chaojuan; Pan, Yunlong; Li, Shuaiqi; Luo, Yiwen; Zheng, Junyuan; Ji, Jianguo; Chen, Jianguo; Hu, Xinli; Xiong, Jingwei; Shi, Yun; Zhang, Chen

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, AMPA-type glutamate receptors are major postsynaptic receptors at excitatory synapses that mediate fast neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol lipase, was previously found to be a component of AMPA receptor macromolecular complexes, but its physiological significance in the function of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) has remained unclear. The present study shows that overexpression of ABHD6 in neurons drastically reduced excitatory neurotransmission mediated by AMPA but not by NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses. Inactivation of ABHD6 expression in neurons by either CRISPR/Cas9 or shRNA knockdown methods significantly increased excitatory neurotransmission at excitatory synapses. Interestingly, overexpression of ABHD6 reduced glutamate-induced currents and the surface expression of GluA1 in HEK293T cells expressing GluA1 and stargazin, suggesting a direct functional interaction between these two proteins. The C-terminal tail of GluA1 was required for the binding between of ABHD6 and GluA1. Mutagenesis analysis revealed a GFCLIPQ sequence in the GluA1 C terminus that was essential for the inhibitory effect of ABHD6. The hydrolase activity of ABHD6 was not required for the effects of ABHD6 on AMPAR function in either neurons or transfected HEK293T cells. Thus, these findings reveal a novel and unexpected mechanism governing AMPAR trafficking at synapses through ABHD6. PMID:27114538

  19. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6) negatively regulates the surface delivery and synaptic function of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Wei, Mengping; Zhang, Jian; Jia, Moye; Yang, Chaojuan; Pan, Yunlong; Li, Shuaiqi; Luo, Yiwen; Zheng, Junyuan; Ji, Jianguo; Chen, Jianguo; Hu, Xinli; Xiong, Jingwei; Shi, Yun; Zhang, Chen

    2016-05-10

    In the brain, AMPA-type glutamate receptors are major postsynaptic receptors at excitatory synapses that mediate fast neurotransmission and synaptic plasticity. α/β-Hydrolase domain-containing 6 (ABHD6), a monoacylglycerol lipase, was previously found to be a component of AMPA receptor macromolecular complexes, but its physiological significance in the function of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) has remained unclear. The present study shows that overexpression of ABHD6 in neurons drastically reduced excitatory neurotransmission mediated by AMPA but not by NMDA receptors at excitatory synapses. Inactivation of ABHD6 expression in neurons by either CRISPR/Cas9 or shRNA knockdown methods significantly increased excitatory neurotransmission at excitatory synapses. Interestingly, overexpression of ABHD6 reduced glutamate-induced currents and the surface expression of GluA1 in HEK293T cells expressing GluA1 and stargazin, suggesting a direct functional interaction between these two proteins. The C-terminal tail of GluA1 was required for the binding between of ABHD6 and GluA1. Mutagenesis analysis revealed a GFCLIPQ sequence in the GluA1 C terminus that was essential for the inhibitory effect of ABHD6. The hydrolase activity of ABHD6 was not required for the effects of ABHD6 on AMPAR function in either neurons or transfected HEK293T cells. Thus, these findings reveal a novel and unexpected mechanism governing AMPAR trafficking at synapses through ABHD6. PMID:27114538

  20. AMPA receptors serum-dependently mediate GABAA receptor alpha1 and alpha6 subunit down-regulation in cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells.

    PubMed

    Uusi-Oukari, Mikko; Kontturi, Leena-Stiina; Kallinen, Sampsa A; Salonen, Virpi

    2010-04-01

    Depolarization of cultured mouse cerebellar granule cells with potassium or kainate results in developmentally arrested state that includes down-regulation of GABA(A) receptor alpha1, alpha6 and beta2 subunit expression. These subunits are normally strongly expressed in cerebellar granule cells from second postnatal week throughout the adulthood. In the present study we demonstrate that selective activation of AMPA subtype of glutamate receptors down-regulates alpha1 and alpha6 subunit mRNA expression. Removal of AMPA agonist from culture medium restores expression of these subunits indicating reversibility of the down-regulation. In serum-free culture medium AMPA receptor activation did not down-regulate alpha1 or alpha6 subunit expression. Furthermore, the down-regulation was strongly attenuated when the cells were cultured in the presence of dialysed fetal calf serum. The results indicate that down-regulation of GABA(A) receptor alpha1 and alpha6 subunits by AMPA receptor activation is dependent on the presence of low molecular weight compounds present in fetal calf serum. In order to study mouse cerebellar granule cell maturation and/or regulation of GABA(A) receptor subunit expression in culture, the experiments should be performed in the absence of fetal calf serum. PMID:20170697

  1. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 modulates the nitric oxide-cGMP pathway in cerebellum in vivo through activation of AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Boix, Jordi; Llansola, Marta; Cabrera-Pastor, Andrea; Felipo, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) modulate important processes in cerebellum including long-term depression, which also requires formation of nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP. Some reports suggest that mGluRs could modulate the NO-cGMP pathway in cerebellum. However this modulation has not been studied in detail. The aim of this work was to assess by microdialysis in freely moving rats whether activation of mGluR5 modulates the NO-cGMP pathway in cerebellum in vivo and to analyze the underlying mechanisms. We show that mGluR5 activation increases extracellular glutamate, citrulline and cGMP in cerebellum. Blocking NMDA receptors with MK-801 does not prevent any of these effects, indicating that NMDA receptors activation is not required. However in the presence of MK-801 the effects are more transient, returning faster to basal levels. Blocking AMPA receptors prevents the increase in citrulline and cGMP induced by mGluR5 activation, but not the increase in glutamate. The release of glutamate is prevented by tetrodotoxin but not by fluoroacetate, indicating that glutamate is released from neurons and not from astrocytes. Activation of AMPA receptors increases citrulline and cGMP. These data indicate that activation of mGluR5 induces an increase of extracellular glutamate which activates AMPA receptors, leading to activation of nitric oxide synthase and increased NO, which activates guanylate cyclase, increasing cGMP. The response mediated by AMPA receptors desensitize rapidly. Activation of AMPA receptors also induces a mild depolarization, allowing activation of NMDA receptors which prolongs the duration of the effect initiated by activation of AMPA receptors. These data support that the three types of glutamate receptors: mGluR5, AMPA and NMDA cooperate in the modulation of the grade and duration of activation of the NO-cGMP pathway in cerebellum in vivo. This pathway would modulate cerebellar processes such as long-term depression. PMID:21300123

  2. The role of the AMPA receptor and 5-HT(3) receptor on aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in chronic social isolation-reared mice.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Koh; Kurosawa, Natsuki; Seki, Kenjiro

    2016-01-01

    Chronic social isolation (SI)-reared mice exhibit aggressive and depressive-like behaviors. However, the pathophysiological changes caused by chronic SI remain unclear. The hypothalamus and amygdala have been suggested to be associated with the stress of SI. In addition to serotonin 3 (5-HT3) receptors, AMPA receptors have also been suggested to be involved in aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms in animals. Therefore, we examined whether chronic SI affects AMPA and 5-HT3 receptor expression levels in these regions. A Western blot analysis revealed that after four weeks of SI, mice exhibited up-regulated AMPA receptor subunit (GluR1, GluR2) protein levels in the amygdala and down-regulated hypothalamic 5-HT3 receptor protein levels. The AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg; i.p.) attenuated SI-induced depressive-like symptoms but not aggressive behavior. Intra-amygdalar infusions of the selective AMPA receptor agonist (S)-AMPA (10 μM) induced despair-like behavior, but not sucrose preference or aggressive behavior, in mice not reared in SI (naïve mice). Alternatively, treatment with the 5-HT3 receptor agonist SR57227A (3.0 mg/kg; i.p.) decreased aggression levels. In addition, intra-hypothalamic infusions of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonist ondansetron (3 μM) did not trigger aggressive behavior in naïve mice; however, the administration of ondansetron (0.3 mg/kg; i.p.) increased aggression levels in two-week SI mice, which rarely exhibited the aggressive behavior. Moreover, ondansetron did not affect the depressive-like symptoms of the SI mice. These results suggest that SI-induced up-regulation of GluR1 and GluR2 subunits protein levels in the amygdalar region and down-regulation of 5-HT3 receptor proteins level in the hypothalamic region are associated with the effect of AMPA receptor agonist and 5-HT3 receptor antagonist -induced aggressive behavior and depressive-like symptoms. PMID:26522741

  3. Pre-Bötzinger Complex Receives Glutamatergic Innervation From Galaninergic and Other Retrotrapezoid Nucleus Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Bochorishvili, Genrieta; Stornetta, Ruth L.; Coates, Melissa B.; Guyenet, Patrice G.

    2014-01-01

    The retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN) contains CO2-responsive neurons that regulate breathing frequency and amplitude. These neurons (RTN-Phox2b neurons) contain the transcription factor Phox2b, vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2) mRNA, and a subset contains preprogalanin mRNA. We wished to determine whether the terminals of RTN-Phox2b neurons contain galanin and VGLUT2 proteins, to identify the specific projections of the galaninergic subset, to test whether RTN-Phox2b neurons contact neurons in the pre-Bötzinger complex, and to identify the ultrastructure of these synapses. The axonal projections of RTN-Phox2b neurons were traced by using biotinylated dextran amine (BDA), and many BDA-ir boutons were found to contain galanin immunoreactivity. RTN galaninergic neurons had ipsilateral projections that were identical with those of this nucleus at large: the ventral respiratory column, the caudolateral nucleus of the solitary tract, and the pontine Köliker-Fuse, intertrigeminal region, and lateral parabrachial nucleus. For ultrastructural studies, RTN-Phox2b neurons (galaninergic and others) were transfected with a lentiviral vector that expresses mCherry almost exclusively in Phox2b-ir neurons. After spinal cord injections of a catecholamine neuron-selective toxin, there was a depletion of C1 neurons in the RTN area; thus it was determined that the mCherry-positive terminals located in the pre-Bötzinger complex originated almost exclusively from the RTN-Phox2b (non-C1) neurons. These terminals were generally VGLUT2-immunoreactive and formed numerous close appositions with neurokinin-1 receptor-ir pre-Bötzinger complex neurons. Their boutons (n = 48) formed asymmetric synapses filled with small clear vesicles. In summary, RTN-Phox2b neurons, including the galaninergic subset, selectively innervate the respiratory pattern generator plus a portion of the dorsolateral pons. RTN-Phox2b neurons establish classic excitatory glutamatergic synapses with pre

  4. The multiple roles of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor in modulating glutamatergic systems in the normal and diseased nervous system.

    PubMed

    Koukouli, Fani; Maskos, Uwe

    2015-10-15

    Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) play an important role in a variety of modulatory and regulatory processes including neurotransmitter release and synaptic transmission in various brain regions of the central nervous system (CNS). Glutamate is the principal excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and the glutamatergic system participates in the pathophysiology of several neuropsychiatric disorders. Underpinning the importance of nAChRs, many studies demonstrated that nAChRs containing the α7 subunit facilitate glutamate release. Here, we review the currently available body of experimental evidence pertaining to α7 subunit containing nAChRs in their contribution to the modulation of glutamatergic neurotransmission, and we highlight the role of α7 in synaptic plasticity, the morphological and functional maturation of the glutamatergic system and therefore its important contribution in the modulation of neural circuits of the CNS. PMID:26206184

  5. Autoantibodies to epilepsy-related LGI1 in limbic encephalitis neutralize LGI1-ADAM22 interaction and reduce synaptic AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Ohkawa, Toshika; Fukata, Yuko; Yamasaki, Miwako; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Yokoi, Norihiko; Takashima, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Watanabe, Osamu; Fukata, Masaki

    2013-11-13

    More than 30 mutations in LGI1, a secreted neuronal protein, have been reported with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). Although LGI1 haploinsufficiency is thought to cause ADLTE, the underlying molecular mechanism that results in abnormal brain excitability remains mysterious. Here, we focused on a mode of action of LGI1 autoantibodies associated with limbic encephalitis (LE), which is one of acquired epileptic disorders characterized by subacute onset of amnesia and seizures. We comprehensively screened human sera from patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders for LGI1 autoantibodies, which also uncovered novel autoantibodies against six cell surface antigens including DCC, DPP10, and ADAM23. Our developed ELISA arrays revealed a specific role for LGI1 antibodies in LE and concomitant involvement of multiple antibodies, including LGI1 antibodies in neuromyotonia, a peripheral nerve disorder. LGI1 antibodies associated with LE specifically inhibited the ligand-receptor interaction between LGI1 and ADAM22/23 by targeting the EPTP repeat domain of LGI1 and reversibly reduced synaptic AMPA receptor clusters in rat hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that disruption of LGI1-ADAM22 interaction by soluble extracellular domain of ADAM22 was sufficient to reduce synaptic AMPA receptors in rat hippocampal neurons and that levels of AMPA receptor were greatly reduced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the epileptic LGI1 knock-out mouse. Therefore, either genetic or acquired loss of the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction reduces the AMPA receptor function, causing epileptic disorders. These results suggest that by finely regulating the synaptic AMPA receptors, the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction maintains physiological brain excitability throughout life. PMID:24227725

  6. Autoantibodies to Epilepsy-Related LGI1 in Limbic Encephalitis Neutralize LGI1-ADAM22 Interaction and Reduce Synaptic AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Ohkawa, Toshika; Fukata, Yuko; Yamasaki, Miwako; Miyazaki, Taisuke; Yokoi, Norihiko; Takashima, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Masahiko; Watanabe, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    More than 30 mutations in LGI1, a secreted neuronal protein, have been reported with autosomal dominant lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (ADLTE). Although LGI1 haploinsufficiency is thought to cause ADLTE, the underlying molecular mechanism that results in abnormal brain excitability remains mysterious. Here, we focused on a mode of action of LGI1 autoantibodies associated with limbic encephalitis (LE), which is one of acquired epileptic disorders characterized by subacute onset of amnesia and seizures. We comprehensively screened human sera from patients with immune-mediated neurological disorders for LGI1 autoantibodies, which also uncovered novel autoantibodies against six cell surface antigens including DCC, DPP10, and ADAM23. Our developed ELISA arrays revealed a specific role for LGI1 antibodies in LE and concomitant involvement of multiple antibodies, including LGI1 antibodies in neuromyotonia, a peripheral nerve disorder. LGI1 antibodies associated with LE specifically inhibited the ligand-receptor interaction between LGI1 and ADAM22/23 by targeting the EPTP repeat domain of LGI1 and reversibly reduced synaptic AMPA receptor clusters in rat hippocampal neurons. Furthermore, we found that disruption of LGI1-ADAM22 interaction by soluble extracellular domain of ADAM22 was sufficient to reduce synaptic AMPA receptors in rat hippocampal neurons and that levels of AMPA receptor were greatly reduced in the hippocampal dentate gyrus in the epileptic LGI1 knock-out mouse. Therefore, either genetic or acquired loss of the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction reduces the AMPA receptor function, causing epileptic disorders. These results suggest that by finely regulating the synaptic AMPA receptors, the LGI1-ADAM22 interaction maintains physiological brain excitability throughout life. PMID:24227725

  7. Activation of AMPA receptor promotes TNF-α release via the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade in RAW264.7 macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Xiu-Li; Ding, Fan; Li, Hui; Tan, Xiao-Qiu; Liu, Xiao; Cao, Ji-Min; Gao, Xue

    2015-05-29

    The relationship between glutamate signaling and inflammation has not been well defined. This study aimed to investigate the role of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) in the expression and release of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from macrophages and the underlying mechanisms. A series of approaches, including confocal microscopy, immunofluorescency, flow cytometry, ELISA and Western blotting, were used to estimate the expression of AMPAR and downstream signaling molecules, TNF-α release and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in the macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells. The results demonstrated that AMPAR was expressed in RAW264.7 cells. AMPA significantly enhanced TNF-α release from RAW264.7 cells, and this effect was abolished by CNQX (AMPAR antagonist). AMPA also induced elevation of ROS production, phosphorylation of c-Src and activation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB in RAW264.7 cells. Blocking c-Src by PP2, scavenging ROS by glutathione (GSH) or inhibiting NF-κB activation by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) decreased TNF-α production from RAW264.7 cells. We concluded that AMPA promotes TNF-α release in RAW264.7 macrophages likely through the following signaling cascade: AMPAR activation → ROS generation → c-Src phosphorylation → NF-κB activation → TNF-α elevation. The study suggests that AMPAR may participate in macrophage activation and inflammation. - Highlights: • AMPAR is expressed in RAW264.7 macrophages and is upregulated by AMPA stimulation. • Activation of AMPAR stimulates TNF-α release in macrophages through the ROS-cSrc-NFκB signaling cascade. • Macrophage AMPAR signaling may play an important role in inflammation.

  8. Voltage-Dependent Rhythmogenic Property of Respiratory Pre-Bötzinger Complex Glutamatergic, Dbx1-Derived, and Somatostatin-Expressing Neuron Populations Revealed by Graded Optogenetic Inhibition123

    PubMed Central

    Koizumi, Hidehiko; Mosher, Bryan; Tariq, Mohammad F.; Zhang, Ruli

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The rhythm of breathing in mammals, originating within the brainstem pre-Bötzinger complex (pre-BötC), is presumed to be generated by glutamatergic neurons, but this has not been directly demonstrated. Additionally, developmental expression of the transcription factor Dbx1 or expression of the neuropeptide somatostatin (Sst), has been proposed as a marker for the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons, but it is unknown whether these other two phenotypically defined neuronal populations are functionally equivalent to glutamatergic neurons with regard to rhythm generation. To address these problems, we comparatively investigated, by optogenetic approaches, the roles of pre-BötC glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, and Sst-expressing neurons in respiratory rhythm generation in neonatal transgenic mouse medullary slices in vitro and also more intact adult perfused brainstem-spinal cord preparations in situ. We established three different triple-transgenic mouse lines with Cre-driven Archaerhodopsin-3 (Arch) expression selectively in glutamatergic, Dbx1-derived, or Sst-expressing neurons for targeted photoinhibition. In each line, we identified subpopulations of rhythmically active, Arch-expressing pre-BötC inspiratory neurons by whole-cell recordings in medullary slice preparations in vitro, and established that Arch-mediated hyperpolarization of these inspiratory neurons was laser power dependent with equal efficacy. By site- and population-specific graded photoinhibition, we then demonstrated that inspiratory frequency was reduced by each population with the same neuronal voltage-dependent frequency control mechanism in each state of the respiratory network examined. We infer that enough of the rhythmogenic pre-BötC glutamatergic neurons also have the Dbx1 and Sst expression phenotypes, and thus all three phenotypes share the same voltage-dependent frequency control property. PMID:27275007

  9. Delayed antagonism of AMPA/kainate receptors reduces long-term functional deficits resulting from spinal cord trauma.

    PubMed

    Wrathall, J R; Teng, Y D; Marriott, R

    1997-06-01

    Excitatory amino acid (EAA) receptors play a significant role in delayed neuronal death after ischemic and traumatic injury to the CNS. Focal microinjection experiments have demonstrated that 2,3-dihydro-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX), a highly selective and potent antagonist of non-N-methyl-D-aspartate ionotropic EAA receptors, i.e., those preferring alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) or kainate, can reduce histopathology and functional deficits when administered at 15 min after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI). Similarly, intravenous infusion of NBQX, beginning at 15 min postinjury (p.i.), results in a significant amelioration of the functional deficits produced by experimental SCI. However, if antagonists of AMPA/kainate receptors were to be used therapeutically for patients with SCI, administration would likely be delayed for several hours after injury. We therefore examined the effects of NBQX administered at 4 h after SCI on functional deficits and histopathology in a standardized rat model of contusive SCI. An incomplete SCI was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats at T8 with a weight-drop device (10 g x 2.5 cm). NBQX (15 nmol), or vehicle alone, was microinjected into the injury site 4 h later. Recovery of hind limb reflexes, postural control, and locomotor function was determined by a battery of behavioral tests performed for 8 weeks. Spinal cord tissue was then fixed by perfusion and used for morphometric and immunocytochemical analyses. Previous studies with acute NBQX treatment showed significant functional improvement by 1 week; the effects of delayed NBQX treatment on functional deficits were not discernible until 3-4 weeks after SCI. Thereafter, significant reductions in hindlimb deficits were demonstrated in two independent studies. The nature and magnitude of the reductions in chronic deficits were similar to those observed previously when NBQX was administered acutely at 15 min after SCI. Morphometric

  10. Glutamatergic plasticity in medial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area following extended-access cocaine self-administration.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, M Behnam; Vasudevan, Preethi; Giles, Chad; Purgianto, Anthony; Seubert, Chad; Mantsch, John R

    2011-09-21

    Glutamate signaling in prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area plays an important role in the molecular and behavioral plasticity associated with addiction to drugs of abuse. The current study investigated the expression and postsynaptic density redistribution of glutamate receptors and synaptic scaffolding proteins in dorsomedial and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area after cocaine self-administration. After 14 days of extended-access (6h/day) cocaine self-administration, rats were exposed to one of three withdrawal regimen for 10 days. Animals either stayed in home cages (Home), returned to self-administration boxes with the levers withdrawn (Box), or underwent extinction training (Extinction). Extinction training was associated with significant glutamatergic plasticity. In dorsomedial prefrontal cortex of the Extinction group, there was an increase in postsynaptic density GluR1, PSD95, and actin proteins; while postsynaptic density mGluR5 protein decreased and there was no change in NMDAR1, Homer1b/c, or PICK1 proteins. These changes were not observed in ventromedial prefrontal cortex or ventral tegmental area. In ventral tegmental area, Extinction training reversed the decreased postsynaptic density NMDAR1 protein in the Home and Box withdrawal groups. These data suggest that extinction of drug seeking is associated with selective glutamatergic plasticity in prefrontal cortex and ventral tegmental area that include modulation of receptor trafficking to postsynaptic density. PMID:21855055

  11. The origin of glutamatergic synaptic inputs controls synaptic plasticity and its modulation by alcohol in mice nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Ji, Xincai; Saha, Sucharita; Martin, Gilles E

    2015-01-01

    It is widely accepted that long-lasting changes of synaptic strength in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region involved in drug reward, mediate acute and chronic effects of alcohol. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the effects of alcohol on synaptic plasticity is limited by the fact that the NAc receives glutamatergic inputs from distinct brain regions (e.g., the prefrontal cortex (PFCx), the amygdala and the hippocampus), each region providing different information (e.g., spatial, emotional and cognitive). Combining whole-cell patch-clamp recordings and the optogenetic technique, we examined synaptic plasticity, and its regulation by alcohol, at cortical, hippocampal and amygdala inputs in fresh slices of mouse tissue. We showed that the origin of synaptic inputs determines the basic properties of glutamatergic synaptic transmission, the expression of spike-timing dependent long-term depression (tLTD) and long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term potentiation (tLTP) and their regulation by alcohol. While we observed both tLTP and tLTD at amygadala and hippocampal synapses, we showed that cortical inputs only undergo tLTD. Functionally, we provide evidence that acute Ethyl Alcohol (EtOH) has little effects on higher order information coming from the PFCx, while severely impacting the ability of emotional and contextual information to induce long-lasting changes of synaptic strength. PMID:26257641

  12. Effects of Fluoxetine and Visual Experience on Glutamatergic and GABAergic Synaptic Proteins in Adult Rat Visual Cortex.

    PubMed

    Beshara, Simon; Beston, Brett R; Pinto, Joshua G A; Murphy, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    Fluoxetine has emerged as a novel treatment for persistent amblyopia because in adult animals it reinstates critical period-like ocular dominance plasticity and promotes recovery of visual acuity. Translation of these results from animal models to the clinic, however, has been challenging because of the lack of understanding of how this selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor affects glutamatergic and GABAergic synaptic mechanisms that are essential for experience-dependent plasticity. An appealing hypothesis is that fluoxetine recreates a critical period (CP)-like state by shifting synaptic mechanisms to be more juvenile. To test this we studied the effect of fluoxetine treatment in adult rats, alone or in combination with visual deprivation [monocular deprivation (MD)], on a set of highly conserved presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins (synapsin, synaptophysin, VGLUT1, VGAT, PSD-95, gephyrin, GluN1, GluA2, GluN2B, GluN2A, GABAAα1, GABAAα3). We did not find evidence that fluoxetine shifted the protein amounts or balances to a CP-like state. Instead, it drove the balances in favor of the more mature subunits (GluN2A, GABAAα1). In addition, when fluoxetine was paired with MD it created a neuroprotective-like environment by normalizing the glutamatergic gain found in adult MDs. Together, our results suggest that fluoxetine treatment creates a novel synaptic environment dominated by GluN2A- and GABAAα1-dependent plasticity. PMID:26730408

  13. Drosophila larval to pupal switch under nutrient stress requires IP3R/Ca2+ signalling in glutamatergic interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Jayakumar, Siddharth; Richhariya, Shlesha; Reddy, O Venkateswara; Texada, Michael J; Hasan, Gaiti

    2016-01-01

    Neuronal circuits are known to integrate nutritional information, but the identity of the circuit components is not completely understood. Amino acids are a class of nutrients that are vital for the growth and function of an organism. Here, we report a neuronal circuit that allows Drosophila larvae to overcome amino acid deprivation and pupariate. We find that nutrient stress is sensed by the class IV multidendritic cholinergic neurons. Through live calcium imaging experiments, we show that these cholinergic stimuli are conveyed to glutamatergic neurons in the ventral ganglion through mAChR. We further show that IP3R-dependent calcium transients in the glutamatergic neurons convey this signal to downstream medial neurosecretory cells (mNSCs). The circuit ultimately converges at the ring gland and regulates expression of ecdysteroid biosynthetic genes. Activity in this circuit is thus likely to be an adaptation that provides a layer of regulation to help surpass nutritional stress during development. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.17495.001 PMID:27494275

  14. Ly6h Regulates Trafficking of Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors and Nicotine-Induced Potentiation of Glutamatergic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Puddifoot, Clare A.; Wu, Meilin; Sung, Rou-Jia

    2015-01-01

    α7 nAChRs are expressed widely throughout the brain, where they are important for synaptic signaling, gene transcription, and plastic changes that regulate sensory processing, cognition, and neural responses to chronic nicotine exposure. However, the mechanisms by which α7 nAChRs are regulated are poorly understood. Here we show that trafficking of α7-subunits is controlled by endogenous membrane-associated prototoxins in the Ly6 family. In particular, we find that Ly6h reduces cell-surface expression and calcium signaling by α7 nAChRs. We detect Ly6h in several rat brain regions, including the hippocampus, where we find it is both necessary and sufficient to limit the magnitude of α7-mediated currents. Consistent with such a regulatory function, knockdown of Ly6h in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons enhances nicotine-induced potentiation of glutamatergic mEPSC amplitude, which is known to be mediated by α7 signaling. Collectively our data suggest a novel cellular role for Ly6 proteins in regulating nAChRs, which may be relevant to plastic changes in the nervous system including rewiring of glutamatergic circuitry during nicotine addiction. PMID:25716842

  15. Knocking down of heat-shock protein 27 directs differentiation of functional glutamatergic neurons from placenta-derived multipotent cells

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Lee, Yih-Jing; Tien, Lu-Tai; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chien, Raymond; Lee, Fa-Kung; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study presents human placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) as a source from which functional glutamatergic neurons can be derived. We found that the small heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was downregulated during the neuronal differentiation process. The in vivo temporal and spatial profiles of HSP27 expression were determined and showed inverted distributions with neuronal proteins during mouse embryonic development. Overexpression of HSP27 in stem cells led to the arrest of neuronal differentiation; however, the knockdown of HSP27 yielded a substantially enhanced ability of PDMCs to differentiate into neurons. These neurons formed synaptic networks and showed positive staining for multiple neuronal markers. Additionally, cellular phenomena including the absence of apoptosis and rare proliferation in HSP27-silenced PDMCs, combined with molecular events such as cleaved caspase-3 and the loss of stemness with cleaved Nanog, indicated that HSP27 is located upstream of neuronal differentiation and constrains that process. Furthermore, the induced neurons showed increasing intracellular calcium concentrations upon glutamate treatment. These differentiated cells co-expressed the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, vesicular glutamate transporter, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 but did not show expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase or glutamate decarboxylase 67. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27-silenced PDMCs differentiated into neurons possessing the characteristics of functional glutamatergic neurons. PMID:27444754

  16. Manipulations of MeCP2 in glutamatergic neurons highlight their contributions to Rett and other neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangling; Wang, Wei; Lu, Hui; He, Ling-jie; Chen, Wu; Chao, Eugene S; Fiorotto, Marta L; Tang, Bin; Herrera, Jose A; Seymour, Michelle L; Neul, Jeffrey L; Pereira, Fred A; Tang, Jianrong; Xue, Mingshan; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2016-01-01

    Many postnatal onset neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and intellectual disability are thought to arise largely from disruption of excitatory/inhibitory homeostasis. Although mouse models of Rett syndrome (RTT), a postnatal neurological disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, display impaired excitatory neurotransmission, the RTT phenotype can be largely reproduced in mice simply by removing MeCP2 from inhibitory GABAergic neurons. To determine what role excitatory signaling impairment might play in RTT pathogenesis, we generated conditional mouse models with Mecp2 either removed from or expressed solely in glutamatergic neurons. MeCP2 deficiency in glutamatergic neurons leads to early lethality, obesity, tremor, altered anxiety-like behaviors, and impaired acoustic startle response, which is distinct from the phenotype of mice lacking MeCP2 only in inhibitory neurons. These findings reveal a role for excitatory signaling impairment in specific neurobehavioral abnormalities shared by RTT and other postnatal neurological disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14199.001 PMID:27328325

  17. Knocking down of heat-shock protein 27 directs differentiation of functional glutamatergic neurons from placenta-derived multipotent cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Che; Huang, Chi-Jung; Lee, Yih-Jing; Tien, Lu-Tai; Ku, Wei-Chi; Chien, Raymond; Lee, Fa-Kung; Chien, Chih-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    This study presents human placenta-derived multipotent cells (PDMCs) as a source from which functional glutamatergic neurons can be derived. We found that the small heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) was downregulated during the neuronal differentiation process. The in vivo temporal and spatial profiles of HSP27 expression were determined and showed inverted distributions with neuronal proteins during mouse embryonic development. Overexpression of HSP27 in stem cells led to the arrest of neuronal differentiation; however, the knockdown of HSP27 yielded a substantially enhanced ability of PDMCs to differentiate into neurons. These neurons formed synaptic networks and showed positive staining for multiple neuronal markers. Additionally, cellular phenomena including the absence of apoptosis and rare proliferation in HSP27-silenced PDMCs, combined with molecular events such as cleaved caspase-3 and the loss of stemness with cleaved Nanog, indicated that HSP27 is located upstream of neuronal differentiation and constrains that process. Furthermore, the induced neurons showed increasing intracellular calcium concentrations upon glutamate treatment. These differentiated cells co-expressed the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, vesicular glutamate transporter, and synaptosomal-associated protein 25 but did not show expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, choline acetyltransferase or glutamate decarboxylase 67. Therefore, we concluded that HSP27-silenced PDMCs differentiated into neurons possessing the characteristics of functional glutamatergic neurons. PMID:27444754

  18. Ly6h regulates trafficking of alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and nicotine-induced potentiation of glutamatergic signaling.

    PubMed

    Puddifoot, Clare A; Wu, Meilin; Sung, Rou-Jia; Joiner, William J

    2015-02-25

    α7 nAChRs are expressed widely throughout the brain, where they are important for synaptic signaling, gene transcription, and plastic changes that regulate sensory processing, cognition, and neural responses to chronic nicotine exposure. However, the mechanisms by which α7 nAChRs are regulated are poorly understood. Here we show that trafficking of α7-subunits is controlled by endogenous membrane-associated prototoxins in the Ly6 family. In particular, we find that Ly6h reduces cell-surface expression and calcium signaling by α7 nAChRs. We detect Ly6h in several rat brain regions, including the hippocampus, where we find it is both necessary and sufficient to limit the magnitude of α7-mediated currents. Consistent with such a regulatory function, knockdown of Ly6h in rat hippocampal pyramidal neurons enhances nicotine-induced potentiation of glutamatergic mEPSC amplitude, which is known to be mediated by α7 signaling. Collectively our data suggest a novel cellular role for Ly6 proteins in regulating nAChRs, which may be relevant to plastic changes in the nervous system including rewiring of glutamatergic circuitry during nicotine addiction. PMID:25716842

  19. Manipulations of MeCP2 in glutamatergic neurons highlight their contributions to Rett and other neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xiangling; Wang, Wei; Lu, Hui; He, Ling-Jie; Chen, Wu; Chao, Eugene S; Fiorotto, Marta L; Tang, Bin; Herrera, Jose A; Seymour, Michelle L; Neul, Jeffrey L; Pereira, Fred A; Tang, Jianrong; Xue, Mingshan; Zoghbi, Huda Y

    2016-01-01

    Many postnatal onset neurological disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and intellectual disability are thought to arise largely from disruption of excitatory/inhibitory homeostasis. Although mouse models of Rett syndrome (RTT), a postnatal neurological disorder caused by loss-of-function mutations in MECP2, display impaired excitatory neurotransmission, the RTT phenotype can be largely reproduced in mice simply by removing MeCP2 from inhibitory GABAergic neurons. To determine what role excitatory signaling impairment might play in RTT pathogenesis, we generated conditional mouse models with Mecp2 either removed from or expressed solely in glutamatergic neurons. MeCP2 deficiency in glutamatergic neurons leads to early lethality, obesity, tremor, altered anxiety-like behaviors, and impaired acoustic startle response, which is distinct from the phenotype of mice lacking MeCP2 only in inhibitory neurons. These findings reveal a role for excitatory signaling impairment in specific neurobehavioral abnormalities shared by RTT and other postnatal neurological disorders. PMID:27328325

  20. Alterations in AMPA receptor subunits and TARPs in the rat nucleus accumbens related to the formation of Ca²⁺-permeable AMPA receptors during the incubation of cocaine craving.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, Carrie R; Loweth, Jessica A; Milovanovic, Mike; Ford, Kerstin A; Galiñanes, Gregorio L; Heng, Li-Jun; Tseng, Kuei Y; Wolf, Marina E

    2011-12-01

    Cue-induced cocaine seeking intensifies or incubates after withdrawal from extended access cocaine self-administration, a phenomenon termed incubation of cocaine craving. The expression of incubated craving is mediated by Ca²⁺-permeable AMPA receptors (CP-AMPARs) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Thus, CP-AMPARs are a potential target for therapeutic intervention, making it important to understand mechanisms that govern their accumulation. Here we used subcellular fractionation and biotinylation of NAc tissue to examine the abundance and distribution of AMPAR subunits, and GluA1 phosphorylation, in the incubation model. We also studied two transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins (TARPs), γ-2 and γ-4. Our results, together with earlier findings, suggest that some of the new CP-AMPARs are synaptic. These are probably associated with γ-2, but they are loosely tethered to the PSD. Levels of GluA1 phosphorylated at serine 845 (pS845 GluA1) were significantly increased in biotinylated tissue and in an extrasynaptic membrane-enriched fraction. These results suggest that increased synaptic levels of CP-AMPARs may result in part from an increase in pS845 GluA1 in extrasynaptic membranes, given that S845 phosphorylation primes GluA1-containing AMPARs for synaptic insertion and extrasynaptic AMPARs supply the synapse. Some of the new extrasynaptic CP-AMPARs are likely associated with γ-4, rather than γ-2. The maintenance of CP-AMPARs in NAc synapses during withdrawal is accompanied by activation of CaMKII and ERK2 but not CaMKI. Overall, AMPAR plasticity in the incubation model shares some features with better described forms of synaptic plasticity, although the timing of the phenomenon and the persistence of related neuroadaptations are significantly different. PMID:21276808

  1. Phenotype-dependent inhibition of glutamatergic transmission on nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons by the abused inhalant toluene.

    PubMed

    Beckley, Jacob T; Randall, Patrick K; Smith, Rachel J; Hughes, Benjamin A; Kalivas, Peter W; Woodward, John J

    2016-05-01

    Abused inhalants are voluntarily inhaled at high concentrations to produce intoxicating effects. Results from animal studies show that the abused inhalant toluene triggers behaviors, such as self-administration and conditioned place preference, which are commonly associated with addictive drugs. However, little is known about how toluene affects neurons within the nucleus accumbens (NAc), a brain region within the basal ganglia that mediates goal-directed behaviors and is implicated in the development and maintenance of addictive behaviors. Here we report that toluene inhibits a component of the after-hyperpolarization potential, and dose-dependently inhibits N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-mediated currents in rat NAc medium spiny neurons (MSN). Moreover, using the multivariate statistical technique, partial least squares discriminative analysis to analyze electrophysiological measures from rat NAc MSNs, we show that toluene induces a persistent depression of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-mediated currents in one subtype of NAc MSNs, and that the electrophysiological features of MSN neurons predicts their sensitivity to toluene. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM281 blocked the toluene-induced long-term depression of AMPA currents, indicating that this process is dependent on endocannabinoid signaling. The neuronal identity of recorded cells was examined using dual histochemistry and shows that toluene-sensitive NAc neurons are dopamine D2 MSNs that express preproenkephalin mRNA. Overall, the results from these studies indicate that physiological characteristics obtained from NAc MSNs during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings reliably predict neuronal phenotype, and that the abused inhalant toluene differentially depresses excitatory neurotransmission in NAc neuronal subtypes. PMID:25752326

  2. GluA2-Containing AMPA Receptors Distinguish Ribbon-Associated from Ribbonless Afferent Contacts on Rat Cochlear Hair Cells.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Monedero, Rodrigo; Liu, Chang; Weisz, Catherine; Vyas, Pankhuri; Fuchs, Paul Albert; Glowatzki, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Mechanosensory hair cells release glutamate at ribbon synapses to excite postsynaptic afferent neurons, via AMPA-type ionotropic glutamate receptors (AMPARs). However, type II afferent neurons contacting outer hair cells in the mammalian cochlea were thought to differ in this respect, failing to show GluA immunolabeling and with many "ribbonless" afferent contacts. Here it is shown that antibodies to the AMPAR subunit GluA2 labeled afferent contacts below inner and outer hair cells in the rat cochlea, and that synaptic currents in type II afferents had AMPAR-specific pharmacology. Only half the postsynaptic densities of type II afferents that labeled for PSD-95, Shank, or Homer were associated with GluA2 immunopuncta or presynaptic ribbons, the "empty slots" corresponding to ribbonless contacts described previously. These results extend the universality of AMPAergic transmission by hair cells, and support the existence of silent afferent contacts. PMID:27257620

  3. Anti-AMPA-Receptor Encephalitis Presenting as a Rapid-Cycling Bipolar Disorder in a Young Woman with Turner Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Quaranta, Giuseppe; Maremmani, Angelo Giovanni Icro; Perugi, Giulio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoimmune encephalitis is a disorder characterised by the subacute onset of seizures, short-term memory loss, and psychiatric and behavioural symptoms. Initially, it was recognised as a paraneoplastic disorder, but recently a subgroup of patients without systemic cancer was identified. Case Description. We describe a 20-year-old woman with Turner syndrome presenting with a treatment-resistant rapid cycling bipolar disorder with cognitive impairment. She was diagnosed with anti-AMPA-receptor encephalitis. She showed marked improvement after starting memantine and valproic acid. Conclusion. This case description emphasises the importance of timely recognition of autoimmune limbic encephalitis in patients with psychiatric manifestations and a possible predisposition to autoimmune conditions, in order to rule out malignancy and to quickly initiate treatment. PMID:26495149

  4. Urban and agricultural contribution of annual loads of glyphosate and AMPA towards surface waters at the Orge River catchment scale (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Fabrizio; Chevreuil, Marc; Blanchoud, Hélène

    2010-05-01

    The general use of pesticides in the Orge Basin, located in the southern part of the Paris suburb (France), is damaging surface water quality. Consequently, an increase in the water supply costs is registered by the water supply agencies that are situated downstream the Orge confluence with the Seine River. In this catchment, high uses of glyphosate are registered for fallow fields (upstream part) and for roadway weed control (downstream part). The proportion of glyphosate coming from these two zones was not well known, along with the double source of its metabolite AMPA originated from the degradation of some detergent phosphonates. The aim of this work was firstly to identify the potential sources of glyphosate and AMPA in urban sectors (such as sewerage system inputs) and in agricultural areas and to quantify the origins of urban pesticides pathways towards surface waters at the basin scale. The new approach of this project was to collect information at three different scales to establish a first step of modeling. At the basin scale, 1 year of surface water monitoring at the outlet of the Orge River was useful to establish the inputs towards the Seine River. At the urban catchment scale, the investigations have permitted to record glyphosate and AMPA loads transferred by storm waters and by wastewaters. Loads were estimated during and out of application calendar, in different hydrological conditions such as rainfall with high intensity or dry conditions. Impact of WWTP on surface water was also demonstrated. The third phase of this work was the interpretation of agricultural inputs from two different agricultural catchments of the Orge River. The results showed the impact of urban uses of glyphosate upon the Orge River contamination with annual loads from 100 times higher from the urban zone than from the agricultural one. Storm sewers were recognized to be the main way for glyphosate transfer towards surface waters. A budget of glyphosate and AMPA inputs and

  5. Involvement of adrenoceptors, dopamine receptors and AMPA receptors in antidepressant-like action of 7-O-ethylfangchinoline in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Zhao-fu; Cui, Xiang-yu; Cui, Su-ying; Yu, Bin; Zhang, Xue-qiong; Li, Sheng-jie; Cao, Qing; Huang, Yuan-li; Xu, Ya-ping; Song, Jin-zhi; Ding, Hui; Lin, Zhi-ge; Yang, Guang; Zhang, Yong-he

    2015-01-01

    Aim: 7-O-ethylfangchinoline (YH-200) is a bisbenzylisoquinoline derivative. The aim of this study was to investigate the antidepressant-like action and underlying mechanisms of YH-200 in mice. Methods: Mice were treated with YH-200 (15, 30, and 60 mg/kg, ig) or tetrandrine (30 and 60 mg/kg, ig) before conducting forced swimming test (FST), tail suspension test (TST), or open field test (OFT). Results: YH-200 (60 mg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in both FST and TST, and prolonged the latency to immobility in FST. YH-200 (60 mg/kg) was more potent than the natural bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid tetrandrine (60 mg/kg) in FST. Pretreatment with α1-adrenoceptor antagonist prazosin (1 mg/kg), β-adrenoceptor antagonist propranolol (2 mg/kg), dopamine D1/D5 receptor antagonist SCH23390 (0.05 mg/kg), dopamine D2/D3 receptor antagonist haloperidol (0.2 mg/kg) or AMPA receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg) prevented the antidepressant-like action of YH-200 (60 mg/kg) in FST. In contrast, pretreatment with α2 adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine (1 mg/kg) augmented the antidepressant-like action of YH-200 (30 mg/kg) in FST. Chronic administration of YH-200 (30 and 60 mg/kg for 14 d) did not produce drug tolerance; instead its antidepressant-like action was strengthened. Chronic administration of YH-200 did not affect the body weight of mice compared to control mice. Conclusion: YH-200 exerts its antidepressant-like action in mice via acting at multi-targets, including α1, α2 and β-adrenoceptors, D1/D5 and D2 /D3 receptors, as well as AMPA receptors. PMID:26238289

  6. Histone Modification of Nedd4 Ubiquitin Ligase Controls the Loss of AMPA Receptors and Cognitive Impairment Induced by Repeated Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jing; Xiong, Zhe; Lee, Janine B.; Cheng, Jia; Duffney, Lara J.; Matas, Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Stress and the major stress hormone corticosterone induce profound influences in the brain. Altered histone modification and transcriptional dysfunction have been implicated in stress-related mental disorders. We previously found that repeated stress caused an impairment of prefrontal cortex (PFC)-mediated cognitive functions by increasing the ubiquitination and degradation of AMPA-type glutamate receptors via a mechanism depending on the E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4. Here, we demonstrated that in PFC of repeatedly stressed rats, active glucocorticoid receptor had the increased binding to the glucocorticoid response element of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) promoter, resulting in the upregulation of HDAC2. Inhibition or knock-down of HDAC2 blocked the stress-induced impairment of synaptic transmission, AMPAR expression, and recognition memory. Furthermore, we found that, in stressed animals, the HDAC2-dependent downregulation of histone methyltransferase Ehmt2 (G9a) led to the loss of repressive histone methylation at the Nedd4-1 promoter and the transcriptional activation of Nedd4. These results have provided an epigenetic mechanism and a potential treatment strategy for the detrimental effects of chronic stress. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prolonged stress exposure can induce altered histone modification and transcriptional dysfunction, which may underlie the profound influence of stress in regulating brain functions. We report an important finding about the epigenetic mechanism controlling the detrimental effects of repeated stress on synaptic transmission and cognitive function. First, it has revealed the stress-induced alteration of key epigenetic regulators HDAC2 and Ehmt2, which determines the synaptic and behavioral effects of repeated stress. Second, it has uncovered the stress-induced histone modification of the target gene Nedd4, an E3 ligase that is critically involved in the ubiquitination and degradation of AMPA receptors and cognition. Third, it has provided

  7. Riluzole attenuates the effects of chemoconvulsants acting on glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission in the planarian Dugesia tigrina.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Latha; Dalhoff, Zachary; Fettig, Samantha L; Eggerichs, Michael R; Nelson, Briegette E; Shrestha, Bibita; Elshikh, Amira H; Karki, Pratima

    2013-10-15

    Planarians, the non-parasitic flatworms, display dose-dependent, distinct (C-like and corkscrew-like) hyperkinesias upon exposure to 0.001-10 mM aqueous solutions of glutamatergic agonists (L-glutamate and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)) and 0.001-5 mM concentrations of the glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) inhibitor (semicarbazide). In the planarian seizure-like activity (PSLA) experiments the three chemoconvulsants displayed the following order of potency (EC50): L-glutamate (0.6mM)>NMDA (1.4 mM)>semicarbazide (4.5mM). Planarian hyperkinesias behavior counting experiments also revealed that riluzole (0.001 to 1mM), an anti-convulsive agent, displayed no significant behavioral activity by itself, but attenuated hyperkinesias elicited by the three chemoconvulsants targeting either glutamatergic or GABAergic neurotransmission with the following order of potency (IC50): NMDA (44.7 µM)>semicarbazide (88.3 µM)>L-glutamate (160 µM). Further, (+)-MK-801, a specific NMDA antagonist, alleviated 3mM NMDA (47%) or 3mM L-glutamate (27%) induced planarian hyperkinesias. The results provide pharmacological evidence for the presence of glutamatergic receptor-like and semicarbazide sensitive functional GAD enzyme-like proteins in planaria in addition to demonstrating, for the first time, the anti-convulsive effects of riluzole in an invertebrate model. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-F) analysis performed on planarian extracts post no drug treatment (control) or treatment with 3mM semicarbazide, combination of 3mM semicarbazide and 0.1 mM riluzole, or 0.1 mM riluzole revealed that 3 mM semicarbazide induced 35% decrease in the GABA levels and a combination of 3mM semicarbazide and 0.1 mM riluzole induced 42% decrease in glutamate levels with respect to the control group. PMID:23872399

  8. Deletion of Shank1 has minimal effects on the molecular composition and function of glutamatergic afferent postsynapses in the mouse inner ear.

    PubMed

    Braude, Jeremy P; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Baumgarner, Katherine; Laurine, Rebecca; Jones, Timothy A; Jones, Sherri M; Pyott, Sonja J

    2015-03-01

    Shank proteins (1-3) are considered the master organizers of glutamatergic postsynaptic densities in the central nervous system, and the genetic deletion of either Shank1, 2, or 3 results in altered composition, form, and strength of glutamatergic postsynapses. To investigate the contribution of Shank proteins to glutamatergic afferent synapses of the inner ear and especially cochlea, we used immunofluorescence and quantitative real time PCR to determine the expression of Shank1, 2, and 3 in the cochlea. Because we found evidence for expression of Shank1 but not 2 and 3, we investigated the morphology, composition, and function of afferent postsynaptic densities from defined tonotopic regions in the cochlea of Shank1(-/-) mice. Using immunofluorescence, we identified subtle changes in the morphology and composition (but not number and localization) of cochlear afferent postsynaptic densities at the lower frequency region (8 kHz) in Shank1(-/-) mice compared to Shank1(+/+) littermates. However, we detected no differences in auditory brainstem responses at matching or higher frequencies. We also identified Shank1 in the vestibular afferent postsynaptic densities, but detected no differences in vestibular sensory evoked potentials in Shank1(-/-) mice compared to Shank1(+/+) littermates. This work suggests that Shank proteins play a different role in the development and maintenance of glutamatergic afferent synapses in the inner ear compared to the central nervous system. PMID:25637745

  9. Translational regulation of NeuroD1 expression by FMRP: involvement in glutamatergic neuronal differentiation of cultured rat primary neural progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Se Jin; Kim, Ji-Woon; Kim, Ki Chan; Han, So Min; Go, Hyo Sang; Seo, Jung Eun; Choi, Chang Soon; Ryu, Jong Hoon; Shin, Chan Young; Song, Mi-Ryoung

    2014-03-01

    Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) is encoded by Fmr1 gene in which mutation is known to cause fragile X syndrome characterized by mental impairment and other psychiatric symptoms similar to autism spectrum disorders. FMRP plays important roles in cellular mRNA biology such as transport, stability, and translation as an RNA-binding protein. In the present study, we identified potential role of FMRP in the neural differentiation, using cortical neural progenitor cells from Sprague-Dawley rat. We newly found NeuroD1, an essential regulator of glutamatergic neuronal differentiation, as a new mRNA target interacting with FMRP in co-immunoprecipitation experiments. We also identified FMRP as a regulator of neuronal differentiation by modulating NeuroD1 expression. Down-regulation of FMRP by siRNA also increased NeuroD1 expression along with increased pre- and post-synaptic development of glutamatergic neuron, as evidenced by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. On the contrary, cells harboring FMRP over-expression construct showed decreased NeuroD1 expression. Treatment of cultured neural precursor cells with a histone deacetylase inhibitor, valproic acid known as an inducer of hyper-glutamatergic neuronal differentiation, down-regulated the expression of FMRP, and induced NeuroD1 expression. Our study suggests that modulation of FMRP expression regulates neuronal differentiation by interaction with its binding target mRNA, and provides an example of the gene and environmental interaction regulating glutamatergic neuronal differentiation. PMID:24338128

  10. The Origin, Development and Molecular Diversity of Rodent Olfactory Bulb Glutamatergic Neurons Distinguished by Expression of Transcription Factor NeuroD1

    PubMed Central

    Roybon, Laurent; Mastracci, Teresa L.; Li, Joyce; Stott, Simon R. W.; Leiter, Andrew B.; Sussel, Lori; Brundin, Patrik; Li, Jia-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Production of olfactory bulb neurons occurs continuously in the rodent brain. Little is known, however, about cellular diversity in the glutamatergic neuron subpopulation. In the central nervous system, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor NeuroD1 (ND1) is commonly associated with glutamatergic neuron development. In this study, we utilized ND1 to identify the different subpopulations of olfactory bulb glutamategic neurons and their progenitors, both in the embryo and postnatally. Using knock-in mice, transgenic mice and retroviral transgene delivery, we demonstrate the existence of several different populations of glutamatergic olfactory bulb neurons, the progenitors of which are ND1+ and ND1- lineage-restricted, and are temporally and regionally separated. We show that the first olfactory bulb glutamatergic neurons produced – the mitral cells – can be divided into molecularly diverse subpopulations. Our findings illustrate the complexity of neuronal diversity in the olfactory bulb and that seemingly homogenous neuronal populations can consist of multiple subpopulations with unique molecular signatures of transcription factors and expressing neuronal subtype-specific markers. PMID:26030886

  11. Deletion of Shank1 has minimal effects on the molecular composition and function of glutamatergic afferent postsynapses in the mouse inner ear

    PubMed Central

    Braude, Jeremy P.; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Baumgarner, Katherine; Laurine, Rebecca; Jones, Timothy A.; Jones, Sherri M.; Pyott, Sonja J.

    2015-01-01

    Shank proteins (1–3) are considered the master organizers of glutamatergic postsynaptic densities in the central nervous system, and the genetic deletion of either Shank1, 2, or 3 results in altered composition, form, and strength of glutamatergic postsynapses. To investigate the contribution of Shank proteins to glutamatergic afferent synapses of the inner ear and especially cochlea, we used immunofluorescence and quantitative real time PCR to determine the expression of Shank1, 2, and 3 in the cochlea. Because we found evidence for expression of Shank1 but not 2 and 3, we investigated the morphology, composition, and function of afferent postsynaptic densities from defined tonotopic regions in the cochlea of Shank1−/− mice. Using immunofluorescence, we identified subtle changes in the morphology and composition (but not number and localization) of cochlear afferent postsynaptic densities at the lower frequency region (8 kHz) in Shank1−/− mice compared to Shank1+/+ littermates. However, we detected no differences in auditory brainstem responses at matching or higher frequencies. We also identified Shank1 in the vestibular afferent postsynaptic densities, but detected no differences in vestibular sensory evoked potentials in Shank1−/− mice compared to Shank1+/+ littermates. This work suggests that Shank proteins play a different role in the development and maintenance of glutamatergic afferent synapses in the inner ear compared to the central nervous system. PMID:25637745

  12. Non-Invasive Evaluation of the GABAergic/Glutamatergic System in Autistic Patients Observed by MEGA-Editing Proton MR Spectroscopy Using a Clinical 3 Tesla Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harada, Masafumi; Taki, Masako M.; Nose, Ayumi; Kubo, Hitoshi; Mori, Kenji; Nishitani, Hiromu; Matsuda, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Amino acids related to neurotransmitters and the GABAergic/glutamatergic system were measured using a 3 T-MRI instrument in 12 patients with autism and 10 normal controls. All measurements were performed in the frontal lobe (FL) and lenticular nuclei (LN) using a conventional sequence for n-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate (Glu), and the…

  13. Psychiatric risk factor ANK3/Ankyrin-G nanodomains regulate the structure and function of glutamatergic synapses

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Katharine R.; Kopeikina, Katherine J.; Fawcett-Patel, Jessica M.; Leaderbrand, Katherine; Gao, Ruoqi; Schürmann, Britta; Myczek, Kristoffer; Radulovic, Jelena; Swanson, Geoffrey T.; Penzes, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Summary Recent evidence implicates glutamatergic synapses as key pathogenic sites in psychiatric disorders. Common and rare variants in the ANK3 gene, encoding ankyrin-G, have been associated with bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and autism. Here we demonstrate that ankyrin-G is integral to AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission and maintenance of spine morphology. Using super-resolution microscopy we find that ankyrin-G forms distinct nanodomain structures within the spine head and neck. At these sites, it modulates mushroom spine structure and function, likely as a perisynaptic scaffold and barrier within the spine neck. Neuronal activity promotes ankyrin-G accumulation in distinct spine subdomains, where it differentially regulates NMDA receptor-dependent plasticity. These data implicate subsynaptic nanodomains containing a major psychiatric risk molecule, ankyrin-G, as having location-specific functions, and opens directions for basic and translational investigation of psychiatric risk molecules. PMID:25374361

  14. Evidence for a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on glutamatergic and dopaminergic cortical transmissions in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Trovero, F; Gobbi, M; Weil-Fuggaza, J; Besson, M J; Brochet, D; Pirot, S

    2000-09-29

    Chronic treatment of rats by sulbutiamine induced no change in density of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and (+/-)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid receptors in the cingular cortex, but a significant decrease of the kainate binding sites, as measured by quantitative autoradiography. In the same treated animals, an increase of D1 dopaminergic (DA) binding sites was measured both in the prefrontal and the cingular cortex, while no modification of the D2 binding sites was detected. Furthermore, an acute sulbutiamine administration induced a decrease of kainate binding sites but no change of the density of D1 and D2 DA receptors. Acute sulbutiamine injection led to a decrease of the DA levels in the prefrontal cortex and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid levels in both the cingular and the prefrontal cortex. These observations are discussed in terms of a modulatory effect of sulbutiamine on both dopaminergic and glutamatergic cortical transmissions. PMID:10996447

  15. Specification of spatial identities of cerebellar neuron progenitors by ptf1a and atoh1 for proper production of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Mayumi; Seto, Yusuke; Taya, Shinichiro; Owa, Tomoo; Inoue, Yukiko U; Inoue, Takayoshi; Kawaguchi, Yoshiya; Nabeshima, Yo-Ichi; Hoshino, Mikio

    2014-04-01

    In the cerebellum, the bHLH transcription factors Ptf1a and Atoh1 are expressed in distinct neuroepithelial regions, the ventricular zone (VZ) and the rhombic lip (RL), and are required for producing GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, respectively. However, it is unclear whether Ptf1a or Atoh1 is sufficient for specifying GABAergic or glutamatergic neuronal fates. To test this, we generated two novel knock-in mouse lines, Ptf1a(Atoh1) and Atoh1(Ptf1a), that are designed to express Atoh1 and Ptf1a ectopically in the VZ and RL, respectively. In Ptf1a(Atoh1) embryos, ectopically Atoh1-expressing VZ cells produced glutamatergic neurons, including granule cells and deep cerebellar nuclei neurons. Correspondingly, in Atoh1(Ptf1a) animals, ectopically Ptf1a-expressing RL cells produced GABAergic populations, such as Purkinje cells and GABAergic interneurons. Consistent results were also obtained from in utero electroporation of Ptf1a or Atoh1 into embryonic cerebella, suggesting that Ptf1a and Atoh1 are essential and sufficient for GABAergic versus glutamatergic specification in the neuroepithelium. Furthermore, birthdating analyses with BrdU in the knock-in mice or with electroporation studies showed that ectopically produced fate-changed neuronal types were generated at temporal schedules closely simulating those of the wild-type RL and VZ, suggesting that the VZ and RL share common temporal information. Observations of knock-in brains as well as electroporated brains revealed that Ptf1a and Atoh1 mutually negatively regulate their expression, probably contributing to formation of non-overlapping neuroepithelial domains. These findings suggest that Ptf1a and Atoh1 specify spatial identities of cerebellar neuron progenitors in the neuroepithelium, leading to appropriate production of GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons, respectively. PMID:24695699

  16. Investigating glutamatergic mechanism in attention and impulse control using rats in a modified 5-choice serial reaction time task.

    PubMed

    Benn, Abigail; Robinson, Emma S J

    2014-01-01

    The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5CSRTT) has been widely used to study attention and impulse control in rodents. In order to mimic cognitive impairments in psychiatry, one approach has been to use acute administration of NMDA antagonists. This disruption in glutamatergic transmission leads to impairments in accuracy, omissions, and premature responses although findings have been inconsistent. In this study, we further investigated glutamatergic mechanisms using a novel version of the 5CSRTT, which we have previously shown to be more sensitive to cognitive enhancers. We first investigated the effects of systemic treatment with NMDA antagonists. We also carried out a preliminary investigation using targeted medial prefrontal cortex infusions of a NMDA antagonist (MK801), mGluR2/3 antagonist (LY341495), and mGluR7 negative allosteric modulator (MMPIP). Acute systemic administration of the different NMDA antagonists had no specific effects on accuracy. At higher doses PCP, ketamine, and memantine, increased omissions and affected other measures suggesting a general disruption in task performance. Only MK801 increased premature responses, and reduced omissions at lower doses suggesting stimulant like effects. None of the NMDA antagonists affected accuracy or any other measures when tested using a short stimulus challenge. Infusions of MK801 had no effect on accuracy but increased premature responses following infralimbic, but not prelimbic infusion. LY341495 had no effects in either brain region but a decrease in accuracy was observed following prelimbic infusion of MMPIP. Contrary to our hypothesis, disruptions to glutamate transmission using NMDA antagonists did not induce any clear deficits in accuracy in this modified version of the 5CSRTT. We also found that the profile of effects for MK801 differed from those observed with PCP, ketamine, and memantine. The effects of MK801 in the infralimbic cortex add to the literature indicating this brain region and

  17. Subregional Expression of Hippocampal Glutamatergic and GABAergic Genes in F344 Rats with Social Isolation after Weaning

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hisaya; Yamamuro, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have shown that postweaning social isolation (pwSI) alters various behavioral phenotypes, including hippocampus-dependent tasks. Here, we report the comprehensive analysis of the expression of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurotransmission-related genes in the distinct hippocampal subregions of pwSI rats. Male F344 rats (age, 4 wk) experienced either pwSI or group housing (controls). At 7 wk of age, the hippocampus of each rat was removed and laser-microdissected into the CA1 and CA3 layers of pyramidal cells and the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus. Subsequently, the expression of glutamatergic- and GABAergic-related genes was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. In the CA1 and CA3 pyramidal cell layers, 18 of 24 glutamate receptor subunit genes were at least 1.5-fold increased in expression after pwSI. In particular, the expression of several N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainate receptors (for example, Grin2a in CA1, Grik4 in CA3) was significantly increased after pwSI. In contrast, pwSI tended to decrease the expression of GABAA receptor subunit genes, and Gabra1, Gabra2, Gabra4, Gabra5, Gabrb2, Gabrg1, and Gabrg2 were all significantly decreased in expression compared with the levels in the group-housed rats. These results indicate a subregion-specific increase of glutamate receptors and reduction of GABAA receptors, suggesting that the hippocampal circuits of pwSI rats may be in more excitable states than those of group-housed rats. PMID:26884404

  18. Reversible suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission of cerebellar granule cells in vivo by genetically manipulated expression of tetanus neurotoxin light chain.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Mutsuya; Wada, Norio; Kitabatake, Yasuji; Watanabe, Dai; Anzai, Masayuki; Yokoyama, Minesuke; Teranishi, Yutaka; Nakanishi, Shigetada

    2003-07-30

    We developed a novel technique that allowed reversible suppression of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the cerebellar network. We generated two lines of transgenic mice termed Tet and TeNT mice and crossed the two transgenic lines to produce the Tet/TeNT double transgenic mice. In the Tet mice, the tetracycline-controlled reverse activator (rtTA) was expressed selectively in cerebellar granule cells by the promoter function of the GABA(A) receptor alpha6 subunit gene. In the TeNT mice, the fusion gene of tetanus neurotoxin light chain (TeNT) and enh