Sample records for amphibian metamorphosis assay

  1. The phylogeny of amphibian metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Reiss, John O

    2002-01-01

    Frogs have one of the most extreme metamorphoses among vertebrates. How did this metamorphosis evolve? By combining the methods previously proposed by Mabee and Humphries (1993) and Velhagen (1997), I develop a phylogenetic method suited for rigorous analysis of this question. In a preliminary analysis using 12 transformation sequence characters and 36 associated event sequence characters, all drawn from the osteology of the skull, the evolution of metamorphosis is traced on an assumed phylogeny. This phylogeny has lissamphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians) monophyletic, with frogs the sister group of salamanders. Successive outgroups used are temnospondyls and discosauriscids, both of which are fossil groups for which ontogenetic data are available. In the reconstruction of character evolution, an unambiguous change (synapomorphy) along the branch leading to lissamphibians is a delay in the lengthening of the maxilla until metamorphosis, in accordance with my previous suggestion (Reiss, 1996). However, widening of the interpterygoid vacuity does not appear as a synapomophy of lissamphibians, due to variation in the character states in the outgroups. From a more theoretical perspective, the reconstructed evolution of amphibian metamorphosis involves examples of heterochrony, through the shift of ancestral premetamorphic events to the metamorphic period, caenogenesis, through the origin of new larval features, and terminal addition, through the origin of new adult features. Other changes don't readily fit these categories. This preliminary study provides evidence that metamorphic changes in frogs arose as further modifications of changes unique to lissamphibians, as well as a new method by which such questions can be examined. PMID:16351859

  2. The metamorphosis of amphibian toxicogenomics.

    PubMed

    Helbing, Caren C

    2012-01-01

    Amphibians are important vertebrates in toxicology often representing both aquatic and terrestrial forms within the life history of the same species. Of the thousands of species, only two have substantial genomics resources: the recently published genome of the Pipid, Xenopus (Silurana) tropicalis, and transcript information (and ongoing genome sequencing project) of Xenopus laevis. However, many more species representative of regional ecological niches and life strategies are used in toxicology worldwide. Since Xenopus species diverged from the most populous frog family, the Ranidae, ~200 million years ago, there are notable differences between them and the even more distant Caudates (salamanders) and Caecilians. These differences include genome size, gene composition, and extent of polyploidization. Application of toxicogenomics to amphibians requires the mobilization of resources and expertise to develop de novo sequence assemblies and analysis strategies for a broader range of amphibian species. The present mini-review will present the advances in toxicogenomics as pertains to amphibians with particular emphasis upon the development and use of genomic techniques (inclusive of transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) and the challenges inherent therein. PMID:22435070

  3. A Dominant-Negative Thyroid Hormone Receptor Blocks Amphibian Metamorphosis by Retaining Corepressors at Target Genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel R. Buchholz; Shao-Chung Victor Hsia; Liezhen Fu; Yun-Bo Shi

    2003-01-01

    The total dependence of amphibian metamorphosis on thyroid hormone (T3) provides a unique vertebrate model for studying the molecular mechanism of T3 receptor (TR) function in vivo. In vitro transcription and developmental expression studies have led to a dual function model for TR in amphibian development, i.e., TRs act as transcriptional repressors in premetamorphic tadpoles and as activators during metamorphosis.

  4. Restructuring of the amphibian gut microbiota through metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Kevin D; Cary, Tawnya L; Karasov, William H; Dearing, M Denise

    2013-12-01

    Vertebrates maintain complex symbioses with a diverse community of microbes residing within their guts. The microbial players in these symbioses differ between major taxa of vertebrates, such that fish and amniotes maintain notably different communities. To date, there has not been a culture-independent inventory of an amphibian gut microbial community. Here, we compared gut microbial communities of tadpoles and frogs of the Northern leopard frog (Lithobates pipiens). We utilized Illumina sequencing, which allowed us to inventory more than 450?000 microbial sequences. We found that tadpoles and frogs differ markedly in the composition of their gut microbial communities, with tadpoles maintaining a community more similar to fish, whereas the frog community resembles that of amniotes. Additionally, frogs maintain a community with lower phylogenetic diversity compared with tadpoles. The significant restructuring of the microbiota is likely due to changes in diet as well as the large reorganization of the intestinal organ during metamorphosis. Overall, we propose that amphibians represent an important system in which to study regulation and selection of gut microbial communities. PMID:24249298

  5. Amphibian lipid levels at metamorphosis correlate to post-metamorphic terrestrial survival

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David E. Scott; Erin D. Casey; Michele F. Donovan; Tracy K. Lynch

    2007-01-01

    In organisms that have complex life cycles, factors in the larval environment may affect both larval and adult traits. For\\u000a amphibians, the postmetamorphic transition from the aquatic environment to terrestrial habitat may be a period of high juvenile\\u000a mortality. We hypothesized that lipid stores at metamorphosis may affect an animal’s success during this critical transition\\u000a period. We examined variation in

  6. Metamorphosis of two amphibian species after chronic cadmium exposure in outdoor aquatic mesocosms.

    PubMed

    James, Stacy M; Little, Edward E; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2005-08-01

    Amphibian larvae at contaminated sites may experience an alteration of metamorphic traits and survival compared to amphibians in uncontaminated conditions. Effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure on the metamorphosis of American toads (Bufo americanus) and southern leopard frogs (Rana sphenocephala) were determined. The two species were reared separately from shortly after hatching through metamorphosis in outdoor mesocosms (1,325-L polyethylene cattle tanks) that simulated natural ponds and enhanced environmental realism relative to the laboratory. Both species exhibited a decrease in survival with increasing initial nominal aqueous Cd concentration. Cadmium treatment did not influence mass at metamorphosis for either species when survival was included as a covariate, but increased the age at metamorphosis for the American toads. The whole body Cd content of metamorphs increased with aqueous Cd treatment level for both species, and the American toads tended to possess more elevated residues. Cadmium quickly partitioned out of the water column and accumulated in and altered the abundance of the tadpoles' diet. Cadmium-contaminated sites may produce fewer metamorphs, and those that survive will metamorphose later and contain Cd. Interspecific differences in the response variables illustrate the importance of testing multiple species when assessing risk. PMID:16152972

  7. Suitability of Golf Course Ponds for Amphibian Metamorphosis When Bullfrogs Are Removed

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MICHELLE D. BOONE; RAYMOND D. SEMLITSCH; CORY MOSBY

    2008-01-01

    Managing areas designed for human recreation so that they are compatible with natural am- phibian populations can reduce the negative impacts of habitat destruction. We examined the potential for amphibians to complete larval development in golf course ponds in the presence or absence of overwin- tered bullfrog tadpoles (Rana catesbeiana), which are frequently found in permanent, human-made ponds. We reared

  8. Metamorphosis Matching

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    This is an activity where learners will compare the different metamorphosis stages of amphibians. By matching different life stages of different species, the learners can compare and contrast key characteristics and stages of the life cycle. Learners will match larval stages to adult stages and notice bodily changes in the growth process. This activity can be modified for a slightly more advanced topic.

  9. Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (2013): 151-162 A non-invasive water-borne hormone assay for amphibians

    E-print Network

    Gabor, Caitlin - Department of Biology, Texas State University

    2013-01-01

    of Biology, Population and Conservation Biology Program, Texas State University-San Marcos, TX 78666Amphibia-Reptilia 34 (2013): 151-162 A non-invasive water-borne hormone assay for amphibians have been implicated in the rapid decline of amphibians. Disturbances, such as disease and poor water

  10. Differential patterns of accumulation and retention of dietary trace elements associated with coal ash during larval development and metamorphosis of an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Heyes, Andrew; Rowe, Christopher L; Conrad, Phillip

    2014-01-01

    We performed an experiment in which larval gray tree frogs (Hyla chrysoscelis) were raised through metamorphosis on diets increased with a suite of elements associated with coal combustion residues (silver [Ag], arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], chromium [Cr], copper [Cu], mercury [Hg], lead [Pb], selenium [Se], vanadium [V], and zinc [Zn]) at "low" and "high" concentrations. We quantified accumulation of metals at three life stages (mid-larval development, initiation of metamorphosis, and completion of metamorphosis) as well as effects on survival, metabolic rate, size at metamorphosis, and duration and loss of weight during metamorphosis. Most elements were accumulated in a dose-dependent pattern by some or all life stages, although this was not the case for Hg. For most elements, larval body burdens exceeded those of later life stages in some or all treatments (control, low, or high). However for Se, As, and Hg, body burdens in control and low concentrations were increased in later compared with earlier life stages. A lack of dose-dependent accumulation of Hg suggests that the presence of high concentrations of other elements (possibly Se) either inhibited accumulation or increased depuration of Hg. The duration of metamorphosis (forelimb emergence through tail resorption) was lengthened in individuals exposed to the highest concentrations of elements, but there were no other statistically significant biological effects. This study shows that patterns of accumulation and possibly depuration of metals and trace elements are complex in animals possessing complex life cycles. Further study is required to determine specific interactions affecting these patterns, in particular which elements may be responsible for affecting accumulation or retention of Hg when organisms are exposed to complex mixtures of elements. PMID:24169791

  11. Interactive shape metamorphosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, David T.; State, Andrei; Banks, David

    1994-01-01

    A technique for controlled metamorphosis between surfaces in 3-space is described. Well-understood techniques to produce shape metamorphosis between models in a 2D parametric space is applied. The user selects morphable features interactively, and the morphing process executes in real time on a high-performance graphics multicomputer.

  12. Monitoring Amphibians

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2013-09-14

    In this field study, learners discover how to collect data in the field and how their efforts can help certain animals, specifically, amphibians. The field study allows learners to go into the field, collect data, and share it on Omaha's Henry Doorly Zoo Amphibian Database.

  13. Amphibian parathyroids: morphological and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Srivastav, A K; Das, V K; Das, S; Sasayama, Y; Suzuki, N

    1995-10-01

    Amphibians living partially or totally in a terrestrial environment are the first tetrapods to possess parathyroid glands. Purely aquatic amphibians and amphibian larvae lack these endocrine glands. The parathyroids develop at the time of metamorphosis. The parathyroid glands in caecilians consist of a single cell type, that of urodeles may be composed of basal (supporting) cells and suprabasal (chief) cells, and that of anurans of small and large chief cells. Parathyroid glands of caecilians and anurans lack connective tissue, blood vessels, and nerves. The parathyroid cells become activated in response to decreased blood calcium concentration and undergo changes indicating increased parathyroid hormone secretion. Increased blood calcium concentration suppresses secretory activity. Usually, parathyroidectomy elicits hypocalcemia in most amphibians. Such operations have no effect in lower urodeles. Parathyroid hormone administration provokes hypercalcemia in most amphibians. The parathyroids of caecilians have not been studied in detail. The urodeles and anurans exhibit seasonal changes in the parathyroid glands. These changes may be initiated by environmental stimuli such as light, temperature, or alterations in blood calcium levels caused by natural hibernation. PMID:8580512

  14. Bubbles of Metamorphosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Manu

    2011-11-01

    Metamorphosis presents a puzzling challenge where, triggered by a signal, an organism abruptly transforms its entire shape and form. Here I describe the role of physical fluid dynamic processes during pupal metamorphosis in flies. During early stages of pupation of third instar larvae into adult flies, a physical gas bubble nucleates at a precise temporal and spatial location, as part of the normal developmental program in Diptera. Although its existence has been known for the last 100 years, the origin and control of this ``cavitation'' event has remained completely mysterious. Where does the driving negative pressure for bubble nucleation come from? How is the location of the bubble nucleation site encoded in the pupae? How do molecular processes control such a physical event? What is the role of this bubble during development? Via developing in-vivo imaging techniques, direct bio-physical measurements in live insect pupal structures and physical modeling, here I elucidate the physical mechanism for appearance and disappearance of this bubble and predict the site of nucleation and its exact timing. This new physical insight into the process of metamorphosis also allows us to understand the inherent design of pupal shell architectures in various species of insects. Milton Award, Harvard Society of Fellows; Terman Fellowship, Stanford

  15. Feature-based volume metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Apostolos Lerios; Chase D. Garfinkle; Marc Levoy

    1995-01-01

    Image metamorphosis, or image morphing, is a popular tech- nique for creating a smooth transition between two images. For synthetic images, transforming and rendering the underlying three-dimensional (3D) models has a number of advantages over morphing between two pre-rendered images. In this paper we con- sider 3D metamorphosis applied to volume-based representations of objects. We discuss the issues which arise

  16. Problems utilizing an enzyme sensitive site assay for photorepair of exogenous DNA with cell-free

    E-print Network

    Smith, M. Alex

    restriction-enzyme (ESS) assay. Cell-free protein extracts of amphibian eggs caused the degradation of even­ESS assays to determine the UVB damage repair abilities of amphibian eggs. Proper estimation of amphibian-free protein extracts cre- ated from amphibian embryos covered in protective jelly. The process of releasing

  17. Vertebral development and amphibian evolution.

    PubMed

    Carroll, R L; Kuntz, A; Albright, K

    1999-01-01

    Amphibians provide an unparalleled opportunity to integrate studies of development and evolution through the investigation of the fossil record of larval stages. The pattern of vertebral development in modern frogs strongly resembles that of Paleozoic labyrinthodonts in the great delay in the ossification of the vertebrae, with the centra forming much later than the neural arches. Slow ossification of the trunk vertebrae in frogs and the absence of ossification in the tail facilitate the rapid loss of the tail during metamorphosis, and may reflect retention of the pattern in their specific Paleozoic ancestors. Salamanders and caecilians ossify their centra at a much earlier stage than frogs, which resembles the condition in Paleozoic lepospondyls. The clearly distinct patterns and rates of vertebral development may indicate phylogenetic separation between the ultimate ancestors of frogs and those of salamanders and caecilians within the early radiation of ancestral tetrapods. This divergence may date from the Lower Carboniferous. Comparison with the molecular regulation of vertebral development described in modern mammals and birds suggests that the rapid chondrification of the centra in salamanders relative to that of frogs may result from the earlier migration of sclerotomal cells expressing Pax1 to the area surrounding the notochord. PMID:11324019

  18. Effects of two stressors on amphibian larval development.

    PubMed

    Stark, Karolina; Scott, David E; Tsyusko, Olga; Coughlin, Daniel P; Hinton, Thomas G

    2012-05-01

    In parallel with a renewed interest in nuclear power and its possible environmental impacts, a new environmental radiation protection system calls for environmental indicators of radiological stress. However, because environmental stressors seldom occur alone, this study investigated the combined effects of an ecological stressor (larval density) and an anthropogenic stressor (ionizing radiation) on amphibians. Scaphiopus holbrookii tadpoles reared at different larval densities were exposed to four low irradiation dose rates (0.13, 2.4, 21, and 222 mGy d(-1)) from (137)Cs during the sensitive period prior to and throughout metamorphosis. Body size at metamorphosis and development rate served as fitness correlates related to population dynamics. Results showed that increased larval density decreased body size but did not affect development rate. Low dose rate radiation had no impact on either endpoint. PMID:22305119

  19. Differential Patterns of Accumulation and Depuration of Dietary Selenium and Vanadium During Metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog ( Hyla versicolor )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher L. Rowe; Andrew Heyes; Jessica Hilton

    2011-01-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels.\\u000a To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO2) or V (as NaVO3) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched

  20. A Qualitative Meta-Analysis Reveals Consistent Effects of Atrazine on Freshwater Fish and Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; McCoy, Krista A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The biological effects of the herbicide atrazine on freshwater vertebrates are highly controversial. In an effort to resolve the controversy, we conducted a qualitative meta-analysis on the effects of ecologically relevant atrazine concentrations on amphibian and fish survival, behavior, metamorphic traits, infections, and immune, endocrine, and reproductive systems. Data sources We used published, peer-reviewed research and applied strict quality criteria for inclusion of studies in the meta-analysis. Data synthesis We found little evidence that atrazine consistently caused direct mortality of fish or amphibians, but we found evidence that it can have indirect and sublethal effects. The relationship between atrazine concentration and timing of amphibian metamorphosis was regularly nonmonotonic, indicating that atrazine can both accelerate and delay metamorphosis. Atrazine reduced size at or near metamorphosis in 15 of 17 studies and 14 of 14 species. Atrazine elevated amphibian and fish activity in 12 of 13 studies, reduced antipredator behaviors in 6 of 7 studies, and reduced olfactory abilities for fish but not for amphibians. Atrazine was associated with a reduction in 33 of 43 immune function end points and with an increase in 13 of 16 infection end points. Atrazine altered at least one aspect of gonadal morphology in 7 of 10 studies and consistently affected gonadal function, altering spermatogenesis in 2 of 2 studies and sex hormone concentrations in 6 of 7 studies. Atrazine did not affect vitellogenin in 5 studies and increased aromatase in only 1 of 6 studies. Effects of atrazine on fish and amphibian reproductive success, sex ratios, gene frequencies, populations, and communities remain uncertain. Conclusions Although there is much left to learn about the effects of atrazine, we identified several consistent effects of atrazine that must be weighed against any of its benefits and the costs and benefits of alternatives to atrazine use. PMID:20056568

  1. Where have all the tadpoles gone? Individual genetic tracking of amphibian larvae until adulthood.

    PubMed

    Ringler, Eva; Mangione, Rosanna; Ringler, Max

    2015-07-01

    Reliably marking larvae and reidentifying them after metamorphosis is a challenge that has hampered studies on recruitment, dispersal, migration and survivorship of amphibians for a long time, as conventional tags are not reliably retained through metamorphosis. Molecular methods allow unique genetic fingerprints to be established for individuals. Although microsatellite markers have successfully been applied in mark-recapture studies on several animal species, they have never been previously used in amphibians to follow individuals across different life cycle stages. Here, we evaluate microsatellites for genetic across-stages mark-recapture studies in amphibians and test the suitability of available software packages for genotype matching. We sampled tadpoles of the dendrobatid frog Allobates femoralis, which we introduced on a river island in the Nature Reserve 'Les Nouragues' in French Guiana. In two subsequent recapture sessions, we searched for surviving juveniles and adults, respectively. All individuals were genotyped at 14 highly variable microsatellite loci, which yielded unique genetic fingerprints for all individuals. We found large differences in the identification success of the programs tested. The pairwise-relatedness-based approach, conducted with the programs kingroup or ML-Relate, performed best with our data set. Matching ventral patterns of juveniles and adult individuals acted as a control for the reliability of the genetic identification. Our results demonstrate that microsatellite markers are a highly powerful tool for studying amphibian populations on an individual basis. The ability to individually track amphibian tadpoles throughout metamorphosis until adulthood will be of substantial value for future studies on amphibian population ecology and evolution. PMID:25388775

  2. Feature-based image metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thaddeus Beier; Shawn Neely

    1992-01-01

    A new technique is presented for the metamorphosis of one digital image into another. The approach gives the animator high-level control of the visual effect by providing natural feature-based specification and interaction. When used effectively, this technique can give the illusion that the photographed or computer generated subjects are transforming in a fluid, surrealistic, and often dramatic way. Comparisons with

  3. Pattern-Based Texture Metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ziqiang Liu; Ce Liu; Heung-yeung Shum; Yizhou Yu

    2002-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, we study texture metamorphosis, or how to generate texture samples that smoothly transform from a source texture image to a target We propose a pattern - based approach to specify the feature correspondence be - tween two textures, based on the observation that many tex - ture images have stochastically distributed patterns which are similar to

  4. The keratin-related Ouroboros proteins function as immune antigens mediating tail regression in Xenopus metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Mukaigasa, Katsuki; Hanasaki, Akira; Maéno, Mitsugu; Fujii, Hiroshi; Hayashida, Shin-ichiro; Itoh, Mari; Kobayashi, Makoto; Tochinai, Shin; Hatta, Masayuki; Iwabuchi, Kazuya; Taira, Masanori; Onoé, Kazunori; Izutsu, Yumi

    2009-01-01

    Tail resorption during amphibian metamorphosis has been thought to be controlled mainly by a cell-autonomous mechanism of programmed cell death triggered by thyroid hormone. However, we have proposed a role for the immune response in metamorphosis, based on the finding that syngeneic grafts of tadpole tail skin into adult Xenopus animals are rejected by T cells. To test this, we identified two tail antigen genes called ouro1 and ouro2 that encode keratin-related proteins. Recombinant Ouro1 and Ouro2 proteins generated proliferative responses in vitro in T cells isolated from naive adult Xenopus animals. These genes were expressed specifically in the tail skin at the climax of metamorphosis. Overexpression of ouro1 and ouro2 induced T-cell accumulation and precocious tail degeneration after full differentiation of adult-type T cells when overexpressed in the tail region. When the expression of ouro1 and ouro2 were knocked down, tail skin tissue remained even after metamorphosis was complete. Our findings indicate that Ouro proteins participate in the process of tail regression as immune antigens and highlight the possibility that the acquired immune system contributes not only to self-defense but also to remodeling processes in vertebrate morphogenesis. PMID:19826093

  5. Opposite shifts in size at metamorphosis in response to larval and metamorph predators.

    PubMed

    Vonesh, James R; Warkentin, Karen M

    2006-03-01

    Predation risk can cause organisms to alter the timing of life history switch points. Theory suggests that increased risk in an early life stage should select for switching earlier and smaller, while increased risk in the subsequent stage should select for switching later and larger. This framework has frequently been applied to metamorphosis in amphibians, with mixed results. Few studies examining the effect of larval predation risk on metamorphosis have observed the predicted pattern, and no studies, to our knowledge, have examined the effect of increased risk during and after metamorphosis on the timing of this switch point. Here we examine the effect of larval and post-metamorphic predation risk on metamorphosis in the red-eyed treefrog, Agalychnis callidryas. We raised tadpoles in the presence or absence of cues from caged water bugs fed larvae and cues from spiders fed emerging metamorphs. Water bugs are effective larval predators, while spiders are poor larval predators but prey on metamorphs. Furthermore, since spiders forage on the water surface it is possible that tadpoles could assess future risk from this predator. Predators induced opposite shifts in life history. Tadpoles emerged smaller and less developed in response to water bugs, but later and larger in response to spiders. Interestingly, predator effects on larval duration were not independent; tadpoles delayed emerging in response to spiders, but only in the absence of water bugs. PMID:16602285

  6. Introducing Environmental Toxicology in Instructional Labs: The Use of a Modified Amphibian Developmental Toxicity Assay to Support Inquiry-Based Student Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sauterer, Roger; Rayburn, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Introducing students to the process of scientific inquiry is a major goal of high school and college labs. Environmental toxins are of great concern and public interest. Modifications of a vertebrate developmental toxicity assay using the frog Xenopus laevis can support student-initiated toxicology experiments that are relevant to humans. Teams of…

  7. Larval Environment Alters Amphibian Immune Defenses Differentially across Life Stages and Populations.

    PubMed

    Krynak, Katherine L; Burke, David J; Benard, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Recent global declines, extirpations and extinctions of wildlife caused by newly emergent diseases highlight the need to improve our knowledge of common environmental factors that affect the strength of immune defense traits. To achieve this goal, we examined the influence of acidification and shading of the larval environment on amphibian skin-associated innate immune defense traits, pre and post-metamorphosis, across two populations of American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), a species known for its wide-ranging environmental tolerance and introduced global distribution. We assessed treatment effects on 1) skin-associated microbial communities and 2) post-metamorphic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production and 3) AMP bioactivity against the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While habitat acidification did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis or juvenile mass, we found that a change in average pH from 7 to 6 caused a significant shift in the larval skin microbial community, an effect which disappeared after metamorphosis. Additionally, we found shifts in skin-associated microbial communities across life stages suggesting they are affected by the physiological or ecological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, we found that post-metamorphic AMP production and bioactivity were significantly affected by the interactions between pH and shade treatments and interactive effects differed across populations. In contrast, there were no significant interactions between treatments on post-metamorphic microbial community structure suggesting that variation in AMPs did not affect microbial community structure within our study. Our findings indicate that commonly encountered variation in the larval environment (i.e. pond pH and degree of shading) can have both immediate and long-term effects on the amphibian innate immune defense traits. Our work suggests that the susceptibility of amphibians to emerging diseases could be related to variability in the larval environment and calls for research into the relative influence of potentially less benign anthropogenic environmental changes on innate immune defense traits. PMID:26107644

  8. Larval Environment Alters Amphibian Immune Defenses Differentially across Life Stages and Populations

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Recent global declines, extirpations and extinctions of wildlife caused by newly emergent diseases highlight the need to improve our knowledge of common environmental factors that affect the strength of immune defense traits. To achieve this goal, we examined the influence of acidification and shading of the larval environment on amphibian skin-associated innate immune defense traits, pre and post-metamorphosis, across two populations of American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), a species known for its wide-ranging environmental tolerance and introduced global distribution. We assessed treatment effects on 1) skin-associated microbial communities and 2) post-metamorphic antimicrobial peptide (AMP) production and 3) AMP bioactivity against the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). While habitat acidification did not affect survival, time to metamorphosis or juvenile mass, we found that a change in average pH from 7 to 6 caused a significant shift in the larval skin microbial community, an effect which disappeared after metamorphosis. Additionally, we found shifts in skin-associated microbial communities across life stages suggesting they are affected by the physiological or ecological changes associated with amphibian metamorphosis. Moreover, we found that post-metamorphic AMP production and bioactivity were significantly affected by the interactions between pH and shade treatments and interactive effects differed across populations. In contrast, there were no significant interactions between treatments on post-metamorphic microbial community structure suggesting that variation in AMPs did not affect microbial community structure within our study. Our findings indicate that commonly encountered variation in the larval environment (i.e. pond pH and degree of shading) can have both immediate and long-term effects on the amphibian innate immune defense traits. Our work suggests that the susceptibility of amphibians to emerging diseases could be related to variability in the larval environment and calls for research into the relative influence of potentially less benign anthropogenic environmental changes on innate immune defense traits. PMID:26107644

  9. Fetal adaptations for viviparity in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wake, Marvalee H

    2014-03-19

    Live-bearing has evolved in all three orders of amphibians-frogs, salamanders, and caecilians. Developing young may be either yolk dependent, or maternal nutrients may be supplied after yolk is resorbed, depending on the species. Among frogs, embryos in two distantly related lineages develop in the skin of the maternal parents' backs; they are born either as advanced larvae or fully metamorphosed froglets, depending on the species. In other frogs, and in salamanders and caecilians, viviparity is intraoviductal; one lineage of salamanders includes species that are yolk dependent and born either as larvae or metamorphs, or that practice cannibalism and are born as metamorphs. Live-bearing caecilians all, so far as is known, exhaust yolk before hatching and mothers provide nutrients during the rest of the relatively long gestation period. The developing young that have maternal nutrition have a number of heterochronic changes, such as precocious development of the feeding apparatus and the gut. Furthermore, several of the fetal adaptations, such as a specialized dentition and a prolonged metamorphosis, are homoplasious and present in members of two or all three of the amphibian orders. At the same time, we know little about the developmental and functional bases for fetal adaptations, and less about the factors that drive their evolution and facilitate their maintenance. J. Morphol., 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24643944

  10. A Role for Taiman in Insect Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Lozano, Jesus; Kayukawa, Takumi; Shinoda, Tetsuro; Belles, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in vitro have reported that the Methoprene-tolerant (Met) and Taiman (Tai) complex is the functional receptor of juvenile hormone (JH). Experiments in vivo of Met depletion have confirmed this factor's role in JH signal transduction, however, there is no equivalent data regarding Tai because its depletion in larval or nymphal stages of the beetle Tribolium castaneum and the bug Pyrrhocoris apterus results in 100% mortality. We have discovered that the cockroach Blattella germanica possesses four Tai isoforms resulting from the combination of two indels in the C-terminal region of the sequence. The presence of one equivalent indel-1 in Tai sequences in T. castaneum and other species suggests that Tai isoforms may be common in insects. Concomitant depletion of all four Tai isoforms in B. germanica resulted in 100% mortality, but when only the insertion 1 (IN-1) isoforms were depleted, mortality was significantly reduced and about half of the specimens experienced precocious adult development. This shows that Tai isoforms containing IN-1 are involved in transducing the JH signal that represses metamorphosis. Reporter assays indicated that both T. castaneum Tai isoforms, one that contains the IN-1 and another that does not (DEL-1) activated a JH response element (kJHRE) in Krüppel homolog 1 in conjunction with Met and JH. The results indicate that Tai is involved in the molecular mechanisms that repress metamorphosis, at least in B. germanica, and highlight the importance of distinguishing Tai isoforms when studying the functions of this transcription factor in development and other processes. PMID:25356827

  11. The amphibian skin-associated microbiome across species, space and life history stages.

    PubMed

    Kueneman, Jordan G; Parfrey, Laura Wegener; Woodhams, Douglas C; Archer, Holly M; Knight, Rob; McKenzie, Valerie J

    2014-03-01

    Skin-associated bacteria of amphibians are increasingly recognized for their role in defence against pathogens, yet we have little understanding of their basic ecology. Here, we use high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing to examine the host and environmental influences on the skin microbiota of the cohabiting amphibian species Anaxyrus boreas, Pseudacris regilla, Taricha torosa and Lithobates catesbeianus from the Central Valley in California. We also studied populations of Rana cascadae over a large geographic range in the Klamath Mountain range of Northern California, and across developmental stages within a single site. Dominant bacterial phylotypes on amphibian skin included taxa from Bacteroidetes, Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Sphingobacteria and Actinobacteria. Amphibian species identity was the strongest predictor of microbial community composition. Secondarily, within a given amphibian species, wetland site explained significant variation. Amphibian-associated microbiota differed systematically from microbial assemblages in their environments. Rana cascadae tadpoles have skin bacterial communities distinct from postmetamorphic conspecifics, indicating a strong developmental shift in the skin microbes following metamorphosis. Establishing patterns observed in the skin microbiota of wild amphibians and environmental factors that underlie them is necessary to understand skin symbiont community assembly, and ultimately, the role skin microbiota play in the extended host phenotype including disease resistance. PMID:24171949

  12. Methods for Evaluating Wetland Condition #12: Using Amphibians in Bioassessments of Wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Richter, K.O.; Calhoun, A.; Micacchion, M.

    2001-01-01

    Because amphibians have both aquatic and terrestrial life stages they can serve in a unique way among vertebrates as sources of information for bioassessments of both wetlands and surrounding habitats. Although there are many data gaps in our knowledge about the habitat requirements and ecology of many amphibian species, it is apparent that community composition, presence and frequency of abnormalities, various mensural characteristics (e.g. snout vent length divided by body weight) and laboratory diagnostics (e.g. cholinesterase activity, blood chemistry) can be used in developing metrics for an index of biotic integrity. In addition, potential metrics can be derived from the various life stages that most amphibians experience such as egg clusters; embryonic development and hatching rates; tadpole growth, development, and survival; progress and success of metamorphosis; and breeding behavior and presence of adults. It is important, however, to focus on regional biodiversity and species assemblages of amphibians in the development of metrics rather than to strive for broadscale application of common metrics. This report discusses the procedures of developing an index of biotic integrity based on amphibians, explains potential pitfalls in using amphibians in bioassessments, and demonstrates where more research is needed to enhance the use of amphibians in evaluating wetland conditions.

  13. Metamorphosis in a Silurian barnacle

    PubMed Central

    Briggs, Derek E.G; Sutton, Mark D; Siveter, David J; Siveter, Derek J

    2005-01-01

    Exceptionally preserved fossils from the Wenlock Series (Silurian) of Herefordshire, UK, provide unique evidence of metamorphosis from free-swimming cyprid larva to attached juvenile in a Palaeozoic barnacle. The larva had large brush-like anterior limbs. The juvenile shows the head transformed into a stalk and the development of the primordial condition of five mineralized plates within the carapace. The discovery of a cyprid larva indicates that crown group cirripedes had evolved by the Silurian. PMID:16243697

  14. Distortion of frontal bones results from cell apoptosis by the mechanical force from the up-migrating eye during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingyan; Wei, Fen; Li, Hui; Xu, Juan; Chen, Xinye; Gong, Xiaoling; Tian, Yongsheng; Chen, Songlin; Bao, Baolong

    2015-05-01

    Craniofacial remodeling during flatfish metamorphosis, including eye migration, is perhaps the most striking example of asymmetric postembryonic development in the vertebrate world. The asymmetry of the cranium mainly results from distortion of the frontal bones, which depends on eye migration during metamorphosis. However, it is unclear how the up-migrating eye causes distortion of the frontal bones. In this study, we first show that distortion of the frontal bones during metamorphosis in Paralichthys olivaceus is the result of cell apoptosis, rather than cell autophagy or cell proliferation. Secondly, we report that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is induced by the mechanical force transferred from the up-migrating eye. The mechanical force from the up-migrating eye signals through FAK to downstream molecules that are integrated into the BMP-2 signal pathway. Finally, it is shown that cell apoptosis in the frontal bones is activated by the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway; the extrinsic death receptor is not involved in this process. Moreover, cell apoptosis in frontal bones is not induced directly by thyroid hormones, which are thought to mediate metamorphosis in flatfishes and directly mediate cell apoptosis during amphibian metamorphosis. These findings help identify the major signaling route used during regulation of frontal bone distortion during metamorphosis in flatfish, and indicate that the asymmetry of the cranium, or at least the distortion of frontal bones, is the result of rather than the reason underlying eye migration. PMID:25622577

  15. Amphibian pain and analgesia.

    PubMed

    Machin, K L

    1999-03-01

    Analgesics are often not provided to amphibians because the presence and severity of pain may not be recognized in these animals. In addition, there is little information on the mechanism of action of analgesic agents in amphibians. However, amphibians possess appropriate neurologic components for transmitting pain from peripheral receptors to the central nervous system and antinociceptive mechanisms to modulate pain. They are capable of displaying behavioral and physiologic modification of pain systems in response to analgesic pharmacologic agents. Therefore, pain perception in amphibians is likely analogous to that in mammals and invasive, potentially painful procedures should be accompanied by appropriate analgesia and anesthesia. Although specific doses have not been established in clinical trials, basic research into the mechanisms and regulation of endogenous opioid systems demonstrates the potential clinical benefit for the use of opioids in these animals. Other analgesics such as alpha2-agonists, ketamine, and tricaine methanesulfonate have also demonstrated analgesic potential. PMID:10367638

  16. AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DYNAMICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Agriculture has contributed to loss of vertebrate biodiversity in many regions, including the U.S. Corn Belt. Amphibian populations, in particular, have experienced widespread and often inexplicable declines, range reductions, and extinctions. However, few attempts have been made...

  17. Amphibian biology and husbandry.

    PubMed

    Pough, F Harvey

    2007-01-01

    Extant amphibians comprise three lineages-- salamanders (Urodela or Caudata), frogs and toads (Anura), and caecilians (Gymnophiona, Apoda, or Caecilia)--which contain more than 6,000 species. Fewer than a dozen species of amphibians are commonly maintained in laboratory colonies, and the husbandry requirements for the vast majority of amphibians are poorly known. For these species, a review of basic characteristics of amphibian biology supplemented by inferences drawn from the morphological and physiological characteristics of the species in question provides a basis for decisions about housing and feeding. Amphibians are ectotherms, and their skin is permeable to water, ions, and respiratory gases. Most species are secretive and, in many cases, nocturnal. The essential characteristics of their environment include appropriate levels of humidity, temperature, and lighting as well as retreat sites. Terrestrial and arboreal species require moist substrates, water dishes, and high relative humidity. Because temperature requirements for most species are poorly known, it is advisable to use a temperature mosaic that will allow an animal to find an appropriate temperature within its cage. Photoperiod may affect physiology and behavior (especially reproduction and hibernation), and although the importance of ultraviolet light for calcium metabolism by amphibians is not yet known, ecological observations suggest that it might be important for some species of frogs. Some amphibians are territorial, and some use olfactory cues to mark their territory and to recognize other individuals of their species. All amphibians are carnivorous as adults, and the feeding response of many species is elicited by the movement of prey. Diets should include a mixture of prey species, and it may be advisable to load prey with vitamins and minerals. PMID:17592184

  18. The cost of metamorphosis in flatfishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geffen, A. J.; van der Veer, H. W.; Nash, R. D. M.

    2007-07-01

    Flatfish development includes a unique physical metamorphosis with morphological and physiological changes associated with eye migration, a 90° rotation in posture and asymmetrical pigmentation. Flatfish larvae also undergo settlement, a behavioural and ecological change associated with a transition from a pelagic to a benthic existence. These processes are often assumed to be critical in determining recruitment in flatfish, through their impact on feeding, growth and survival. The timing of metamorphosis in relation to settlement varies between different flatfish species and this suggests that growth and development are not closely coupled. Existing information on feeding, growth and survival during metamorphosis and settlement is reviewed. Growth during metamorphosis is reduced in some but not all species. Despite the profound internal and external changes, there are no indications that the process of metamorphosis results in an increased mortality or that it might affect recruitment in flatfishes.

  19. A conceptual model to facilitate amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushnet, David M.; Euliss, Ned H.; Stockwell, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    As pressures on agricultural landscapes to meet worldwide resource needs increase, amphibian populations face numerous threats including habitat destruction, chemical contaminants, disease outbreaks, wetland sedimentation, and synergistic effects of these perturbations. To facilitate conservation planning, we developed a conceptual model depicting elements critical for amphibian conservation in the northern Great Plains. First, we linked upland, wetland, and landscape features to specific ecological attributes. Ecological attributes included adult survival; reproduction and survival to metamorphosis; and successful dispersal and recolonization. Second, we linked ecosystem drivers, ecosystem stressors, and ecological effects of the region to each ecological attribute. Lastly, we summarized information on these ecological attributes and the drivers, stressors, and effects that work in concert to influence the maintenance of viable and genetically diverse amphibian populations in the northern Great Plains. While our focus was on the northern Great Plains, our conceptual model can be tailored to other geographic regions and taxa.

  20. Using Bacterial Extract along with Differential Gene Expression in Acropora millepora Larvae to Decouple the Processes of Attachment and Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A.; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L.; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0–2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues, such as crustose coralline algae, biofilms or with GLW-amide neuropeptides that stimulate the entire onset of larval metamorphosis and attachment. PMID:22655067

  1. Using bacterial extract along with differential gene expression in Acropora millepora larvae to decouple the processes of attachment and metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Siboni, Nachshon; Abrego, David; Seneca, Francois; Motti, Cherie A; Andreakis, Nikos; Tebben, Jan; Blackall, Linda L; Harder, Tilmann

    2012-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Pseudoalteromonas induce metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae. The bacterial metabolite tetrabromopyrrole (TBP), isolated from an extract of Pseudoalteromonas sp. associated with the crustose coralline alga (CCA) Neogoniolithon fosliei, induced coral larval metamorphosis (100%) with little or no attachment (0-2%). To better understand the molecular events and mechanisms underpinning the induction of Acropora millepora larval metamorphosis, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, migration, adhesion and biomineralisation, two novel coral gene expression assays were implemented. These involved the use of reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and employed 47 genes of interest (GOI), selected based on putative roles in the processes of settlement and metamorphosis. Substantial differences in transcriptomic responses of GOI were detected following incubation of A. millepora larvae with a threshold concentration and 10-fold elevated concentration of TBP-containing extracts of Pseudoalteromonas sp. The notable and relatively abrupt changes of the larval body structure during metamorphosis correlated, at the molecular level, with significant differences (p<0.05) in gene expression profiles of 24 GOI, 12 hours post exposure. Fourteen of those GOI also presented differences in expression (p<0.05) following exposure to the threshold concentration of bacterial TBP-containing extract. The specificity of the bacterial TBP-containing extract to induce the metamorphic stage in A. millepora larvae without attachment, using a robust, low cost, accurate, ecologically relevant and highly reproducible RT-qPCR assay, allowed partially decoupling of the transcriptomic processes of attachment and metamorphosis. The bacterial TBP-containing extract provided a unique opportunity to monitor the regulation of genes exclusively involved in the process of metamorphosis, contrasting previous gene expression studies that utilized cues, such as crustose coralline algae, biofilms or with GLW-amide neuropeptides that stimulate the entire onset of larval metamorphosis and attachment. PMID:22655067

  2. Effects of Depleted Uranium on Survival, Growth, and Metamorphosis in the African Clawed Frog (Xenopus laevis)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sarah E. Mitchell; Colleen A. Caldwell; Gil Gonzales; William R. Gould; Richard Arimoto

    2005-01-01

    Embryos (stage 8–47, Nieuwkoop and Faber) of the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis) were subjected to water-borne depleted uranium (DU) concentrations that ranged from 4.8 to 77.7 mg\\/L using an acute 96-h frog embryo teratogenesis assay–Xenopus (FETAX). In a chronic 64-d assay, X. laevis (from embryo through metamorphosis; stages 8–66) were subjected to concentrations of DU that ranged from 6.2

  3. Adaptive colouration in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Rudh, Andreas; Qvarnström, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Amphibians, i.e. salamanders, frogs and caecilians show a wide range of bright colours in combination with contrasting patterns. There is variation among species, populations and also within species and populations. Furthermore, individuals often change colours during developmental stages or in response to environmental factors. This extraordinary variation means that there are excellent opportunities to test hypotheses of the adaptive significance of colours using amphibian species as models. We review the present view of functions of colouration in amphibians with the main focus on relatively unexplored topics. Variation in colouration has been found to play a role in thermoregulation, UV protection, predator avoidance and sexual signalling. However, many proposed cases of adaptive functions of colouration in amphibians remain virtually scientifically unexplored and surprisingly few genes influencing pigmentation or patterning have been detected. We would like to especially encourage more studies that take advantage of recent developments in measurement of visual properties of several possible signalling receivers (e.g. predators, competitors or mates). Future investigations on interactions between behaviour, ecology and vision have the potential to challenge our current view of the adaptive function of colouration in amphibians. PMID:23664831

  4. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (< 11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  5. Interaction between perchlorate and iodine in the metamorphosis of Hyla versicolor

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.; Harvey, G.; Nzengung, V.

    2003-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO4-) is a water-soluble, inorganic anion that is often combined with ammonium, potassium or other cations for use in industry and agriculture. Ammonium perchlorate, for example, is a potent oxidizer and is used in various military applications including rocket fuel. It has also been found in an historically widely used fertilizer, Chilean nitrate and in other fertilizers. It has been found in ground and surface waters of over 30 states and is considered a human health risk. Because of its similar atomic radius and volume, perchlorate competes with iodide for thyroid uptake and storage and thereby inhibits production of thyroid hormones. Amphibians may be particularly affected by perchlorate because they rely on the thyroid for metamorphosis. This study exposed early larval Hyla versicolor to concentrations of perchlorate ranging from 2.2 to 50 ppm to determine the effects of perchlorate on a native amphibian. In addition, three controls, 0 perchlorate, 0 perchlorate with 0.10 ppm iodide (C + I) and 50 ppm perchlorate + 0.10 ppm iodide (50 + I) were tested. Mortality (<11% with all treatments) and growth appeared to be unaffected by perchlorate. Inhibition of development started with 2.2 ppm perchlorate and little or no development occurred at 22.9 ppm and above. This inhibition was particularly apparent at the latter stages of development including hindlimb formation and metamorphosis. The estimated EC50 for total inhibition of metamorphosis at 70 days of treatment was 3.63 ppm. There was no evidence of inhibition of development with the 50 + I, C + I, or controls, indicating that the presence of small concentrations of iodide could counter the effects of perchlorate. When tadpoles that had been inhibited by perchlorate were subsequently treated with iodide, development through prometamorphosis progressed but mortality was very high.

  6. Effects of temperature, density and food quality on larval growth and metamorphosis in the north African green frog Pelophylax saharicus.

    PubMed

    Bellakhal, Meher; Neveu, André; Fartouna-Bellakhal, Mouna; Missaoui, Hechmi; Aleya, Lotfi

    2014-10-01

    The ectodermic status of Amphibians explains their heavy dependence at ambient temperatures and thus their sensitivity to global warming. Temperature is likely the main factor regulating their physiology by acting on the endocrine system, with consequences on development, growth and size at metamorphosis. All these parameters control survival in the wild and performances in raniculture. This study is, to our knowledge, the first report on the effects of temperature, density and protein level in food on the rearing of the North African green Frog Pelophylax saharicus. Results show that a temperature of 26 °C is optimal for maximum weight gain. The maximum metamorphosis rate is obtained between 24 and 26 °C. The highest yields occur at low densities from 1 to 10 tadpolesl(-1). The best survival rate and accelerated metamorphosis are obtained at a level of 35% protein in food whose impact on food intake and weight gain is low. The maximum weight attained by tadpoles at metamorphosis, however, is obtained with a level of 40% protein. These results justify examination of this species in the light of climate change and suggest new techniques for aquaculture. PMID:25436955

  7. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  8. Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balch, Stephen H.

    2012-01-01

    One thing history's torrent appears to be sweeping away is, ironically, the study of its most productive wellspring, Western civilization. "The Vanishing West", a report the National Association of Scholars released in May 2011, documents the extent of this vanishing. The traditional Western civilization survey requirement, commonplace only…

  9. Rainforest: Reptiles and Amphibians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Susanna

    2006-01-01

    Rainforest reptiles and amphibians are a vibrantly colored, multimedia art experience. To complete the entire project one may need to dedicate many class periods to production, yet in each aspect of the project a new and important skill, concept, or element is being taught or reinforced. This project incorporates the study of warm and cool color…

  10. Conservation Biology of Caecilian Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DAVID J. GOWER; MARK WILKINSON

    2005-01-01

    Most of the available data on declining populations of amphibians pertain to frogs and, to a lesser extent, salamanders. In keeping with their generally less understood biology, the population trends and conservation status of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) are also much less known. We reviewed reports of threats to and declines of populations of caecilians. Despite a lack of field-study details

  11. Quantitative Proteomics of an Amphibian Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, following Exposure to Thyroid Hormone.

    PubMed

    Thekkiniath, Jose; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Pasham, Mithun R; San Francisco, Susan; San Francisco, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a chytrid fungus, has increasingly been implicated as a major factor in the worldwide decline of amphibian populations. The fungus causes chytridiomycosis in susceptible species leading to massive die-offs of adult amphibians. Although Bd infects the keratinized mouthparts of tadpoles and negatively affects foraging behavior, these infections are non-lethal. An important morphogen controlling amphibian metamorphosis is thyroid hormone (T3). Tadpoles may be infected with Bd and the fungus may be exposed to T3 during metamorphosis. We hypothesize that exposure of Bd to T3 may induce the expression of factors associated with host colonization and pathogenicity. We utilized a proteomics approach to better understand the dynamics of the Bd-T3 interaction. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we generated a data set of a large number of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins following exposure of Bd to T3. From these data, we identified a total of 263 proteins whose expression was significantly changed following T3 exposure. We provide evidence for expression of an array of proteins that may play key roles in both genomic and non-genomic actions of T3 in Bd. Additionally, our proteomics study shows an increase in several proteins including proteases and a class of uncommon crinkler and crinkler-like effector proteins suggesting their importance in Bd pathogenicity as well as those involved in metabolism and energy transfer, protein fate, transport and stress responses. This approach provides insights into the mechanistic basis of the Bd-amphibian interaction following T3 exposure. PMID:26046527

  12. Quantitative Proteomics of an Amphibian Pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, following Exposure to Thyroid Hormone

    PubMed Central

    Thekkiniath, Jose; Zabet-Moghaddam, Masoud; Kottapalli, Kameswara Rao; Pasham, Mithun R.; San Francisco, Susan; San Francisco, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a chytrid fungus, has increasingly been implicated as a major factor in the worldwide decline of amphibian populations. The fungus causes chytridiomycosis in susceptible species leading to massive die-offs of adult amphibians. Although Bd infects the keratinized mouthparts of tadpoles and negatively affects foraging behavior, these infections are non-lethal. An important morphogen controlling amphibian metamorphosis is thyroid hormone (T3). Tadpoles may be infected with Bd and the fungus may be exposed to T3 during metamorphosis. We hypothesize that exposure of Bd to T3 may induce the expression of factors associated with host colonization and pathogenicity. We utilized a proteomics approach to better understand the dynamics of the Bd-T3 interaction. Using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we generated a data set of a large number of cytoplasmic and membrane proteins following exposure of Bd to T3. From these data, we identified a total of 263 proteins whose expression was significantly changed following T3 exposure. We provide evidence for expression of an array of proteins that may play key roles in both genomic and non-genomic actions of T3 in Bd. Additionally, our proteomics study shows an increase in several proteins including proteases and a class of uncommon crinkler and crinkler-like effector proteins suggesting their importance in Bd pathogenicity as well as those involved in metabolism and energy transfer, protein fate, transport and stress responses. This approach provides insights into the mechanistic basis of the Bd-amphibian interaction following T3 exposure. PMID:26046527

  13. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis prevalence and haplotypes in domestic and imported pet amphibians in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Une, Yumi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2014-05-13

    The international trade in amphibians is believed to have increased the spread of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the fungal pathogen responsible for chytridiomycosis, which has caused a rapid decline in amphibian populations worldwide. We surveyed amphibians imported into Japan and those held in captivity for a long period or bred in Japan to clarify the Bd infection status. Samples were taken from 820 individuals of 109 amphibian species between 2008 and 2011 and were analyzed by a nested-PCR assay. Bd prevalence in imported amphibians was 10.3% (58/561), while it was 6.9% (18/259) in those in private collections and commercially bred amphibians in Japan. We identified the genotypes of this fungus using partial DNA sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Sequencing of PCR products of all 76 Bd-positive samples revealed 11 haplotypes of the Bd ITS region. Haplotype A (DNA Data Bank of Japan accession number AB435211) was found in 90% (52/58) of imported amphibians. The results show that Bd is currently entering Japan via the international trade in exotic amphibians as pets, suggesting that the trade has indeed played a major role in the spread of Bd. PMID:24991744

  14. Differential patterns of accumulation and depuration of dietary selenium and vanadium during metamorphosis in the Gray Treefrog (Hyla versicolor).

    PubMed

    Rowe, Christopher L; Heyes, Andrew; Hilton, Jessica

    2011-02-01

    Selenium (Se) and vanadium (V) are contaminants commonly found in aquatic systems affected by wastes derived from fossil fuels. To examine their effects on a widely distributed species of amphibian, we exposed gray tree frogs (Hyla versicolor) to Se (as SeO?) or V (as NaVO?) in their diet from the early larval period to metamorphosis. Concentrations of Se in Se-enriched food were 1.0 (Se control), 7.5 (Se low), and 32.7 (Se high) ?g/g dw. Concentrations of V in V-enriched food were 3.0 (V control), 132.1 (V low), and 485.7 (V high) ?g/g dw. Although we observed bioaccumulation of both metals throughout the larval period, no effects on growth, survival, metabolic rate, or lipid content were observed. Se concentrations in tissues did not vary among life stages, neither in Se low nor Se high treatments, such that maximum accumulation had occurred by the mid-larval period. In addition, there was no evidence of depuration of Se in either the Se low or the Se high treatments during metamorphosis. A strikingly different pattern of accumulation and depuration occurred in V-exposed individuals. In treatments V low and V high, maximum body burdens occurred in "premetamorphs" (i.e., animals with developed forelimbs but in which tail resorption had not begun), whereas body burdens in animals having completed metamorphosis were much lower and similar to those in larvae. These results suggest that compared with Se-exposed animals, V-exposed animals were able to depurate a substantial amount of accumulated V during the metamorphic period. In an ecologic context, it appears that amphibians exposed to Se during the larval period may serve as a vector of the metal to terrestrial predators, yet potential transfer of accumulated V to predators would largely be restricted to the aquatic habitat. PMID:20878520

  15. Metamorphosis: Play, Spirituality and the Animal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Animal- and bird-becoming is an aspect of play as metamorphosis connected to spirituality in early childhood settings. The reconceptualisation of play presented here is supported by research that explored the spiritual experiences of young children in different early childhood contexts. Qualitative case study research carried out in Aotearoa New…

  16. Structural Elements in Franz Kafka's "The Metamorphosis."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott

    1993-01-01

    Notes that Kafka's "The Metamorphosis" is not only a masterpiece of modern literature but also a work that exemplifies many ideas of structural family therapy. Examines how Kafka's novella embodies concepts such as parentified children, enmeshment, intergenerational boundaries, coalitions and triangles, structural dysfunction, and structural…

  17. Making Metamorphosis Meaningful for Young Children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rebecca M. Giles; Paige V. Baggett; Edward L. Shaw

    2009-01-01

    Although butterflies are a common topic of study in many early childhood classrooms, integrating art production broadens the scope of the study and allows children to deepen their knowledge and understanding through creative self-expression. This article presents a set of integrated activities that focus on helping children fully grasp the process of metamorphosis by making observations, asking questions, and using

  18. Effects of Pesticide Mixtures on Host-Pathogen Dynamics of the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Buck, Julia C.; Hua, Jessica; Brogan, William R.; Dang, Trang D.; Urbina, Jenny; Bendis, Randall J.; Stoler, Aaron B.; Blaustein, Andrew R.; Relyea, Rick A.

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic and natural stressors often interact to affect organisms. Amphibian populations are undergoing unprecedented declines and extinctions with pesticides and emerging infectious diseases implicated as causal factors. Although these factors often co-occur, their effects on amphibians are usually examined in isolation. We hypothesized that exposure of larval and metamorphic amphibians to ecologically relevant concentrations of pesticide mixtures would increase their post-metamorphic susceptibility to the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), a pathogen that has contributed to amphibian population declines worldwide. We exposed five anuran species (Pacific treefrog, Pseudacris regilla; spring peeper, Pseudacris crucifer; Cascades frog, Rana cascadae; northern leopard frog, Lithobates pipiens; and western toad, Anaxyrus boreas) from three families to mixtures of four common insecticides (chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, permethrin, and endosulfan) or herbicides (glyphosate, acetochlor, atrazine, and 2,4-D) or a control treatment, either as tadpoles or as newly metamorphic individuals (metamorphs). Subsequently, we exposed animals to Bd or a control inoculate after metamorphosis and compared survival and Bd load. Bd exposure significantly increased mortality in Pacific treefrogs, spring peepers, and western toads, but not in Cascades frogs or northern leopard frogs. However, the effects of pesticide exposure on mortality were negligible, regardless of the timing of exposure. Bd load varied considerably across species; Pacific treefrogs, spring peepers, and western toads had the highest loads, whereas Cascades frogs and northern leopard frogs had the lowest loads. The influence of pesticide exposure on Bd load depended on the amphibian species, timing of pesticide exposure, and the particular pesticide treatment. Our results suggest that exposure to realistic pesticide concentrations has minimal effects on Bd-induced mortality, but can alter Bd load. This result could have broad implications for risk assessment of amphibians; the outcome of exposure to multiple stressors may be unpredictable and can differ between species and life stages. PMID:26181492

  19. Field Surveys of Amphibian Populations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Brodman

    2000-10-01

    Amphibian Research, a course offered at Saint Joseph's College in Rensselaer, Indiana, introduces freshmen- and sophomore-level biology and environmental science majors to investigative field research. Students learn to identify species and use standard f

  20. Processor Reconfiguration Through Instruction-Set Metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter M. Athanas; Harvey F. Silverman

    1993-01-01

    The processor reconfiguration through instruction-set metamorphosis (PRISM) general-purpose architecture, which speeds up computationally intensive tasks by augmenting the core processor's functionality with new operations, is described. The PRISM approach adapts the configuration and fundamental operations of a core processing system to the computationally intensive portions of a targeted application. PRISM-1, an initial prototype system, is described, and experimental results that

  1. Metamorphosis in the Cirripede Crustacean Balanus amphitrite

    PubMed Central

    Maruzzo, Diego; Aldred, Nick; Clare, Anthony S.; Høeg, Jens T.

    2012-01-01

    Stalked and acorn barnacles (Cirripedia Thoracica) have a complex life cycle that includes a free-swimming nauplius larva, a cypris larva and a permanently attached sessile juvenile and adult barnacle. The barnacle cyprid is among the most highly specialized of marine invertebrate larvae and its settlement biology has been intensively studied. By contrast, surprisingly few papers have dealt with the critical series of metamorphic events from cementation of the cyprid to the substratum until the appearance of a suspension feeding juvenile. This metamorphosis is both ontogenetically complex and critical to the survival of the barnacle. Here we use video microscopy to present a timeline and description of morphological events from settled cyprid to juvenile barnacle in the model species Balanus amphitrite, representing an important step towards both a broader understanding of the settlement ecology of this species and a platform for studying the factors that control its metamorphosis. Metamorphosis in B. amphitrite involves a complex sequence of events: cementation, epidermis separation from the cypris cuticle, degeneration of cypris musculature, rotation of the thorax inside the mantle cavity, building of the juvenile musculature, contraction of antennular muscles, raising of the body, shedding of the cypris cuticle, shell plate and basis formation and, possibly, a further moult to become a suspension feeding barnacle. We compare these events with developmental information from other barnacle species and discuss them in the framework of barnacle settlement ecology. PMID:22666355

  2. Retention of Memory through Metamorphosis: Can a Moth Remember What It Learned As a Caterpillar?

    PubMed Central

    Blackiston, Douglas J.; Silva Casey, Elena; Weiss, Martha R.

    2008-01-01

    Insects that undergo complete metamorphosis experience enormous changes in both morphology and lifestyle. The current study examines whether larval experience can persist through pupation into adulthood in Lepidoptera, and assesses two possible mechanisms that could underlie such behavior: exposure of emerging adults to chemicals from the larval environment, or associative learning transferred to adulthood via maintenance of intact synaptic connections. Fifth instar Manduca sexta caterpillars received an electrical shock associatively paired with a specific odor in order to create a conditioned odor aversion, and were assayed for learning in a Y choice apparatus as larvae and again as adult moths. We show that larvae learned to avoid the training odor, and that this aversion was still present in the adults. The adult aversion did not result from carryover of chemicals from the larval environment, as neither applying odorants to naïve pupae nor washing the pupae of trained caterpillars resulted in a change in behavior. In addition, we report that larvae trained at third instar still showed odor aversion after two molts, as fifth instars, but did not avoid the odor as adults, consistent with the idea that post-metamorphic recall involves regions of the brain that are not produced until later in larval development. The present study, the first to demonstrate conclusively that associative memory survives metamorphosis in Lepidoptera, provokes intriguing new questions about the organization and persistence of the central nervous system during metamorphosis. Our results have both ecological and evolutionary implications, as retention of memory through metamorphosis could influence host choice by polyphagous insects, shape habitat selection, and lead to eventual sympatric speciation. PMID:18320055

  3. Amphibian metamorphosis has been used as a model system for investigating the performance consequences of rapid

    E-print Network

    Brainerd, Elizabeth

    such as the growth and ossification of various vertebral elements and intervertebral articulations may have. Escape responses were recorded using high- speed video, and the effects of life stage and total length

  4. Coactivator Recruitment Is Essential for Liganded Thyroid Hormone Receptor To Initiate Amphibian Metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bindu Diana Paul; Liezhen Fu; Daniel R. Buchholz; Yun-Bo Shi

    2005-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) can repress or activate target genes depending on the absence or presence of thyroid hormone (T3), respectively. This hormone-dependent gene regulation is mediated by recruitment of corepressors in the absence of T3 and coactivators in its presence. Many TR-interacting coactivators have been characterized in vitro. In comparison, few studies have addressed the developmental roles of these

  5. Synaptogenesis in the Mushroom Body Calyx During Metamorphosis in the

    E-print Network

    Menzel, Randolf - Institut für Biologie

    Synaptogenesis in the Mushroom Body Calyx During Metamorphosis in the Honeybee Apis mellifera synaptogenesis and morpho- genesis within the mushroom body calyx of the honeybee Apis mellifera and to find out- phosis. We show that synaptogenesis in the mushroom body calycal neuropile starts in early metamorphosis

  6. Dynamic mechanical oscillations during metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew E. Pelling; Paul R. Wilkinson; Richard Stringer; James K. Gimzewski

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical oscillation of the heart is fundamental during insect metamorphosis, but it is unclear how morphological changes affect its mechanical dynamics. Here, the micromecha- nical heartbeat with the monarch chrysalis (Danaus plexippus) during metamorphosis is compared with the structural changes observed through in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We employ a novel ultra-sensitive detection approach, optical beam deflection, in

  7. Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program (TAMP)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency (TWRA) and the Tennessee Department of Environment and Conservation co-sponsor the Tennessee Amphibian Monitoring Program (TAMP). A volunteer-based, multi-agency effort "to assess the current status of amphibians (frogs, toads, and salamanders)" across the state, TAMP is open to all interested participants. The homepage introduces and describes the need for TAMP, and provides a brief list of related sites. Also at the TAMP site are detailed survey protocols (with accompanying color photographs of frogs and toads) and a list of selected references.

  8. Profound morphological and functional changes of rodent Purkinje cells between the first and the second postnatal weeks: a metamorphosis?

    PubMed Central

    Dusart, Isabelle; Flamant, Frederic

    2012-01-01

    Between the first and the second postnatal week, the development of rodent Purkinje cells is characterized by several profound transitions. Purkinje cells acquire their typical dendritic “espalier” tree morphology and form distal spines. During the first postnatal week, they are multi-innervated by climbing fibers and numerous collateral branches sprout from their axons, whereas from the second postnatal week, the regression of climbing fiber multi-innervation begins, and Purkinje cells become innervated by parallel fibers and inhibitory molecular layer interneurons. Furthermore, their periods of developmental cell death and ability to regenerate their axon stop and their axons become myelinated. Thus a Purkinje cell during the first postnatal week looks and functions differently from a Purkinje cell during the second postnatal week. These fundamental changes occur in parallel with a peak of circulating thyroid hormone in the mouse. All these features suggest to some extent an interesting analogy with amphibian metamorphosis. PMID:22514522

  9. The genetic covariance between life cycle stages separated by metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, J David; Blows, Mark W; Marshall, Dustin J

    2014-08-01

    Metamorphosis is common in animals, yet the genetic associations between life cycle stages are poorly understood. Given the radical changes that occur at metamorphosis, selection may differ before and after metamorphosis, and the extent that genetic associations between pre- and post-metamorphic traits constrain evolutionary change is a subject of considerable interest. In some instances, metamorphosis may allow the genetic decoupling of life cycle stages, whereas in others, metamorphosis could allow complementary responses to selection across the life cycle. Using a diallel breeding design, we measured viability at four ontogenetic stages (embryo, larval, juvenile and adult viability), in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis and examined the orientation of additive genetic variation with respect to the metamorphic boundary. We found support for one eigenvector of G: (gobsmax ), which contrasted larval viability against embryo viability and juvenile viability. Target matrix rotation confirmed that while gobsmax shows genetic associations can extend beyond metamorphosis, there is still considerable scope for decoupled phenotypic evolution. Therefore, although genetic associations across metamorphosis could limit that range of phenotypes that are attainable, traits on either side of the metamorphic boundary are capable of some independent evolutionary change in response to the divergent conditions encountered during each life cycle stage. PMID:24966319

  10. METAPOPULATION DYNAMICS AND AMPHIBIAN CONSERVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In many respects, amphibian spatial dynamics resemble classical metapopulation models, where subpopulations in breeding ponds blink in and out of existance and where extinction and colonization rates are functions of pond spatial arrangement. This "ponds-as-patches" view of amphi...

  11. Multiple overseas dispersal in amphibians.

    PubMed Central

    Vences, Miguel; Vieites, David R; Glaw, Frank; Brinkmann, Henner; Kosuch, Joachim; Veith, Michael; Meyer, Axel

    2003-01-01

    Amphibians are thought to be unable to disperse over ocean barriers because they do not tolerate the osmotic stress of salt water. Their distribution patterns have therefore generally been explained by vicariance biogeography. Here, we present compelling evidence for overseas dispersal of frogs in the Indian Ocean region based on the discovery of two endemic species on Mayotte. This island belongs to the Comoro archipelago, which is entirely volcanic and surrounded by sea depths of more than 3500 m. This constitutes the first observation of endemic amphibians on oceanic islands that did not have any past physical contact to other land masses. The two species of frogs had previously been thought to be nonendemic and introduced from Madagascar, but clearly represent new species based on their morphological and genetic differentiation. They belong to the genera Mantidactylus and Boophis in the family Mantellidae that is otherwise restricted to Madagascar, and are distinguished by morphology and mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences from mantellid species occurring in Madagascar. This discovery permits us to update and test molecular clocks for frogs distributed in this region. The new calibrations are in agreement with previous rate estimates and indicate two further Cenozoic transmarine dispersal events that had previously been interpreted as vicariance: hyperoliid frogs from Africa to Madagascar (Heterixalus) and from Madagascar to the Seychelles islands (Tachycnemis). Our results provide the strongest evidence so far that overseas dispersal of amphibians exists and is no rare exception, although vicariance certainly retains much of its importance in explaining amphibian biogeography. PMID:14667332

  12. Plasticity of lung development in the amphibian, Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Christopher S.; James, Brandon

    2013-01-01

    Summary Contrary to previous studies, we found that Xenopus laevis tadpoles raised in normoxic water without access to air can routinely complete metamorphosis with lungs that are either severely stunted and uninflated or absent altogether. This is the first demonstration that lung development in a tetrapod can be inhibited by environmental factors and that a tetrapod that relies significantly on lung respiration under unstressed conditions can be raised to forego this function without adverse effects. This study compared lung development in untreated, air-deprived (AD) and air-restored (AR) tadpoles and frogs using whole mounts, histology, BrdU labeling of cell division and antibody staining of smooth muscle actin. We also examined the relationship of swimming and breathing behaviors to lung recovery in AR animals. Inhibition and recovery of lung development occurred at the stage of lung inflation. Lung recovery in AR tadpoles occurred at a predictable and rapid rate and correlated with changes in swimming and breathing behavior. It thus presents a new experimental model for investigating the role of mechanical forces in lung development. Lung recovery in AR frogs was unpredictable and did not correlate with behavioral changes. Its low frequency of occurrence could be attributed to developmental, physical and behavioral changes, the effects of which increase with size and age. Plasticity of lung inflation at tadpole stages and loss of plasticity at postmetamorphic stages offer new insights into the role of developmental plasticity in amphibian lung loss and life history evolution. PMID:24337117

  13. Stress and chytridiomycosis: exogenous exposure to corticosterone does not alter amphibian susceptibility to a fungal pathogen.

    PubMed

    Searle, Catherine L; Belden, Lisa K; Du, Pang; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2014-06-01

    Recent emergence and spread of the amphibian fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been attributed to a number of factors, including environmental stressors that increase host susceptibility to Bd. Physiological stress can increase circulating levels of the hormone, corticosterone, which can alter a host's physiology and affect its susceptibility to pathogens. We experimentally elevated whole-body levels of corticosterone in both larval and post-metamorphic amphibians, and subsequently tested their susceptibility to Bd. Larvae of three species were tested (Anaxyrus boreas, Rana cascadae, and Lithobates catesbeianus) and one species was tested after metamorphosis (R. cascadae). After exposure to Bd, we measured whole-body corticosterone, infection, mortality, growth, and development. We found that exposure to exogenous corticosterone had no effect on Bd infection in any species or at either life stage. Species varied in whole-body corticosterone levels and exposure to corticosterone reduced mass in A. boreas and R. cascadae larvae. Exposure to Bd did not affect mortality, but had a number of sublethal effects. Across species, larvae exposed to Bd had higher corticosterone levels than unexposed larvae, but the opposite pattern was found in post-metamorphic R. cascadae. Bd exposure also increased larval length in all species and increased mass in R. cascadae larvae. Our results indicate that caution is warranted in assuming a strong link between elevated levels of corticosterone and disease susceptibility in amphibians. The role of physiological stress in altering Bd prevalence in amphibian populations is likely much more complicated than can be explained by examining a single "stress" endpoint. PMID:24610865

  14. MicroRNA-dependent metamorphosis in hemimetabolan insects

    E-print Network

    Belles, Xavier

    depleted miRNA con- tents in the last instar nymph. This practically inhibited metamorphosis after the next resembling the adult form until the final transition from nymph to adult, which is characterized

  15. Thyroxine-induced metamorphosis in the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum).

    PubMed

    Coots, Peggy S; Seifert, Ashley W

    2015-01-01

    The axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) has remained an important model for regeneration and developmental biology for over a century. Although axolotls in captive-bred colonies usually exist in an aquatic form, they retain the ability to undergo metamorphosis following exposure to thyroid hormone. Here we present a robust method for inducing metamorphosis in adult axolotls that results in high survivability and produces terrestrial animals that can be maintained in long-term captivity. PMID:25740483

  16. Aedes aegypti midgut remodeling during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Kenner Morais; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Serrão, José Eduardo; Martins, Gustavo Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    The Aedes aegypti midgut is restructured during metamorphosis; its epithelium is renewed by replacing the digestive and endocrine cells through stem or regenerative cell differentiation. Shortly after pupation (white pupae) begins, the larval digestive cells are histolized and show signs of degeneration, such as autophagic vacuoles and disintegrating microvilli. Simultaneously, differentiating cells derived from larval stem cells form an electron-dense layer that is visible 24h after pupation begins. Forty-eight hours after pupation onset, the differentiating cells yield an electron-lucent cytoplasm rich in microvilli and organelles. Dividing stem cells were observed in the fourth instar larvae and during the first 24h of pupation, which suggests that stem cells proliferate at the end of the larval period and during pupation. This study discusses various aspects of the changes during midgut remodeling for pupating A. aegypti. PMID:24472855

  17. Global diversity of amphibians (Amphibia) in freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Vences; Jörn Köhler

    2008-01-01

    This article present a review of species numbers, biogeographic patterns and evolutionary trends of amphibians in freshwater.\\u000a Although most amphibians live in freshwater in at least their larval phase, many species have evolved different degrees of\\u000a independence from water including direct terrestrial development and viviparity. Of a total of 5,828 amphibian species considered\\u000a here, 4,117 are aquatic in that they

  18. Global diversity of amphibians (Amphibia) in freshwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Miguel Vences; Jörn Köhler

    This article present a review of species numbers, biogeographic patterns and evolutionary trends of amphibians in freshwater.\\u000a Although most amphibians live in freshwater in at least their larval phase, many species have evolved different degrees of\\u000a independence from water including direct terrestrial development and viviparity. Of a total of 5,828 amphibian species considered\\u000a here, 4,117 are aquatic in that they

  19. Do hormone-modulating chemicals impact on reproduction and development of wild amphibians?

    PubMed

    Orton, Frances; Tyler, Charles R

    2014-10-22

    Globally, amphibians are undergoing a precipitous decline. At the last estimate in 2004, 32% of the approximately 6000 species were threatened with extinction and 43% were experiencing significant declines. These declines have been linked with a wide range of environmental pressures from habitat loss to climate change, disease and pollution. This review evaluates the evidence that endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) - pollutants that affect hormone systems - are impacting on wild amphibians and contributing to population declines. The review is limited to anurans (frogs and toads) as data for effects of EDCs on wild urodeles (salamanders, newts) or caecilians (limbless amphibians) are extremely limited. Evidence from laboratory studies has shown that a wide range of chemicals have the ability to alter hormone systems and affect reproductive development and function in anurans, but for the most part only at concentrations exceeding those normally found in natural environments. Exceptions can be found for exposures to the herbicide atrazine and polychlorinated biphenyls in leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) and perchlorate in African clawed frogs (Xenopus laevis). These contaminants induce feminising effects on the male gonads (including 'intersex' - oocytes within testes) at concentrations measured in some aquatic environments. The most extensive data for effects of an EDC in wild amphibian populations are for feminising effects of atrazine on male gonad development in regions across the USA. Even where strong evidence has been provided for feminising effects of EDCs, however, the possible impact of these effects on fertility and breeding outcome has not been established, making inference for effects on populations difficult. Laboratory studies have shown that various chemicals, including perchlorate, polychlorinated biphenyls and bromodiphenylethers, also act as endocrine disrupters through interfering with thyroid-dependent processes that are fundamental for amphibian metamorphosis. Perchlorate has also been shown to induce these effects in wild anuran populations from perchlorate-contaminated environments. Overall, the published data available suggest that some health effects observed in wild anuran populations, most notably intersex, likely have a chemical aetiology; however they derive only from very few anuran species and for a few pesticides at field sites in the USA. To understand better the impacts of EDCs on wild anuran populations, as well as other amphibian groups, assessment of fertility in exposed animals are required. Development of non-destructive biomarkers that are indicative of specific EDC-effect mechanisms are also needed to allow the study of vulnerable populations. This will help to distinguish the effects of EDCs from other environmental and/or genetic influences on development and reproduction. PMID:25335651

  20. Impending conservation crisis for Southeast Asian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Rowley, Jodi; Brown, Rafe; Bain, Raoul; Kusrini, Mirza; Inger, Robert; Stuart, Bryan; Wogan, Guin; Thy, Neang; Chan-ard, Tanya; Trung, Cao Tien; Diesmos, Arvin; Iskandar, Djoko T.; Lau, Michael; Ming, Leong Tzi; Makchai, Sunchai; Truong, Nguyen Quang; Phimmachak, Somphouthone

    2010-01-01

    With an understudied amphibian fauna, the highest deforestation rate on the planet and high harvesting pressures, Southeast Asian amphibians are facing a conservation crisis. Owing to the overriding threat of habitat loss, the most critical conservation action required is the identification and strict protection of habitat assessed as having high amphibian species diversity and/or representing distinctive regional amphibian faunas. Long-term population monitoring, enhanced survey efforts, collection of basic biological and ecological information, continued taxonomic research and evaluation of the impact of commercial trade for food, medicine and pets are also needed. Strong involvement of regional stakeholders, students and professionals is essential to accomplish these actions. PMID:20007165

  1. Female sexual arousal in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wilczynski, Walter; Lynch, Kathleen S

    2011-05-01

    Rather than being a static, species specific trait, reproductive behavior in female amphibians is variable within an individual during the breeding season when females are capable of reproductive activity. Changes in receptivity coincide with changes in circulating estrogen. Estrogen is highest at the point when females are ready to choose a male and lay eggs. At this time female receptivity (her probability of responding to a male vocal signal) is highest and her selectivity among conspecific calls (measured by her probability of responding to a degraded or otherwise usually unattractive male signal) is lowest. These changes occur even though females retain the ability to discriminate different acoustic characteristics of various conspecific calls. After releasing her eggs, female amphibians quickly become less receptive and more choosy in terms of their responses to male sexual advertisement signals. Male vocal signals stimulate both behavior and estrogen changes in amphibian females making mating more probable. The changes in female reproductive behavior are the same as those generally accepted as indicative of a change in female sexual arousal leading to copulation. They are situationally triggered, gated by interactions with males, and decline with the consummation of sexual reproduction with a chosen male. The changes can be triggered by either internal physiological state or by the presence of stimuli presented by males, and the same stimuli change both behavior and physiological (endocrine) state in such a way as to make acceptance of a male more likely. Thus amphibian females demonstrate many of the same general characteristics of changing female sexual state that in mammals indicate sexual arousal. PMID:20816968

  2. Effects of amphibian chytrid fungus exposure on American toads in the presence of an insecticide.

    PubMed

    Wise, Rayona S; Rumschlag, Samantha L; Boone, Michelle D

    2014-11-01

    Abiotic factors such as pesticides may alter the impact of a pathogen on hosts, which could have implications for host-pathogen interactions and may explain variation in disease outbreaks in nature. In the present laboratory experiment, American toad (Anaxyrus americanus) metamorphs were exposed to the amphibian chytrid fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and environmentally relevant concentrations of the insecticide malathion to determine whether malathion altered the effects of Bd exposure on growth and survival of toad metamorphs. Exposure to Bd significantly decreased survival over the 51 d of the experiment, suggesting that Bd could reduce recruitment into the terrestrial life stage when exposure occurs at metamorphosis. Malathion did not impact survival, but a 12-h exposure at metamorphosis significantly reduced terrestrial growth. Toads that were exposed to both Bd and malathion showed a nonsignificant trend toward the smallest growth compared with other treatments. The present study suggests that Bd may pose a threat to American toads even though population declines have not been observed for this species; in addition, the presence of both the insecticide malathion and Bd could reduce terrestrial growth, which could have implications for lifetime fitness and suggests that environmental factors could play a role in pathogen impacts in nature. PMID:25099070

  3. Induction of Larval Metamorphosis of the Coral Acropora millepora by Tetrabromopyrrole Isolated from a Pseudoalteromonas Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Tebben, Jan; Tapiolas, Dianne M.; Motti, Cherie A.; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P.; Blackall, Linda L.; Steinberg, Peter D.; Harder, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    The induction of larval attachment and metamorphosis of benthic marine invertebrates is widely considered to rely on habitat specific cues. While microbial biofilms on marine hard substrates have received considerable attention as specific signals for a wide and phylogenetically diverse array of marine invertebrates, the presumed chemical settlement signals produced by the bacteria have to date not been characterized. Here we isolated and fully characterized the first chemical signal from bacteria that induced larval metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae (Acropora millepora). The metamorphic cue was identified as tetrabromopyrrole (TBP) in four bacterial Pseudoalteromonas strains among a culture library of 225 isolates obtained from the crustose coralline algae Neogoniolithon fosliei and Hydrolithon onkodes. Coral planulae transformed into fully developed polyps within 6 h, but only a small proportion of these polyps attached to the substratum. The biofilm cell density of the four bacterial strains had no influence on the ratio of attached vs. non-attached polyps. Larval bioassays with ethanolic extracts of the bacterial isolates, as well as synthetic TBP resulted in consistent responses of coral planulae to various doses of TBP. The lowest bacterial density of one of the Pseudoalteromonas strains which induced metamorphosis was 7,000 cells mm?2 in laboratory assays, which is on the order of 0.1 –1% of the total numbers of bacteria typically found on such surfaces. These results, in which an actual cue from bacteria has been characterized for the first time, contribute significantly towards understanding the complex process of acroporid coral larval settlement mediated through epibiotic microbial biofilms on crustose coralline algae. PMID:21559509

  4. Induction of larval metamorphosis of the coral Acropora millepora by tetrabromopyrrole isolated from a Pseudoalteromonas bacterium.

    PubMed

    Tebben, Jan; Tapiolas, Dianne M; Motti, Cherie A; Abrego, David; Negri, Andrew P; Blackall, Linda L; Steinberg, Peter D; Harder, Tilmann

    2011-01-01

    The induction of larval attachment and metamorphosis of benthic marine invertebrates is widely considered to rely on habitat specific cues. While microbial biofilms on marine hard substrates have received considerable attention as specific signals for a wide and phylogenetically diverse array of marine invertebrates, the presumed chemical settlement signals produced by the bacteria have to date not been characterized. Here we isolated and fully characterized the first chemical signal from bacteria that induced larval metamorphosis of acroporid coral larvae (Acropora millepora). The metamorphic cue was identified as tetrabromopyrrole (TBP) in four bacterial Pseudoalteromonas strains among a culture library of 225 isolates obtained from the crustose coralline algae Neogoniolithon fosliei and Hydrolithon onkodes. Coral planulae transformed into fully developed polyps within 6 h, but only a small proportion of these polyps attached to the substratum. The biofilm cell density of the four bacterial strains had no influence on the ratio of attached vs. non-attached polyps. Larval bioassays with ethanolic extracts of the bacterial isolates, as well as synthetic TBP resulted in consistent responses of coral planulae to various doses of TBP. The lowest bacterial density of one of the Pseudoalteromonas strains which induced metamorphosis was 7,000 cells mm(-2) in laboratory assays, which is on the order of 0.1-1% of the total numbers of bacteria typically found on such surfaces. These results, in which an actual cue from bacteria has been characterized for the first time, contribute significantly towards understanding the complex process of acroporid coral larval settlement mediated through epibiotic microbial biofilms on crustose coralline algae. PMID:21559509

  5. Toxicity of five antidepressant drugs on embryo-larval development and metamorphosis success in the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Di Poi, C; Evariste, L; Serpentini, A; Halm-Lemeille, M P; Lebel, J M; Costil, K

    2014-12-01

    Unlike conventional pollutants, pharmaceutical residues are continuously discharged at low levels (low to mid ng l(-1) concentrations), which results in the chronic contamination of non-target organisms, but little is known about the effects of these residues. The purpose of this study was to provide the first assessment of the ecotoxicity of five antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors [SSRIs] fluoxetine and sertraline, tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs] clomipramine and amitriptyline, and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor [SNRI] duloxetine) at a wide range of concentrations from 0.1 to 100,000 ?g l(-1) on two early life stages in the Pacific oyster. The toxicity was quantified in D-shaped larvae after 36 h of exposure, and in 21-day-old pediveliger larvae after 24 h of exposure using the percentage of normal larval development and the metamorphosis rate as endpoints, respectively. The embryotoxicity assays reported that the EC50 values were within the same range of concentrations (67 to 192 ?g l(-1)) for all of the tested molecules. The metamorphosis tests revealed that the antidepressants can be ranked along an increasing severity gradient: clomipramine < amitriptyline < duloxetine ~ fluoxetine. Sertraline appeared to be the less toxic molecule on this endpoint; however, a different concentration range was used. The embryotoxicity test was more sensitive than the metamorphosis bioassay for three of the five molecules tested, but the latter test showed more practical benefits. Overall, the obtained toxicity values were at least 10,000-fold higher than the reported environmental concentrations. PMID:24122267

  6. Anti-infection Peptidomics of Amphibian Skin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxu Li; Xueqing Xu; Chunhua Xu; Weiping Zhou; Keyun Zhang; Haining Yu; Yaping Zhang; Yongtang Zheng; Huw H. Rees; Ren Lai; Dongming Yang; J. Wu

    2007-01-01

    Peptidomics and genomics analyses were used to study an anti-infection array of peptides of amphibian skin. 372 cDNA sequences of antimicrobial peptides were charac- terized from a single individual skin of the frog Odorrana grahami that encode 107 novel antimicrobial peptides. This contribution almost triples the number of currently reported amphibian antimicrobial peptides. The peptides could be organized into 30

  7. Fire and amphibians in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pilliod, D.S.; Bury, R.B.; Hyde, E.J.; Pearl, C.A.; Corn, P.S.

    2003-01-01

    Information on amphibian responses to fire and fuel reduction practices is critically needed due to potential declines of species and the prevalence of new, more intensive fire management practices in North American forests. The goals of this review are to summarize the known and potential effects of fire and fuels management on amphibians and their aquatic habitats, and to identify information gaps to help direct future scientific research. Amphibians as a group are taxonomically and ecologically diverse; in turn, responses to fire and associated habitat alteration are expected to vary widely among species and among geographic regions. Available data suggest that amphibian responses to fire are spatially and temporally variable and incompletely understood. Much of the limited research has addressed short-term (1-3 years) effects of prescribed fire on terrestrial life stages of amphibians in the southeastern United States. Information on the long-term negative effects of fire on amphibians and the importance of fire for maintaining amphibian communities is sparse for the majority of taxa in North America. Given the size and severity of recent wildland fires and the national effort to reduce fuels on federal lands, future studies are needed to examine the effects of these landscape disturbances on amphibians. We encourage studies to address population-level responses of amphibians to fire by examining how different life stages are affected by changes in aquatic, riparian, and upland habitats. Research designs need to be credible and provide information that is relevant for fire managers and those responsible for assessing the potential effects of various fuel reduction alternatives on rare, sensitive, and endangered amphibian species. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. First Evidence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Hong Kong Amphibian Trade

    PubMed Central

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Berger, Lee; Karesh, William B; Preston, Asa; Pessier, Allan P.; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2014-01-01

    The emerging infectious amphibian diseases caused by amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranaviruses are responsible for global amphibian population declines and extinctions. Although likely to have been spread by a variety of activities, transcontinental dispersal appears closely associated with the international trade in live amphibians. The territory of Hong Kong reports frequent, high volume trade in amphibians, and yet the presence of Bd and ranavirus have not previously been detected in either traded or free-ranging amphibians. In 2012, a prospective surveillance project was conducted to investigate the presence of these pathogens in commercial shipments of live amphibians exported from Hong Kong International Airport. Analysis of skin (Bd) and cloacal (ranavirus) swabs by quantitative PCR detected pathogen presence in 31/265 (11.7%) and in 105/185 (56.8%) of amphibians, respectively. In addition, the water in which animals were transported tested positive for Bd, demonstrating the risk of pathogen pollution by the disposal of untreated wastewater. It is uncertain whether Bd and ranavirus remain contained within Hong Kong’s trade sector, or if native amphibians have already been exposed. Rapid response efforts are now urgently needed to determine current pathogen distribution in Hong Kong, evaluate potential trade-associated exposure to free-ranging amphibians, and identify opportunities to prevent disease establishment. PMID:24599268

  9. Sperm storage in caecilian amphibians

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Female sperm storage has evolved independently multiple times among vertebrates to control reproduction in response to the environment. In internally fertilising amphibians, female salamanders store sperm in cloacal spermathecae, whereas among anurans sperm storage in oviducts is known only in tailed frogs. Facilitated through extensive field sampling following historical observations we tested for sperm storing structures in the female urogenital tract of fossorial, tropical caecilian amphibians. Findings In the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis, aggregated sperm were present in a distinct region of the posterior oviduct but not in the cloaca in six out of seven vitellogenic females prior to oviposition. Spermatozoa were found most abundantly between the mucosal folds. In relation to the reproductive status decreased amounts of sperm were present in gravid females compared to pre-ovulatory females. Sperm were absent in females past oviposition. Conclusions Our findings indicate short-term oviductal sperm storage in the oviparous Ichthyophis cf. kohtaoensis. We assume that in female caecilians exhibiting high levels of parental investment sperm storage has evolved in order to optimally coordinate reproductive events and to increase fitness. PMID:22672478

  10. Leaping forward in amphibian health and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Olea-Popelka, Francisco; Ferrie, Gina M; Morris, Cheryl; Pessier, Allan P; Schad, Kristine; Stamper, M Andrew; Gagliardo, Ron; Koutsos, Elizabeth; Valdes, Eduardo V

    2014-01-01

    The Epidemiology Working Group, a subgroup of the participants of the Disney's Animal Kingdom Workshop on "Ex situ Amphibian Medicine and Nutrition," identified a critical need to design and implement approaches that will facilitate the assessment and evaluation of factors impacting amphibian health. In this manuscript, we describe and summarize the outcomes of this workshop with regards (a) the identified gaps in knowledge, (b) identified priorities for closing these gaps, and (c) compile a list of actions to address these priorities. Four general areas of improvement were identified in relation to how measurements are currently being taken to evaluate ex situ amphibian health: nutrition, infectious diseases, husbandry, and integrated biology including genetics and endocrinology. The proposed actions that will be taken in order to address the identified gaps include: (1) identify and quantify major health issues affecting ex situ amphibian populations, (2) identify and coordinate laboratories to conduct analyses using standardized and validated protocols to measure nutritional, infectious diseases, genetic, and hormonal parameters, (3) determine in situ baseline distribution of parameters related to amphibian health, and (4) establish an inter-disciplinary research approach to target specific hypotheses related to amphibian health such as the effects of population genetics (e.g., relatedness, inbreeding) on disease susceptibility, or how environmental parameters are related to chronic stress and hormone production. We think is important to address current gaps in knowledge regarding amphibian health in order to increase the probability to succeed in addressing the issues faced by in situ and ex situ amphibians populations. We are confident that the recommendations provided in this manuscript will facilitate to address these challenges and could have a positive impact in both the health of in situ and ex situ amphibian populations, worldwide. PMID:25279727

  11. [Perspective on gravitational biology of amphibians].

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Masamichi; Naitoh, Tomio; Wassersug, Richard J

    2002-12-01

    We review here the scientific significance of the use of amphibians for research in gravitational biology. Since amphibian eggs are quite large, yet develop rapidly and externally, it is easy to observe their development. Consequently amphibians were the first vertebrates to have their early developmental processes investigated in space. Though several deviations from normal embryonic development occur when amphibians are raised in microgravity, their developmental program is robust enough to return the organisms to an ostensibly normal morphology by the time they hatch. Evolutionally, amphibians were the first vertebrate animal to come out of the water and onto land. Subsequently they diversified and have adaptively radiated to various habitats. They now inhabit aquatic, terrestrial, arboreal and fossorial niches. This diversity can be used to help study the biological effects of gravity at the organismal level, where macroscopic phenomena are associated with gravitational loading. By choosing different amphibian models and using a comparative approach one can effectively identify the action of gravity on biological systems, and the adaptation that vertebrates have made to this loading. Advances in cellular and molecular biology provide powerful tools for the study in many fields, including gravitational biology, and amphibians have proven to be good models for studies at those levels as well. The low metabolic rates of amphibians make them convenient organisms to work with (compared to birds and mammals) in the difficult and confined spaces on orbiting research platforms. We include here a review of what is known about and the potential for further behavioral and physiological researches in space using amphibians. PMID:12721528

  12. ARMI National Atlas for Amphibian Distributions

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This site, from The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI), is a compilation of current and historic records of amphibian occurrences. The atlas is organized taxonomically. There are separate sections for frogs and toads, and salamanders and newts. The location of each species is mapped separately. The ARMI Atlas is meant to be an educational tool for people wanting to learn or teach others about amphibians. It can also serve as a reference for habitat managers and researchers, identifying areas where more research is needed, as well as providing information about research that has previously been done.

  13. Cardiovascular physiology and diseases of amphibians.

    PubMed

    Heinz-Taheny, Kathleen M

    2009-01-01

    The class Amphibia includes three orders of amphibians: the anurans (frogs and toads), urodeles (salamanders, axolotls, and newts), and caecilians. The diversity of lifestyles across these three orders has accompanying differences in the cardiovascular anatomy and physiology allowing for adaptations to aquatic or terrestrial habitats, pulmonic or gill respiration, hibernation, and body elongation (in the caecilian). This article provides a review of amphibian cardiovascular anatomy and physiology with discussion of unique species adaptations. In addition, amphibians as cardiovascular animal models and commonly encountered natural diseases are covered. PMID:19131029

  14. Phylogenetic distribution of symbiotic bacteria from Panamanian amphibians that inhibit growth of the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis.

    PubMed

    Becker, Matthew H; Walke, Jenifer B; Murrill, Lindsey; Woodhams, Douglas C; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Burzynski, Elizabeth A; Umile, Thomas P; Minbiole, Kevin P C; Belden, Lisa K

    2015-04-01

    The introduction of next-generation sequencing has allowed for greater understanding of community composition of symbiotic microbial communities. However, determining the function of individual members of these microbial communities still largely relies on culture-based methods. Here, we present results on the phylogenetic distribution of a defensive functional trait of cultured symbiotic bacteria associated with amphibians. Amphibians are host to a diverse community of cutaneous bacteria and some of these bacteria protect their host from the lethal fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) by secreting antifungal metabolites. We cultured over 450 bacterial isolates from the skins of Panamanian amphibian species and tested their interactions with Bd using an in vitro challenge assay. For a subset of isolates, we also completed coculture experiments and found that culturing isolates with Bd had no effect on inhibitory properties of the bacteria, but it significantly decreased metabolite secretion. In challenge assays, approximately 75% of the bacterial isolates inhibited Bd to some extent and these inhibitory isolates were widely distributed among all bacterial phyla. Although there was no clear phylogenetic signal of inhibition, three genera, Stenotrophomonas, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas, had a high proportion of inhibitory isolates (100%, 77% and 73%, respectively). Overall, our results demonstrate that antifungal properties are phylogenetically widespread in symbiotic microbial communities of Panamanian amphibians and that some functional redundancy for fungal inhibition occurs in these communities. We hope that these findings contribute to the discovery and development of probiotics for amphibians that can mitigate the threat of chytridiomycosis. PMID:25737297

  15. Neuroendocrine-immune system interactions in amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Louise A. Rollins-Smith

    2001-01-01

    Amphibians are ancient creatures valued by biologists and naturalists around the world. They share with all other vertebrates\\u000a a complex neuroendocrine system that enables them to flourish in a variety of aquatic and semiaquatic environments. Studies\\u000a from a number of laboratorie shave demonstrated that the immune system of amphibian species is nearly as complex as that of\\u000a mammals. Yet for

  16. Metamorphosis of behavior in the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana).

    PubMed

    Stehouwer, D J

    1988-05-01

    This study describes the development of different spontaneous and elicited behaviors of frogs and their relationship to morphological, physiological, and ecological changes of metamorphosis. Tadpoles were studied at all stages of development from Stage XVIII, the onset of metamorphosis, to Stage XXV, when metamorphosis of the froglets is complete. Behaviors examined included development of forelimb postural support, postural responses to vestibular stimulation, the hindlimb withdrawal reflex, the corneal reflex, ocular mobility, and habitat preference. Results showed that these behaviors differ markedly in their timing and rate of maturation. Forelimb postural support and postural responses to vestibular stimulation improved gradually between Stages XX and XXV. In contrast, the threshold of the hindlimb withdrawal reflex remained essentially unchanged until Stage XXV, when it increased suddenly and dramatically. The corneal reflex appeared suddenly at Stage XXI with a threshold similar to that of juvenile frogs. The ability to move the eyes in response to visual or vestibular stimulation was pronounced in tadpoles, but gradually declined between Stage XVIII and Stage XXV, so that froglets showed almost no ocular mobility. The preference of metamorphosing frogs for deep water, shallow water, shoreline, or land were examined in an aquarium during a 24-hr observation period using time-lapse videotape recordings. Results showed that tadpoles spent progressively less time in deep water and shallow water as metamorphosis proceeded. Preference for land emerged suddenly at Stage XXII and remained high thereafter. There were no stage-related differences in preferences for the shoreline. PMID:3259939

  17. Elemental concentration in mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor L.) during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Simon, Edina; Baranyai, Edina; Braun, Mihály; Fábián, István; Tóthmérész, Béla

    2013-07-01

    Mealworm beetles have been used in numerous experiments as bioindicators. The aim of our experiment was to study the elemental composition in three larvae, pupae and first and second generation adult stages during their life cycle. We selected 180 larvae from a genetically similar population and put them in three groups, in two boxes (60 larvae in each box). Larvae were fed with mashed potato made of the same quality and quantity of potato powder. Then, we selected 10 individuals from each stage to the elemental analysis, using the ICP-OES method. The following elements were analysed in the studied stages: Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, S, Sr and Zn. The results of principal component analysis demonstrated that based on elemental composition, different stages were separated with each other, but in the cases of the three larvae stages, high overlap was found. The results of the GLM ANOVA showed significant differences between the different stages of metamorphosis-based elemental composition. Our results show that the calcium and magnesium were found in a relatively high concentration, while the iron and zinc may be essential elements during the metamorphosis. Our results also show that in insect, the concentration of sodium was higher than in the pupa which may cause by hemolymph. We also demonstrated that the metamorphosis has an effect on the concentration of elements. Our study shows that in the different stages of insects, there are significant changes in the elemental composition of different stages of insects during their metamorphosis. PMID:23695727

  18. Thyroid hormones promote early metamorphosis in grouper (Epinephelus coioides) larvae.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, E G; Toledo, J D; Simpas, M S

    1998-10-01

    The response of grouper larvae to the thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), was examined. Two-, 3-, and 4-week-old grouper larvae were reared in seawater containing either T4 or T3 at 0.01, 0.1, and 1 ppm. T4 or T3 induced metamorphosis in all age groups in a dose-dependent manner. Regardless of the size of the larvae, metamorphosis was completed in 2 days in larvae treated with 1 ppm of either T4 or T3; 3-4 days in larvae exposed to 0.1 ppm; and 5-6 days in larvae immersed in 0.01 ppm. None of the fish in the control group completed metamorphosis during this period. Compared with the control fish, survival rates were higher in groups exposed to 0.01 ppm and lower in those exposed to 1 ppm of T3. In 4-week-old larvae, T4 treatment (0.01 to 1.0 ppm) resulted in higher survival compared to the control. These results suggest that a dose of 0.01 ppm is appropriate for acceleration of metamorphosis and improvement of survival in 3- and 4-week-old grouper larvae. A lower dose may be apropriate for earlier stages. PMID:9748398

  19. Dynamic mechanical oscillations during metamorphosis of the monarch butterfly.

    PubMed

    Pelling, Andrew E; Wilkinson, Paul R; Stringer, Richard; Gimzewski, James K

    2009-01-01

    The mechanical oscillation of the heart is fundamental during insect metamorphosis, but it is unclear how morphological changes affect its mechanical dynamics. Here, the micromechanical heartbeat with the monarch chrysalis (Danaus plexippus) during metamorphosis is compared with the structural changes observed through in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We employ a novel ultra-sensitive detection approach, optical beam deflection, in order to measure the microscale motions of the pupae during the course of metamorphosis. We observed very distinct mechanical contractions occurring at regular intervals, which we ascribe to the mechanical function of the heart organ. Motion was observed to occur in approximately 15 min bursts of activity with frequencies in the 0.4-1.0 Hz range separated by periods of quiescence during the first 83 per cent of development. In the final stages, the beating was found to be uninterrupted until the adult monarch butterfly emerged. Distinct stages of development were characterized by changes in frequency, amplitude, mechanical quality factor and de/repolarization times of the mechanical pulsing. The MRI revealed that the heart organ remains functionally intact throughout metamorphosis but undergoes morphological changes that are reflected in the mechanical oscillation. PMID:18682363

  20. Remodeling the exocrine pancreas at metamorphosis in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Mukhi, Sandeep; Mao, Jinzhe; Brown, Donald D.

    2008-01-01

    At metamorphosis the Xenopus laevis tadpole exocrine pancreas remodels in two stages. At the climax of metamorphosis thyroid hormone (TH) induces dedifferentiation of the entire exocrine pancreas to a progenitor state. The organ shrinks to 20% of its size, and ?40% of its cells die. The acinar cells lose their zymogen granules and ?75% of their RNA. The mRNAs that encode exocrine-specific proteins (including the transcription factor Ptf1a) undergo almost complete extinction at climax, whereas PDX-1, Notch-1, and Hes-1, genes implicated in differentiation of the progenitor cells, are activated. At the end of spontaneous metamorphosis when the endogenous TH has reached a low level, the pancreas begins to redifferentiate. Exogenous TH induces the dedifferentiation phase but not the redifferentation phase. The tadpole pancreas lacks the mature ductal system that is found in adult vertebrate pancreases, including the frog. Exocrine pancreases of transgenic tadpoles expressing a dominant negative form of the TH receptor controlled by the elastase promoter are resistant to TH. They do not shrink when subjected to TH. Their acinar cells do not dedifferentiate at climax, nor do they down-regulate exocrine-specific genes or activate Notch-1 and Hes-1. Even 2 months after metamorphosis these frogs have not developed a mature ductal system and the acinar cells are abnormally arranged. The TH-dependent dedifferentiation of the tadpole acinar cells at climax is a necessary step in the formation of a mature frog pancreas. PMID:18574144

  1. Interior Modelling and Object Metamorphosis with Parametric Solids

    E-print Network

    Durikovic, Roman

    Interior Modelling and Object Metamorphosis with Parametric Solids Roman Durikovic and Silvester concepts of multivariate parametric solids, their description by a B-spline basis functions are discussed. Parametric solids can model both the shape and unisotropic interior. Three types of para- metric solids i

  2. A new isotype of immunoglobulin heavy chain in the urodele amphibian Pleurodeles waltl predominantly expressed in larvae.

    PubMed

    Schaerlinger, Bérénice; Bascove, Matthieu; Frippiat, Jean-Pol

    2008-02-01

    Up to now, it was thought that urodele amphibians possessed only two IgH isotypes, IgM (mu) and IgY (upsilon). By screening a Pleurodeles waltl Ig cDNA mini-library, we identified three isotypes: IgM, IgY and a previously unknown class. IgM are multimeric molecules and represent the most abundant isotype throughout the life of P. waltl. IgY are likely the counterpart of mammalian IgA. The new isotype has typical Ig H-chain characteristics and is expressed as both secretory and membrane forms. Our analyses indicate that this isotype is restricted to Pleurodeles. Consequently, we named it "IgP" (pi) for Pleurodeles. This isotype is mainly expressed after hatching. Its expression decreases after metamorphosis. Our data indicate that IgP-expressing B cells present some similarities with mammalian B1-cells. PMID:17681605

  3. Widespread occurrence of the amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the southeastern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rothermel, B.B.; Walls, S.C.; Mitchell, J.C.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.; Irwin, L.K.; Green, D.E.; Vazquez, V.M.; Petranka, J.W.; Stevenson, D.J.

    2008-01-01

    From 1999 to 2006, we sampled >1200 amphibians for the fungal pathogen Batrachochytnum dendrobatidis (Bd) at 30 sites in the southeastern USA. Using histological techniques or PCR assays, we detected chytrid infection in 10 species of aquatic-breeding amphibians in 6 states. The prevalence of chytrid infection was 17.8% for samples of postmetamorphic amphibians examined using skin swab-PCR assays (n = 202 samples from 12 species at 4 sites). In this subset of samples, anurans had a much higher prevalence of infection than caudates (39.2% vs. 5.5%, respectively). Mean prevalence in ranid frogs was 40.7 %. The only infected salamanders were Notophthalmus viridescens at 3 sites. We found infected amphibians from late winter through late spring and in 1 autumn sample. Although we encountered moribund or dead amphibians at 9 sites, most mortality events were not attributed to Bd. Chytridiomycosis was established as the probable cause of illness or death in fewer than 10 individuals. Our observations suggest a pattern of widespread and subclinical infections. However, because most of the sites in our study were visited only once, we cannot dismiss the possibility that chytridiomycosis is adversely affecting some populations. Furthermore, although there is no evidence of chytrid-associated declines in our region, the presence of this pathogen is cause for concern given global climate change and other stressors. Although presence-absence surveys may still be needed for some taxa, such as bufonids, we recommend that future researchers focus on potential population-level effects at sites where Bd is now known to occur. ?? Inter-Research 2008.

  4. Homeodomain POU and Abd-A proteins regulate the transcription of pupal genes during metamorphosis of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Deng, Huimin; Zhang, Jialing; Li, Yong; Zheng, Sichun; Liu, Lin; Huang, Lihua; Xu, Wei-Hua; Palli, Subba R; Feng, Qili

    2012-07-31

    A cascade of 20-hydroxyecdysone-mediated gene expression and repression initiates larva-to-pupa metamorphosis. We recently showed that two transcription factors, BmPOUM2 and Bm?FTZ-F1, bind to the cis-regulatory elements in the promoter of the gene coding for cuticle protein, BmWCP4, and regulate its expression during Bombyx mori metamorphosis. Here we show that down-regulation of BmPOUM2 expression by RNA interference during the wandering stage resulted in failure to complete metamorphosis. The thorax epidermis of RNA interference-treated larvae became transparent, wing disc growth and differentiation were arrested, and the larvae failed to spin cocoons. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that expression of the genes coding for pupal-specific wing cuticle proteins BmWCP1, BmWCP2, BmWCP3, BmWCP4, BmWCP5, BmWCP6, BmWCP8, and BmWCP9 were down-regulated in BmPOUM2 dsRNA-treated animals, whereas overexpression of BmPOUM2 protein increased the expression of BmWCP4, BmWCP5, BmWCP6, BmWCP7, and BmWCP8. Pull-down assays, far-Western blot, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed that the BmPOUM2 protein interacted with another homeodomain transcription factor, BmAbd-A, to induce the expression of BmWCP4. Immunohistochemical localization of BmPOUM2, BmAbd-A, and BmWCP4 proteins revealed that BmAbd-A and BmPOUM2 proteins are colocalized in the wing disc cell nuclei, whereas BmWCP4 protein is localized in the cytoplasm. Together these data suggest that BmPOUM2 interacts with the homeodomain transcription factor BmAbd-A and regulates the expression of BmWCP4 and probably other BmWCPs to complete the larva-to-pupa transformation. Although homeodomain proteins are known to regulate embryonic development, this study showed that these proteins also regulate metamorphosis. PMID:22802616

  5. Heterochrony in a complex world: disentangling environmental processes of facultative paedomorphosis in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Denoël, Mathieu; Ficetola, Gentile F

    2014-05-01

    Heterochrony, the change in the rate or timing of development between ancestors and their descendants, plays a major role in evolution. When heterochrony produces polymorphisms, it offers the possibility to test hypotheses that could explain its success across environments. Amphibians are particularly suitable to exploring these questions because they express complex life cycles (i.e. metamorphosis) that have been disrupted by heterochronic processes (paedomorphosis: retention of larval traits in adults). The large phenotypic variation across populations suggests that more complex processes than expected are operating, but they remain to be investigated through multivariate analyses over a large range of natural populations across time. In this study, we compared the likelihood of multiple potential environmental determinants of heterochrony. We gathered data on the proportion of paedomorphic and metamorphic palmate newts (Lissotriton helveticus) across more than 150 populations during 10 years and used an information-theoretic approach to compare the support of multiple potential processes. Six environmental processes jointly explained the proportion of paedomorphs in populations: predation, water availability, dispersal limitation, aquatic breathing, terrestrial habitat suitability and antipredator refuges. Analyses of variation across space and time supported models based on the advantage of paedomorphosis in favourable aquatic habitats. Paedomorphs were favoured in deep ponds, in conditions favourable to aquatic breathing (high oxygen content), with lack of fish and surrounded by suitable terrestrial habitat. Metamorphs were favoured by banks allowing easy dispersal. These results indicate that heterochrony relies on complex processes involving multiple ecological variables and exemplifies why heterochronic patterns occur in contrasted environments. On the other hand, the fast selection of alternative morphs shows that metamorphosis and paedomorphosis developmental modes could be easily disrupted in natural populations. PMID:24180255

  6. Estimating terrestrial amphibian pesticide body burden through dermal exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dermal exposure presents a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticide uptake in terrestrial amphibians. Our study measured dermal uptake of pesticides of varying hydrophobicity (logKow) in frogs. Amphibians were indirectly exposed to one of five pesticide active...

  7. ESTIMATING AMPHIBIAN OCCUPANCY RATES IN PONDS UNDER COMPLEX SURVEY DESIGNS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Monitoring the occurrence of specific amphibian species in ponds is one component of the US Geological Survey's Amphibian Monitoring and Research Initiative. Two collaborative studies were conducted in Olympic National Park and southeastern region of Oregon. The number of ponds...

  8. Conservation and distribution status of amphibian fauna in Sri Lanka

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thilina D. Surasinghe

    2009-01-01

    Sri Lanka has an exceptionally rich amphibian biodiversity with high endemism. This paper describes 106 amphibian species, the majority confined to rainforests and many threatened with extinction. The key factors causing amphibian decline in Sri Lanka are of anthropogenic origins; habitat destruction and fragmentation, alien invasive species, wildlife diseases\\/pathogens, climate change and environmental pollution. Only 750 km2 of Sri Lanka

  9. Environmental and historical constraints on global patterns of amphibian richness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lauren B. Buckley; Walter Jetz

    2007-01-01

    Our knowledge of the broad-scale ecology of vertebrate ectotherms remains very limited. Despite ongoing declines and sensitivity to environmental change, amphibian distributions are particularly poorly understood. We present a global analysis of contemporary environmental and historical constraints on amphibian richness, the first for an ectotherm clade at this scale. Amphibians are presumed to experience environmental constraints distinct from those of

  10. Widespread Occurrence of Ranavirus in Pond-Breeding Amphibian Populations

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    populations, yet their distribution in amphibian communities and the association of infection with possible practices that reduce the water quality of amphibian breeding habitats (e.g., cattle access to wetlands of data regarding the distribution of ranaviruses in wild amphibian populations has come from sites

  11. Herpetological Review 43(2), 2012 AMPHIBIAN DISEASES 293

    E-print Network

    Gray, Matthew

    - ian breeding habitats. Diversity and Distributions 13:781­788. ­­­­­, AND ­­­­­. 2008. AltitudinalHerpetological Review 43(2), 2012 AMPHIBIAN DISEASES 293 trade in amphibians and introduced amphibian species. Fungal Biol. Rev. 2:2­9. GARLAND, S., A. BAKER, A. D. PHILLOTT, AND L. F. SKERRATT. 2009

  12. Special Section Projected Climate Impacts for the Amphibians of the

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    their physiological requirements, limited dispersal abilities, and hydrologically sensitive habitats, amphibians used bioclimatic models to project potential climate-driven shifts in the distribution of 413 amphibianSpecial Section Projected Climate Impacts for the Amphibians of the Western Hemisphere JOSHUA J

  13. Amphibian ecology and conservation in the urbanising world: A review

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Hamer; Mark J. McDonnell

    2008-01-01

    Urbanisation currently threatens over one-third of the world’s known amphibian species. The main threats of urbanisation to amphibian populations are habitat loss, habitat fragmentation and isolation, and degradation of habitat quality. A complex array of interacting biotic and abiotic factors impact amphibians in urban and urbanising landscapes. These can lead to a decrease in species richness and the abundance of

  14. Forecasting changes in amphibian biodiversity: aiming at a moving target

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James P. Collins; Tim Halliday

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian population declines and sudden species' extinctions began to be noted at the beginning of the 1980s. Understanding the causes of the losses is hampered by our poor knowledge of the amphibian fauna in many parts of the world. Amphibian taxa are still being described at a high rate, especially in the tropics, which means that even quantifying species lost

  15. Amphibian Population Declines in Latin America: A Synthesis1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Lips; Patricia A. Burrowes; Joseph R. Mendelson; Gabriela Parra-Olea

    2005-01-01

    The loss of global amphibian biodiversity has been well documented in recent years. The greatest information from Latin America came from countries such as Costa Rica, Panama, Ecuador, and Puerto Rico. The five papers in this special section illustrate the critical status of Latin American amphibians and further demonstrate certain commonalities of amphibian population declines within the region. These studies

  16. Time and size at metamorphosis related to adult fitness in Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Scott, D.E.; Pechmann, J.H.K.

    1988-02-01

    The relationships among timing of metamorphosis, size at metamorphosis, and traits related to adult fitness were studied for 8 yr in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum at a temporary pond. Among years, the modal time of metamorphosis and mean body size at metamorphosis were positively correlated with the date the pond dried. In years that the pond dried late, one group of larvae metamorphosed well before the pond dried, whereas the other group metamorphosed just before pond drying. Mean body size of late-metamorphosing individuals was not greater than that of individuals metamorphosing early. Early-metamorphosing males and females were larger at first and second reproduction than were late-metamorphosing individuals. Independent of timing of metamorphosis, larger juveniles at metamorphosis were also larger adults at first reproduction. Age at first reproduction for males was not associated with timing of or size at metamorphosis but large early-metamorphosing females reproduced at a younger age than did small early-metamorphosing females. Neither time of metamorphosis nor size at metamorphosis was associated with survival to first reproduction. These results demonstrate a direct relationship between phenotypic variation generated in the larval stage and adult traits closely associated with an individual's fitness.

  17. Diversity and distribution of amphibians in Romania

    PubMed Central

    Cog?lniceanu, Dan; Székely, Paul; Samoil?, Ciprian; Ruben, Iosif; Tudor, Marian; Pl?ia?u, Rodica; St?nescu, Florina; Rozylowicz, Lauren?iu

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Nineteen species of amphibians inhabit Romania, 9 of which reach their range limit on this territory. Based on published occurrence reports, museum collections and our own data we compiled a national database of amphibian occurrences. We georeferenced 26779 amphibian species occurrences, and performed an analysis of their spatial patterns, checking for hotspots and patterns of species richness. The results of spatial statistic analyses supported the idea of a biased sampling for Romania, with clear hotspots of increased sampling efforts. The sampling effort is biased towards species with high detectability, protected areas, and large cities. Future sampling efforts should be focused mostly on species with a high rarity score in order to accurately map their range. Our results are an important step in achieving the long-term goals of increasing the efficiency of conservation efforts and evaluating the species range shifts under climate change scenarios. PMID:23794877

  18. Microbiota and Mucosal Immunity in Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Bruno M.; Scalvenzi, Thibault; Benlamara, Sarah; Pollet, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    We know that animals live in a world dominated by bacteria. In the last 20?years, we have learned that microbes are essential regulators of mucosal immunity. Bacteria, archeas, and viruses influence different aspects of mucosal development and function. Yet, the literature mainly covers findings obtained in mammals. In this review, we focus on two major themes that emerge from the comparative analysis of mammals and amphibians. These themes concern: (i) the structure and functions of lymphoid organs and immune cells in amphibians, with a focus on the gut mucosal immune system; and (ii) the characteristics of the amphibian microbiota and its influence on mucosal immunity. Lastly, we propose to use Xenopus tadpoles as an alternative small-animal model to improve the fundamental knowledge on immunological functions of gut microbiota. PMID:25821449

  19. Emesis and Space Motion Sickness in Amphibians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naitoh, T.; Yamashita, M.; Izumi-Kurotani, A.; Takabatake, I.; Wassersug, R. J.

    Amphibians possess the ability to vomit in response to a variety of stimuli that provoke emesis in mammals. Pharmacological studies have establish that the ejection of gastric contents and the basic mechanism for vomiting have been phylogenetically conserved among these tetrapods. As part of on-going comparative studies on emesis in vertebrates, we previously documented that some postmetamorphic anurans and salamander larvae experience motion-induced emesis when exposed to the provocative stimulus of parabolic aircraft flight. However, more recent experiments suggest that there are strict conditions for inducing emesis in amphibians exposed to parabolic flight and that amphibians are not as sensitive to this stimulus as mammals. Further studies on emesis in lower vertebrates may help us understand the processes that cause emesis in abnormal gravitational regimes

  20. Neuroendocrine regulation of Drosophila metamorphosis requires TGFbeta/Activin signaling.

    PubMed

    Gibbens, Ying Y; Warren, James T; Gilbert, Lawrence I; O'Connor, Michael B

    2011-07-01

    In insects, initiation of metamorphosis requires a surge in the production of the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone from the prothoracic gland, the primary endocrine organ of juvenile larvae. Here, we show that blocking TGF?/Activin signaling, specifically in the Drosophila prothoracic gland, results in developmental arrest prior to metamorphosis. The terminal, giant third instar larval phenotype results from a failure to induce the large rise in ecdysteroid titer that triggers metamorphosis. We further demonstrate that activin signaling regulates competence of the prothoracic gland to receive PTTH and insulin signals, and that these two pathways act at the mRNA and post-transcriptional levels, respectively, to control ecdysone biosynthetic enzyme expression. This dual regulatory circuitry may provide a cross-check mechanism to ensure that both developmental and nutritional inputs are synchronized before initiating the final genetic program leading to reproductive adult development. As steroid hormone production in C. elegans and mammals is also influenced by TGF?/Activin signaling, this family of secreted factors may play a general role in regulating developmental transitions across phyla. PMID:21613324

  1. Infection by a symbiotic polydnavirus induces wasting and inhibits metamorphosis of the moth Pseudoplusia includens

    PubMed Central

    Pruijssers, A. J.; Falabella, P.; Eum, J. H.; Pennacchio, F.; Brown, M. R.; Strand, M. R.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Insect pathogens and parasites often affect the growth and development of their hosts, but understanding of these processes is fragmentary. Among the most species-rich and important mortality agents of insects are parasitoid wasps that carry symbiotic polydnaviruses (PDVs). Like many PDV-carrying wasps, Microplitis demolitor inhibits growth and pupation of its lepidopteran host, Pseudoplusia includens, by causing host hemolymph juvenile hormone (JH) titers to remain elevated and preventing ecdysteroid titers from rising. Here we report these alterations only occurred if P. includens was parasitized prior to achieving critical weight, and were fully mimicked by infection with only M. demolitor bracovirus (MdBV). Metabolic assays revealed that MdBV infection of pre-critical weight larvae caused a rapid and persistent state of hyperglycemia and reduced nutrient stores. In vitro ecdysteroid assays further indicated that prothoracic glands from larvae infected prior to achieving critical weight remained in a refractory state of ecdysteroid release, whereas infection of post-critical weight larvae had little or no effect on ecdysteroid release by prothoracic glands. Taken together, our results suggest MdBV causes alterations in metabolic physiology, which prevent the host from achieving critical weight. This in turn inhibits the endocrine events that normally trigger metamorphosis. PMID:19717683

  2. Thyroid hormone-dependent repression of ?1-microglobulin\\/bikunin precursor (AMBP) gene expression during amphibian metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Kawahara; Akira Hikosaka; T. Sasado; K. Hirota

    1997-01-01

    A Xenopus AMBP (xAMBP) cDNA clone was isolated from a subtracted liver cDNA library by differential hybridization screening. The deduced\\u000a amino acid sequence shared 50–60% identity with its mammalian counterparts, which are the precursors of the plasma glycoproteins,\\u000a ?1-microglobulin and bikunin. Both peptide structures were well conserved in xAMBP. Northern and in situ hybridization revealed\\u000a that the xAMBP gene was

  3. The amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis detected in a community of stream and wetland amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grant, E.H.C.; Bailey, L.L.; Ware, J.L.; Duncan, K.C.

    2008-01-01

    The amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, responsible for the potentially fatal amphibian disease chytridiomycosis, is known to occur in a large and ever increasing number of amphibian populations around the world. However, sampling has been biased towards stream- and wetland-breeding anurans, with little attention paid to stream-associated salamanders. We sampled three frog and three salamander species in the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historic Park, Maryland, by swabbing animals for PCR analysis to detect DNA of B. dendrobatidis. Using PCR, we detected B. dendrobatidis DNA in both stream and wetland amphibians, and report here the first occurrence of the pathogen in two species of stream-associated salamanders. Future research should focus on mechanisms within habitats that may affect persistence and dissemination of B. dendrobatidis among stream-associated salamanders.

  4. Helping Your Local Amphibians (HYLA): An Internet-based Amphibian Course for Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Tony P.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces an online zoology course that was offered primarily to upper elementary and middle school teachers in which teachers were expected to take action to help the local amphibian population. (Author/YDS)

  5. Soak It Up: Understanding Amphibian Permeability

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Association of Zoos and Aquariums

    2009-01-01

    In this activity, learners will discover how the thin layers of amphibians' skin allow water and other chemicals to pass through it. Learners will also discover how different body coverings affect permeability. Learn why and how this affects their body, and what you can do to protect them in the wild. Thin skin is in, dirty environments are not!

  6. Design Considerationsfor the Study of Amphibians, Rep-

    E-print Network

    Design Considerationsfor the Study of Amphibians, Rep- tiles, and Small Mammals in California's Oak1987). Unfortunately, little is known of the distributions and ecologiesof many of the vertebrates baseline infor- mation on distributionsand habitat associations of theseanimals, and then to use these data

  7. Culture of Cells from Amphibian Embryos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanisstreet, Martin

    1983-01-01

    Describes a method for in vitro culturing of cells from amphibian early embryos. Such cells can be used to demonstrate such properties of eukaryote cells as cell motility, adhesion, differentiation, and cell sorting into tissues. The technique may be extended to investigate other factors. (Author/JN)

  8. Universal COI primers for DNA barcoding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Che, Jing; Chen, Hong-Man; Yang, Jun-Xiao; Jin, Jie-Qiong; Jiang, Ke; Yuan, Zhi-Yong; Murphy, Robert W; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2012-03-01

    DNA barcoding is a proven tool for the rapid and unambiguous identification of species, which is essential for many activities including the vouchering tissue samples in the genome 10K initiative, genealogical reconstructions, forensics and biodiversity surveys, among many other applications. A large-scale effort is underway to barcode all amphibian species using the universally sequenced DNA region, a partial fragment of mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I COI. This fragment is desirable because it appears to be superior to 16S for barcoding, at least for some groups of salamanders. The barcoding of amphibians is essential in part because many species are now endangered. Unfortunately, existing primers for COI often fail to achieve this goal. Herein, we report two new pairs of primers (?, ?) that in combination serve to universally amplify and sequence all three orders of Chinese amphibians as represented by 36 genera. This taxonomic diversity, which includes caecilians, salamanders and frogs, suggests that the new primer pairs will universally amplify COI for the vast majority species of amphibians. PMID:22145866

  9. The First Fossil Record of Caecilian Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Estes; MARVALEE H. WAKE

    1972-01-01

    THREE groups of amphibians are living today-frogs, salamanders and caecilians. The fossil record of frogs and salamanders is relatively poor1,2, but representatives of most groups have been discovered. For the caecilians, however, no authentic fossils have been recognized, until now. We describe here a single diagnostic vertebra from the Palaeocene of Brazil.

  10. Otoacoustic Emissions in Amphibians, Lepidosaurs, and Archosaurs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey A. Manley; Pim van Dijk

    1. General Introduction Some of the earliest work on otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) was carried out on amphibians (Palmer and Wilson 1982), establishing right at the beginning of studies of this phenomenon that it is not exclusively the province of mammals. During the 1980s and 1990s, a good deal of work on frogs, lizards, and birds established the almost ubiquitous presence

  11. Emerging Infectious Diseases and Amphibian Population Declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Daszak; Lee Berger; Andrew A. Cunningham; Alex D. Hyatt; D. Earl Green; Rick Speare

    1999-01-01

    We review recent research on the pathology, ecology, and biogeography of two emerging infectious wildlife diseases, chytridiomycosis and ranaviral disease, in the context of host-parasite population biology. We examine the role of these diseases in the global decline of amphibian populations and propose hypotheses for the origins and impact of these panzootics. Finally, we discuss emerging infectious diseases as a

  12. Reproduction and Larval Rearing of Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert K. Browne; Kevin Zippel

    Reproduction technologies for amphibians are increasingly used for the in vitro treatment of ovulation, spermiation, oocytes, eggs, sperm, and larvae. Recent advances in these reproduction technologies have been driven by (1) difficul- ties with achieving reliable reproduction of threatened spe- cies in captive breeding programs, (2) the need for the efficient reproduction of laboratory model species, and (3) the cost

  13. Challenges of Invasive Reptiles and Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM C. PITT; DANIEL S. VICE; MIKE E. PITZLER

    2005-01-01

    Although worldwide distributions of many amphibians and reptiles are declining, a handful of species are spreading rapidly throughout tropical regions of the world. The species that have the greatest effect tend to be generalist feeders, have high reproductive rates, attain large population sizes, and often due to their behavior and or small size, are easily transported or are difficult to

  14. POTENTIAL DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS OF ATRAZINE ON AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent research has generated conflicting results on the effects of atrazine on gonadal developmental (e.g., male hermaphroditism) in amphibians and how these effects influence secondary sexual characteristics (e.g., laryngeal muscle mass). The SAP is being asked to consider the...

  15. Variation in Mayfly Size at Metamorphosis as a Developmental Response to Risk of Predation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara L. Peckarsky; Brad W. Taylor; Angus R. McIntosh; Mark A. McPeek; David A. Lytle

    2001-01-01

    Animals with complex life cycles often show large variation in the size and timing of metamorphosis in response to environmental variability. If fecundity increases with body size and large individuals are more vulnerable to predation, then organisms may not be able to optimize simultaneously size and timing of metamorphosis. The goals of this study were to measure and explain large-scale

  16. Somatic, germline and sex hierarchy regulated gene expression during Drosophila metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew S Lebo; Laura E Sanders; Fengzhu Sun; Michelle N Arbeitman

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Drosophila melanogaster undergoes a complete metamorphosis, during which time the larval male and female forms transition into sexually dimorphic, reproductive adult forms. To understand this complex morphogenetic process at a molecular-genetic level, whole genome microarray analyses were performed. RESULTS: The temporal gene expression patterns during metamorphosis were determined for all predicted genes, in both somatic and germline tissues of

  17. Reference: Bid. Bull. 194: 132-142. (April, 1998) Role of Chemical Inducers in Larval Metamorphosis

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Anne

    Metamorphosis of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus: Relationship to Other Marine Invertebrate Systems ANNE A of metamorphosis in many marine invertebrate larvae. In the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larval in conch nursery grounds; these species include the foliose rhodophyte Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux

  18. EVIDENCE FOR FIRST YEAR METAMORPHOSIS OF BULLFROGS IN AN EPHEMERAL POND

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is widely accepted that bullfrog ( R catesbeiana) tadpoles in the Pacific Northwest require more than one year for metamorphosis. Often time to metamorphosis increases along a latitudinal gradient. During our pond surveys at the EE Wilson Reserve, we found evidence of first ...

  19. Larval metamorphosis of the mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis Lamarck, 1819 in response to neurotransmitter blockers and tetraethylammonium

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jin-Long Yang; Yi-Feng Li; Wei-Yang Bao; Cyril Glenn Satuito; Hitoshi Kitamura

    2011-01-01

    The metamorphic response of pediveliger larvae of Mytilus galloprovincialis to the neurotransmitter blockers chlorpromazine, amitriptyline, rauwolscine, idazoxan, atenolol and butoxamine, and to tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA) was investigated through a series of bioassays. Chlorpromazine, amitriptyline and idazoxin inhibited larval metamorphosis induced by 10 M epinephrine. The concentration that inhibited metamorphosis by 50% (IC50) for chlorpromazine and amitriptyline was 1.6 × 10

  20. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, D.E.; Converse, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    Amphibians generally are prolific egg producers. In tropical and semi-tropical regions, deposition of eggs may occur year-round or may coincide with rainy seasons, while in temperate regions, deposition of eggs usually occurs immediately after emergence from hibernation. Numbers of eggs produced by each species may vary from a few dozen to thousands. Accordingly, some eggs may be infertile and wastage of embryos is to be expected. Fertility, viability and decomposition of eggs and embryos must be considered before it is assumed that diseases are present. An important consideration in the evaluation of egg masses is the fact that some will contain infertile and non-viable eggs. These infertile and nonviable eggs will undergo decomposition and they may appear similar to eggs that are infected by a pathogen. Evaluation of egg masses and embryos for the presence of disease may require repeated observations in a given breeding season as well as continued monitoring of egg masses during their growth and development and over successive breeding seasons. Amphibian eggs rarely are subjected to a comprehensive health (diagnostic) examination; hence, there is scant literature on the diseases of this life stage. Indeed, the eggs of some North American amphibians have yet to be described. Much basic physiology and normal biomedical baseline data on amphibian eggs is lacking. For example, it is known that the aquatic eggs of some species of shrimp quickly are coated by a protective and commensal bacterium that effectively impedes invasion of the eggs by other environmental organisms and potential pathogens. In the absence of this bacterium, shrimp eggs are rapidly killed by other bacteria and fungi (Green, 2001). The possibility that amphibian eggs also have important symbiotic or commensal bacteria needs to be investigated. Furthermore, the quantity and types of chemicals in the normal gelatinous capsules of amphibian eggs have scarcely been examined. Abnormalities of the female oviduct, either due to infectious disease, nutritional status, hormonal imbalances, or sublethal intoxications, could affect the quality of secreted gelatinous capsules on eggs, thus rendering an egg mass susceptible to other stressors. Diseases of amphibian eggs and embryos presented in this chapter are Lucke frog herpesvirus Ranavirus (iridovirus) infection Bacteria Watermold infection (saprolegniasis) Algae Microsporidia

  1. Adding infection to injury: synergistic effects of predation and parasitism on amphibian malformations.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Pieter T J; Preu, Eric R; Sutherland, Daniel R; Romansic, John M; Han, Barbara; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2006-09-01

    We explored the importance of interactions between parasite infection and predation in driving an emerging phenomenon of conservation importance: amphibian limb malformations. We suggest that injury resulting from intraspecific predation in combination with trematode infection contributes to the frequency and severity of malformations in salamanders. By integrating field surveys and experiments, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of conspecific attack and parasite (Ribeiroia ondatrae) infection on limb development of long-toed salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum). In the absence of Ribeiroia, abnormalities involved missing digits, feet, or limbs and were similar to those produced by cannibalistic attack in experimental trials. At field sites that supported Ribeiroia, malformations were dominated by extra limbs and digits. Correspondingly, laboratory exposure of larval salamanders to Ribeiroia cercariae over a 30-day period induced high frequencies of malformations, including extra digits, extra limbs, cutaneous fusion, and micromelia. However, salamander limbs exposed to both injury and infection exhibited 3-5 times more abnormalities than those exposed to either factor alone. Infection also caused significant delays in limb regeneration and time-to-metamorphosis. Taken together, these results help to explain malformation patterns observed in natural salamander populations while emphasizing the importance of interactions between parasitism and predation in driving disease. PMID:16995623

  2. Meeting ultraviolet B radiation requirements of amphibians in captivity: a case study with mountain chicken frogs (Leptodactylus fallax) and general recommendations for pre-release health screening.

    PubMed

    Tapley, Benjamin; Rendle, Matthew; Baines, Frances M; Goetz, Matthias; Bradfield, Kay S; Rood, David; Lopez, Javier; Garcia, Gerardo; Routh, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Conservation breeding programmes are a tool used to prevent amphibian extinctions. The husbandry requirements of amphibians are complex. Ongoing research is needed to ensure optimal management of those captive-bred animals destined, in particular, for reintroduction. The UV-B and vitamin D3 requirements of amphibians are largely unknown. Metabolic bone disease has been reported in a number of species. These include the Critically Endangered mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) reared in captivity on diets supplemented with a high-calcium multivitamin and mineral supplement containing vitamin D3 but without UV-B provision. Captive-bred L. fallax being reared for reintroduction to Montserrat were provided with UV-B radiation from metamorphosis and were fed on insects supplemented with vitamins and minerals. Overlapping heat, light and UV-B gradients were provided, mimicking what we believe best represents the natural situation and thereby facilitated self-regulation of UV-B exposure. A subset of 10 frogs was periodically radiographed to assess skeletal health. Radiographic bone density and anatomical integrity appeared unremarkable when compared with a wild caught L. fallax. In addition to other routine health-screening, we recommend that radiography be performed to a structured schedule on a subset of all captive-bred and reared amphibians to assess skeletal health and to gauge the appropriateness of captive husbandry. We demonstrate here that, through the appropriate provision of a combination of both UV-B radiation and dietary supplementation, L. fallax can be bred and reared in captivity with healthy skeletal development. PMID:25255994

  3. Metabolomic insights into system-wide coordination of vertebrate metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background After completion of embryogenesis, many organisms experience an additional obligatory developmental transition to attain a substantially different juvenile or adult form. During anuran metamorphosis, the aquatic tadpole undergoes drastic morphological changes and remodelling of tissues and organs to become a froglet. Thyroid hormones are required to initiate the process, but the mechanism whereby the many requisite changes are coordinated between organs and tissues is poorly understood. Metabolites are often highly conserved biomolecules between species and are the closest reflection of phenotype. Due to the extensive distribution of blood throughout the organism, examination of the metabolites contained therein provides a system-wide overview of the coordinated changes experienced during metamorphosis. We performed an untargeted metabolomic analysis on serum samples from naturally-metamorphosing Rana catesbeiana from tadpoles to froglets using ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Total and aqueous metabolite extracts were obtained from each serum sample to select for nonpolar and polar metabolites, respectively, and selected metabolites were validated by running authentic compounds. Results The majority of the detected metabolites (74%) showed statistically significant abundance changes (padj?metamorphosis identifying fundamental pathways involved in the coordination of this important developmental process and paves the way for metabolomic studies on other metamorphic systems including fish and insects. PMID:24495308

  4. The Life of the Smooth Newt (Triturus vulgaris) after Metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Graham Bell

    2008-01-01

    Abstract. After metamorphosis.,smooth,or common,newts (Tritltrus vulgtzris vltlgaris [Linn]) dis- perse on land. where,they live as juveniles,before,returning,to the water as breeding,adults. The population,age-structure was,obtained,by dissecting,the standard,length frequency,distribution. a procedure which is justified in the text. Juveniles have an uncomplicated age-structure, the nurnber of individuals in successively,later age-classes being reduced,by mortality and by recruitment,to the adult population. Among adult newts, the most

  5. The metamorphosis of Zionism in Amos Oz's work

    E-print Network

    East, Click

    1989-01-01

    THE METAMORPHOSIS OF ZIONISM IN AMOS OZ'S WORK A Thesis by CLICK EAST Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS December 1989 Major... "Klausner" to "Oz, " and begin work and study in Kibbutz Hulda. ' Oz was hoping to begin a new life in Hulda, leaving behind his past in Jerusalem. He worked in the Kibbutz's fields while he studied socialism, and "delved into the nature of human evil...

  6. Helping Your Local Amphibians (HYLA): An Internet-Based Amphibian Course for Educators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Tony P.

    2001-12-01

    A pilot on-line course on amphibians was offered free to 20 educators around the United States in 1999. This course, called Helping Your Local Amphibians (HYLA), was the first of its kind on-line course for educators dealing with amphibian issues. It also used these animals as a focus to teach about the environment. The course lasted 9 weeks with some additional time for continued discussions and used various aspects of Internet technology (including a virtual conference center), media, and traditional paper-based products to complete the learning process. Five teachers were selected to attend a national amphibian summit hosted by the Center for Global Environmental Education, Hamline University, St. Paul, MN. The course was aimed primarily at upper elementary and middle school teachers, but participants included formal and nonformal educators. For the most part, educators expressed satisfaction with the course and the content, as well as the structure of the web site. For 80% of the group, this was their first Internet-based course. In addition, as part of the course, the educators were expected to take some action with their primary audiences to help local amphibian populations. This mainly took the form of surveys or habitat clean-ups. The development of the course was underwritten by grants from the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, the Best Buy Children's Foundation, and Hamline University.

  7. Ranavirus outbreaks in amphibian populations of northern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Russell, Danelle M.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Sprague, Laura; Waits, Lisette P.; Green, D. Earl; Schuler, Krysten L.; Rosenblum, Erica Bree

    2011-01-01

    Ranavirus outbreaks, caused by pathogens in the genus Ranavirus (Family Iridoviridae), were the largest single cause of reported amphibian mass mortality events in the United States from 1996–2001 (Green et al. 2002). Mortality events associated with ranaviruses have been documented on five continents and throughout the latitudes and elevations where amphibians occur (Gray et al. 2009). However, the threat of ranaviruses to amphibian and reptile populations in specific regions is still largely unknown (Chinchar 2002; Gray et al. 2009).

  8. Changes in the role of the thyroid axis during metamorphosis of the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica.

    PubMed

    Sudo, Ryusuke; Okamura, Akihiro; Kuroki, Mari; Tsukamoto, Katsumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the role of thyroid function during metamorphosis from leptocephalus to glass eel in the Japanese eel, we examined the histology of the thyroid gland and measured whole-body concentrations of thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), and thyroid stimulating hormone ?-subunit TSH (TSH?) mRNA expression levels in five stages of artificially hatched eels (leptocephalus, early-metamorphosis, late-metamorphosis, glass eel, and elver). During metamorphosis, the inner colloid of thyroid follicles showed positive immunoreactivity for T4, and both T4 and T3 levels were significantly increased, whereas a small peak of TSH? mRNA level was observed at the early-metamorphosis stage. Similarly, TSH? mRNA levels were highest in the glass eel stage, and then decreased markedly in the elver stage. In contrast to TSH? mRNA expression, thyroid hormones (both T4 and T3) increased further from the glass eel to elver stages. These results indicated that thyroid function in the Japanese eel was active both during and after metamorphosis. Therefore, the thyrotropic axis may play important roles not only in metamorphosis but also in subsequent inshore or upstream migrations. PMID:24692334

  9. Proteomic analysis during larval development and metamorphosis of the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background While the larval-juvenile transition (metamorphosis) in the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa involves gradual morphological changes and does not require substantial development of juvenile organs, the opposite occurs in the barnacle Balanus amphitrite. We hypothesized that the proteome changes during metamorphosis in the spionids are less drastic than that in the barnacles. To test this, proteomes of pre-competent larvae, competent larvae (ready to metamorphose), and juveniles of P. vexillosa were compared using 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and they were then compared to those of the barnacle. Results Unlike the significant changes found during barnacle metamorphosis, proteomes of competent P. vexillosa larvae were more similar to those of their juveniles. Pre-competent larvae had significantly fewer protein spots (384 spots), while both competent larvae and juveniles expressed about 660 protein spots each. Proteins up-regulated during competence identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis included a molecular chaperon (calreticulin), a signal transduction regulator (tyrosin activation protein), and a tissue-remodeling enzyme (metallopeptidase). Conclusions This was the first time to study the protein expression patterns during the metamorphosis of a marine polychaete and to compare the proteomes of marine invertebrates that have different levels of morphological changes during metamorphosis. The findings provide promising initial steps towards the development of a proteome database for marine invertebrate metamorphosis, thus deciphering the possible mechanisms underlying larval metamorphosis in non-model marine organisms. PMID:20003395

  10. Amphibian Decline: An Integrated Analysis of Multiple Stressor Effects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2003-01-01

    Although the effects of contaminants on amphibians have been studied for decades, relatively little is known about these effects compared to the more intensively studied mammals. and birds. Science has advanced its understanding of the complexities linked to declining amphibian populations; however, there are many remaining questions whose answers would directly benefit amphibians and adaptive management plans ministering to them. In an effort to answer those questions and focus on ecological risk assessment of amphibians, scientists, researchers, and resource management professionals from diverse fields participated in a Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC)-Johnson Foundation Wingspread conference with three goals: characterize a process that would bring a range of interdisciplinary technical and management tools to the tasks of causal analysis; demonstrate the current state of available technical tools to assess amphibian populations exposed to various environmental stressors; and focus on identifying research that would likely benefit sustainable populations through adaptive management programs. A result of the Wingspread conference, Amphibian Decline examines the ecotoxicology and stressors of amphibians in an attempt to address issues related to declining amphibian populations and the role that various stressors might have in those losses. It identifies gaps in current data, interprets information into an existing framework, and points toward critical areas for future research. Through the combined efforts of research and resource management communities, recommendations can be developed to change current policies and management actions to address the problem of amphibian decline.

  11. Fluoxetine alters adult freshwater mussel behavior and larval metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hazelton, Peter D; Cope, W Gregory; Mosher, Shad; Pandolfo, Tamara J; Belden, Jason B; Barnhart, M Christopher; Bringolf, Robert B

    2013-02-15

    We used acute and partial-lifecycle tests to examine the effects of the pharmaceutical fluoxetine on freshwater mussels (Unionida). In acute tests lasting 24-48 h, we determined median effective concentrations (EC50s) for fluoxetine with larval (glochidia viability) and juvenile (survival) life-stages of fatmucket (Lampsilis siliquoidea) and black sandshell (Ligumia recta). In a 28-d behavioral test we exposed brooding adult female wavy-rayed lampmussels (Lampsilis fasciola) to 0.37 and 29.3 ?g/L fluoxetine to determine effects on adult behavior (foot protrusion, mantle lure display and glochidia parturition). We also assessed the effects of 24-h exposure of 1 and 100 ?g/L fluoxetine on glochidia viability duration and metamorphosis success for the wavy-rayed lampmussel. Fluoxetine EC50s ranged from 62 ?g/L for juveniles (96 h) to 293 ?g/L for glochidia (24 h). In adults, statistically significant increases were observed in foot protrusion at 0.37 and 29.3 ?g/L fluoxetine and lure display rates at 29.3 ?g/L; glochidia parturition was not significantly affected at any test concentration. Twenty-four hour exposure of glochidia to fluoxetine did not affect viability duration, but likelihood of metamorphosis to the juvenile stage significantly increased with 1 and 100 ?g/L treatments. Our results demonstrated effects of fluoxetine to unionid mussels at concentrations less than previously reported and approaching concentrations measured in surface waters. PMID:23321069

  12. New Mexico Species List : Reptiles and Amphibians

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The New Mexico Department of Game and Fish compiled this extensive list of reptiles and amphibians for New Mexico and Arizona. Organized alphabetically by common name (with scientific name in parenthesis), each hyperlinked name connects the viewer to further details (taxonomy, status, life history, distribution, habitat information, food habits, environmental associations, management practices, and references) via the Biota Information System Of New Mexico (BISON). Researchers will appreciate the extent and clarity of information in this database.

  13. The first anionic defensin from amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lin; Che, Helong; Han, Yi; Lv, Jing; Mu, Lixian; Lv, Lechun; Wu, Jing; Yang, Hailong

    2015-07-01

    A variety of antimicrobial peptides against infection have been identified from the skin of amphibians. However, knowledge on amphibian defensins is very limited. A novel anionic defensin designated PopuDef was purified from the skin of tree frog Polypedates puerensis, and the cDNA encoding PopuDef precursor was cloned from the skin cDNA library. The amino acid sequence of PopuDef (net charge: -2, pI: 4.75) shared the highest identity of 57 % (25/44) with the salamander defensin CFBD-1 (net charge: 0, pI: 6.14) from urodela amphibians. PopuDef showed moderate antimicrobial activities against P. aeruginosa and S. aureus (MICs are 19.41 and 17.25 ?M, respectively), and relatively weak activities against E. coli and B. subtilis (MICs are 38.82 and 43.14 ?M, respectively). Tissue distribution analysis indicated that relatively high expression level of PopuDef mRNA was observed in immune-related tissues including skin, gut, lung and spleen. Furthermore, the expression level of PopuDef was significantly upregulated in these tissues after tree frogs were infected with different bacteria strains mentioned above. Interestingly, the induction of PopuDef challenged with E. coli or B. subtilis, which was less sensitive to PopuDef, was much higher than that did with P. aeruginosa or S. aureus. These findings highlight the key role of PopuDef in innate immunity against infection. To our knowledge, PopuDef is the first anionic defensin characterized from amphibians. PMID:25792112

  14. Effects of Delayed Metamorphosis on Larval Survival, Metamorphosis, and Juvenile Performance of Four Closely Related Species of Tropical Sea Urchins (Genus Echinometra)

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Arshad, A.; Uehara, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report here, the effects of extended competency on larval survival, metamorphosis, and postlarval juvenile growth of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea), E. mathaei (Em), Echinometra sp. C (Ec), and E. oblonga (Eo). Planktotrophic larvae of all four species fed on cultured phytoplankton (Chaetoceros gracilis) attained metamorphic competence within 22–24 days after fertilization. Competent larvae were forced to delay metamorphosis for up to 5 months by preventing them from settling in culture bottles with continuous stirring on a set of 10?rpm rotating rollers and larval survival per monthly intervals was recorded. Larval survival was highest at 24 days, when competence was attained (0 delayed period), and there were no significant differences among the four species. Larvae that had experienced a prolonged delay had reduced survival rate, metamorphosis success, and juvenile survival, but among older larvae, Em had the highest success followed by Ea, Eo, and Ec. Juveniles from larvae of all four species that metamorphosed soon after becoming competent tended to have higher growth rates (test diameter and length of spines) than juveniles from larvae that metamorphosed after a prolonged period of competence with progressively slower growth the longer the prolonged period. Despite the adverse effects of delaying metamorphosis on growth parameters, competent larvae of all four species were able to survive up to 5 months and after metamorphosis grew into 1-month-old juveniles in lab condition. Overall, delayed larvae of Em showed significantly higher larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile survival than Ea and Eo, while Ec showed the lowest values in these performances. Em has the most widespread distribution of these species ranging from Africa to Hawaii, while Ec probably has the most restricted distribution. Consequently, differences in distribution may be related to differences in the ability to delay metamorphosis. PMID:24624048

  15. Effects of delayed metamorphosis on larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile performance of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins (genus Echinometra).

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Aminur; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Arshad, A; Uehara, Tsuyoshi

    2014-01-01

    We report here, the effects of extended competency on larval survival, metamorphosis, and postlarval juvenile growth of four closely related species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea), E. mathaei (Em), Echinometra sp. C (Ec), and E. oblonga (Eo). Planktotrophic larvae of all four species fed on cultured phytoplankton (Chaetoceros gracilis) attained metamorphic competence within 22-24 days after fertilization. Competent larvae were forced to delay metamorphosis for up to 5 months by preventing them from settling in culture bottles with continuous stirring on a set of 10 rpm rotating rollers and larval survival per monthly intervals was recorded. Larval survival was highest at 24 days, when competence was attained (0 delayed period), and there were no significant differences among the four species. Larvae that had experienced a prolonged delay had reduced survival rate, metamorphosis success, and juvenile survival, but among older larvae, Em had the highest success followed by Ea, Eo, and Ec. Juveniles from larvae of all four species that metamorphosed soon after becoming competent tended to have higher growth rates (test diameter and length of spines) than juveniles from larvae that metamorphosed after a prolonged period of competence with progressively slower growth the longer the prolonged period. Despite the adverse effects of delaying metamorphosis on growth parameters, competent larvae of all four species were able to survive up to 5 months and after metamorphosis grew into 1-month-old juveniles in lab condition. Overall, delayed larvae of Em showed significantly higher larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile survival than Ea and Eo, while Ec showed the lowest values in these performances. Em has the most widespread distribution of these species ranging from Africa to Hawaii, while Ec probably has the most restricted distribution. Consequently, differences in distribution may be related to differences in the ability to delay metamorphosis. PMID:24624048

  16. Reframing menstruation in India: metamorphosis of the menstrual taboo with the changing media coverage.

    PubMed

    Yagnik, Arpan Shailesh

    2014-01-01

    In this study I hypothesize metamorphosis of the menstrual taboo by examining the image and perception shifts of two social taboos-HIV/AIDS and homosexuality-from estranged taboos to embraced social issues. Trends identified in their media framing and respective image shifts were applied to menstruation in India. Based on my understanding of theory, topic, and geographical location, I construct a metamorphosis. I contribute the hypothesized final stage of metamorphosis, and explain how framing is likely instrumental in bringing about these changes. PMID:24180612

  17. Rapid Response to Evaluate the Presence of Amphibian Chytrid Fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) and Ranavirus in Wild Amphibian Populations in Madagascar

    PubMed Central

    Kolby, Jonathan E.; Smith, Kristine M.; Ramirez, Sara D.; Rabemananjara, Falitiana; Pessier, Allan P.; Brunner, Jesse L.; Goldberg, Caren S.; Berger, Lee; Skerratt, Lee F.

    2015-01-01

    We performed a rapid response investigation to evaluate the presence and distribution of amphibian pathogens in Madagascar following our identification of amphibian chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, Bd) and ranavirus in commercially exported amphibians. This targeted risk-based field surveillance program was conducted from February to April 2014 encompassing 12 regions and 47 survey sites. We simultaneously collected amphibian and environmental samples to increase survey sensitivity and performed sampling both in wilderness areas and commercial amphibian trade facilities. Bd was not detected in any of 508 amphibian skin swabs or 68 water filter samples, suggesting pathogen prevalence was below 0.8%, with 95% confidence during our visit. Ranavirus was detected in 5 of 97 amphibians, including one adult Mantidactylus cowanii and three unidentified larvae from Ranomafana National Park, and one adult Mantidactylus mocquardi from Ankaratra. Ranavirus was also detected in water samples collected from two commercial amphibian export facilities. We also provide the first report of an amphibian mass-mortality event observed in wild amphibians in Madagascar. Although neither Bd nor ranavirus appeared widespread in Madagascar during this investigation, additional health surveys are required to disentangle potential seasonal variations in pathogen abundance and detectability from actual changes in pathogen distribution and rates of spread. Accordingly, our results should be conservatively interpreted until a comparable survey effort during winter months has been performed. It is imperative that biosecurity practices be immediately adopted to limit the unintentional increased spread of disease through the movement of contaminated equipment or direct disposal of contaminated material from wildlife trade facilities. The presence of potentially introduced strains of ranaviruses suggests that Madagascar's reptile species might also be threatened by disease. Standardized population monitoring of key amphibian and reptile species should be established with urgency to enable early detection of potential impacts of disease emergence in this global biodiversity hotspot. PMID:26083349

  18. All about Amphibians. Animal Life for Children. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This videotape teaches children about their favorite amphibious creatures, as well as amphibians' nearest cousins--toads, newts, and salamanders. Young students discover how these amazing creatures can live both in and out of water, learn about the amphibious life cycle, and compare the differences between amphibians and reptiles. This videotape…

  19. Population differentiation of temperate amphibians in unpredictable environments

    Microsoft Academic Search

    LAUREN M. CHAN; KELLY R. ZAMUDIO

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians are a globally distributed and diverse lineage, but much of our current understanding of their population genetic structure comes from studies in mesic temperate habitats. We characterize the population genetic structure of two sympatric explosive breeding amphibians in the southwestern deserts of the United States: the Great Plains toad (Anaxyrus cognatus) and Couch's spadefoot toad (Scaphiopus couchii). For both

  20. Amphibians and Reptiles of the Lower West River

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Jay West; David K. Skelly

    We surveyed West River Memorial Park in New Haven, Connecticut to determine which amphibian and reptile species are present within the park's available habitats and to assess the potential effects of salt marsh restoration on the herpeto- fauna. A variety of aquatic and terrestrial census methods were used. We recorded seven species of amphibians and reptiles, all of which are

  1. A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar

    E-print Network

    Vences, Miguel

    of this enlarged distribution and ongoing degradation of the habitats where it lives, it has been reA Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar Monografie del Museo Regionale di Scienze VENCES9 Update of the Global Amphibian Assessment for Madagascar in light of species discoveries

  2. Sahonagasy Action Plan Conservation Programs for the Amphibians of Madagascar

    E-print Network

    Andreone, Franco

    ACSAM A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar Une Stratégie de Conservation pour les A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Mada- gascar The ACSAM is an initiative designed to achieve the con other parts of the world. IUCN - International Union for Conservation of Na- ture Founded in 1948

  3. Ultraviolet radiation, toxic chemicals and amphibian population declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew R. Blaustein; John M. Romansic; Joseph M. Kiesecker; Audrey C. Hatch

    2003-01-01

    As part of an overall 'biodiversity crisis', many amphibian populations are in decline throughout the world. Numerous factors have contributed to these declines, including habitat destruction, pathogens, increasing ultraviolet (UV) radiation, introduced non-native species and contaminants. In this paper we review the contribution of increasing UV radiation and environmental contamination to the global decline of amphibian populations. Both UV radiation

  4. Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Rohr; Thomas R. Raffel; John M. Romansic; Hamish McCallum; Peter J. Hudson

    2008-01-01

    Human alteration of the environment has arguably propelled the Earth into its sixth mass extinction event and amphibians, the most threatened of all vertebrate taxa, are at the forefront. Many of the worldwide amphibian declines have been caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and two contrasting hypotheses have been proposed to explain these declines. Positive correlations between global

  5. Evaluating the Links Between Climate, Disease Spread, and Amphibian Declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Rohr; Thomas R. Raffel; John M. Romansic; Hamish McCallum; Peter J. Hudson

    2008-01-01

    Human alteration of the environment has arguably propelled the Earth into its sixth mass extinction event and amphibians, the most threatened of all vertebrate taxa, are at the forefront. Many of the worldwide amphibian declines have been caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and two contrasting hypotheses have been proposed to explain these declines. Positive correlations between global

  6. Amphibian Oasis: Designing and Building a Schoolyard Pond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosselin, Heather; Johnson, Bob

    1996-01-01

    Building a pond in a schoolyard is a rewarding way to help boost local populations of amphibians, to increase the natural value of school grounds, and to serve as a locale for observing the life cycles of plants, invertebrates, and amphibians. This article outlines important considerations in designing and building a pond from siting through…

  7. MOJAVE DESERT SPRING: THE AMPHIBIAN POINT OF VIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous springs are scattered throughout the eastern Mojave Desert, most of which are concentrated near the bases of mountain ranges. Spring-fed wetlands in this region comprise nearly all the available habitat for amphibians. We surveyed 128 springs for amphibians and habitat t...

  8. Amphibians and Reptiles from Paramakatoi and Kato, Guyana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCulloch, Ross D.; Reynolds, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    We report the herpetofauna of two neighboring upland locations in west-central Guyana. Twenty amphibian and 24 reptile species were collected. Only 40% of amphibians and 12.5% of reptiles were collected in both locations. This is one of the few collections made at upland (750–800 m) locations in the Guiana Shield.

  9. AMPHIBIAN DECLINES AND ENVIRONMENTAL CHANGE IN THE EASTERN "MOJAVE DESERT"

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of amphibian species historically inhabited sparsely distributed wetlands in the Mojave Desert, USA, habitats that have been dramatically altered or eliminated as a result of human activities. The population status and distribution of amphibians were investigated in a 20...

  10. Species Review of Amphibian Extinction Risks in Madagascar: Conclusions from the Global Amphibian Assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRANCO ANDREONE; JOHN E. CADLE; NEIL COX; FRANK GLAW; RONALD A. NUSSBAUM; CHRISTOPHER J. RAXWORTHY; SIMON N. STUART; DENIS VALLAN; MIGUEL VENCES

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the extinction risks of Malagasy amphibians by evaluating their distribution, occur- rence in protected areas, population trends, habitat quality, and prevalence in commercial trade. We estimated and mapped the distribution of each of the 220 described Malagasy species and applied, for the first time, the IUCN Red List categories and criteria to all species described at the time

  11. Thyroid and pituitary gland development from hatching through metamorphosis of a teleost flatfish, the Atlantic halibut

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ingibjörg Eir Einarsdóttir; Nadia Silva; Deborah M. Power; Heiddis Smáradóttir; Björn Thrandur Björnsson

    2006-01-01

    Fish larval development, not least the spectacular process of flatfish metamorphosis, appears to be under complex endocrine\\u000a control, many aspects of which are still not fully elucidated. In order to obtain data on the functional development of two\\u000a major endocrine glands, the pituitary and the thyroid, during flatfish metamorphosis, histology, immunohistochemistry and\\u000a in situ hybridization techniques were applied on larvae

  12. Energy content at metamorphosis and growth rate of the early juvenile barnacle Balanus amphitrite

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Thiyagarajan; T. Harder; Jian-Wen Qiu; Pei-Yuan Qian

    2003-01-01

    The energetic cost of metamorphosis in cyprids of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite Darwin was estimated by quantification of lipid, carbohydrate and protein contents. About 38–58% (4–5 mJ individual ?1) of cypris energy reserves were used during metamorphosis. Lipids accounted for 55–65%, proteins for 34–44% and carbohydrates for 6 cells ml ?1 of Chaetoceros gracilis were bigger (carapace length: 560–616 µm) and contained more

  13. Fat body mitochondrial cytochromes during diapause and metamorphosis in Heliothis zea (Boddie) 

    E-print Network

    Gruetzmacher, Mary Carol

    1978-01-01

    metamorphosis. The results indicate that fat body mitochondrial cytochromes are low in concentration' during diapause and during the initial stages of metamorphosis. The effect of the uncoupling agent, 2, 4-dinitrophenol (DNP), on the respiration of fat... Analysis. Radiotracers. Quantitation of Radioactivity Respiration Rates Cytochrome Enzyme Activity, Cytochrome Biosynthetic Capacity. The Loss of Cytochromes During Diapause Aminolevulinic Acid Synthetase Activity The Effects of 2, 4-Dinitrophenol...

  14. Nitric Oxide Acts as a Positive Regulator to Induce Metamorphosis of the Ascidian Herdmania momus

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Nobuo; Degnan, Sandie M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO) is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS), which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90). It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation in ascidian metamorphosis. PMID:24019877

  15. The effects of predatory fish on amphibian species richness and distribution

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen J. Hecnar; Robert T. M'Closkey

    1997-01-01

    Amphibian communities at 178 ponds across southwestern Ontario, Canada, were studied to determine if presence of predatory fish was related to altered amphibian species richness or distribution on a geographic scale. Ponds are an important amphibian habitat in the study area and many have been stocked with fish. Surveys conducted over three years were used to construct amphibian species lists

  16. Heart structure and the ancestry of amphibians 

    E-print Network

    Putnam, Jerry Lee

    1967-01-01

    ------------Ventricle I ttJTRODUCTION In recent years, the study of the piscine ancestry of amphibians has focused on a group of fishes, the sarcopterygians (Romer, 1962). Ot the numerous genera that have existed in past geological periods, o ly f . , ai as ti i g... typical two-chambered piscine organ. However, later workers, such as Rose, Parker, Goodrich and Bugge, report an interatrial septum dividing the atrial cavity into right and left chambers, with the former receiving sinus blood and the latter pulmonary...

  17. Ecology: global warming and amphibian losses.

    PubMed

    Alford, Ross A; Bradfield, Kay S; Richards, Stephen J

    2007-05-31

    Is global warming contributing to amphibian declines and extinctions by promoting outbreaks of the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis? Analysing patterns from the American tropics, Pounds et al. envisage a process in which a single warm year triggers die-offs in a particular area (for instance, 1987 in the case of Monteverde, Costa Rica). However, we show here that populations of two frog species in the Australian tropics experienced increasing developmental instability, which is evidence of stress, at least two years before they showed chytrid-related declines. Because the working model of Pounds et al. is incomplete, their test of the climate-linked epidemic hypothesis could be inconclusive. PMID:17538571

  18. Thyroid hormone and retinoid X receptor function and expression during sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Manzon, Lori A; Youson, John H; Holzer, Guillaume; Staiano, Leopoldo; Laudet, Vincent; Manzon, Richard G

    2014-08-01

    Sea lampreys (Petromyzon marinus) are members of the ancient class Agnatha and undergo a metamorphosis that transforms blind, sedentary, filter-feeding larvae into free-swimming, parasitic juveniles. Thyroid hormones (THs) appear to be important for lamprey metamorphosis, however, serum TH concentrations are elevated in the larval phase, decline rapidly during early metamorphosis and remain low until metamorphosis is complete; these TH fluctuations are contrary to those of other metamorphosing vertebrates. Moreover, thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors (goitrogens) induce precocious metamorphosis and exogenous TH treatments disrupt natural metamorphosis in P. marinus. Given that THs exert their effects by binding to TH nuclear receptors (TRs) that often act as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXRs), we cloned and characterized these receptors from P. marinus and examined their expression during metamorphosis. Two TRs (PmTR1 and PmTR2) and three RXRs (PmRXRs) were isolated from P. marinus cDNA. Phylogenetic analyses group the PmTRs together on a branch prior to the gnathostome TR?/? split. The three RXRs also group together, but our data indicated that these transcripts are most likely either allelic variants of the same gene locus, or the products of a lamprey-specific duplication event. Importantly, these P. marinus receptors more closely resemble vertebrate as opposed to invertebrate chordate receptors. Functional analysis revealed that PmTR1 and PmTR2 can activate transcription of TH-responsive genes when treated with nanomolar concentrations of TH and they have distinct pharmacological profiles reminiscent of vertebrate TR? and TR?, respectively. Also similar to other metamorphosing vertebrates, expression patterns of the PmTRs during lamprey metamorphosis suggest that PmTR1 has a dynamic, tissue-specific expression pattern that correlates with tissue morphogenesis and biochemical changes and PmTR2 has a more uniform expression pattern. This TR expression data suggests that THs, either directly or via a metabolite, may function to positively modulate changes at the tissue or organ levels during lamprey metamorphosis. Collectively the results presented herein support the hypothesis that THs have a dual functional role in the lamprey life cycle whereby high levels promote larval feeding, growth and lipogenesis and low levels promote metamorphosis. PMID:24907629

  19. Opsonophagocytic assay.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Markryan; Gadjeva, Mihaela

    2014-01-01

    The opsonophagocytic killing (OPK) assay is used as a correlate for protection to measure the functional capacities of vaccine-candidate-raised antibodies. This in vitro assay aids selecting promising vaccines by demonstrating whether the vaccine-induced antibodies drive efficient complement deposition and subsequent opsonophagocytic killing. Here, we describe two protocols for an OPK assay using either human-derived PMNs or cultured HL-60 cells. PMID:24218277

  20. Phylogenetically-Informed Priorities for Amphibian Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Isaac, Nick J. B.; Redding, David W.; Meredith, Helen M.; Safi, Kamran

    2012-01-01

    The amphibian decline and extinction crisis demands urgent action to prevent further large numbers of species extinctions. Lists of priority species for conservation, based on a combination of species’ threat status and unique contribution to phylogenetic diversity, are one tool for the direction and catalyzation of conservation action. We describe the construction of a near-complete species-level phylogeny of 5713 amphibian species, which we use to create a list of evolutionarily distinct and globally endangered species (EDGE list) for the entire class Amphibia. We present sensitivity analyses to test the robustness of our priority list to uncertainty in species’ phylogenetic position and threat status. We find that both sources of uncertainty have only minor impacts on our ‘top 100‘ list of priority species, indicating the robustness of the approach. By contrast, our analyses suggest that a large number of Data Deficient species are likely to be high priorities for conservation action from the perspective of their contribution to the evolutionary history. PMID:22952807

  1. Amphibian skin may select for rare environmental microbes.

    PubMed

    Walke, Jenifer B; Becker, Matthew H; Loftus, Stephen C; House, Leanna L; Cormier, Guy; Jensen, Roderick V; Belden, Lisa K

    2014-11-01

    Host-microbe symbioses rely on the successful transmission or acquisition of symbionts in each new generation. Amphibians host a diverse cutaneous microbiota, and many of these symbionts appear to be mutualistic and may limit infection by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which has caused global amphibian population declines and extinctions in recent decades. Using bar-coded 454 pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene, we addressed the question of symbiont transmission by examining variation in amphibian skin microbiota across species and sites and in direct relation to environmental microbes. Although acquisition of environmental microbes occurs in some host-symbiont systems, this has not been extensively examined in free-living vertebrate-microbe symbioses. Juvenile bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana), adult red-spotted newts (Notophthalmus viridescens), pond water and pond substrate were sampled at a single pond to examine host-specificity and potential environmental transmission of microbiota. To assess population level variation in skin microbiota, adult newts from two additional sites were also sampled. Cohabiting bullfrogs and newts had distinct microbial communities, as did newts across the three sites. The microbial communities of amphibians and the environment were distinct; there was very little overlap in the amphibians' core microbes and the most abundant environmental microbes, and the relative abundances of OTUs that were shared by amphibians and the environment were inversely related. These results suggest that, in a host species-specific manner, amphibian skin may select for microbes that are generally in low abundance in the environment. PMID:24858782

  2. Nitrogen pollution: an assessment of its threat to amphibian survival.

    PubMed Central

    Rouse, J D; Bishop, C A; Struger, J

    1999-01-01

    The potential for nitrate to affect amphibian survival was evaluated by examining the areas in North America where concentrations of nitrate in water occur above amphibian toxicity thresholds. Nitrogen pollution from anthropogenic sources enters bodies of water through agricultural runoff or percolation associated with nitrogen fertilization, livestock, precipitation, and effluents from industrial and human wastes. Environmental concentrations of nitrate in watersheds throughout North America range from < 1 to > 100 mg/L. Of the 8,545 water quality samples collected from states and provinces bordering the Great Lakes, 19.8% contained nitrate concentrations exceeding those which can cause sublethal effects in amphibians. In the laboratory lethal and sublethal effects in amphibians are detected at nitrate concentrations between 2.5 and 100 mg/L. Furthermore, amphibian prey such as insects and predators of amphibians such as fish are also sensitive to these elevated levels of nitrate. From this we conclude that nitrate concentrations in some watersheds in North America are high enough to cause death and developmental anomalies in amphibians and impact other animals in aquatic ecosystems. In some situations, the use of vegetated buffer strips adjacent to water courses can reduce nitrogen contamination of surface waters. Ultimately, there is a need to reduce runoff, sewage effluent discharge, and the use of fertilizers, and to establish and enforce water quality guidelines for nitrate for the protection of aquatic organisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10504145

  3. Shedding Light on Ultraviolet Radiation and Amphibian Embryos

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    LAWRENCE E. LICHT (; )

    2003-06-01

    This peer-reviewed article from BioScience journal is about the effects of UV radiation on amphibian population. The hypothesis that increasing ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is a causal factor in the decline of amphibian populations has received considerable attention in the scientific and public media. To evaluate the validity of this hypothesis, it is necessary to examine the natural environmental factors and biological traits of amphibians that protect them from UVB radiation. A careful reading of the literature reveals that most published studies on the effects of ambient UVB radiation on amphibian embryos have found no increased mortality. Those few reports that show harmful effects employ experimental methods that do not place enough importance on the natural abiotic and biotic factors that provide UVB protection. In the laboratory, amphibian embryos are resistant to doses of UVB radiation far higher than those they would normally receive from ambient sunlight. The jelly surrounding amphibian eggs absorbs UVB radiation, as revealed by spectral measurements of absorbance; after UVB exposure, embryos with their jelly capsules removed show significantly higher mortality than those with the jelly intact. In light of this and other factors mitigating UVB absorption, the hypothesis that ambient UVB radiation causes amphibian mortality and population declines is without support.

  4. Orchestrating change: The thyroid hormones and GI-tract development in flatfish metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Gomes, A S; Alves, R N; Rønnestad, I; Power, D M

    2014-06-26

    Metamorphosis in flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) is a late post-embryonic developmental event that prepares the organism for the larval-to-juvenile transition. Thyroid hormones (THs) play a central role in flatfish metamorphosis and the basic elements that constitute the thyroid axis in vertebrates are all present at this stage. The advantage of using flatfish to study the larval-to-juvenile transition is the profound change in external morphology that accompanies metamorphosis making it easy to track progression to climax. This important lifecycle transition is underpinned by molecular, cellular, structural and functional modifications of organs and tissues that prepare larvae for a successful transition to the adult habitat and lifestyle. Understanding the role of THs in the maturation of organs and tissues with diverse functions during metamorphosis is a major challenge. The change in diet that accompanies the transition from a pelagic larvae to a benthic juvenile in flatfish is associated with structural and functional modifications in the gastrointestinal tract (GI-tract). The present review will focus on the maturation of the GI-tract during metamorphosis giving particular attention to organogenesis of the stomach a TH triggered event. Gene transcripts and biological processes that are associated with GI-tract maturation during Atlantic halibut metamorphosis are identified. Gene ontology analysis reveals core biological functions and putative TH-responsive genes that underpin TH-driven metamorphosis of the GI-tract in Atlantic halibut. Deciphering the specific role remains a challenge. Recent advances in characterizing the molecular, structural and functional modifications that accompany the appearance of a functional stomach in Atlantic halibut are considered and future research challenges identified. PMID:24975541

  5. Vestibular Lesion-Induced Developmental Plasticity in Spinal Locomotor Networks during Xenopus laevis Metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Beyeler, Anna; Rao, Guillaume; Ladepeche, Laurent; Jacques, André; Simmers, John; Le Ray, Didier

    2013-01-01

    During frog metamorphosis, the vestibular sensory system remains unchanged, while spinal motor networks undergo a massive restructuring associated with the transition from the larval to adult biomechanical system. We investigated in Xenopus laevis the impact of a pre- (tadpole stage) or post-metamorphosis (juvenile stage) unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL) on young adult swimming performance and underlying spinal locomotor circuitry. The acute disruptive effects on locomotion were similar in both tadpoles and juvenile frogs. However, animals that had metamorphosed with a preceding UL expressed restored swimming behavior at the juvenile stage, whereas animals lesioned after metamorphosis never recovered. Whilst kinematic and electrophysiological analyses of the propulsive system showed no significant differences in either juvenile group, a 3D biomechanical simulation suggested that an asymmetry in the dynamic control of posture during swimming could account for the behavioral restoration observed in animals that had been labyrinthectomized before metamorphosis. This hypothesis was subsequently supported by in vivo electromyography during free swimming and in vitro recordings from isolated brainstem/spinal cord preparations. Specifically, animals lesioned prior to metamorphosis at the larval stage exhibited an asymmetrical propulsion/posture coupling as a post-metamorphic young adult. This developmental alteration was accompanied by an ipsilesional decrease in propriospinal coordination that is normally established in strict left-right symmetry during metamorphosis in order to synchronize dorsal trunk muscle contractions with bilateral hindlimb extensions in the swimming adult. Our data thus suggest that a disequilibrium in descending vestibulospinal information during Xenopus metamorphosis leads to an altered assembly of adult spinal locomotor circuitry. This in turn enables an adaptive compensation for the dynamic postural asymmetry induced by the vestibular imbalance and the restoration of functionally-effective behavior. PMID:23951071

  6. MiR-2 family regulates insect metamorphosis by controlling the juvenile hormone signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Jesus; Montañez, Raúl; Belles, Xavier

    2015-03-24

    In 2009 we reported that depletion of Dicer-1, the enzyme that catalyzes the final step of miRNA biosynthesis, prevents metamorphosis in Blattella germanica. However, the precise regulatory roles of miRNAs in the process have remained elusive. In the present work, we have observed that Dicer-1 depletion results in an increase of mRNA levels of Krüppel homolog 1 (Kr-h1), a juvenile hormone-dependent transcription factor that represses metamorphosis, and that depletion of Kr-h1 expression in Dicer-1 knockdown individuals rescues metamorphosis. We have also found that the 3'UTR of Kr-h1 mRNA contains a functional binding site for miR-2 family miRNAs (for miR-2, miR-13a, and miR-13b). These data suggest that metamorphosis impairment caused by Dicer-1 and miRNA depletion is due to a deregulation of Kr-h1 expression and that this deregulation is derived from a deficiency of miR-2 miRNAs. We corroborated this by treating the last nymphal instar of B. germanica with an miR-2 inhibitor, which impaired metamorphosis, and by treating Dicer-1-depleted individuals with an miR-2 mimic to allow nymphal-to-adult metamorphosis to proceed. Taken together, the data indicate that miR-2 miRNAs scavenge Kr-h1 transcripts when the transition from nymph to adult should be taking place, thus crucially contributing to the correct culmination of metamorphosis. PMID:25775510

  7. Larval nematodes found in amphibians from northeastern Argentina.

    PubMed

    González, C E; Hamann, M I

    2010-11-01

    Five species of amphibians, Leptodactylus podicipinus, Scinax acuminatus, S. nasicus, Rhinella fernandezae and Pseudis paradoxa, were collected in Corrientes province, Argentina and searched for larval nematodes. All larval nematodes were found as cysts in the serous of the stomach of hosts. Were identified one superfamily, Seuratoidea; one genus, Spiroxys (Superfamily Gnathostomatoidea) and one family, Rhabdochonidae (Superfamily Thelazioidea). We present a description and illustrations of these taxa. These nematodes have an indirect life cycle and amphibians are infected by consuming invertebrate, the intermediate hosts. The genus Spiroxys and superfamily Seuratoidea were reported for the first time for Argentinean amphibians. PMID:21180919

  8. Identification of genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis of Helicoverpa armigera

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Du-Juan; He, Hong-Juan; Chai, Lian-Qin; Jiang, Xiao-Juan; Wang, Jin-Xing; Zhao, Xiao-Fan

    2007-01-01

    Background Larval molting and metamorphosis are important physiological processes in the life cycle of the holometabolous insect. We used suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) to identify genes differentially expressed during larval molting and metamorphosis. Results We performed SSH between tissues from a variety of developmental stages, including molting 5th and feeding 6th instar larvae, metamorphically committed and feeding 5th instar larvae, and feeding 5th instar and metamorphically committed larvae. One hundred expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were identified and included 73 putative genes with similarity to known genes, and 27 unknown ESTs. SSH results were further characterized by dot blot, Northern blot, and RT-PCR. The expression levels of eleven genes were found to change during larval molting or metamorphosis, suggesting a functional role during these processes. Conclusion These results provide a new set of genes expressed specifically during larval molt or metamorphosis that are candidates for further studies into the regulatory mechanisms of those stage-specific genes during larval molt and metamorphosis PMID:17588272

  9. Checklist of Helminth parasites of Amphibians from South America.

    PubMed

    Campião, Karla Magalhães; Morais, Drausio Honorio; Dias, Olívia Tavares; Aguiar, Aline; Toledo, Gislayne; Tavares, Luiz Eduardo Roland; Da Silva, Reinaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Parasitological studies on helminths of amphibians in South America have increased in the past few years. Here, we present a list with summarized data published on helminths of South American amphibians from 1925 to 2012, including a list of helminth parasites, host species, and geographic records. We found 194 reports of helminths parasitizing 185 amphibian species from eleven countries: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Equador, French Guyana, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela. Helminth biodiversity includes 278 parasite species of the groups Acanthocephala, Nematoda, Cestoda, Monogenea and Trematoda. A list of helminth parasite species per host, and references are also presented. This contribution aims to document the biodiversity of helminth parasites in South American amphibians, as well as identify gaps in our knowledge, which in turn may guide subsequent studies.  PMID:25082165

  10. Trends in Amphibian Occupancy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Adams, Michael J.; Miller, David A. W.; Muths, Erin; Corn, Paul Stephen; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Waddle, Hardin; Walls, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Though a third of amphibian species worldwide are thought to be imperiled, existing assessments simply categorize extinction risk, providing little information on the rate of population losses. We conducted the first analysis of the rate of change in the probability that amphibians occupy ponds and other comparable habitat features across the United States. We found that overall occupancy by amphibians declined 3.7% annually from 2002 to 2011. Species that are Red-listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declined an average of 11.6% annually. All subsets of data examined had a declining trend including species in the IUCN Least Concern category. This analysis suggests that amphibian declines may be more widespread and severe than previously realized. PMID:23717602

  11. Trends in amphibian occupancy in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adams, Michael J.; Miller, David A.W.; Muths, Erin; Corn, Paul Stephen; Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L.; Fellers, Gary M.; Fisher, Robert N.; Sadinski, Walter J.; Waddle, Hardin; Walls, Susan C.

    2013-01-01

    Though a third of amphibian species worldwide are thought to be imperiled, existing assessments simply categorize extinction risk, providing little information on the rate of population losses. We conducted the first analysis of the rate of change in the probability that amphibians occupy ponds and other comparable habitat features across the United States. We found that overall occupancy by amphibians declined 3.7% annually from 2002 to 2011. Species that are Red-listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declined an average of 11.6% annually. All subsets of data examined had a declining trend including species in the IUCN Least Concern category. This analysis suggests that amphibian declines may be more widespread and severe than previously realized.

  12. Trends in amphibian occupancy in the United States.

    PubMed

    Adams, Michael J; Miller, David A W; Muths, Erin; Corn, Paul Stephen; Grant, Evan H Campbell; Bailey, Larissa L; Fellers, Gary M; Fisher, Robert N; Sadinski, Walter J; Waddle, Hardin; Walls, Susan C

    2013-01-01

    Though a third of amphibian species worldwide are thought to be imperiled, existing assessments simply categorize extinction risk, providing little information on the rate of population losses. We conducted the first analysis of the rate of change in the probability that amphibians occupy ponds and other comparable habitat features across the United States. We found that overall occupancy by amphibians declined 3.7% annually from 2002 to 2011. Species that are Red-listed by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) declined an average of 11.6% annually. All subsets of data examined had a declining trend including species in the IUCN Least Concern category. This analysis suggests that amphibian declines may be more widespread and severe than previously realized. PMID:23717602

  13. Ambient UV-B radiation causes deformities in amphibian embryos

    PubMed Central

    Blaustein, Andrew R.; Kiesecker, Joseph M.; Chivers, Douglas P.; Anthony, Robert G.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a great deal of recent attention on the suspected increase in amphibian deformities. However, most reports of amphibian deformities have been anecdotal, and no experiments in the field under natural conditions have been performed to investigate this phenomenon. Under laboratory conditions, a variety of agents can induce deformities in amphibians. We investigated one of these agents, UV-B radiation, in field experiments, as a cause for amphibian deformities. We monitored hatching success and development in long-toed salamanders under UV-B shields and in regimes that allowed UV-B radiation. Embryos under UV-B shields had a significantly higher hatching rate and fewer deformities, and developed more quickly than those exposed to UV-B. Deformities may contribute directly to embryo mortality, and they may affect an individual’s subsequent survival after hatching. PMID:9391095

  14. So You Think You Want a Pet Reptile or Amphibian?

    MedlinePLUS

    ... and live feeder rodents • DO thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water (for at least 20 seconds) immediately ... pet reptile or amphibian: ? DO thoroughly wash your hands with soap and water (for at least 20 seconds); ? DON’ ...

  15. Sound Source Perception in Anuran Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Sound source perception refers to the auditory system’s ability to parse incoming sensory information into coherent representations of distinct sound sources in the environment. Such abilities are no doubt key to successful communication in many taxa, but we know little about their function in animal communication systems. For anuran amphibians (frogs and toads), social and reproductive behaviors depend on a listener’s ability to hear and identify sound signals amid high levels of background noise in acoustically cluttered environments. Recent neuroethological studies are revealing how frogs parse these complex acoustic scenes to identify individual calls in noisy breeding choruses. Current evidence highlights some interesting similarities and differences in how the auditory systems of frogs and other vertebrates (most notably birds and mammals) perform auditory scene analysis. PMID:22265243

  16. Lectin binding patterns in amphibian epidermis.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J M; Navas, P; Garcia-Herdugo, G

    1987-01-01

    A battery of 6 different horseradish peroxidase conjugated lectins has been employed for structural localization of glycoconjugates in amphibian epidermis. Lens culinaris (LCA) lectin stained the basal membrane and gave no significant reaction on the epidermal layers. Canavlia ensiformis (Con A) and Griffonia simplicifolia II (GS II) lectins bound the keratinocyte cytoplasm and the basal membrane as well. Ulex europaeus I (UEA I) lectin had only reactivity with flask cells. Griffonia simplifolia I (GS I) and Glycine max (SBA) lectins preferentially bound the cell membranes of keratinocytes, being the intensity of the staining gradually increasing from the stratum spinosum to the stratum granulosum. These results show that UEA I, GS I, and SBA are good markers to distinguish different cell types and the degree of keratinocytes differentiation. PMID:3105215

  17. Role of Chemical Inducers in Larval Metamorphosis of Queen Conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus: Relationship to Other Marine Invertebrate Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    ANNE A. BOETTCHER; NANCY M. TARGETT

    Chemical cues are important in the exoge- nous and endogenous control of metamorphosis in many marine invertebrate larvae. In the queen conch, Strombus gigas Linnaeus, larval metamorphosis is induced by low molecular weight compounds associated with dominant species of red algae found in conch nursery grounds; these species include the foliose rhodophyte Laurencia poitei (Lamouroux). The responses of conch larvae

  18. Cloning and stage-specific expression of CK-M1 gene during metamorphosis of Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanjie; Zhang, Quanqi; Qi, Jie; Wang, Zhigang; Wang, Xubo; Sun, Yeying; Zhong, Qiwang; Li, Shuo; Li, Chunmei

    2010-05-01

    The symmetrical body of flatfish larvae changes dramatically into an asymmetrical form after metamorphosis. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this change are poorly understood. As an initial step to clarify these mechanisms, we used representational difference analysis of cDNA for the identification of genes active during metamorphosis in the Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olicaceus. One of the up-regulated genes was identified as creatine kinase muscle type 1 (CK-M1). Sequence analysis of CK-M1 revealed that it spanned 1 708 bp and encoded a protein of 382 amino acids. The overall amino acid sequence of the CK-M1 was highly conserved with those of other organisms. CK-M1 was expressed in adult fish tissues, including skeletal muscle, intestine and gill. Whole mount in-situ hybridization showed that the enhanced expression of CK-M1 expanded from the head to the whole body of larvae as metamorphosis progressed. Quantitative analysis revealed stage-specific high expression of CK-M1 during metamorphosis. The expression level of CK-M1 increased initially and peaked at metamorphosis, decreased afterward, and finally returned to the pre-metamorphosis level. This stage-specific expression pattern suggested strongly that CK-M1 was related to metamorphosis in the Japanese flounder. Its specific role in metamorphosis requires further study.

  19. The metamorphosis of managed care: implications for health reform internationally.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2010-01-01

    The conventional wisdom is that managed care's brief life is over and we are now in a post-managed care era. In fact, managed care has a long history and continues to thrive. Writers also often assume that managed care is a fixed thing. They overlook that managed care has evolved and neglect to examine the role that it plays in the health system. Furthermore, private actors and the state have used managed care tools to promote diverse goals. These include the following: increasing access to medical care; restricting physician entrepreneurialism; challenging professional control over the medical economy; curbing medical spending; managing medical practice and markets; furthering the growth of medical markets and private insurance; promoting for-profit medical facilities and insurers; earning bounties for reducing medical expenditures: and reducing governmental responsibility for, and oversight of, medical care. Struggles over these competing goals spurred the metamorphosis of managed care. This article explores how managed care transformed physicians' conflicts of interests and responses to them. It also examines how managed care altered the opportunities for patients/medical consumers to use exit and voice to spur change. PMID:20579232

  20. Consequences of habitat loss and fragmentation for wetland amphibian assemblages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard M. Lehtinen; Susan M. Galatowitsch; John R. Tester

    1999-01-01

    Landscape-level variables operating at multiple spatial scales likely influence wetland amphibian assemblages but have not\\u000a been investigated in detail. We examined the significance of habitat loss and fragmentation, as well as selected within-wetland\\u000a conditions, affecting amphibian assemblages in twenty-one glacial marshes. Wetlands were located within urban and agricultural\\u000a regions of central and southwestern Minnesota, USA and were distributed across two

  1. Focal Review: The Origin(s) of Modern Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason S. Anderson

    2008-01-01

    The recent description of the stem batrachian Gerobatrachus has changed the terms of the ongoing debate on the origin of extant amphibians (Lissamphibia: frogs, salamanders, and the\\u000a limbless caecilians). This important fossil, through a shared mosaic of unique derived salientian and urodele characters,\\u000a links frogs and salamanders with an archaic group of fossil amphibians known as amphibamid temnospondyls. The present

  2. Skin glands, poison and mimicry in dendrobatid and leptodactylid amphibians.

    PubMed

    Prates, Ivan; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Sciani, Juliana M; Pimenta, Daniel C; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Haddad, Célio F B; Jared, Carlos

    2012-03-01

    In amphibians, secretions of toxins from specialized skin poison glands play a central role in defense against predators. The production of toxic secretions is often associated with conspicuous color patterns that warn potential predators, as it is the case of many dendrobatid frogs, including Ameerega picta. This species resembles the presumably nontoxic Leptodactylus lineatus. This study tests for mimicry by studying the morphology and distribution of skin glands, components of skin secretion, and defensive behavior. Dorsal skin was studied histologically and histochemically, and skin secretions were submitted to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and assays for proteolytic activity. We found that poison glands in A. picta are filled with nonprotein granules that are rich in carbohydrates, while L. lineatus glands present protein granules. Accordingly, great amounts of proteins, at least some of them enzymes, were found in the poison of L. lineatus but not in that of A. picta. Both species differ greatly on profiles of gland distribution: In L. lineatus, poison glands are organized in clusters whose position coincides with colored elements of the dorsum. These regions are evidenced through a set of displays, suggesting that poison location is announced to predators through skin colors. In contrast, A. picta presents lower densities of glands, distributed homogeneously. This simpler profile suggests a rather qualitative than quantitative investment in chemical defense, in agreement with the high toxicity attributed to dendrobatids in general. Our data suggest that both species are toxic or unpalatable and transmit common warning signals to predators, which represents a case of Müllerian mimicry. PMID:22025347

  3. The effect of pinealectomy, continuous light, and continuous darkness on metamorphosis of anadromous sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, W.C.; Youson, J.H.

    1981-12-01

    The role of the pineal complex in lamprey metamorphosis was investigated by examining the influence of pinealectomy and continuous light and darkness on the initiation of this event in anadromous sea lampreys, Petromyzon marinus L. Larval lampreys, which on the basis of a condition factor were considered likely to enter metamorphosis in July, were separated in May of 1979 and 1980 into the following groups: (1) intact controls, (2) sham-operated controls, (3) pinealectomized individuals, (4) those exposed to continuous light, and (5) those exposed to continuous light or dark. The importance of the pineal complex to metamorphosis was supported by morphological evidence that, in all presumably pinealectomized individuals that entered metamorphosis, the complex had apparently not been removed during the surgical procedure. The ways in which the pineal complex may be involved in lamprey metamorphosis are discussed.

  4. Global patterns of diversification in the history of modern amphibians.

    PubMed

    Roelants, Kim; Gower, David J; Wilkinson, Mark; Loader, Simon P; Biju, S D; Guillaume, Karen; Moriau, Linde; Bossuyt, Franky

    2007-01-16

    The fossil record of modern amphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians) provides no evidence for major extinction or radiation episodes throughout most of the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. However, long-term gradual diversification is difficult to reconcile with the sensitivity of present-day amphibian faunas to rapid ecological changes and the incidence of similar environmental perturbations in the past that have been associated with high turnover rates in other land vertebrates. To provide a comprehensive overview of the history of amphibian diversification, we constructed a phylogenetic timetree based on a multigene data set of 3.75 kb for 171 species. Our analyses reveal several episodes of accelerated amphibian diversification, which do not fit models of gradual lineage accumulation. Global turning points in the phylogenetic and ecological diversification occurred after the end-Permian mass extinction and in the late Cretaceous. Fluctuations in amphibian diversification show strong temporal correlation with turnover rates in amniotes and the rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Approximately 86% of modern frog species and >81% of salamander species descended from only five ancestral lineages that produced major radiations in the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. This proportionally late accumulation of extant lineage diversity contrasts with the long evolutionary history of amphibians but is in line with the Tertiary increase in fossil abundance toward the present. PMID:17213318

  5. Global amphibian declines: perspectives from the United States and beyond

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Densmore, Christine L.

    2011-01-01

    Over recent decades, amphibians have experienced population declines, extirpations and species-level extinctions at an alarming rate. Numerous potential etiologies for amphibian declines have been postulated including climate and habitat degradation. Other potential anthropogenic causes including overexploitation and the frequent introductions of invasive predatory species have also been blamed for amphibian declines. Still other underlying factors may include infectious diseases caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, pathogenic viruses (Ranavirus), and other agents. It is nearly certain that more than one etiology is to blame for the majority of the global amphibian declines, and that these causal factors include some combination of climatological or physical habitat destabilization and infectious disease, most notably chytridiomycosis. Scientific research efforts are aimed at elucidating these etiologies on local, regional, and global scales that we might better understand and counteract the driving forces behind amphibian declines. Conservation efforts as outlined in the Amphibian Conservation Action Plan of 2005 are also being made to curtail losses and prevent further extinctions wherever possible.

  6. RAS Assays

    Cancer.gov

    The proportion of oncogenic mutants of KRAS proteins that are in the "active" (GTP-bound) form is far higher than that of wild-type RAS proteins. Scientists at the National Lab are developing high-throughput in vitro assays to measure interactions of GTP-loaded KRAS and effectors, such as CRAF and calmodulin, as well as imaging assays that can detect oncogenic KRAS interactions inside cells.

  7. [Modulating effect of weak combined magnetic fields on duration of mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor metamorphosis stage].

    PubMed

    Novikov, V V; She?man, I M; Iablokova, E V; Fesenko, E E

    2014-01-01

    It is shown that an exposure of pupae of the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor to the combined static (42 ?T) and very weak alternating (250 nT) magnetic fields exerts different influence, depending on the frequency of the alternating magnetic field, on duration of metamorphosis processes in these insects. For instance, an exposure of pupae to weak combined magnetic fields, adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for glutaminic acid (4,4 Hz), stimulates metamorphosis process--a transitional stage from pupae to imago lasts shorter. An inhibiting effect was observed when adjusted to the frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for Ca2 (32,2 Hz). At some frequencies this effect is not seen. For instance, an exposure at a frequency of ion cyclotron resonance for K+ (16,5 Hz) exerts no noticeable effect on the duration of the pupal metamorphosis stage. PMID:25715625

  8. Precocious Metamorphosis in the Juvenile Hormone–Deficient Mutant of the Silkworm, Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Daimon, Takaaki; Kozaki, Toshinori; Niwa, Ryusuke; Kobayashi, Isao; Furuta, Kenjiro; Namiki, Toshiki; Uchino, Keiro; Banno, Yutaka; Katsuma, Susumu; Tamura, Toshiki; Mita, Kazuei; Sezutsu, Hideki; Nakayama, Masayoshi; Itoyama, Kyo; Shimada, Toru; Shinoda, Tetsuro

    2012-01-01

    Insect molting and metamorphosis are intricately governed by two hormones, ecdysteroids and juvenile hormones (JHs). JHs prevent precocious metamorphosis and allow the larva to undergo multiple rounds of molting until it attains the proper size for metamorphosis. In the silkworm, Bombyx mori, several “moltinism” mutations have been identified that exhibit variations in the number of larval molts; however, none of them have been characterized molecularly. Here we report the identification and characterization of the gene responsible for the dimolting (mod) mutant that undergoes precocious metamorphosis with fewer larval–larval molts. We show that the mod mutation results in complete loss of JHs in the larval hemolymph and that the mutant phenotype can be rescued by topical application of a JH analog. We performed positional cloning of mod and found a null mutation in the cytochrome P450 gene CYP15C1 in the mod allele. We also demonstrated that CYP15C1 is specifically expressed in the corpus allatum, an endocrine organ that synthesizes and secretes JHs. Furthermore, a biochemical experiment showed that CYP15C1 epoxidizes farnesoic acid to JH acid in a highly stereospecific manner. Precocious metamorphosis of mod larvae was rescued when the wild-type allele of CYP15C1 was expressed in transgenic mod larvae using the GAL4/UAS system. Our data therefore reveal that CYP15C1 is the gene responsible for the mod mutation and is essential for JH biosynthesis. Remarkably, precocious larval–pupal transition in mod larvae does not occur in the first or second instar, suggesting that authentic epoxidized JHs are not essential in very young larvae of B. mori. Our identification of a JH–deficient mutant in this model insect will lead to a greater understanding of the molecular basis of the hormonal control of development and metamorphosis. PMID:22412378

  9. Investigating the Influence of Environmental Factors on Pesticide Exposure in Amphibians

    EPA Science Inventory

    Environmental factors such as temporal weather patterns and soil characterization coupled with pesticide application rates are known to influence exposure and subsequent absorption of these compounds in amphibians. Amphibians are a unique class of vertebrates due to their varied ...

  10. A review of the role of contaminants in amphibian declines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sparling, D.W.

    2003-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS--Although there are no published studies that demonstrate beyond all doubt that contaminants are involved in long term population declines of amphibians, there is ample evidence and reason to encourage active research and concern about effects. Many contaminants are lethal to amphibians at environmentally realistic concentrations. Acute mortality from these compounds may be difficult to detect because investigators would have to be present shortly after exposures. Chronic mortality may be masked by metapopulation phenomena so that areas that serve as population sinks may be repeatedly recolonized and difficult to identify. Metapopulation dynamics also make it more difficult to define discrete populations. Contaminants also have many sublethal effects on behavior, energetics, malformations, and diverse effects on physiological pathways which, by themselves might not lead to overt death but could alter reproduction or interact with other factors to result in gradual declines in populations. Scientific understanding of these interactions, and of the ecotoxicology of amphibians in general is far behind what is known about birds, fish, and mammals, and research is desperately needed in this area. Some specific suggestions for critically needed research include: (1) Determination of lethal concentrations of common contaminants - pesticides, PAHs, metals--under environmentally realistic conditions of light, temperature, and water chemistry. (2) Better understanding of the effects of long term (weeks, months), low- concentration exposure of persistent pesticides and stable contaminants on amphibians. (3) Development and refinement of bioindicators in amphibians to use in monitoring and screening for potential effects of contaminants in declining amphibian populations. (4) Further studies on the interaction between contaminants and disease agents including immunosuppression in amphibians. (5) Additional research on the interaction between ultraviolet radiation - both UV-A and UV-B--and a broader range of contaminants. (6) Development of models to assess risk in amphibians as related to landscape factors and especially in the aquatic-terrestrial interface. (7) Population survival requires that organisms survive through their entire life cycle; to date, there have been no studies that have examined the responses of amphibians to contaminants in all phases (egg, embryo, larvae and adult) of their life cycles.

  11. Exocytosis in the frog amphibian papilla.

    PubMed

    Quiñones, Patricia M; Luu, Cindy; Schweizer, Felix E; Narins, Peter M

    2012-02-01

    Using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings, we measured changes in membrane capacitance (?C (m)) in two subsets of hair cells from the leopard frog amphibian papilla (AP): the low-frequency (100-500 Hz), rostral hair cells and the high-frequency (500-1200 Hz), caudal hair cells, in order to investigate tonotopic differences in exocytosis. Depolarizations of both rostral and caudal hair cells evoked robust ?C (m) responses of similar amplitude. However, the calcium dependence of release, i.e., the relationship between ?C (m) relative to the amount of calcium influx (Q (Ca) (2+)), was found to be linear in rostral hair cells but supra-linear in caudal hair cells. In addition, the higher numbers of vesicles released at caudal hair cell active zones suggests increased temporal precision of caudal hair cell exocytosis. ?C (m) responses were also obtained in response to sinusoidal stimuli of varying frequency, but neither rostral nor caudal hair cell ?C (m) revealed any frequency selectivity. While all AP hair cells express both otoferlin and synaptotagmin IV (SytIV), we obtained evidence of a tonotopic distribution of the calcium buffer calretinin which may further increase temporal resolution at the level of the hair cell synapse. Our findings suggest that the low (rostral) and high (caudal) frequency hair cells apply different mechanisms for fine-tuning exocytosis. PMID:22124891

  12. Mitogenomic perspectives on the origin and phylogeny of living amphibians.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Zhou, Hui; Chen, Yue-Qin; Liu, Yi-Fei; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2005-06-01

    Establishing the relationships among modern amphibians (lissamphibians) and their ancient relatives is necessary for our understanding of early tetrapod evolution. However, the phylogeny is still intractable because of the highly specialized anatomy and poor fossil record of lissamphibians. Paleobiologists are still not sure whether lissamphibians are monophyletic or polyphyletic, and which ancient group (temnospondyls or lepospondyls) is most closely related to them. In an attempt to address these problems, eight mitochondrial genomes of living amphibians were determined and compared with previously published amphibian sequences. A comprehensive molecular phylogenetic analysis of nucleotide sequences yields a highly resolved tree congruent with the traditional hypotheses (Batrachia). By using a molecular clock-independent approach for inferring dating information from molecular phylogenies, we present here the first molecular timescale for lissamphibian evolution, which suggests that lissamphibians first emerged about 330 million years ago. By observing the fit between molecular and fossil times, we suggest that the temnospondyl-origin hypothesis for lissamphibians is more credible than other hypotheses. Moreover, under this timescale, the potential geographic origins of the main living amphibian groups are discussed: (i) advanced frogs (neobatrachians) may possess an Africa-India origin; (ii) salamanders may have originated in east Asia; (iii) the tropic forest of the Triassic Pangaea may be the place of origin for the ancient caecilians. An accurate phylogeny with divergence times can be also helpful to direct the search for "missing" fossils, and can benefit comparative studies of amphibian evolution. PMID:16012106

  13. Intraspecific variation of temperature-induced effects on metamorphosis in the pool frog (Rana lessonae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    German Orizaola; Anssi Laurila

    2009-01-01

    Understanding the factors that affect the process of metamorphosis in species with complex life cycles, and in particular their variation within and among populations, has been rarely explored until recently. We examined the effects of temperature environment on several metamorphic characteristics in three populations of the pool frog (Rana lessonae Camerano, 1882) by rearing individuals at two temperature environments (20

  14. Head Modeling from Pictures and Morphing in 3D with Image Metamorphosis based on triangulation

    E-print Network

    Lee, WonSook

    Head Modeling from Pictures and Morphing in 3D with Image Metamorphosis based on triangulation WON}@cui.unige.ch Abstract. This paper describes a combined method of facial reconstruction and morphing between two heads and 2D morphing based on triangulation. The basic idea is to generate an individualized head modified

  15. Image metamorphosis has proven to be a powerful visual effects tool. Many breath-

    E-print Network

    Wolberg, George

    on input images to specify the different positions of fea- tures in sample faces. Averaging the specifiedImage metamorphosis has proven to be a powerful visual effects tool. Many breath- taking examples now appear in film and television, depicting the fluid transformation of one digital image

  16. Energetics of Larval Swimming and Metamorphosis in Four Species of Bugula (Bryozoa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    DEAN E. WENDT

    2000-01-01

    The amount of energy available to larvae dur- ing swimming, location of a suitable recruitment site, and metamorphosis influences the length of time they can spend in the plankton. Energetic parameters such as swimming speed, oxygen consumption during swimming and meta- morphosis, and elemental carbon and nitrogen content were measured for larvae of four species of bryozoans, Bugula neritina, B.

  17. Methods for Volume Metamorphosis M. Chen, M.W. Jones and P. Townsend

    E-print Network

    Jones, Mark W.

    Methods for Volume Metamorphosis M. Chen, M.W. Jones and P. Townsend Department of Computer Science, University of Wales Swansea, Singleton Park, Swansea SA2 8PP, United Kingdom E-mail: {m.chen, m.w.jones, p.townsend

  18. Short-term fluctuation in salinity promotes rapid larval development and metamorphosis in Dendraster excentricus

    E-print Network

    George, Sophie B.

    Short-term fluctuation in salinity promotes rapid larval development and metamorphosis; accepted 10 May 2007 Abstract The effect of constant and fluctuating salinity on larval development at different stages of development were kept either at 32 (controls), exposed to constant low salinity (22

  19. Control of Pituitary Thyroid-stimulating Hormone Synthesis and Secretion by Thyroid Hormones during Xenopus Metamorphosis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Serum thyroid hormone (TH) concentrations in anuran larvae rise rapidly during metamorphosis. Such a rise in an adult anuran would inevitably trigger a negative feedback response resulting in decreased synthesis and secretion of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) by the pituitary....

  20. cDNA clone and expression analysis of ?-Tropomyosin during Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong-Mei; Su, Yan-Fang; Shi, Zhi-Yi; Fu, Yuan-Shuai

    2014-07-01

    Tropomyosin (TM) plays a critical role in skeletal and cardiac muscle development and function. To assess the functional significance of ?-TM in Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) development and metamorphosis, cDNA from Japanese flounder was cloned and ?-TM mRNA measured during development and metamorphosis. The full-length cDNA is 1 191 bp, including a 5'-untranslated region of 114 bp, a 3'-UTR of 222 bp, and an open reading frame of 855 bp encoding a polypeptide of 284 amino acids. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that ?-TM mRNA is initially expressed in unfertilized ovum, indicating the ?-TM gene is maternal. Relatively low mRNA levels were observed in different embryonic stages. A higher level of ?-TM mRNA was detected 3 days post hatching (dph), while the highest level was measured at 29 dph (metamorphic climax) after which it declined towards the end of metamorphosis. The expression of ?-TM mRNA was up-regulated in thyroid hormone-treated larvae at 36 dph, but there was no marked difference at other stages when compared to control animals. After thiourea treatment, the expression of ?-TM mRNA declined slightly. These data provide basic information that can be utilized in further studies into the role of ?-TM in P. olivaceus development and metamorphosis. PMID:25017750

  1. Experimental metamorphosis of Halisarca dujardini larvae (Demospongiae, Halisarcida): evidence of flagellated cell totipotentiality.

    PubMed

    Ereskovsky, Alexander V; Konjukov, Paul; Willenz, Philippe

    2007-06-01

    The potency of flagellated cells of Halisarca dujardini (Halisarcida, Demospongiae) larvae from the White Sea (Arctic) was investigated experimentally during metamorphosis. Two types of experiments were conducted. First, larvae were maintained in Ca2+ free seawater (CFSW) until the internal cells were released outside through the opening of the posterior pole. These larvae that only composed of flagellated cells (epithelial larvae) were then returned to sea water (SW) to observe their metamorphosis. The posterior aperture closed before they settled on a substratum and started a metamorphosis similar to intact larvae. Secondly, epithelial larvae were, first, further treated in CFSW and then mechanically dissociated. Separated cells or groups of cells were returned to SW, where they constituted large friable conglomerates. After 12-17 h in SW, flagellated cells showed the first steps of dedifferentiation, and regional differentiation was noticeable within conglomerates after approximately 24-36 h. External cells differentiated into pinacocytes while internal cells kept their flagella and became united in a layer. Within 48-72 h, internal cells of the conglomerates formed spherical or ovoid clusters with an internal cavity bearing flagella. These clusters further fused together in a rhagon containing one or two large choanocyte chambers. The sequence of cellular processes in epithelial larvae and in flagellated cell conglomerates was similar. Previous observations indicating the totipotentiality of larval flagellated cells during normal metamorphosis of H. dujardini are thus confirmed. PMID:17427973

  2. Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Tobin J. Hammer1,2

    E-print Network

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    Metamorphosis of a Butterfly-Associated Bacterial Community Tobin J. Hammer1,2 *, W. Owen McMillan2 Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Panama City, Republic of Panama Abstract Butterflies are charismatic these microbial symbionts are little-studied, despite their likely importance to butterfly ecology and evolution

  3. Metamorphosis of mangrove crab megalopae, Ucides cordatus (Ocypodidae): Effects of interspecific versus intraspecific settlement cues

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Darlan J. B. Simith; Karen Diele

    2008-01-01

    It has recently been shown that metamorphosis of Ucides cordatus megalopae is triggered by substrata from the mangrove forest habitat, and, in particular, adult conspecific odours. Here we demonstrate that the gender of the odour-emitting crabs is insignificant for the metamorphic response in this species. We further investigate whether other estuarine crabs (Goniopsis cruentata, Uca spp., and Callinectes danae) also

  4. Variation in surrounding forest habitat influences the initial orientation of juvenile amphibians emigrating from breeding ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leroy J. Walston; Stephen J. Mullin

    2008-01-01

    Juvenile dispersal is important for the persistence of . amphibian populations. Previous studies have observed nonrandom orientation in juvenile amphibians emigrating from breeding ponds; however, the environmental cues associ- ated with these movements are not well understood. We examined the emigration behavior of recently metamorphosed ju- veniles of three pond-breeding amphibian species from three woodland ponds. We found that juvenile

  5. Amphibian population declines in montane southern Mexico: resurveys of historical localities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Lips; Joseph R. Mendelson III; Antonio Muñoz-Alonso; Luis Canseco-Márquez; Daniel G. Mulcahy

    2004-01-01

    Declines of amphibian populations have been well documented in the US, Canada, and Central America, but little is known regarding the status of amphibian populations in Mexico. In 2000, we surveyed 43 transects from 3 upland regions in Guerrero and Oaxaca, Mexico. We found 161 adult amphibians belonging to 39 species, representing only 19–48% of the anuran fauna known from

  6. Dryness increases predation risk in efts: support for an amphibian decline hypothesis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jason R. Rohr; Dale M. Madison

    2003-01-01

    One hypothesis for amphibian declines is that increased dryness attributed to global climate change exposes amphibians to greater biotic threat and, consequently, greater mortality. But, little is known about behavioral responses of terrestrial amphibians to dry conditions alone or in combination with biotic threats. We used field observations and laboratory experiments to test the response of efts (terrestrial juveniles) of

  7. Effect of delayed metamorphosis on larval competence, and post-larval survival and growth, in the abalone Haliotis iris Gmelin.

    PubMed

    Roberts, R D.; Lapworth, C

    2001-03-30

    Marine invertebrate species vary in their ability to delay metamorphosis, and in the degree to which delayed metamorphosis compromises juvenile performance. Abalone (Haliotis iris) larvae were deprived of metamorphosis cues and the effects of delayed metamorphosis on larval competence, and post-larval growth and survival were quantified. Larvae were exposed to a metamorphosis inducer (the coralline alga Phymatolithon repandum (Foslie) Wilks and Woelkerling) on Days 11, 18, 22, 26, 30 and 34 post-fertilisation (temperature 16-17 degrees C). Post-larvae were reared on diatoms (Nitzschia longissima Grunow) for 3-4 weeks post-metamorphosis. Delayed metamorphosis caused progressive negative effects on post-larval performance. Virtually all larvae initiated metamorphosis in response to P. repandum, regardless of larval age. The proportion of post-larvae that developed post-larval shell growth within 2 days of metamorphosis induction dropped only approximately 20% from Day 11 to Day 26 (P>0.05), but was significantly lower by Day 30 and Day 34 (P<0.001). Larvae that metamorphosed on Days 11, 18 and 22 showed high survival (>80%) and growth rates (means of 20-22 µm shell length per day). In contrast, larvae that metamorphosed on Day 26 and Day 30 had poor survival (30-40%) and lower (P<0.05) growth rates (15-16 µm/day). Of the larvae that metamorphosed on Day 34, only 7 (30%) survived their first week post-metamorphosis, and they grew only 2 µm/day on average. Only one of these post-larvae (4%) survived the second week. The visible yolk supply diminished over the life of the larvae and was near zero by Day 34. Nearly all larvae had died by Day 38. H. iris larvae remained competent to metamorphose for at least 3 weeks after they attained competence. Post-larval growth and survival were not reduced if metamorphosis occurred within 3 weeks of fertilisation. This extended period of larval competence implies that H. iris larvae can potentially disperse for up to several weeks before successful metamorphosis. PMID:11239622

  8. Contribution of ventral blood island mesoderm to hematopoiesis in postmetamorphic and metamorphosis-inhibited Xenopus laevis.

    PubMed

    Rollins-Smith, L A; Blair, P

    1990-11-01

    In an effort to label very early erythrocyte and lymphocyte populations and to follow their fate in normally developing postmetamorphic frogs and goitrogen-treated permanent larvae, diploid (2N) and triploid (3N) ventral blood island (VBI) mesoderm was exchanged between neurula stage embryos (about 16-22 hr old). Beginning at 15 days of age, half of the 2N or 3N hosts were treated with sodium perchlorate to prevent thyroxine-induced developmental changes. At larval stages 55-59 (41-48 days) and at 1-2 months postmetamorphosis (110-120 days), the untreated control chimeras and age-matched perchlorate-treated chimeras were killed for analysis of the VBI contribution to blood, spleen, and thymus populations by flow cytometry. The data suggest that grafting of ventral blood island mesoderm is an effective way to label an early larval erythrocyte population that declines after metamorphosis. In perchlorate-blocked permanent larvae this early VBI-derived erythrocyte population persists. In contrast, grafting of VBI mesoderm was less useful as a method to label a larvally distinct lymphocyte population in the thymus and spleen. At the late larval stages that we examined, the proportion of VBI-derived cells in thymus and spleen was not different from that observed after metamorphosis. Inhibition of metamorphosis interfered with the thymocyte expansion that normally occurs after metamorphosis, but the proportion of VBI-derived cells in thymus and spleen was not affected. This suggests that lymphopoiesis occurring in late larval life and after metamorphosis uses a stable persisting population of VBI-derived stem cells as well as dorsally derived stem cells. PMID:2172056

  9. Competency of Reptiles and Amphibians for Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    PubMed Central

    White, Gregory; Ottendorfer, Christy; Graham, Sean; Unnasch, Thomas R.

    2011-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is endemic throughout most of the eastern United States. Although it is transmitted year round in Florida, transmission elsewhere is seasonal. The mechanism that enables EEEV to overwinter in seasonal foci remains obscure. In previous field studies, early season EEEV activity was detected in mosquito species that feed primarily upon ectothermic hosts, suggesting that reptiles and amphibians might represent overwintering reservoir hosts for EEEV. To determine if this might be possible, two commonly fed upon amphibian and reptile species were evaluated as hosts for the North American subtype I strain of EEEV. Neither amphibian species was a competent host. However, circulating viremias were detected in both reptile species examined. Hibernating infected garter snakes remained viremic after exiting hibernation. These data suggest that snakes may represent an overwintering host for North American EEEV. PMID:21896798

  10. Genetic evidence for a high diversity and wide distribution of endemic strains of the pathogenic chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in wild Asian amphibians.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Fong, Jonathan J; Cha, Moonsuk; Wogan, Guinevere O U; Baek, Hae Jun; Lee, Hang; Min, Mi-Sook; Waldman, Bruce

    2013-08-01

    Population declines and extinctions of amphibians have been attributed to the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), especially one globally emerging recombinant lineage ('Bd-GPL'). We used PCR assays that target the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) of Bd to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Bd in South Korea, where Bd is widely distributed but is not known to cause morbidity or mortality in wild populations. We isolated Korean Bd strains from native amphibians with low infection loads and compared them to known worldwide Bd strains using 19 polymorphic SNP and microsatellite loci. Bd prevalence ranged between 12.5 and 48.0%, in 11 of 17 native Korean species, and 24.7% in the introduced bullfrog Lithobates catesbeianus. Based on ITS sequence variation, 47 of the 50 identified Korean haplotypes formed a group closely associated with a native Brazilian Bd lineage, separated from the Bd-GPL lineage. However, multilocus genotyping of three Korean Bd isolates revealed strong divergence from both Bd-GPL and the native Brazilian Bd lineages. Thus, the ITS region resolves genotypes that diverge from Bd-GPL but otherwise generates ambiguous phylogenies. Our results point to the presence of highly diversified endemic strains of Bd across Asian amphibian species. The rarity of Bd-GPL-associated haplotypes suggests that either this lineage was introduced into Korea only recently or Bd-GPL has been outcompeted by native Bd strains. Our results highlight the need to consider possible complex interactions among native Bd lineages, Bd-GPL and their associated amphibian hosts when assessing the spread and impact of Bd-GPL on worldwide amphibian populations. PMID:23802586

  11. Modeling amphibian energetics, habitat suitability, and movements of western toads, Anaxyrus (= Bufo) boreas, across present and future landscapes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul E. Bartelt; Robert W. Klaver; Warren P. Porter

    2010-01-01

    Effective conservation of amphibian populations requires the prediction of how amphibians use and move through a landscape. Amphibians are closely coupled to their physical environment. Thus an approach that uses the physiological attributes of amphibians, together with knowledge of their natural history, should be helpful. We used Niche Mapper™ to model the known movements and habitat use patterns of a

  12. Amphibian skin: a promising resource for antimicrobial peptides.

    PubMed

    Barra, D; Simmaco, M

    1995-06-01

    Amphibian skin is a rich source of biologically active compounds that are assumed to have diverse physiological and defence functions. In addition to the range of pharmacologically active peptides present, some of which have mammalian homologues, skin secretions contain a broad spectrum of antimicrobial peptides. As yet, such peptides from only a few species have been studied, and screening of other species is expected to yield further new antimicrobial activities. Natural antimicrobial peptides isolated from amphibian skin could provide lead structures for either the chemical, or rDNA synthesis of novel antimicrobials. PMID:7598843

  13. Assaying mechanosensation*

    PubMed Central

    Chalfie, Martin; Hart, Anne C.; Rankin, Catharine H.; Goodman, Miriam B.

    2015-01-01

    C. elegans detect and respond to diverse mechanical stimuli using neuronal circuitry that has been defined by decades of work by C. elegans researchers. In this WormMethods chapter, we review and comment on the techniques currently used to assess mechanosensory response. This methods review is intended both as an introduction for those new to the field and a convenient compendium for the expert. A brief discussion of commonly used mechanosensory assays is provided, along with a discussion of the neural circuits involved, consideration of critical protocol details, and references to the primary literature. PMID:25093996

  14. Autocrine regulation of ecdysone synthesis by ?3-octopamine receptor in the prothoracic gland is essential for Drosophila metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    Ohhara, Yuya; Shimada-Niwa, Yuko; Kayashima, Yasunari; Hayashi, Yoshiki; Akagi, Kazutaka; Ueda, Hitoshi; Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Kimiko; Kobayashi, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    In Drosophila, pulsed production of the steroid hormone ecdysone plays a pivotal role in developmental transitions such as metamorphosis. Ecdysone production is regulated in the prothoracic gland (PG) by prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) and insulin-like peptides (Ilps). Here, we show that monoaminergic autocrine regulation of ecdysone biosynthesis in the PG is essential for metamorphosis. PG-specific knockdown of a monoamine G protein-coupled receptor, ?3-octopamine receptor (Oct?3R), resulted in arrested metamorphosis due to lack of ecdysone. Knockdown of tyramine biosynthesis genes expressed in the PG caused similar defects in ecdysone production and metamorphosis. Moreover, PTTH and Ilps signaling were impaired by Oct?3R knockdown in the PG, and activation of these signaling pathways rescued the defect in metamorphosis. Thus, monoaminergic autocrine signaling in the PG regulates ecdysone biogenesis in a coordinated fashion on activation by PTTH and Ilps. We propose that monoaminergic autocrine signaling acts downstream of a body size checkpoint that allows metamorphosis to occur when nutrients are sufficiently abundant. PMID:25605909

  15. Mitogenomic Perspectives on the Origin and Phylogeny of Living Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peng Zhang; Hui Zhou; Yue-Qin Chen; Yi-Fei Liu; Liang-Hu Qu

    2005-01-01

    Establishing the relationships among modern amphibians (lissamphibians) and their ancient relatives is neces- sary for our understanding of early tetrapod evolution. However, the phylogeny is still intractable because of the highly specialized anatomy and poor fossil record of lissamphibians. Paleobiologists are still not sure whether lissamphibians are monophyletic or polyphyletic, and which ancient group (temnospondyls or lepospondyls) is most closely

  16. On the Worrying Fate of Data Deficient Amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Nori, Javier; Loyola, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The ‘Data Deficient’ (DD) category of the IUCN Red List assembles species that cannot be placed in another category due to insufficient information. This process generates uncertainty about whether these species are safe or actually in danger. Here, we give a global overview on the current situation of DD amphibian species (almost a quarter of living amphibians) considering land-use change through habitat modification, the degree of protection of each species and the socio-political context of each country harboring DD species. We found that DD amphibians have, on average, 81% of their ranges totally outside protected areas. Worryingly, more than half of DD species have less than 1% of their distribution represented in protected areas. Furthermore, the percentage of overlap between species’ range and human-modified landscapes is high, at approximately 58%. Many countries harboring a large number of DD species show a worrying socio-political trend illustrated by substantial, recent incremental increases in the Human Development Index and lower incremental increases in the establishment of protected areas. Most of these are African countries, which are located mainly in the central and southern regions of the continent. Other countries with similar socio-political trends are in southeastern Asia, Central America, and in the northern region of South America. This situation is concerning, but it also creates a huge opportunity for considering DD amphibians in future conservation assessments, planning, and policy at different levels of government administration. PMID:25965422

  17. Introduction The decline and wealth of amphibian populations

    E-print Network

    Carranza, Salvador

    ). The Montseny newt (Calotriton arnoldi) is one of the most recent described amphibian species in Europe juveniles from the eastern population and 33 adults and 13 juveniles from the western populations (153 newts in total). Newts were caught by hand, sexed, and SVL (snout-vent length) measured by means a digital

  18. On the worrying fate of data deficient amphibians.

    PubMed

    Nori, Javier; Loyola, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    The 'Data Deficient' (DD) category of the IUCN Red List assembles species that cannot be placed in another category due to insufficient information. This process generates uncertainty about whether these species are safe or actually in danger. Here, we give a global overview on the current situation of DD amphibian species (almost a quarter of living amphibians) considering land-use change through habitat modification, the degree of protection of each species and the socio-political context of each country harboring DD species. We found that DD amphibians have, on average, 81% of their ranges totally outside protected areas. Worryingly, more than half of DD species have less than 1% of their distribution represented in protected areas. Furthermore, the percentage of overlap between species' range and human-modified landscapes is high, at approximately 58%. Many countries harboring a large number of DD species show a worrying socio-political trend illustrated by substantial, recent incremental increases in the Human Development Index and lower incremental increases in the establishment of protected areas. Most of these are African countries, which are located mainly in the central and southern regions of the continent. Other countries with similar socio-political trends are in southeastern Asia, Central America, and in the northern region of South America. This situation is concerning, but it also creates a huge opportunity for considering DD amphibians in future conservation assessments, planning, and policy at different levels of government administration. PMID:25965422

  19. AMPHIBIAN UPLAND HABITAT USE AND ITS CONSEQUENCES FOR POPULATION VIABILITY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter C. Trenham; H. Bradley Shaffer

    2005-01-01

    To predict the effects of habitat alteration on population size and viability, data describing the landscape-scale distribution of individuals are needed. Many amphibians breed in wetland habitats and spend the vast majority of their lives in nearby upland habitats. However, for most species, the spatial distribution of individuals in upland habitats is poorly understood. To estimate the upland distribution of

  20. Effects of Terrestrial Buffer Zones on Amphibians on Golf Courses

    PubMed Central

    Puglis, Holly J.; Boone, Michelle D.

    2012-01-01

    A major cause of amphibian declines worldwide is habitat destruction or alteration. Public green spaces, such as golf courses and parks, could serve as safe havens to curb the effects of habitat loss if managed in ways to bolster local amphibian communities. We reared larval Blanchard's cricket frogs (Acris blanchardi) and green frogs (Rana clamitans) in golf course ponds with and without 1 m terrestrial buffer zones, and released marked cricket frog metamorphs at the golf course ponds they were reared in. Larval survival of both species was affected by the presence of a buffer zone, with increased survival for cricket frogs and decreased survival for green frogs when reared in ponds with buffer zones. No marked cricket frog juveniles were recovered at any golf course pond in the following year, suggesting that most animals died or migrated. In a separate study, we released cricket frogs in a terrestrial pen and allowed them to choose between mown and unmown grass. Cricket frogs had a greater probability of using unmown versus mown grass. Our results suggest that incorporating buffer zones around ponds can offer suitable habitat for some amphibian species and can improve the quality of the aquatic environment for some sensitive local amphibians. PMID:22761833

  1. LAGOON WATER FROM CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS AND AMPHIBIAN DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lagoon Water from Confined Animal Feed Operations and Amphibian Development. Dumont, J. N.* and Slagle, S., Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK, and Hutchins, S. R., U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (NRMRL/SPRD), Ada, OK. There is some evidence that confined anima...

  2. Pesticides in amphibian habitats of central and northern California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Amphibians in California are facing serious population declines. Contaminants, especially pesticides, have been linked to these declines. This study reports on a survey of central and northern California wetlands sampled along four transects associated with Lassen National Park, Lake Tahoe, Yosemit...

  3. Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov. causes lethal chytridiomycosis in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Martel, An; Spitzen-van der Sluijs, Annemarieke; Blooi, Mark; Bert, Wim; Ducatelle, Richard; Fisher, Matthew C; Woeltjes, Antonius; Bosman, Wilbert; Chiers, Koen; Bossuyt, Franky; Pasmans, Frank

    2013-09-17

    The current biodiversity crisis encompasses a sixth mass extinction event affecting the entire class of amphibians. The infectious disease chytridiomycosis is considered one of the major drivers of global amphibian population decline and extinction and is thought to be caused by a single species of aquatic fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis. However, several amphibian population declines remain unexplained, among them a steep decrease in fire salamander populations (Salamandra salamandra) that has brought this species to the edge of local extinction. Here we isolated and characterized a unique chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans sp. nov., from this salamander population. This chytrid causes erosive skin disease and rapid mortality in experimentally infected fire salamanders and was present in skin lesions of salamanders found dead during the decline event. Together with the closely related B. dendrobatidis, this taxon forms a well-supported chytridiomycete clade, adapted to vertebrate hosts and highly pathogenic to amphibians. However, the lower thermal growth preference of B. salamandrivorans, compared with B. dendrobatidis, and resistance of midwife toads (Alytes obstetricans) to experimental infection with B. salamandrivorans suggest differential niche occupation of the two chytrid fungi. PMID:24003137

  4. A Conservation Strategy for the Amphibians of Madagascar

    E-print Network

    Vences, Miguel

    on modeling species distribution of Malagasy amphibians, and we identify target areas for exploration and biogeography. Although many of the newly discovered species are genetically, bio-acoustically; Köhler et al., 2005), their discovery questioning the validity of some species identifications

  5. RISK ASSESSMENT FOR THE EFFECTS OF SOLAR RADIATION ON AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have demonstrated that exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) can cause mortality and increase the occurrence of eye and limb malformation in some species of amphibians. Based on these reports and various field observations, it has been hypothesized that UV...

  6. Alien mink predation induces prolonged declines in archipelago amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Ahola, Markus; Nordström, Mikael; Banks, Peter B; Laanetu, Nikolai; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2006-01-01

    Amphibians are undergoing enigmatic global declines variously attributed to a complex web of anthropogenic forces. Alien predators pose a fundamental threat to biodiversity generally that is predicted to be most acute in island ecosystems. While amphibian eggs and tadpoles are vulnerable to aquatic predators, the effect of predators on adult, reproducing frogs, which most influence amphibian population processes, is unknown. Here, we report on the responses of amphibian populations in the outer Finnish Archipelago to a long-term, large-scale removal of American mink (Mustela vison Schreb.), an invasive predator linked to recent biodiversity loss across Europe. Removal increased both the densities and distribution of common frogs (Rana temporaria L.) but not those of common toads (Bufo bufo L.), which appear to escape mink predation because of their unpalatable skin. Importantly, the largest benefits of mink removal to frog recovery were slow to appear as frogs apparently have a delayed maturation in these harsh environments, which means we must be cautious about reliance upon short-term results. PMID:16720400

  7. UPDATE ON COORDINATED STUDIES OF AMPHIBIAN DISTRIBUTIONS AND UV RADIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In February of 2000 researchers from the EPA, the National Park Service, other governmental agencies, and academia formulated a plan for coordinated studies of amphibian distributions and aquatic ultraviolet radiation exposure risks in several national parks. At this point we hav...

  8. FACTORS ADVERSELY AFFECTING AMPHIBIAN POPULATIONS IN THE US

    EPA Science Inventory

    Factors known or suspected to be adversely affecting native amphibian populations in the US were identified using information from species accounts written in a standardized format by multiple authors in a forthcoming book. Specific adverse factors were identified for 53 (58%) of...

  9. Using Amphibians and Reptiles To Learn the Process of Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Janice Schnake; Greene, Brian D.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses using amphibians and reptiles as an excellent resource for students to observe and gain an understanding of the process of science. These animals are easy to maintain in the classroom and play important roles in ecosystems as the prey for many birds and mammals and as the predators of various organisms. (SAH)

  10. Using Reptile and Amphibian Activities in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasek, Terry; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2008-01-01

    Reptiles and amphibians are a diverse and interesting group of organisms. The four activities described in this article take students' curiosity into the realm of scientific understanding. The activities involve the concepts of species identification; animal adaptations, communication, and habitat; and conservation. (Contains 1 table and 2…

  11. Habitat Relationships of Amphibians and Reptiles in California Oak Woodlands

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM M. BLOCK; MICHAEL L. MORRIS

    1998-01-01

    We, used pitfall traps and time-constrained searches to sample amphibians and reptiles and to describe their habitats in oak woodlands at three areas in California. We captured 766 individuals rep- resenting 15 species during pitfall trapping and 333 animals representing 15 species during the time-con- strained searches. A total of 19 species were sampled. Across all study areas, several positive

  12. Forecasting changes in amphibian biodiversity: aiming at a moving target

    E-print Network

    Forecasting changes in amphibian biodiversity: aiming at a moving target James P. Collins1 of species that have gone missing is only one measure of the loss of biodiversity. Long-term studies goal of significantly reversing the rate of loss of Earth's biodiversity can be met. Keywords: amphibia

  13. The North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Fowle, Suzanne C.

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) has posted several more resources online. This article introduces readers to The North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations and discusses availability and uses of the Center's databases and resources. The resource may be browsed online or downloaded as a .zip file.

  14. ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION DOSE AND AMPHIBIAN DISTRIBUTIONS IN NATIONAL PARKS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultraviolet Radiation Dose and Amphibian Distributions in National Parks. Diamond, S. A., Detenbeck, N. E., USEPA, Duluth, MN, USA, Bradford, D. F., USEPA, Las Vegas, NV, USA, Trenham, P. C., University of California, Davis, CA., USA, Adams, M. J., Corn, P. S., Hossack, B., USGS,...

  15. The tubular vacuolation process in amphibian skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James A. Fraser; Jeremy N. Skepper; Austin R. Hockaday; Christopher L.-H. Huang

    1998-01-01

    The exposure of amphibian muscle to osmotic shock through the introduction and subsequent withdrawal of extracellular glycerol causes ‘vacuolation’ in the transverse tubules. Such manoeuvres can also electrically isolate the transverse tubules from the surface (‘detubulation’), particularly if followed by exposures to high extracellular [Ca2+] and\\/or gradual cooling. This study explored factors influencing vacuolation in Rana temporaria sartorius muscle. Vacuole

  16. Chytridiomycosis impacts predator-prey interactions in larval amphibian communities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew J. Parris; Joseph G. Beaudoin

    2004-01-01

    Despite ecologists increasingly recognizing pathogens as playing significant roles in community dynamics, few experimental studies have quantified patterns of disease impacts on natural systems. Amphibians are experiencing population declines, and a fungal pathogen ( Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis; Chytridiomycota) is a suspected causal agent in many declines. We studied the effects of a pathogenic fungus on community interactions between the gray treefrog,

  17. Inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Death Valley National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.

    2006-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program in the Mojave Network, we conducted an inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Death Valley National Park in 2002-04. Objectives for this inventory were to: 1) Inventory and document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species occurring at DEVA, primarily within priority sampling areas, with the goal of documenting at least 90% of the species present; 2) document (through collection or museum specimen and literature review) one voucher specimen for each species identified; 3) provide a GIS-referenced list of sensitive species that are federally or state listed, rare, or worthy of special consideration that occur within priority sampling locations; 4) describe park-wide distribution of federally- or state-listed, rare, or special concern species; 5) enter all species data into the National Park Service NPSpecies database; and 6) provide all deliverables as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Methods included daytime and nighttime visual encounter surveys, road driving, and pitfall trapping. Survey effort was concentrated in predetermined priority sampling areas, as well as in areas with a high potential for detecting undocumented species. We recorded 37 species during our surveys, including two species new to the park. During literature review and museum specimen database searches, we recorded three additional species from DEVA, elevating the documented species list to 40 (four amphibians and 36 reptiles). Based on our surveys, as well as literature and museum specimen review, we estimate an overall inventory completeness of 92% for Death Valley and an inventory completeness of 73% for amphibians and 95% for reptiles. Key Words: Amphibians, reptiles, Death Valley National Park, Inyo County, San Bernardino County, Esmeralda County, Nye County, California, Nevada, Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, inventory, NPSpecies.

  18. Juvenile hormone metabolism in the larval-pupal metamorphosis of Manduca sexta 

    E-print Network

    Sparagana, Steven Paul

    1984-01-01

    of understanding of the insect's behavior and life history may be gained through the analysis of the molecular events which initiate, maintain, and terminate each phase of metamorphosis, These molecular processes are no less wondrous than the overt physiological.../. , 1968) f or Gal leri a me/lone/la (Hsiao and Hsiao, 1977), Pieris brassicae and Barathra brassicae (Varjas et a/. , 1976), and Spodoptera /itura (Yagi, 1976) . Mauchamp et al. (1979) verified that a peak of JH I was present in prepupal Pieris...

  19. A phosphoproteomics approach to elucidate neuropeptide signal transduction controlling insect metamorphosis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kim F. Rewitz; Martin R. Larsen; Anders Lobner-Olesen; Robert Rybczynski; Michael B. O'Connor; Lawrence I. Gilbert

    2009-01-01

    In insects, the neuropeptide prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) stimulates production of ecdysone (E) in the prothoracic glands (PGs). E is the precursor of the principal steroid hormone, 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), that is responsible for eliciting molting and metamorphosis. In this study, we used quantitative phosphoproteomics to investigate signal transduction events initiated by PTTH. We identified Spook (CYP307A1), a suspected rate-limiting enzyme for

  20. Review and synthesis of the effects of climate change on amphibians.

    PubMed

    Li, Yiming; Cohen, Jeremy M; Rohr, Jason R

    2013-06-01

    Considerable progress has been made in understanding the responses of amphibians to climate change, with successful research carried out on climate change-associated shifts in amphibian phenology, elevational distributions and amphibian-parasite interactions. We review and synthesize the literature on this topic, emphasizing acutely lethal, sublethal, indirect and positive effects of climate change on amphibians, and major research gaps. For instance, evidence is lacking on poleward shifts in amphibian distributions and on changes in body sizes and morphologies of amphibians in response to climate change. We have limited information on amphibian thermal tolerances, thermal preferences, dehydration breaths, opportunity costs of water conserving behaviors and actual temperature and moisture ranges amphibians experience. Even when much of this information is available, there remains little evidence that climate change is acutely lethal to amphibians. This suggests that if climate change is contributing to declines, it might be through effects that are not acutely lethal, indirect, or both, but evidence in support of this suggestion is necessary. In fact, evidence that climate change is directly contributing to amphibian declines is weak, partly because researchers have not often ruled out alternative hypotheses, such as chytrid fungus or climate-fungus interactions. Consequently, we recommend that amphibian-climate research shift from primarily inductive, correlational approach as to studies that evaluate alternative hypotheses for declines. This additional rigor will require interdisciplinary collaborations, estimates of costs and benefits of climate change to amphibian fitness and populations, and the integration of correlative field studies, experiments on 'model' amphibian species, and mathematical and functional, physiological models. PMID:23731811

  1. Involvement of Wnt signaling pathways in the metamorphosis of the bryozoan Bugula neritina.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yue Him; Wang, Hao; Ravasi, Timothy; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we analyzed the metamorphosis of the marine bryozoan Bugula neritina. We observed the morphogenesis of the ancestrula. We defined three distinct pre-ancestrula stages based on the anatomy of the developing polypide and the overall morphology of pre-ancestrula. We then used an annotation based enrichment analysis tool to analyze the B. neritina transcriptome and identified over-representation of genes related to Wnt signaling pathways, suggesting its involvement in metamorphosis. Finally, we studied the temporal-spatial gene expression studies of several Wnt pathway genes. We found that one of the Wnt ligand, BnWnt10, was expressed spatially opposite to the Wnt antagonist BnsFRP within the blastemas, which is the presumptive polypide. Down-stream components of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway were exclusively expressed in the blastemas. Bn?catenin and BnFz5/8 were exclusively expressed in the blastemas throughout the metamorphosis. Based on the genes expression patterns, we propose that BnWnt10 and BnsFRP may relate to the patterning of the polypide, in which the two genes served as positional signals and contributed to the polarization of the blastemas. Another Wnt ligand, BnWnt6, was expressed in the apical part of the pre-ancestrula epidermis. Overall, our findings suggest that the Wnt signaling pathway may be important to the pattern formation of polypide and the development of epidermis. PMID:22448242

  2. Larger Body Size at Metamorphosis Enhances Survival, Growth and Performance of Young Cane Toads (Rhinella marina)

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera-Guzmán, Elisa; Crossland, Michael R.; Brown, Gregory P.; Shine, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Body size at metamorphosis is a key trait in species (such as many anurans) with biphasic life-histories. Experimental studies have shown that metamorph size is highly plastic, depending upon larval density and environmental conditions (e.g. temperature, food supply, water quality, chemical cues from conspecifics, predators and competitors). To test the hypothesis that this developmental plasticity is adaptive, or to determine if inducing plasticity can be used to control an invasive species, we need to know whether or not a metamorphosing anuran’s body size influences its subsequent viability. For logistical reasons, there are few data on this topic under field conditions. We studied cane toads (Rhinella marina) within their invasive Australian range. Metamorph body size is highly plastic in this species, and our laboratory studies showed that larger metamorphs had better locomotor performance (both on land and in the water), and were more adept at catching and consuming prey. In mark-recapture trials in outdoor enclosures, larger body size enhanced metamorph survival and growth rate under some seasonal conditions. Larger metamorphs maintained their size advantage over smaller siblings for at least a month. Our data support the critical but rarely-tested assumption that all else being equal, larger body size at metamorphosis is likely to enhance an individual’s long term viability. Thus, manipulations to reduce body size at metamorphosis in cane toads may help to reduce the ecological impact of this invasive species. PMID:23922930

  3. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): 5-year report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, Erin; Gallant, Alisa L.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Battaglin, William A.; Green, David E.; Staiger, Jennifer S.; Walls, Susan C.; Gunzburger, Margaret S.; Kearney, Rick F.

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is an innovative, multidisciplinary program that began in 2000 in response to a congressional directive for the Department of the Interior to address the issue of amphibian declines in the United States. ARMIi??s formulation was cross-disciplinary, integrating U.S. Geological Survey scientists from Biology, Water, and Geography to develop a course of action (Corn and others, 2005a). The result has been an effective program with diverse, yet complementary, expertise. ARMIi??s approach to research and monitoring is multiscale. Detailed investigations focus on a few species at selected local sites throughout the country; monitoring addresses a larger number of species over broader areas (typically, National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges); and inventories to document species occurrence are conducted more extensively across the landscape. Where monitoring is conducted, the emphasis is on an ability to draw statistically defensible conclusions about the status of amphibians. To achieve this objective, ARMI has instituted a monitoring response variable that has nationwide applicability. At research sites, ARMI focuses on studying species/environment interactions, determining causes of observed declines, and developing new techniques to sample populations and analyze data. Results from activities at all scales are provided to scientists, land managers, and policymakers, as appropriate. The ARMI program and the scientists involved contribute significantly to understanding amphibian declines at local, regional, national, and international levels. Within National Parks and National Wildlife Refuges, findings help land managers make decisions applicable to amphibian conservation. For example, the National Park Service (NPS) selected amphibians as a vital sign for several of their monitoring networks, and ARMI scientists provide information and assistance in developing monitoring methods for this NPS effort. At the national level, ARMI has had major exposure at a variety of meetings, including a dedicated symposium at the 2004 joint meetings of the Herpetologistsi?? League, the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists, and the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles. Several principal investigators have brought international exposure to ARMI through venues such as the World Congress of Herpetology in South Africa in 2005 (invited presentation by Dr. Gary Fellers), the Global Amphibian Summit, sponsored by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and Wildlife Conservation International, in Washington, D.C., 2005 (invited participation by Dr. P.S. Corn), and a special issue of the international herpetological journal Alytes focused on ARMI in 2004 (edited by Dr. C.K. Dodd, Jr.). ARMI research and monitoring efforts have addressed at least 7 of the 21 Threatened and Endangered Species listed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (California red-legged frog [Rana draytonii], Chiricahua leopard frog [R. chiricahuensis], arroyo toad [Bufo californicus], dusky gopher frog [Rana sevosa], mountain yellow-legged frog [R. muscosa], flatwoods salamander [Ambystoma cingulatum], and the golden coqui [Eleutherodactylus jasperi]), and 9 additional species of concern recognized by the IUCN. ARMI investigations have addressed time-sensitive research, such as emerging infectious diseases and effects on amphibians related to natural disasters like wildfire, hurricanes, and debris flows, and the effects of more constant, environmental change, like urban expansion, road development, and the use of pesticides. Over the last 5 years, ARMI has partnered with an extensive list of government, academic, and private entities. These partnerships have been fruitful and have assisted ARMI in developing new field protocols and analytic tools, in using and refining emerging technologies to improve accuracy and efficiency of data handling, in cond

  4. Development, organization, and remodeling of phoronid muscles from embryo to metamorphosis (Lophotrochozoa: Phoronida)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The phoronid larva, which is called the actinotrocha, is one of the most remarkable planktotrophic larval types among marine invertebrates. Actinotrochs live in plankton for relatively long periods and undergo catastrophic metamorphosis, in which some parts of the larval body are consumed by the juvenile. The development and organization of the muscular system has never been described in detail for actinotrochs and for other stages in the phoronid life cycle. Results In Phoronopsis harmeri, muscular elements of the preoral lobe and the collar originate in the mid-gastrula stage from mesodermal cells, which have immigrated from the anterior wall of the archenteron. Muscles of the trunk originate from posterior mesoderm together with the trunk coelom. The organization of the muscular system in phoronid larvae of different species is very complex and consists of 14 groups of muscles. The telotroch constrictor, which holds the telotroch in the larval body during metamorphosis, is described for the first time. This unusual muscle is formed by apical myofilaments of the epidermal cells. Most larval muscles are formed by cells with cross-striated organization of myofibrils. During metamorphosis, most elements of the larval muscular system degenerate, but some of them remain and are integrated into the juvenile musculature. Conclusion Early steps of phoronid myogenesis reflect the peculiarities of the actinotroch larva: the muscle of the preoral lobe is the first muscle to appear, and it is important for food capture. The larval muscular system is organized in differently in different phoronid larvae, but always exhibits a complexity that probably results from the long pelagic life, planktotrophy, and catastrophic metamorphosis. Degeneration of the larval muscular system during phoronid metamorphosis occurs in two ways, i.e., by complete or by incomplete destruction of larval muscular elements. The organization and remodeling of the muscular system in phoronids exhibits the combination of protostome-like and deuterostome-like features. This combination, which has also been found in the organization of some other systems in phoronids, can be regarded as an important characteristic and one that probably reflects the basal position of phoronids within the Lophotrochozoa. PMID:23617418

  5. A field guide to amphibian larvae and eggs of Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parmelee, J.R.; Knutson, M.G.; Lyon, J.E.

    2002-01-01

    Apparent worldwide declines in amphibian populations (Pechmann and Wake 1997) have stimulated interest in amphibians as bioindicators of the health of ecosystems. Because we have little information on the population status of many species, there is interest by public and private land management agencies in monitoring amphibian populations. Amphibian egg and larval surveys are established methods of surveying pond-breeding amphibians. Adults may be widely dispersed across the landscape, but eggs and larvae are confined to the breeding site during a specific season of the year. Also, observations of late-stage larvae or metamorphs are evidence of successful reproduction, which is an important indicator of the viability of the population. The goal of this guide is to help students, natural resources personnel, and biologists identify eggs and larval stages of amphibians in the field without the aid of a microscope.

  6. Acid sensitivity and water chemistry correlates of amphibian breeding ponds in northern Wisconsin, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franz J. Kutka; Marilyn D. Bachmann

    1990-01-01

    Fifty-one amphibian breeding sites in northern Wisconsin were sampled in two surveys, in 1986 and 1987, to determine the chemical conditions and amphibian inhabitants present. All twenty-one ponds in 1986 and twenty-eight in 1987 were mildly acidic and sensitive to acidification. The pH levels encountered were generally not toxic to the resident amphibians, and may have been related to levels

  7. Impacts of climate change on the amphibians and reptiles of Southeast Asia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Bickford; Sam D. Howard; Daniel J. J. Ng; Jennifer A. Sheridan

    2010-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles will be adversely affected by projected rapid changes in climate in the next decades. Here, we review\\u000a the known and potential impacts of climate change on the Southeast Asian amphibians and reptiles and make mitigation recommendations\\u000a for both research and policy. Current amphibian and reptile distributions and ecologies mirror climate patterns, and we expect\\u000a that adaptation to

  8. Size-structured effects of common carp on reproduction of pond-breeding amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Janusz Kloskowski

    2009-01-01

    The role of fish in driving amphibian communities has been widely recognized. However, little is known about size-structured\\u000a interactions between amphibian and fish populations. This study compared the taxonomic occurrence and densities of larval\\u000a amphibians between unstocked ponds and ponds stocked with different age cohorts of common carp Cyprinus carpio differing in average body size. The average total densities of

  9. Association of amphibians with attenuation of ultraviolet-b radiation in montane ponds

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael J. Adams; Daniel E. Schindler; Bruce R. Bury

    2001-01-01

    Ambient ultraviolet-b (UV-B) radiation (280-320 nm) has increased at north-temperate latitudes in the last two decades. UV-B can be detrimental to amphibians, and amphibians have shown declines in some areas during this same period. We documented the distribution of amphibians and salmonids in 42 remote, subalpine and alpine ponds in Olympic National Park, Washington, United States. We inferred relative exposure

  10. COMBINED EFFECTS OF UV-B RADIATION AND NITRATE FERTILIZER ON LARVAL AMPHIBIANS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Audrey C. Hatch; Andrew R. Blaustein

    2003-01-01

    As part of a global loss of biodiversity, amphibian populations are declining worldwide. Numerous factors may be involved in these declines, including environmental changes and the spread of contaminants. Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation (280-315 nm) and chemical pollution are two factors that have become increasingly important as contributing to amphibian mortality and, perhaps, to amphibian population declines. Therefore, we studied the

  11. Global stressors and the global decline of amphibians: tipping the stress immunocompetency axis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph M. Kiesecker

    There is a widespread consensus that the earth is experiencing a mass extinction event and at the forefront are amphibians,\\u000a the most threatened of all vertebrate taxa. A recent assessment found that nearly one-third (32%, 1,856 species) of the world’s\\u000a amphibian species are threatened. Amphibians have existed on the earth for over 300 million years, yet in just the last

  12. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis infection and lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona).

    PubMed

    Gower, David J; Doherty-Bone, Thomas; Loader, Simon P; Wilkinson, Mark; Kouete, Marcel T; Tapley, Benjamin; Orton, Frances; Daniel, Olivia Z; Wynne, Felicity; Flach, Edmund; Müller, Hendrik; Menegon, Michele; Stephen, Ian; Browne, Robert K; Fisher, Mathew C; Cunningham, Andrew A; Garner, Trenton W J

    2013-06-01

    Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is commonly termed the 'amphibian chytrid fungus' but thus far has been documented to be a pathogen of only batrachian amphibians (anurans and caudatans). It is not proven to infect the limbless, generally poorly known, and mostly soil-dwelling caecilians (Gymnophiona). We conducted the largest qPCR survey of Bd in caecilians to date, for more than 200 field-swabbed specimens from five countries in Africa and South America, representing nearly 20 species, 12 genera, and 8 families. Positive results were recovered for 58 specimens from Tanzania and Cameroon (4 families, 6 genera, 6+ species). Quantities of Bd were not exceptionally high, with genomic equivalent (GE) values of 0.052-17.339. In addition, we report the first evidence of lethal chytridiomycosis in caecilians. Mortality in captive (wild-caught, commercial pet trade) Geotrypetes seraphini was associated with GE scores similar to those we detected for field-swabbed, wild animals. PMID:23677560

  13. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Established in 1958, the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles (SSAR) "is the largest international herpetological society, and is recognized worldwide for having the most diverse program of publications, meetings, and other activities." The SSAR website contains resources for professional and amateur herpetologists alike. The site provides information about SSAR officers and editors, committees, membership, annual meetings, publications, grants, and awards. The site also contains guidelines for submitting to the _Journal of Herpetology_ and the _Herpetological Review_. Notably, members of the SSAR community provide a free (pre-submission) Manuscript Review Service for herpetologists "whose first language is not English, but who are striving to publish their findings in peer reviewed English language journals." Site visitors interested in reptile and amphibian conservation should be sure to check out the SSAE Conservation Committee page.

  14. Visualising lymph movement in anuran amphibians with computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Michael S; Hansen, Kasper; Wang, Tobias; Lauridsen, Henrik; Thygesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Lymph flux rates in anuran amphibians are high relative to those of other vertebrates owing to 'leaky' capillaries and a high interstitial compliance. Lymph movement is accomplished primarily by specialised lymph muscles and lung ventilation that move lymph through highly compartmentalised lymph sacs to the dorsally located lymph hearts, which are responsible for pumping lymph into the circulatory system; however, it is unclear how lymph reaches the lymph hearts. We used computed tomography (CT) to visualise an iodinated contrast agent, injected into various lymph sacs, through the lymph system in cane toads (Rhinella marina). We observed vertical movement of contrast agent from lymph sacs as predicted, but the precise pathways were sometimes unexpected. These visual results confirm predictions regarding lymph movement, but also provide some novel findings regarding the pathways for lymph movement and establish CT as a useful technique for visualising lymph movement in amphibians. PMID:25165132

  15. Congenital malformations of the vertebral column in ancient amphibians.

    PubMed

    Witzmann, F; Rothschild, B M; Hampe, O; Sobral, G; Gubin, Y M; Asbach, P

    2014-04-01

    Temnospondyls, the largest group of Palaeozoic and Mesozoic amphibians, primitively possess rhachitomous vertebrae with multipartite centra (consisting of one horse-shoe-shaped inter- and paired pleurocentra). In a group of temnospondyls, the stereospondyls, the intercentra became pronounced and disc-like, whereas the pleurocentra were reduced. We report the presence of congenital vertebral malformations (hemi, wedge and block vertebrae) in Permian and Triassic temnospondyls, showing that defects of formation and segmentation in the tetrapod vertebral column represent a fundamental failure of somitogenesis that can be followed throughout tetrapod evolution. This is irrespective of the type of affected vertebra, that is, rhachitomous or stereospondylous, and all components of the vertebra can be involved (intercentrum, pleurocentrum and neural arch), either together or independently on their own. This is the oldest known occurrence of wedge vertebra and congenital block vertebra described in fossil tetrapods. The frequency of vertebral congenital malformations in amphibians appears unchanged from the Holocene. PMID:23551141

  16. Conservation genetics and genomics of amphibians and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, H Bradley; Gidi?, Müge; McCartney-Melstad, Evan; Neal, Kevin M; Oyamaguchi, Hilton M; Tellez, Marisa; Toffelmier, Erin M

    2015-01-01

    Amphibians and reptiles as a group are often secretive, reach their greatest diversity often in remote tropical regions, and contain some of the most endangered groups of organisms on earth. Particularly in the past decade, genetics and genomics have been instrumental in the conservation biology of these cryptic vertebrates, enabling work ranging from the identification of populations subject to trade and exploitation, to the identification of cryptic lineages harboring critical genetic variation, to the analysis of genes controlling key life history traits. In this review, we highlight some of the most important ways that genetic analyses have brought new insights to the conservation of amphibians and reptiles. Although genomics has only recently emerged as part of this conservation tool kit, several large-scale data sources, including full genomes, expressed sequence tags, and transcriptomes, are providing new opportunities to identify key genes, quantify landscape effects, and manage captive breeding stocks of at-risk species. PMID:25580719

  17. Society for Conservation Biology Transfer of a Pathogen from Fish to Amphibians

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    vector for diseases responsible for amphibian losses. Transferenciade un Patogeno de Peces a Anfibios introducidas so- bre comunidades nativas, incluyendo la dispersion de patogenos por las especies introducidas

  18. Models of climate associations and distributions of amphibians in Italy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marco Girardello; Matteo Griggio; Mark J. Whittingham; Stephen P. Rushton

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the relationships between the distribution of animal species and climatic variables is not only important for understanding\\u000a which factors govern species distribution but also for improving our ability to predict future ecological responses to climate\\u000a change. In the context of global climate change, amphibians are of particular interest because of their extreme sensitivity\\u000a to the variation of temperature and

  19. Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Jason R; Raffel, Thomas R; Romansic, John M; McCallum, Hamish; Hudson, Peter J

    2008-11-11

    Human alteration of the environment has arguably propelled the Earth into its sixth mass extinction event and amphibians, the most threatened of all vertebrate taxa, are at the forefront. Many of the worldwide amphibian declines have been caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and two contrasting hypotheses have been proposed to explain these declines. Positive correlations between global warming and Bd-related declines sparked the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis, which proposes that global warming increased cloud cover in warm years that drove the convergence of daytime and nighttime temperatures toward the thermal optimum for Bd growth. In contrast, the spatiotemporal-spread hypothesis states that Bd-related declines are caused by the introduction and spread of Bd, independent of climate change. We provide a rigorous test of these hypotheses by evaluating (i) whether cloud cover, temperature convergence, and predicted temperature-dependent Bd growth are significant positive predictors of amphibian extinctions in the genus Atelopus and (ii) whether spatial structure in the timing of these extinctions can be detected without making assumptions about the location, timing, or number of Bd emergences. We show that there is spatial structure to the timing of Atelopus spp. extinctions but that the cause of this structure remains equivocal, emphasizing the need for further molecular characterization of Bd. We also show that the reported positive multi-decade correlation between Atelopus spp. extinctions and mean tropical air temperature in the previous year is indeed robust, but the evidence that it is causal is weak because numerous other variables, including regional banana and beer production, were better predictors of these extinctions. Finally, almost all of our findings were opposite to the predictions of the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis. Although climate change is likely to play an important role in worldwide amphibian declines, more convincing evidence is needed of a causal link. PMID:18987318

  20. Evaluating the links between climate, disease spread, and amphibian declines

    PubMed Central

    Rohr, Jason R.; Raffel, Thomas R.; Romansic, John M.; McCallum, Hamish; Hudson, Peter J.

    2008-01-01

    Human alteration of the environment has arguably propelled the Earth into its sixth mass extinction event and amphibians, the most threatened of all vertebrate taxa, are at the forefront. Many of the worldwide amphibian declines have been caused by the chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), and two contrasting hypotheses have been proposed to explain these declines. Positive correlations between global warming and Bd-related declines sparked the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis, which proposes that global warming increased cloud cover in warm years that drove the convergence of daytime and nighttime temperatures toward the thermal optimum for Bd growth. In contrast, the spatiotemporal-spread hypothesis states that Bd-related declines are caused by the introduction and spread of Bd, independent of climate change. We provide a rigorous test of these hypotheses by evaluating (i) whether cloud cover, temperature convergence, and predicted temperature-dependent Bd growth are significant positive predictors of amphibian extinctions in the genus Atelopus and (ii) whether spatial structure in the timing of these extinctions can be detected without making assumptions about the location, timing, or number of Bd emergences. We show that there is spatial structure to the timing of Atelopus spp. extinctions but that the cause of this structure remains equivocal, emphasizing the need for further molecular characterization of Bd. We also show that the reported positive multi-decade correlation between Atelopus spp. extinctions and mean tropical air temperature in the previous year is indeed robust, but the evidence that it is causal is weak because numerous other variables, including regional banana and beer production, were better predictors of these extinctions. Finally, almost all of our findings were opposite to the predictions of the chytrid-thermal-optimum hypothesis. Although climate change is likely to play an important role in worldwide amphibian declines, more convincing evidence is needed of a causal link. PMID:18987318

  1. On the origin of and phylogenetic relationships among living amphibians.

    PubMed

    Zardoya, R; Meyer, A

    2001-06-19

    The phylogenetic relationships among the three orders of modern amphibians (Caudata, Gymnophiona, and Anura) have been estimated based on both morphological and molecular evidence. Most morphological and paleontological studies of living and fossil amphibians support the hypothesis that salamanders and frogs are sister lineages (the Batrachia hypothesis) and that caecilians are more distantly related. Previous interpretations of molecular data based on nuclear and mitochondrial rRNA sequences suggested that salamanders and caecilians are sister groups to the exclusion of frogs. In an attempt to resolve this apparent conflict, the complete mitochondrial genomes of a salamander (Mertensiella luschani) and a caecilian (Typhlonectes natans) were determined (16,656 and 17,005 bp, respectively) and compared with previously published sequences from a frog (Xenopus laevis) and several other groups of vertebrates. Phylogenetic analyses of the mitochondrial data supported with high bootstrap values the monophyly of living amphibians with respect to other living groups of tetrapods, and a sister group relationship of salamanders and frogs. The lack of phylogenetically informative sites in the previous rRNA data sets (because of its shorter size and higher among-site rate variation) likely explains the discrepancy between our results and those based on previous molecular data. Strong support of the Batrachia hypothesis from both molecule- and morphology-based studies provides a robust phylogenetic framework that will be helpful to comparative studies among the three living orders of amphibians and will permit better understanding of the considerably divergent vertebral, brain, and digit developmental patterns found in frogs and salamanders. PMID:11390961

  2. Amphibian Development in the Virtual Absence of Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, Kenneth A.; Black, Steven D.; Wassersug, Richard J.

    1995-01-01

    To test whether gravity is required for normal amphibian development, Xenopus laevis females were induced to ovulate aboard the orbiting Space Shuttle. Eggs were fertilized in vitro, and although early embryonic stages showed some abnormalities, the embryos were able to regulate and produce nearly normal larvae. These results demonstrate that a vertebrate can ovulate in the virtual absence of gravity and that the eggs can develop to a free-living stage.

  3. Amphibian and Reptile Trade in Texas: Current Status and Trends

    E-print Network

    Prestridge, Heather L.

    2010-10-12

    to Texas Parks and Wildlife Department by season and county. ............... 64 7 Lizards collected from the wild as reported by non-game dealers to Texas Parks and Wildlife Department by season and county. .............. 65 8 Snakes..., at least 38 species of lizards, 4 snakes, 1 crocodilian, and 3 amphibians that are non-native have established breeding populations (Crother et al. 2008). Six species of exotic lizards are established in Texas. The Red-eared slider, Trachemys scripta...

  4. Invasive hybrid tiger salamander genotypes impact native amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Maureen E.; Johnson, Jarrett R.; Fitzpatrick, Benjamin M.

    2009-01-01

    Although the ecological consequences of species invasions are well studied, the ecological impacts of genetic introgression through hybridization are less understood. This is particularly true of the impacts of hybridization on “third party” community members not genetically involved in hybridization. We also know little about how direct interactions between hybrid and parental individuals influence fitness. Here, we examined the ecological effects of hybridization between the native, threatened California Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma californiense) and the introduced Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum mavortium). Native x introduced hybrids are widespread in California, where they are top predators in seasonal ponds. We examined the impacts of early generation hybrids (first 2 generations of parental crosses) and contemporary hybrids derived from ponds where hybrids have been under selection in the wild for 20 generations. We found that most classes of hybrid tiger salamander larvae dramatically reduced survival of 2 native community members, the Pacific Chorus Frog (Pseudacris regilla) and the California Newt (Taricha torosa). We also found that native A. californiense larvae were negatively impacted by the presence of hybrid larvae: Native survival and size at metamorphosis were reduced and time to metamorphosis was extended. We also observed a large influence of Mendelian dominance on size, metamorphic timing and predation rate of hybrid tiger salamanders. These results suggest that both genetic and ecological factors are likely to influence the dynamics of admixture, and that tiger salamander hybridization might constitute a threat to additional pond-breeding species of concern in the region. PMID:19564601

  5. Cardiac performance correlates of relative heart ventricle mass in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Kluthe, Gregory J; Hillman, Stanley S

    2013-08-01

    This study used an in situ heart preparation to analyze the power output and stroke work of spontaneously beating hearts of four anurans (Rhinella marina, Lithobates catesbeianus, Xenopus laevis, Pyxicephalus edulis) and three urodeles (Necturus maculosus, Ambystoma tigrinum, Amphiuma tridactylum) that span a representative range of relative ventricle mass (RVM) found in amphibians. Previous research has documented that RVM correlates with dehydration tolerance and maximal aerobic capacity in amphibians. The power output (mW g(-1) ventricle mass) and stroke work (mJ g(-1) ventricle muscle mass) were independent of RVM and were indistinguishable from previously published results for fish and reptiles. RVM was significantly correlated with maximum power output (P max, mW kg(-1) body mass), stroke volume, cardiac output, afterload pressure (P O) at P max, and preload pressure (P I) at P max. P I at P max and P O at P max also correlated very closely with each other. The increases in both P I and P O at maximal power outputs in large hearts suggest that concomitant increases in blood volume and/or increased modulation of vascular compliance either anatomically or via sympathetic tone on the venous vasculature would be necessary to achieve P max in vivo. Hypotheses for variation in RVM and its concomitant increased P max in amphibians are developed. PMID:23619575

  6. Interventions for reducing extinction risk in chytridiomycosis-threatened amphibians.

    PubMed

    Scheele, Ben C; Hunter, David A; Grogan, Laura F; Berger, Lee; Kolby, Jon E; McFadden, Michael S; Marantelli, Gerry; Skerratt, Lee F; Driscoll, Don A

    2014-10-01

    Wildlife diseases pose an increasing threat to biodiversity and are a major management challenge. A striking example of this threat is the emergence of chytridiomycosis. Despite diagnosis of chytridiomycosis as an important driver of global amphibian declines 15 years ago, researchers have yet to devise effective large-scale management responses other than biosecurity measures to mitigate disease spread and the establishment of disease-free captive assurance colonies prior to or during disease outbreaks. We examined the development of management actions that can be implemented after an epidemic in surviving populations. We developed a conceptual framework with clear interventions to guide experimental management and applied research so that further extinctions of amphibian species threatened by chytridiomycosis might be prevented. Within our framework, there are 2 management approaches: reducing Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (the fungus that causes chytridiomycosis) in the environment or on amphibians and increasing the capacity of populations to persist despite increased mortality from disease. The latter approach emphasizes that mitigation does not necessarily need to focus on reducing disease-associated mortality. We propose promising management actions that can be implemented and tested based on current knowledge and that include habitat manipulation, antifungal treatments, animal translocation, bioaugmentation, head starting, and selection for resistance. Case studies where these strategies are being implemented will demonstrate their potential to save critically endangered species. PMID:24975971

  7. Optimizing protection efforts for amphibian conservation in Mediterranean landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Muñoz, Enrique; Ceacero, Francisco; Carretero, Miguel A.; Pedrajas-Pulido, Luis; Parra, Gema; Guerrero, Francisco

    2013-05-01

    Amphibians epitomize the modern biodiversity crisis, and attract great attention from the scientific community since a complex puzzle of factors has influence on their disappearance. However, these factors are multiple and spatially variable, and declining in each locality is due to a particular combination of causes. This study shows a suitable statistical procedure to determine threats to amphibian species in medium size administrative areas. For our study case, ten biological and ecological variables feasible to affect the survival of 15 amphibian species were categorized and reduced through Principal Component Analysis. The principal components extracted were related to ecological plasticity, reproductive potential, and specificity of breeding habitats. Finally, the factor scores of species were joined in a presence-absence matrix that gives us information to identify where and why conservation management are requires. In summary, this methodology provides the necessary information to maximize benefits of conservation measures in small areas by identifying which ecological factors need management efforts and where should we focus them on.

  8. Explanation for naturally occurring supernumerary limbs in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Sessions, S K; Ruth, S B

    1990-04-01

    The occasional occurrence of high frequencies of limb abnormalities, including extra limbs, in natural populations of amphibians has long been a puzzle. In this paper we report the discovery of a population in which such limb abnormalities appear to be caused by a parasitic flatworm (trematode) that uses amphibians as intermediate hosts. The cercarial larval stage of the trematode attacks amphibians, penetrating the skin to form cysts (metacercariae). The cysts are preferentially localized in the cloacal region, including the developing hind limb regions in larvae of both frogs (Hyla regilla) and salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum). A wide range of limb abnormalities are seen, including duplicated limb structures ranging from extra digits to several extra whole limbs. We hypothesize that these limb abnormalities result from localized regulatory responses of developing and regenerating limb tissues to mechanical disruption caused by the trematode cysts. We have tested this idea by implanting inert resin beads into developing limb buds of frogs and salamanders. Since this treatment can cause supernumerary limb structures, our hypothesis is sufficient to explain the naturally occurring extra limbs. PMID:2348164

  9. Turbine Sound May Influence the Metamorphosis Behaviour of Estuarine Crab Megalopae

    PubMed Central

    Pine, Matthew K.; Jeffs, Andrew G.; Radford, Craig A.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that a shift towards renewable energy production is needed in order to avoid further anthropogenically induced climate change. The ocean provides a largely untapped source of renewable energy. As a result, harvesting electrical power from the wind and tides has sparked immense government and commercial interest but with relatively little detailed understanding of the potential environmental impacts. This study investigated how the sound emitted from an underwater tidal turbine and an offshore wind turbine would influence the settlement and metamorphosis of the pelagic larvae of estuarine brachyuran crabs which are ubiquitous in most coastal habitats. In a laboratory experiment the median time to metamorphosis (TTM) for the megalopae of the crabs Austrohelice crassa and Hemigrapsus crenulatus was significantly increased by at least 18 h when exposed to either tidal turbine or sea-based wind turbine sound, compared to silent control treatments. Contrastingly, when either species were subjected to natural habitat sound, observed median TTM decreased by approximately 21–31% compared to silent control treatments, 38–47% compared to tidal turbine sound treatments, and 46–60% compared to wind turbine sound treatments. A lack of difference in median TTM in A. crassa between two different source levels of tidal turbine sound suggests the frequency composition of turbine sound is more relevant in explaining such responses rather than sound intensity. These results show that estuarine mudflat sound mediates natural metamorphosis behaviour in two common species of estuarine crabs, and that exposure to continuous turbine sound interferes with this natural process. These results raise concerns about the potential ecological impacts of sound generated by renewable energy generation systems placed in the nearshore environment. PMID:23240063

  10. Analysis of gene expression in Homarus americanus larvae exposed to sublethal concentrations of endosulfan during metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Megan; Greenwood, Spencer J; Clark, K Fraser; Jackman, Paula; Fairchild, Wayne

    2013-12-01

    Agricultural pesticide runoff has been suspected as the cause of numerous fish kills in rivers throughout Prince Edward Island but the impact on the surrounding marine environment is unknown. Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, is a potent neurotoxin and molt inhibitor used to combat the Colorado potato beetle however it has the potential to affect non-target organisms including the American lobster (Homarus americanus). Metamorphosis is a critical stage of development and the effects of contaminant exposure during this time are largely unknown in lobster. A 14day endosulfan exposure was performed to identify the effects on survival, development and gene expression in lobster larvae during metamorphosis; all of which were predicted to be negatively impacted. The higher endosulfan concentrations resulted in greater mortality and a significant increase in the number of days required to reach metamorphosis in surviving animals. A custom made H. americanus microarray was used for monitoring the changes in expression of 14,592 genes at the termination of the exposure. Genes with >1.5 fold change and identified as being significant at p<0.05 using one-way ANOVA were selected for further analysis. A total of 707 genes were identified as being significantly differentiated, however with only ~40% annotation of the array, the majority of these genes were unknown. Annotated genes of interest were involved in many processes: development, metabolism, immunity and oxidative stress response and gene regulation. Nine genes of interest (histone H1, farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase, cuticle protein, glutathione S-transferase, thioredoxin, NADH dehydrogenase, ecdysone nuclear receptor Fushi tarazu F1 (FTZ-F1), ferritin and ecdysone inducible protein E75 (EIP-E75)) were selected for RT-qPCR validation of the microarray results. The RT-qPCR method was more sensitive than the microarray yet detected similar expression patterns. The two highest endosulfan concentrations resulted in increased mortalities, developmental delays in reaching metamorphosis and significant changes in gene expression. This research provides a foundation for using microarray gene expression profiles as screening tools for exploring the impact of environmental contaminants on lobster. PMID:24041715

  11. Richness and Distribution of Amphibian Species inRelation to Ecological Variables in Western AegeanRegion of Turkey

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Eyüp Ba?kale; U?ur Kaya

    2009-01-01

    Ecological factors, such as water chemistry variables, regional landscape variables, occurrence of predators, have considerable effects on amphibian distribution and richness. These variables in relation to amphibian species-richness and distribution were investigated by field work studies between February 2006 and August 2008 in freshwater ponds and lakes of Aegean Region, Turkey. Seven amphibian species were observed at the study sites,

  12. Bioactive molecules from amphibian skin: their biological activities with reference to therapeutic potentials for possible drug development.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Antony; Giri, Biplab; Saha, Archita; Mishra, R; Dasgupta, Subir C; Debnath, A; Gomes, Aparna

    2007-07-01

    The amphibian skin contains various bioactive molecules (peptides, proteins, steroids, alkaloids, opiods) that possess potent therapeutic activities like antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antidiabetic, antineoplastic, analgesic and sleep inducing properties. Research on amphibian skin derived biomolecules can provide potential clue towards newer drug development to combat various pathophysiological conditions. An overview on the bioactive molecules of various amphibian skins has been discussed. PMID:17821852

  13. Detrimental effects of peat mining on amphibian abundance and species richness in bogs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marc J. Mazerolle

    2003-01-01

    Peat bogs of eastern North America are increasingly being mined for peat, which results in the extensive draining of these systems. First, I quantified the effects of peat mining on amphibian species richness and abundance in bog remnants adjacent to mining activity and unmined bogs. I then investigated amphibian occurrence patterns in bog remnants relative to the distance to the

  14. EFFECTS OF TIMBER HARVESTING ON POND-BREEDING AMPHIBIAN PERSISTENCE: TESTING THE EVACUATION HYPOTHESIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raymond D. Semlitsch; Christopher A. Conner; Daniel J. Hocking; Tracy A. G. Rittenhouse; Elizabeth B. Harper

    2008-01-01

    Numerous studies have documented the decline of amphibians following timber harvest. However, direct evidence concerning the mechanisms of population decline is lacking and hinders attempts to develop conservation or recovery plans and solutions for forest species. We summarized the mechanisms by which abundance of amphibians may initially decline following timber harvest into three testable hypotheses: (1) mortality, (2) retreat, and

  15. Amphibians from the Acheulean site at Duinefontein 2 (Western Cape, South Africa)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Garth Sampson

    2003-01-01

    Abundant amphibian remains were encountered at Duinefontein 2, a late mid-Quaternary fossil site with Acheulean artifacts. The amphibians are distributed in concentric bands that suggest shoreline lags around the southeast rim of an interdunal pond, part of which has been exposed by very extensive excavations. The pond community was dominated by ranids and pipids, both requiring less than a meter

  16. Distribution and Abundance of Amphibian Larvae within Two Temporary Ponds in Central Ohio, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geoffrey R. Smith; Haley A. Dingfelder; David A. Vaala

    2003-01-01

    We investigated the distributions of amphibian larvae within two temporary ponds in central Ohio. Spring Peeper Pond had higher densities of all taxa than did Taylor-Ochs Pond. All amphibian larval distributions were significantly aggregated on all sampling dates in both ponds. Larval abundances changed over time in Spring Peeper Pond, but not in Taylor-Ochs Pond. In Spring Peeper Pond, spring

  17. Factors influencing amphibian and small mammal assemblages in central Appalachian forests

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph C. Mitchell; Sherry C. Rinehart; John F. Pagels; Kurt A. Buhlmann; Christopher A. Pague

    1997-01-01

    We studied terrestrial amphibian and small mammal assemblages with drift fences and pitfall traps in five forested stands during 1987–1988 on Shenandoah Mountain in the George Washington National Forest, Virginia, USA. Eleven species of salamanders, five frogs, five shrews, and seven rodents were monitored. Amphibians were significantly more abundant in forest stands consisting of mature hardwoods than in a recent

  18. Evidence of indirect impacts of introduced trout on native amphibians via facilitation of a shared predator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen L. Pope; Justin M. Garwood; Hartwell H. Welsh; Sharon P. Lawler

    2008-01-01

    Hyperpredation occurs when non-native prey facilitate invasive predators, which then suppress native prey. Direct impacts of introduced fish on amphibians are well studied, but the role of fish in supporting shared predators has not been considered. We present evidence for indirect effects of trout on amphibians through snake predation. Analyses of the diet, distribution and density of the Pacific coast

  19. Breeding phenology and larval distribution of amphibians in a Mediterranean pond network with unpredictable hydrology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christiane Jakob; Gilles Poizat; Michael Veith; Alfred Seitz; Alain J. Crivelli

    2003-01-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal breeding patterns in Mediterranean amphibian communities is urgent considering the rate of habitat loss. Breeding phenology and breeding habitat selection by amphibians were analysed through the monthly occurrence of larvae in a mosaic of 198 Mediterranean temporary ponds during three years. A generalized linear model (GLM) coupled with principal component analysis showed that, for almost all

  20. Distribution of amphibian larvae in Israeli habitats with changeable water availability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gad Degani; Didi Kaplan

    1999-01-01

    Forty-one amphibian habitats of various types in northern Israel were examined, in which water availability ranged from one month in the year to all year round. Larvae of all six species of amphibians native to the region, Salamandra salamandra, Triturus vittatus (Urodela), Hyla arborea, Bufo viridis, Rana ridibunda and Pelobates syriacus (Anura), were studied. The distribution of the species was

  1. MERCURY ACCUMULATION ALONG A CONTAMINATION GRADIENT AND NONDESTRUCTIVE INDICES OF BIOACCUMULATION IN AMPHIBIANS

    E-print Network

    Hopkins, William A.

    concentrations in amphibians that were consistent with their habitat requirements and feeding preferences IN AMPHIBIANS CHRISTINE M. BERGERON,y CATHERINE M. BODINOF,y JASON M. UNRINE,z and WILLIAM A. HOPKINS*y y environmental contaminant due to its global distribution, tendency to bioaccumulate, and toxicity in wildlife

  2. The Current and Historical Distribution of Special Status Amphibians at the Livermore Site and Site 300

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M V Hattem; L Paterson; J Woollett

    2008-01-01

    65 surveys were completed in 2002 to assess the current distribution of special status amphibians at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Livermore Site and Site 300. Combined with historical information from previous years, the information presented herein illustrates the dynamic and probable risk that amphibian populations face at both sites. The Livermore Site is developed and in stark contrast

  3. CATAWBA RIVER CORRIDOR COVERBOARD PROGRAM: A CITIZEN SCIENCE APPROACH TO AMPHIBIAN AND REPTILE INVENTORY

    Microsoft Academic Search

    SHANNON E. PITTMAN; MICHAEL E. DORCAS

    Coverboards are a useful inventory tool for many species of amphibians and reptiles, and provide a simple and effective method to involve the public in scientific research. The Davidson College Catawba River Corridor Coverboard Program (CRCCP) was initiated in 2003 to help coordinate the efforts of public and private sectors in surveying amphibians and reptiles. Fourteen sites were established within

  4. Sensitivity of amphibian embryos, tadpoles, and larvae to enhanced UV-B radiation in natural

    E-print Network

    Smith, M. Alex

    Sensitivity of amphibian embryos, tadpoles, and larvae to enhanced UV-B radiation in natural pond Abstract: Temperate zone amphibians are exposed to the maximum change in UV-B radiation influx during early), were exposed to different UV-B radiation regimes in containers (12 cm in diameter and 4.5 cm deep

  5. Relative timescales reveal multiple origins of parallel disjunct distributions of African caecilian amphibians

    E-print Network

    Cotton, James

    of African caecilian amphibians Simon P. Loader1,4 , Davide Pisani2 , James A. Cotton2 , David J. Gower1 origins of African caecilians KEYWORDS: Africa, Amphibians, Gymnophiona, Historical Biogeography east-west distributions in three independent lineages of African caecilians have a common cause. We

  6. Using the Phenology of Pond-Breeding Amphibians to Develop Conservation Strategies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter W. C. Paton; William B. Crouch

    2002-01-01

    Researchers suggest that regulatory agencies interested in protecting pond-breeding amphibians should consider wetland isolation, wetland size, and pond hydroperiod (total number of days pond is flooded annually) when modifying existing wetland regulations. Another criterion that has received less attention is the effect of the timing of inundation on the reproductive success of pond-breeding amphibians. Over 3 years, we monitored the

  7. What's Slithering around on Your School Grounds? Transforming Student Awareness of Reptile & Amphibian Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasek, Terry M.; Matthews, Catherine E.; Hall, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    The protocols used in a research project on amphibian and reptile diversity at Cool Springs Environmental Education Center near New Bern, North Carolina is described. An increasing or stable number of amphibians and reptiles would indicate that the forest has a balance of invertebrates, leaf litter, moisture, pH, debris, burrows and habitat…

  8. Discover Reptiles and Amphibians at the American Museum of Natural History

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Sharon Simpson

    This activity sheet for young children is designed to be completed during a visit to the Museum's Reptiles and Amphibians Hall. The printable two-page handout includes notes about the distinguishing characteristics of reptile and amphibian eggs and a hall map that directs students to 10 numbered display cases, with at least one observation activity to be completed at each.

  9. Co-habiting amphibian species harbor unique skin bacterial communities in wild populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valerie J McKenzie; Robert M Bowers; Noah Fierer; Rob Knight; Christian L Lauber

    2012-01-01

    Although all plant and animal species harbor microbial symbionts, we know surprisingly little about the specificity of microbial communities to their hosts. Few studies have compared the microbiomes of different species of animals, and fewer still have examined animals in the wild. We sampled four pond habitats in Colorado, USA, where multiple amphibian species were present. In total, 32 amphibian

  10. Effects of anthropogenic environmental changes on amphibian diversity in the rain forests of eastern Madagascar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Denis Vallan

    2002-01-01

    Madagascar has one of the world's highest rates of human population increase, which is coupled with an increase of resource exploitation, particularly food and firewood. Forests are cleared and converted to rice fields or plantations (mainly Eucalyptus or pine). How does deforestation affect the amphibian diversity of the original biotope, the rain forest? To answer this question, the amphibian fauna

  11. Predation on amphibians by spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in the Neotropical region

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marcelo Menin; Domingos de Jesus Rodrigues; Clarissa Salette de Azevedo

    2005-01-01

    Predation on amphibians by spiders (Arachnida, Araneae) in the Neotropical region. Herein, we report observations about spider predation on anurans (adults and juveniles) in Central Amazonia and a literature review of spiders preying on amphibians in the Neotropical zoogeographic realm. We conducted field observations in Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, Manaus, AM, and observed eight predation events on Bufonidae, Dendrobatidae, Hylidae,

  12. KEYNOTE: Species at Risk - Amphibians and Other Life on the Edge in British Columbia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Richardson

    There are many human activities that put species at risk, including development, agriculture, and forestry. Risk is not simply a linear function of habitat loss, and species reach thresholds where risk increases exponentially. The most threatened groups of organisms in Canada are the amphibians and reptiles, with over 30% of their species at risk. Three sets of studies of amphibians

  13. Population age structure and growth in four syntopic amphibian species inhabiting a large river floodplain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Cogalniceanu; Claude Miaud

    2003-01-01

    River floodplains are disturbance-dominated landscapes where floods are major regulators of both aquatic and nearby terrestrial communities. Amphibians are common inhabitants of floodplains and their life cycle depends on both aquatic and terrestrial habitats. We focused on how different syntopic species of amphibians reacted to the environmental conditions of a large river floodplain. We examined life-history traits such as population

  14. Effects of the pathogenic water mold Saprolegnia ferax on survival of amphibian larvae.

    PubMed

    Romansic, John M; Diez, Kristin A; Higashi, Elise M; Johnson, James E; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2009-02-25

    Infectious diseases are a significant threat to worldwide biodiversity. Amphibian declines, a significant part of current biodiversity losses, are in many cases associated with infectious disease. Water molds are one group of pathogens affecting amphibians on a worldwide basis. Although water molds have been studied extensively for their effects on host embryos, little information is available about how they affect post-embryonic amphibians. We tested the effects of one species of water mold, Saprolegnia ferax, in a comparative study of larvae of 4 amphibian species: Pseudacris regilla (Pacific treefrog), Rana cascadae (Cascades frog), Ambystoma macrodactylum (long-toed salamander), and R. aurora (red-legged frog). S. ferax can kill amphibians at the embryonic and juvenile life history stages, depending on the amphibian species. In the present study, a 1 wk exposure to S. ferax killed P. regilla larvae and a 2 wk exposure killed R. aurora larvae. Larvae of the other host species were unaffected after 1 wk of exposure to S. ferax. Our results suggest that S. ferax can kill amphibian larvae and further suggest that evaluation of how pathogens affect amphibians at the population level requires investigation at various life stages. PMID:19402452

  15. THE FIRST COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY OF AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES AT MONTAGNE DES FRANÇAIS, MADAGASCAR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JEREMY SABEL; KATIE GREEN; JEFFREY DAWSON; CHARLIE GARDNER; JANINE ROBINSON; GEORGINA STARKIE; MIGUEL VENCES; FRANK GLAW

    2007-01-01

    We surveyed the calcareous massif Montagne des Français in northern Madagascar for amphibians and reptiles. We recorded nine amphibian and 52 reptile species by direct sampling and pitfall trapping in the first detailed survey to focus on this area. Consequently 78.7% of the species found were new records for Montagne des Français. The majority of species (60.7%) were only found

  16. Effects of an Infectious Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, on Amphibian Predator-Prey Interactions

    E-print Network

    Blaustein, Andrew R.

    , on Amphibian Predator-Prey Interactions. PLoS ONE 6(2): e16675. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0016675 Editor: Howard-predatory behaviors with important consequences for predator-prey interactions. For example, several studies revealEffects of an Infectious Fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, on Amphibian Predator-Prey

  17. AN OVERVIEW OF OECD AND EPA/ORD ACTIVITIES RELATED TO AMPHIBIAN TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    There has been significant recent activity related to testing amphibians in a regulatory setting. Much of this has emanated from interest by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Office of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) in utilizing amphibians in scree...

  18. Oviduct structure and function and reproductive modes in amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wake, M H; Dickie, R

    The structure and function of the oviducts of members of the three Orders of the Class Amphibia (Anura, frogs and toads; Urodela, salamanders and newts; Gymnophiona, caecilians) are well described for only a few species. Further, the majority of such descriptions relate only to temperate species that breed in water, lay their eggs there, and have free-living larvae, the presumed ancestral condition of oviparity. Many species of amphibians have derived reproductive modes. Such modes include breeding terrestrially and arboreally, making foam nests, parental transport of eggs and/or tadpoles, direct development (copulating on land, laying the eggs in terrestrial sites, fully metamorphosed juveniles hatching, obviating the free-living larval stage). Other derived modes are ovoviviparity (developing embryos retained in the oviducts, born at a diversity stages of development, no maternal nutrition in addition to yolk) and viviparity (oviductal retention of developing young, maternal nutrition after yolk is resorbed, young born as fully metamorphosed juveniles). The amphibian oviduct is regionally differentiated to secrete varying numbers of layers of material around each egg, which function in fertilization, etc.; it is responsive to endocrine output and environmental mediation during the reproductive cycle; and it maintains developing embryos in some members of all three orders, some with oviductal epithelial secretion of nutrients. However, little is known of the structure-function relationships of the oviduct in species with derived reproductive modes. A comparison of oviduct morphology, function, endocrinology, ecology and phylogeny in amphibians with diverse reproductive modes suggests a number of highly productive avenues of investigation. PMID:9803536

  19. Small fish ( Leucaspius delineatus ) that are often released into garden ponds and amphibian breeding sites prey on eggs and tadpoles of the common frog ( Rana temporaria )

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas Leu; Beatrice Lüscher; Silvia Zumbach; Benedikt R. Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Non-native fish often negatively affect amphibian populations. The sunbleak (Leucaspius delineatus), a small cyprinid fish, is often released into ponds that support amphibian populations because it is thought not to consume amphibian larvae; the argument was based on diet analyses. Here, we present results from a laboratory experiment that demonstrates that sunbleak consume amphibian eggs and larvae. Mortality of eggs

  20. Human development x: Explanation of macroevolution--top-down evolution materializes consciousness. The origin of metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Tyge Dahl; Ventegodt, Søren; Merrick, Joav

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we first give a short discussion of the macroevolution viewing life as information-directed, complex, dynamic systems. On this basis, we give our explanation of the origin of life and discuss the top-down evolution of molecules, proteins, and macroevolution. We discuss these subjects according to our new holistic biological paradigm. In view of this, we discuss the macroevolution of the organism, the species, the biosphere, and human society. After this, we discuss the shift in evolution from natural selection to a new proposed process of nature called the "metamorphous top-down" evolution. We discuss the capability of the evolutionary shift to govern some of the processes that lead to the formation of new species. We discuss the mechanisms we think are behind this proposed shift in evolution and conclude that this event is able to explain the huge biological diversity of nature in combination with evolutionary natural selection. We also discuss this event of nature as an isolated, but integrated, part of the universe. We propose the most important genetic and biochemical process that we think is behind the evolutionary shift as a complicated symbiosis of mechanisms leading to metamorphosis in all biological individuals, from bacteria to humans. The energetic superorbital that manifests the consciousness governs all these processes through quantum chemical activity. This is the key to evolutionary shift through the consciousness, and we propose to call this process "adult human metamorphosis". PMID:17173183

  1. Eye and optic lobe metamorphosis in the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).

    PubMed

    Sbita, Sarah J; Morgan, Randy C; Buschbeck, Elke K

    2007-12-01

    Nearly nothing is known about the transition that visual brain regions undergo during metamorphosis, except for Drosophila in which larval eyes and the underlying neural structure are strongly reduced. We have studied the larvae of the sunburst diving beetle, Thermonectus marmoratus (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), which are sophisticated visually oriented predators characterized by six elaborate stemmata on each side of the head and an associated large optic lobe. We used general neurohistological staining and 3D reconstruction to determine how the eyes and optic lobe of T. marmoratus change morphologically during metamorphosis. We find that in third (last) instar larvae, the adult neuropils are already forming de novo dorsally and slightly anteriorly to the larval neuropils, while the latter rapidly degenerate. Larval eyes are eventually reduced to distinct areas with dark pigmentation. This complete reorganization, which may be an evolutionarily conserved trait in holometabolous insects, occurs despite the considerable costs that must apply to such a visually complex animal. Our findings are consistent with the concept that stemmata are homologous to the most posterior ommatidia of hemimetabolous insects, an idea also recently supported by molecular data. PMID:18089121

  2. Post-embryonic larval development and metamorphosis of the hydroid Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) (Hydrozoa, Cnidaria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, C.

    1990-09-01

    The morphology and histology of the planula larva of Eudendrium racemosum (Cavolini) and its metamorphosis into the primary polyp are described from light microscopic observations. The planula hatches as a differentiated gastrula. During the lecithotrophic larval period, large ectodermal mucous cells, embedded between epitheliomuscular cells, secrete a sticky slime. Two granulated cell types occur in the ectoderm that are interpreted as secretory and sensorynervous cells, but might also be representatives of only one cell type with a multiple function. The entoderm consists of yolk-storing gastrodermal cells, digestive gland cells, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes. The larva starts metamorphosis by affixing its blunt aboral pole to a substratum. While the planula flattens down, the mucous cells penetrate the mesolamella and migrate through the entoderm into the gastral cavity where they are lysed. Subsequently, interstitial cells, cnidoblasts, and premature cnidocytes migrate in the opposite direction, i.e. from entoderm to ectoderm. Then, the polypoid body organization, comprising head (hydranth), stem and foot, all covered by peridermal secretion, becomes recognisable. An oral constriction divides the hypostomal portion of the gastral cavity from the stomachic portion. Within the hypostomal entoderm, cells containing secretory granules differentiate. Following growth and the multiplication of tentacles, the head periderm disappears. A ring of gland cells differentiates at the hydranth's base. The positioning of cnidae in the tentacle ectoderm, penetration of the mouth opening and the multiplication of digestive gland cells enable the polyp to change from lecithotrophic to planktotrophic nutrition.

  3. Phenotypic variation in metamorphosis and paedomorphosis in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum

    SciTech Connect

    Semlitsch, R.D.; Gibbons, J.W.

    1985-08-01

    Phenotypic variation in metamorphosis and paedomorphosis in the salamander Ambystoma talpoideum was examined to determine its environmental or genetic basis. Eight artificial ponds were maintained, four at each of two environmental treatments: constant water level, to simulate fish-free permanent breeding ponds, and gradual drying out, to simulate temporary breeding ponds. Two populations of salamanders were used, derived from two breeding ponds having different frequencies of paedomorphosis. The water level in the drying treatment was lowered during the last 10 wk of the experimental period with no apparent differences in water chemistry parameters between treatments and only a slight change in water temperature during the last 2 wk. The effects of water level were potentially confounded by those of water temperature, density of larvae, and amount food. Population differences in the frequency of metamorphosis and paedomorphosis could potentially represent genetic differences resulting from the different selective regimes that individuals encounter in breeding ponds varying in drying frequency. 35 references, 3 figures, 4 tables.

  4. A new clarification method to visualize biliary degeneration during liver metamorphosis in sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chung-Davidson, Yu-Wen; Davidson, Peter J.; Scott, Anne M.; Walaszczyk, Erin J.; Brant, Cory O.; Buchinger, Tyler; Johnson, Nicholas S.; Li, Weiming

    2014-01-01

    Biliary atresia is a rare disease of infancy, with an estimated 1 in 15,000 frequency in the southeast United States, but more common in East Asian countries, with a reported frequency of 1 in 5,000 in Taiwan. Although much is known about the management of biliary atresia, its pathogenesis is still elusive. The sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) provides a unique opportunity to examine the mechanism and progression of biliary degeneration. Sea lamprey develop through three distinct life stages: larval, parasitic, and adult. During the transition from larvae to parasitic juvenile, sea lamprey undergo metamorphosis with dramatic reorganization and remodeling in external morphology and internal organs. In the liver, the entire biliary system is lost, including the gall bladder and the biliary tree. A newly-developed method called “CLARITY” was modified to clarify the entire liver and the junction with the intestine in metamorphic sea lamprey. The process of biliary degeneration was visualized and discerned during sea lamprey metamorphosis by using laser scanning confocal microscopy. This method provides a powerful tool to study biliary atresia in a unique animal model.

  5. Parallels in Amphibian and Bat Declines from Pathogenic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Eskew, Evan A.

    2013-01-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species—the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats—are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host–pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  6. Detubulation abolishes membrane potential stabilization in amphibian skeletal muscle

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diana X.-I. Chin; James A. Fraser; Juliet A. Usher-smith; Jeremy N. Skepper; Christopher L.-H. Huang

    2004-01-01

    A recently reported stabilization (`splinting') of the resting membrane potential (E\\u000a m) observed in amphibian skeletal muscle fibres despite extracellular hyperosmotic challenge has been attributed to high resting\\u000a ratios of membrane Cl? to K+ permeability (P\\u000a Cl\\/P\\u000a K) combined with elevations of their intracellular Cl? concentrations, [Cl?]i, above electrochemical equilibrium by diuretic-sensitive cation--Cl?, Na--Cl (NCC) and\\/or Na--K--2Cl (NKCC), co-transporter activity.

  7. Parallels in amphibian and bat declines from pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Eskew, Evan A; Todd, Brian D

    2013-03-01

    Pathogenic fungi have substantial effects on global biodiversity, and 2 emerging pathogenic species-the chytridiomycete Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which causes chytridiomycosis in amphibians, and the ascomycete Geomyces destructans, which causes white-nose syndrome in hibernating bats-are implicated in the widespread decline of their vertebrate hosts. We synthesized current knowledge for chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome regarding disease emergence, environmental reservoirs, life history characteristics of the host, and host-pathogen interactions. We found striking similarities between these aspects of chytridiomycosis and white-nose syndrome, and the research that we review and propose should help guide management of future emerging fungal diseases. PMID:23622255

  8. Incorporating Amphibian Malformation into Inquiry-Based Learning

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Brooke L. Talley

    2007-01-01

    Since the first discovery of malformed frogs by an adventurous middle school teacher and her after-school science club in 1995, outreach programs like A Thousand Friends of Frogs (see Resources) have been created to connect students and teachers with scientists so that they can better understand frogs and their habitats. Many of the amphibian-malformation activities published in education-practitioner journals approach this subject through internet investigations (Webster 2002), hypothetical case studies (Murphy and Fortner 2001), or reading with discussion (Davidson, Matthews, and Patrick 2001). These activities can be supplemented with inquiry-based labs designed to instruct and engage students about conservation biology, as described in this article.

  9. Sperm motility of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians.

    PubMed

    Browne, R K; Kaurova, S A; Uteshev, V K; Shishova, N V; McGinnity, D; Figiel, C R; Mansour, N; Agney, D; Wu, M; Gakhova, E N; Dzyuba, B; Cosson, J

    2015-01-01

    We review the phylogeny, sperm competition, morphology, physiology, and fertilization environments of the sperm of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians. Increased sperm competition in both fish and anurans generally increases sperm numbers, sperm length, and energy reserves. The difference between the internal osmolarity and iconicity of sperm cells and those of the aquatic medium control the activation, longevity, and velocity of sperm motility. Hypo-osmolarity of the aquatic medium activates the motility of freshwater fish and amphibian sperm and hyperosmolarity activates the motility of marine fish sperm. The average longevity of the motility of marine fish sperm (~550 seconds) was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than that of freshwater fish sperm (~150 seconds), with the longevities of both marine and freshwater fish being significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of anuran sperm (~4100 seconds). The average velocity of anuran sperm (25 ?m/s) was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than that of marine fish (140 ?m/s) or freshwater fish (135 ?m/s) sperm. The longevity of the sperm of giant salamanders (Cryptobranchoidea) of approximately 600 seconds was greater than that of freshwater fish sperm but much lower than anuran sperm. Our research and information from the literature showed that higher osmolarities promote greater longevity in anuran sperm, and some freshwater fish sperm, and that anuran and cryptobranchid sperm maintained membrane integrity long after the cessation of motility, demonstrating a preferential sharing of energy reserves toward the maintenance of membrane integrity. The maintenance of the membrane integrity of anuran sperm in fresh water for up to 6 hours showed an extremely high osmotic tolerance relative to fish sperm. The very high longevity and osmotic tolerance of anuran sperm and high longevity of cryptobranchid sperm, relative to those of freshwater fish, may reflect the complex fertilization history of amphibian sperm in general and anurans reversion from internal to external fertilization. Our findings provide a greater understanding of the reproductive biology of externally fertilizing fish and amphibians, and a biological foundation for the further development of reproduction technologies for their sustainable management. PMID:25442393

  10. Pesticides and amphibian declines in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, California

    E-print Network

    Cowman, Deborah Fay

    2007-04-25

    ,105,83,78]. Dermal routes of exposure to ChE- inhibiting insecticides can be particularly damaging [106,107], so animals that forage in upland crop fields (e.g. the toad Bufo americanus) may be vulnerable to multiple routes of exposure. The majority of published... with amphibians, and tests for chronic toxicity via dietary, water column, and sediment exposures were needed. LC50 values for B. americanus tadpoles and R. pipiens tadpoles were 1 ? g/L and 3000 ? g/L, respectively. One day and 6 d LC50 values for R. tigrina...

  11. Comparative effects of inducers on metamorphosis of the Japanese oyster Crassostrea gigas and the great scallop Pecten maximus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Nicolas; R. Robert; L. Chevolot

    1998-01-01

    Variable postlarval mortalities have been recorded regularly in Pecten maximus hatcheries. In an attempt to resolve this problem, the role of physical factors on spat development and the ability of neuro?transmitters to increase metamorphosis have been considered. Although such investigations have been widely reported on oysters, few studies have been carried out on Pectinidae. The present work evaluates the effects

  12. Transient gut retention and persistence of Salmonella through metamorphosis in the lesser mealworm, Alphitobius diaperinus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    his study was undertaken to determine the retention of Salmonella through Alphitobius diaperinus metamorphosis and the contribution of defecation to external contamination. Adults and larvae were exposed to a tagged Salmonella enterica and evaluated for external elimination. Each day for three wee...

  13. Influence of cortisol on the attachment and metamorphosis of larval Utterbackia imbecillis on bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus).

    PubMed

    Dubansky, Benjamin; Whitaker, Brian; Galvez, Fernando

    2011-04-01

    The larvae of unionid freshwater mussels (i.e., glochidia) undergo a parasitic stage requiring their attachment to the external epithelia of fish hosts, where they metamorphose into free-living juveniles. We describe the physiological effects in bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) of infection with glochidia from the paper pondshell (Utterbackia imbecillis). Glochidia accumulation on bluegill increased dramatically at concentrations of 2000 glochidia liter(-1) and above, reaching a maximum attachment density of about 30 glochidia g(-1) fish at 4000 glochidia liter(-1). Plasma cortisol was the most sensitive indicator of biological effect to glochidial exposure, increasing significantly in hosts exposed to 2000 glochidia liter(-1) or greater. Glochidia were 31% more likely to undergo successful juvenile metamorphosis when attached to bluegill with elevated plasma cortisol, largely due to the enhanced survivorship of these larvae during the first 48 h after infection. We tested the hypothesis that glochidial attachment and juvenile metamorphosis were stimulated directly by plasma cortisol in fish hosts. Bluegill were given an intraperitoneal injection of cortisol, then infected with 1000 glochidia liter(-1) at 48 h after hormone supplementation. Cortisol-injected fish had a 42% increase in the number of attached glochidia g(-1) fish and a 28% increase in larval metamorphosis compared to sham-injected and control fish. We provide evidence that cortisol enhances glochidial metamorphosis on hosts by improving the retention of attached glochidia. This study gives insights into the influence of host physiology on glochidial attachment and juvenile mussel transformation. PMID:21551446

  14. [On the classification of the cleavage patterns in amphibian embryos].

    PubMed

    Desnitski?, A G

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a brief survey and preliminary classification of embryonic cleavage patterns in the class Amphibia. We use published data on 41 anuran and 22 urodele species concerning the character of the third cleavage furrow (latitudinal or longitudinal) and the stage of transition from synchronous to asynchronous blastomere divisions in the animal hemisphere (4-8-celled stage, 8-16-celled stage or later). Based on this, four patterns of amphibian embryonic cleavage are recognized, and an attempt to elucidate the evolutionary relationships among these patterns is undertaken. The so-called "standard" cleavage pattern (the extensive series of synchronous blastomere divisions including latitudinal furrows of the third cleavage) with the typical model species Ambystoma mexicanum and Xenopus laevis seems to be derived and probably originated independently in the orders Anura and Caudata. The ancestral amphibian cleavage pattern seems to be represented by species with longitudinal furrows of the third cleavage and the loss ofsynchrony as early as the 8-celled stage (such as in primitive urodele species from the family Cryptobranchidae). PMID:25720261

  15. Interactions of Amphibians, Fish, and Macroinvertebrates in a Southeastern Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultheis, R. D.; Batzer, D. P.

    2005-05-01

    In fishless habitats, amphibians often compete with and are predators of macroinvertebrates. Unlike fish, the effects these interactions have on macroinvertebrate communities have been largely unexplored. We conducted an experiment in a semi-permanent oxbow wetland in the Piedmont region of Georgia to explore interactions between amphibians and macroinvertebrates. The predator community was dominated by Ambystoma opacum (Marbled Salamander) and Notophthalmus viridescens (Eastern Newt). Salamanders and newts were excluded from areas of wetland habitat using wire mesh cages (1.5M x 1.5M, 3mm mesh). The macroinvertebrate communities within the cages were then compared to the ambient habitat outside the cages. Fish, mostly Lepomis macrochirus (Bluegill) and Gambusia affinis (Mosquito Fish), colonized the wetland late in the first year of the study, and became common by year two. Also in year two, Rana catesbeiana (Bullfrog) became established. Thus, we were able to explore the variable effects on the macroinvertebrate community of a changing predator complex over a two year period.

  16. Anthropogenic and ecological drivers of amphibian disease (ranavirosis).

    PubMed

    North, Alexandra C; Hodgson, David J; Price, Stephen J; Griffiths, Amber G F

    2015-01-01

    Ranaviruses are causing mass amphibian die-offs in North America, Europe and Asia, and have been implicated in the decline of common frog (Rana temporaria) populations in the UK. Despite this, we have very little understanding of the environmental drivers of disease occurrence and prevalence. Using a long term (1992-2000) dataset of public reports of amphibian mortalities, we assess a set of potential predictors of the occurrence and prevalence of Ranavirus-consistent common frog mortality events in Britain. We reveal the influence of biotic and abiotic drivers of this disease, with many of these abiotic characteristics being anthropogenic. Whilst controlling for the geographic distribution of mortality events, disease prevalence increases with increasing frog population density, presence of fish and wild newts, increasing pond depth and the use of garden chemicals. The presence of an alternative host reduces prevalence, potentially indicating a dilution effect. Ranavirosis occurrence is associated with the presence of toads, an urban setting and the use of fish care products, providing insight into the causes of emergence of disease. Links between occurrence, prevalence, pond characteristics and garden management practices provides useful management implications for reducing the impacts of Ranavirus in the wild. PMID:26039741

  17. Origin and Functional Diversification of an Amphibian Defense Peptide Arsenal

    PubMed Central

    Roelants, Kim; Fry, Bryan G.; Ye, Lumeng; Stijlemans, Benoit; Brys, Lea; Kok, Philippe; Clynen, Elke; Schoofs, Liliane; Cornelis, Pierre; Bossuyt, Franky

    2013-01-01

    The skin secretion of many amphibians contains an arsenal of bioactive molecules, including hormone-like peptides (HLPs) acting as defense toxins against predators, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) providing protection against infectious microorganisms. Several amphibian taxa seem to have independently acquired the genes to produce skin-secreted peptide arsenals, but it remains unknown how these originated from a non-defensive ancestral gene and evolved diverse defense functions against predators and pathogens. We conducted transcriptome, genome, peptidome and phylogenetic analyses to chart the full gene repertoire underlying the defense peptide arsenal of the frog Silurana tropicalis and reconstruct its evolutionary history. Our study uncovers a cluster of 13 transcriptionally active genes, together encoding up to 19 peptides, including diverse HLP homologues and AMPs. This gene cluster arose from a duplicated gastrointestinal hormone gene that attained a HLP-like defense function after major remodeling of its promoter region. Instead, new defense functions, including antimicrobial activity, arose by mutation of the precursor proteins, resulting in the proteolytic processing of secondary peptides alongside the original ones. Although gene duplication did not trigger functional innovation, it may have subsequently facilitated the convergent loss of the original function in multiple gene lineages (subfunctionalization), completing their transformation from HLP gene to AMP gene. The processing of multiple peptides from a single precursor entails a mechanism through which peptide-encoding genes may establish new functions without the need for gene duplication to avoid adaptive conflicts with older ones. PMID:23935531

  18. Linking genetic and environmental factors in amphibian disease risk.

    PubMed

    Savage, Anna E; Becker, Carlos G; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2015-07-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology is how interactions between organisms and the environment shape genetic differentiation. The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused variable population declines in the lowland leopard frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); thus, disease has potentially shaped, or been shaped by, host genetic diversity. Environmental factors can also influence both amphibian immunity and Bd virulence, confounding our ability to assess the genetic effects on disease dynamics. Here, we used genetics, pathogen dynamics, and environmental data to characterize L. yavapaiensis populations, estimate migration, and determine relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in predicting Bd dynamics. We found that the two uninfected populations belonged to a single genetic deme, whereas each infected population was genetically unique. We detected an outlier locus that deviated from neutral expectations and was significantly correlated with mortality within populations. Across populations, only environmental variables predicted infection intensity, whereas environment and genetics predicted infection prevalence, and genetic diversity alone predicted mortality. At one locality with geothermally elevated water temperatures, migration estimates revealed source-sink dynamics that have likely prevented local adaptation. We conclude that integrating genetic and environmental variation among populations provides a better understanding of Bd spatial epidemiology, generating more effective conservation management strategies for mitigating amphibian declines. PMID:26136822

  19. Illness-dependent conditioned prey avoidance in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    To, Eric S K; Laberge, Frédéric

    2014-03-01

    Conditioned taste avoidance (CTA) helps prevent consumption of dangerous foods. It results from the pairing of a novel food or taste with subsequent aversive consequences, such as illness. Previous studies of CTA in amphibians have produced conflicting results. Establishing the presence or absence of CTA in amphibians is needed to clarify the phylogeny of this phenomenon. This experiment evaluated the ability of the fire-bellied toad Bombina orientalis to avoid a novel food item previously paired with subsequent illness or unpalatable taste. Mealworms, a novel prey item for the subjects, were coated with a solution of either 2% HCl or 3% CuSO4 to make them unpalatable or nauseating, respectively. Lengthy and obvious signs of illness such as face wiping and retching followed the consumption of mealworms coated with CuSO4, whereas consumption of mealworms coated with HCl only resulted in distinct and short lived aversive reactions at the time of consumption. The results showed that consumption of mealworms tainted with CuSO4, but not HCl, rapidly induced prey avoidance. This response was specific to mealworms; the usual food (crickets) was not avoided. The results suggest that CTA following illness is not restricted to amniote vertebrates. PMID:24480408

  20. Anthropogenic and Ecological Drivers of Amphibian Disease (Ranavirosis)

    PubMed Central

    North, Alexandra C.; Hodgson, David J.; Price, Stephen J.; Griffiths, Amber G. F.

    2015-01-01

    Ranaviruses are causing mass amphibian die-offs in North America, Europe and Asia, and have been implicated in the decline of common frog (Rana temporaria) populations in the UK. Despite this, we have very little understanding of the environmental drivers of disease occurrence and prevalence. Using a long term (1992-2000) dataset of public reports of amphibian mortalities, we assess a set of potential predictors of the occurrence and prevalence of Ranavirus-consistent common frog mortality events in Britain. We reveal the influence of biotic and abiotic drivers of this disease, with many of these abiotic characteristics being anthropogenic. Whilst controlling for the geographic distribution of mortality events, disease prevalence increases with increasing frog population density, presence of fish and wild newts, increasing pond depth and the use of garden chemicals. The presence of an alternative host reduces prevalence, potentially indicating a dilution effect. Ranavirosis occurrence is associated with the presence of toads, an urban setting and the use of fish care products, providing insight into the causes of emergence of disease. Links between occurrence, prevalence, pond characteristics and garden management practices provides useful management implications for reducing the impacts of Ranavirus in the wild. PMID:26039741

  1. Proximity to Pollution Sources and Risk of Amphibian Limb Malformation

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Brynn; Skelly, David; Demarchis, Livia K.; Slade, Martin D.; Galusha, Deron; Rabinowitz, Peter M.

    2005-01-01

    The cause of limb deformities in wild amphibian populations remains unclear, even though the apparent increase in prevalence of this condition may have implications for human health. Few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of multiple exposures on the risk of limb deformities. In a cross-sectional survey of 5,264 hylid and ranid metamorphs in 42 Vermont wetlands, we assessed independent risk factors for nontraumatic limb malformation. The rate of nontraumatic limb malformation varied by location from 0 to 10.2%. Analysis of a subsample did not demonstrate any evidence of infection with the parasite Ribeiroia. We used geographic information system (GIS) land-use/land-cover data to validate field observations of land use in the proximity of study wetlands. In a multiple logistic regression model that included land use as well as developmental stage, genus, and water-quality measures, proximity to agricultural land use was associated with an increased risk of limb malformation (odds ratio = 2.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.42–3.58; p < 0.001). The overall discriminant power of the statistical model was high (C = 0.79). These findings from one of the largest systematic surveys to date provide support for the role of chemical toxicants in the development of amphibian limb malformation and demonstrate the value of an epidemiologic approach to this problem. PMID:16263502

  2. Linking genetic and environmental factors in amphibian disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Savage, Anna E; Becker, Carlos G; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2015-01-01

    A central question in evolutionary biology is how interactions between organisms and the environment shape genetic differentiation. The pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has caused variable population declines in the lowland leopard frog (Lithobates yavapaiensis); thus, disease has potentially shaped, or been shaped by, host genetic diversity. Environmental factors can also influence both amphibian immunity and Bd virulence, confounding our ability to assess the genetic effects on disease dynamics. Here, we used genetics, pathogen dynamics, and environmental data to characterize L. yavapaiensis populations, estimate migration, and determine relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors in predicting Bd dynamics. We found that the two uninfected populations belonged to a single genetic deme, whereas each infected population was genetically unique. We detected an outlier locus that deviated from neutral expectations and was significantly correlated with mortality within populations. Across populations, only environmental variables predicted infection intensity, whereas environment and genetics predicted infection prevalence, and genetic diversity alone predicted mortality. At one locality with geothermally elevated water temperatures, migration estimates revealed source–sink dynamics that have likely prevented local adaptation. We conclude that integrating genetic and environmental variation among populations provides a better understanding of Bd spatial epidemiology, generating more effective conservation management strategies for mitigating amphibian declines.

  3. Treatment of spontaneous chytridiomycosis in captive amphibians using itraconazole.

    PubMed

    Tamukai, Kenichi; Une, Yumi; Tominaga, Atsushi; Suzuki, Kazutaka; Goka, Koichi

    2011-02-01

    We performed this study in order to establish an effective, simple and safe treatment for chytridiomycosis. The subjects were 12 amphibians (11 anurans of 4 different species and 1 urodela) diagnosed with chytridiomycosis by clinical signs and a PCR test. A 0.01% aqueous solution of the antifungal agent itraconazole was used to treat the subjects, and we evaluated the efficacy of treatment by 3 methods: clinical signs, direct microscopy and a nested PCR test. A 10-min immersion in a 0.01% aqueous solution of itraconazole every other day for a total of 7 treatments resulted in an improvement of clinical signs in 11 of the 12 cases. Specifically, we observed an abatement of increased sloughing and disappearance of zoosporangia by direct microscopy. DNA fragments of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis were not detected by a PCR test at the end of treatment, nor were they detected after treatment (20-57 days following treatment; average, 34.4 days). No recurrence was observed 12 months after the end of treatment, nor did we observe any obvious side effects from itraconazole. Therefore, we recommend this as a treatment method for chytridiomycosis and as an elimination technique for use in captive amphibians. PMID:20847538

  4. Equilibrium of Global Amphibian Species Distributions with Climate

    PubMed Central

    Munguía, Mariana; Rahbek, Carsten; Rangel, Thiago F.; Diniz-Filho, Jose Alexandre F.; Araújo, Miguel B.

    2012-01-01

    A common assumption in bioclimatic envelope modeling is that species distributions are in equilibrium with contemporary climate. A number of studies have measured departures from equilibrium in species distributions in particular regions, but such investigations were never carried out for a complete lineage across its entire distribution. We measure departures of equilibrium with contemporary climate for the distributions of the world amphibian species. Specifically, we fitted bioclimatic envelopes for 5544 species using three presence-only models. We then measured the proportion of the modeled envelope that is currently occupied by the species, as a metric of equilibrium of species distributions with climate. The assumption was that the greater the difference between modeled bioclimatic envelope and the occupied distribution, the greater the likelihood that species distribution would not be at equilibrium with contemporary climate. On average, amphibians occupied 30% to 57% of their potential distributions. Although patterns differed across regions, there were no significant differences among lineages. Species in the Neotropic, Afrotropics, Indo-Malay, and Palaearctic occupied a smaller proportion of their potential distributions than species in the Nearctic, Madagascar, and Australasia. We acknowledge that our models underestimate non equilibrium, and discuss potential reasons for the observed patterns. From a modeling perspective our results support the view that at global scale bioclimatic envelope models might perform similarly across lineages but differently across regions. PMID:22511938

  5. Drought, deluge and declines: the impact of precipitation extremes on amphibians in a changing climate.

    PubMed

    Walls, Susan C; Barichivich, William J; Brown, Mary E

    2013-01-01

    The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change-that of extreme variation in precipitation-may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall "pulses" are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present a conceptual model to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity. PMID:24832668

  6. Questions concerning the potential impact of glyphosate-based herbicides on amphibians.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Norman; Reichenbecher, Wolfram; Teichmann, Hanka; Tappeser, Beatrix; Lötters, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    Use of glyphosate-based herbicides is increasing worldwide. The authors review the available data related to potential impacts of these herbicides on amphibians and conduct a qualitative meta-analysis. Because little is known about environmental concentrations of glyphosate in amphibian habitats and virtually nothing is known about environmental concentrations of the substances added to the herbicide formulations that mainly contribute to adverse effects, glyphosate levels can only be seen as approximations for contamination with glyphosate-based herbicides. The impact on amphibians depends on the herbicide formulation, with different sensitivity of taxa and life stages. Effects on development of larvae apparently are the most sensitive endpoints to study. As with other contaminants, costressors mainly increase adverse effects. If and how glyphosate-based herbicides and other pesticides contribute to amphibian decline is not answerable yet due to missing data on how natural populations are affected. Amphibian risk assessment can only be conducted case-specifically, with consideration of the particular herbicide formulation. The authors recommend better monitoring of both amphibian populations and contamination of habitats with glyphosate-based herbicides, not just glyphosate, and suggest including amphibians in standardized test batteries to study at least dermal administration. PMID:23637092

  7. Assessing effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles: status and needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Henry, P.F.P.

    1992-01-01

    Growing concern about the decline of certain amphibian populations and for conservation of amphibians and reptiles has led to renewed awareness of problems from pesticides. Testing amphibians and reptiles as a requirement for chemical registration has been proposed but is difficult because of the phylogenetic diversity of these groups. Information from the literature and research may determine whether amphibians and reptiles are adequately protected by current tests for mammals, birds, and fish. Existing information indicates that amphibians are unpredictably more resistant to certain cholinesterase inhibitors, and more sensitive to two chemicals used in fishery applications than could have been predicted. A single study on one species of lizard suggests that reptiles may be close in sensitivity to mammals and birds. Research on effects of pesticides on amphibians and reptiles should compare responses to currently tested groups and should seek to delineate those taxa and chemicals for which cross-group prediction is not possible. New tests for amphibians and reptiles should rely to the greatest extent possible on existing data bases, and should be designed for maximum economy and minimum harm to test animals. A strategy for developing the needed information is proposed. Good field testing and surveillance of chemicals in use may compensate for failures of predictive evaluations and may ultimately lead to improved tests.

  8. Drought, Deluge and Declines: The Impact of Precipitation Extremes on Amphibians in a Changing Climate

    PubMed Central

    Walls, Susan C.; Barichivich, William J.; Brown, Mary E.

    2013-01-01

    The Class Amphibia is one of the most severely impacted taxa in an on-going global biodiversity crisis. Because amphibian reproduction is tightly associated with the presence of water, climatic changes that affect water availability pose a particularly menacing threat to both aquatic and terrestrial-breeding amphibians. We explore the impacts that one facet of climate change—that of extreme variation in precipitation—may have on amphibians. This variation is manifested principally as increases in the incidence and severity of both drought and major storm events. We stress the need to consider not only total precipitation amounts but also the pattern and timing of rainfall events. Such rainfall “pulses” are likely to become increasingly more influential on amphibians, especially in relation to seasonal reproduction. Changes in reproductive phenology can strongly influence the outcome of competitive and predatory interactions, thus potentially altering community dynamics in assemblages of co-existing species. We present a conceptual model to illustrate possible landscape and metapopulation consequences of alternative climate change scenarios for pond-breeding amphibians, using the Mole Salamander, Ambystoma talpoideum, as an example. Although amphibians have evolved a variety of life history strategies that enable them to cope with environmental uncertainty, it is unclear whether adaptations can keep pace with the escalating rate of climate change. Climate change, especially in combination with other stressors, is a daunting challenge for the persistence of amphibians and, thus, the conservation of global biodiversity. PMID:24832668

  9. Stable Isotopes Reveal Trophic Partitioning and Trophic Plasticity of a Larval Amphibian Guild.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Rosa; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen; Caut, Stephane; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Temporary ponds are highly variable systems where resource availability and community structure change extensively over time, and consequently the food web is highly dynamic. Amphibians play a critical role both as consumers and prey in aquatic communities and yet there is still little information on the trophic status of most amphibians. More importantly, little is known about the extent to which they can alter their trophic ecology in response to changing conditions. We experimentally investigated the effects of increased amphibian density, presence of intraguild competitors, and presence of native and invasive predators (either free or caged) on the trophic status of a Mediterranean amphibian guild, using stable isotopes. We observed variations in ?13C and ?15N isotopic values among amphibian species and treatments and differences in their food sources. Macrophytes were the most important food resource for spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) and relatively important for all anurans within the guild. High density and presence of P. cultripes tadpoles markedly reduced macrophyte biomass, forcing tadpoles to increase their feeding on detritus, algae and zooplankton, resulting in lower ?13C values. Native dytiscid predators only changed the isotopic signature of newts whereas invasive red swamp crayfish had an enormous impact on environmental conditions and greatly affected the isotopic values of amphibians. Crayfish forced tadpoles to increase detritus ingestion or other resources depleted in ?13C. We found that the opportunistic amphibian feeding was greatly conditioned by intra- and interspecific competition whereas non-consumptive predator effects were negligible. Determining the trophic plasticity of amphibians can help us understand natural and anthropogenic changes in aquatic ecosystems and assess amphibians' ability to adjust to different environmental conditions. PMID:26091281

  10. Stable Isotopes Reveal Trophic Partitioning and Trophic Plasticity of a Larval Amphibian Guild

    PubMed Central

    Arribas, Rosa; Díaz-Paniagua, Carmen; Caut, Stephane; Gomez-Mestre, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Temporary ponds are highly variable systems where resource availability and community structure change extensively over time, and consequently the food web is highly dynamic. Amphibians play a critical role both as consumers and prey in aquatic communities and yet there is still little information on the trophic status of most amphibians. More importantly, little is known about the extent to which they can alter their trophic ecology in response to changing conditions. We experimentally investigated the effects of increased amphibian density, presence of intraguild competitors, and presence of native and invasive predators (either free or caged) on the trophic status of a Mediterranean amphibian guild, using stable isotopes. We observed variations in ?13C and ?15N isotopic values among amphibian species and treatments and differences in their food sources. Macrophytes were the most important food resource for spadefoot toad tadpoles (Pelobates cultripes) and relatively important for all anurans within the guild. High density and presence of P. cultripes tadpoles markedly reduced macrophyte biomass, forcing tadpoles to increase their feeding on detritus, algae and zooplankton, resulting in lower ?13C values. Native dytiscid predators only changed the isotopic signature of newts whereas invasive red swamp crayfish had an enormous impact on environmental conditions and greatly affected the isotopic values of amphibians. Crayfish forced tadpoles to increase detritus ingestion or other resources depleted in ?13C. We found that the opportunistic amphibian feeding was greatly conditioned by intra- and interspecific competition whereas non-consumptive predator effects were negligible. Determining the trophic plasticity of amphibians can help us understand natural and anthropogenic changes in aquatic ecosystems and assess amphibians’ ability to adjust to different environmental conditions. PMID:26091281

  11. Steroid-triggered, cell-autonomous death of a Drosophila motoneuron during metamorphosis

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The metamorphosis of Drosophila melanogaster is accompanied by elimination of obsolete neurons via programmed cell death (PCD). Metamorphosis is regulated by ecdysteroids, including 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E), but the roles and modes of action of hormones in regulating neuronal PCD are incompletely understood. Results We used targeted expression of GFP to track the fate of a larval motoneuron, RP2, in ventral ganglia. RP2s in abdominal neuromeres two through seven (A2 to A7) exhibited fragmented DNA by 15 hours after puparium formation (h-APF) and were missing by 20 h-APF. RP2 death began shortly after the 'prepupal pulse' of ecdysteroids, during which time RP2s expressed ecdysteroid receptors (EcRs). Genetic manipulations showed that RP2 death required the function of EcR-B isoforms, the death-activating gene, reaper (but not hid), and the apoptosome component, Dark. PCD was blocked by expression of the caspase inhibitor p35 but unaffected by manipulating Diap1. In contrast, aCC motoneurons in neuromeres A2 to A7, and RP2s in neuromere A1, expressed EcRs during the prepupal pulse but survived into the pupal stage under all conditions tested. To test the hypothesis that ecdysteroids trigger RP2's death directly, we placed abdominal GFP-expressing neurons in cell culture immediately prior to the prepupal pulse, with or without 20E. 20E induced significant PCD in putative RP2s, but not in control neurons, as assessed by morphological criteria and propidium iodide staining. Conclusions These findings suggest that the rise of ecdysteroids during the prepupal pulse acts directly, via EcR-B isoforms, to activate PCD in RP2 motoneurons in abdominal neuromeres A2 to A7, while sparing RP2s in A1. Genetic manipulations suggest that RP2's death requires Reaper function, apoptosome assembly and Diap1-independent caspase activation. RP2s offer a valuable 'single cell' approach to the molecular understanding of neuronal death during insect metamorphosis and, potentially, of neurodegeneration in other contexts. PMID:21521537

  12. Acute toxicities of toxaphene and endrin to larvae of seven species of amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, R.J.; Swineford, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Seven species of amphibian larvae were exposed to toxaphene and endrin in a continuous-flow dosing system to determine differences in sensitivity to the two compounds, EC50 and LC50 estimates varied from those for Rana sphenocephala by no more than one order of magnitude when calculated on the basis of intended concentrations. Removal of pesticides from water by the test animals was significant and it makes interpretation of results difficult. Continuous-flow toxicity tests conflict with the adaptations of amphibian larvae for static water; use of such tests for amphibians requires further evaluation.

  13. Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR): A Metamorphosis of Mentorship

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thea Edwards (Louisiana Tech University; )

    2011-04-01

    We describe Group-Advantaged Training of Research (GATOR), a yearlong structured program at the University of Florida that guided graduate student mentors and their undergraduate mentees through the mentored research process. Using the national Survey of Undergraduate Research Experiences for an academic year, we found that outcomes for our mentees were similar to those for other programs. We also used an internal survey, combined with qualitative observations, to develop a road map of the mentoring process, which we call the "Metamorphosis of Mentorship." This model provides tangible steps on the road to becoming a scientist, incorporates reasons mentees stall in research, and suggests ways to overcome mentoring challenges and prevent attrition. The structure and outcomes of this program will be useful to researchers and administrators working to engage undergraduates in scientific research, particularly at large universities where undergraduates are often mentored by graduate students.

  14. Metamorphosis of plasma turbulence-shear-flow dynamics through a transcritical bifurcation.

    PubMed

    Ball, R; Dewar, R L; Sugama, H

    2002-12-01

    The structural properties of an economical model for a confined plasma turbulence governor are investigated through bifurcation and stability analyses. A close relationship is demonstrated between the underlying bifurcation framework of the model and typical behavior associated with low- to high-confinement transitions such as shear-flow stabilization of turbulence and oscillatory collective action. In particular, the analysis evinces two types of discontinuous transition that are qualitatively distinct. One involves classical hysteresis, governed by viscous dissipation. The other is intrinsically oscillatory and nonhysteretic, and thus provides a model for the so-called dithering transitions that are frequently observed. This metamorphosis, or transformation, of the system dynamics is an important late side-effect of symmetry breaking, which manifests as an unusual nonsymmetric transcritical bifurcation induced by a significant shear-flow drive. PMID:12513413

  15. The effects of X irradiation on the metamorphosis and budding of Aurelia aurita

    SciTech Connect

    Prokopchak, M.J.; Spangenberg, D.B.; Shaeffer, J. (Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk (USA))

    1990-10-01

    With the aid of the Aurelia metamorphosis test system, the acute and subtle developmental and behavioral effects of X irradiation in the presence and absence of thyroxine on the Norfolk Aurelia aurita were described. Radiation doses were 0 (control), 50, 100, 150, 200, and 400 Gy. Morphology of the ephyrae, and statolith and rhopalia numbers were recorded using the light microscope. Developmental abnormalities of the polyps and ephyrae were recorded with the scanning electron microscope and light microscope. Major findings from this investigation were the absence of rhopalia and statoliths in ephyrae at 150 and 200 Gy, a reduction in pulses per minute in the ephyrae at 100, 150, and 200 Gy, a reduction in ephyrae released at 150, 200, and 400 Gy, and the development of polyp monsters. There was a significantly higher frequency of polyp monsters in the group exposed to thyroxine prior to radiation than in the thyroxine-free group prior to radiation.

  16. Atypically large well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma with extensive fatty metamorphosis: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Daichi; Shimada, Mitsuo; Utsunomiya, Tohru; Morine, Yuji; Imura, Satoru; Ikemoto, Tetsuya; Mori, Hiroki; Arakawa, Yusuke; Kanamoto, Mami; Iwahashi, Shuichi; Yamada, Shinichiro; Asanoma, Michihito

    2013-01-01

    A large well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with fatty change is rare, and to date only a few cases have been reported. Herein, we present a 68-year-old man who developed a well-differentiated HCC with extensive fatty metamorphosis. The patient was referred to our institute because of a rapidly growing tumor in the left lobe of the liver. Ultrasonography showed a hyperechoic lesion with a peripheral hypoechoic area. Dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan in all three phases revealed the tumor which showed diffuse low attenuation with internal irregular enhancement. He underwent left lateral segmentectomy at the liver. Histological diagnosis confirmed well-differentiated HCC and the surrounding non-cancerous area was diagnosed as non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. The patient is still alive without recurrence after 17 months of follow-up. PMID:24190046

  17. Groups travel further: pelagic metamorphosis and polyp clustering allow higher dispersal potential in sun coral propagules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizrahi, Damián; Navarrete, Sergio A.; Flores, Augusto A. V.

    2014-06-01

    We report that planulae produced by Tubastraea coccinea can metamorphose and aggregate in groups of up to eight polyps in the water column, without previous settlement on benthic substrate. We also evaluated the survival of propagules to test whether different levels of aggregation allowed for longer planktonic life and, therefore, higher dispersal potential. Our results show that pelagic polyps live longer than planulae, probably because they can feed and meet the presumably high-energy demands of swimming. Clusters of two or more individuals lived longer than solitary polyps. However, mortality did not differ between small (2-3 polyps) and large (4-8 polyps) clusters, suggesting the existence of an upper limit to cluster size. Most swimming clusters (80 %) remained alive after 6 months, suggesting that pelagic metamorphosis and cluster formation can be a key life-history feature increasing dispersal potential, population connectivity, and the colonization of new habitats in this invasive species.

  18. Ionoregulatory changes during metamorphosis and salinity exposure of juvenile sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus L.)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reis-Santos, P.; McCormick, S.D.; Wilson, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Ammocoetes of the anadromous sea lamprey Petromyzon marinus L. spend many years in freshwater before metamorphosing and migrating to sea. Metamorphosis involves the radical transformation from a substrate-dwelling, filter feeder into a free-swimming, parasitic feeder. In the present work we examined osmoregulatory differences between ammocoetes and transformers (metamorphic juveniles), and the effects of salinity acclimation. We measured the expression of key ion-transporting proteins [Na+/K+-ATPase, vacuolar (V)-type H+-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase (CA)] as well as a number of relevant blood parameters (hematocrit, [Na+] and [Cl -]). In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify and characterize the distributions of Na+/K+-ATPase, V-type H+-ATPase and CA immunoreactive cells in the gill. Ammocoetes did not survive in the experiments with salinities greater than 10???, whereas survival in high salinity (???25-35???) increased with increased degree of metamorphosis in transformers. Plasma [Na+] and [Cl -] of ammocoetes in freshwater was lower than transformers and increased markedly at 10???. In transformers, plasma ions increased only at high salinity (>25???). Branchial Na+/K+-ATPase levels were ??? tenfold higher in transformers compared to ammocoetes and salinity did not affect expression in either group. However, branchial H +-ATPase expression showed a negative correlation with salinity in both groups. Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity was strongest in transformers and associated with clusters of cells in the interlamellar spaces. H+-ATPase (B subunit) immunoreactivity was localized to epithelial cells not expressing high Na+/K+-ATPase immunoreactivity and having a similar tissue distribution as carbonic anhydrase. The results indicate that branchial Na+/K+-ATPase and salinity tolerance increase in metamorphosing lampreys, and that branchial H+-ATPase is downregulated by salinity.

  19. Differential Gene Expression at Coral Settlement and Metamorphosis - A Subtractive Hybridization Study

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, David C.; Hetherington, Suzannah; Behm, Carolyn A.; Grasso, Lauretta C.; Forêt, Sylvain; Miller, David J.; Ball, Eldon E.

    2011-01-01

    Background A successful metamorphosis from a planktonic larva to a settled polyp, which under favorable conditions will establish a future colony, is critical for the survival of corals. However, in contrast to the situation in other animals, e.g., frogs and insects, little is known about the molecular basis of coral metamorphosis. We have begun to redress this situation with previous microarray studies, but there is still a great deal to learn. In the present paper we have utilized a different technology, subtractive hybridization, to characterize genes differentially expressed across this developmental transition and to compare the success of this method to microarray. Methodology/Principal Findings Suppressive subtractive hybridization (SSH) was used to identify two pools of transcripts from the coral, Acropora millepora. One is enriched for transcripts expressed at higher levels at the pre-settlement stage, and the other for transcripts expressed at higher levels at the post-settlement stage. Virtual northern blots were used to demonstrate the efficacy of the subtractive hybridization technique. Both pools contain transcripts coding for proteins in various functional classes but transcriptional regulatory proteins were represented more frequently in the post-settlement pool. Approximately 18% of the transcripts showed no significant similarity to any other sequence on the public databases. Transcripts of particular interest were further characterized by in situ hybridization, which showed that many are regulated spatially as well as temporally. Notably, many transcripts exhibit axially restricted expression patterns that correlate with the pool from which they were isolated. Several transcripts are expressed in patterns consistent with a role in calcification. Conclusions We have characterized over 200 transcripts that are differentially expressed between the planula larva and post-settlement polyp of the coral, Acropora millepora. Sequence, putative function, and in some cases temporal and spatial expression are reported. PMID:22065994

  20. Drosophila caspases involved in developmentally regulated programmed cell death of peptidergic neurons during early metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gyunghee; Wang, Zixing; Sehgal, Ritika; Chen, Chun-Hong; Kikuno, Keiko; Hay, Bruce; Park, Jae H

    2011-01-01

    A great number of obsolete larval neurons in the Drosophila central nervous system are eliminated by developmentally programmed cell death (PCD) during early metamorphosis. To elucidate the mechanisms of neuronal PCD occurring during this period, we undertook genetic dissection of seven currently known Drosophila caspases in the PCD of a group of interneurons (vCrz) that produce corazonin (Crz) neuropeptide in the ventral nerve cord. The molecular death program in the vCrz neurons initiates within 1 hour after pupariation, as demonstrated by the cytological signs of cell death and caspase activation. PCD was significantly suppressed in dronc-null mutants, but not in null mutants of either dredd or strica. A double mutation lacking both dronc and strica impaired PCD phenotype more severely than did a dronc mutation alone, but comparably to a triple dredd/strica/dronc mutation, indicating that dronc is a main initiator caspase, while strica plays a minor role that overlaps with dronc's. As for effector caspases, vCrz PCD requires both ice and dcp-1 functions, as they work cooperatively for a timely removal of the vCrz neurons. Interestingly, the activation of the Ice and Dcp-1 is not solely dependent on Dronc and Strica, implying an alternative pathway to activate the effectors. Two remaining effector caspase genes, decay and damm, found no apparent functions in the neuronal PCD, at least during early metamorphosis. Overall, our work revealed that vCrz PCD utilizes dronc, strica, dcp-1, and ice wherein the activation of Ice and Dcp-1 requires a novel pathway in addition to the initiator caspases. PMID:21120926

  1. Midlife Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    The study was conducted in response to the need for an increased understanding of the aging experiences of women transitioning midlife. The purpose of the research was to explore the personal understanding of the changes that occur during the midlife period. A qualitative case study was implemented to ascertain how women of the Latter-day Saint…

  2. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  3. ITS1 Copy Number Varies among Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis Strains: Implications for qPCR Estimates of Infection Intensity from Field-Collected Amphibian Skin Swabs

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Ana V.; Rodriguez, David; da Silva Leite, Domingos; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Mendoza Almeralla, Cinthya; Burrowes, Patricia A.; Zamudio, Kelly R.

    2013-01-01

    Genomic studies of the amphibian-killing fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, [Bd]) identified three highly divergent genetic lineages, only one of which has a global distribution. Bd strains within these linages show variable genomic content due to differential loss of heterozygosity and recombination. The current quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) protocol to detect the fungus from amphibian skin swabs targets the intergenic transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region using a TaqMan fluorescent probe specific to Bd. We investigated the consequences of genomic differences in the quantification of ITS1 from eight distinct Bd strains, including representatives from North America, South America, the Caribbean, and Australia. To test for potential differences in amplification, we compared qPCR standards made from Bd zoospore counts for each strain, and showed that they differ significantly in amplification rates. To test potential mechanisms leading to strain differences in qPCR reaction parameters (slope and y-intercept), we: a) compared standard curves from the same strains made from extracted Bd genomic DNA in equimolar solutions, b) quantified the number of ITS1 copies per zoospore using a standard curve made from PCR-amplicons of the ITS1 region, and c) cloned and sequenced PCR-amplified ITS1 regions from these same strains to verify the presence of the probe site in all haplotypes. We found high strain variability in ITS1 copy number, ranging from 10 to 144 copies per single zoospore. Our results indicate that genome size might explain strain differences in ITS1 copy number, but not ITS1 sequence variation because the probe-binding site and primers were conserved across all haplotypes. For standards constructed from uncharacterized Bd strains, we recommend the use of single ITS1 PCR-amplicons as the absolute standard in conjunction with current quantitative assays to inform on copy number variation and provide universal estimates of pathogen zoospore loads from field-caught amphibians. PMID:23555682

  4. EVALUATING AMPHIBIAN RESPONSES IN WETLANDS IMPACTED BY MINING ACTIVITIES IN THE WESTERN UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    An increasing awareness of declining amphibian populations in the United States requires that we develop strategies for evaluating anthropogenic impacts on wetlands and the biota dependent upon these habitats. or example, in the western United states, mining activities may impact...

  5. POND-BREEDING AMPHIBIAN SPECIES DISTRIBUTIONS IN A BEAVER-MODIFIED LANDSCAPE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jesse Cunningham

    An Abstract of the Thesis Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science (in Ecology and Environmental Sciences) December, 2003 In order to maintain pond-breeding amphibian species richness, it is important to

  6. ASSESSMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL STRESSORS POTENTIALLY RESPONSIBLE FOR MALFORMATIONS IN NORTH AMERICAN ANURAN AMPHIBIANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of species of anuran amphibians from different regions across North America have recently exhibited an increased occurrence of, predominantly, hind limb malformations. Research concerning factors potentially responsible for these malformations has focused extensively on ...

  7. Distribution of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwestern USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Bull, E.L.; Green, D.E.; Bowerman, Jay; Adams, Michael J.; Hyatt, A.; Wente, W.

    2007-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis (infection by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) has been associated with amphibian declines in at least four continents. We report results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington. We detected B. dendrobatidis on 28% of sampled amphibians, and we found a?Y 1 detection of B. dendrobatidis from 43% of sites. Four of seven species tested positive for B. dendrobatidis, including the Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). We also detected B. dendrobatidis in nonnative American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from six sites in western and central Oregon. Our study and other recently published findings suggest that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans. Further research on virulence, transmissibility, persistence, and interactions with other stressors is needed to assess the potential impact of B. dendrobatidis on Pacific Northwestern amphibians.

  8. Phylogeny of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear RAG1

    E-print Network

    Zardoya, Rafael

    Phylogeny of caecilian amphibians (Gymnophiona) based on complete mitochondrial genomes and nuclear determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the mitochondrial (mt) genome of five individual caecilians also determined for these six species of caecilians, and the salamander Mertensiella luschani atifi

  9. Morphological Abnormalities in Amphibians in Agricultural Habitats: A Case Study of the Common Frog Rana temporaria

    E-print Network

    Merilä, Juha

    investigations (e.g., Koskela, 1974; Meyer-Ro- chow and Koebke, 1986). Although abnormally developed amphibians (Ouellet, 2000; Carey et al., 2003). The lack of large-scale population censuses and historic data also pre

  10. Species List of Alaskan Birds, Mammals, Fish, Amphibians, Reptiles, and Invertebrates. Alaska Region Report Number 82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Tamra Faris

    This publication contains a detailed list of the birds, mammals, fish, amphibians, reptiles, and invertebrates found in Alaska. Part I lists the species by geographical regions. Part II lists the species by the ecological regions of the state. (CO)

  11. Effects of road mortality and mitigation measures on amphibian populations.

    PubMed

    Beebee, Trevor J C

    2013-08-01

    Road mortality is a widely recognized but rarely quantified threat to the viability of amphibian populations. The global extent of the problem is substantial and factors affecting the number of animals killed on highways include life-history traits and landscape features. Secondary effects include genetic isolation due to roads acting as barriers to migration. Long-term effects of roads on population dynamics are often severe and mitigation methods include volunteer rescues and under-road tunnels. Despite the development of methods that reduce road kill in specific locations, especially under-road tunnels and culverts, there is scant evidence that such measures will protect populations over the long term. There also seems little likelihood that funding will be forthcoming to ameliorate the problem at the scale necessary to prevent further population declines. PMID:23647090

  12. Bioconcentration of organophosphorus pesticides to hazardous levels by amphibians.

    PubMed

    Hall, R J; Kolbe, E

    1980-07-01

    Organophosphorus pesticides have generally low persistence in the environment, but they may persist in water and accumulate in certain aquatic vertebrates. Frogs are resistant to cholinesterase inhibitors; thus it was suspected that they might accumulate the pesticides. Tadpoles concentrated pesticides from water up to 60 times; those exposed to 1 ppm parathion and 5 ppm fenthion were lethal when they were fed to mallard ducks. Dicrotophos, malathion, and acephate were not accumulated to levels such that they were lethal when consumed in a single meal by ducks. Brain cholinesterase levels were correlated with dose and effect. Metabolites of parathion and fenthion produced by the tadpoles were rapidly excreted and it was concluded that they play a small role in the toxicity of the larvae to ducks. Dangerous levels of some pesticides may be accumulated by amphibians in nature and may adversely affect carnivorous species. PMID:6968357

  13. Molecular evidence for the early history of living amphibians.

    PubMed

    Feller, A E; Hedges, S B

    1998-06-01

    The evolutionary relationships of the three orders of living amphibians (lissamphibians) has been difficult to resolve, partly because of their specialized morphologies. Traditionally, frogs and salamanders are considered to be closest relatives, and all three orders are thought to have arisen in the Paleozoic (>250 myr). Here, we present evidence from the DNA sequences of four mitochondrial genes (2.7 kilobases) that challenges the conventional hypothesis and supports a salamander-caecilian relationship. This, in light of the fossil record and distribution of the families, suggests a more recent (Mesozoic) origin for salamanders and caecilians directly linked to the initial breakup of the supercontinent Pangaea. We propose that this single geologic event isolated salamanders and archaeobatrachian frogs on the northern continents (Laurasia) and the caecilians and neobatrachian frogs on the southern continents (Gondwana). Among the neobatrachian frog families, molecular evidence supports a South American clade and an African clade, inferred here to be the result of mid-Cretaceous vicariance. PMID:9667999

  14. Rayleigh instability of the inverted one-cell amphibian embryo.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Comron; Luppes, Roel; Veldman, Arthur E P; Tuszynski, Jack A; Gordon, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The one-cell amphibian embryo is modeled as a rigid spherical shell containing equal volumes of two immiscible fluids with different densities and viscosities and a surface tension between them. The fluids represent denser yolk in the bottom hemisphere and clearer cytoplasm and the germinal vesicle in the top hemisphere. The unstable equilibrium configuration of the inverted system (the heavier fluid on top) depends on the value of the contact angle. The theoretically calculated normal modes of perturbation and the instability of each mode are in agreement with the results from ComFlo computational fluid dynamic simulations of the same system. The two dominant types of modes of perturbation give rise to axisymmetric and asymmetric sloshing of the cytoplasm of the inverted embryos, respectively. This work quantifies our hypothesis that the axisymmetric mode corresponds to failure of development, and the asymmetric sloshing mode corresponds to development proceeding normally, but with reversed pigmentation, for inverted embryos. PMID:18403830

  15. Increase in liver pigmentation during natural hibernation in some amphibians

    PubMed Central

    BARNI, SERGIO; BERTONE, VITTORIO; CROCE, ANNA CLETA; BOTTIROLI, GIOVANNI; BERNINI, FRANCO; GERZELI, GIUSEPPE

    1999-01-01

    The amount/distribution of liver melanin in 3 amphibian species (Rana esculenta, Triturus a. apuanus, Triturus carnifex) was studied during 2 periods of the annual cycle (summer activity–winter hibernation) by light and electron microscopy, image analysis and microspectrofluorometry. The increase in liver pigmentation (melanin content) during winter appeared to be correlated with morphological and functional modifications in the hepatocytes, which at this period were characterised by a decrease in metabolic activity. These findings were interpreted according to the functional role (e.g. phagocytosis, cytotoxic substance inactivation) played by the pigment cell component in the general physiology of the heterothermic vertebrate liver and, in particular, in relation to a compensatory engagement of these cells against hepatocellular hypoactivity during the winter period. PMID:10473289

  16. MULTISCALE HABITAT RELATIONSHIPS OF STREAM AMPHIBIANS IN THE KLAMATH-SISKIYOU REGION OF CALIFORNIA AND OREGON

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. WELSH; AMY J. LIND

    Regional amphibian distribution patterns can vary greatly depending on species and the spatial scale of inquiry (e.g., landscape to microenvironment). These differences appear to be related both to habitat selection among species as well as availability of suitable habitats across scales. M7e sampled amphibians in 39 second- and third-order streams in the conifer-hardwood forests of northwestern California and southwestern Oregon,

  17. Amphibians and Reptiles of Bulgaria: Fauna, Vertical Distribution, Zoogeography, and Conservation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Boyan P. Petrov

    The geographical position, mild climate, mountainous landscape, and habitat heterogeneity determine Bulgaria’s rich diversity\\u000a of herpetofauna. Currently, 17 species of amphibians (20 subspecies) and 36 species of reptiles (45 subspecies) are known\\u000a from Bulgaria. Due to its transitional position, Bulgaria lies at the southern or northern distribution limits of many species\\u000a of amphibians and reptiles. Vertical distribution is presented for

  18. Effects of ultraviolet-B radiation on behaviour and growth of three species of amphibian larvae

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maarit Pahkala; Anssi Laurila; Juha Merilä

    2003-01-01

    Effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on amphibian embryos have been investigated in a number of studies, but the effects on larvae have received less attention. We investigated the effects of UV-B radiation on the behaviour and growth of larvae of three amphibians (Rana arvalis, Rana temporaria and Bufo bufo) in two different experiments. First, we tested whether larvae of the

  19. Biodiversity of trematodes associated with amphibians from a variety of habitats in Corrientes Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Hamann, M I; Kehr, A I; González, C E

    2013-09-01

    The main goals of this study were to compare the richness of parasitic trematodes in amphibians with diverse habits (terrestrial, fossorial, semi-aquatic and arboreal), and to evaluate whether the composition of the trematode community is determined by ecological relationships. Specimens were collected between April 2001 and December 2006 from a common area (30 ha) in Corrientes Province, Argentina. Trematodes of amphibians in this area comprised a total of 19 species, and were dominated by common species. Larval trematodes presented highest species richness, with the metacercaria of Bursotrema tetracotyloides being dominant in the majority (7/9, 78%) of the parasite communities. Adults of the trematode Catadiscus inopinatus were dominant in the majority (6/9, 67%) of amphibians. The amphibians Leptodactylus latinasus, Leptodactylus bufonius and Scinax nasicus presented a high diversity of trematodes, whereas Leptodactylus chaquensis had the lowest diversity even though it presented with the highest species richness. The patterns of similarity among amphibian species showed groups linking with their habitats. Leptodactilid amphibians, with a generalist diet and an active foraging strategy showed highest infection rates with adult trematodes. The mean richness of trematode species related to host's habitat preferences was higher in semi-aquatic amphibians. Results suggest that semi-aquatic amphibians, present in both aquatic and terrestrial environments, present a greater diversity of parasites as they have a higher rate of exposure to a wider range of prey species and, hence, to diverse infective states. The trematode composition is related to the diets and mobility of the host, and habitat. PMID:22874101

  20. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Taegan A; Sears, Brittany F; Venesky, Matthew D; Bessler, Scott M; Brown, Jenise M; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J Scott; Reinert, Laura K; Rollins-Smith, Louise A; Raffel, Thomas R; Rohr, Jason R

    2014-07-10

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

  1. Vast underestimation of Madagascar's biodiversity evidenced by an integrative amphibian inventory

    PubMed Central

    Vieites, David R.; Wollenberg, Katharina C.; Andreone, Franco; Köhler, Jörn; Glaw, Frank; Vences, Miguel

    2009-01-01

    Amphibians are in decline worldwide. However, their patterns of diversity, especially in the tropics, are not well understood, mainly because of incomplete information on taxonomy and distribution. We assess morphological, bioacoustic, and genetic variation of Madagascar's amphibians, one of the first near-complete taxon samplings from a biodiversity hotspot. Based on DNA sequences of 2,850 specimens sampled from over 170 localities, our analyses reveal an extreme proportion of amphibian diversity, projecting an almost 2-fold increase in species numbers from the currently described 244 species to a minimum of 373 and up to 465. This diversity is widespread geographically and across most major phylogenetic lineages except in a few previously well-studied genera, and is not restricted to morphologically cryptic clades. We classify the genealogical lineages in confirmed and unconfirmed candidate species or deeply divergent conspecific lineages based on concordance of genetic divergences with other characters. This integrative approach may be widely applicable to improve estimates of organismal diversity. Our results suggest that in Madagascar the spatial pattern of amphibian richness and endemism must be revisited, and current habitat destruction may be affecting more species than previously thought, in amphibians as well as in other animal groups. This case study suggests that worldwide tropical amphibian diversity is probably underestimated at an unprecedented level and stresses the need for integrated taxonomic surveys as a basis for prioritizing conservation efforts within biodiversity hotspots. PMID:19416818

  2. Effects of an infectious fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, on amphibian predator-prey interactions.

    PubMed

    Han, Barbara A; Searle, Catherine L; Blaustein, Andrew R

    2011-01-01

    The effects of parasites and pathogens on host behaviors may be particularly important in predator-prey contexts, since few animal behaviors are more crucial for ensuring immediate survival than the avoidance of lethal predators in nature. We examined the effects of an emerging fungal pathogen of amphibians, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, on anti-predator behaviors of tadpoles of four frog species. We also investigated whether amphibian predators consumed infected prey, and whether B. dendrobatidis caused differences in predation rates among prey in laboratory feeding trials. We found differences in anti-predator behaviors among larvae of four amphibian species, and show that infected tadpoles of one species (Anaxyrus boreas) were more active and sought refuge more frequently when exposed to predator chemical cues. Salamander predators consumed infected and uninfected tadpoles of three other prey species at similar rates in feeding trials, and predation risk among prey was unaffected by B. dendrobatidis. Collectively, our results show that even sub-lethal exposure to B. dendrobatidis can alter fundamental anti-predator behaviors in some amphibian prey species, and suggest the unexplored possibility that indiscriminate predation between infected and uninfected prey (i.e., non-selective predation) could increase the prevalence of this widely distributed pathogen in amphibian populations. Because one of the most prominent types of predators in many amphibian systems is salamanders, and because salamanders are susceptible to B. dendrobatidis, our work suggests the importance of considering host susceptibility and behavioral changes that could arise from infection in both predators and prey. PMID:21311771

  3. Detection probabilities and site occupancy estimates for amphibians at Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, L.L.; Barichivich, W.J.; Staiger, J.S.; Smith, Kimberly G.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.

    2006-01-01

    We conducted an amphibian inventory at Okefenokee National Wildlife Refuge from August 2000 to June 2002 as part of the U.S. Department of the Interior's national Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative. Nineteen species of amphibians (15 anurans and 4 caudates) were documented within the Refuge, including one protected species, the Gopher Frog Rana capito. We also collected 1 y of monitoring data for amphibian populations and incorporated the results into the inventory. Detection probabilities and site occupancy estimates for four species, the Pinewoods Treefrog (Hyla femoralis), Pig Frog (Rana grylio), Southern Leopard Frog (R. sphenocephala) and Carpenter Frog (R. virgatipes) are presented here. Detection probabilities observed in this study indicate that spring and summer surveys offer the best opportunity to detect these species in the Refuge. Results of the inventory suggest that substantial changes may have occurred in the amphibian fauna within and adjacent to the swamp. However, monitoring the amphibian community of Okefenokee Swamp will prove difficult because of the logistical challenges associated with a rigorous statistical assessment of status and trends.

  4. Distinct Expression Profiles of Three Melatonin Receptors during Early Development and Metamorphosis in the Flatfish Solea senegalensis

    PubMed Central

    Lan-Chow-Wing, Olivier; Confente, Francesca; Herrera-Pérez, Patricia; Isorna, Esther; Chereguini, Olvido; Rendón, Maria del Carmen; Falcón, Jack; Muñoz-Cueto, José A.

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin actions are mediated through G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors. Recently, mt1, mt2, and mel1c melatonin receptors were cloned in the Senegalese sole. Here, their day-night and developmental expressions were analyzed by quantitative PCR. These results revealed distinct expression patterns of each receptor through development. mel1c transcripts were more abundant in unfertilized ovulated oocytes and declined during embryonic development. mt1 and mt2 expression was higher at the earliest stages (2–6 days post-fertilization), decreasing before (mt2) or during (mt1) metamorphosis. Only mt1 and mel1c expression exhibited day-night variations, with higher nocturnal mRNA levels. These results suggest different roles and transcriptional regulation of these melatonin receptors during flatfish development and metamorphosis. PMID:25402642

  5. Induction of metamorphosis in the sea urchin Holopneustes purpurascens by a metabolite complex from the algal host Delisea pulchra.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J E; De Nys, R; Kumar, N; Carson, D G; Steinberg, P D

    2000-06-01

    Most benthic invertebrates have complex life cycles with planktonic larvae that return to the substratum to settle and metamorphose into a benthic stage. Although naturally produced chemical cues have long been thought to be important for the settlement or metamorphosis of invertebrate larvae, few ecologically relevant chemical cues have been clearly identified. The marine echinoid Holopneustes purpurascens has a complex life cycle, with a planktonic, nonfeeding dispersive larva that metamorphoses into a benthic stage that lives in the canopy of subtidal benthic algae such as the red alga Delisea pulchra and the kelp Ecklonia radiata. Recently recruited juveniles are found primarily on D. pulchra, and we hypothesized that this was in response to a chemical cue produced by this alga. Competent larvae metamorphosed in the presence of D. pulchra, or seawater surrounding this alga, but not in response to the presence of E. radiata or its extracts. A cue for metamorphosis was isolated and characterized from D. pulchra and found to be a water-soluble complex of the sugar floridoside and isethionic acid in a 1:1 molar ratio. The floridoside-isethionic acid complex also triggered settlement in H. purpurascens; however, this response was less specific than metamorphosis and was reversible. Larvae of H. purpurascens also metamorphosed in the presence of several other species of red, but not brown or green, algae from their habitat. Floridoside is found only in red algae, suggesting that the floridoside-isethionic acid complex may be acting as a cue for metamorphosis in other red algae as well as in D. pulchra. PMID:10897447

  6. Ecological correlates of species richness and population abundance patterns in the amphibian communities from the Albertine Rift, East Africa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathias Behangana; Panta M. B. Kasoma; Luca Luiselli

    2009-01-01

    Broad-scale ecological correlates affecting species richness and abundance patterns of amphibians were studied in 37 sampling\\u000a sites from 15 independent protected areas in the Albertine Rift, East Africa. Amphibians were caught by a combination of sampling\\u000a techniques, including time-constrained visual searching, pitfalls with drift fences, dip-netting, and opportunistic observations.\\u000a In total, 73 species of amphibians were recorded, some of them

  7. Amphibian occurrence and aquatic invaders in a changing landscape: Implications for wetland mitigation in the willamette valley, Oregon, USA

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher A. Pearl; Michael J. Adams; Niels Leuthold; R. Bruce Bury

    2005-01-01

    Despite concern about the conservation status of amphibians in western North America, few field studies have documented occurrence\\u000a patterns of amphibians relative to potential stressors. We surveyed wetland fauna in Oregon’s Willamette Valley and used an\\u000a information theoretic approach (AIC) to rank the associations between native amphibian breeding occurrence and wetland characteristics,\\u000a non-native aquatic predators, and landscape characteristics in a

  8. Effect of atrazine and fenitrothion at no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on amphibian and mammalian corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG).

    PubMed

    Hernández, Sandra E; Sernia, Conrad; Bradley, Adrian J

    2014-11-01

    This study determines the effect of atrazine and fenitrothion no-observed-effect-levels (NOEL) on the binding of corticosterone (B) to corticosterone-binding-globulin (CBG) in an amphibian and a mammal. Plasma from five cane toads and five Wistar rats was exposed to atrazine and fenitrothion at the NOEL approved for Australian fresh water residues and by the World Health Organization (WHO). The concentration required to displace 50% (IC50) of B binding to CBG was determined by a competitive microdialysis protein assay. Competition studies showed that both atrazine and fenitrothion at NOEL are able to compete with B for CBG binding sites in toad and rat plasma. The IC50 levels for atrazine in toads and rats were 0.004 nmol/l and 0.09 nmol/l respectively. In the case of fenitrothion the IC50 level found in toads was 0.007 nmol/l, and 0.025 nmol/l in rats. Plasma dilution curves showed parallelism with the curve of B, demonstrating that these agro-chemicals are competitively inhibiting binding to CBG. The displacement of B by atrazine and fenitrothion would affect the total:free ratio of B and consequently disrupt the normal stress response. This is the first time that the potential disruptive effect of atrazine and fenitrothion on B-CBG interaction at the NOELs has been demonstrated in amphibian and mammalian models. PMID:25138046

  9. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2010-07-13

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  10. Absolute nuclear material assay

    DOEpatents

    Prasad, Manoj K. (Pleasanton, CA); Snyderman, Neal J. (Berkeley, CA); Rowland, Mark S. (Alamo, CA)

    2012-05-15

    A method of absolute nuclear material assay of an unknown source comprising counting neutrons from the unknown source and providing an absolute nuclear material assay utilizing a model to optimally compare to the measured count distributions. In one embodiment, the step of providing an absolute nuclear material assay comprises utilizing a random sampling of analytically computed fission chain distributions to generate a continuous time-evolving sequence of event-counts by spreading the fission chain distribution in time.

  11. Effects of cadmium, estradiol-17beta and their interaction on gonadal condition and metamorphosis of male and female African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2010-01-01

    To assess interaction effects between cadmium (Cd, a putative xenoestrogen) and estradiol-17beta (E(2)) on sex differentiation and metamorphosis, Xenopus laevis were exposed to solvent-control (0.005% ethanol), Cd (10microgL(-1)), E(2) (1microgL(-1)), or Cd and E(2) (Cd+E(2)) in FETAX medium from fertilization to 75d postfertilization. Each treatment was applied to four aquaria, each with 30 fertilized eggs. Mortality was recorded and animals were sampled as they completed metamorphosis (Nieuwkoop and Faber stage 66). Gonadal sex of individuals (including >or= tadpoles NF stage 55 at day 75) was determined gross-morphologically and used to compute sex ratios. Time course and percent completion of metamorphosis, snout-vent length (SVL), hindlimb length (HLL) and weight were analyzed for each gender separately. Survival rates did not differ among treatments. The E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments significantly skewed sex ratios towards females; however, no sex-ratio differences were observed between the control and Cd treatments or between the E(2) and Cd+E(2) treatments. Time course of metamorphosis was generally delayed and percent completion of metamorphosis was generally reduced in males and females exposed to Cd, E(2) or their combination compared to control animals. In males, but not females, the effect of Cd+E(2) was greater than that of individual chemicals. Weight at completion of metamorphosis was reduced only in females and only by the Cd+E(2) treatment. In conclusion, although Cd at an environmentally relevant concentration did not exhibit direct or indirect feminizing effects in Xenopus tadpoles, the metal and E(2) both had similar inhibitory effects on metamorphosis that were of greater magnitude in males than females.

  12. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in amphibians of Cameroon, including first records for caecilians.

    PubMed

    Doherty-Bone, T M; Gonwouo, N L; Hirschfeld, M; Ohst, T; Weldon, C; Perkins, M; Kouete, M T; Browne, R K; Loader, S P; Gower, D J; Wilkinson, M W; Rödel, M O; Penner, J; Barej, M F; Schmitz, A; Plötner, J; Cunningham, A A

    2013-02-28

    Amphibian chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been hypothesised to be an indigenous parasite of African amphibians. In Cameroon, however, previous surveys in one region (in the northwest) failed to detect this pathogen, despite the earliest African Bd having been recorded from a frog in eastern Cameroon, plus one recent record in the far southeast. To reconcile these contrasting results, we present survey data from 12 localities across 6 regions of Cameroon from anurans (n = 1052) and caecilians (n = 85) of ca. 108 species. Bd was detected in 124 amphibian hosts at 7 localities, including Mt. Oku, Mt. Cameroon, Mt. Manengouba and lowland localities in the centre and west of the country. None of the hosts were observed dead or dying. Infected amphibian hosts were not detected in other localities in the south and eastern rainforest belt. Infection occurred in both anurans and caecilians, making this the first reported case of infection in the latter order (Gymnophiona) of amphibians. There was no significant difference between prevalence and infection intensity in frogs and caecilians. We highlight the importance of taking into account the inhibition of diagnostic qPCR in studies on Bd, based on all Bd-positive hosts being undetected when screened without bovine serum albumin in the qPCR mix. The status of Bd as an indigenous, cosmopolitan amphibian parasite in Africa, including Cameroon, is supported by this work. Isolating and sequencing strains of Bd from Cameroon should now be a priority. Longitudinal host population monitoring will be required to determine the effects, if any, of the infection on amphibians in Cameroon. PMID:23446968

  13. Rapid mercury assays

    SciTech Connect

    Szurdoki, S.; Kido, H.; Hammock, B.D. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    We have developed rapid assays with the potential of detecting mercury in environmental samples. our methods combine the simple ELISA-format with the selective, high affinity complexation of mercuric ions by sulfur-containing ligands. The first assay is based on a sandwich chelate formed by a protein-bound ligand immobilized on the wells of a microliter plate, mercuric ion of the analyzed sample, and another ligand conjugated to a reporter enzyme. The second assay involves competition between mercuric ions and an organomercury-conjugate to bind to a chelating conjugate. Several sulfur containing chelators (e.g., dithiocarbamates) and organomercurials linked to macromolecular carriers have been investigated in these assay formats. The assays detect mercuric ions in ppb/high ppt concentrations with high selectivity.

  14. CPTAC Assay Portal: a repository of targeted proteomic assays

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteaker, Jeffrey R.; Halusa, Goran; Hoofnagle, Andrew N.; Sharma, Vagisha; MacLean, Brendan; Yan, Ping; Wrobel, John; Kennedy, Jacob; Mani, DR; Zimmerman, Lisa J.; Meyer, Matthew R.; Mesri, Mehdi; Rodriguez, Henry; Abbateillo, Susan E.; Boja, Emily; Carr, Steven A.; Chan, Daniel W.; Chen, Xian; Chen, Jing; Davies, Sherri; Ellis, Matthew; Fenyo, David; Hiltket, Tara; Ketchum, Karen; Kinsinger, Christopher; Kuhn, Eric; Liebler, Daniel; Lin, De; Liu, Tao; Loss, Michael; MacCoss, Michael; Qian, Weijun; Rivers, Robert; Rodland, Karin D.; Ruggles, Kelly; Scott, Mitchell; Smith, Richard D.; Thomas, Stefani N.; Townsend, Reid; Whiteley, Gordon; Wu, Chaochao; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Zhen; Paulovich, Amanda G.

    2014-06-27

    To address these issues, the Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium (CPTAC) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has launched an Assay Portal (http://assays.cancer.gov) to serve as a public repository of well-characterized quantitative, MS-based, targeted proteomic assays. The purpose of the CPTAC Assay Portal is to facilitate widespread adoption of targeted MS assays by disseminating SOPs, reagents, and assay characterization data for highly characterized assays. A primary aim of the NCI-supported portal is to bring together clinicians or biologists and analytical chemists to answer hypothesis-driven questions using targeted, MS-based assays. Assay content is easily accessed through queries and filters, enabling investigators to find assays to proteins relevant to their areas of interest. Detailed characterization data are available for each assay, enabling researchers to evaluate assay performance prior to launching the assay in their own laboratory.

  15. Post-mating clutch piracy in an amphibian.

    PubMed

    Vieites, David R; Nieto-Román, Sandra; Barluenga, Marta; Palanca, Antonio; Vences, Miguel; Meyer, Axel

    2004-09-16

    Female multiple mating and alternative mating systems can decrease the opportunity for sexual selection. Sperm competition is often the outcome of females mating with multiple males and has been observed in many animals, and alternative reproductive systems are widespread among species with external fertilization and parental care. Multiple paternity without associated complex behaviour related to mating or parental care is also seen in simultaneously spawning amphibians and fishes that release gametes into water. Here we report 'clutch piracy' in a montane population of the common frog Rana temporaria, a reproductive behaviour previously unknown in vertebrates with external fertilization. Males of this species clasp the females and the pair deposits one spherical clutch of eggs. No parental care is provided. 'Pirate' males search for freshly laid clutches, clasp them as they would do a female and fertilize the eggs that were left unfertilized by the 'parental' male. This behaviour does not seem to be size-dependent, and some males mate with a female and perform clutch piracy in the same season. Piracy affected 84% of the clutches and in some cases increased the proportion of eggs fertilized, providing direct fitness benefits both for the pirate males and the females. Sexual selection--probably caused by a strong male-biased sex ratio--occurs in this population, as indicated by size-assortative mating; however, clutch piracy may reduce its impact. This provides a good model to explore how alternative mating strategies can affect the intensity of sexual selection. PMID:15372032

  16. Evolutionary history and functional characterization of the amphibian xenosensor CAR.

    PubMed

    Mathäs, Marianne; Burk, Oliver; Qiu, Huan; Nusshag, Christian; Gödtel-Armbrust, Ute; Baranyai, Dorothea; Deng, Shiwei; Römer, Kristin; Nem, Dieudonné; Windshügel, Björn; Wojnowski, Leszek

    2012-01-01

    The xenosensing constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is widely considered to have arisen in early mammals via duplication of the pregnane X receptor (PXR). We report that CAR emerged together with PXR and the vitamin D receptor from an ancestral NR1I gene already in early vertebrates, as a result of whole-genome duplications. CAR genes were subsequently lost from the fish lineage, but they are conserved in all taxa of land vertebrates. This contrasts with PXR, which is found in most fish species, whereas it is lost from Sauropsida (reptiles and birds) and plays a role unrelated to xenosensing in Xenopus. This role is fulfilled in Xenopus by CAR, which exhibits low basal activity and pronounced responsiveness to activators such as drugs and steroids, altogether resembling mammalian PXR. The constitutive activity typical for mammalian CAR emerged first in Sauropsida, and it is thus common to all fully terrestrial land vertebrates (Amniota). The constitutive activity can be achieved by humanizing just two amino acids of the Xenopus CAR. Taken together, our results provide a comprehensive reconstruction of the evolutionary history of the NR1I subfamily of nuclear receptors. They identify CAR as the more conserved and remarkably plastic NR1I xenosensor in land vertebrates. Nonmammalian CAR should help to dissect the specific functions of PXR and CAR in the metabolism of xeno- and endobiotics in humans. Xenopus CAR is a first reported amphibian xenosensor, which opens the way to toxicogenomic and bioaugmentation studies in this critically endangered taxon of land vertebrates. PMID:22074953

  17. Parental investment by skin feeding in a caecilian amphibian.

    PubMed

    Kupfer, Alexander; Müller, Hendrik; Antoniazzi, Marta M; Jared, Carlos; Greven, Hartmut; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Wilkinson, Mark

    2006-04-13

    Although the initial growth and development of most multicellular animals depends on the provision of yolk, there are many varied contrivances by which animals provide additional or alternative investment in their offspring. Providing offspring with additional nutrition should be favoured by natural selection when the consequent increased fitness of the young offsets any corresponding reduction in fecundity. Alternative forms of nutrition may allow parents to delay and potentially redirect their investment. Here we report a remarkable form of parental care and mechanism of parent-offspring nutrient transfer in a caecilian amphibian. Boulengerula taitanus is a direct-developing, oviparous caecilian, the skin of which is transformed in brooding females to provide a rich supply of nutrients for the developing offspring. Young animals are equipped with a specialized dentition, which they use to peel and eat the outer layer of their mother's modified skin. This new form of parental care provides a plausible intermediate stage in the evolution of viviparity in caecilians. At independence, offspring of viviparous and of oviparous dermatotrophic caecilians are relatively large despite being provided with relatively little yolk. The specialized dentition of skin-feeding (dermatophagous) caecilians may constitute a preadaptation to the fetal feeding on the oviduct lining of viviparous caecilians. PMID:16612382

  18. Life-history evolution and mitogenomic phylogeny of caecilian amphibians.

    PubMed

    San Mauro, Diego; Gower, David J; Müller, Hendrik; Loader, Simon P; Zardoya, Rafael; Nussbaum, Ronald A; Wilkinson, Mark

    2014-04-01

    We analyze mitochondrial genomes to reconstruct a robust phylogenetic framework for caecilian amphibians and use this to investigate life-history evolution within the group. Our study comprises 45 caecilian mitochondrial genomes (19 of them newly reported), representing all families and 27 of 32 currently recognized genera, including some for which molecular data had never been reported. Support for all relationships in the inferred phylogenetic tree is high to maximal, and topology tests reject all investigated alternatives, indicating an exceptionally robust molecular phylogenetic framework of caecilian evolution consistent with current morphology-based supraspecific classification. We used the mitogenomic phylogenetic framework to infer ancestral character states and to assess correlation among three life-history traits (free-living larvae, viviparity, specialized pre-adult or vernal teeth), each of which occurs only in some caecilian species. Our results provide evidence that an ancestor of the Seychelles caecilians abandoned direct development and re-evolved a free-living larval stage. This study yields insights into the concurrent evolution of direct development and of vernal teeth in an ancestor of Teresomata that likely gave rise to skin-feeding (maternal dermatophagy) behavior and subsequently enabled evolution of viviparity, with skin feeding possibly a homologous precursor of oviduct feeding in viviparous caecilians. PMID:24480323

  19. Pesticides and amphibian population declines in California, USA.

    PubMed

    Sparling, D W; Fellers, G M; McConnell, L L

    2001-07-01

    Several species of anuran amphibians have undergone drastic population declines in the western United States over the last 10 to 15 years. In California, the most severe declines are in the Sierra Mountains east of the Central Valley and downwind of the intensely agricultural San Joaquin Valley. In contrast, coastal and more northern populations across from the less agrarian Sacramento Valley are stable or declining less precipitously. In this article, we provide evidence that pesticides are instrumental in declines of these species. Using Hyla regilla as a sentinel species, we found that cholinesterase (ChE) activity in tadpoles was depressed in mountainous areas east of the Central Valley compared with sites along the coast or north of the Valley. Cholinesterase was also lower in areas where ranid population status was poor or moderate compared with areas with good ranid status. Up to 50% of the sampled population in areas with reduced ChE had detectable organophosphorus residues, with concentrations as high as 190 ppb wet weight. In addition, up to 86% of some populations had measurable endosulfan concentrations and 40% had detectable 4,4'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, 4,4'-DDT, and 2,4'-DDT residues. PMID:11434303

  20. A statistical assessment of population trends for data deficient Mexican amphibians

    PubMed Central

    Thessen, Anne E.; Arias-Caballero, Paulina; Ayala-Orozco, Bárbara

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mexico has the world’s fifth largest population of amphibians and the second country with the highest quantity of threatened amphibian species. About 10% of Mexican amphibians lack enough data to be assigned to a risk category by the IUCN, so in this paper we want to test a statistical tool that, in the absence of specific demographic data, can assess a species’ risk of extinction, population trend, and to better understand which variables increase their vulnerability. Recent studies have demonstrated that the risk of species decline depends on extrinsic and intrinsic traits, thus including both of them for assessing extinction might render more accurate assessment of threats. Methods. We harvested data from the Encyclopedia of Life (EOL) and the published literature for Mexican amphibians, and used these data to assess the population trend of some of the Mexican species that have been assigned to the Data Deficient category of the IUCN using Random Forests, a Machine Learning method that gives a prediction of complex processes and identifies the most important variables that account for the predictions. Results. Our results show that most of the data deficient Mexican amphibians that we used have decreasing population trends. We found that Random Forests is a solid way to identify species with decreasing population trends when no demographic data is available. Moreover, we point to the most important variables that make species more vulnerable for extinction. This exercise is a very valuable first step in assigning conservation priorities for poorly known species. PMID:25548736

  1. Evaluating the effects of anthropogenic stressors on source-sink dynamics in pond-breeding amphibians.

    PubMed

    Willson, John D; Hopkins, William A

    2013-06-01

    Although interwetland dispersal is thought to play an important role in regional persistence of pond-breeding amphibians, few researchers have modeled amphibian metapopulation or source-sink dynamics. Results of recent modeling studies suggest anthropogenic stressors, such as pollution, can negatively affect density and population viability of amphibians breeding in isolated wetlands. Presumably population declines also result in reduced dispersal to surrounding (often uncontaminated) habitats, potentially affecting dynamics of nearby populations. We used our data on the effects of mercury (Hg) on the American toad (?Bufo americanus) as a case study in modeling the effects of anthropogenic stressors on landscape-scale amphibian dynamics. We created a structured metapopulation model to investigate regional dynamics of American toads and to evaluate the degree to which detrimental effects of Hg contamination on individual populations can disrupt interpopulation dynamics. Dispersal from typical American toad populations supported nearby populations that would otherwise have been extirpated over long time scales. Through support of such sink populations, dispersal between wetland-associated subpopulations substantially increased overall productivity of wetland networks, but this effect declined with increasing interwetland distance and decreasing wetland size. Contamination with Hg substantially reduced productivity of wetland-associated subpopulations and impaired the ability of populations to support nearby sinks within relevant spatial scales. Our results add to the understanding of regional dynamics of pond-breeding amphibians, the wide-reaching negative effects of environmental contaminants, and the potential for restoration or remediation of degraded habitats. PMID:23551497

  2. Occurrence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in the Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearl, C.A.; Bull, E.L.; Green, D.E.; Bowerman, J.; Adams, M.J.; Hyatt, A.; Wente, W.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis (infection by the fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis) has been associated with amphibian declines in at least four continents. We report results of disease screens from 210 pond-breeding amphibians from 37 field sites in Oregon and Washington. We detected B. dendrobatidis on 28% of sampled amphibians, and we found ??? 1 detection of B. dendrobatidis from 43% of sites. Four of seven species tested positive for B. dendrobatidis, including the Northern Red-Legged Frog (Rana aurora), Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris), and Oregon Spotted Frog (Rana pretiosa). We also detected B. dendrobatidis in nonnative American Bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) from six sites in western and central Oregon. Our study and other recently published findings suggest that B. dendrobatidis has few geographic and host taxa limitations among North American anurans. Further research on virulence, transmissibility, persistence, and interactions with other stressors is needed to assess the potential impact of B. dendrobatidis on Pacific Northwestern amphibians. Copyright 2007 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  3. Heteropathogenic virulence and phylogeny reveal phased pathogenic metamorphosis in Escherichia coli O2:H6

    PubMed Central

    Bielaszewska, Martina; Schiller, Roswitha; Lammers, Lydia; Bauwens, Andreas; Fruth, Angelika; Middendorf, Barbara; Schmidt, M Alexander; Tarr, Phillip I; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Karch, Helge; Mellmann, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal pathogenic and intestinal pathogenic (diarrheagenic) Escherichia coli differ phylogenetically and by virulence profiles. Classic theory teaches simple linear descent in this species, where non-pathogens acquire virulence traits and emerge as pathogens. However, diarrheagenic Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC) O2:H6 not only possess and express virulence factors associated with diarrheagenic and uropathogenic E. coli but also cause diarrhea and urinary tract infections. These organisms are phylogenetically positioned between members of an intestinal pathogenic group (STEC) and extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli. STEC O2:H6 is, therefore, a ‘heteropathogen,’ and the first such hybrid virulent E. coli identified. The phylogeny of these E. coli and the repertoire of virulence traits they possess compel consideration of an alternate view of pathogen emergence, whereby one pathogroup of E. coli undergoes phased metamorphosis into another. By understanding the evolutionary mechanisms of bacterial pathogens, rational strategies for counteracting their detrimental effects on humans can be developed. Subject Categories Microbiology, Virology & Host Pathogen Interaction PMID:24413188

  4. MET is required for the maximal action of 20-hydroxyecdysone during Bombyx metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Enen; He, Qianyu; Liu, Shumin; Tian, Ling; Sheng, Zhentao; Peng, Qin; Guan, Jingmin; Shi, Mingan; Li, Kang; Gilbert, Lawrence I; Wang, Jian; Cao, Yang; Li, Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how the putative juvenile hormone (JH) receptor, the bHLH-PAS transcription factor MET, is involved in 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E; the molting hormone) action. Here we report that two MET proteins found in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, participate in 20E signal transduction. Met is 20E responsive and its expression peaks during molting and pupation, when the 20E titer is high. As found with results from RNAi knockdown of EcR-USP (the ecdysone receptor genes), RNAi knockdown of Met at the early wandering stage disrupts the 20E-triggered transcriptional cascade, preventing tissue remodeling (including autophagy, apoptosis and destruction of larval tissues and generation of adult structures) and causing lethality during the larval-pupal transition. MET physically interacts with EcR-USP. Moreover, MET, EcR-USP and the 20E-response element (EcRE) form a protein-DNA complex, implying that MET might modulate 20E-induced gene transcription by interacting with EcR-USP. In conclusion, the 20E induction of MET is required for the maximal action of 20E during Bombyx metamorphosis. PMID:23300902

  5. Metamorphosis revealed: time-lapse three-dimensional imaging inside a living chrysalis

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, Tristan; Garwood, Russell J.; Simonsen, Thomas J.; Bradley, Robert S.; Withers, Philip J.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding of animal development. Yet, they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such as histology and dissection, which can preclude quantitative analysis and do not allow the development of a single individual to be followed. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) to overcome these issues, and three-dimensionally image numerous lepidopteran pupae throughout their development. The resulting models are presented in the electronic supplementary material, as are figures and videos, documenting a single individual throughout development. They provide new insight and details of lepidopteran metamorphosis, and allow the measurement of tracheal and gut volume. Furthermore, this study demonstrates early and rapid development of the tracheae, which become visible in scans just 12 h after pupation. This suggests that there is less remodelling of the tracheal system than previously expected, and is methodologically important because the tracheal system is an often-understudied character system in development. In the future, this form of time-lapse CT-scanning could allow faster and more detailed developmental studies on a wider range of taxa than is presently possible. PMID:23676900

  6. Metamorphosis revealed: time-lapse three-dimensional imaging inside a living chrysalis.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Tristan; Garwood, Russell J; Simonsen, Thomas J; Bradley, Robert S; Withers, Philip J

    2013-07-01

    Studies of model insects have greatly increased our understanding of animal development. Yet, they are limited in scope to this small pool of model species: a small number of representatives for a hyperdiverse group with highly varied developmental processes. One factor behind this narrow scope is the challenging nature of traditional methods of study, such as histology and dissection, which can preclude quantitative analysis and do not allow the development of a single individual to be followed. Here, we use high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) to overcome these issues, and three-dimensionally image numerous lepidopteran pupae throughout their development. The resulting models are presented in the electronic supplementary material, as are figures and videos, documenting a single individual throughout development. They provide new insight and details of lepidopteran metamorphosis, and allow the measurement of tracheal and gut volume. Furthermore, this study demonstrates early and rapid development of the tracheae, which become visible in scans just 12 h after pupation. This suggests that there is less remodelling of the tracheal system than previously expected, and is methodologically important because the tracheal system is an often-understudied character system in development. In the future, this form of time-lapse CT-scanning could allow faster and more detailed developmental studies on a wider range of taxa than is presently possible. PMID:23676900

  7. Regenerative metamorphosis in hairs and feathers: follicle as a programmable biological printer

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Ji Won; Lin, Sung-Jan; Plikus, Maksim V.

    2015-01-01

    Present-day hairs and feathers are marvels of biological engineering perfected over 200 million years of convergent evolution. Prominently, both follicle types coevolved regenerative cycling, wherein active filament making (anagen) is intermitted by a phase of relative quiescence (telogen). Such regenerative cycling enables follicles to “reload” their morphogenetic program and make qualitatively different filaments in the consecutive cycles. Indeed, many species of mammals and birds undergo regenerative metamorphosis, prominently changing their integument between juvenile and adult forms. This phenomenon is inconspicuous in mice, which led to the conventional perception that hair type is hardwired during follicle morphogenesis and cannot switch. A series of recent works by Chi and Morgan change this perception, and show that many mouse follicles naturally switch hair morphologies, for instance from “wavy” zigzag to straight awl, in the second growth cycle. A series of observations and genetic experiments show that back and forth hair type switching depends on the number of cells in the follicle's dermal papilla, with the critical threshold being around 40-50 cells. Pigmentation is another parameter that hair and feather follicles can reload between cycles, and even midway through anagen. Recent works show that hair and feather pigmentation “printing” programs coevolved to rely on pulsed expression of Agouti, a melanocortin receptor-1 antagonist, in the follicular mesenchyme. Here, we discuss broader implications of hair and feather regenerative plasticity. PMID:25557541

  8. Metamorphosis in chironomids, more than mercury supply, controls methylmercury transfer to fish in High Arctic lakes.

    PubMed

    Chételat, John; Amyot, Marc; Cloutier, Louise; Poulain, Alexandre

    2008-12-15

    Lake-dwelling Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) are monitored internationally as a sentinel species for effects of atmospheric mercury deposition on Arctic fresh waters. We investigated the control of mercury supply and biological processes on the methylmercury (MeHg) content of their main food, aquatic chironomids, in 22 lakes and ponds in the Canadian High Arctic. Total mercury (THg) concentrations in sediment (corrected for organic matter content) increased with drainage basin size, suggesting a gradient in mercury loading among study sites. MeHg concentrations in sediment and water were low and relatively uniform along this THg supply gradient suggesting MeHg production in High Arctic lakes is weakly coupled to inorganic mercury supply. Metamorphosis was a key biological process that concentrated MeHg in adult chironomids 1.7-2.9 times more than in immature stages. Drainage basin size, environmental mercury levels, and habitat characteristics were also significant factors but they explained less variation in chironomid MeHg concentration than their degree of maturity. Chironomid larvae, pupae, and adults are distinct mercury sources for fish, and we provide evidence from nitrogen stable isotopes and published feeding studies that suggest differential consumption of these stages may affect MeHg uptake by Arctic char. We conclude that biological and food web processes have a greater impact on MeHg transfer to fish than atmospheric mercury deposition in High Arctic lakes. PMID:19174879

  9. Concentration changes of organochlorine compounds and polybromodiphenyl ethers during metamorphosis of aquatic insects.

    PubMed

    Bartrons, Mireia; Grimalt, Joan O; Catalan, Jordi

    2007-09-01

    The role of insect larvae and pupae as sources of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in freshwater food webs for high predators such as fish is evaluated. Trichoptera and diptera have been taken as organisms of choice for such comparison because they are common in benthic aquatic habitats and accumulate substantial amounts of these compounds. Hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexanes,4,4'-DDE,4,4'-DDT, polychlorobiphenyls, and PBDEs have been measured. The results show a nonselective enrichment of OCs and PBDEs from larvae to pupae. These concentration increases may result from the weight loss of pupae during metamorphosis as a consequence of mainly protein carbon respiration and lack of feeding. Despite the lack of change in total amount, the concentration increases from larvae to pupae are very relevant for the pollutant ingestion of the higher predators. The intakes of OCs and PBDEs by trout are between 2- and 5-fold higher per calorie gained when predating on pupae than on larvae. Since pollutant concentration, energy reward, predation susceptibility, and duration of life stage are very different between these two insect stages, and none of them is irrelevant for the incorporation of OCs or PBDEs to higher levels, bioaccumulation food-web models should distinguish between the two sources. PMID:17937293

  10. Long-term impacts of even-aged timber management on abundance and body condition of terrestrial amphibians in Northwestern California

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. E. Karraker; H. H. Welsh Jr

    2006-01-01

    Conservation needs for amphibians in managed timberlands may differ based upon the species present and the timber harvesting methods employed. Clearcuts have been documented to be detrimental to amphibians but the impacts of associated silvicultural edges and alternative harvesting treatments are not well understood. The primary objective of this study was to determine if amphibian abundances and body condition differed

  11. Distribution of NADPH-Diaphorase\\/Nitric Oxide Synthase in the Brain of the Caecilian Dermophis mexicanus (Amphibia: Gymnophiona): Comparative Aspects in Amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Agustín González; Nerea Moreno; Jesús M. López

    2002-01-01

    The organization of nitrergic systems in the brains of anuran and urodele amphibians was recently studied and significant differences were noted between both amphibian orders. However, comparable data are not available for the third order of amphibians, the gymnophionans (caecilians). In the present study we have investigated the distribution of neuronal elements that express nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the

  12. Creatine Kinases of Amphibians and Reptiles: Evolutionary and Systematic Aspects of Gene Author(s): Donald G. Buth, Robert W. Murphy, Michael M. Miyamoto, Carl S. Lieb

    E-print Network

    Murphy, Bob

    Creatine Kinases of Amphibians and Reptiles: Evolutionary and Systematic Aspects of Gene Expression. http://www.jstor.org #12;Copeia,1985(2),pp. 279-284 Creatine Kinases of Amphibians and Reptiles AND CARL S. LIEB The creatine kinases of amphibians and reptiles are evaluated in terms of their genetic

  13. Factors related to the distribution and prevalence of the fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Rana cascadae and other amphibians in the Klamath Mountains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jonah Piovia-Scott; Karen L. Pope; Sharon P. Lawler; Esther M. Cole; Janet E. Foley

    The fungal pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which causes the disease chytridiomycosis, has been associated with declines and extinctions of montane amphibians worldwide. To gain insight into factors affecting its distribution and prevalence we focus on the amphibian community of the Klamath Mountains in northwest California. The Cascades frog (Rana cascadae), one of the most common amphibians in these mountains, experienced

  14. Amphibian Community Similarity Between Natural Ponds And Constructed Ponds Of Multiple Types In Daniel Boone National Forest, Kentucky

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert Daniel Denton

    2011-01-01

    Amphibians are in a worldwide decline. Among the many causes for amphibian declines, habitat loss and alteration remains one of the most significant. A lack of federal protection for isolated wetlands that provide habitat for unique species has resulted in the loss of breeding habitat and unregulated mitigation practices. Ponds built for mitigation purposes often do not replicate the lost

  15. Assessing quality of clearcut habitats for amphibians: Effects on abundances versus vital rates in the southern toad ( Bufo terrestris)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian D. Todd; Betsie B. Rothermel

    2006-01-01

    Forest clearcutting is a form of habitat alteration that drastically alters the landscape and may contribute to declines in amphibian populations. Indeed, many studies have documented decreases in amphibian abundances and species richness in clearcuts. The development of effective conservation strategies to reduce the effects of timber harvesting has been hindered by lack of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying these

  16. POOR REPLICATION OF WEST NILE VIRUS (NEW YORK 1999 STRAIN) IN THREE REPTILIAN AND ONE AMPHIBIAN SPECIES

    Microsoft Academic Search

    KACI KLENK; NICHOLAS KOMAR

    Because West Nile (WN) virus primarily cycles between mosquitoes and birds, North American reptiles and amphibians have not been evaluated as reservoir hosts of this virus. We infected three species of reptiles and one species of amphibian: Iguana iguana (green iguana), Thamnophis sirtalis sirtalis (Florida garter snake), Trachymes scripta elegans (red-ear slider), and Rana catesbeiana (North American bullfrog). After inoculation

  17. Amphibians in a human-dominated landscape: the community structure is related to habitat features and isolation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gentile Francesco Ficetola; Fiorenza De Bernardi

    2004-01-01

    We studied amphibian populations in a human-dominated landscape, in Northern Italy, to evaluate the effects of patch quality and isolation on each species distribution and community structure. We used logistic and linear multiple regression to relate amphibian presence during the breeding season in 84 wetlands to wetland features and isolation. Jackknife procedure was used to evaluate predictive capability of the

  18. ADVERSE EFFECTS OF PESTICIDES AND RELATED CHEMICALS ON ENZYME AND HORMONE SYSTEMS OF FISH, AMPHIBIANS AND REPTILES: A REVIEW

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Zaheer Khan; Francis C. P. Law

    2005-01-01

    Summary: The enzyme and hormone disrupting capabilities of pesticides and related chemicals are suspected to be some of the factors contributing to the decline of fish, amphibian, and reptile populations. Globally frogs and other amphibians have been disappearing at an alarming rate. In most cases, the cause or causes are unknown, but are assumed to result from man-made pollutants in

  19. Optical characteristics of natural waters protect amphibians from UV-B in the U.S. Pacific Northwest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palen, Wendy J.; Schindler, David E.; Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher A.; Bury, R. Bruce; Diamond, S.A.

    2002-01-01

    Increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation has been proposed as a major environmental stressor leading to global amphibian declines. Prior experimental evidence from the U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) indicating the acute embryonic sensitivity of at least four amphibian species to UV-B has been central to the literature about amphibian decline. However, these results have not been expanded to address population-scale effects and natural landscape variation in UV-B transparency of water at amphibian breeding sites: both necessary links to assess the importance of UV-B for amphibian declines. We quantified the UV-B transparency of 136 potential amphibian breeding sites to establish the pattern of UV-B exposure across two montane regions in the PNW. Our data suggest that 85% of sites are naturally protected by dissolved organic matter in pond water, and that only a fraction of breeding sites are expected to experience UV-B intensities exceeding levels associated with elevated egg mortality. Thus, the spectral characteristics of natural waters likely mediate the physiological effects of UV-B on amphibian eggs in all but the clearest waters. These data imply that UV-B is unlikely to cause broad amphibian declines across the landscape of the American Northwest.

  20. INVESTIGATIONS INTO THE CAUSES OF AMPHIBIAN MALFORMATIONS IN THE LAKE CHAMPLAIN BASIN OF NEW ENGLAND (AWARDED PROJECT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The concurrent geographic extent and rate of amphibian malformations appear to have markedly increased above background levels in recent years in many states and Canadian provinces as documented by the North American Reporting Center for Amphibian Malformations (www.npwrc.usgs.go...

  1. Effect of salmonid introduction and other environmental characteristics on amphibian distribution and abundance in mountain lakes of northern Spain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Orizaola; F. Brana

    2006-01-01

    Amphibians are currently experiencing a severe worldwide decline. Several factors, such as habitat alteration, climate change, emerging diseases or the introduction of exotic species, have been signalled as being responsible for the reduction of amphibian populations. Among these, the introduction of fish predators has been repeatedly indicated as a factor affecting the distribution of many species. The present study was

  2. The incidence of electromagnetic pollution on the amphibian decline: Is this an important piece of the puzzle?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alfonso Balmori

    2006-01-01

    A bibliographical review on the possible effects of radiofrequency radiation (RFR) from wireless telecommunications on living organisms and its impact on amphibians is presented. The technical characteristics of this new technology and the scientific discoveries that are of interest in the study of their effects on wild fauna and amphibians are described. Electromagnetic pollution (in the microwave and in the

  3. Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI): a successful start to a national program in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muths, E.; Jung, R.E.; Bailey, L.L.; Adams, M.J.; Corn, P.S.; Dodd, C.K., Jr.; Fellers, G.M.; Sandinski, W.J.; Schwalbe, C.R.; Walls, S.C.; Fisher, R.N.; Gallant, A.L.; Battaglin, W.A.; Green, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Most research to assess amphibian declines has focused on local-scale projects on one or a few species. The Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative (ARMI) is a national program in the United States mandated by congressional directive and implemented by the U.S. Department of the Interior (specifically the U.S. Geological Survey, USGS). Program goals are to monitor changes in populations of amphibians across U.S. Department of the Interior lands and to address research questions related to amphibian declines using a hierarchical framework of base-, mid- and apex-level monitoring sites. ARMI is currently monitoring 83 amphibian species (29% of species in the U.S.) at mid- and apex-level areas. We chart the progress of this 5-year-old program and provide an example of mid-level monitoring from 1 of the 7 ARMI regions.

  4. Toward Immunogenetic Studies of Amphibian Chytridiomycosis: Linking Innate and Acquired Immunity

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jonathan Richmond (US Geological Survey; Western Ecological Research Center)

    2009-04-01

    Recent declines in amphibian diversity and abundance have contributed significantly to the global loss of biodiversity. The fungal disease chytridiomycosis is widely considered to be a primary cause of these declines, yet the critical question of why amphibian species differ in susceptibility remains unanswered. Considerable evidence links environmental conditions and interspecific variability of the innate immune system to differential infection responses, but other sources of individual, population, or species-typical variation may also be important. In this article we review the preliminary evidence supporting a role for acquired immune defenses against chytridiomycosis, and advocate for targeted investigation of genes controlling acquired responses, as well as those that functionally bridge the innate and acquired immune systems. Immunogenetic data promise to answer key questions about chytridiomycosis susceptibility and host-pathogen coevolution, and will draw much needed attention to the importance of considering evolutionary processes in amphibian conservation management and practice.

  5. Illinois Natural History Survey: Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Illinois

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Illinois Natural History Survey, the _Field Guide to Amphibians and Reptiles of Illinois_ is designed for use by students, naturalists, biologists, land managers, law enforcement officials, and others. One goal of the Guide "is to help the reader learn about all 102 species of amphibians and reptiles that live within the boundaries of Illinois. Basic information is presented on their biology and life history, as well as a brief discussion of the species that are listed as threatened or endangered under the state's Endangered Species Protection Act." This complete online version of the Field Guide connects visitors to species accounts with good photographs; distribution maps; and brief entries on Description, Habitat, Status, and more. The Guide also contains downloadable keys to reptiles and amphibians of Illinois, and a Glossary of Terms.

  6. Effects of Timber Harvest on Amphibian Populations: Understanding Mechanisms from Forest Experiments

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Raymond Semlitsch (University of Missouri, Columbia; Division of Biological Sciences)

    2009-11-01

    Harvesting timber is a common form of land use that has the potential to cause declines in amphibian populations. It is essential to understand the behavior and fate of individuals and the resulting consequences for vital rates (birth, death, immigration, emigration) under different forest management conditions. We report on experimental studies conducted in three regions of the United States to identify mechanisms of responses by pond-breeding amphibians to timber harvest treatments. Our studies demonstrate that life stages related to oviposition and larval performance in the aquatic stage are sometimes affected positively by clearcutting, whereas effects on juvenile and adult terrestrial stages are mostly negative. Partial harvest treatments produced both positive and weaker negative responses than clearcut treatments. Mitigating the detrimental effects of canopy removal, higher surface temperature, and loss of soil-litter moisture in terrestrial habitats surrounding breeding ponds is critical to maintaining viable amphibian populations in managed forested landscapes.

  7. Toward immunogenetic studies of amphibian chytridiomycosis: Linking innate and acquired immunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, J.Q.; Savage, Anna E.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Rosenblum, E.B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent declines in amphibian diversity and abundance have contributed significantly to the global loss of biodiversity. The fungal disease chytridiomycosis is widely considered to be a primary cause of these declines, yet the critical question of why amphibian species differ in susceptibility remains unanswered. Considerable evidence links environmental conditions and interspecific variability of the innate immune system to differential infection responses, but other sources of individual, population, or species-typical variation may also be important. In this article we review the preliminary evidence supporting a role for acquired immune defenses against chytridiomycosis, and advocate for targeted investigation of genes controlling acquired responses, as well as those that functionally bridge the innate and acquired immune systems. Immunogenetic data promise to answer key questions about chytridiomycosis susceptibility and host-pathogen coevolution, and will draw much needed attention to the importance of considering evolutionary processes in amphibian conservation management and practice. ?? 2009 by American Institute of Biological Sciences.

  8. Frequency-selective exocytosis by ribbon synapses of hair cells in the bullfrog's amphibian papilla

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Suchit H.; Salvi, Joshua D.; Maoiléidigh, Dáibhid Ó; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2012-01-01

    The activity of auditory afferent fibers depends strongly on the frequency of stimulation. Although the bullfrog's amphibian papilla lacks the flexible basilar membrane that effects tuning in mammals, its afferents display comparable frequency selectivity. Seeking additional mechanisms of tuning in this organ, we monitored the synaptic output of hair cells by measuring changes in their membrane capacitance during sinusoidal electrical stimulation at various frequencies. Using perforated-patch recordings, we found that individual hair cells displayed frequency selectivity in synaptic exocytosis within the frequency range sensed by the amphibian papilla. Moreover, each cell's tuning varied in accordance with its tonotopic position. Using confocal imaging, we observed a tonotopic gradient in the concentration of proteinaceous Ca2+ buffers. A model for synaptic release suggests that this gradient maintains the sharpness of tuning. We conclude that hair cells of the amphibian papilla use synaptic tuning as an additional mechanism for sharpening their frequency selectivity. PMID:23015434

  9. Long-term observation of amphibian populations inhabiting urban and forested areas in Yekaterinburg, Russia.

    PubMed

    Vershinin, Vladimir L; Vershinina, Svetlana D; Berzin, Dmitry L; Zmeeva, Darya V; Kinev, Alexander V

    2015-01-01

    This article presents data derived from a 36 year-long uninterrupted observational study of amphibian populations living in the city and vicinity of Yekaterinburg, Russia. This area is inhabited by six amphibian species. Based on a degree of anthropogenic transformation, the urban territory is divided into five highly mosaic zones characterized by vegetation, temperature, and a distinctive water pollution profile. Population data is presented year-by-year for the number of animals, sex ratio, and species-specific fecundity including the number and quality of spawns for the following amphibian species: Salamandrella keyserligii, Rana arvalis, R. temporaria, Lissotriton vulgaris, and Pelophylax ridibundus. These data provide an excellent opportunity to assess an urban environment from an animal population-wide perspective, as well as revealing the forces driving animal adaptation to the anthropogenic transformation of habitats. PMID:25984350

  10. Variable breeding phenology affects the exposure of amphibian embryos to ultraviolet radiation: reply

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corn, P.S.; Muths, E.

    2004-01-01

    Corn and Muths (2002) describe how seasonal and annual variation in estimated flux of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, combined with year-to-year variation in amphibian breeding, phenology, introduces considerable variability in the UV-B exposures to amphibians. The response to our paper by Blaustein et al. (2004) misstates the objective and conclusions of our study, contains other errors of interpretation, and critiques our study for adopting practices that they themselves use. We are confident that an unbiased assessment will show that the conclusions of Corn and Muths (2002) are valid and robust with respect to montane amphibians, and that the criticisms raised by Blaustein et al. (2004) are either invalid or irrelevant.

  11. Populations of a Susceptible Amphibian Species Can Grow despite the Presence of a Pathogenic Chytrid Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Tobler, Ursina; Borgula, Adrian; Schmidt, Benedikt R.

    2012-01-01

    Disease can be an important driver of host population dynamics and epizootics can cause severe host population declines. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), the pathogen causing amphibian chytridiomycosis, may occur epizootically or enzootically and can harm amphibian populations in many ways. While effects of Bd epizootics are well documented, the effects of enzootic Bd have rarely been described. We used a state-space model that accounts for observation error to test whether population trends of a species highly susceptible to Bd, the midwife toad Alytes obstetricans, are negatively affected by the enzootic presence of the pathogen. Unexpectedly, Bd had no negative effect on population growth rates from 2002–2008. This suggests that negative effects of disease on individuals do not necessarily translate into negative effects at the population level. Populations of amphibian species that are susceptible to the emerging disease chytridiomycosis can persist despite the enzootic presence of the pathogen under current environmental conditions. PMID:22496836

  12. Assays without Borders

    Cancer.gov

    CPTAC researchers partner with international labs to demonstrate the ability of Targeted mass spectrometry–based assays to reproducibly quantify Human proteins across labs, countries and continents in a recently published journal article.

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of algal symbionts associated with four North American amphibian egg masses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunsoo; Lin, Yuan; Kerney, Ryan; Blumenberg, Lili; Bishop, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga "Oophila amblystomatis" (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the 'Oophila' clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae. PMID:25393119

  14. Land Use Explains the Distribution of Threatened New World Amphibians Better than Climate

    PubMed Central

    Brum, Fernanda Thiesen; Gonçalves, Larissa Oliveira; Cappelatti, Laura; Carlucci, Marcos Bergmann; Debastiani, Vanderlei Júlio; Salengue, Elisa Viana; dos Santos Seger, Guilherme Dubal; Both, Camila; Bernardo-Silva, Jorge Sebastião; Loyola, Rafael Dias; da Silva Duarte, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Background We evaluated the direct and indirect influence of climate, land use, phylogenetic structure, species richness and endemism on the distribution of New World threatened amphibians. Methodology/Principal Findings We used the WWF’s New World ecoregions, the WWFs amphibian distributional data and the IUCN Red List Categories to obtain the number of threatened species per ecoregion. We analyzed three different scenarios urgent, moderate, and the most inclusive scenario. Using path analysis we evaluated the direct and indirect effects of climate, type of land use, phylogenetic structure, richness and endemism on the number of threatened amphibians in New World ecoregions. In all scenarios we found strong support for direct influences of endemism, the cover of villages and species richness on the number of threatened species in each ecoregion. The proportion of wild area had indirect effects in the moderate and the most inclusive scenario. Phylogenetic composition was important in determining the species richness and endemism in each ecoregion. Climate variables had complex and indirect effects on the number of threatened species. Conclusion/Significance Land use has a more direct influence than climate in determining the distribution of New World threatened amphibians. Independently of the scenario analyzed, the main variables influencing the distribution of threatened amphibians were consistent, with endemism having the largest magnitude path coefficient. The importance of phylogenetic composition could indicate that some clades may be more threatened than others, and their presence increases the number of threatened species. Our results highlight the importance of man-made land transformation, which is a local variable, as a critical factor underlying the distribution of threatened amphibians at a biogeographic scale. PMID:23637764

  15. Phylogenetic Analysis of Algal Symbionts Associated with Four North American Amphibian Egg Masses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsoo; Lin, Yuan; Kerney, Ryan; Blumenberg, Lili; Bishop, Cory

    2014-01-01

    Egg masses of the yellow-spotted salamander Ambystoma maculatum form an association with the green alga “Oophila amblystomatis” (Lambert ex Wille), which, in addition to growing within individual egg capsules, has recently been reported to invade embryonic tissues and cells. The binomial O. amblystomatis refers to the algae that occur in A. maculatum egg capsules, but it is unknown whether this population of symbionts constitutes one or several different algal taxa. Moreover, it is unknown whether egg masses across the geographic range of A. maculatum, or other amphibians, associate with one or multiple algal taxa. To address these questions, we conducted a phylogeographic study of algae sampled from egg capsules of A. maculatum, its allopatric congener A. gracile, and two frogs: Lithobates sylvatica and L. aurora. All of these North American amphibians form associations with algae in their egg capsules. We sampled algae from egg capsules of these four amphibians from localities across North America, established representative algal cultures, and amplified and sequenced a region of 18S rDNA for phylogenetic analysis. Our combined analysis shows that symbiotic algae found in egg masses of four North American amphibians are closely related to each other, and form a well-supported clade that also contains three strains of free-living chlamydomonads. We designate this group as the ‘Oophila’ clade, within which the symbiotic algae are further divided into four distinct subclades. Phylogenies of the host amphibians and their algal symbionts are only partially congruent, suggesting that host-switching and co-speciation both play roles in their associations. We also established conditions for isolating and rearing algal symbionts from amphibian egg capsules, which should facilitate further study of these egg mass specialist algae. PMID:25393119

  16. Amphibians acquire resistance to live and dead fungus overcoming fungal immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, Taegan A.; Sears, Brittany F.; Venesky, Matthew D.; Bessler, Scott M.; Brown, Jenise M.; Deutsch, Kaitlin; Halstead, Neal T.; Lentz, Garrett; Tenouri, Nadia; Young, Suzanne; Civitello, David J.; Ortega, Nicole; Fites, J. Scott; Reinert, Laura K.; Rollins-Smith, Louise A.; Raffel, Thomas R.; Rohr, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    Emerging fungal pathogens pose a greater threat to biodiversity than any other parasitic group1, causing declines of many taxa, including bats, corals, bees, snakes and amphibians1–4. Currently, there is little evidence that wild animals can acquire resistance to these pathogens5. Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is a pathogenic fungus implicated in the recent global decline of amphibians6. Here we demonstrate that three species of amphibians can acquire behavioural or immunological resistance to B. dendrobatidis. Frogs learned to avoid the fungus after just one B. dendrobatidis exposure and temperature-induced clearance. In subsequent experiments in which B. dendrobatidis avoidance was prevented, the number of previous exposures was a negative predictor of B. dendrobatidis burden on frogs and B. dendrobatidis-induced mortality, and was a positive predictor of lymphocyte abundance and proliferation. These results suggest that amphibians can acquire immunity to B. dendrobatidis that overcomes pathogen-induced immunosuppression7–9 and increases their survival. Importantly, exposure to dead fungus induced a similar magnitude of acquired resistance as exposure to live fungus. Exposure of frogs to B. dendrobatidis antigens might offer a practical way to protect pathogen-naive amphibians and facilitate the reintroduction of amphibians to locations in the wild where B. dendrobatidis persists. Moreover, given the conserved nature of vertebrate immune responses to fungi5 and the fact that many animals are capable of learning to avoid natural enemies10, these results offer hope that other wild animal taxa threatened by invasive fungi might be rescued by management approaches based on herd immunity. PMID:25008531

  17. Conserving Prairie Pothole Region wetlands and surrounding grasslands: evaluating effects on amphibians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mushet, David M.; Neau, Jordan L.

    2014-01-01

    The maintenance of viable and genetically diverse populations of amphibians in the Prairie Pothole Region of the United States depends on upland as well as wetland over-wintering and landscape level habitat features. Prairie pothole wetlands provide important amphibian breeding habitat while grasslands surrounding these wetlands provide foraging habitat for adults, overwintering habitat for some species, and important connectivity among breeding wetlands. Grasslands surrounding wetlands were found to be especially important for wood frogs and northern leopard frogs, while croplands dominated habitat utilized by Great Plains toads and Woodhouse’s toads. Habitat suitability mapping highlighted (1) the influence of deep-water overwintering wetlands on suitable habitat for four of five anuran species encountered; (2) the lack of overlap between areas of core habitat for both the northern leopard frog and wood frog compared to the core habitat for both toad species; and (3) the importance of conservation programs in providing grassland components of northern leopard frog and wood frog habitat. Currently, there are approximately 7.2 million acres (2.9 million hectares, ha) of habitat in the PPR identified as suitable for amphibians. WRP and CRP wetland and grassland habitats accounted for approximately 1.9 million acres (0.75 million ha) or 26 percent of this total area. Continued loss of amphibian habitat resulting from an ongoing trend of returning PPR conservation lands to crop production, will likely have significant negative effects on the region’s ability to maintain amphibian biodiversity. Conversely, increases in conservation wetlands and surrounding grasslands on the PPR landscape have great potential to positively influence the region’s amphibian populations.

  18. Mapping the Global Emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the Amphibian Chytrid Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Ronnenberg, Kathryn L.; Powell, Christopher I.; Walker, Susan F.; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W. J.; Weaver, George

    2013-01-01

    The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide Bd presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1) spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2) relationships between Bd occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among Bd occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3) patterns of environmental correlates with Bd, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae) separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A.) scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42%) amphibian species. We show that detected Bd infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of Bd. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of Bd detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into Bd-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of Bd, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation efforts. We provide recommendations for adaptive management to enhance the database utility and relevance. PMID:23463502

  19. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens

    PubMed Central

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-01-01

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l?1 (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l?1) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l?1). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l?1 and 10 ng P l?1 caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians. PMID:25405966

  20. Risks of hormonally active pharmaceuticals to amphibians: a growing concern regarding progestagens.

    PubMed

    Säfholm, Moa; Ribbenstedt, Anton; Fick, Jerker; Berg, Cecilia

    2014-11-19

    Most amphibians breed in water, including the terrestrial species, and may therefore be exposed to water-borne pharmaceuticals during critical phases of the reproductive cycle, i.e. sex differentiation and gamete maturation. The objectives of this paper were to (i) review available literature regarding adverse effects of hormonally active pharmaceuticals on amphibians, with special reference to environmentally relevant exposure levels and (ii) expand the knowledge on toxicity of progestagens in amphibians by determining effects of norethindrone (NET) and progesterone (P) exposure to 0, 1, 10 or 100 ng l(-1) (nominal) on oogenesis in the test species Xenopus tropicalis. Very little information was found on toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of pharmaceuticals on amphibians. Research has shown that environmental concentrations (1.8 ng l(-1)) of the pharmaceutical oestrogen ethinylestradiol (EE2) cause developmental reproductive toxicity involving impaired spermatogenesis in frogs. Recently, it was found that the progestagen levonorgestrel (LNG) inhibited oogenesis in frogs by interrupting the formation of vitellogenic oocytes at an environmentally relevant concentration (1.3 ng l(-1)). Results from the present study revealed that 1 ng NET l(-1) and 10 ng P l(-1) caused reduced proportions of vitellogenic oocytes and increased proportions of previtellogenic oocytes compared with the controls, thereby indicating inhibited vitellogenesis. Hence, the available literature shows that the oestrogen EE2 and the progestagens LNG, NET and P impair reproductive functions in amphibians at environmentally relevant exposure concentrations. The progestagens are of particular concern given their prevalence, the range of compounds and that several of them (LNG, NET and P) share the same target (oogenesis) at environmental exposure concentrations, indicating a risk for adverse effects on fertility in exposed wild amphibians. PMID:25405966

  1. Mapping the global emergence of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, the amphibian chytrid fungus.

    PubMed

    Olson, Deanna H; Aanensen, David M; Ronnenberg, Kathryn L; Powell, Christopher I; Walker, Susan F; Bielby, Jon; Garner, Trenton W J; Weaver, George; Fisher, Matthew C

    2013-01-01

    The rapid worldwide emergence of the amphibian pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is having a profound negative impact on biodiversity. However, global research efforts are fragmented and an overarching synthesis of global infection data is lacking. Here, we provide results from a community tool for the compilation of worldwide Bd presence and report on the analyses of data collated over a four-year period. Using this online database, we analysed: 1) spatial and taxonomic patterns of infection, including amphibian families that appear over- and under-infected; 2) relationships between Bd occurrence and declining amphibian species, including associations among Bd occurrence, species richness, and enigmatic population declines; and 3) patterns of environmental correlates with Bd, including climate metrics for all species combined and three families (Hylidae, Bufonidae, Ranidae) separately, at both a global scale and regional (U.S.A.) scale. These associations provide new insights for downscaled hypothesis testing. The pathogen has been detected in 52 of 82 countries in which sampling was reported, and it has been detected in 516 of 1240 (42%) amphibian species. We show that detected Bd infections are related to amphibian biodiversity and locations experiencing rapid enigmatic declines, supporting the hypothesis that greater complexity of amphibian communities increases the likelihood of emergence of infection and transmission of Bd. Using a global model including all sampled species, the odds of Bd detection decreased with increasing temperature range at a site. Further consideration of temperature range, rather than maximum or minimum temperatures, may provide new insights into Bd-host ecology. Whereas caution is necessary when interpreting such a broad global dataset, the use of our pathogen database is helping to inform studies of the epidemiology of Bd, as well as enabling regional, national, and international prioritization of conservation efforts. We provide recommendations for adaptive management to enhance the database utility and relevance. PMID:23463502

  2. Effects of cadmium on growth, metamorphosis and gonadal sex differentiation in tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, Reynaldo

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at 0, 1, 8. 85 or 860 mu g L(-1) in FETAX medium from 0 to 86 d postfertilization. Premetamorphic tadpoles were sampled on day 3 1; pre and prometamorphic tadpoles on day 49; and frogs (NF stage 66) between days 50 and 86. Survival, snout-vent length (SVL), tail length, total length, hindlimb length (HLL), initiation of metamorphic climax, size at and completion of metamorphosis, and gonadal condition and sex ratio (assessed histologically) were determined. Survival was unaffected by Cd until day 49, but increased mortality was observed after day 49 at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 31, when tadpoles were in early premetamorphosis, inhibitory effects on tadpole growth were observed only at 860 mu g Cd L(-1). On day 49, when most tadpoles where in late premetamorphosis/early prometamorphosis, reductions in SVL, HLL and total length were observed at 8 and 860 but not 85 mu g L(-1), thus creating a U-shaped size distribution at 0-85 mu g Cd L(-1). However, this U-shaped size pattern was not evident in postmetamorphic individuals. In fact, frog size at completion of metamorphosis was slightly smaller at 85 mu g Cd L(-1) relative to control animals. These observations confirmed a recent report of a Cd concentration-dependent bimodal growth pattern in late-premetamorphic Xenopus tadpoles, but also showed that growth responses to varying Cd concentrations change with development. The fraction of animals initiating or completing metamorphosis during days 50-86 was reduced in a Cd concentration-dependent manner. Testicular histology and population sex ratios were unaffected by Cd suggesting that, unlike mammals, Cd is not strongly estrogenic in Xenopus tadpoles.

  3. Effects of cadmium on growth, metamorphosis and gonadal sex differentiation in tadpoles of the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sharma, Bibek; Patino, R.

    2009-01-01

    Xenopus laevis larvae were exposed to cadmium (Cd) at 0, 1, 8, 85 or 860 ??g L-1 in FETAX medium from 0 to 86 d postfertilization. Premetamorphic tadpoles were sampled on day 31; pre and prometamorphic tadpoles on day 49; and frogs (NF stage 66) between days 50 and 86. Survival, snout-vent length (SVL), tail length, total length, hindlimb length (HLL), initiation of metamorphic climax, size at and completion of metamorphosis, and gonadal condition and sex ratio (assessed histologically) were determined. Survival was unaffected by Cd until day 49, but increased mortality was observed after day 49 at 860 ??g Cd L-1. On day 31, when tadpoles were in early premetamorphosis, inhibitory effects on tadpole growth were observed only at 860 ??g Cd L-1. On day 49, when most tadpoles where in late premetamorphosis/early prometamorphosis, reductions in SVL, HLL and total length were observed at 8 and 860 but not 85 ??g L-1, thus creating a U-shaped size distribution at 0-85 ??g Cd L-1. However, this U-shaped size pattern was not evident in postmetamorphic individuals. In fact, frog size at completion of metamorphosis was slightly smaller at 85 ??g Cd L-1relative to control animals. These observations confirmed a recent report of a Cd concentration-dependent bimodal growth pattern in late-premetamorphic Xenopus tadpoles, but also showed that growth responses to varying Cd concentrations change with development. The fraction of animals initiating or completing metamorphosis during days 50-86 was reduced in a Cd concentration-dependent manner. Testicular histology and population sex ratios were unaffected by Cd suggesting that, unlike mammals, Cd is not strongly estrogenic in Xenopus tadpoles. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of Three Volatile Oxylipins on Colony Development in Two Species of Fungi and on Drosophila Larval Metamorphosis.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guohua; Padhi, Sally; Lee, Samantha; Hung, Richard; Zhao, Guozhu; Bennett, Joan W

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of three volatile oxylipins on colony development in two fungi and on Drosophila larval metamorphosis. Using an airborne exposure technique, three common and volatile oxylipins (1-octen-3-ol, (E)-2-hexenal, and 1-hexanol) were compared for their effects on spore germination and colony growth in Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum, as well as for their effects on the morphogenesis of larvae of Drosophila melanogaster. Conidia of both A. niger and P. chrysogenum plated in the presence of low concentrations (50 ppm) of these three volatile organic compounds (VOCs) formed fewer colony-forming units (CFUs) and exhibited reduced radial growth of colonies as compared to controls. When A. niger and P. chrysogenum spores were germinated in the presence of the enantiomers of 1-octen-3-ol, (R)-(-)-1-octen-3-ol had the greatest impact on colony morphology (decreased sporulation and colony diameter), while (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol and the racemic form yielded similar morphological changes but to a lesser extent. In addition, Drosophila larvae exposed to vapors of these oxylipins exhibited serious delays in metamorphosis and toxic effects on pupae and adult stages. Low concentration of these three VOCs can significantly inhibit the formation of CFUs and the growth of fungi. (R)-(-)-1-octen-3-ol imposed the greatest impact on fungal morphology compared to (S)-(+)-1-octen-3-ol and the racemic form. The three volatile oxylipins could also delay the metamorphosis of Drosophila and impose toxic effects on its pupae and adult stages. PMID:26126831

  5. Microevolution due to pollution in amphibians: A review on the genetic erosion hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Fasola, E; Ribeiro, R; Lopes, I

    2015-09-01

    The loss of genetic diversity, due to exposure to chemical contamination (genetic erosion), is a major threat to population viability. Genetic erosion is the loss of genetic variation: the loss of alleles determining the value of a specific trait or set of traits. Almost a third of the known amphibian species is considered to be endangered and a decrease of genetic variability can push them to the verge of extinction. This review indicates that loss of genetic variation due to chemical contamination has effects on: 1) fitness, 2) environmental plasticity, 3) co-tolerance mechanisms, 4) trade-off mechanisms, and 5) tolerance to pathogens in amphibian populations. PMID:25969378

  6. Characterizing the width of amphibian movements during postbreeding migration.

    PubMed

    Coster, Stephanie S; Veysey Powell, Jessica S; Babbitt, Kimberly J

    2014-06-01

    Habitat linkages can help maintain connectivity of animal populations in developed landscapes. However, the lack of empirical data on the width of lateral movements (i.e., the zigzagging of individuals as they move from one point to point another) makes determining the width of such linkages challenging. We used radiotracking data from wood frogs (Lithobates sylvaticus) and spotted salamanders (Ambystoma maculatum) in a managed forest in Maine (U.S.A.) to characterize movement patterns of populations and thus inform planning for the width of wildlife corridors. For each individual, we calculated the polar coordinates of all locations, estimated the vector sum of the polar coordinates, and measured the distance from each location to the vector sum. By fitting a Gaussian distribution over a histogram of these distances, we created a population-level probability density function and estimated the 50th and 95th percentiles to determine the width of lateral movement as individuals progressed from the pond to upland habitat. For spotted salamanders 50% of lateral movements were ?13 m wide and 95% of movements were ?39 m wide. For wood frogs, 50% of lateral movements were ?17 m wide and 95% of movements were ? 51 m wide. For both species, those individuals that traveled the farthest from the pond also displayed the greatest lateral movement. Our results serve as a foundation for spatially explicit conservation planning for pond-breeding amphibians in areas undergoing development. Our technique can also be applied to movement data from other taxa to aid in designing habitat linkages. PMID:24423254

  7. Temperature sex-reversal in amphibians and reptiles.

    PubMed

    Dournon, C; Houillon, C; Pieau, C

    1990-03-01

    The sexual differentiation of gonads has been shown to be temperature-sensitive in many species of amphibians and reptiles. In two close species of salamanders, Pleurodeles poireti and P. waltl, both displaying a ZZ/ZW mechanism of genotypic sex determination (GSD), the rearing of larvae at high temperatures (30 degrees-32 degrees C) produces opposite effects: ZZ genotypic males of Pleurodeles poireti become phenotypic females whereas ZW genotypic females of P. waltl become phenotypic males. Sex-reversal of these individuals has been irrefutably demonstrated through genetic, cytogenetic, enzymatic and immunological studies. In many turtles, both sexes differentiate only within a critical range of temperature: above this range, all the individuals become phenotypic females, whereas below it, 100% become phenotypic males. The inverse occurs in some crocodiles and lizards. In many species of these three orders of reptiles, females are obtained at low and high temperatures, and males at intermediate ones. Preliminary studies in turtles (Emys orbicularis) indicate that within the critical range of temperature, sexual phenotype conforms with GSD, but that above and below this range, GSD is overriden. Temperature shifts during larval development in salamanders and during embryonic development in reptiles allowed the determination of thermosensitive stages for gonadal differentiation. Estrogens synthesized in the gonads at these stages appear to be involved in their sexual differentiation, higher levels being produced at feminizing temperatures than at masculinizing ones. The phenomenon of temperature sensitivity of gonadal differentiation occurs in species showing a very early stage in the evolution of sex chromosomes. Its adaptive value, chiefly in reptiles, remains an open question. PMID:2393628

  8. Water adaptation strategy in anuran amphibians: molecular diversity of aquaporin.

    PubMed

    Ogushi, Yuji; Akabane, Gen; Hasegawa, Takahiro; Mochida, Hiroshi; Matsuda, Manabu; Suzuki, Masakazu; Tanaka, Shigeyasu

    2010-01-01

    Most adult anuran amphibians except for the aquatic species absorb water across the ventral pelvic skin and reabsorb it from urine in the urinary bladder. Many terrestrial and arboreal species use a region in the posterior or pelvic region of the ventral skin that is specialized for rapid rehydration from shallow water sources or moist substrates. Periods of terrestrial activity can be prolonged by reabsorption of dilute urine from the urinary bladder. Aquaporin (AQP), a water channel protein, plays a fundamental role in these water absorption/reabsorption processes, which are regulated by antidiuretic hormone. Characterization of AQPs from various anurans revealed that the unique water homeostasis is basically mediated by two types of anuran-specific AQPs, i.e. ventral pelvic skin and urinary bladder type, respectively. The bladder-type AQP is further expressed in the pelvic skin of terrestrial and arboreal species, together with the pelvic skin-type AQP. In contrast, the pelvic skin-type AQP (AQP-x3) of the aquatic Xenopus has lost the ability of efficient protein production. The extra C-terminal tail in AQP-x3 consisting of 33 nucleotides within the coding region appears to participate in the posttranscriptional regulation of AQP-x3 gene expression by attenuating protein expression. The positive transcriptional regulation of bladder-type AQP in the pelvic skin and negative posttranscriptional regulation of pelvic skin-type AQP provide flexibility in the water regulation mechanisms, which might have contributed to the evolutionary adaptation of anurans to a wide variety of water environments. PMID:19854867

  9. Alkaline secretion by amphibian duodenum. I. General characteristics.

    PubMed

    Simson, J N; Merhav, A; Silen, W

    1981-05-01

    Stripped, proximal bullfrog duodenum was mounted in an Ussing chamber between HCO3--buffered nutrient (serosal) and unbuffered secretory (luminal) solutions. This preparation showed stable electrical parameters and caused alkalinization of the secretory solution at a rate of 0.95 +/- 0.03 mueq.cm-2.h-1 (mean +/- SE; n = 100). Anoxia and 2,4-dinitrophenol each reduced alkalinization by 50-60%, but acetazolamide (5 X 10(-4)M) had no effect. Removal of nutrient HCO3- and CO2 reduced alkalinization by over 90%, whereas increasing nutrient [HCO3-] at constant partial pressure of CO2 (PCO2) or increasing nutrient PCO2 at constant [HCO3-] each caused saturable increases in alkalinization, despite opposite effects on nutrient pH. Dibutyryl adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid, but not dibutyryl guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphoric acid, increased luminal alkalinization to 167 +/- 21% of control. Removal of nutrient, but not secretory, Na+ reduced alkalinization by 74%. Changes in the rate of alkalinization were accompanied by corresponding changes in potential difference and short-circuit current. Removal of Cl- or nutrient K+ or addition of histamine, thiocyanate, or catecholamines had no effect on electrical or secretory characteristics. We conclude that a) the amphibian duodenum transports alkali from nutrient to secretory solutions by both active and passive processes, b) there is a small secretion of endogenous HCO3-, c) alkaline secretion is electrogenic, d) Cl- does not contribute to the short-circuit current, e) alkaline secretion is partially dependent on nutrient Na+ that acts in a facilitatory, not cotransport, role, f) there is no Cl--HCO3- exchange, and g) alkaline secretion is independent of nutrient pH. PMID:6263107

  10. Stress and serial adult metamorphosis: multiple roles for the stress axis in socially regulated sex change

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Lane, Tessa K.; Crespi, Erica J.; Grober, Matthew S.

    2013-01-01

    Socially regulated sex change in teleost fishes is a striking example of social status information regulating biological function in the service of reproductive success. The establishment of social dominance in sex changing species is translated into a cascade of changes in behavior, physiology, neuroendocrine function, and morphology that transforms a female into a male, or vice versa. The hypothalamic-pituitary-interrenal axis (HPI, homologous to HP-adrenal axis in mammals and birds) has been hypothesized to play a mechanistic role linking status to sex change. The HPA/I axis responds to environmental stressors by integrating relevant external and internal cues and coordinating biological responses including changes in behavior, energetics, physiology, and morphology (i.e., metamorphosis). Through actions of both corticotropin-releasing factor and glucocorticoids, the HPA/I axis has been implicated in processes central to sex change, including the regulation of agonistic behavior, social status, energetic investment, and life history transitions. In this paper, we review the hypothesized roles of the HPA/I axis in the regulation of sex change and how those hypotheses have been tested to date. We include original data on sex change in the bluebanded goby (Lythyrpnus dalli), a highly social fish capable of bidirectional sex change. We then propose a model for HPA/I involvement in sex change and discuss how these ideas might be tested in the future. Understanding the regulation of sex change has the potential to elucidate evolutionarily conserved mechanisms responsible for translating pertinent information about the environment into coordinated biological changes along multiple body axes. PMID:24265604

  11. Assessment of the Endocrine Toxicity of the Fungicide Prochloraz using the Larval Amphibian Growth and Development Assay

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prochloraz is a broad spectrum fungicide that acts by inhibiting ergosterol biosynthesis in target species. Toxicity results in non-target vertebrate species suggest this toxicant acts as an endocrine disruptor that inhibits aromatase, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of...

  12. Against vaccine assay secrecy.

    PubMed

    Herder, Matthew; Hatchette, Todd F; Halperin, Scott A; Langley, Joanne M

    2015-01-01

    Increasing the transparency of the evidence base behind health interventions such as pharmaceuticals, biologics, and medical devices, has become a major point of critique, conflict, and policy focus in recent years. Yet the lack of publicly available information regarding the immunogenicity assays upon which many important, widely used vaccines are based has received no attention to date. In this paper we draw attention to this critical public health problem by reporting on our efforts to secure vaccine assay information in respect of 10 vaccines through Canada's access to information law. We argue, under Canadian law, that the public health interest in having access to the methods for these laboratory procedures should override claims by vaccine manufacturers and regulators that this information is proprietary; and, we call upon several actors to take steps to ensure greater transparency with respect to vaccine assays, including regulators, private firms, researchers, research institutions, research funders, and journal editors. PMID:25826194

  13. Rover waste assay system

    SciTech Connect

    Akers, D.W.; Stoots, C.M.; Kraft, N.C.; Marts, D.J. [Idaho National Engineering Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1997-11-01

    The Rover Waste Assay System (RWAS) is a nondestructive assay system designed for the rapid assay of highly-enriched {sup 235}U contaminated piping, tank sections, and debris from the Rover nuclear rocket fuel processing facility at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant. A scanning system translates a NaI(Tl) detector/collimator system over the structural components where both relative and calibrated measurements for {sup 137}Cs are made. Uranium-235 concentrations are in operation and is sufficiently automated that most functions are performed by the computer system. These functions include system calibration, problem identification, collimator control, data analysis, and reporting. Calibration of the system was done through a combination of measurements on calibration standards and benchmarked modeling. A description of the system is presented along with the methods and uncertainties associated with the calibration and analysis of the system for components from the Rover facility. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. [Glutathione and glutathione assays].

    PubMed

    Rousar, Tomás; Cervinková, Zuzana; Muzáková, Vladimíra; Kucera, Otto; Lotková, Halka; Krivákovaá, Pavla

    2005-01-01

    Glutathione, the very important intracellular antioxidant, is present in intracelullar environment in milimolar concentrations. Glutathione is a tripeptide molecule, which plays an essential role in the antioxidant system, as well as in maintenance of the intracellular redox state. This thiol compound exists in two forms, the reduced (GSH) and the oxidized (GSSG), and the ratio of both forms is crucial for the characterization of the oxidative stress in cells. Number of analytical methods have been developed for the measurement of the glutathione. Especially, High Performance Liquid Chromatography methods (HPLC) are mostly used linked to different types of detection, including electrochemical, UV/VIS or fluorimetric detection. Another approach for glutathione assay is using the spectral methods, either fluorimetric or spectrophotometric assays. In enzymatic assay, glutathione reductase reduces GSSG with simultaneous oxidation of specific substrate, which is sequentially photometrically detected. The fluorimetric method is based on the detection of derivatized GSH molecule. PMID:16669486

  15. Inactivation of viruses infecting ectothermic animals by amphibian and piscine antimicrobial peptides

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. G. Chinchar; L. Bryan; U. Silphadaung; E. Noga; D. Wade; L. Rollins-Smith

    2004-01-01

    The ability of five purified amphibian antimicrobial peptides (dermaseptin-1, temporin A, magainin I, and II, PGLa), crude peptide fractions isolated from the skin of Rana pipiens and R. catesbeiana, and four antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) from hybrid striped bass (piscidin-1N, -1H, -2, and -3) were examined for their ability to reduce the infectivity of channel catfish virus (CCV) and frog virus

  16. Complex history of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus revealed with genome resequencing data

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; James, Timothy Y.; Zamudio, Kelly R.; Poorten, Thomas J.; Ilut, Dan; Rodriguez, David; Eastman, Jonathan M.; Richards-Hrdlicka, Katy; Joneson, Suzanne; Jenkinson, Thomas S.; Longcore, Joyce E.; Parra Olea, Gabriela; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Arellano, Maria Luz; Medina, Edgar M.; Restrepo, Silvia; Flechas, Sandra Victoria; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J.; Stajich, Jason E.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of microbial pathogens is critical for mitigating the impacts of emerging infectious diseases on economically and ecologically important host species. We used a genome resequencing approach to resolve the evolutionary history of an important microbial pathogen, the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has been implicated in amphibian declines worldwide. We sequenced the genomes of 29 isolates of Bd from around the world, with an emphasis on North, Central, and South America because of the devastating effect that Bd has had on amphibian populations in the New World. We found a substantial amount of evolutionary complexity in Bd with deep phylogenetic diversity that predates observed global amphibian declines. By investigating the entire genome, we found that even the most recently evolved Bd clade (termed the global panzootic lineage) contained more genetic variation than previously reported. We also found dramatic differences among isolates and among genomic regions in chromosomal copy number and patterns of heterozygosity, suggesting complex and heterogeneous genome dynamics. Finally, we report evidence for selection acting on the Bd genome, supporting the hypothesis that protease genes are important in evolutionary transitions in this group. Bd is considered an emerging pathogen because of its recent effects on amphibians, but our data indicate that it has a complex evolutionary history that predates recent disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to consider the contemporary effects of Bd in a broader evolutionary context and identify specific mechanisms that may have led to shifts in virulence in this system. PMID:23650365

  17. Widespread occurrence of an emerging pathogen in amphibian communities of the Venezuelan Andes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dinora Sánchez; Andrés Chacón-Ortiz; Fabiola León; Barbara A. Han; Margarita Lampo

    2008-01-01

    Many recent amphibian declines have been associated with chytridiomycosis, a cutaneous disease caused by the chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, but increasing evidence suggests that this pathogen may coexist with some species without causing declines. In the Venezuelan Andes, the disappearance of three anuran species during the late eighties was attributed to B. dendrobatidis. Recently, this pathogen was found to be

  18. Riding the Wave: Reconciling the Roles of Disease and Climate Change in Amphibian Declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Lips; Jay Diffendorfer; Joseph R. Mendelson III; Michael W. Sears

    2008-01-01

    We review the evidence for the role of climate change in triggering disease outbreaks of chytridiomycosis, an emerging infectious disease of amphibians. Both climatic anomalies and disease-related extirpations are recent phenomena, and effects of both are especially noticeable at high elevations in tropical areas, making it difficult to determine whether they are operating separately or synergistically. We compiled reports of

  19. Current state of conservation knowledge on threatened amphibian species in Peru

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rudolf von May; Alessandro Catenazzi; Ariadne Angulo; Jason L. Brown; Jorge Carrillo; Germán Chávez; Jesús H. Córdova; Aleyda Curo; Amanda Delgado; Marco A. Enciso; Roberto Gutiérrez; Edgar Lehr; Jorge L. Martínez; Margarita Medina-Müller; Alfonso Miranda; Daniel R. Neira; José A. Ochoa; Aarón J. Quiroz; Daniel A. Rodríguez; Lily O. Rodríguez; Antonio W. Salas; Tracie Seimon; Karen Siu-Ting; Juana Suárez; Claudia Torres

    2008-01-01

    This study documents the current state of conservation knowledge on threatened amphibian species in Peru. Following the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) classification system, we considered species in the following categories: Critically Endangered, Endangered, Vulnerable, and Near Threatened. Even though only the first three categories are regarded as threatened by IUCN, we included the fourth category to

  20. Modeling spatial distribution of amphibian populations: a GIS approach based on habitat matrix permeability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    NICOLAS RAY; ANTHONY LEHMANN; PIERRE JOLY

    2002-01-01

    Predictions of occurrence of two amphibian species, the common toad and the alpine newt, were made using information on land use surrounding breeding ponds. A geographical information system (GIS) was used to compile a landuse map, from which permeability estimates (friction) were derived. Potential migration zones based on friction and maximum migration distance were then modeled. Contacts between several migration

  1. The distribution and habitat preferences of the amphibians of Prespa National Park

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Bousbouras; Y. Ioannidis

    1997-01-01

    The Prespa National Park has a large number ofamphibian species compared to other parts of Greeceand the Balkan Peninsula. This is due to the highvariety of habitats, the existence of relatively largeareas with shallow water around the lake and also dueto the existence of mountainous habitats very close toit. In this contribution, information is given on thebiology of the amphibians

  2. Distribution and ecology of amphibians and reptiles in a fragmented landscape, northeastern Bolivia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Ian Watling

    2005-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation have been implicated as driving forces behind recent waves of extinction. The regional landscape where this study occurred is a mosaic of forest and grassland, and therefore provides an ideal system with which to investigate the implications of habitat patchiness for the distribution and ecology of organisms. Here I describe patterns of amphibian and reptile distribution

  3. The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is non-randomly distributed across amphibian breeding habitats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kerry M. Kriger; Jean-Marc Hero

    2007-01-01

    The chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis has been implicated as the causative agent of mass mortalities, population declines, and the extinctions of stream- breeding amphibian species worldwide. While the factors that limit the distribution and abundance of B. dendrobatidis across large geographical regions are fairly well understood, little is known about the distribution of the fungus within localized areas such as

  4. THE AMPHIBIAN EPIDERMIS: DISTRIBUTION OF MITOCHONDRIA-RICH CELLS AND THE EFFECT OF OXYTOCIN

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. BROWN

    1981-01-01

    SUMMARY It is known that the ion-transporting capacity and the permeability to water of amphibian skins vary greatly both between and within species. Furthermore, the extent to which different skins respond to hormonal stimulation of these parameters also shows considerable inter- and intra-specific variation. As a first step towards defining a possible morphological basis for this physiological heterogeneity, we examined

  5. Monitoring the distribution of pond-breeding amphibians when species are detected imperfectly

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedikt R. Schmidt

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring programmes serve to track changes in the distribution and abundance of species. A major problem with most monitoring programmes is that species detection is imperfect and some populations are inevitably missed. Estimates of abundance and distribution are biased when detection probabilities are not taken into account. 2. Data were analysed from a large-scale volunteer-based amphibian monitoring programme using recently

  6. Conservation priorities and potential threats influencing the hyper?diverse amphibians of Madagascar

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Franco Andreone; Luca Maria Luiselli

    2003-01-01

    The conservation of Madagascan amphibians was assessed using a set of natural history parameters. The more than two hundred species were grouped into 51 operational conservation units to get more reliable results than those afforded by the low level of knowledge available for most of the species. Results in terms of ecological sensitivity were obtained by means of a univariate

  7. Headwater Stream Management Dichotomies: Local Amphibian Habitat vs. Downstream Fish Habitat

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. Jackson

    2002-01-01

    Small headwater streams in mountainous areas of the Pacific Northwest often do not harbor fish populations because of low water depth and high gradients. Rather, these streams provide habitat for dense assemblages of stream-dwelling amphibians. A variety of management goals have been suggested for such streams such as encouraging large woody debris recruitment to assist in sediment trapping and valley

  8. From descriptive to predictive distribution models: a working example with Iberian amphibians and reptiles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JW Arntzen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aim of the study was to identify the conditions under which spatial-environmental models can be used for the improved understanding of species distributions, under the explicit criterion of model predictive performance. I constructed distribution models for 17 amphibian and 21 reptile species in Portugal from atlas data and 13 selected ecological variables with stepwise logistic regression and a geographic

  9. A frog's-eye view of the landscape. Quantifying connectivity for fragmented amphibian populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Vos

    1999-01-01

    The spatial habitat requirements are studied for two amphibian species: the tree frog ( Hyla arborea ) and the moor frog ( Rana arvalis ). Fragmentation, the destruction of suitable habitat, results in small fragments that are separated by unsuitable habitat or barriers. Metapopulation theory implies that a species can survive on a regional level if local extinctions are compensated

  10. An overview of the evolution and conservation of West Indian amphibians and reptiles

    E-print Network

    Hedges, Blair

    distributions and habitat destruction is continuing. Across the region only about 10% of primary forests remain, and critically endangered) were small distributions and declining habitat, mainly through deforestationAn overview of the evolution and conservation of West Indian amphibians and reptiles S. Blair

  11. Neotropical tadpoles influence stream benthos: evidence for the ecological consequences of decline in amphibian populations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anthony W. Ranvestel; Karen R. Lips; Catherine M. Pringle; Matt R. Whiles; Rebecca J. Bixby

    2004-01-01

    SUMMARY 1. Few studies have assessed the role of tadpoles in tropical streams, although they are often abundant and conspicuous components of these systems. Moreover, amphibian populations are declining around the globe, particularly stream-dwelling species in tropical uplands, and the ecological consequences of these losses are not understood. 2. We chose a stream in the central Panamanian highlands, which has

  12. Linking global warming to amphibian declines through its effects on female body condition and survivorship.

    PubMed

    Reading, C J

    2007-02-01

    There is general consensus that climate change has contributed to the observed decline, and extinction, of many amphibian species throughout the world. However, the mechanisms of its effects remain unclear. A laboratory study in 1980-1981 in which temperate zone amphibians that were prevented from hibernating had decreased growth rates, matured at a smaller size and had increased mortality compared with those that hibernated suggested one possible mechanism. I used data from a field study of common toads (Bufo bufo) in the UK, between 1983 and 2005, to determine whether this also occurs in the field. The results demonstrated two pathways by which global warming may cause amphibian declines. First, there was a clear relationship between a decline in the body condition of female common toads and the occurrence of warmer than average years since 1983. This was paralleled by a decline in their annual survival rates with the relationship between these two declines being highly correlated. Second, there was a significant relationship between the occurrence of mild winters and a reduction in female body size, resulting in fewer eggs being laid annually. Climate warming can, therefore, act on wild temperate zone amphibians by deleteriously affecting their physiology, during and after hibernation, causing increased female mortality rates and decreased fecundity in survivors. PMID:17024381

  13. Quantal Potential Fields around Individual Active Zones of Amphibian Motor-Nerve Terminals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Bennett; L. Farnell; W. G. Gibson; G. T. Macleod; P. Dickens

    2000-01-01

    The release of a quantum from a nerve terminal is accompanied by the flow of extracellular current, which creates a field around the site of transmitter action. We provide a solution for the extent of this field for the case of a quantum released from a site on an amphibian motor-nerve terminal branch onto the receptor patch of a muscle

  14. A review on bradykinin-related peptides isolated from amphibian skin secretion.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinping; Li, Bin; Chen, Tianbao; Kwok, Hang Fai

    2015-03-01

    Amphibian skin secretion has great potential for drug discovery and contributes hundreds of bioactive peptides including bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs). More than 50 BRPs have been reported in the last two decades arising from the skin secretion of amphibian species. They belong to the families Ascaphidae (1 species), Bombinatoridae (3 species), Hylidae (9 speices) and Ranidae (25 species). This paper presents the diversity of structural characteristics of BRPs with N-terminal, C-terminal extension and amino acid substitution. The further comparison of cDNA-encoded prepropeptides between the different species and families demonstrated that there are various forms of kininogen precursors to release BRPs and they constitute important evidence in amphibian evolution. The pharmacological activities of isolated BRPs exhibited unclear structure-function relationships, and therefore the scope for drug discovery and development is limited. However, their diversity shows new insights into biotechnological applications and, as a result, comprehensive and systematic studies of the physiological and pharmacological activities of BRPs from amphibian skin secretion are needed in the future. PMID:25793726

  15. Differentiation processes in the amphibian brain with special emphasis on heterochronies.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, A; Roth, G

    1996-01-01

    Amphibians and caecilians exhibit a great variety of adult morphologies, life histories, and developmental strategies (biphasic development, direct development, viviparity, and neoteny). While early brain development and the differentiation of neural tissues in the three amphibian orders follow a basic pattern, differences exist in the onset and offset as well as the rate of growth and differentiation processes. These differences are described within a phylogenetic framework, and special emphasis is laid on the relationship between altered ontogenies and phylogenetic diversity. We concentrate on ontogenetic differentiation processes in the motor, olfactory, and visual system. We discuss the morphological consequences of secondary simplification of the brain in the context of paedomorphosis, which has happened several times independently among amphibians and consists in the abbreviation or truncation of late developmental processes. We deal with the cellular and molecular basis of brain development and the consequences for the adult nervous system in representative species of the three amphibian orders. Our analysis reveals that differences in brain morphology are largely due to heterochrony (i.e., the desynchronization of ontogenetic processes), a phenomenon that in turn is related to changes in genome sizes and life histories. PMID:8843653

  16. Stability and folding of amphibian ribonuclease A superfamily members in comparison with mammalian homologues.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Ulrich

    2014-08-01

    Comparative studies on homologous proteins can provide knowledge on how limited changes in the primary structure find their expression in large effects on catalytic activity, stability or the folding behavior. For more than half a century, members of the ribonuclease A superfamily have been the subject of a myriad of studies on protein folding and stability. Both the unfolding and refolding kinetics as well as the structure of several folding intermediates of ribonuclease A have been characterized in detail. Moreover, the RNA-degrading activity of these enzymes provides a basis for their cytotoxicity, which renders them potential tumor therapeutics. Because amphibian ribonuclease A homologues evade the human ribonuclease inhibitor, they emerged as particularly promising candidates. Interestingly, the amphibian ribonuclease A homologues investigated to date are more stable than the mammalian homologues. Nevertheless, despite the generation of numerous genetically engineered variants, knowledge of the folding of amphibian ribonuclease A homologues remains rather limited. An exception is onconase, a ribonuclease A homologue from Rana pipiens, which has been characterized in detail. This review summarizes the data on the unfolding and refolding kinetics and pathways, as well on the stability of amphibian ribonuclease A homologues compared with those of ribonuclease A, the best known member of this superfamily. PMID:24966023

  17. Co-habiting amphibian species harbor unique skin bacterial communities in wild populations.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, Valerie J; Bowers, Robert M; Fierer, Noah; Knight, Rob; Lauber, Christian L

    2012-03-01

    Although all plant and animal species harbor microbial symbionts, we know surprisingly little about the specificity of microbial communities to their hosts. Few studies have compared the microbiomes of different species of animals, and fewer still have examined animals in the wild. We sampled four pond habitats in Colorado, USA, where multiple amphibian species were present. In total, 32 amphibian individuals were sampled from three different species including northern leopard frogs (Lithobates pipiens), western chorus frogs (Pseudacris triseriata) and tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum). We compared the diversity and composition of the bacterial communities on the skin of the collected individuals via barcoded pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Dominant bacterial phyla included Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Cyanobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. In total, we found members of 18 bacterial phyla, comparable to the taxonomic diversity typically found on human skin. Levels of bacterial diversity varied strongly across species: L. pipiens had the highest diversity; A. tigrinum the lowest. Host species was a highly significant predictor of bacterial community similarity, and co-habitation within the same pond was not significant, highlighting that the skin-associated bacterial communities do not simply reflect those bacterial communities found in their surrounding environments. Innate species differences thus appear to regulate the structure of skin bacterial communities on amphibians. In light of recent discoveries that some bacteria on amphibian skin have antifungal activity, our finding suggests that host-specific bacteria may have a role in the species-specific resistance to fungal pathogens. PMID:21955991

  18. Amphibians. Animal Life in Action[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2000

    This 23-minute videotape for grades 5-8, presents the myriad of animal life that exists on the planet. Students can view and perform experiments and investigations that help explain animal traits and habits. Students find out about the world of amphibians as they examine their physical characteristics, environments, and life cycles, as well as…

  19. Alternative Conceptions in Animal Classification Focusing on Amphibians and Reptiles: A Cross-Age Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, Chiung-Fen; Yao, Tsung-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chih

    2004-01-01

    This study examined students' alternative conceptions of reptiles and amphibians and the extent to which these conceptions remain intact through the elementary (grades 4 and 6), junior, and senior high school years. We administered multiple-choice and free-response instruments to a total of 513 students and interviewed at least 20 students at each…

  20. A Field Guide to the Reptiles and Amphibians of Coastal Southern California

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Robert Fisher

    This guide contains the scientific name, common name, size, adult and juvenile characteristics, dimorphism, similar species, and additional notes (behavior, distribution) for species of reptiles and amphibians found in the coastal southern California region. These include frogs, toads, salamanders, lizards, turtles, and snakes, both native and introduced species. The guide also discusses species' habitats, such as sage scrub, grasslands, chaparral, riparian environments, and woodlands.

  1. Inventory of Amphibians and Reptiles at Mojave National Preserve: Final Report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Persons, Trevor B.; Nowak, Erika M.

    2007-01-01

    As part of the National Park Service Inventory and Monitoring Program in the Mojave Network, we conducted an inventory of amphibians and reptiles at Mojave National Preserve in 2004-2005. Objectives for this inventory were to use fieldwork, museum collections, and literature review to document the occurrence of reptile and amphibian species occurring at MOJA. Our goals were to document at least 90% of the species present, provide one voucher specimen for each species identified, provide GIS-referenced distribution information for sensitive species, and provide all deliverables, including NPSpecies entries, as outlined in the Mojave Network Biological Inventory Study Plan. Methods included daytime and nighttime visual encounter surveys and nighttime road driving. Survey effort was concentrated in predetermined priority sampling areas, as well as in areas with a high potential for detecting undocumented species. We recorded 31 species during our surveys. During literature review and museum specimen database searches, we found records for seven additional species from MOJA, elevating the documented species list to 38 (two amphibians and 36 reptiles). Based on our surveys, as well as literature and museum specimen review, we estimate an overall inventory completeness of 95% for Mojave National Preserve herpetofauna; 67% for amphibians and 97% for reptiles.

  2. Control and interaction of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems in anuran amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Wang; Michael S. Hedrick; Younis M. Ihmied; Edwin W. Taylor

    1999-01-01

    In anuran amphibians, respiratory rhythm is generated within the central nervous system (CNS) and is modulated by chemo- and mechanoreceptors located in the vascular system and within the CNS. The site for central respiratory rhythmogenesis and the role of various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators is described. Ventilatory air flow is generated by a positive pressure, buccal force pump driven by efferent

  3. Design and Management Criteria for Fish, Amphibian, and Reptile Communities Within Created Agricultural Wetlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Design and management criteria for created agricultural wetlands in the midwestern United States typically focus on maximizing the ability to process agricultural runoff. Ecological benefits for fish, amphibian, and reptiles are often secondary considerations. One example of this water quality focu...

  4. Acoustic communication figures prominently in the social behavior of most anuran amphibians. Although the

    E-print Network

    Ryan, Michael J.

    Acoustic communication figures prominently in the social behavior of most anuran amphibians conspecific males for mating. Although the acoustic characteristics of advertisement calls are species among potential conspecific mates on the basis of some of the same acoustic parameters used for species

  5. Evolution of Otolithic Membrane. Structure of Otolithic Membrane in Amphibians and Reptilians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. V. Lychakov

    2004-01-01

    Otolithic membrane of utricles, saccules, and lagena of amphibians (Bufo bufo, Xenopus laevis, Rana temporaria) and reptiles (Teratoscincus scincus, Agama sanguinolenta, Ophisaurus apodus, Caiman crocodilus) were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Otolithic membrane in various otolithic organs in all studied animals was found to differ by shape, size, structure, and composition of otoconia. Otolithic membrane of utricle of

  6. The systematics and zoogeography of Spinicaudinae and Meteterakinae (Heterakoidea: Nematoda) parasitic in reptiles and amphibians

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. R. Baker

    1984-01-01

    Summary  The early evolution and zoogeography of the superfamily Heterakoidea is considered from a detailed analysis of the the primitive representatives in amphibians and reptiles (subfamilies Meteterakinae and Spinicaudinae). Meteterakinae have a disjunct distribution (Oriental, Neotropical) suggesting an ancient relict status. Spinicaudinae have a cosmopolitan distribution with the greatest diversity in the southern continents. Distributions of the various genera were clearly

  7. Lithium secretion in kidneys of amphibians and reptiles under hydrated conditions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David G. Fleishman; Vladimir A. Nikiforov; Agnes A. Saulus; Valentina F. Vasilieva; Lev Y. Borkin

    1997-01-01

    Renal lithium transport was studied at different hydration levels in five species of anuran amphibians (Bufo bufo, B. danatensis, B. viridis, Rana ridibunda, and R. temporaria), two species of urodeles (Triturus vulgaris and T. cristatus) and four species of reptiles (lizards Eremias multiocellata, Lacerta vivipara, Trapelus sanguinolentus, and Teratoscincus scincus). Under dehydration conditions, Li+ was reabsorbed in the kidneys of

  8. A Review on Bradykinin-Related Peptides Isolated from Amphibian Skin Secretion

    PubMed Central

    Xi, Xinping; Li, Bin; Chen, Tianbao; Kwok, Hang Fai

    2015-01-01

    Amphibian skin secretion has great potential for drug discovery and contributes hundreds of bioactive peptides including bradykinin-related peptides (BRPs). More than 50 BRPs have been reported in the last two decades arising from the skin secretion of amphibian species. They belong to the families Ascaphidae (1 species), Bombinatoridae (3 species), Hylidae (9 speices) and Ranidae (25 species). This paper presents the diversity of structural characteristics of BRPs with N-terminal, C-terminal extension and amino acid substitution. The further comparison of cDNA-encoded prepropeptides between the different species and families demonstrated that there are various forms of kininogen precursors to release BRPs and they constitute important evidence in amphibian evolution. The pharmacological activities of isolated BRPs exhibited unclear structure–function relationships, and therefore the scope for drug discovery and development is limited. However, their diversity shows new insights into biotechnological applications and, as a result, comprehensive and systematic studies of the physiological and pharmacological activities of BRPs from amphibian skin secretion are needed in the future. PMID:25793726

  9. Terminology of Gonadal Anomalies in Fish and Amphibians Resulting from Chemical Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews the terms that have been used to describe various types of gonadal deformities and lesions in amphibians and fish, identifies the body of literature that has reported effects on gonad morphology/histology, and suggests a standardized set of terms and definition...

  10. More than skin deep: functional genomic basis for resistance to amphibian chytridiomycosis.

    PubMed

    Ellison, Amy R; Tunstall, Tate; DiRenzo, Graziella V; Hughey, Myra C; Rebollar, Eria A; Belden, Lisa K; Harris, Reid N; Ibáñez, Roberto; Lips, Karen R; Zamudio, Kelly R

    2015-01-01

    The amphibian-killing chytrid fungus Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) is one of the most generalist pathogens known, capable of infecting hundreds of species globally and causing widespread population declines and extinctions. However, some host species are seemingly unaffected by Bd, tolerating or clearing infections without clinical signs of disease. Variation in host immune responses is commonly evoked for these resistant or tolerant species, yet to date, we have no direct comparison of amphibian species responses to infection at the level of gene expression. In this study, we challenged four Central American frog species that vary in Bd susceptibility, with a sympatric virulent strain of the pathogen. We compared skin and spleen orthologous gene expression using differential expression tests and coexpression gene network analyses. We found that resistant species have reduced skin inflammatory responses and increased expression of genes involved in skin integrity. In contrast, only highly susceptible species exhibited suppression of splenic T-cell genes. We conclude that resistance to chytridiomycosis may be related to a species' ability to escape the immunosuppressive activity of the fungus. Moreover, our results indicate that within-species differences in splenic proteolytic enzyme gene expression may contribute to intraspecific variation in survival. This first comparison of amphibian functional immunogenomic architecture in response to Bd provides insights into key genetic mechanisms underlying variation in disease outcomes among amphibian species. PMID:25539724

  11. Complex history of the amphibian-killing chytrid fungus revealed with genome resequencing data.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Erica Bree; James, Timothy Y; Zamudio, Kelly R; Poorten, Thomas J; Ilut, Dan; Rodriguez, David; Eastman, Jonathan M; Richards-Hrdlicka, Katy; Joneson, Suzanne; Jenkinson, Thomas S; Longcore, Joyce E; Parra Olea, Gabriela; Toledo, Luís Felipe; Arellano, Maria Luz; Medina, Edgar M; Restrepo, Silvia; Flechas, Sandra Victoria; Berger, Lee; Briggs, Cheryl J; Stajich, Jason E

    2013-06-01

    Understanding the evolutionary history of microbial pathogens is critical for mitigating the impacts of emerging infectious diseases on economically and ecologically important host species. We used a genome resequencing approach to resolve the evolutionary history of an important microbial pathogen, the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which has been implicated in amphibian declines worldwide. We sequenced the genomes of 29 isolates of Bd from around the world, with an emphasis on North, Central, and South America because of the devastating effect that Bd has had on amphibian populations in the New World. We found a substantial amount of evolutionary complexity in Bd with deep phylogenetic diversity that predates observed global amphibian declines. By investigating the entire genome, we found that even the most recently evolved Bd clade (termed the global panzootic lineage) contained more genetic variation than previously reported. We also found dramatic differences among isolates and among genomic regions in chromosomal copy number and patterns of heterozygosity, suggesting complex and heterogeneous genome dynamics. Finally, we report evidence for selection acting on the Bd genome, supporting the hypothesis that protease genes are important in evolutionary transitions in this group. Bd is considered an emerging pathogen because of its recent effects on amphibians, but our data indicate that it has a complex evolutionary history that predates recent disease outbreaks. Therefore, it is important to consider the contemporary effects of Bd in a broader evolutionary context and identify specific mechanisms that may have led to shifts in virulence in this system. PMID:23650365

  12. Does nitrate deposition following astrophysical ionizing radiation events pose an additional threat to amphibians?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian C. Thomas; Michelle D. Honeyman

    2008-01-01

    It is known that amphibians are especially susceptible to the combination of heightened UVB radiation and increased nitrate concentrations. Various astrophysical events have been suggested as sources of ionizing radiation that could pose a threat to life on Earth, through destruction of the ozone layer and subsequent increase in UVB, followed by deposition of nitrate. In this study, we investigate

  13. AMPHIBIAN POPULATION DECLINES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE ARE LINKED TO CLIMATE, NOT CHYTRIDIOMYCOSIS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Daszak; D. E. Scott; A. M. Kilpatrick; C. Faggioni; J. W. Gibbons; D. Porter

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian populations at the Savannah River Site (SRS), South Carolina, USA, have been censused consistently for 35 years, and this provides a time series to examine the causes of population fluctuations. We examined archived museum specimens of 15 anuran species collected at wetlands on the SRS for the presence of the causative agent (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ) of chytridiomycosis, an emerging

  14. Amphibian Declines in Latin America: Widespread Population Declines, Extinctions, and Impacts1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karen R. Lips; Patricia A. Burrowes; Joseph R. Mendelson; Gabriela Parra-Olea

    2005-01-01

    Amphibian populations are in decline throughout Latin America; all families of frogs have experienced declines, but the species associated with aquatic habitats in upland areas have been most affected. Declines in Latin America were most common during the 1980s, but new declines continue to be reported. The causes of declines are varied, but they have most often been associated with

  15. Colombia is considered among the countries with the highest levels of amphibian species richness

    E-print Network

    Nacional Autónoma de México, Universidad

    Colombia is considered among the countries with the highest levels of amphibian species richness Nevada de Santa Marta, Colombia. Journal of Threatened Taxa 3(3): 1633-1636. Copyright: © José F, Colombia José F. González-Maya1 , Mauricio González2 , Diego Zárrate-Charry3 , Fidela Charry4 , Amancay A

  16. Amphibian phylogeography: a model for understanding historical aspects of species distributions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I Zeisset; T J C Beebee; TJC Beebee

    2008-01-01

    Phylogeographic analysis has become a major tool for investigating historical aspects of biogeography and population genetic structure. Anuran amphibians are particularly informative subjects for phylogeographic research on account of their global distribution, high degree of population genetic structure and ease of sampling. Studies on all the world's inhabited continents have demonstrated the nature and locations of refugia, including the Gulf

  17. Emerging Pathogen in Wild Amphibians and Frogs (Rana catesbeiana) Farmed for International Trade

    PubMed Central

    Mazzoni, Rolando; Daszak, Peter; Apolo, Ada; Perdomo, Eugenio; Speranza, Gustavo

    2003-01-01

    Chytridiomycosis is an emerging disease responsible for global decline and extinction of amphibians. We report the causative agent, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, in North American bullfrogs (Rana catesbeiana) farmed for the international restaurant trade. Our findings suggest that international trade may play a key role in the global dissemination of this and other emerging infectious diseases in wildlife. PMID:12967500

  18. INFLUENCE OF EXTERNAL CATION CONCENTRATION ON THE HATCHING OF AMPHIBIAN EMBRYOS IN WATER OF LOW PH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Amphibian embryos exposed to water of low pH were killed by two distinct mechanisms. At very low pH levels, embryos stopped development soon after exposure to test solutions. At higher but still lethal pH levels, embryos became curled within a shrunken perivitelline space and fai...

  19. Complex life cycles and density dependence: assessing the contribution of egg mortality to amphibian declines

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James R. Vonesh; Omar De la Cruz

    2002-01-01

    In the last decade there has been increasing evidence of amphibian declines from relatively pristine areas. Some declines are hypothesized to be the result of egg mortality caused by factors such as elevated solar UV-B irradiation, chemical pollutants, pathogenic fungi, and climate change. However, the population-level consequences of egg mortality have not been examined explicitly, and may be complicated by

  20. ADDING INFECTION TO INJURY: SYNERGISTIC EFFECTS OF PREDATION AND PARASITISM ON AMPHIBIAN MALFORMATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pieter T. J. Johnson; Eric R. Preu; Daniel R. Sutherland; John M. Romansic; Barbara Han; Andrew R. Blaustein

    2006-01-01

    We explored the importance of interactions between parasite infection and predation in driving an emerging phenomenon of conservation importance: amphibian limb malformations. We suggest that injury resulting from intraspecific predation in combination with trematode infection contributes to the frequency and severity of malformations in salamanders. By integrating field surveys and experiments, we evaluated the individual and combined effects of conspecific