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Sample records for amphidiploid triticum aestivum

  1. [Genetics determination of wheat resistance to Puccinia graminis F. sp. tritici deriving from Aegilops cylindrica, Triticum erebuni and amphidiploid 4].

    PubMed

    Babaiants, O V; Babaiants, L T; Horash, A F; Vasil'ev, A A; Trackovetskaia, V A; Paliasn'iĭĭ, V A

    2012-01-01

    The lines of winter soft wheat developed in the Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute contain new effective introgressive Sr-genes. Line 85/06 possess SrAc1 gene, lines 47/06, 54/06, 82/06, 85/06, 87/06, 238/06, and 367/06 possess SrAc1 and SrAc2 derived from Aegilops cylindrica, line 352/06 - SrTe1 and SrTe2 from Triticum erebuni, line 12/86-04 - SrAd1 and SrAd2 from Amphidiploid 4 (Triticum dicoccoides x Triticum tauschii). PMID:22420215

  2. Fertilizing wheat with dried sludge. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Day, A.D.; Thompson, R.K.

    1986-09-01

    The purpose of a three-year experiment at the Mesa Agricultural Experiment Station in Arizona was to compare the performance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars grown on soils treated with dried sewage sludge with the growth and grain yield of the same cultivars fertilized with commercial inorganic fertilizers. Many researchers have obtained increased crop yields by using sludge as a fertilizer source (see Literature Cited). Some have shown that the growth rates of crops planted on a sandy soil were similar when soil was treated with either sludge or commercial fertilizer, while others reported that N, P and K released from sludge incorporated into a sandy loam soil increased grain yields of corn. A survey of various municipal sludges found a widespread range of trace metal elements. Plant availability of metals has been found to be influenced by the type and the rate of sludge applied but not directly to the concentrations of trace metals in the sludge.

  3. Generation of amphidiploids from hybrids of wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum as a source of genetic variation for wheat improvement.

    PubMed

    Nemeth, Csilla; Yang, Cai-yun; Kasprzak, Paul; Hubbart, Stella; Scholefield, Duncan; Mehra, Surbhi; Skipper, Emma; King, Ian; King, Julie

    2015-02-01

    We aim to improve diversity of domesticated wheat by transferring genetic variation for important target traits from related wild and cultivated grass species. The present study describes the development of F1 hybrids between wheat and related species from the genera Aegilops, Secale, Thinopyrum, and Triticum and production of new amphidiploids. Amphidiploid lines were produced from 20 different distant relatives. Both colchicine and caffeine were successfully used to double the chromosome numbers. The genomic constitution of the newly formed amphidiploids derived from seven distant relatives was determined using genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Altogether, 42 different plants were analysed, 19 using multicolour GISH separating the chromosomes from the A, B, and D genomes of wheat, as well as the distant relative, and 23 using single colour GISH. Restructuring of the allopolyploid genome, both chromosome losses and aneuploidy, was detected in all the genomes contained by the amphidiploids. From the observed chromosome numbers there is an indication that in amphidiploids the B genome of wheat suffers chromosome losses less frequently than the other wheat genomes. Phenotyping to realize the full potential of the wheat-related grass germplasm is underway, linking the analyzed genotypes to agronomically important target traits. PMID:26053312

  4. [Research advances in wheat (Triticum aestivum) allelopathy].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoke; Jiang, Yong; Liang, Wenju; Kong, Chuihua

    2004-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is the main food crop in the world, and plays an important role in agricultural production. In order to enhance wheat yield, herbicides and germicides were intensively applied and made negative effects on the environment. Wheat possesses allelopathic potential for weed suppression and disease control through the release of secondary metabolites from its living plants or residues, which could avoid the environment pollution brought by herbicides and germicides. This paper reviewed the research advances in wheat allelopathy. Hydroxamic acids and phenolic acids are the predominant allelochemicals frequently reported which could produce plant natural defense against weed, pest and disease. The allelopathic activity of allelochemicals is determined not only by the allelochemicals, but also by the factors of inheritance, environment and biology. The retention, transportation and transformation processes of allelochemicals, and the relationship between wheat allelopathy and soil biota and its mechanism were seldom studied and still needed to be researched profoundly. Utilizing wheat allelopathy in plant protection, environment protection and crop breeding would improve the stress-resistance, yield and quality of wheat in agricultural production. PMID:15624846

  5. Genome structure of introgressive lines Triticum aestivum/Aegilops sharonensis.

    PubMed

    Antonyuk, M Z; Bodylyova, M V; Ternovskaya, T K

    2009-01-01

    The lines Triticum aestivum/Aegilops sharonensis were explored in regard to the presence of introgressions in the line genomes, their amount and belonging to definite homoeologic group. The results of studying of chromosome associations in M1 of pollen mother celles in the hybrids between the lines with each other and with recurrent common wheat genotype Avrora were compared with the data of the line assessment for the chromosomal biochemical and morphological markers. 26 lines were distinguished between six groups with specific genome rearrangement regard to recurrent genotype. PMID:20458978

  6. Determination of flavonoids in Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soran, M. L.; Opriş, O.; Copaciu, F.; Varodi, C.

    2012-02-01

    Pharmaceutical residues in the environment, and their potential toxic effects, have been recognized as one of the emerging research area in the environmental chemistry. Antibiotics can reach plants from treated soil or due to irrigation. The flavonoids extraction from Triticum aestivum L. treated with ampicillin and separation of flavonoids are presented in this study. There were used classical and modern extraction techniques (maceration, microwave assisted solvents, etc). The efficiency of extraction process was spectrophotometricaly evaluated by determining the total flavonoids content and by HPTLC on silica gel plates using the mixture: carbon tetrachloride - acetone - formic acid (35:11:3, v/v) as mobile phase. The developed plates were inspected both in ultraviolet and visible after visualization with NTS reagent (diphenylboryloxyethylamin). The chromatographic plates were compared in respect to determine the changes in extract composition due to the different extraction techniques. Depending on the concentration of ampicillin administered to plants, comparative studies on flavonoids content were performed.

  7. Transgenic approach to improve wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Tamás, Cecília; Kisgyörgy, Boglárka N; Rakszegi, Mariann; Wilkinson, Mark D; Yang, Moon-Sik; Láng, László; Tamás, László; Bedo, Zoltán

    2009-07-01

    An amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) albumin gene, encoding the 35-kDa AmA1 protein of the seed, with a high content of essential amino acids, was used in the biolistic transformation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Cadenza. The transformation cassette carried the ama1 gene under the control of a powerful wheat endosperm-specific promoter (1Bx17 HMW-GS). Southern-blot analysis of T(1) lines confirmed the integration of the foreign gene, while RT-PCR and Western-blot analyses of the samples confirmed the transcription and translation of the transgene. The effects of the extra albumin protein on the properties of flour, produced from bulked T(2) seeds, were calculated using total protein and essential amino acid content analysis, polymeric/monomeric protein and HMW/LMW glutenin subunit ratio measurements. The results indicated that not only can essential amino acid content be increased, but some parameters associated with functional quality may also be improved because of the expression of the AmA1 protein. PMID:19466426

  8. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Degewione, A; Alamerew, S

    2013-11-01

    Wheat is one most important cereal crops grown in Ethiopia. Yet, keeping in view insufficient information on exotic bread wheat genotypes is limiting the access to useful traits present among the genotypes in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes. Twenty six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes obtained from ICARDA-CIMMYT were tested at Gode and Kelafo research sites at three cropping seasons (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12) under irrigation. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten agronomic traits were included in the study. The mean values, ranges and the coefficient of variation of the 10 characters indicated the existence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 26 bread wheat genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 91.87% of the total variation. D2 analysis showed the 26 bread wheat genotypes grouped into six clusters. This made to become moderate diversity among the genotypes. The crosses between genotypes selected from cluster-III with cluster-VI and cluster V with cluster VI are expected to produce better genetic recombination and segregation in their progenies. Therefore, these bread wheat genotypes need to be crossed and selected to develop high yielding pure line variety. PMID:24511742

  9. Responses of alloplasmic (cytoplasm=Triticum timopheevii) and euplasmic wheats (Triticum aestivum) to photoperiod and vernalization.

    PubMed

    Ward, R W; Heyne, E G; Paulsen, G M

    1983-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the male sterility-inducing cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. on response of several common winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) nuclear genotypes to photoperiod and vernalization. Comparative studies of cytoplasmic substitution lines provide information on the role of the cytoplasmic genetic mechanism in growth and development. In the case of cytoplasmic male sterility-based hybrid production systems, ubiquity of sterility-inducing cytoplasm in derived hybrids warrants thorough characterization of its influence on plant phenotype. Factorial combinations of cytoplasm (T. timopheevii and T. aestivum), nuclear genotype, and photoperiod or vernalization treatments were evaluated under hydroponic conditions in controlled environment chambers. Interaction of cytoplasm, photoperiod, and nuclear genotype was significant in one or more experiments for days to anthesis and potential spikelet number, and interaction of cytoplasm, vernalization, and nuclear genotype was significant for days to spike emergence. Long day length was associated with increased percentage seed set in one study, but interactions of photoperiod and cytoplasm were not detected for percentage seed set. Interactions involving cytoplasm and photoperiod or vernalization were interpreted as evidence of the existence of genetic factors in cytoplsam of T. timopheevii which alter photoperiod or vernalization responses of alloplasmic plants relative to responses exhibited by euplasmic plants. Since photoperiod and vernalization responses are critical to adaptation, T. timopheevii cytoplasm can alter adaptability of T. aestivum. The specific effect would be nuclear genotype dependent, and does not appear to be of a magnitude greater than that induced by nuclear genetic variability at loci conditioning photoperiod or vernalization responses or other adaptation-determining characteristics. Normal multilocation/year testing of alloplasmic hybrids should

  10. Antidiabetic and Antioxidant Properties of Triticum aestivum in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Yogesha; Jesuthankaraj, Grace Nirmala; Ramasamy Thangavelu, Narendhirakannan

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic and antioxidant potential of Triticum aestivum were evaluated by using in vivo methods in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced in the Wistar strain albino rats by injecting streptozotocin at a dose of 55 mg/kg body weight. Ethanolic extracts of Triticum aestivum at doses of 100 mg/kg body weight were administered orally for 30 days. Various parameters were studied and the treatment group with the extract showed a significant increase in the liver glycogen and a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and serum marker enzyme levels. The total cholesterol and serum triglycerides levels, low density lipoprotein, and very low density lipoprotein were also significantly reduced and the high density lipoprotein level was significantly increased upon treatment with the Triticum aestivum ethanol extract. A significant decrease in the levels of lipid peroxides, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidise and increase in the levels of vitamin E, catalase, and reduced glutathione were observed in Triticum aestivum treated diabetic rats. Thus, from this study we conclude that ethanolic extract of Triticum aestivum exhibited significant antihyperglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antioxidant activities in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24416041

  11. Metabolite profiling of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) phloem exudate

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Biofortification of staple crops with essential micronutrients relies on the efficient, long distance transport of nutrients to the developing seed. The main route of this transport in common wheat (Triticum aestivum) is via the phloem, but due to the reactive nature of some essential micronutrients (specifically Fe and Zn), they need to form ligands with metabolites for transport within the phloem. Current methods available in collecting phloem exudate allows for small volumes (μL or nL) to be collected which limits the breadth of metabolite analysis. We present a technical advance in the measurement of 79 metabolites in as little as 19.5 nL of phloem exudate. This was achieved by using mass spectrometry based, metabolomic techniques. Results Using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS), 79 metabolites were detected in wheat phloem. Of these, 53 were identified with respect to their chemistry and 26 were classified as unknowns. Using the ratio of ion area for each metabolite to the total ion area for all metabolites, 39 showed significant changes in metabolite profile with a change in wheat reproductive maturity, from 8–12 to 17–21 days after anthesis. Of these, 21 were shown to increase and 18 decreased as the plant matured. An amine group derivitisation method coupled with liquid chromatography MS (LC-MS) based metabolomics was able to quantify 26 metabolites and semi-quantitative data was available for a further 3 metabolites. Conclusions This study demonstrates that it is possible to determine metabolite profiles from extremely small volumes of phloem exudate and that this method can be used to determine variability within the metabolite profile of phloem that has occurred with changes in maturity. This is also believed to be the first report of the presence of the important metal complexing metabolite, nicotianamine in the phloem of wheat. PMID:25143779

  12. Genetic variation among laboratory accessions of Chinese spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chinese Spring (CS) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is commonly used in genetic research including cytogenetic analysis, molecular mapping, and germplasm development. Aneuploid lines of alien chromosomes in CS background have been used in studies with diverse objectives. Thousands of genomic and cDNA...

  13. Ractopamine uptake by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in t...

  14. A review of the occurrence of grain softness protein-1 genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain softness protein-1 (Gsp-1) is a small, 495-bp intronless gene found throughout the Triticeae tribe at the distal end of group 5 chromosomes. With the Puroindolines, it constitutes a key component of the Hardness locus. In the polyploid wheats, Triticum aestivum and T. turgidum, the gene is pr...

  15. Did the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) shape the evolutionary trajectory of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most successful domesticated plant species in the world. The majority of wheat carries mutations in the Puroindoline genes that result in a hard kernel phenotype. An explanation as to the selection of these hard-kernel mutations has not been established. He...

  16. Development of a set of compensating Triticum aestivum-Dasypyrum villosum Robertsonian translocation lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy, a wild relative of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the source of agronomically important genes for wheat improvement. The first step in exploiting this variation is the production of compensating Robertsonian translocations (cRobTs) consisting of D. villosum c...

  17. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS marker...

  18. Distribution of cadmium, iron and zinc in millstreams of hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United 14 States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium 15 accumulation, with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg-1). Previous reports of 16 cadmium distribution in ...

  19. Metabolic Pathways of the Wheat (Triticum aestivum)Endosperm Amyloplast Revealed by Proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, amyloplasts have a broader range of functions that are not widely recognized. A recent proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm suggested that they share many of the ...

  20. Molecular and phylogenetic characterization of the homoeologous EPSP Synthase genes of allohexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) is the sixth and penultimate enzyme in the shikimate biosynthesis pathway. The EPSPS genes of allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) have not been well characterized. Herein, the three homoeologous copies of the wheat EPSPS gen...

  1. Nitrogen and Water Stress Impacts Hard Red Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Canopy Reflectance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing offers a simple, time efficient method for making in-season nitrogen (N) recommendations for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, spectral crop reflectance can be confounded by water and N stress that simultaneously impact protein content and yields. The objective of this stu...

  2. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    PubMed

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. PMID:22164778

  3. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)<3 weeks after sowing (WAS3)<10 weeks after sowing (WAS10), whereas the soil solution pH was found to follow an opposite distribution pattern. Systematically, both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in the leaves of the Triticum aestivum L. increased concomitantly with increasing cadmium levels (p>0.05) and growth duration (p<0.05), whilst ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity was induced to an elevated level at moderate cadmium stress with a decrease at high cadmium stress (p>0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production. PMID:24580822

  4. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACIDIC RAIN ON YIELDS OF 'RAPHANUS SATIVUS', 'LACTUCA SATIVA', 'TRITICUM AESTIVUM' AND 'MEDICAGO SATIVA'

    EPA Science Inventory

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences a...

  5. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    PubMed

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota. PMID:23776610

  6. [Development of Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa 6VS ditelosomic substitution line via phlb mutant].

    PubMed

    Chen, J F; Ying, J; Wang, S L; Liu, Z H; Qi, L L; Chen, P D

    2001-01-01

    Chinese Spring phlb mutant (C S phlbphlb) was crossed to Triticum aestivum-Haynaldia villosa 6V (6A) alien substitution line and F1 back was crossed with C. S phlbphlb. One LV 02 with varied H. villosa 6V chromosome and one LV 02-01 with 40 T. aestivum chromosome, one H. villosa 6V and 6VS chromosome were screened in BC1F1 and BC1F2 respectively by C-banding and the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). In segregated generation of LV 02-01, eight T. aestivum-H. villosa 6VS ditelosomic substitution lines were screened by FISH and C-banding. PMID:11209712

  7. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  8. NIR FT-Raman study of biomass ( Triticum aestivum) treated with cellulase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Yu; Lu, Yonglai; Huang, Yong

    2004-05-01

    Multicomponent cellulase and purified endoglucanase were assayed and used to treat biomass ( Triticum aestivum). In this work we present FT-Raman spectra of enzymatic treated samples of biomass. Changes in structure and properties of the biomass caused by enzymatic treatment depend on the composition and the type of enzyme, as well as the treatment conditions. The lignin content of the biomass was most reduced in enzymatic treatment. Due to endoglucanase containing less xylanase activity than multicomponent cellulase, the samples modified with endoglucanase have a higher content of hemicellulose and lignin. The crystallinity of cellulose in the biomass increases during enzymatic treatment, as determined by FT-Raman analysis.

  9. Organelle genome stability in anther-derived doubled haploids of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'Moisson').

    PubMed

    Rode, A; Hartmann, C; Dron, M; Picard, E; Ouetier, F

    1985-12-01

    Chloroplast and mitochondrial compartments of a parental line of wheat (Triticum aestivum L., cv. 'Moisson') and its anther-derived doubled haploid lines have been analyzed and compared on the basis of their DNA restriction patterns. The results obtained show that no noticeable difference can be detected between doubled haploid lines and parental line at the level of ctDNA and mtDNA organization. It may be concluded that in vitro culture by itself does not systematically generate a cytoplasmic variation in germ cells. PMID:24247401

  10. Heading date QTL in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) coincide with major developmental genes Vernalization-1 and Photoperiod-1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), time from planting to spike emergence is influenced by genes controlling vernalization requirement and photoperiod response. Characterizing the available genetic diversity of known and novel alleles of Vernalization-1 (Vrn-1) and Photoperiod-1 (Ppd-1) in winter wheat...

  11. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain color and hardness on the consumption preference of a mouse model system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  12. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  13. Repeatability of mice consumption discrimination of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties across field experiments and mouse cohorts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) foods can provide critical nutrients for health and nutrition in the human diet. However, undesirable flavors are often suggested as a barrier to increased whole-grain consumption, yet flavor differences among wheat varieties have not been widely studied. Pot...

  14. TOXICITY OF METHYL-TERT BYTYL ETHER (MTBE) TO PLANTS (AVENA SATIVA, ZEA MAYS, TRITICUM AESTIVUM, AND LACTUCA SATIVA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of the plant were studied in some laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oat (Avena sative), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination,...

  15. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM proteins regulate the translocation of iron, zinc, and nitrogen compounds from vegetative tissues to grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The NAM-B1 gene is a NAC transcription factor that affects grain nutrient concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum). An RNAi line with reduced expression of NAM genes has lower grain protein, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. To determine whether decreased remobilization, lower plant uptak...

  16. Genome-wide genetic dissection of supernumerary spikelet and related traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L), exotic genotypes express a broad range of spike-related traits and could be used as a source of new genes to enrich the germplasm for wheat breeding programs. In the present study, a population of 163 recombinant inbred lines derived from a cross between an elite line...

  17. Microsatellite mapping of a Triticum urartu Tum. derived powdery mildew resistance gene transferred to common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Qiu, Y C; Zhou, R H; Kong, X Y; Zhang, S S; Jia, J Z

    2005-11-01

    A powdery mildew resistance gene from Triticum urartu Tum. accession UR206 was successfully transferred into hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) through crossing and backcrossing. The F1 plants, which had 28 chromosomes and an average of 5.32 bivalents and 17.36 univalents in meiotic pollen mother cells (PMC), were obtained through embryos rescued owing to shriveling of endosperm in hybrid seed of cross Chinese Spring (CS) x UR206. Hybrid seeds were produced through backcrossing F1 with common wheat parents. The derivative lines had normal chromosome numbers and powdery mildew resistance similar to the donor UR206, indicating that the powdery mildew resistance gene originating from T. urartu accession UR206 was successfully transferred and expressed in a hexaploid wheat background. Genetic analysis indicated that a single dominant gene controlled the powdery mildew resistance at the seedling stage. To map and tag the powdery mildew resistance gene, 143 F2 individuals derived from a cross UR206 x UR203 were used to construct a linkage map. The resistant gene was mapped on the chromosome 7AL based on the mapped microsatellite makers. The map spanned 52.1 cM and the order of these microsatellite loci agreed well with the established microsatellite map of chromosome arm 7AL. The resistance gene was flanked by the microsatellite loci Xwmc273 and Xpsp3003, with the genetic distances of 2.2 cM and 3.8 cM, respectively. On the basis of the origin and chromosomal location of the gene, it was temporarily designated PmU. PMID:16177900

  18. Heavy metal uptake, translocation, and bioaccumulation studies of Triticum aestivum cultivated in contaminated dredged materials.

    PubMed

    Shumaker, Ketia L; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-08-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  19. Heavy Metal Uptake, Translocation, and Bioaccumulation Studies of Triticum aestivum Cultivated in Contaminated Dredged Materials

    PubMed Central

    Shumaker, Ketia L.; Begonia, Gregorio

    2005-01-01

    Phytoremediation is a technology that uses vegetation to remediate contaminants from water, soil, and sediments. Unlike traditional remediation techniques such as soil washing or vitrification, phytoremediation offers a technology that is solar-driven, aesthetically pleasing, and cost effective. Recent studies indicate that winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a potential accumulator for heavy metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) in hydroponic systems. Based on these findings, a laboratory study was conducted with the primary objective of determining the phytoaccumulation capability of this plant species for heavy metals from contaminated dredged materials (DMs) originating from two confined disposal facilities (CDF). The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) manages several hundred million cubic meters of DMs each year, and 5 to 10 % of these DMs require special handling because they are contaminated with hazardous substances that can move from the substrates into food webs causing unacceptable risk outside CDFs. Phytoremediation may offer an alternative to decrease this risk. Chemical analyses by USACE personnel identified 17 metals in various DMs, but in this present study, only zinc (Zn) and Cd were investigated. Pre-germinated seeds of the test plants were planted under laboratory conditions in pots containing the various DMs and reference soil. Four weeks after planting, plants were harvested and separated into roots and shoots for biomass production and tissue metal concentrations analyses. Results showed that T. aestivum plants have the capacity to tolerate and grow in multiple-metal contaminated DMs with the potential of accumulating various amounts of Zn and Cd. Root and shoot biomass of T. aestivum were not significantly affected by the DMs on which the plants were grown suggesting that this plant species can grow just as well on DMs contaminated by various metals as in the reference soil. No significant differences in the Zn tissue

  20. [CdCl2-induced morphogenetic variation of Triticum aestivum cultivars].

    PubMed

    Chunetova, Zh Zh; Omirbekova, N Zh; Shulembaeva, K K

    2008-11-01

    The effect cadmium chloride on released local cultivars of soft spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) has been studied under laboratory and field conditions in order to widen the variation spectrum of this plant. It has been found that treatment of grains with a 0.01% aqueous solution of CdCl2 induces the appearance of tall, strong plants with productive bushiness in the M1 generation that are characterized by various morphological changes: elongated ears, scales, and grains; increased number of grains per ear and mass of 1000 grains; anthocyan pigmentation of the stem and leaf axil; etc. Study of meiosis showed chromosome aggregation, displacement of the mitotic spindle of the metaphase plate, and empty (sterile) cells in anaphases (AI and AII). The altered characters of M1 plants are preserved in the M2-M4 generations. PMID:19137733

  1. Distribution of Cadmium, Iron, and Zinc in Millstreams of Hard Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Guttieri, Mary J; Seabourn, Bradford W; Liu, Caixia; Baenziger, P Stephen; Waters, Brian M

    2015-12-16

    Hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop in the Great Plains of the United States, and our previous work demonstrated that wheat genotypes vary for grain cadmium accumulation with some exceeding the CODEX standard (0.2 mg kg(-1)). Previous reports of cadmium distribution in flour milling fractions have not included high cadmium grain. This study measured the distribution of cadmium, zinc, and iron in flour and bran streams from high cadmium (0.352 mg kg(-1)) grain on a pilot mill that produced 12 flour and four bran streams. Recovery in flour was substantially greater for cadmium (50%) than for zinc (31%) or iron (22%). Cadmium, zinc, and iron in the lowest mineral concentration flour stream, representing the purest endosperm fraction, were 52, 22, and 11%, respectively, of initial grain concentration. Our results indicate that, relative to zinc and iron, a greater proportion of cadmium is stored in the endosperm, the source of white flour. PMID:26568286

  2. Gibberellic Acid Regulates Cell Wall Extensibility in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Geoff; Sorrells, Mark E.; Setter, Tim L.

    1990-01-01

    Mutations (Rht genes) blocking sensitivity to gibberellic acid (GA) were used to examine phytohormone mediated cell wall expansion in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Irreversible extensibility of immature leaf segments, as determined by stress/strain (instron) measurements, declined with Rht gene dose. Exogenous GA3 significantly increased wall extensibility in the nonmutant controls but had no effect on the near-isogenic GA-insensitive genotypes. Furthermore, ancymidol, an inhibitor of gibberellin biosynthesis, diminished wall extensibility in the nonmutant control. Extensibility of immature segments was highly correlated with mature leaf sheath length (R = +0.95). The results indicate that wall yielding properties of expanding wheat leaves are associated with leaf cell expansion potential and that GA is involved in the determination of those properties. PMID:16667254

  3. Phosphate depletion modulates auxin transport in Triticum aestivum leading to altered root branching

    PubMed Central

    Talboys, Peter J.; Healey, John R.; Withers, Paul J. A.; Jones, Davey L.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which nutritional signals impact upon root system architecture is a key facet in the drive for greater nutrient application efficiency in agricultural systems. Cereal plants reduce their rate of lateral root emergence under inorganic phosphate (Pi) shortage; this study uses molecular and pharmacological techniques to dissect this Pi response in Triticum aestivum. Plants were grown in coarse sand washed in high- or low-Pi nutrient solution before being assessed for their root branching density and expression of AUX/IAA and PIN genes. Seedlings were also grown on media containing [14C]indole acetic acid to measure basipetal auxin transport. Seedlings grown in low-Pi environments displayed less capacity to transport auxin basipetally from the seminal root apex, a reduction in root expression of PIN auxin transporter genes, and perturbed expression of a range of AUX/IAA auxin response genes. Given the known importance of basipetally transported auxin in stimulating lateral root initiation, it is proposed here that, in T. aestivum, Pi availability directly influences lateral root production through modulation of PIN expression. Understanding such processes is important in the drive for greater efficiency in crop use of Pi fertilizers in agricultural settings. PMID:25086590

  4. Phosphate depletion modulates auxin transport in Triticum aestivum leading to altered root branching.

    PubMed

    Talboys, Peter J; Healey, John R; Withers, Paul J A; Jones, Davey L

    2014-09-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which nutritional signals impact upon root system architecture is a key facet in the drive for greater nutrient application efficiency in agricultural systems. Cereal plants reduce their rate of lateral root emergence under inorganic phosphate (Pi) shortage; this study uses molecular and pharmacological techniques to dissect this Pi response in Triticum aestivum. Plants were grown in coarse sand washed in high- or low-Pi nutrient solution before being assessed for their root branching density and expression of AUX/IAA and PIN genes. Seedlings were also grown on media containing [(14)C]indole acetic acid to measure basipetal auxin transport. Seedlings grown in low-Pi environments displayed less capacity to transport auxin basipetally from the seminal root apex, a reduction in root expression of PIN auxin transporter genes, and perturbed expression of a range of AUX/IAA auxin response genes. Given the known importance of basipetally transported auxin in stimulating lateral root initiation, it is proposed here that, in T. aestivum, Pi availability directly influences lateral root production through modulation of PIN expression. Understanding such processes is important in the drive for greater efficiency in crop use of Pi fertilizers in agricultural settings. PMID:25086590

  5. Molecular Characterization and Global Expression Analysis of Lectin Receptor Kinases in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lectin receptor kinases (LRKs) play a critical role in plants during development and stress conditions, but a comprehensive analysis at genome level is still not carried out in Triticum aestivum. Herein, we performed the genome wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of these genes in T. aestivum (TaLRK). In-total 263 TaLRK genes were identified, which were further classified into three groups based on the nature of lectin domain. We identified, two TaLRKs consisted of calcium-dependent lectin (C-LRK), while 84 legume-lectin (L-LRK) and 177 bulb-lectin (B-LRK) domains. The L-LRK and B-LRK genes were distributed throughout the genome of T. aestivum. Most of the TaLRKs were clustered as homologs, which were distributed either in proximity on same chromosome or on homoeologous chromosomes of A, B and D sub-genomes. A total of 9 and 58 duplication events were also predicted in L-LRK and B-LRK, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated conserved evolutionary relationship of homologous and orthologous genes from multiple plant species. Gene ontology analysis indicated TaLRKs role in binding, signaling and receptor activities. Most of the TaLRKs consisted of a trans-membrane domain and predicted to be localized in the plasma-membrane. A diverse expression pattern of TaLRK genes was found in various developmental stages and stress conditions. Some TaLRKs were found to be highly affected during a particular stress, which indicated a specialized role of each LRK gene in a specific stress condition. These results described various characteristic feature and expression pattern of TaLRK genes, which will pave the way for functional characterization in wheat. PMID:27111449

  6. Genetic characterization and expression analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) line 07OR1074 exhibiting very low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) polyphenol oxidase (PPO) contributes to the time dependent discoloration of Asian noodles. Wheat contains multiple paralogous and orthologous PPO genes , Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, Ppo-A2, Ppo-D2, and Ppo-B2, expressed in wheat kernels, Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, Ppo-A2, Ppo-D2, and Ppo-B2. To d...

  7. [Signal function of cytokinin 6-benzylaminopurine in the reaction of Triticum aestivum L. mesophyll cells to hyperthermia].

    PubMed

    Musiienko, M M; Zhuk, V V; Batsmanova, L M

    2014-01-01

    The signaling effect of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) on leaf mesophyll cells of Triticum aestivum L. under hyperthermic conditions was studied. It was found that BAP regulated photosynthetic pigment, hydrogen peroxide content and activity of antioxidant enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and catalase under high-temperature conditions. The additive effect of BAP and high temperature on the activation of cell antioxidant systems was demonstrated. BAP regulated reducing processes in mesophyll leaf cells under high-temperature conditions. PMID:25816607

  8. Effects of simulated acidic rain on yields of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa, Triticum aestivum and Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, L.S.; Gmur, N.F.; Mancini, D.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine effects of simulated acidic rain on radishes (Raphanus sativus), wheat(Triticum aestivum) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) grown under greenhouse conditions. Experimental designs allowed the detection of statistically significant differences among means that differed by less than 10%. These results suggest that the efficiency of radish foliage in increasing; root mass decreases with increased rainfall acidity since only foliage was exposed to the treatments.

  9. cis-Jasmone induces accumulation of defence compounds in wheat, Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Maria C Blassioli; Birkett, Michael A; Gordon-Weeks, Ruth; Smart, Lesley E; Martin, Janet L; Pye, Barry J; Bromilow, Richard; Pickett, John A

    2008-01-01

    Liquid phase extraction (LPE) and vapor phase extraction (VPE) methodologies were used to evaluate the impact of the plant activator, cis-jasmone, on the secondary metabolism of wheat, Triticum aestivum, var. Solstice. LPE allowed the measurement of benzoxazinoids, i.e. 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (DIMBOA), 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HMBOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2-one (MBOA), and phenolic acids such as trans-p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid and cis- and trans-ferulic acid. Using LPE, a significantly higher level of DIMBOA was found in aerial parts and roots of T. aestivum following treatment with cis-jasmone, when compared with untreated plants. Similar results were obtained for phenolic acids, such as trans-ferulic acid and vanillic acid in roots. Using VPE, it was possible to measure levels of 2-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one (HBOA), benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA), ferulic acid, syringic acid and coumaric acid. The levels of HBOA in aerial parts and roots were significantly greater in cis-jasmone treated plants compared to untreated plants. cis-Jasmone is known to be a plant activator in terms of production of defence-related volatile semiochemicals that repel aphids and increase the foraging activity of aphid parasitoids. These results show, for the first time, that cis-jasmone also induces selective production of secondary metabolites that are capable of directly reducing development of pests, diseases and weeds. PMID:17681563

  10. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Wei; Nan, Tiegui; Tan, Guiyu; Zhao, Hongwei; Tan, Weiming; Meng, Fanyun; Li, Zhaohu; Li, Qing X.; Wang, Baomin

    2015-01-01

    The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC) imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+) was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl)-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA) was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions. PMID:25941807

  11. Analysis of Triticum aestivum seedling response to the excess of zinc.

    PubMed

    Glińska, Sława; Gapińska, Magdalena; Michlewska, Sylwia; Skiba, Elżbieta; Kubicki, Jakub

    2016-03-01

    The effects of 50 and 300 mg L(-1) Zn(2+) (50 Zn and 300 Zn) were investigated in Triticum aestivum (cv. Żura) grown hydroponically for 7 days. Although wheat treated with 50 Zn took up relatively high amount of the metal (8,943 and 1,503 mg kg(-1) DW in roots and shoots, respectively), none of the morphological and cytological parameters were changed. After 300 Zn, the metal concentration increased to 32,205 and 5,553 mg kg(-1) DW in roots and shoots, respectively. It was connected with the depletion of shoot and root growth, their fresh and dry weight, water content and mitotic index of root meristematic cells. Microelement contents (Cu, Mn and Fe) after 50 Zn were changed only in roots, while 300 Zn disturbed ion balance in whole plants. The most evident ultrastructural alterations of root meristematic cells caused by both tested Zn(2+) doses included increased vacuolization, accumulation of granular deposits inside vacuoles and cell wall thickening. The effect of 300 Zn on root cell ultrastructure was greater that of 50 Zn. The majority of mitochondria had condensed matrix and swollen cristae, plastids contained plastoglobuli, nucleoli were ring-shaped, thinned down cytoplasm with lipid droplets and swollen endoplasmic reticulum cisternae appeared. In mesophyll cells, 50 Zn caused slight reorganization of chloroplast thylakoids and formation of condensed mitochondria. Three hundred Zn triggered more extensive, but not degenerative, changes: plasmolysis of some cells; chloroplasts with protrusions, changed thylakoid organisation and often large starch grains; irregular, condensed mitochondria. The results indicate that T. aestivum cv. Żura is relatively tolerant to Zn stress. PMID:25902894

  12. Novel and conserved heat-responsive microRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ranjeet Ranjan; Pathak, Himanshu; Sharma, Sushil Kumar; Kala, Yugal Kishore; Nirjal, Mahesh Kumar; Singh, Gyanendra Pratap; Goswami, Suneha; Rai, Raj Deo

    2015-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small endogenous RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that have been shown to play regulatory role by negatively affecting the expression of genes at the post-transcriptional level. Information of miRNAs on some important crops like soybean, Arabidopsis, and rice, etc. are available, but no study on heat-responsive novel miRNAs has yet been reported in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present investigation, a popular wheat cultivar HD2985 was used in small RNA library construction and Illumina HiSeq 2000 was used to perform high-throughput sequencing of the library after cluster generation; 110,896,604 and 87,743,861 reads were generated in the control (22 °C) and heat-treated (42 °C for 2 h) samples, respectively. Forty-four precursor and mature miRNAs were found in T. aestivum from miRBase v 19. The frequencies of the miRNA families varied from 2 (tae-miR1117) to 60,672 (tae-miR159b). We identify 1052 and 902 mature miRNA sequences in HD2985 control and HS-treated samples by mapping on reference draft genome of T. aestivum. Maximum identified miRNAs were located on IWGSC_CSS_3B_scaff (chromosome 3B). We could identify 53 and 46 mature miRNA in the control and HS samples and more than 516 target genes by mapping on the reference genome of Oryza sativa, Zea mays, and Sorghum bicolor. Using different pipelines and plant-specific criteria, 37 novel miRNAs were identified in the control and treated samples. Six novel miRNA were validated using qRT-PCR to be heat-responsive. A negative correlation was, however, observed between the expression of novel miRNAs and their targets. Target prediction and pathway analysis revealed their involvement in the heat stress tolerance. These novel miRNAs are new additions to miRNA database of wheat, and the regulatory network will be made use of in deciphering the mechanism of thermotolerance in wheat. PMID:25480755

  13. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min; Wang, Yun; Xu, Wenqi; Wu, Lintao; Wang, Hancheng; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants. PMID:26469859

  14. Toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lina; Xia, Mengjie; Wang, Li; Mao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    As a persistent organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been extensively investigated. It can accumulate in food chains and in the human body. This work investigated the effect of PFOA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germination and seedling growth by conducting a germination trial and a pot trial. A stimulatory effect of PFOA on seedling growth and root length of wheat was found at <0.2 mg kg(-1), while >800 mg kg(-1) PFOA inhibited germination rate, index, and root and shoot growth. In the pot trial, PFOA concentration in root was double that in the shoot. Soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) and plant height of wheat seedling were inhibited by adding 200 mg kg(-1) PFOA. Proline content and POD activity in wheat seedlings increased as PFOA increased, while CAT activity decreased. Using logarithmic equations, proline content was selected as the most sensitive index by concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50). Hence, the tolerance of wheat seedlings to PFOA levels could be evaluated on the basis of the physiological index. PMID:27337433

  15. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser(355) was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

  16. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    PubMed

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. PMID:26257350

  17. Functional study of a salt-inducible TaSR gene in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Cui, Wei-Na; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Hou, Xiao-Na; Li, Dong-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Liang; Shen, Yin-Zhu; Huang, Zhan-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The gene expression chip of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant under salt stress was used to clone a salt-induced gene with unknown functions. This gene was designated as TaSR (Triticum aestivum salt-response gene) and submitted to GenBank under accession number EF580107. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that gene expression was induced by salt stress. Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing TaSR presented higher salt tolerance than the controls, whereas AtSR mutant and RNA interference rice plants were more sensitive to salt. Under salt stress, TaSR reduced Na(+) concentration and improved cellular K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations; this gene was also localized on the cell membrane. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative determination were conducted through fragmentation cloning of the TaSR promoter. Salt stress-responsive elements were detected at 588-1074 bp upstream of the start codon. GUS quantitative tests of the full-length promoter in different tissues indicated that promoter activity was highest in the leaf under salt stress. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid screening further showed the correlation of TaSR with TaPRK and TaKPP. In vitro phosphorylation of TaSR and TaPRK2697 showed that TaPRK2697 did not phosphorylate TaSR. This study revealed that the novel TaSR may be used to improve plant tolerance to salt stress. PMID:25855206

  18. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Ali; Kumar, Ajay; Mergoum, Mohamed; Pirseyedi, Seyed Mostafa; Hegstad, Justin B; Mazaheri, Mona; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2016-03-01

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversity. The magnitude and essence of intergenomic interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes remain unknown due to the direction of many crosses. This study was conducted to address the role of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions as a source of variation upon hybridization. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) alloplasmic lines carrying the cytoplasm of Aegilops mutica along with an integrated approach utilizing comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) and epigenome analysis were used to dissect this interaction. The results indicate that cytoplasmic genomes can modify the magnitude of QTL controlling certain physiological traits such as dry matter weight. Furthermore, methylation profiling analysis detected eight polymorphic regions affected by the cytoplasm type. In general, these results indicate that novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions can potentially trigger an epigenetic modification cascade in nuclear genes which eventually change the genetic network controlling physiological traits. These modified genetic networks can serve as new sources of variation to accelerate the evolutionary process. Furthermore, this variation can synthetically be produced by breeders in their programs to develop epigenomic-segregating lines. PMID:26860316

  19. The origin of the B-genome of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Haider, N

    2013-03-01

    Understanding the origin of cultivated wheats would further their genetic improvement. The hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) is believed to have originated through one or more rare hybridization events between Aegilops tauschii (DD) and the tetraploid T. turgidum (AABB). Progenitor of the A-genome of the tetraploid and hexaploid wheats has generally been accepted to be T. urartu. In spite of the large number of attempts and published reports about the origin of the B-genome in cultivated wheats, the donor of the B-genome is still relatively unknown and controversial and, hence, remains open. This genome has been found to be closely related to the S-genome of the Sitopsis section (Ae. speltoides, Ae. longissima, Ae. sharonensis, Ae. searsii, and Ae. bicornis) of the genus Aegilops L. Among Sitopsis species, the most positive evidence has been accumulated for Ae. speltoides as the progenitor of the B-genome. Therefore, one or more of the Sitopsis species were proposed frequently as the B-genome donor. Although several reviews have been written on the origin of the genomes of wheat over the years, this paper will attempt for the first time to review the immense literature on the subject, with a particular emphasis on the B-genome which has attracted a huge attention over some 100 years. The ambiguity and conflicting results in most of the methods employed in deducing the precise B-genome donor/s to bread wheat are also discussed. PMID:23755530

  20. Genetic Diversity, Population Structure, and Linkage Disequilibrium in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tascioglu, Tulin; Metin, Ozge Karakas; Aydin, Yildiz; Sakiroglu, Muhammet; Akan, Kadir; Uncuoglu, Ahu Altinkut

    2016-08-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) gene pool was analyzed with 117 microsatellite markers scattered throughout A, B, and D genomes. Ninety microsatellite markers were giving 1620 polymorphic alleles in 55 different bread wheat genotypes. These genotypes were found to be divided into three subgroups based on Bayesian model and Principal component analysis. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers resides on A genome was estimated for wmc262 marker located on 4A chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.960. The highest polymorphism information content value (0.954) among the markers known to be located on B genome was realized for wmc44 marker located on 1B chromosome. The highest polymorphism information content value for the markers specific to D genome was found in gwm174 marker located on 5D chromosome with the polymorphism information content value of 0.948. The presence of linkage disequilibrium between 81 pairwise SSR markers reside on the same chromosome was tested and very limited linkage disequilibrium was observed. The results confirmed that the most distant genotype pairs were as follows Ceyhan-99-Behoth 6, Gerek 79-Douma 40989, and Karahan-99-Douma 48114. PMID:27048293

  1. Cerium oxide nanoparticles impact yield and modify nutritional parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Rico, Cyren M; Lee, Sang Chul; Rubenecia, Rosnah; Mukherjee, Arnab; Hong, Jie; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2014-10-01

    The implications of engineered nanomaterials on crop productivity and food quality are not yet well understood. The impact of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) on growth and yield attributes and nutritional composition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was examined. Wheat was cultivated to grain production in soil amended with 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg of nCeO2/kg (control, nCeO2-L, nCeO2-M, and nCeO2-H, respectively). At harvest, grains and tissues were analyzed for mineral, fatty acid, and amino acid content. Results showed that, relative to the control, nCeO2-H improved plant growth, shoot biomass, and grain yield by 9.0%, 12.7%, and 36.6%, respectively. Ce accumulation in roots increased at increased nCeO2 concentration but did not change across treatments in leaves, hull, and grains, indicating a lack of Ce transport to the above-ground tissues. nCeO2 modified S and Mn storage in grains. nCeO2-L modified the amino acid composition and increased linolenic acid by up to 6.17% but decreased linoleic acid by up to 1.63%, compared to the other treatments. The findings suggest the potential of nanoceria to modify crop physiology and food quality with unknown consequences for living organisms. PMID:25220448

  2. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of plant tissues: spectral visualization of Triticum aestivum kernel and Arabidopsis leaf microstructure.

    PubMed

    Warren, Frederick J; Perston, Benjamin B; Galindez-Najera, Silvia P; Edwards, Cathrina H; Powell, Prudence O; Mandalari, Giusy; Campbell, Grant M; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-11-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy is a tool with potential for studies of the microstructure, chemical composition and functionality of plants at a subcellular level. Here we present the use of high-resolution bench top-based infrared microspectroscopy to investigate the microstructure of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) kernels and Arabidopsis leaves. Images of isolated wheat kernel tissues and whole wheat kernels following hydrothermal processing and simulated gastric and duodenal digestion were generated, as well as images of Arabidopsis leaves at different points during a diurnal cycle. Individual cells and cell walls were resolved, and large structures within cells, such as starch granules and protein bodies, were clearly identified. Contrast was provided by converting the hyperspectral image cubes into false-colour images using either principal component analysis (PCA) overlays or by correlation analysis. The unsupervised PCA approach provided a clear view of the sample microstructure, whereas the correlation analysis was used to confirm the identity of different anatomical structures using the spectra from isolated components. It was then demonstrated that gelatinized and native starch within cells could be distinguished, and that the loss of starch during wheat digestion could be observed, as well as the accumulation of starch in leaves during a diurnal period. PMID:26400058

  3. Genetic Diversity and Population Structure Analysis of European Hexaploid Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Varieties

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Nanna Hellum; Backes, Gunter; Stougaard, Jens; Andersen, Stig Uggerhøj; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Progress in plant breeding is facilitated by accurate information about genetic structure and diversity. Here, Diversity Array Technology (DArT) was used to characterize a population of 94 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of mainly European origin. In total, 1,849 of 7,000 tested markers were polymorphic and could be used for population structure analysis. Two major subgroups of wheat varieties, GrI and GrII, were identified using the program STRUCTURE, and confirmed by principal component analysis (PCA). These subgroups were largely separated according to origin; GrI comprised varieties from Southern and Eastern Europe, whereas GrII contained mostly modern varieties from Western and Northern Europe. A large proportion of the markers contributing most to the genetic separation of the subgroups were located on chromosome 2D near the Reduced height 8 (Rht8) locus, and PCR-based genotyping suggested that breeding for the Rht8 allele had a major impact on subgroup separation. Consistently, analysis of linkage disequilibrium (LD) suggested that different selective pressures had acted on chromosome 2D in the two subgroups. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat varieties anchored to DArT markers, which will facilitate targeted combination of alleles following DArT-based QTL studies. In addition, the genetic diversity and distance data combined with specific Rht8 genotypes can now be used by breeders to guide selection of crossing parents. PMID:24718292

  4. Infrared microspectroscopic imaging of plant tissues: spectral visualization of Triticum aestivum kernel and Arabidopsis leaf microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Frederick J; Perston, Benjamin B; Galindez-Najera, Silvia P; Edwards, Cathrina H; Powell, Prudence O; Mandalari, Giusy; Campbell, Grant M; Butterworth, Peter J; Ellis, Peter R

    2015-01-01

    Infrared microspectroscopy is a tool with potential for studies of the microstructure, chemical composition and functionality of plants at a subcellular level. Here we present the use of high-resolution bench top-based infrared microspectroscopy to investigate the microstructure of Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) kernels and Arabidopsis leaves. Images of isolated wheat kernel tissues and whole wheat kernels following hydrothermal processing and simulated gastric and duodenal digestion were generated, as well as images of Arabidopsis leaves at different points during a diurnal cycle. Individual cells and cell walls were resolved, and large structures within cells, such as starch granules and protein bodies, were clearly identified. Contrast was provided by converting the hyperspectral image cubes into false-colour images using either principal component analysis (PCA) overlays or by correlation analysis. The unsupervised PCA approach provided a clear view of the sample microstructure, whereas the correlation analysis was used to confirm the identity of different anatomical structures using the spectra from isolated components. It was then demonstrated that gelatinized and native starch within cells could be distinguished, and that the loss of starch during wheat digestion could be observed, as well as the accumulation of starch in leaves during a diurnal period. PMID:26400058

  5. Composition of cuticular waxes coating flag leaf blades and peduncles of Triticum aestivum cv. Bethlehem.

    PubMed

    Racovita, Radu C; Hen-Avivi, Shelly; Fernandez-Moreno, Josefina-Patricia; Granell, Antonio; Aharoni, Asaph; Jetter, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    The work herein presents comprehensive analyses of the cuticular wax mixtures covering the flag leaf blade and peduncle of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cv. Bethlehem. Overall, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and Flame Ionization Detection revealed a wax coverage of flag leaf blades (16 μg/cm(2)) a third that of peduncles (49 μg/cm(2)). Flag leaf blade wax was dominated by 1-alkanols, while peduncle wax contained primarily β-diketone and hydroxy-β-diketones, thus suggesting differential regulation of the acyl reduction and β-diketone biosynthetic pathways in the two analyzed organs. The characteristic chain length distributions of the various wax compound classes are discussed in light of their individual biosynthetic pathways and biosynthetic relationships between classes. Along with previously reported wheat wax compound classes (fatty acids, 1-alkanols, 1-alkanol esters, aldehydes, alkanes, β-diketone, hydroxy-β-diketones, alkylresorcinols and methyl alkylresorcinols), esters of 2-alkanols and three types of aromatic esters (benzyl, phenethyl and p-hydroxyphenethyl) are also reported. In particular, 2-heptanol esters were identified. Detailed analyses of the isomer distributions within 1-alkanol and 2-alkanol ester homologs revealed distinct patterns of esterified acids and alcohols, suggesting several wax ester synthases with very different substrate preferences in both wheat organs. Terpenoids, including two terpenoid esters, were present only in peduncle wax. PMID:27264640

  6. Neuroprotective effects of Triticum aestivum L. against beta-amyloid-induced cell death and memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jung-Hee; Kim, Chang-Yul; Lim, Sun Ha; Yang, Chae Ha; Song, Kyung-Sik; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Jongwon

    2010-01-01

    beta-Amyloid (A beta) is a key component of senile plaques, neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been reported to induce cell death via oxidative stress. This study investigated the protective effects of Triticum aestivum L. (TAL) on A beta-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and cognitive dysfunctions in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Cells treated with A beta exhibited decreased viability and apoptotic features, such as DNA fragmentation, alterations in mitochondria and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which were attenuated by TAL extract (TALE) pretreatment. To elucidate the neuroprotective mechanisms of TALE, the study examined A beta-induced oxidative stress and cellular defense. TALE pretreatment suppressed A beta-increased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via up-regulation of glutathione, an essential endogenous antioxidant. To further verify the effect of TALE on memory impairments, A beta or scopolamine was injected in SD rats and a water maze task conducted as a spatial memory test. A beta or scopolamine treatment increased the time taken to find the platform during training trials, which was decreased by TALE pretreatment. Furthermore, one of the active components of TALE, total dietary fiber also effectively inhibited A beta-induced cytotoxicity and scopolamine-caused memory deficits. These results suggest that TALE may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential in the management of AD. PMID:19441012

  7. Transcriptome Analysis of Purple Pericarps in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Dengcai; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars possessing purple grain arethought to be more nutritious because of high anthocyanin contents in the pericarp. Comparative transcriptome analysis of purple (cv Gy115) and white pericarps was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. There were 23,642 unigenes significantly differentially expressed in the purple and white pericarps, including 9945 up-regulated and 13,697 down-regulated. The differentially expressed unigenes were mainly involved in encoding components of metabolic pathways, The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was the most represented in metabolic pathways. In the transcriptome of purple pericarp in Gy115, most structural and regulatory genes biosynthesizing anthocyanin were identified, and had higher expression levels than in white pericarp. The largestunigene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gy115 was longer than the reference genes, which implies that high-throughput sequencing could isolate the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tissues or organs with high anthocyanin content. Based on present and previous results, three unigenes of MYB gene on chromosome 7BL and three unigenes of MYC on chromosome 2AL were predicted as candidate genes for the purple grain trait. This article was the first to provide a systematic overview comparing the transcriptomes of purple and white pericarps in common wheat, which should be very valuable for identifying the key genes for the purple pericarp trait. PMID:27171148

  8. Uptake of a cyanotoxin, β-N-methylamino-L-alanine, by wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Contardo-Jara, Valeska; Schwanemann, Torsten; Pflugmacher, Stephan

    2014-06-01

    In order to study the uptake of the cyanobacterial neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) into the crop plant Triticum aestivum during germination and primary growth imbibed grains and 7-day-old seedlings were irrigated with 100 and 1000µg l(-1) BMAA for 4 days and 100µg l(-1) BMAA for 28 days. Content of derivatized free and protein-associated BMAA in seedlings, root and shoot tissue, respectively, were analyzed by LC-MS/MS. Free BMAA was only detected in seedlings exposed to 1000µg l(-1) BMAA, whereas protein-associated BMAA was found at both exposure concentrations. Irrigation with 100µgl(-1) BMAA led to an uptake of the neurotoxin into roots and shoots and to immediate protein-association. In roots, protein-associated BMAA was detectable after 5 days with peaking amounts after 14 days. Longer exposure did not cause further accumulation in roots. In contrast, protein-associated BMAA was detected in shoot samples after only 1 day. In shoots the highest amounts of protein-associated BMAA were found after 28 days. In turn, in both plant compartments free BMAA was below the measurable concentration. PMID:24675440

  9. Effect of Lead stress on phosphatase activity and reducing power assay of Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Gubrelay, U; Agnihotri, R K; Shrotriya, S; Sharma, R

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic heavy metal for both plants and animals; the environment is increasingly polluted with heavy metals and reduces crop productivity. Plants possess homeostatic mechanisms that allow them to keep correct concentrations of essential metal ions in cellular compartments and to minimize the damaging effects of an excess of nonessential ones. One of their adverse effects on plants are the generation of harmful active oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress and the antioxidative activity seems to be of fundamental importance for adaptive response of plant against environmental stress. The present study explores the effects of lead (soil treated twice/ week) with (10, 30 and 60 mM) on the specific activities of phosphatases which might lead to reducing power assay in (Triticum aestivum PBW344) seedling. A significant decrease in the redox potential of shoot compared to root was observed at the similar concentration of lead. A similar trend on leaves was also noted. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in roots than in shoot at all the three concentration of lead i.e. 10, 30 and 60 mM, compared to controls. The above mentioned changes were more pronounced at 60 mM concentration of lead than two other concentrations. These results lead us to suggest that increased lead concentration in soil might lead to adverse effects on plant growth and phosphatase activities. PMID:26107501

  10. Nitrogen Metabolism in Senescent Flag Leaves of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Light

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Michael G.; Woo, K. C.; Wong, Suan-Chin; Fock, Heinrich P.

    1985-01-01

    Nitrogen metabolism was examined in senescent flag leaves of 90- to 93-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Yecora 70) plants. CO2 assimilation and the levels of protein, chlorophyll, and nitrogen in the leaves decreased with age. Glutamine synthetase activity decreased to one-eighth of the level in young flag leaves. Detached leaves were incubated (with the cut base) in 15N-labeled NH3, glutamate, or glycine in the light (1.8 millieinstein per square meter per second) at 25°C in an open gas exchange system under normal atmospheric conditions for up to 135 minutes. The 15N-enrichment of various amino acids derived from these 15N-substrates were examined. The amido-N of glutamine was the first 15N-labeled product in leaves incubated with 15NH4Cl whereas serine, closely followed by the amido- and amino-N of glutamine, were the most highly 15N-labeled products during incubation with [15N]glycine. In contrast, aspartate and alanine were the first 15N-labeled products when [15N] glutamate was used. These results indicate that NH3 was assimilated via glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase activities and the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle remained functional in these senescent wheat flag leaves. In contrast, an involvement of glutamate dehydrogenase in the assimilation of ammonia could not be detected in these tissues. PMID:16664324

  11. Arsenate (As) uptake by and distribution in two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Geng, Chun-Nu; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tong, Yi-Ping; Smith, Sally E; Smith, F A

    2006-01-01

    Two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Jing 411 and Lovrin 10) were used to investigate arsenate (As) uptake and distribution in plants grown in hydroponic culture and in the soil. Results showed that without As addition, Lovrin 10 had higher biomass than Jing 411 in the soil pot experiment; in the hydroponic experiment Lovrin 10 had similar root biomass to and lower shoot biomass than Jing 411. Increasing P supply from 32 to 161 microM resulted in lower tissue As concentrations, and increasing As supply from 0 to 2,000 microM resulted in lower tissue P concentrations. Increasing P supply tended to increase shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations, and increasing As supply tended to decrease shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Both cultivars invested more in root production under P deficient conditions than under P sufficient conditions. Lovrin 10 invested more biomass production to roots than Jing 411, which might be partly responsible for higher shoot P and As concentrations and higher shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Moreover, Lovrin 10 allocated less As to roots than Jing 411 and the difference disappeared with decreasing P supply. PMID:16081139

  12. Movement of 14C-labeled Sugars into Kernels of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Sakri, Faisal A. K.; Shannon, Jack C.

    1975-01-01

    An anatomical study of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) kernels 14 days after anthesis revealed that the tracheary elements of the pericarp vascular bundle are not in direct continuity with those of the rachilla. The phloem was continuous from the rachilla into the crease of the pericarp. Shortly after exposure of the flag leaf to 14CO2, relatively high proportion of the 14C extracted from the pericarp and endosperm was found in glucose and fructose. With additional time, the percentage of 14C in the monosaccharides declined and that in sucrose increased to a maximum 3 hours after 14CO2 exposure. The monosaccharides comprised about one-half of the soluble sugars extracted from the pericarp. Based on these observations, it appeared that sucrose hydrolysis might be prerequisite to sugar movement from the terminal phloem elements in the pericarp and into the endosperm. However, when 14C-fructosyl-sucrose was injected into the peduncle, there was little additional randomization of the 14C between the glucose and fructose moieties of sucrose extracted from the pericarp and endosperm compared to the rachis sucrose. If we assume that injected sucose was transported to the kernels via the phloem, then either sucrose moves out of the terminal phloem elements in the pericarp and into the endosperm unaltered, or if hydrolysis and resynthesis are a prerequisite to transport into the endosperm, the products of hydrolysis are not freely available for isomerization. Images PMID:16659185

  13. Measurement of phloem transport rates by an indicator-dilution technique. [Triticum aestivum L

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.B. )

    1990-10-01

    An indicator-dilution technique for the measurement of flow rates, commonly used by animal physiologists for circulation measurements, was adapted to the measurement of phloem translocation rates in the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) peduncle. The approach is based on the observation that, during the transport of a given amount of solute, its mean concentration will be inversely proportional to flow rate. For phloem transport in the wheat peduncle, the necessary measurements are (a) the time course of tracer kinetics in the peduncle phloem, (b)the volume of sieve tubes and companion cells in the monitored segment of the peduncle, and (c) the amount of tracer transported past that point. The method was evaluated by in situ monitoring of {sup 32}PO{sub 4} transport in pulse-labeling experiments. Specific activities (i.e. {sup 32}P concentrations) of phloem exudate were in good agreement with those calculated from in situ count rates and measured phloem areas. Mass transport rates, calculated from volume flow rates and phloem exudate dry matter content, also agreed well with expected mass transport rates based on measurements of grain growth rate and net CO{sub 2} exchange by the ear. The indicator-dilution technique appears to offer good precision and accuracy for short-term measurements of phloem transport rates in the wheat peduncle and should be useful for other systems as well.

  14. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser355 was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

  15. Pharmacognostic standardization, antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of the seeds of Triticum aestivum L - A dietary staple

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Ghulam M.; Ansari, Shahid H.; Ahmad, Feroz

    2013-01-01

    Aims To establish the Quality standards of Triticum aestivum L, seeds as per WHO guidelines. To study the antioxidant and hepatoprotective profile of T. aestivum L. seeds. Methods Pharmacognostic studies like morphological, microscopical, physico-chemical, phytochemical evaluation, fluorescence analysis, TLC, HPTLC, phytochemical analysis etc. of various extracts of the seeds of T. aestivum were carried out as per established methods. The ethanolic extract was evaluated for antioxidant and hepatoprotective activity using rat model. Results Preliminary phytochemical analysis mainly revealed the presence of carbohydrates, phenolics, proteins, resins, lipids and flavonoids. T. aestivum at different doses, i.e. 5-45 μg/ml showed free radical scavenging activity in dose dependent manner. The amount of phenolic components was found to be 313.5 μg/mg indicating considerable antioxidant activity. The ethanolic extract of T. aestivum was administered at dose level of 100 mg/kg/day, every day for 21 days along with CCl4. Biochemical and histopathological results conclude that the seeds have hepatoprotective activity. PMID:24023455

  16. NsLTP1 and NsLTP2 isoforms in soft wheat (Triticum aestivum Cv. Centauro) and farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank) bran.

    PubMed

    Capocchi, Antonella; Fontanini, Debora; Muccilli, Vera; Cunsolo, Vincenzo; Saviozzi, Franco; Saletti, Rosaria; Lorenzi, Roberto; Foti, Salvatore; Galleschi, Luciano

    2005-10-01

    Isoforms of nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 1 (nsLTP1) and nonspecific lipid-transfer protein 2 (nsLTP2) were investigated in bran tissues isolated from caryopses of two cereal crops quite relevant for the Italian market, the cultivar Centauro of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) and Italian emmer or farro (Triticum dicoccon Schrank). By sequential separation of the bran extracts on cation-exchange and gel filtration chromatographies, fractions containing only proteins belonging to the nsLTP1 and nsLTP2 classes were obtained. The proteins were roughly identified by SDS-PAGE and by immunoreactions in Western blotting experiments. By MALDI-MS and RP-HPLC/ESI-MS analyses we were able to show the presence of several LTP1 and LTP2 isoforms in the investigated species. Bioinformatic searches based on the determined Mr indicated that (i) two nsLTP1s already identified in T. aestivum have Mr and number of Cys residues identical to that of a 9.6 kDa protein present both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro; (ii) two isoforms of nsLTP2 detected in T. aestivum have the same Mr and number of Cys residues of two 7 kDa proteins found in Centauro; and (iii) a nsLTP1 detected in Ambrosia artemisiifolia has Mr and number of Cys residues coincident to that of a 9.9 kDa protein found both in soft wheat cv. Centauro and in farro. PMID:16190659

  17. Aluminum Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (I. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices).

    PubMed Central

    Delhaize, E.; Craig, S.; Beaton, C. D.; Bennet, R. J.; Jagadish, V. C.; Randall, P. J.

    1993-01-01

    We investigated the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in Al tolerance at a single locus (Alt1: aluminum tolerance). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution that contained 100 [mu]M Al, and the roots were subsequently stained with hematoxylin, a compound that binds Al in vitro to form a colored complex. Root apices of Al-sensitive genotypes stained after short exposures to Al (10 min and 1 h), whereas apices of Al-tolerant seedlings showed less intense staining after equivalent exposures. Differential staining preceded differences observed in either root elongation or total Al concentrations of root apices (terminal 2-3 mm of root). After 4 h of exposure to 100 [mu]M Al in nutrient solution, Al-sensitive genotypes accumulated more total Al in root apices than Al-tolerant genotypes, and the differences became more marked with time. Analysis of freeze-dried root apices by x-ray microanalysis showed that Al entered root apices of Al-sensitive plants and accumulated in the epidermal layer and in the cortical layer immediately below the epidermis. Long-term exposure of sensitive apices to Al (24 h) resulted in a distribution of Al coinciding with the absence of K. Quantitation of Al in the cortical layer showed that sensitive apices accumulated 5- to 10-fold more Al than tolerant apices exposed to Al solutions for equivalent times. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Alt1 encodes a mechanism that excludes Al from root apices. PMID:12231972

  18. Cultivar variations in cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    PubMed

    Liu, Weitao; Liang, Lichen; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil in China has received public concern. The concept of low-accumulation cultivars (LACs) was proposed to minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain. Variations in Cd and Pb accumulation, distribution, and tolerance among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were studied in a hydroponic experiment to preliminary identify LACs of Cd or Pb for further field experiments. Of the 30 wheat cultivars tested, 27 and 26 wheat cultivars showed no effect of the Cd/Pb treatments on the shoot and root biomass, respectively. The results showed that the tested wheat cultivars had considerable tolerance to Cd and Pb toxicity. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Cd concentration were observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Cd1.0 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 0.91 to 6.74 and from 0.87 to 5.96, with the mean of 3.83 and 2.94 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in shoot Pb concentration were also observed among the tested wheat cultivars under treatments Pb15 and Cd1.0Pb15, ranging from 22.18 to 94.03 and from 18.30 to 76.88, with the mean of 50.38 and 41.20 mg kg(-1) DW, respectively. Low accumulation and internal distribution may both affect the cultivar differences in Cd and Pb accumulation in wheat shoots. Overall, wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-16, and LF-21 had lower Cd-accumulating abilities in their shoots. Wheat cultivars LF-13, LF-23, LF-26, and LF-27 showed low Pb accumulation characteristics in their shoots. An antagonistic interaction occurred between Cd and Pb in accumulation in wheat roots and shoots, which will be further studied in field experiments. PMID:25548022

  19. Factors Affecting the Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat to -Irradiation: Radiosensitivity of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Han, Bing; Gu, Jiayu; Zhao, Linshu; Guo, Huijun; Xie, Yongdun; Zhao, Shirong; Song, Xiyun; Han, Longzhi; Liu, Luxiang

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the radiosensitivity of plants, an important factor in crop mutation breeding programs, requires a thorough investigation of the factors that contribute to this trait. In this study, we used the highly radiosensitive wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety HY1 and J411, a γ-irradiation-insensitive control, which were screened from a natural population, to examine the factors affecting radiosensitivity, including free radical content and total antioxidant capacity, as well as the expression of TaKu70 and TaKu80 (DNA repair-related genes) as measured by real-time PCR. We also investigated the alternative splicing of this gene in the wild-type wheat ecotype by sequence analysis. Free radical contents and total antioxidant capacity significantly increased upon exposure of HY1 wheat to γ-irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. By contrast, in J411, the free radical contents exhibited a similar trend, but the total antioxidant capacity exhibited a downward trend upon increasing γ-irradiation. Additionally, we detected dose-dependent increases in TaKu70 and TaKu80 expression levels in γ-irradiated HY1, while in J411, TaKu70 expression levels increased, followed by a decline. We also detected alternative splicing of TaKu70 mRNA, namely, intron retention, in HY1 but not in J411. Our findings indicate that γ-irradiation induces oxidative stress and DNA damage in hexaploid wheat, resulting in growth retardation of seedlings, and they suggest that TaKu70 may play a causal role in radiosensitivity in HY1. Further studies are required to exploit these factors to improve radiosensitivity in other wheat varieties. PMID:27551965

  20. New isoforms and assembly of glutamine synthetase in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaochun; Wei, Yihao; Shi, Lanxin; Ma, Xinming; Theg, Steven M

    2015-11-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS; EC 6.3.1.2) plays a crucial role in the assimilation and re-assimilation of ammonia derived from a wide variety of metabolic processes during plant growth and development. Here, three developmentally regulated isoforms of GS holoenzyme in the leaf of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings are described using native-PAGE with a transferase activity assay. The isoforms showed different mobilities in gels, with GSII>GSIII>GSI. The cytosolic GSI was composed of three subunits, GS1, GSr1, and GSr2, with the same molecular weight (39.2kDa), but different pI values. GSI appeared at leaf emergence and was active throughout the leaf lifespan. GSII and GSIII, both located in the chloroplast, were each composed of a single 42.1kDa subunit with different pI values. GSII was active mainly in green leaves, while GSIII showed brief but higher activity in green leaves grown under field conditions. LC-MS/MS experiments revealed that GSII and GSIII have the same amino acid sequence, but GSII has more modification sites. With a modified blue native electrophoresis (BNE) technique and in-gel catalytic activity analysis, only two GS isoforms were observed: one cytosolic and one chloroplastic. Mass calibrations on BNE gels showed that the cytosolic GS1 holoenzyme was ~490kDa and likely a dodecamer, and the chloroplastic GS2 holoenzyme was ~240kDa and likely a hexamer. Our experimental data suggest that the activity of GS isoforms in wheat is regulated by subcellular localization, assembly, and modification to achieve their roles during plant development. PMID:26307137

  1. Aluminum Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (I. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices).

    PubMed

    Delhaize, E.; Craig, S.; Beaton, C. D.; Bennet, R. J.; Jagadish, V. C.; Randall, P. J.

    1993-11-01

    We investigated the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in Al tolerance at a single locus (Alt1: aluminum tolerance). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution that contained 100 [mu]M Al, and the roots were subsequently stained with hematoxylin, a compound that binds Al in vitro to form a colored complex. Root apices of Al-sensitive genotypes stained after short exposures to Al (10 min and 1 h), whereas apices of Al-tolerant seedlings showed less intense staining after equivalent exposures. Differential staining preceded differences observed in either root elongation or total Al concentrations of root apices (terminal 2-3 mm of root). After 4 h of exposure to 100 [mu]M Al in nutrient solution, Al-sensitive genotypes accumulated more total Al in root apices than Al-tolerant genotypes, and the differences became more marked with time. Analysis of freeze-dried root apices by x-ray microanalysis showed that Al entered root apices of Al-sensitive plants and accumulated in the epidermal layer and in the cortical layer immediately below the epidermis. Long-term exposure of sensitive apices to Al (24 h) resulted in a distribution of Al coinciding with the absence of K. Quantitation of Al in the cortical layer showed that sensitive apices accumulated 5- to 10-fold more Al than tolerant apices exposed to Al solutions for equivalent times. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Alt1 encodes a mechanism that excludes Al from root apices. PMID:12231972

  2. Silver nanoparticles disrupt wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth in a sand matrix.

    PubMed

    Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Martineau, Nicole; Britt, David W; Haverkamp, Richard; Anderson, Anne J

    2013-01-15

    Hydroponic plant growth studies indicate that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are phytotoxic. In this work, the phytotoxicity of commercial Ag NPs (10 nm) was evaluated in a sand growth matrix. Both NPs and soluble Ag were recovered from water extracts of the sand after growth of plants challenged with the commercial product; the surface charge of the Ag NPs in this extract was slightly reduced compared to the stock NPs. The Ag NPs reduced the length of shoots and roots of wheat in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 2.5 mg/kg of the NPs increased branching in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), thereby affecting plant biomass. Micron-sized (bulk) Ag particles (2.5 mg/kg) as well as Ag ions (63 μg Ag/kg) equivalent to the amount of soluble Ag in planted sand with Ag NPs (2.5 mg/kg) did not affect plant growth compared to control. In contrast, higher levels of Ag ions (2.5 mg/kg) reduced plant growth to a similar extent as the Ag NPs. Accumulation of Ag was detected in the shoots, indicating an uptake and transport of the metal from the Ag NPs in the sand. Transmision electron microscopy indicated that Ag NPs were present in shoots of plants with roots exposed to the Ag NPs or high levels of Ag ions. Both of these treatments caused oxidative stress in roots, as indicated by accumulation of oxidized glutathione, and induced expression of a gene encoding a metallothionein involved in detoxification by metal ion sequestration. Our findings demonstrate the potential effects of environmental contamination by Ag NPs on the metabolism and growth of food crops in a solid matrix. PMID:23259709

  3. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Tani, F H; Barrington, S

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH. PMID:16043273

  4. Acute toxicity test of a natural iron chelator and an antioxidant, extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (wheat grass).

    PubMed

    Das, Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Mandal, Suvra; Chakraborty, Abhijit; Pal, Amartya; Sarkar, Nirmal Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Ashis

    2014-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) is widely used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases. Previously the purified compounds and crude extract of T. aestivum were established to have iron chelation potency and antioxidant activity. So it is necessary to evaluate the toxic properties of any compound isolated from plant extract to prevent any untoward side effects. The aim of this study was to determine the acute oral toxicity level of our purified compounds, i.e. mugineic acids and methylpheophorbide a., and crude extract of T. aestivum, on Swiss albino mice at dosage of 2000 mg/kg for a period of 14 days using the organisation for economic co-operation and development guidelines 423. There was no mortality. No change in behavioural pattern, clinical signs, body weight and blood biochemistry profile were observed. Kidney and liver showed normal histo-pathological architecture. Hence, the oral administration of compounds and extract of T. aestivum did not produce any significant toxic effect on mice. Thus we may conclude that the extract can be utilised for pharmaceutical formulations as iron chelator and antioxidant agent for various diseases. PMID:24697628

  5. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    PubMed

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods. PMID:25130676

  6. Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) consists of two inhibitors, TAXI I and TAXI II, with different specificities.

    PubMed Central

    Gebruers, K; Debyser, W; Goesaert, H; Proost, P; Van Damme J; Delcour, J A

    2001-01-01

    The Triticum aestivum L. endoxylanase inhibitor (TAXI) discovered by Debyser and Delcour [(1997) Eur. Pat. filed April 1997, published as WO 98/49278] and Debyser, Derdelinckx and Delcour [(1997) J. Am. Soc. Brew. Chem. 55, 153-156] seems to be a mixture of two different endoxylanase inhibitors, called TAXI I and TAXI II. By using Aspergillus niger as well as Bacillus subtilis endoxylanases for assaying inhibition activity, both inhibitors could be purified to homogeneity from wheat (Triticum aestivum L., var. Soissons). TAXI I and TAXI II have similar molecular structures. They both have a molecular mass of approx. 40.0 kDa, are not glycosylated and occur in two molecular forms, i.e. a non-proteolytically processed one and a proteolytically processed one. However, the pI of TAXI II (at least 9.3) is higher than that of TAXI I (8.8). TAXI I and TAXI II clearly show different inhibition activities towards different endoxylanases. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of both inhibitors show a high degree of identity, which might indicate that there is an evolutionary relationship between them. PMID:11139386

  7. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  8. Potentially toxic elements in foodcrops: Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bini, Claudio; Fontana, Silvia; Squizzato, Stefania; Minello, Fabiola; Fornasier, Flavio; Wahsha, Mohammad

    2013-04-01

    Soil is the basis of the ecosystems and of our system of food production. Crops can uptake heavy metals and potentially toxic elements from the soil and store them in the roots or translocate them to the aerial parts. Excessive content of these elements in edible parts can produce toxic effects and, through the food chain and food consumption, result in a potential hazard for human health. In this study soils and plants (spring wheat, Triticum aestivum L. and maize, Zea mays L.) from a tannery district in North-East Italy were analyzed to determine pedological characters, soil microbial indicators and the content of some major and micro-nutrients and potentially toxic elements (Al, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Zn, V). The soils of the area are moderately polluted; Cr is the most important inorganic contaminant, followed by Ni, Cu and V. Factor analysis evidenced that the contaminants are in part anthropogenic and in part geogenic. Major anthropogenic origin was detected for Cr, Ni (from industrial activities), Zn, Cu, Cd (from agriculture practices). Biological Absorption Coefficient (BAC) from soil to plant roots and Translocation factor (TF) within the plant were calculated; major nutrients (K, P, S) and some micronutrients (Cu, Zn, Mg, Mn) are easily absorbed and translocated, whilst other nutrients (Ca, Fe) and potentially toxic elements or micronutrients (Al, Cd, Cr, Ni, Pb, V) are not accumulated in the seeds of the two considered species. However, the two edible species proved differently able to absorb and translocate elements, and this suggests to consider separately every species as potential PHEs transporter to the food chain and to humans. Cr concentrations in seeds and other aerial parts (stem and leaves) of the examined plants are higher than the values found for the same species and for other cereals grown on unpolluted soils. Comparing the Cr levels in edible parts with recommended dietary intake, besides other possible Cr sources

  9. The tRNATyr multigene family of Triticum aestivum: genome organization, sequence analyses and maturation of intron-containing pre-tRNAs in wheat germ extract.

    PubMed

    Arends, S; Kraus, J; Beier, H

    1996-04-22

    Southern analysis of Triticum DNA has revealed that nuclear tRNATyr genes are dispersed at a minimum of 16 loci in the genome. We have isolated six independent tRNATyr genes from a Triticum aestivum library in addition to three known members of the Triticum tRNATyr family. Four of the sequenced tRNATyr genes code for Triticum tRNA Tyr and two code for tRNA2Tyr. Three genes encode tRNAsTyr which carry one or two nucleotide substitutions as compared to the conventional genes. The nine Triticum tRNATyr genes possess highly conserved intron sequences ranging in size from 12 to 14 nucleotides. A common secondary intron structure with the 5' and 3' splice site loops separated by five base pairs can be formed by all pre-tRNAs Tyr which are efficiently spliced in the homologous wheat germ extract. PMID:8617358

  10. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  11. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  12. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

  13. High temperature during grain fill alters the morphology of protein and starch deposits in the starchy endosperm cells of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperature during grain fill reduces wheat yield and alters flour quality. Starchy endosperm cell morphology was investigated in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) grain produced under a 24/17 °C or 37/28 °C day/night regimen imposed from anthesis to maturity to identify changes in cell s...

  14. Genetic mapping of quantitative trait loci associated with important agronomic traits in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cross ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding the genetic factors underlying agronomic traits in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to making gains from selection during the breeding process. A set of 188 recombinant inbred lines from a ‘Louise’ by ‘Penawawa’ mapping population was grown in two crop years at two loc...

  15. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells are altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  16. Molecular characterization of the Puroindolin a-D1b allele and develpment of an STS marker in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kernel texture (grain hardness) is a leading quality characteristic of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as it dramatically influences its milling and processing properties, and consequently is utilized in the classification and marketing of grain. According to many previous reports (reviewed in Bh...

  17. Omega Gliadin Genes Expressed in Triticum Aestivum cv Butte 86: Effects of Post-anthesis Fertilizer on Transcript Accumulation During Grain Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The partial coding sequences of omega gliadin genes expressed in developing wheat kernels Triticum aestivum cv Butte 86 were identified in EST databases. Three gene assemblies encode proteins with PQQPFP as the predominant repetitive motif. Of these, two encode proteins with at least one cysteine an...

  18. Genome-wide association mapping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici) in US Pacific Northwest winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis F. sp. tritici; also known as yellow rust) is a globally devastating disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and a major threat to wheat production in the US Pacific Northwest (PNW), therefore both adult plant and all-stage resistance have been introduced into the w...

  19. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. "Butte 86") was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  20. Evaluation of genetic diversity and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium among US wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm representing different market classes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic diversity and genome-wide linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated among forty-three U.S. wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) elite cultivars and breeding lines representing seven U.S. wheat market classes using 242 wheat genomic simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers distributed throughout the ...

  1. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) wholemeals have similar sterol profiles, as determined by quantitative liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Ruibal-Mendieta, Nike L; Rozenberg, Raoul; Delacroix, Dominique L; Petitjean, Géraldine; Dekeyser, Adrien; Baccelli, Chiara; Marques, Carole; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Meurens, Marc; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2004-07-28

    From a nutritional point of view, cereal lipids include valuable molecules, such as essential fatty acids, phytosterols, and fat-soluble vitamins. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) is an alternative hulled bread cereal mostly grown in Belgium, where it is mainly intended for animal feed but should increasingly be used for human consumption. The present research focused on phytosterol quantification by LC/APCI-MS2 in saponified wholemeal extracts of 16 dehulled spelt and 5 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties grown in Belgium during 2001-2002 at the same location. Glycosylated sterols and free and formerly esterified sterols could be determined in saponified extracts. Results show that the mean phytosterol content is comparable in both cereals (whereas other lipids, such as oleic and linoleic acids, are increased in spelt wholemeal): spelt extract has, on average, 527.7 microg of free and esterified sterols g(-1) of wholemeal and 123.8 microg of glycosylated sterols g(-1) of wholemeal versus 528.5 and 112.6 microg x g(-1) in winter wheat (values not corrected for recoveries). This is the first report on the application and validation of an LC/MS2 method for the quantification of phytosterols in spelt and winter wheat. PMID:15264918

  2. Growth responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) exposed to ambient air pollution under varying fertility regimes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Anoop; Agrawal, S B; Rathore, Dheeraj

    2003-08-20

    The problem of urban air pollution has attracted special attention in India due to a tremendous increase in the urban population; motor vehicles vis a vis the extent of energy utilization. Field studies were conducted on wheat crops (Triticum aestivum L. var. HD 2329) by keeping the pot-grown plants in similar edaphic conditions at nine different sites in Allahabad City to quantify the effects of ambient air pollution levels on selected growth and yield parameters. Air quality monitoring was done at all the sites for gaseous pollutants viz. SO2, NO2, and O3. Various growth parameters (plant height, biomass, leaf area, NPP, etc.) showed adverse effects at sites receiving higher pollution load. Reduction in test weight and harvest index was found to be directly correlated with the levels of pollutant concentrations. The study clearly showed the negative impact of air pollution on periurban agriculture. PMID:12941977

  3. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    PubMed

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. PMID:27341479

  4. Sampling system for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area estimation using digital LANDSAT MSS data and aerial photographs. [Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Batista, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area using sampling technique based on aerial photographs and digital LANDSAT MSS data is developed. Aerial photographs covering 720 square km are visually analyzed. To estimate wheat area, a regression approach is applied using different sample sizes and various sampling units. As the size of sampling unit decreased, the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased. The lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation is 13.90% using 10 square km as the sampling unit. Wheat area estimation using only aerial photographs is less precise and accurate than those obtained by regression estimation.

  5. Assessment of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) by using RAPD analysis.

    PubMed

    Kekec, Guzin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Uzonur, Irem

    2010-06-01

    In boron-rich soils of Turkey, boron tolerant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and sensitive bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) are most widely cultivated crops. In this study they have been studied to elucidate the probable genotoxic effects of boron by using RAPD analysis. During the study, root and stem lengths have been measured and inhibitory rates (%) of root growth have been found to be significant, starting from 10 (13%) and 5 ppm (19%) for wheat and bean, respectively, which is in strong correlation with the root DNA alterations; RAPD variations starting from 100 ppm for wheat and 25 ppm for bean. The preliminary findings encourage the use of these tools in investigation of genotoxic effects of boron on wheat, bean and the other crops. PMID:20467724

  6. Comparative effects of glyphosate and atrazine in chloroplast ultrastructure of wheat and downy brome. [Triticum aestivum; Bromus tectorum

    SciTech Connect

    Auge, R.M.; Gealy, D.R.; Ogg, A.G.; Franceschi, V.R.

    1987-04-01

    Developing and mature leaves of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. var. Daws) and the weed species downy brome (Bromus tectorum L.) were subjected to 10 mM (foliar application) and 1 mM (root application) herbicide solutions. Glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and atrazine (2-chloro-4-(ethyl-amino)-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine) were prepared in a carrier composed of 5% soybean oil concentrate, 35% acetone and 60% water. Penetration experiments with /sup 3/H-labelled herbicides assessed what percentage of herbicide entered leaves, and microautoradiography was used to determine qualitatively how much herbicide was present in the sections viewed with TEM. Tissue was excised at 4, 18, 62 and 200 hours, and then either freeze-substituted or fixed chemically. Ultrastructural effects of each herbicide on chloroplasts from leaves of newly-germinated seedlings and of well-tillered plants are depicted and discussed. Temporal differences in response of chloroplasts to each herbicide are noted.

  7. Responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and turnip (Brassica rapa) to the combined exposure of carbaryl and ultraviolet radiation.

    PubMed

    Lima, Maria P R; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-07-01

    The increase of ultraviolet (UV) radiation reaching the Earth's surface as a result of increased ozone layer depletion has affected crop production systems and, in combination with pesticides used in agricultural activities, can lead to greater risks to the environment. The impact of UV radiation and carbaryl singly and in combination on Triticum aestivum (wheat) and Brassica rapa (turnip) was studied. The combined exposure was analyzed using the MixTox tool and was based on the conceptual model of independent action, where possible deviations to synergism or antagonism and dose-ratio or dose-level response pattern were also considered. Compared with the control, carbaryl and UV radiation individually led to reductions in growth, fresh and dry weight, and water content for both species. Combined treatment of UV and carbaryl was more deleterious compared with single exposure. For T. aestivum length, no interaction between the 2 stressors was found (independent action), and a dose-level deviation was the best description for the weight parameters. For B. rapa, dose-ratio deviations from the conceptual model were found when length and dry weight were analyzed, and a higher than expected effect on the fresh weight (synergism) occurred with combined exposure. PMID:25754078

  8. Cytogenetic and molecular identification of three Triticum aestivum-Leymus racemosus translocation addition lines.

    PubMed

    Wang, Le; Yuan, Jianhua; Bie, Tongde; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Peidu

    2009-06-01

    Chromosome 2C from Aegilops cylindrica has the ability to induce chromosome breakage in common wheat (Tritivum aestivum). In the BC(1)F(3) generation of the T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring and a hybrid between T. aestivum-Leymus racemosus Lr.7 addition line and T. aestivum-Ae. cylindrica 2C addition line, three disomic translocation addition lines (2n = 44) were selected by mitotic chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization. We further characterized these T. aestivum-L. racemosus translocation addition lines, NAU636, NAU637 and NAU638, by chromosome C-banding, in situ hybridization using the A- and D-genome-specific bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones 676D4 and 9M13; plasmids pAs1 and pSc119.2, and 45S rDNA; as well as genomic DNA of L. racemosus as probes, in combination with double ditelosomic test cross and SSR marker analysis. The translocation chromosomes were designated as T3AS-Lr7S, T6BS-Lr7S, and T5DS-Lr7L. The translocation line T3AS-Lr7S was highly resistant to Fusarium head blight and will be useful germplasm for resistance breeding. PMID:19539248

  9. Enhancement of phototropic response to a range of light doses in Triticum aestivum coleoptiles in clinostat-simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heathcote, D. G.; Bircher, B. W.; Brown, A. H. (Principal Investigator)

    1987-01-01

    The phototropic dose-response relationship has been determined for Triticum aestivum cv. Broom coleoptiles growing on a purpose-built clinostat apparatus providing gravity compensation by rotation about a horizontal axis at 2 rev min-1. These data are compared with data sets obtained with the clinostat axis vertical and stationary, as a 1 g control, and rotating vertically to examine clinostat effects other than gravity compensation. Triticum at 1 g follows the well-established pattern of other cereal coleoptiles with a first positive curvature at low doses, followed by an indifferent response region, and a second positive response at progressively increasing doses. However, these response regions lie at higher dose levels than reported for Avena. There is no significant difference between the responses observed with the clinostat axis vertical in the rotating and stationary modes, but gravity compensation by horizontal rotation increases the magnitude of first and second positive curvatures some threefold at 100 min after stimulation. The indifferent response is replaced by a significant curvature towards the light source, but remains apparent as a reduced curvature response at these dose levels.

  10. Role of Triticum aestivum aqueous extract in glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Banji, David; Banji, Otilia J F; Chiluka, Vijaya Laxmi; Abbagoni, Saidulu

    2014-02-01

    Administration of aqueous extract of T. aestivum (200 and 400 mg/kg/day, po, for 30 days) and risedronate (20 microg/kg, sc, five times a week for 30 days) following methyl prednisolone sodium succinate (10 mg/kg, sc, thrice a week for 4 weeks) induced osteoporosis in Wistar rats showed an increase in the serum levels of bone mineral content markers, decrease in the serum and urinary levels of bone resorption markers. An incline in strength of femur and tibia was seen particularly with 400 mg/kg of T. aestivum. Maintenance of calcium homeostasis, formation of collagen and scavenging of free radicals can plausibly be the mode of action of aqueous extract of T. aestivum thereby combating osteoporosis induced by glucocorticoids. PMID:24597148

  11. Genetic analysis and molecular mapping of a new fertility restorer gene Rf8 for Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pallavi; Tomar, S M S; Vinod; Singh, Vikas K; Balyan, H S

    2013-12-01

    A study on mode of inheritance and mapping of fertility restorer (Rf) gene(s) using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers was conducted in a cross of male sterile line 2041A having Triticum timopheevi cytoplasm and a restorer line PWR4099 of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The F1 hybrid was completely fertile indicating that fertility restoration is a dominant trait. Based on the pollen fertility and seed set of bagged spikes in F2 generation, the individual plants were classified into fertile and sterile groups. Out of 120 F2 plants, 97 were fertile and 23 sterile (based on pollen fertility) while 98 plants set ≥ 5 seeds/spike and 22 produced ≤ 4 or no seed. The observed frequency fits well into Mendelian ratio of 3 fertile: 1 sterile with χ(2) value of 2.84 for pollen fertility and 2.17 for seed setting indicating that the fertility restoration is governed by a single dominant gene in PWR4099. The three linked SSR markers, Xwmc503, Xgwm296 and Xwmc112 located on the chromosome 2DS were placed at a distance of 3.3, 5.8 and 6.7 cM, respectively, from the Rf gene. Since, no known Rf gene is located on the chromosome arm 2DS, the Rf gene in PWR4099 is a new gene and proposed as Rf8. The closest SSR marker, Xwmc503, linked to the Rf8 was validated in a set of Rf, maintainer and cytoplasmic male sterile lines. The closely linked SSR marker Xwmc503 may be used in marker-assisted backcross breeding facilitating the transfer of fertility restoration gene Rf8 into elite backgrounds with ease. PMID:24129675

  12. Combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on Cd and Zn accumulation dynamics in Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoheng; Li, Yu; Lu, Hong; Wang, Shigong

    2016-09-01

    A simulated climate warming experiment was conducted to evaluate the combined effects of elevated temperature and CO2 concentration on the bioaccumulation, translocation and subcellular distributions of Cd and Zn in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1.) at Dingxi, Gansu Province, China. The objective was to find evidence that global climate change is affecting the bioaccumulation of Cd and Zn in T. aestivum L. cv. Xihan 1. The results showed that compared to control A, elevated temperature and CO2 increased Cd bioaccumulation in the shoots by 1.4-2.5 times, and increased that in the roots by 1.2-1.5 times, but decreased Zn levels in wheat shoots by 1.4-2.0 times, while decreased that in the roots by 1.6-1.9 times. Moreover, temperature and CO2 concentration increase also led to increased Cd concentration, and decreased Zn concentration in subcellular compartments of wheat seedlings. The largest Cd concentration increase (174.4%) was observed in the cell wall and debris fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the highest CO2 and temperature treatment (TC3). The largest Zn concentration decrease (53.1%) was observed in the soluble (F3) fractions of shoots after they were subjected to the medium CO2 and temperature treatment (TC2). The temperature and CO2 increase had no significant effect on the proportional distribution of Cd and Zn in the subcellular fractions. The root-to-shoot translocation of Cd increased with the increasing temperature and CO2 concentration. However, the Zn distributions only fluctuated within a small range. PMID:27593278

  13. Microbial Diversity of Type I Sourdoughs Prepared and Back-Slopped with Wholemeal and Refined Soft (Triticum aestivum) Wheat Flours.

    PubMed

    Taccari, Manuela; Aquilanti, Lucia; Polverigiani, Serena; Osimani, Andrea; Garofalo, Cristiana; Milanović, Vesna; Clementi, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    The fermentation of type I sourdough was studied for 20 d with daily back-slopping under laboratory and artisan bakery conditions using 1 wholemeal and 2 refined soft wheat (Triticum aestivum) flours. The sourdough bacterial and yeast diversity and dynamics were investigated by plate counting and a combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent PCR-DGGE approach. The pH, total titrable acidity, and concentration of key organic acids (phytic, lactic, and acetic) were measured. Three flours differed for both chemical and rheological properties. A microbial succession was observed, with the atypical sourdough species detected at day 0 (i.e. Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc holzapfelii/citreum group for bacteria and Candida silvae and Wickerhamomyces anomalus for yeasts) being progressively replaced by taxa more adapted to the sourdough ecosystem (Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus alimentarius/paralimentarius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). In mature sourdoughs, a notably different species composition was observed. As sourdoughs propagated with the same flour at laboratory and artisan bakery level were compared, the influence of both the substrate and the propagation environment on microbial diversity was assumed. PMID:27332783

  14. Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Orhan, Furkan

    2016-01-01

    In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%. Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat. PMID:27133557

  15. Epiphytic pink-pigmented methylotrophic bacteria enhance germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) by producing phytohormone.

    PubMed

    Meena, Kamlesh K; Kumar, Manish; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G; Yandigeri, Mahesh S; Singh, Dhananjaya P; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2012-05-01

    Methylotrophic bacteria were isolated from the phyllosphere of different crop plants such as sugarcane, pigeonpea, mustard, potato and radish. The methylotrophic isolates were differentiated based on growth characteristics and colony morphology on methanol supplemented ammonium mineral salts medium. Amplification of the mxaF gene helped in the identification of the methylotrophic isolates as belonging to the genus Methylobacterium. Cell-free culture filtrates of these strains enhanced seed germination of wheat (Triticum aestivum) with highest values of 98.3% observed using Methylobacterium sp. (NC4). Highest values of seedling length and vigour were recorded with Methylobacterium sp. (NC28). HPLC analysis of production by bacterial strains ranged from 1.09 to 9.89 μg ml(-1) of cytokinins in the culture filtrate. Such cytokinin producing beneficial methylotrophs can be useful in developing bio-inoculants through co-inoculation of pink-pigmented facultative methylotrophs with other compatible bacterial strains, for improving plant growth and productivity, in an environment-friendly manner. PMID:22200783

  16. Auxin secretion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both stimulates root exudation and limits phosphorus uptake in Triticum aestivum

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of auxin-producing rhizosphere bacteria as agricultural products promises increased root production and therefore greater phosphate (Pi) uptake. Whilst such bacteria promote root production in vitro, the nature of the bacteria-plant interaction in live soil, particularly concerning any effects on nutrient uptake, are not known. This study uses Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, an auxin-producing rhizobacterium, as a dressing on Triticum aestivum seeds. It then examines the effects on root production, Pi uptake, Pi-related gene expression and organic carbon (C) exudation. Results Seed treatment with B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 increased root production at low environmental Pi concentrations, but significantly repressed root Pi uptake. This coincided with an auxin-mediated reduction in expression of the Pi transporters TaPHT1.8 and TaPHT1.10. Applied exogenous auxin also triggered an increase in root C exudation. At high external Pi concentrations, root production was promoted by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42, but Pi uptake was unaffected. Conclusions We conclude that, alongside promoting root production, auxin biosynthesis by B. amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both re-models Pi transporter expression and elevates organic C exudation. This shows the potential importance of rhizobacterial-derived auxin following colonisation of root surfaces, and the nature of this bacteria-plant interaction in soil. PMID:24558978

  17. The Uptake of NO3−, NO2−, and NH4+ by Intact Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Sham S.; Huffaker, Ray C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3−, NO2−, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for and the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3− and NO2− transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3− was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2− and NH4+. The Km values for NO3−, NO2−, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3− transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar. PMID:11539085

  18. The Effects of N Nutrition on the Water Relations and Gas Exchange Characteristics of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Jack A.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize leaf photosynthetic and stomatal responses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under two N-nutritional regimes. High- and low-N regimes were imposed on growth-chamber-grown plants by fertilizing with nutrient solutions containing 12 or 1 millimolar nitrogen, respectively. Gas-exchange measurements indicated not only greater photosynthetic capacity of high-N plants under well-watered conditions, but also a greater sensitivity of CO2 exchange rate and leaf conductance to CO2 and leaf water potential compared to low-N plants. Increased sensitivity of high-N plants was associated with greater tissue elasticity, lower values of leaf osmotic pressure and greater aboveground biomass. These N-nutritional-related changes resulted in greater desiccation (lowered relative water content) of high-N plants as leaf water potential fell, and were implicated as being important in causing greater sensitivity of high-N leaf gas exchange to reductions in water potential. Water use efficiency of leaves, calculated as CO2 exchange rate/transpiration, increased from 9.1 to 13 millimoles per mole and 7.9 to 9.1 millimoles per mole for high- and low-N plants as water became limiting. Stomatal oscillations were commonly observed in the low-N treatment at low leaf water potentials and ambient CO2 concentrations, but disappeared as CO2 was lowered and stomata opened. PMID:16664606

  19. Competition between plant and bacterial cells at the microscale regulates the dynamics of nitrogen acquisition in wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David L; Clode, Peta L; Kilburn, Matt R; Stockdale, Elizabeth A; Murphy, Daniel V

    2013-01-01

    The ability of plants to compete effectively for nitrogen (N) resources is critical to plant survival. However, controversy surrounds the importance of organic and inorganic sources of N in plant nutrition because of our poor ability to visualize and understand processes happening at the root–microbial–soil interface. Using high-resolution nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry stable isotope imaging (NanoSIMS-SII), we quantified the fate of 15N over both space and time within the rhizosphere. We pulse-labelled the soil surrounding wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots with either or 15N-glutamate and traced the movement of 15N over 24 h. Imaging revealed that glutamate was rapidly depleted from the rhizosphere and that most 15N was captured by rhizobacteria, leading to very high 15N microbial enrichment. After microbial capture, approximately half of the 15N-glutamate was rapidly mineralized, leading to the excretion of , which became available for plant capture. Roots proved to be poor competitors for 15N-glutamate and took up N mainly as . Spatial mapping of 15N revealed differential patterns of 15N uptake within bacteria and the rapid uptake and redistribution of 15N within roots. In conclusion, we demonstrate the rapid cycling and transformation of N at the soil–root interface and that wheat capture of organic N is low in comparison to inorganic N under the conditions tested. PMID:23845035

  20. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) NAM proteins regulate the translocation of iron, zinc, and nitrogen compounds from vegetative tissues to grain.

    PubMed

    Waters, Brian M; Uauy, Cristobal; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Grusak, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    The NAM-B1 gene is a NAC transcription factor that affects grain nutrient concentrations in wheat (Triticum aestivum). An RNAi line with reduced expression of NAM genes has lower grain protein, iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) concentrations. To determine whether decreased remobilization, lower plant uptake, or decreased partitioning to grain are responsible for this phenotype, mineral dynamics were quantified in wheat tissues throughout grain development. Control and RNAi wheat were grown in potting mix and hydroponics. Mineral (Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P, S, and Zn) and nitrogen (N) contents of organs were determined at regular intervals to quantify the net remobilization from vegetative tissues and the accumulation of nutrients in grain. Total nutrient accumulation was similar between lines, but grain Fe, Zn, and N were at lower concentrations in the NAM knockdown line. In potting mix, net remobilization of N, Fe, and Zn from vegetative tissues was impaired in the RNAi line. In hydroponics with ample nutrients, net remobilization was not observed, but grain Fe and Zn contents and concentrations remained lower in the RNAi line. When Fe or Zn was withheld post-anthesis, both lines demonstrated remobilization. These results suggest that a major effect of the NAM genes is an increased efflux of nutrients from the vegetative tissues and a higher partitioning of nutrients to grain. PMID:19858116

  1. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-10-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  2. An intervarietal genetic linkage map of Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and QTL maps for some metric traits.

    PubMed

    Nalini, E; Bhagwat, S G; Jawali, N

    2007-06-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) exhibits very narrow genetic diversity and hence there is high relatedness among cultivated varieties. However, a population generated from an intervarietal cross, with the parents differing in a large number of traits, could lead to the generation of QTL maps which will be useful in practice. In this report a genetic linkage map of wheat is constructed using a cross between two Indian bread wheat varieties: Sonalika and Kalyansona. The linkage map consisted of 236 markers and spanned a distance of 3639 cM, with 1211.2 cM for the A genome, 1669.2 cM for the B genome, 192.4 cM for the D genome and 566.2 cM for unassigned groups. Linkage analysis defined 37 linkage groups of which 24 were assigned to 17 chromosomes. The genetic map was used to identify QTLs by composite internal mapping (CIM) for three metric traits, viz. culm length (CL), flag leaf length (FLL) and flag leaf breadth (FLB). Of 25 QTLs identified in this study, 15 have not been reported previously. Multitrait CIM (MCIM) analysis was carried out for traits that were significantly correlated such as FLB-FLL and CL-FLB-FLL. Detection of a large number of QTLs for the three traits analysed suggests that in parent cultivars that are not too diverse, the differences at genetic level detected as polymorphisms may be mostly associated with QTLs for the observed differences. PMID:17894910

  3. Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars grown in Northern Europe 1992-2002.

    PubMed

    Hysing, Shu-Chin; Singh, Ravi P; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Merker, Arnulf; Liljeroth, Erland; Diaz, Oscar

    2006-12-01

    Diversity of resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina can be enhanced in wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars through a better knowledge of resistance genes that are present in important cultivars and germplasm. Multi-pathotype tests on 84 wheat cultivars grown in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden during 1992-2002 and 39 differential testers enabled the postulation of nine known genes for seedling resistance to leaf rust. Genes Lr1, Lr2a, Lr3, Lr10, Lr13, Lr14a, Lr17, Lr23 and Lr26 were found singly or in combination in 47 of the cultivars (55.9%). The most frequently occurring genes in cultivars grown in Sweden were Lr13 (20.4%), Lr14a (14.8%) and Lr26 (14.8%). Lr14a was the most common gene in cultivars grown in Norway (18.7%), Lr13 in Denmark (35.5%) and Lr10 in Finland (20.0%). Although 28 cultivars (33.3%) exhibited a response pattern that could not be assigned to resistance genes or combinations present in the tester lines, several pathotypes carried virulence and hence these genes or combinations are of limited use. Nine cultivars (10.7%) lacked detectable seedling resistance. One cultivar was resistant to all pathotypes used in the study. PMID:17362328

  4. Low irradiances affect abscisic acid, indole-3-acidic acid, and cytokinin levels of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nan, R.; Carman, J. G.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1999-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants were grown under four irradiance levels: 1,400, 400, 200, and 100 micromol m-2 s-1. Leaves and roots were sampled before, during, and after the boot stage, and levels of abscisic acid (ABA), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin, zeatin riboside, dihydrozeatin, dihydrozeatin riboside, isopentenyl adenine, and isopentenyl adenosine were quantified using noncompetitive indirect ELISA systems. Levels of IAA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 of irradiance were 0.7 and 2.9 micromol kg-1 dry mass (DM), respectively. These levels were 0.2 and 1.0 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively, when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of ABA in leaves and roots of plants exposed to 100 micromol m-2 s-1 were 0.65 and 0.55 micromol kg-1 DM, respectively. They were 0.24 micromol kg-1 DM (both leaves and roots) when plants were exposed to 1,400 micromol m-2 s-1. Levels of isopentenyl adenosine in leaves (24.3 nmol kg-1 DM) and roots (29.9 nmol kg-1 DM) were not affected by differences in the irradiance regime. Similar values were obtained in a second experiment. Other cytokinins could not be detected (<10 nmol kg 1 DM) in either experiment with the sample sizes used (150-600 mg DM for roots and shoots, respectively).

  5. Nitrogen balance for wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10) grown under elevated and ambient CO2 concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smart, D. R.; Ritchie, K.; Bloom, A. J.; Bugbee, B. B.

    1998-01-01

    We examined the hypothesis that elevated CO2 concentration would increase NO3- absorption and assimilation using intact wheat canopies (Triticum aestivum cv. Veery 10). Nitrate consumption, the sum of plant absorption and nitrogen loss, was continuously monitored for 23 d following germination under two CO2 concentrations (360 and 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2) and two root zone NO3- concentrations (100 and 1000 mmol m3 NO3-). The plants were grown at high density (1780 m-2) in a 28 m3 controlled environment chamber using solution culture techniques. Wheat responded to 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 by increasing carbon allocation to root biomass production. Elevated CO2 also increased root zone NO3- consumption, but most of this increase did not result in higher biomass nitrogen. Rather, nitrogen loss accounted for the greatest part of the difference in NO3- consumption between the elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. The total amount of NO3(-)-N absorbed by roots or the amount of NO3(-)-N assimilated per unit area did not significantly differ between elevated and ambient [CO2] treatments. Instead, specific leaf organic nitrogen content declined, and NO3- accumulated in canopies growing under 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2. Our results indicated that 1000 micromol mol-1 CO2 diminished NO3- assimilation. If NO3- assimilation were impaired by high [CO2], then this offers an explanation for why organic nitrogen contents are often observed to decline in elevated [CO2] environments.

  6. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding hemoglobin from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud

    2003-06-11

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) are heme proteins encountered in all five kingdoms of living organisms. In plants, two different classes of Hbs have been identified: nonsymbiotic (class I) from both monocot and dicot species and symbiotic (class II) Hbs from nitrogen-fixing plants. This work reports the cloning and analysis of three nonsymbiotic Hb genes from wheat (Triticum aestivum) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). The Hb cDNAs were amplified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using consensus oligonucleotide primers for nonsymbiotic Hbs.A wheat Hb cDNA (TaHb1) was isolated and shows a very high similarity to nonsymbiotic Hbs from Hordeum vulgare (98%) and Zea mays (83%). Another wheat Hb cDNA, designated TaHb2, exhibited strong similarity to truncated bacterial Hbs, the so-called 2-on-2 Hbs. In addition, a third Hb was cloned from potato, StHb. Expression analysis by RT-PCR demonstrated a very high expression level of the TaHb1 gene only in wheat roots. In contrast, the other wheat hemoglobin gene, TaHb2, was demonstrated to be constitutively expressed although differences in expression level in different tissues were observed. The expression of the TaHb1 gene is induced in wheat roots exposed to microaerobic conditions. The potato Hb gene, StHb, was highly expressed in roots and also in tubers and stem tissue although at much reduced levels. PMID:12787929

  7. Spatial organization of the gravitropic response in plants: applicability of the revised local curvature distribution model to Triticum aestivum coleoptiles.

    PubMed

    Meskauskas, A; Jurkoniene, S; Moore, D

    1999-08-01

    The revised local curvature distribution model, which provides accurate computer simulations of the gravitropic response of mushroom stems, was found to produce accurate simulations of the gravitropic reaction of wheat (Triticum aestivum) coleoptiles. The key feature of the mathematical model that enables it to approach universality of application is the assumption that the stem has an autonomic straightening reaction (curvature compensation or 'autotropism'). In the model, the local bending rate for any segment of the organ is determined by the difference between the 'bending signal' (generated by the gravitropic signal perception system) and a 'straightening signal' (which is proportional to the local curvature of the segment). The model reveals three major differences between the gravitropic reactions of wheat coleoptiles and Coprinus mushroom stems. First, in Coprinus, the capacity for autonomic straightening is much more concentrated in the apical region of the stem. Second, local perception of the gravitropic signal, which is necessary for exact simulation in Coprinus, is not needed in wheat coleoptiles (the corresponding constant in the model can be set to zero). Third, the transmission rate of the gravitropic signal is about seven times faster in wheat coleoptiles than in the mushroom stem. Thus, we demonstrate that a single model, depending on the values given to its parameters, is able to simulate the spatial organization of the gravitropic reaction of wheat coleoptiles and Coprinus mushroom stems. The model promises to be a valuable predictive tool in guiding future research into the gravitropic reaction of axial organs of all types. PMID:11542912

  8. Effects of temperature - heavy metal interactions, antioxidant enzyme activity and gene expression in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Ergün, N; Özçubukçu, S; Kolukirik, M; Temizkan, Ö

    2014-12-01

    In this study, the effect of heat and chromium (Cr) heavy metal interactions on wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Ç-1252 and Gun91) was investigated by measuring total chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) antioxidant enzyme activities, and MYB73, ERF1 and TaSRG gene expression. Examination of pigment levels demonstrated a decrease in total chlorophyll in both species of wheat under combined heat and heavy metal stress, while the carotenoid levels showed a slight increase. APX activity increased in both species in response to heavy metal stress, but the increase in APX activity in the Gun91 seedlings was higher than that in the Ç-1252 seedlings. CAT activity increased in Gun91 seedlings but decreased in Ç-1252 seedlings. These results showed that Gun91 seedling had higher resistance to Cr and Cr + heat stresses than the Ç-1252 seedling. The quantitative molecular analyses implied that the higher resistance was related to the overexpression of TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors. The increase in the expression levels of these transcription factors was profound under combined Cr and heat stress. This study suggests that TaMYB73, TaERF1 and TaSRG transcription factors regulate Cr and heat stress responsive genes in wheat. PMID:25475983

  9. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-01-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. PMID:26136264

  10. Effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment on growth and reproduction of wheat grown under low oxygen. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrave, M.E.; Scheld, H.W.; Strain, B.R.

    1987-04-01

    Two cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs Sonoita and Yecoro Rojo) were grown to maturity in a Phytotron B chamber within four sub-chambers which imposed two CO/sub 2/ levels (350 or 1000 ppm) at either ambient (21%) or low oxygen (5%). Techniques of growth analysis were used to characterize changes in plant carbon budgets imposed by the gas regimes. Large increases in leaf area were seen in the low oxygen treatments, due primarily to a stimulation of tillering. No necrosis was observed in roots developing at 5% oxygen but rather root development increased dramatically. Flowering was much delayed in the low oxygen, 350 ppm carbon dioxide regime and the spikes which did develop did not mature. While one cultivar (Sonoita) did not respond to CO/sub 2/ enrichment (1000 ppm) at ambient oxygen in terms of increases in leaf area and head number, carbon dioxide enrichment overcame the low oxygen effect on flowering in both cultivars. The results demonstrate a previously unknown interaction between carbon dioxide enrichment and low oxygen as they affect reproduction and may help elucidate the nature of low-oxygen-induced infertility.

  11. Significant Changes in Cell and Chloroplast Development in Young Wheat Leaves (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) Grown in Elevated CO2.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, E. J.; Leech, R. M.

    1995-01-01

    Cell and chloroplast development were characterized in young Triticum aestivum cv Hereward leaves grown at ambient (350 [mu]L L-1) or at elevated (650 [mu]L L-1) CO2. In elevated CO2, cell and chloroplast expansion was accelerated by 10 and 25%, respectively, in the first leaf of 7-d-old wheat plants without disruption to the leaf developmental pattern. Elevated CO2 did not affect the number of chloroplasts in relation to mesophyll cell size or the linear relationship between chloroplast number or size and mesophyll cell size. No major changes in leaf anatomy or in chloroplast ultrastructure were detected as a result of growth in elevated CO2, but there was a marked reduction in starch accumulation. In leaf sections fluorescently tagged antisera were used to visualize and quantitate the amount of cytochrome f, the [alpha]- and [beta]-subunits of the coupling factor 1 in ATP synthase, D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center, the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex, subunit II of photosystem I, and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. A significant finding was that in 10 to 20% of the mesophyll cells grown in elevated CO2 the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and cytochrome f were deficient by 75%, but the other proteins accumulated normally. PMID:12228342

  12. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production. PMID:27077274

  13. Anti-obesity effect of Triticum aestivum sprout extract in high-fat-diet-induced obese mice.

    PubMed

    Im, Ji-Young; Ki, Hyeon-Hui; Xin, Mingjie; Kwon, Se-Uk; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Dae-Ki; Hong, Sun-Pyo; Jin, Jong-Sik; Lee, Young-Mi

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a common disease worldwide that often results in serious conditions including hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. Many herbal medicines have been examined with regard to ameliorating obesity. We investigated the anti-obesity effects of 50% EtOH extract of Triticum aestivum sprout (TAEE) in high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. TAEE administration (10, 50, or 200 mg/kg) for 6 weeks significantly decreased the body weights, serum total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in HFD-fed mice. TAEE treatment reduced lipid accumulation in epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) and liver. Moreover, TC and lipid levels were decreased by TAEE treatment in liver. Serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were reduced by TAEE treatment. TAEE-treated mice showed decreases in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) and fatty acid synthase expression in EWAT. Furthermore, TAEE administration elevated levels of PPARα protein in the liver of HFD-induced obese mice. These results suggest that TAEE supplementation might be beneficial for the treatment and prevention of obesity and related diseases. PMID:25925980

  14. DNA methylation pattern of Photoperiod-B1 is associated with photoperiod insensitivity in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Sun, Han; Guo, Zhiai; Gao, Lifeng; Zhao, Guangyao; Zhang, Wenping; Zhou, Ronghua; Wu, Yongzhen; Wang, Haiyang; An, Hailong; Jia, Jizeng

    2014-11-01

    As one of the three key components of the 'Green Revolution', photoperiod insensitivity is vital for improved adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars to a wider geographical range. Photoperiod-B1a (Ppd-B1a) is one of the major genes that confers photoperiod insensitivity in 'Green Revolution' varieties, and has made a significant contribution to wheat yield improvement. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the photoperiod insensitivity of Ppd-B1a alleles from an epigenetic perspective using a combination of bisulfite genomic sequencing, orthologous comparative analysis, association analysis, linkage analysis and gene expression analysis. Based on the study of a large collection of wheat germplasm, we report two methylation haplotypes of Ppd-B1 and demonstrate that the higher methylation haplotype (haplotype a) was associated with increased copy numbers and higher expression levels of the Ppd-B1 gene, earlier heading and photoperiod insensitivity. Furthermore, assessment of the distribution frequency of the different methylation haplotypes suggested that the methylation patterns have undergone selection during the wheat breeding process. Our study suggests that DNA methylation in the regulatory region of the Ppd-B1 alleles, which is closely related to copy number variation, plays a significant role in wheat breeding, to confer photoperiod insensitivity and better adaptation to a wider geographical range. PMID:25078249

  15. Cytological characteristics of F2 hybrids between Triticum aestivum L. and T. durum Desf. with reference to wheat breeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han-Yan; Liu, Deng-Cai; Yan, Ze-Hong; Wei, Yu-Ming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2005-01-01

    Cytological and agronomic characteristics of a F2 population from Triticum aestivum L. x T. durum Desf. hybrids were analyzed plant by plant. Means of morphologic traits in the F2 population were similar to those of the low-value parent. On average, F2 hybrids had 36.54 chromosomes per plant, indicating that each gamete lost 2.73 chromosomes at meiosis of the F1 generation. More than half of plants had 36-39 chromosomes, so male gametes with 19-21 chromosomes seemed to be superior to the others. The distribution frequency of chromosomes in this study differed from that in a previous report, where a different tetraploid wheat was used. This shows that a different breeding strategy may need to be taken when exploiting a different tetraploid wheat. According to our results, some plants with 42 chromosomes, having all the wheat A, B and D chromosomes, would appear in the F3 population, which provides a chance to obtain stable bread wheat lines from the self-pollinated progenies. Alternatively, the desirable individuals of the F2 population were backcrossed to bread wheat, which is very useful and efficient for the improvement of bread wheat by exploiting desirable genes in durum wheat. PMID:16278508

  16. Evaluation of assembly strategies using RNA-seq data associated with grain development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Huai-Zhu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Wan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data. PMID:24349528

  17. Toxicity of methyl tert-butyl ether to plants (Avena sativa, Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, and Lactuca sativa).

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Kampbell, Donald H; McGill, Mary E

    2002-08-01

    Influence of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) on the germination of seeds and growth of seedling plants were studied in laboratory experiments. Test plants were wild oats (Avena sativa), sweet corn (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum), and lettuce (Lactuca sativa). Seed germination, shoot growth, and root growth of plants exposed to different concentrations of MTBE in a moist soil were examined. Seed germination and seedling growth in MTBE-contaminated soil were markedly reduced in all test plants. The median lethal concentration values for seed germination tests and the median effective concentration values for shoot or root growth were calculated. The values for lettuce, wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn were in the range of 18 to 91, 362 to 459, 432 to 751, and 672 to 964 mg MTBE/kg soil as dry weight, respectively. Lettuce was most sensitive to MTBE, followed (in order of decreasing sensitivity) by wild oats, wheat, and sweet corn. Because MTBE can be readily absorbed by plants due to its high solubility in water, plant growth was a more sensitive endpoint than seed germination. Shoot length was more reduced in MTBE-contaminated soil than was the root length, which indicated that MTBE might be transported within the plant from the roots to the shoots. PMID:12152769

  18. The role of the F-box gene TaFBA1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in drought tolerance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shumei; Sun, Xiudong; Yin, Suhong; Kong, Xiangzhu; Zhou, Shan; Xu, Ying; Luo, Yin; Wang, Wei

    2014-11-01

    Drought is one of the most important factors limiting plant growth and development. We identified a gene in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under drought stress named TaFBA1. TaFBA1 encodes a putative 325-amino-acid F-box protein with a conserved N-terminal F-box domain and a C-terminal AMN1 domain. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaFBA1 transcript accumulation was upregulated by high-salinity, water stress, and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. To evaluate the functions of TaFBA1 in the regulation of drought stress responses, we produced transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing TaFBA1. Under water stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco plants had a higher germination rate, higher relative water content, net photosynthesis rate (Pn), less chlorophyll loss, and less growth inhibition than WT. These results demonstrate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The enhanced oxidative stress tolerance of these plants, which may be involved in their drought tolerance, was indicated by their lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, MDA content, and cell membrane damage under drought stress compared to WT. The antioxidant enzyme activities were higher in the transgenic plants than in WT, which may be related to the upregulated expression of some antioxidant genes via overexpression of TaFBA1. PMID:25299612

  19. Near-isogenic lines of Triticum aestivum with distinct modes of resistance exhibit dissimilar transcriptional regulation during Diuraphis noxia feeding

    PubMed Central

    Botha, Anna-Maria; van Eck, Leon; Burger, N. Francois V.; Swanevelder, Zacharias H.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia, Kurdjumov) feeding on susceptible Triticum aestivum L. leads to leaf rolling, chlorosis and plant death – symptoms not present in resistant lines. Although the effects of several D. noxia (Dn) resistance genes are known, none have been isolated or characterized. Wheat varieties expressing different Dn genes exhibit distinct modes of D. noxia resistance, such as antibiosis (Dn1), tolerance (Dn2), and antixenosis (Dn5). However, the mechanism whereby feeding aphids are perceived, and how subsequent transcriptional responses are partitioned into resistance categories, remains unclear. Here we report on downstream events in near-isogenic wheat lines containing different Dn genes after D. noxia biotype SA1 feeding. Transcripts involved in stress, signal transduction, photosynthesis, metabolism and gene regulation were differentially regulated during D. noxia feeding. Expression analyses using RT-qPCR and RNA hybridization, as well as enzyme activity profiling, provide evidence that the timing and intensity of pathways induced are critical in the development of particular modes of resistance. Pathways involved include the generation of kinase signalling cascades that lead to a sustained oxidative burst, and a hypersensitive response that is active during antibiosis. Tolerance is a passive resistance mechanism that acts through repair or de novo synthesis of photosystem proteins. Results further suggest that ethylene-mediated pathways are possibly involved in generating volatile compounds and cell wall fortification during the antixenosic response. PMID:25361582

  20. Fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, inhibits light as well as dark reactions of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Tomar, Rupal Singh; Jajoo, Anjana

    2014-11-01

    The toxic effect of fluoranthene (FLT) on seed germination, growth of seedling and photosynthesis processes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Wheat seeds were exposed to 5 µM and 25 µM FLT concentrations for 25 days and it was observed that FLT had inhibiting effect on rate of seed germination. The germination rate of wheat seeds decreased by 11% at 25 µM FLT concentration. Root/shoot growth and biomass production declined significantly even at low concentrations of FLT. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were measured after 25 days to evaluate the effects of FLT on Photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation rate. The process of CO2 assimilation decreased more effectively by FLT as compared to the yield of PSII. A negative correlation was found between plant net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation capacity and biomass production with FLT. It is concluded that inhibiting effects of FLT on photosynthesis are contributed more by inhibition in the process of CO2 fixation rather than inhibition of photochemical events. PMID:25173746

  1. Characterization of glutathione S-transferases from Sus scrofa, Cydia pomonella and Triticum aestivum: their responses to cantharidin.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xue-Qing; Zhang, Ya-Lin

    2015-02-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) play a key role in detoxification of xenobiotics in organisms. However, their other functions, especially response to the natural toxin cantharidin produced by beetles in the Meloidae and Oedemeridae families, are less known. We obtained GST cDNAs from three sources: Cydia pomonella (CpGSTd1), Sus scrofa (SsGSTα1), and Triticum aestivum (TaGSTf3). The predicted molecular mass is 24.19, 25.28 and 24.49 kDa, respectively. These proteins contain typical N-terminal and C-terminal domains. Recombinant GSTs were heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli as soluble fusion proteins. Their optimal activities are exhibited at pH 7.0-7.5 at 30 °C. Activity of CpGSTd1 is strongly inhibited by cantharidin and cantharidic acid, but is only slightly suppressed by the demethylated analog of cantharidin and cantharidic acid. Enzymatic assays revealed that cantharidin has no effect on SsGSTα1 activity, while it significantly stimulates TaGSTf3 activity, with an EC50 value of 0.3852 mM. Activities of these proteins are potently inhibited by the known GST competitive inhibitor: S-hexylglutathione (GTX). Our results suggest that these GSTs from different sources share similar structural and biochemical characteristics. Our results also suggest that CpGSTd1 might act as a binding protein with cantharidin and its analogs. PMID:25640718

  2. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings secrete proteases from the roots and, after protein addition, grow well on medium without inorganic nitrogen.

    PubMed

    Adamczyk, B; Godlewski, M; Zimny, J; Zimny, A

    2008-11-01

    This paper reports on the role of proteases secreted by roots in nitrogen capture by plants. The study was conducted on aseptically cultivated wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv. Tacher) obtained from embryos isolated from grains. Seedlings were cultivated for 21 days on deionised water, Murashige Skoog medium (MS), MS without inorganic nitrogen (IN), and MS without IN, in which IN was replaced by casein (0.01%, 0.1% or 1%). Comparison of seedlings grown on these media showed that casein entirely compensated for the lack of inorganic nitrogen in the medium. Shoots and roots of seedlings cultivated on MS medium with this protein had higher fresh weight than those cultivated on MS medium without casein. The increase in fresh weight of seedlings was correlated with casein concentration and proteolytic activity in the medium. In conclusion, wheat that uses proteases secreted by the roots can directly utilise proteins in the medium as a source of nitrogen without prior digestion by microbial proteases and without protein mineralisation. These results suggest the important role of organic nitrogen fertilisers in increasing wheat yield. PMID:18950429

  3. [Hybrids of Aegilops cylindrica Host with Triticum durum Desf. and T. aestivum L].

    PubMed

    Avsenin, V I; Motsnyĭ, A I; Rybalka, A I; Faĭt, V I

    2003-01-01

    The hybrids of durum and bread wheat with Ae. cylindrica have been obtained without using an embryo rescue technique. The hybrid output (of pollinated flower number) in the field conditions scored 1.0, 15.3 and 10.0% in the crosses T. durum x Ae. cylindrica, Ae. cylindrica x T. durum and T. aestivum x Ae. cylindrica, respectively. A high level of meiotic chromosome pairing between homologous D genomes of bread wheat and Aegilops has been revealed (c = 80.0-83.7%). The possibility of homoeological pairing between wheat and Ae. cylindrica chromosomes has been shown. Herewith, the correlation between the levels of homological and homoeological pairing is absent. The possibilities of genetic material interchange, including between the tetraploid species, as well as the using of Ae. cylindrica cytoplasm for durum wheat breeding are discussed. PMID:12741056

  4. Introgression of an imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) into jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host).

    PubMed

    Perez-Jones, Alejandro; Mallory-Smith, Carol A; Hansen, Jennifer L; Zemetra, Robert S

    2006-12-01

    Imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is being commercialized in the USA. This technology allows wheat growers to selectively control jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host), a weed that is especially problematic because of its close genetic relationship with wheat. However, the potential movement of the imidazolinone-resistance gene from winter wheat to jointed goatgrass is a concern. Winter wheat and jointed goatgrass have the D genome in common and can hybridize and backcross under natural field conditions. Since the imidazolinone-resistance gene (Imi1) is located on the D genome, it is possible for resistance to be transferred to jointed goatgrass via hybridization and backcrossing. To study the potential for gene movement, BC(2)S(2) plants were produced artificially using imidazolinone-resistant winter wheat (cv. FS-4) as the female parent and a native jointed goatgrass collection as the male recurrent parent. FS-4, the jointed goatgrass collection, and 18 randomly selected BC(2)S(2) populations were treated with imazamox. The percentage of survival was 100% for the FS-4, 0% for the jointed goatgrass collection and 6 BC(2)S(2) populations, 40% or less for 2 BC(2)S(2) populations, and 50% or greater for the remaining 10 BC(2)S(2) populations. Chromosome counts in BC(2)S(3) plants showed a restoration of the chromosome number of jointed goatgrass, with four out of four plants examined having 28 chromosomes. Sequencing of AHASL1D in BC(2)S(3) plants derived from BC(2)S(2)-6 revealed the sexual transmission of Imi1 from FS-4 to jointed goatgrass. Imi1 conferred resistance to the imidazolinone herbicide imazamox, as shown by the in vitro assay for acetohydroxyacid synthase (AHAS) activity. PMID:17058103

  5. Putative fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLA) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa): identification and bioinformatic analyses.

    PubMed

    Faik, Ahmed; Abouzouhair, Jaouad; Sarhan, Fathey

    2006-11-01

    Putative plant adhesion molecules include arabinogalactan-proteins having fasciclin-like domains. In animal, fasciclin proteins participate in cell adhesion and communication. However, the molecular basis of interactions in plants is still unknown and none of these domains have been characterized in cereals. This work reports the characterization of 34 wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 24 rice (Oryza sativa) Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs). Bioinformatics analyses show that cereal FLAs share structural characteristics with known Arabidopsis FLAs including arabinogalactan-protein and fasciclin conserved domains. At least 70% of the wheat and rice FLAs are predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored to the plasma membranes. Expression analyses determined from the relative abundance of ESTs in the publicly available wheat EST databases and from RNA gel blots indicate that most of these genes are weakly expressed and found mainly in seeds and roots. Furthermore, most wheat genes were down regulated by abiotic stresses except for TaFLA9 and 12 where cold treatment induces their expression in roots. Plant fasciclin-like domains were predicted to have 3-D homology with FAS1 domain of the fasciclin I insect neural cell adhesion molecule with an estimated precision above 70%. The structural analysis shows that negatively charged amino acids are concentrated along the beta1-alpha3-alpha4-beta2 edges, while the positively charged amino acids are concentrated on the back side of the folds. This highly charged surface distribution could provide a way of mediating protein-protein interactions via electrostatic forces similar to many other adhesion molecules. The identification of wheat FLAs will facilitate studying their function in plant growth and development and their role in stress response. PMID:16944204

  6. Aluminum Partitioning in Intact Roots of Aluminum-Tolerant and Aluminum-Sensitive Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Magaly; Gonzales, Robert A.

    1992-01-01

    Aluminum (Al) partitioning in intact roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars that differ in sensitivity to Al was investigated. Roots of intact seedlings were exposed to Al for up to 24 hours and distribution of Al was assessed visually by hematoxylin staining or by direct measurement of concentration of Al by atomic absorption spectrophotometry or ion chromatography. Major differences in Al accumulation between Al-tolerant (Atlas 66) and Al-sensitive (Tam 105) cultivars were found in the growing regions 0 to 2 and 2 to 5 millimeters from the root apex. Al content was 9 to 13 times greater in the 0 to 2 millimeters root tips of cv Tam 105 than in the tips of cv Atlas 66 when exposed to 50 micromolar Al for 19 to 24 hours. The oxidative phosphorylation inhibitor carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide increased Al uptake by intact root tips of cv Atlas 66. Also, loss of Al from the roots of both cultivars was measured after the roots were “pulsed” with 50 micromolar Al for 2 hours and then placed in an Al-free nutrient solution for 6 hours. The 0 to 2 millimeter root tips of cv Tam 105 lost 30% of the absorbed Al, whereas the tips of cv Atlas 66 lost 60%. In light of these results, we conclude that the differential Al sensitivity in wheat correlates with the concentration of Al in the root meristems. The data support the hypothesis that part of the mechanism for Al tolerance in wheat is based on a metabolism-dependent exclusion of Al from the sensitive meristems. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:16668966

  7. Analysis of TaALMT1 traces the transmission of aluminum resistance in cultivated common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Raman, Harsh; Ryan, Peter R; Raman, Rosy; Stodart, Benjamin J; Zhang, Kerong; Martin, Peter; Wood, Rachel; Sasaki, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Yoko; Mackay, Michael; Hebb, Diane M; Delhaize, Emmanuel

    2008-02-01

    Allele diversities of four markers specific to intron three, exon four and promoter regions of the aluminum (Al) resistance gene of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) TaALMT1 were compared in 179 common wheat cultivars used in international wheat breeding programs. In wheat cultivars released during the last 93 years, six different promoter types were identified on the basis of allele size. A previous study showed that Al resistance was not associated with a particular coding allele for TaALMT1 but was correlated with blocks of repeated sequence upstream of the coding sequence. We verified the linkage between these promoter alleles and Al resistance in three doubled haploid and one intercross populations segregating for Al resistance. Molecular and pedigree analysis suggest that Al resistance in modern wheat germplasm is derived from several independent sources. Analysis of a population of 278 landraces and subspecies of wheat showed that most of the promoter alleles associated with Al resistance pre-existed in Europe, the Middle East and Asia prior to dispersal of cultivated germplasm around the world. Furthermore, several new promoter alleles were identified among the landraces surveyed. The TaALMT1 promoter alleles found within the spelt wheats were consistent with the hypothesis that these spelts arose on several independent occasions from hybridisations between non-free-threshing tetraploid wheats and Al-resistant hexaploid bread wheats. The strong correlation between Al resistance and Al-stimulated malate efflux from the root apices of 49 diverse wheat genotypes examined was consistent with the previous finding that Al resistance in wheat is conditioned primarily by malate efflux. These results demonstrate that the markers based on intron, exon and promoter regions of TaALMT1 can trace the inheritance of the Al resistance locus within wheat pedigrees and track Al resistance in breeding programmes. PMID:18046532

  8. In vivo studies on artificial induction of thermotolerance to detached panicles of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivars under heat stress.

    PubMed

    Asthir, Bavita; Bhatia, Surekha

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism imparting thermotolerance by gibberellic acid (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) is still unresolved using either spraying technique or in vitro conditions. Alternative way of studying these effects under near in vivo conditions is through the use of liquid culturing technique. Effects of GA3 and ABA (100 μM) on sucrose metabolism (invertase and sucrose synthase) and aminotransferases (GOT and GPT) in relation to starch and protein accumulation were studied in detached panicles of three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars PBW 343, C 306 (heat tolerant) and WH 542 (heat susceptible) cultured in a liquid medium. Ears were subjected to heat shock treatment (45 °C for 2 h) and then maintained at 25 °C for 5 days. Heat shock treatment resulted in a significant decline in starch content but caused a marked build -up of total free sugars and protein content in grains of all cultivars. However, activities of acid and neutral invertases increased only in tolerant cultivars but reduced in susceptible cultivar. Following treatment with GA3 contents of starch and free sugars increased in grains maintained at 25 °C but free sugar content decreased in stressed grains compared to control. ABA application showed inhibitory effect on starch accumulation under normal temperature but was promotory under stress conditions. Concomitantly, soluble protein content also increased in conjunction with an increase in the activities of glutamate-oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate-pyruvate transaminase (GPT). Apparently, the wheat grain responds to heat shock mediated disruption of carbon metabolism by a compensatory effect on nitrogen metabolism. GA3 stimulated grain sink activity both under stress and non stress condition while ABA was promotory only under stress condition. PMID:24426056

  9. Identification of a MYB3R gene involved in drought, salt and cold stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Cai, Hongsheng; Tian, Shan; Liu, Changlai; Dong, Hansong

    2011-10-10

    Abiotic stress seriously affects crop growth and productivity. To better understand the mechanisms plant uses to cope with drought, cold and salt stress, it is necessary to isolate and characterize important regulators response to these stresses. In this study, we cloned a MYB gene from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and designated it as TaMYB3R1 based on its conserved three repeats in MYB domain. The sequence of TaMYB3R1 protein shares high identity to other plant MYB3R proteins. Subcellular localization experiment in onion epidermal cells proved that TaMYB3R1 localized in the nucleus. Trans-activation essays in yeast cells confirmed that TaMYB3R1 was a transcriptional activator, and only C-terminal region was able to activate the expression of β-galactosidase. DNA-binding test showed the MSA cis element-binding activity of TaMYB3R1. After exogenous application of phytohormone ABA, the expression of TaMYB3R1 was induced, and its transcripts accumulated up to 24h; this is also the case for MeJA treatment, but after it peaked at 4h, it decreased to low levels. However, either SA or ET had no obvious effect on the expression of TaMYB3R1. Furthermore, the TaMYB3R1 was initially expressed at low levels and was gradually induced following treatment with salt, and continued to increase up to 72 h. This was similar for the cold treatment. In contrast, the peak appeared at 6h of the PEG treatment, and then gradually decreased to low levels. Our results suggest that TaMYB3R1 is potentially involved in wheat response to drought, salt and cold stress. PMID:21763408

  10. TLXI, a novel type of xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum) belonging to the thaumatin family

    PubMed Central

    Fierens, Ellen; Rombouts, Sigrid; Gebruers, Kurt; Goesaert, Hans; Brijs, Kristof; Beaugrand, Johnny; Volckaert, Guido; Van Campenhout, Steven; Proost, Paul; Courtin, Christophe M.; Delcour, Jan A.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) contains a previously unknown type of xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) inhibitor, which is described in the present paper for the first time. Based on its >60% similarity to TLPs (thaumatin-like proteins) and the fact that it contains the Prosite PS00316 thaumatin family signature, it is referred to as TLXI (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor). TLXI is a basic (pI≥9.3 in isoelectric focusing) protein with a molecular mass of approx. 18–kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) and it occurs in wheat with varying extents of glycosylation. The TLXI gene sequence encodes a 26-amino-acid signal sequence followed by a 151-amino-acid mature protein with a calculated molecular mass of 15.6–kDa and pI of 8.38. The mature TLXI protein was expressed successfully in Pichia pastoris, resulting in a 21–kDa (determined by SDS/PAGE) recombinant protein (rTLXI). Polyclonal antibodies raised against TLXI purified from wheat react with epitopes of rTLXI as well as with those of thaumatin, demonstrating high structural similarity between these three proteins. TLXI has a unique inhibition specificity. It is a non-competitive inhibitor of a number of glycoside hydrolase family 11 xylanases, but it is inactive towards glycoside hydrolase family 10 xylanases. Progress curves show that TLXI is a slow tight-binding inhibitor, with a Ki of approx. 60–nM. Except for zeamatin, an α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor from maize (Zea mays), no other enzyme inhibitor is currently known among the TLPs. TLXI thus represents a novel type of inhibitor within this group of proteins. PMID:17269932

  11. Structural analysis of xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I), a proteinaceous xylanase inhibitor from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson).

    PubMed Central

    Payan, Françoise; Flatman, Ruth; Porciero, Sophie; Williamson, Gary; Juge, Nathalie; Roussel, Alain

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of proteinaceous inhibitors exhibiting specificity towards microbial xylanases has recently been discovered in cereals. The three-dimensional structure of xylanase inhibitor protein I (XIP-I) from wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. Soisson) was determined by X-ray crystallography at 1.8 A (1 A=0.1 nm) resolution. The inhibitor possesses a (beta/alpha)(8) barrel fold and has structural features typical of glycoside hydrolase family 18, namely two consensus regions, approximately corresponding to the third and fourth barrel strands, and two non-proline cis -peptide bonds, Ser(36)-Phe and Trp(256)-Asp (in XIP-I numbering). However, detailed structural analysis of XIP-I revealed several differences in the region homologous with the active site of chitinases. The catalytic glutamic acid residue of family 18 chitinases [Glu(127) in hevamine, a chitinase/lysozyme from the rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)] is conserved in the structure of the inhibitor (Glu(128)), but its side chain is fully engaged in salt bridges with two neighbouring arginine residues. Gly(81), located in subsite -1 of hevamine, where the reaction intermediate is formed, is replaced by Tyr(80) in XIP-I. The tyrosine side chain fills the subsite area and makes a strong hydrogen bond with the side chain of Glu(190) located at the opposite side of the cleft, preventing access of the substrate to the catalytic glutamic acid. The structural differences in the inhibitor cleft structure probably account for the lack of activity of XIP-I towards chitin. PMID:12617724

  12. Activation of latent nucleolus organizers induced by experimental polyploidization in cells of hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum L.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, E M; Khoudoleeva, O A; Chentsov YuS; Polyakov VYu

    2000-01-01

    The effect of prolonged colchicine-induced polyploidization on activation of latent nucleolus-organizing regions (NOR) of chromosomes was studied in diploid meristematic cells and polyploid root cells of Triticum aestivum L. It has been shown that control diploid and tetraploid cells have maximal number of nucleoli equal to four, which corresponds to the number of nucleolar chromosomes (NC) with active (visualized by staining with AgNO3) NOR (two pairs of homologous chromosomes 1B and 6B). Treatment of wheat seedlings with colchicine for 30 h results in following changes in polyploid cells: (1) impregnation of NOR with silver is observed on homologues of either chromosomes 1A or 5D in all tetraploid metaphase plates (4n, 2x, 4c), which is indicative of the NOR activation on this chromosome in pre-mitotic polyploid interphase; (2) In tetraploid metaphase, NOR in all four homologues of activated chromosomes or in only two of them may be stained; (3) maximal number of nucleoli in tetraploid nuclei is increased till 12, which confirms activation of transcription of additional rRNA gene clusters in polyploids; (4) activation of the rRNA gene expression is induced by the cell polyploidization rather than by colchicine, since in the colchicine-treated diploid cells both maximal number of nucleoli and the number of metaphase chromosomes with active NOR is not changed as compared with control. The obtained data allow us to suggest that structural "separation" of NC in polyploid nuclei stimulates activation of latent NOR. PMID:11093578

  13. Water extract of Triticum aestivum L. and its components demonstrate protective effect in a model of vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyung Soo; Jang, Jung-Hee; Jang, Jae Hee; Choi, Jung Sook; Kim, Yoon Jung; Lee, Chan; Lim, Sun Ha; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Jongwon

    2010-06-01

    Although vascular dementia is the second leading cause of dementia and often underdiagnosed, there are no drugs yet approved for the treatment of vascular dementia. In this study, it is demonstrated that water extract of Triticum aestivum L. (TALE) and some of its components have protective effects against vascular dementia-induced damage by preserving the myelin sheath and inhibiting astrocytic activation. The memory test used a vascular dementia model utilizing bilateral ligation of the carotid arteries of rats. TALE, some of its components, such as starch, total dietary fiber (TDF), arabinoxylan, beta-glucan, and degraded products of arabinoxylan, such as arabinose and xylose, were administered to the animals from day 8 to day 14, following the surgery. Twenty-one days after the surgery, the water maze test was performed for 5 days, and the time taken to find the platform during training trials (mean escape latency) was measured. The mean escape latency was decreased consistently in the TALE-, starch-, TDF-, arabinoxylan-, and arabinose-treated groups, compared with that in the vascular dementia group. To measure brain damage, Luxol fast blue staining and immunohistochemistry of myelin basic protein (MBP) were performed to observe myelin sheath in the white matter, and immunohistochemistry of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was performed to observe the astrocytic reaction. Vascular dementia reduced the MBP level and increased the GFAP level. Arabinose effectively inhibited the MBP and GFAP change, whereas arabinoxylan inhibited the GFAP change only. These results suggest that TALE and some of its components can be used as a medicinal material for the development of neuroprotective agents against vascular dementia. PMID:20521983

  14. Identification of kernel proteins associated with the resistance to fusarium head blight in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Perlikowski, Dawid; Wiśniewska, Halina; Góral, Tomasz; Kwiatek, Michał; Majka, Maciej; Kosmala, Arkadiusz

    2014-01-01

    Numerous potential components involved in the resistance to Fusarium head blight (FHB) in cereals have been indicated, however, our knowledge regarding this process is still limited and further work is required. Two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in their levels of resistance to FHB were analyzed to identify the most crucial proteins associated with resistance in this species. The presented work involved analysis of protein abundance in the kernel bulks of more resistant and more susceptible wheat lines using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry identification of proteins, which were differentially accumulated between the analyzed lines, after inoculation with F. culmorum under field conditions. All the obtained two-dimensional patterns were demonstrated to be well-resolved protein maps of kernel proteomes. Although, 11 proteins were shown to have significantly different abundance between these two groups of plants, only two are likely to be crucial and have a potential role in resistance to FHB. Monomeric alpha-amylase and dimeric alpha-amylase inhibitors, both highly accumulated in the more resistant line, after inoculation and in the control conditions. Fusarium pathogens can use hydrolytic enzymes, including amylases to colonize kernels and acquire nitrogen and carbon from the endosperm and we suggest that the inhibition of pathogen amylase activity could be one of the most crucial mechanisms to prevent infection progress in the analyzed wheat line with a higher resistance. Alpha-amylase activity assays confirmed this suggestion as it revealed the highest level of enzyme activity, after F. culmorum infection, in the line more susceptible to FHB. PMID:25340555

  15. A haplotype block associated with thousand-kernel weight on chromosome 5DS in common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuquan; Hao, Chenyang; Zheng, Jun; Ge, Hongmei; Zhou, Yang; Ma, Zhengqiang; Zhang, Xueyong

    2015-08-01

    Spike number per unit area, number of grains per spike, and thousand-kernel weight (TKW) are important yield components for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). TKW has the highest heritability among the three components. We validated 27 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci associated with TKW in an F(2:5) breeding population grown in four environments. A cfd7(8265bp) marker on chromosome 5DS showed the strongest association with TKW and had a significantly positive effect on TKW compared to allele cfd7(8259bp), with mean increases of 5.17, 3.63, 4.11, and 5.16 g in the four environments. Markers cfd67 and cfd40 flanking cfd78 also showed significantly positive associations with TKW with increases of 5.11, 3.29, 4.31, and 4.50 g for cfd67(205), and 4.98, 3.49, 4.06, and 4.84 g for cfd40(187) compared with cfd67(203) and cfd40(190) in the four environments, respectively. A major quantitative trait locus for TKW spanning 2.94 cM on chromosome 5DS was detected by association mapping. Strong linkage disequilibrium (LD) (r(2)  > 0.2) was detected among the three linked markers, which formed three haplotype blocks in the F(2:5) breeding population. Mean TKW differences between HapB-I and HapB-II were 5.80, 4.41, 4.02, and 5.06 g in the four environments, respectively. Moreover, significant LD was detected only between cfd78 and cfd67 and between cfd67 and cfd40 in a germplasm collection. This study provides a base for cloning genes related to TKW on chromosome 5DS. PMID:25318826

  16. Expression of Potential Resistance Genes to the English Grain Aphid, Sitobion avenae, in Wheat, Triticum aestivum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chun-Ping; Wang, Zheng-Hong; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Zhu, Qi-Di; Luo, Kun; Wang, Li-Ming; Dong, Pu-Hui

    2013-01-01

    The English grain aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Homoptera: Aphididae), is a dominant and destructive pest in wheat, Triticum estivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), production regions in China and other grain-growing areas worldwide. Patterns of gene expression of the S. avenae-resistant synthetic wheat line 98-10-35, the S. avenae-susceptible line1376, and their hybrid population, and the differences in segments between 98-10-35/1376 F3 resistant plants and resistant parents of 98-10-35, as well as those between the F3 resistant and susceptible populations, were examined with differential display reverse transcription PCR. The results showed that five patterns of differential expression were detected between the progeny and its resistant parents: 1) The gene was silenced in one of the parents; 2) Special expression showed in the progeny; 3) Expression was consistent with the resistant parents; 4) Up expression showed in the progeny but not in the parents; 5) Down expression showed in the progeny but not in the parents. Paired t-test results were not significant; however, the probability value (0.9158) indicated that gene expression on the RNA level were consistent with resistant bands found in F3 resistant individuals and resistant parents, as well as the F3 resistant and susceptible populations. For both the F3 of 98-10-35/1376 and the parents, the total number of amplified bands was 202, with an average of 25.3 per primer. The number of differential bands was 116, with an average of 14.5 per primer amplified and a polymorphism ratio of 56.3%. In the present study, differential expression genes in the resistant line 98-10-35 were all up-regulated. Among them, gene expression of resistant groups in the F3 population was in agreement with patterns 2, 3, and 4. However, the susceptible line 1376 did not have this gene expression on the RNA level. This pattern is expected to be used to select and analyze target genes from the same F3 population and the resistant parents. The

  17. Effects on growth and physiological parameters in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil and irrigated with cyanobacterial toxin contaminated water.

    PubMed

    Pflugmacher, Stephan; Hofmann, Jeannette; Hübner, Bettina

    2007-12-01

    The present study investigates the germination and growth of Triticum aestivum exposed to two different microcystins (microcystin-LR [where the two variable places in the toxin molecule are leucine (L) and arginine (R) (MC-LR)] and microcystin-RR) and to cell-free cyanobacterial crude extract containing MC-LR. The concentration of the microcystins was set to 0.5 microg L(-1) and therefore is in the range of concentrations normally detected in the environment. In three experiments, the inhibition of germination, the inhibition of root and shoot development, photosynthesis, and activity of oxidative stress-response enzymes, such as glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase, were measured. All plants were placed in pots containing normal garden soil to investigate the effects of soil in the uptake of toxin by Triticum aestivum. The results showed clear effects on the morphology of roots and shoots, which were inhibited in exposures with cyanotoxins and crude extract. The inhibition of photosynthesis and the elevation of antioxidative-response enzymes indicate the generation of reactive oxygen species due to the exposure to the toxins resulting in oxidative stress for the plants. PMID:18020690

  18. Heading Date QTL in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Coincide with Major Developmental Genes VERNALIZATION1 and PHOTOPERIOD1

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yuan Feng; Johnson, Jerry; Harrison, Steve; Marshall, David

    2016-01-01

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), time from planting to spike emergence is influenced by genes controlling vernalization requirement and photoperiod response. Characterizing the available genetic diversity of known and novel alleles of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) in winter wheat can inform approaches for breeding climate resilient cultivars. This study identified QTL for heading date (HD) associated with multiple VRN1 and PPD1 loci in a population developed from a cross between two early flowering winter wheat cultivars. When the population was grown in the greenhouse after partial vernalization treatment, major heading date QTLs co-located with the VRN-A1 and VRN-B1 loci. Copy number variation at the VRN-A1 locus influenced HD such that RIL having three copies required longer cold exposure to transition to flowering than RIL having two VRN-A1 copies. Sequencing vrn-B1 winter alleles of the parents revealed multiple polymorphisms in the first intron that were the basis of mapping a major HD QTL coinciding with VRN-B1. A 36 bp deletion in the first intron of VRN-B1 was associated with earlier HD after partial vernalization in lines having either two or three haploid copies of VRN-A1. The VRN1 loci interacted significantly and influenced time to heading in field experiments in Louisiana, Georgia and North Carolina. The PPD1 loci were significant determinants of heading date in the fully vernalized treatment in the greenhouse and in all field environments. Heading date QTL were associated with alleles having large deletions in the upstream regions of PPD-A1 and PPD-D1 and with copy number variants at the PPD-B1 locus. The PPD-D1 locus was determined to have the largest genetic effect, followed by PPD-A1 and PPD-B1. Our results demonstrate that VRN1 and PPD1 alleles of varying strength allow fine tuning of flowering time in diverse winter wheat growing environments. PMID:27163605

  19. Improving water use efficiency of wheat (triticum aestivum l. Giza 168) crop using 15N tracer technique under Egyptian environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Refaie Emara, Eman Ibrahim; Hamed, Lamy Mamdoh Mohamed; Bocchi, Stefano; Galal, Yehia

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean environment is characterized by low and erratic rainfall amount which varies between (200-600 mm.year-1), and characterized also by high temperature which increase the rate of evapotranspiration from the cultivated soil. Under these conditions which have a great influence on crop production, there is a great needing to increase the crop water use efficiency. In this context, two field experiments were carried out in northern Cairo-Egypt, during November and December 2012 and April 2013, with two different textured soils. The soil in the first location (30° 16' N latitude, 30° 56' E longitude) is clay soil, while in the second one (30° 24' N latitude, 31° 35' E longitude) is sandy soil. The interaction effect of soil types, soil water regimes, nitrogen fertilizer application rates and timing on nitrogen balance of soil were studied, in terms of nitrogen gained by plant portions, remained in soil and losses through different ways for the wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L. Giza 168). The aim of this research is to increase the water use efficiency of wheat crop, in addition to identify the most proper and effective combinations of above-studied variables that provide a satisfactory grain wheat yield and finally to minimize the use of chemical nitrogen fertilizers. Three water regimes (100%, 75% and 50% of crop water requirements) using drip irrigation system and the application methods of Nitrogen rates, 100%, 80% and 60% of recommended rates, which are 178 Kg of Nitrogen for the clay soil and 238 Kg of Nitrogen for sandy soil, were applied to the two experimental fields. Ineed, two modes of agricultural management, mode A and B, were applied. Each mode is different than the other in terms of seedling and tillering practices, where mode A performed with 25% at seedling, 25% at tillering and 50% at jointing while mode B performed with 35% at seedling and 65% at tillering. The greatest limitation to growth and Nitrogen use efficiency was the amount

  20. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  1. Higher Ammonium Transamination Capacity Can Alleviate Glutamate Inhibition on Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Root Growth under High Ammonium Stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Gao, Jingwen; Liu, Yang; Tian, Zhongwei; Muhammad, Abid; Zhang, Yixuan; Jiang, Dong; Cao, Weixing; Dai, Tingbo

    2016-01-01

    Most of the studies about NH4+ stress mechanism simply address the effects of free NH4+, failing to recognize the changed nitrogen assimilation products. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effects of glutamate on root growth under high ammonium (NH4+) conditions in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Hydroponic experiments were conducted using two wheat cultivars, AK58 (NH4+-sensitive) and Xumai25 (NH4+-tolerant) with either 5 mM NH4+ nitrogen (AN) as stress treatment or 5 mM nitrate (NO3-) nitrogen as control. To evaluate the effects of NH4+-assimilation products on plant growth, 1 μM L-methionine sulfoximine (MSO) (an inhibitor of glutamine synthetase (GS)) and 1 mM glutamates (a primary N assimilation product) were added to the solutions, respectively. The AN significantly reduced plant biomass, total root length, surface area and root volume in both cultivars, but less effect was observed in Xumai25. The inhibition effects were alleviated by the application of MSO but strengthened by the application of glutamate. The AN increased the activities of GS, glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) in both cultivars, resulting in higher glutamate contents. However, its contents were decreased by the application of MSO. Compared to AK58, Xumai25 showed lower glutamate contents due to its higher activities of glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (GPT). With the indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) contents decreasing in roots, the ratio of shoot to root in IAA was increased, and further increased by the application of glutamate, and reduced by the application of MSO, but the ratio was lower in Xumai25. Meanwhile, the total soluble sugar contents and its root to shoot ratio also showed similar trends. These results indicate that the NH4+-tolerant cultivar has a greater transamination ability to prevent glutamate over-accumulation to maintain higher IAA transport ability, and consequently promoted soluble sugar transport to roots, further

  2. Segregation analysis indicates that Puroindoline b-2 variants 2 and 3 are allelic in Triticum aestivum L. and that a revision to Puroindoline b-2 gene symbolization is indicated

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conclusive genetic and kernel texture phenotypic relationships between Puroindoline b 2 variant sequences 2 and 3 have not been fully established in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In the present study, a total of 480 F2 plants, derived from three hard spring wheat populations WSU.HRS1×WSU.HWS1 (abbre...

  3. The house mouse (Mus musculus L.) exerts strong differential grain consumption preferences among hard red and white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties in a single-elimination tournament design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) plays a central role in the health and nutrition of humans. Yet, little is known about possible flavor differences among different varieties. We have developed a model system using the house mouse (Mus musculus) to determine feeding preferences as a prelude to extending res...

  4. Association of puroindoline b-2 variants with grain traits, yield components and flag leaf size in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of Yellow and Huai Valley of China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 169 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (landraces and cultivars) were used to asses the relationship between Puroindoline D1 alleles and Puroindoline b-B2 variants and grain hardness, other grain traits, grain yield components, and flag leaf size. Results indicated that the average SK...

  5. Development and Characterization of Two New Triticum aestivum-Daspyrum villosum Robertsonian Translocation Lines T1DS.1V#3L and T1DL.1V#3S and Their Effect on Grain Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy is a diploid, wild relative of bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Previous studies showed that D. villosum chromosome 1V has genes that encode for seed storage proteins that may be used to enhance the grain quality of bread wheat. As a first step in genetic transfer, t...

  6. Over-Expression of a Tobacco Nitrate Reductase Gene in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Increases Seed Protein Content and Weight without Augmenting Nitrogen Supplying

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiao-Qiang; Nie, Xuan-Li; Xiao, Xing-Guo

    2013-01-01

    Heavy nitrogen (N) application to gain higher yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) resulted in increased production cost and environment pollution. How to diminish the N supply without losing yield and/or quality remains a challenge. To meet the challenge, we integrated and expressed a tobacco nitrate reductase gene (NR) in transgenic wheat. The 35S-NR gene was transferred into two winter cultivars, “Nongda146” and “Jimai6358”, by Agrobacterium-mediation. Over-expression of the transgene remarkably enhanced T1 foliar NR activity and significantly augmented T2 seed protein content and 1000-grain weight in 63.8% and 68.1% of T1 offspring (total 67 individuals analyzed), respectively. Our results suggest that constitutive expression of foreign nitrate reductase gene(s) in wheat might improve nitrogen use efficiency and thus make it possible to increase seed protein content and weight without augmenting N supplying. PMID:24040315

  7. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    PubMed Central

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U.; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A m 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A m 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. PMID:26476691

  8. Extensive Pericentric Rearrangements in the Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotype “Chinese Spring” Revealed from Chromosome Shotgun Sequence Data

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jian; Stiller, Jiri; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang; Devos, Katrien M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Liu, Chunji

    2014-01-01

    The bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype “Chinese Spring” (“CS”) is the reference base in wheat genetics and genomics. Pericentric rearrangements in this genotype were systematically assessed by analyzing homoeoloci for a set of nonredundant genes from Brachypodium distachyon, Triticum urartu, and Aegilops tauschii in the CS chromosome shotgun sequence obtained from individual chromosome arms flow-sorted from CS aneuploid lines. Based on patterns of their homoeologous arm locations, 551 genes indicated the presence of pericentric inversions in at least 10 of the 21 chromosomes. Available data from deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags and genetic mapping in wheat indicated that all inversions had breakpoints in the low-recombinant gene-poor pericentromeric regions. The large number of putative intrachromosomal rearrangements suggests the presence of extensive structural differences among the three subgenomes, at least some of which likely occurred during the production of the aneuploid lines of this hexaploid wheat genotype. These differences could have significant implications in wheat genome research where comparative approaches are used such as in ordering and orientating sequence contigs and in gene cloning. PMID:25349265

  9. [Detection of the introgression of genome elements of Aegilops cylindrica Host. into Triticum aestivum L. genome with ISSR-analysis].

    PubMed

    Galaev, A V; Babaiants, L T; Sivolap, Iu M

    2003-01-01

    Comparative analysis of introgressive and parental forms of wheat was carried out to reveal the sites of donor genome with new loci of resistance to fungal diseases. By ISSR-method 124 ISSR-loci were detected in the genomes of 18 individual plants of introgressive line 5/20-91; 17 of them have been related to introgressive fragments of Ae. cylindrica genome in T. aestivum. It was shown that ISSR-method is effective for detection of the variability caused by introgression of alien genetic material to T. aestivum genome. PMID:12945176

  10. Electrophoretic analysis of the high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits of Triticum monococcum, T. urartu, and the A genome of bread wheat (T. aestivum).

    PubMed

    Waines, J G; Payne, P I

    1987-05-01

    The high molecular weight (HMW) subunit composition of glutenin was analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) in the A genome of 497 diploid wheats and in 851 landraces of bread wheat. The material comprised 209 accessions of wild Triticum monococcum ssp. boeoticum from Greece, Turkey, Lebanon, Armenia, Iraq, and Iran; 132 accessions of the primitive domesticate T. monococcum ssp. monococcum from many different germplasm collections; one accession of free-threshing T. monococcum ssp. sinskajae; 155 accessions of wild T. urartu from Lebanon, Turkey, Armenia, Iraq, and Iran; and landraces of T. aestivum, mainly from the Mediterranean area and countries bordering on the Himalayan Mountains. Four novel HMW glutenin sub-units were discovered in the landraces of bread wheat, and the alleles that control them were designated Glu-Ald through Glu-Alg, respectively. The HMW subunits of T. monococcum ssp. boeoticum have a major, "x" subunit of slow mobility and several, less prominent, "y" subunits of greater mobility, all of which fall within the mobility range of HMW subunits reported for bread wheat. In T. monococcum ssp. monococcum the range of the banding patterns for HMW subunits was similar to that of ssp. boeoticum. However, two accessions, while containing "y" subunits were null for "x" subunits. The single accession of Triticum monococcum ssp. sinskajae had a banding pattern similar to that of most ssp. boeoticum and ssp. monococcum accessions. The HMW subunit banding patterns of T. urartu accessions were distinct from those of T. monococcum. All of them contained one major "x" and most contained one major "y" subunit. In the other accessions a "y" subunit was not expressed. The active genes for "y" subunits, if transferred to bread wheat, may be useful in improving bread-making quality. PMID:24241459

  11. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat. PMID:27526862

  12. When Isolated at Full Receptivity, in Vitro Fertilized Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) Egg Cells Reveal [Ca2+]cyt Oscillation of Intracellular Origin

    PubMed Central

    Pónya, Zsolt; Corsi, Ilaria; Hoffmann, Richárd; Kovács, Melinda; Dobosy, Anikó; Kovács, Attila Zoltán; Cresti, Mauro; Barnabás, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to) the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation. PMID:25535074

  13. Measurement of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate in plant leaves by isotope dilution. [Spinacea oleracea; Triticum aestivum; Arabidopsis thaliana; Maize; Phaseolus vulgaris; Petunia hybrida

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, B.D.; Kobza, J.; Seemann, J.R. )

    1991-05-01

    The level of 2-carboxyarabinitol 1-phosphate (CA1P) in leaves of 12 species was determined by an isotope dilution assay. {sup 14}C-labeled standard was synthesized from (2-{sup 14}C)carboxyarabinitol 1,5-bisphosphate using acid phosphatase, and was added at the initial point of leaf extraction. Leaf CA1P was purified and its specific activity determined. CA1P was found in dark-treated leaves of all species examined, including spinach (Spinacea oleracea), wheat (Triticum aestivum), Arabidopsis thaliana, and maize (Zea mays). The highest amounts were found in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and petunia (Petunia hybrida), which had 1.5 to 1.8 moles CA1P per mole ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase catalytic sites. Most species had intermediate amounts of CA1P (0.2 to 0.8 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). Such intermediate to high levels of CA1P support the hypothesis that CA1P functions in many species as a light-dependent regulator of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity and whole leaf photosynthetic CO{sub 2} assimilation. However, CA1P levels in spinach, wheat, and A. thaliana were particularly low (less than 0.09 mole CA1P per mole catalytic sites). In such species, CA1P does not likely have a significant role in regulating ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase activity, but could have a different physiological role.

  14. Characterization of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, TaEXPB23, involved in the abiotic stress response and phytohormone regulation.

    PubMed

    Han, Yang yang; Li, Ai xiu; Li, Feng; Zhao, Mei rong; Wang, Wei

    2012-05-01

    Expansins are proteins that are generally accepted to be key regulators of cell wall extension and plant growth. We examined the expression pattern of TaEXPB23, a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) expansin gene, under exogenous phytohormone and abiotic stress treatments. In addition, we evaluated its function in the tolerance to salt stress and high temperature (HT) by overexpressing it in transgenic tobacco plants. In subcellular localization assays, TaEXPB23 localized to the cell wall. Expression analysis demonstrated that the transcription pattern of TaEXPB23 corresponded to wheat coleoptile growth. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that TaEXPB23 transcript expression was upregulated by exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and salt stress, but downregulated by exogenous gibberellins (GA₃), ethylene (ET), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and α-naphthlcetic acid (NAA). Overexpression of TaEXPB23 in tobacco (tabacum) conferred tolerance to salt stress by enhancing water retention ability (WRA) and decreasing osmotic potential (OP). However, transgenic plants overexpressing TaEXPB23 did not show any improvement in the tolerance to HT stress. These results suggested that TaEXPB23 is regulated by phytohormones and is involved in the regulation of salt stress tolerance. PMID:22381655

  15. Visualization of A- and B-genome chromosomes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) x jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host) backcross progenies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Z N; Hang, A; Hansen, J; Burton, C; Mallory-Smith, C A; Zemetra, R S

    2000-12-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica) can cross with each other, and their self-fertile backcross progenies frequently have extra chromosomes and chromosome segments, presumably retained from wheat, raising the possibility that a herbicide resistance gene might transfer from wheat to jointed goatgrass. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to clarify the origin of these extra chromosomes. By using T. durum DNA (AABB genome) as a probe and jointed goatgrass DNA (CCDD genome) as blocking DNA, one, two, and three A- or B-genome chromosomes were identified in three BC2S2 individuals where 2n = 29, 30, and 31 chromosomes, respectively. A translocation between wheat and jointed goatgrass chromosomes was also detected in an individual with 30 chromosomes. In pollen mother cells with meiotic configuration of 14 II + 2 I, the two univalents were identified as being retained from the A or B genome of wheat. By using Ae. markgrafii DNA (CC genome) as a probe and wheat DNA (AABBDD genome) as blocking DNA. 14 C-genome chromosomes were visualized in all BC2S2 individuals. The GISH procedure provides a powerful tool to detect the A or B-genome chromatin in a jointed goatgrass background, making it possible to assess the risk of transfer of herbicide resistance genes located on the A or B genome of wheat to jointed goatgrass. PMID:11195336

  16. Introgression of wheat DNA markers from A, B and D genomes in early generation progeny of Aegilops cylindrica Host x Triticum aestivum L. hybrids.

    PubMed

    Schoenenberger, N; Felber, F; Savova-Bianchi, D; Guadagnuolo, R

    2005-11-01

    Introgression from allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L., AABBDD) to allotetraploid jointed goatgrass (Aegilops cylindrica Host, CCDD) can take place in areas where the two species grow in sympatry and hybridize. Wheat and Ae. cylindrica share the D genome, issued from the common diploid ancestor Aegilops tauschii Coss. It has been proposed that the A and B genome of bread wheat are secure places to insert transgenes to avoid their introgression into Ae. cylindrica because during meiosis in pentaploid hybrids, A and B genome chromosomes form univalents and tend to be eliminated whereas recombination takes place only in D genome chromosomes. Wheat random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fragments, detected in intergeneric hybrids and introgressed to the first backcross generation with Ae. cylindrica as the recurrent parent and having a euploid Ae. cylindrica chromosome number or one supernumerary chromosome, were assigned to wheat chromosomes using Chinese Spring nulli-tetrasomic wheat lines. Introgressed fragments were not limited to the D genome of wheat, but specific fragments of A and B genomes were also present in the BC1. Their presence indicates that DNA from any of the wheat genomes can introgress into Ae. cylindrica. Successfully located RAPD fragments were then converted into highly specific and easy-to-use sequence characterised amplified regions (SCARs) through sequencing and primer design. Subsequently these markers were used to characterise introgression of wheat DNA into a BC1S1 family. Implications for risk assessment of genetically modified wheat are discussed. PMID:16133306

  17. [Detection of the introgression of genome elements of the Aegilops cylindrica host. into the Triticum aestivum L. genome by ISSR and SSR analysis].

    PubMed

    Galaev, A V; Babaiants, L T; Sivolap, Iu M

    2004-12-01

    To reveal sites of the donor genome in wheat crossed with Aegilops cylindrica, which acquired conferred resistance to fungal diseases, a comparative analysis of introgressive and parental forms was conducted. Two systems of PCR analysis, ISSR and SSR-PCR, were employed. Upon use of 7 ISSR primers in genotypes of 30 individual plants BC1 F9 belonging to lines 5/55-91 and 5/20-91, 19 ISSR loci were revealed and assigned to introgressive fragments of Aegilops cylindrica genome in Triticum aestivum. The 40 pairs of SSR primers allowed the detection of seven introgressive alleles; three of these alleles were located on common wheat chromosomes in the B genome, while four alleles, in the D genome. Based on data of microsatellite analysis, it was assumed that the telomeric region of the long arm of common wheat chromosome 6A also changed. ISSR and SSR methods were shown to be effective for detecting variability caused by introgression of foreign genetic material into the genome of common wheat. PMID:15648148

  18. The uptake of NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ by intact wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings. I. Induction and kinetics of transport systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goyal, S. S.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The inducibility and kinetics of the NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ transporters in roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum cv Yercora Rojo) were characterized using precise methods approaching constant analysis of the substrate solutions. A microcomputer-controlled automated high performance liquid chromatography system was used to determine the depletion of each N species (initially at 1 millimolar) from complete nutrient solutions. Uptake rate analyses were performed using computerized curve-fitting techniques. More precise estimates were obtained for the time required for the extent of the induction of each transporter. Up to 10 and 6 hours, respectively, were required to achieve apparent full induction of the NO3- and NO2- transporters. Evidence for substrate inducibility of the NH4+ transporters requiring 5 hours is presented. The transport of NO3- was mediated by a dual system (or dual phasic), whereas only single systems were found for transport of NO2- and NH4+. The Km values for NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ were, respectively, 0.027, 0.054, and 0.05 millimolar. The Km for mechanism II of NO3- transport could not be defined in this study as it exhibited only apparent first order kinetics up to 1 millimolar.

  19. The sequence of change within the photosynthetic apparatus of wheat following short-term exposure to ozone. [Triticum aestivum L. cv Avalon

    SciTech Connect

    Farage, P.K.; Long, S.P.; Baker, N.R. ); Lechner, E.G. )

    1991-02-01

    The basis of inhibition of photosynthesis by single acute O{sub 3} exposures was investigated in vivo using analyses based on leaf gas exchange measurements. The fully expanded second leaves of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv Avalon) were fumigated with either 200 or 400 nanomoles per mole O{sub 3} for between 4 and 16 hours. This reduced significantly the light-saturated rate of Co{sub 2} uptake and was accompanied by a parallel decrease in stomatal conductance. However, the stomatal limitation only increased significantly during the first 8 hours of exposure to 400 nanomoles per mole O{sub 3}; no significant increase occurred for any of the other treatments. Analysis of the response of CO{sub 2} uptake to the internal Co{sub 2} concentration implied that the predominant factor responsible for the reduction in light-saturated CO{sub 2} uptake was a decrease in the efficiency of carboxylation. At saturating concentrations of Co{sub 2}, photosynthesis was inhibited by no more than 22% after 16 hours, indicating that the capacity for regeneration of ribulose bisphosphate was less susceptible to O{sub 3}. Ozone fumigations also had a less pronounced effect on light-limited photosynthesis. The photochemical efficiency of photosystem II estimated from the ratio of variable to maximum chlorophyll fluorescence and the atrazine-binding capacity of isolated thylakoids demonstrated that photochemical reactions were not responsible for the initial inhibition of CO{sub 2} uptake.

  20. Low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene Glu-B3h confers superior dough strength and breadmaking quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaping; Zhen, Shoumin; Luo, Nana; Han, Caixia; Lu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaohui; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunit is one of the important quality elements in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although considerable allelic variation has been identified, the functional properties of individual alleles at Glu-3 loci are less studied. In this work, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characteristics and functional properties of the Glu-B3h gene using the wheat cultivar CB037B and its Glu-B3 deletion line CB037C. The results showed that the Glu-B3h deletion had no significant effects on plant morphological or yield traits, but resulted in a clear reduction in protein body number and size and main quality parameters, including inferior mixing property, dough strength, loaf volume, and score. Molecular characterization showed that the Glu-B3h gene consists of 1179 bp, and its encoded B-subunit has a longer repetitive domain and an increased number of α-helices, as well as higher expression, which could contribute to superior flour quality. The SNP-based allele-specific PCR markers designed for the Glu-B3h gene were developed and validated with bread wheat holding various alleles at Glu-B3 locus, which could effectively distinguish the Glu-B3h gene from others at the Glu-B3 locus, and have potential applications for wheat quality improvement through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27273251

  1. Molecular evolution of Wcor15 gene enhanced our understanding of the origin of A, B and D genomes in Triticum aestivum

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fangfang; Si, Hongqi; Wang, Chengcheng; Sun, Genlou; Zhou, Erting; Chen, Can; Ma, Chuanxi

    2016-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat originally derived from three closely related species with A, B and D genome. Although numerous studies were performed to elucidate its origin and phylogeny, no consensus conclusion has reached. In this study, we cloned and sequenced the genes Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D in 23 diploid, 10 tetraploid and 106 hexaploid wheat varieties and analyzed their molecular evolution to reveal the origin of the A, B and D genome in Triticum aestivum. Comparative analyses of sequences in diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid wheats suggest that T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii subsp. strangulata are most likely the donors of the Wcor15-2A, Wcor15-2B and Wcor15-2D locus in common wheat, respectively. The Wcor15 genes from subgenomes A and D were very conservative without insertion and deletion of bases during evolution of diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid. Non-coding region of Wcor15-2B gene from B genome might mutate during the first polyploidization from Ae. speltoides to tetraploid wheat, however, no change has occurred for this gene during the second allopolyploidization from tetraploid to hexaploid. Comparison of the Wcor15 gene shed light on understanding of the origin of the A, B and D genome of common wheat. PMID:27526862

  2. Hybrid dwarfness in crosses between wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and rye (Secale cereale L.): a new look at an old phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Tikhenko, N; Rutten, T; Tsvetkova, N; Voylokov, A; Börner, A

    2015-03-01

    The existence of hybrid dwarfs from intraspecific crosses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) was described 100 years ago, and the genetics underlying hybrid dwarfness are well understood. In this study, we report a dwarf phenotype in interspecific hybrids between wheat and rye (Secale cereale). We identified two rye lines that produce hybrid dwarfs with wheat and have none of the hitherto known hybrid dwarfing genes. Genetic analyses revealed that both rye lines carry a single allelic gene responsible for the dwarf phenotype. This gene was designated Hdw-R1 (Hybrid dwarf-R1). Application of gibberellic acid (GA3 ) to both intraspecific (wheat-wheat) and interspecific (wheat-rye) hybrids showed that hybrid dwarfness cannot be overcome by treatment with this phytohormone. Histological analysis of shoot apices showed that wheat-rye hybrids with the dwarf phenotype at 21 and 45 days after germination failed to develop further. Shoot apices of dwarf plants did not elongate, did not form new primordia and had a dome-shaped appearance in the seed. The possible relationship between hybrid dwarfness and the genes responsible for the transition from vegetative to generative growth stage is discussed. PMID:25251214

  3. The Dynamic Process of Interspecific Interactions of Competitive Nitrogen Capture between Intercropped Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Faba Bean (Vicia faba L.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)/faba bean (Vicia faba L.) intercropping shows significant overyielding and high nitrogen (N)-use efficiency, but the dynamics of plant interactions have rarely been estimated. The objective of the present study was to investigate the temporal dynamics of competitive N acquisition between intercropped wheat and faba bean with the logistic model. Wheat and faba bean were grown together or alone with limited N supply in pots. Data of shoot and root biomass and N content measured from 14 samplings were fitted to logistic models to determine instantaneous rates of growth and N uptake. The superiority of instantaneous biomass production and N uptake shifted from faba bean to wheat with their growth. Moreover, the shift of superiority on N uptake occurred 7–12 days earlier than that of biomass production. Interspecific competition stimulated intercropped wheat to have a much earlier and stronger superiority on instantaneous N uptake compared with isolated wheat. The modeling methodology characterized the temporal dynamics of biomass production and N uptake of intercropped wheat and faba bean in different planting systems, which helps to understand the underlying process of plant interaction for intercropping plants. PMID:25541699

  4. A sampling system for estimating the cultivation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L) from LANDSAT data. M.S. Thesis - 21 Jul. 1983

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    Using digitally processed MSS/LANDSAT data as auxiliary variable, a methodology to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area by means of sampling techniques was developed. To perform this research, aerial photographs covering 720 sq km in Cruz Alta test site at the NW of Rio Grande do Sul State, were visually analyzed. LANDSAT digital data were analyzed using non-supervised and supervised classification algorithms; as post-processing the classification was submitted to spatial filtering. To estimate wheat area, the regression estimation method was applied and different sample sizes and various sampling units (10, 20, 30, 40 and 60 sq km) were tested. Based on the four decision criteria established for this research, it was concluded that: (1) as the size of sampling units decreased the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased; (2) the lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation was 90% using 10 sq km s the sampling unit; and (3) wheat area estimation by direct expansion (using only aerial photographs) was less precise and accurate when compared to those obtained by means of regression estimation.

  5. Hormesis and Paradoxical Effects of Wheat Seedling (Triticum Aestivum L.) Parameters Upon Exposure to Different Pollutants in a Wide Range of Doses

    PubMed Central

    Erofeeva, Elena A.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyll and carotenoid content (ChCar), lipid peroxidation (LP) and growth parameters (GP) in plants are often used for environmental pollution estimation. However, the nonmonotonic dose–response dependences (hormesis and paradoxical effects) of these indices are insufficiently explored following exposure to different pollutants. In this experiment, we studied nonmonotonic changes in ChCar, LP, GP in wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) upon exposure to lead, cadmium, copper, manganese, formaldehyde, the herbicide glyphosate, and sodium chloride in a wide range from sublethal concentration to 102–105 times lower concentrations. 85.7% of dose–response dependences were nonmonotonic (of these, 5.5% were hormesis and paradoxical effects comprised 94.5%). Multiphasic dependences were the most widespread type of paradoxical effect. Hormesis was a part of some multiphasic responses (i.e. paradoxical effects), which indicates a relationship between these phenomena. Sublethal pollutant concentrations significantly increased LP (to 2.0–2.4 times, except for manganese and glyphosate) and decreased GP (to 2.1–36.6 times, except for glyphosate), while ChCar was reduced insignificantly, normalized or even increased. Lower pollutant concentrations caused a moderate deviation in all parameters from the control (not more than 62%) for hormesis and paradoxical effects. The seedling parameters could have different types of nonmonotonic responses upon exposure to the same pollutant. PMID:24659937

  6. Comparative phosphoproteome analysis of the developing grains in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and water-deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Cao-Ying; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhen, Shou-Min; Li, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important cereal crops, is often threatened by drought. In this study, water deficit significantly reduced the height of plants and yield of grains. To explore further the effect of drought stress on the development and yield of grains, we first performed a large scale phosphoproteome analysis of developing grains in wheat. A total of 590 unique phosphopeptides, representing 471 phosphoproteins, were identified under well-watered conditions. Motif-X analysis showed that four motifs were enriched, including [sP], [Rxxs], [sDxE], and [sxD]. Through comparative phosphoproteome analysis between well-watered and water-deficit conditions, we found that 63 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 61 phosphoproteins, showed significant changes in phosphorylation level (≥2-fold intensities). Functional analysis suggested that some of these proteins may be involved in signal transduction, embryo and endosperm development of grains, and drought response and defense under water-deficit conditions. Moreover, we also found that some chaperones may play important roles in protein refolding or degradation when the plant is subjected to water stress. These results provide a detailed insight into the stress response and defense mechanisms of developmental grains at the phosphoproteome level. They also suggested some potential candidates for further study of transgenosis and drought stress as well as incorporation into molecular breeding for drought resistance. PMID:25145454

  7. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0-8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure. PMID:26402793

  8. Exogenous Nitric Oxide (NO) Interferes with Lead (Pb)-Induced Toxicity by Detoxifying Reactive Oxygen Species in Hydroponically Grown Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Roots

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurpreet; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy R.; Mahajan, Priyanka; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Rishi, Valbha

    2015-01-01

    Nitric Oxide (NO) is a bioactive signaling molecule that mediates a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. The present study investigated the role of NO (as SNP [sodium nitroprusside]) in ameliorating lead (Pb)-toxicity in Triticum aestivum (wheat) roots. Pb (50 and 250 μM) alone and in combination with SNP (100 μM) was given to hydroponically grown wheat roots for a period of 0–8 h. NO supplementation reduced the accumulation of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, hydroxyl ions and superoxide anion) and decreased the antioxidant enzyme activity in wheat roots particularly up to 6 h, thereby suggesting its role as an antioxidant. NO ameliorated Pb-induced membrane damage in wheat roots as evidenced by decreased ion-leakage and in situ histochemical localization. Pb-exposure significantly decreased in vivo NO level. The study concludes that exogenous NO partially ameliorates Pb-toxicity, but could not restore the plant growth on prolonged Pb-exposure. PMID:26402793

  9. Variation of the phytotoxicity of municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination with leaching conditions.

    PubMed

    Phoungthong, Khamphe; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; He, Pin-Jing

    2016-03-01

    Municipal solid waste incinerator bottom ash (MSWIBA) has long been regarded as an alternative building material in the construction industry. However, the pollutants contained in the bottom ash could potentially leach out and contaminate the local environment, which presents an obstacle to the reuse of the materials. To evaluate the environmental feasibility of using MSWIBA as a recycled material in construction, the leaching derived ecotoxicity was assessed. The leaching behavior of MSWIBA under various conditions, including the extractant type, leaching time, liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio, and leachate pH were investigated, and the phytotoxicity of these leachates on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed germination was determined. Moreover, the correlation between the germination index and the concentrations of various chemical constituents in the MSWIBA leachates was assessed using multivariate statistics with principal component analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis. It was found that, heavy metal concentrations in the leachate were pH and L/S ratio dependent, but were less affected by leaching time. Heavy metals were the main pollutants present in wheat seeds. Heavy metals (especially Ba, Cr, Cu and Pb) had a substantial inhibitory effect on wheat seed germination and root elongation. To safely use MSWIBA in construction, the potential risk and ecotoxicity of leached materials must be addressed. PMID:26745383

  10. Effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chen; Liu, Hui; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Guanghui; Yu, Juan

    Short- and long-term effects of elevated CO2 concentration on growth, photosynthetic characteristics and biomass of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are examined during 90 days in Lunar Palace 1. While a short-term exposure to elevated CO2 induces a large increase in photosynthesis in wheat plants, long-term growth in elevated CO2 often results in a smaller increase due to reduced photosynthetic capacity. In this study, it was also shown that, net photosynthesis per unit leaf area was raised at an increased CO2 concentration partly due to a decrease in photorespiration, partly due to an increased substrate supply. Transpiration was reduced due to a lower stomatal conductance. The growth response of whole plants to a high CO2 concentration will be the main subject of this paper. Firstly, an estimation is made to what extent a doubling in CO2 concentration affects wheat plant growth in Lunar Palace 1. Secondly, the mechanisms behind this growth stimulation will be assessed. Finally, in those cases where wheat plants are grown over a range of environmental conditions, we select that condition where control plants are growing fastest. Thus, this study may be a matter of interest for researchers in both space and unban agriculture fields.

  11. [Effects of soil pH value on the bioavailability and fractionation of rare earth elements in wheat seedling (Triticum aestivum L.)].

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ding, Zhuhong; Hu, Xin; Wang, Xiaorong

    2002-01-30

    The effect of soil pH value on the bioavailability and fractionation of rare earth elements (REEs) in wheat seedling (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated. The results showed that the concentration of REEs in wheat decreased with increasing pH value, and their inter-relationship was best expressed as quadratic equation, with correlation coefficients from 0.6003 to 0.9572. The response of individual elements to pH value change tended to be Ce > La > Nd > Sm > Gd > Yb > Eu, with Ce most sensitive to changing pH conditions and Eu lest. Chemical fractionation indicated that the order of REEs concentration in three fractions could be as follows: B2(NH2OH.HCl extraction) > B3(H2O2-NH4Ac extract) > B1(HAc extract). The increase of pH value resulted in transformation from B1 to B2 and B3. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to obtain the regression equations for prediction plant uptake of REEs. B1 fraction was most available to wheat. Meanwhile, it was found that the fractionation factors of REEs in wheat were negatively correlated with the soil pH value. PMID:11987417

  12. Production and cytogenetic analysis of BC1, BC 2, and BC 3 progenies of an intergeneric hybrid between Triticum aestivum (L.) Thell. and tetraploid Agropyron cristatum (L.) Gaertn.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q; Jahier, J; Cauderon, Y

    1992-08-01

    Intergeneric hybrids between Triticum aestivum cv 'Chinese Spring' and Agropyron cristatum 4x (2n= 5x=35, ABDPP genomes) with a high level of homoeologous meiotic pairing between the wheat chromosomes were backcrossed 3 times to wheat. Pollination of the F1 hybrid with 'Chinese Spring' resulted in 22 BC1 seeds with an average seed set of 1.52%. Five BC1 plants with 39-41 chromosomes were raised using embryo rescue techniques. Chromosome pairing in the BC1 was characterized by a high frequency of multivalent associations, but in spite of this there was no evidence of homoeologous pairing between chromosomes of wheat and those of Agropyron. All of the plants were self sterile. The embryo rescue technique was again essential to produce 39 BC2 plants with chromosome numbers ranging from 37 to 67. The phenomenon of meiotic non-reduction was also observed in the BC3 progenies. In this generation male and female fertility greatly increased, and meiotic pairing was fairly regular. Some monosomic (2n=43) and double monosomic (2n=44) lines were produced. Analysis of these progenies should permit the extraction of the seven possible wheat-Agropyron disomic addition lines including those with the added chromosomes carrying the genes involved in meiotic non-reduction and in suppression of Ph activity. PMID:24201360

  13. Low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene Glu-B3h confers superior dough strength and breadmaking quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaping; Zhen, Shoumin; Luo, Nana; Han, Caixia; Lu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaohui; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunit is one of the important quality elements in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although considerable allelic variation has been identified, the functional properties of individual alleles at Glu-3 loci are less studied. In this work, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characteristics and functional properties of the Glu-B3h gene using the wheat cultivar CB037B and its Glu-B3 deletion line CB037C. The results showed that the Glu-B3h deletion had no significant effects on plant morphological or yield traits, but resulted in a clear reduction in protein body number and size and main quality parameters, including inferior mixing property, dough strength, loaf volume, and score. Molecular characterization showed that the Glu-B3h gene consists of 1179 bp, and its encoded B-subunit has a longer repetitive domain and an increased number of α-helices, as well as higher expression, which could contribute to superior flour quality. The SNP-based allele-specific PCR markers designed for the Glu-B3h gene were developed and validated with bread wheat holding various alleles at Glu-B3 locus, which could effectively distinguish the Glu-B3h gene from others at the Glu-B3 locus, and have potential applications for wheat quality improvement through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27273251

  14. Effects of chlorsulfuron on diclofop-methyl toxicity to Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and Italian ryegrass interference in wheat (triticum aestivum)

    SciTech Connect

    Liebl, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Chlorsulfuron )2-chloro-N-(((4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino)carbonyl)benzenesulfonamide) and diclofop-methyl )methyl 2-(4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)phenoxy)propanoate) are herbicides used for the selective control of broadleaf and grassy weeds, respectively, in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The addition of chlorsulfuron (14.8 g ai/ha) to 0.90 kg ai/ha diclofop-methyl and applied postemergence reduced Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L.) control 27% and increased fresh weights over diclofop-methyl alone. Chlorsulfuron and diclofop-methyl were approximately 200 and 35%, respectively, more active on Italian ryegrass when applied pre-emergence compared to postemergence applications and responses of the combinations were additive. Although little movement of /sup 14/C-label occurred in either species, significantly more /sup 14/C-label translocated from the treated zone of Italian ryegrass. In metabolism studies, wheat was able to detoxify diclofop-methyl more rapidly than Italian ryegrass. In field interference studies, wheat grain yields were reduced an average of 4.2% for every 10 Italian ryegrass plants/m/sup 2/ because of decreased crop tillering. Italian ryegrass had net nitrate and potassium influx rates approximately 2-times greater than those for wheat when plants were growing in nutrient solution in the greenhouse.

  15. Accumulation and conversion of sugars by developing wheat grains. VII. Effect of changes in sieve tube and endosperm cavity sap concentrations on the grain filling rate. [Triticum aestivum

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, D.B.; Gifford, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    The extent to which wheat grain growth is dependent on transport pool solute concentration was investigated by the use of illumination and partial grain removal to vary solute concentrations in the sieve tube and endosperm cavity saps of the wheat ear (Triticum aestivum L.). Short-term grain growth rates were estimated indirectly from the product of phloem area, sieve tube sap concentration, and /sup 32/P translocation velocity. On a per grain basis, calculated rates of mass transport through the peduncle were fairly constant over a substantial range in other transport parameters (i.e. velocity, concentration, phloem area, and grain number). The rates were about 40% higher than expected; this probably reflects some unavoidable bias on faster-moving tracer in the velocity estimates. Sieve tube sap concentration increased in all experiments (by 20 to 64%), with a concomitant decline in velocity (to as low as 8% of the initial value). Endosperm cavity sucrose concentration also increased in all experiments, but cavity sap osmolality and total amino acid concentration remained nearly constant. No evidence was found for an increase in the rate of mass transport per grain through the peduncle in response to the treatments. This apparent unresponsiveness of grain growth rate to increased cavity sap sucrose concentration conflicts with earlier in vitro endosperm studies showing that sucrose uptake increased with increasing external sucrose concentration up to 150 to 200 millimolar.

  16. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells is altered by high temperature during grain fill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurkman, William J.; Wood, Delilah F.

    2010-06-01

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. 'Butte 86') was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/night regimen imposed from flowering to maturity and starch and protein deposition examined using scanning electron microscopy. The high temperature regimen shortened the duration of grain fill from 40 to 18 days. Under the 37/28°C regimen, A- and B-type starch granules decreased in size. A-type starch granules also exhibited pitting, suggesting enhanced action of starch degradative enzymes. Under both temperature regimens, protein bodies originated early in development and coalesced during mid to late development to form a continuous protein matrix surrounding the starch granules. Under the 37/28°C regimen, the proportion of protein matrix increased in endosperm cells of mature grain. Taken together, the changes in starch granule number and size and in protein matrix amount provide clues for understanding how high temperature during grain fill can affect end use properties of wheat flour.

  17. Nutrient variability in phloem: examining changes in K, Mg, Zn and Fe concentration during grain loading in common wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Palmer, Lachlan J; Palmer, Lyndon T; Rutzke, Michael A; Graham, Robin D; Stangoulis, James C R

    2014-12-01

    In wheat, nutrients are transported to seeds via the phloem yet access to this vascular tissue for exudate collection and quantitative analysis of elemental composition is difficult. The purest phloem is collected through the use of aphid stylectomy with volumes of exudate collected normally in the range of 20-500 nl. In this work a new method using inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) was developed to measure the concentration of K, Mg, Zn and Fe in volumes of wheat (Triticum aestivum, genotype Samnyt 16) phloem as small as 15.5 nl. This improved method was used to observe changes in phloem nutrient concentration during the grain loading period. There were statistically significant increases in phloem Mg and Zn concentration and a significant decrease in K over the period from 1-2 days after anthesis (DAA) to 9-12 DAA. During this period, there was no statistically significant change in phloem Fe concentration. PMID:24735095

  18. TaSCL14, a novel wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) GRAS gene, regulates plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kunmei; Li, Hongwei; Chen, Yaofeng; Zheng, Qi; Li, Bin; Li, Zhensheng

    2015-01-20

    Rates of photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence are all important physiological factors that affect plant development and thus agricultural productivity. GRAS proteins play essential roles in plant growth and development as well as in plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far few GRAS genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have been characterized. A previous transcriptome analysis indicated that the expression of a GRAS gene (TaSCL14) was induced by high-light stress in Xiaoyan 54 (XY54), a common wheat cultivar with strong tolerance to high-light stress. In this study, TaSCL14 gene was isolated from XY54 and mapped on chromosome 4A. TaSCL14 was expressed in various wheat organs, with high levels in stems and roots. Our results confirmed that TaSCL14 expression was indeed responsive to high-light stress. Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV)-based virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of TaSCL14 in wheat was performed to help characterize its potential functions. Silencing of TaSCL14 resulted in inhibited plant growth, decreased photosynthetic capacity, and reduced tolerance to photooxidative stress. In addition, silencing of TaSCL14 in wheat promoted leaf senescence induced by darkness. These results suggest that TaSCL14 may act as a multifunctional regulator involved in plant growth, photosynthesis, tolerance to photooxidative stress, and senescence. PMID:25619599

  19. When isolated at full receptivity, in vitro fertilized wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) egg cells reveal [Ca2+]cyt oscillation of intracellular origin.

    PubMed

    Pónya, Zsolt; Corsi, Ilaria; Hoffmann, Richárd; Kovács, Melinda; Dobosy, Anikó; Kovács, Attila Zoltán; Cresti, Mauro; Barnabás, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2+]cyt elevation varied, reflecting the difference in the developmental stage of the eggs used. [Ca2+]cyt oscillation was exclusively observed in fertile, mature egg cells fused with the sperm cell. To determine how [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells is generated, egg cells were incubated in thapsigargin, which proved to be a specific inhibitor of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+-ATPase in wheat egg cells. In unfertilized egg cells, the addition of thapsigargin caused an abrupt transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that an influx pathway for Ca2+ is activated by thapsigargin. The [Ca2+]cyt oscillation seemed to require the filling of an intracellular calcium store for the onset of which, calcium influx through the plasma membrane appeared essential. This was demonstrated by omitting extracellular calcium from (or adding GdCl3 to) the fusion medium, which prevented [Ca2+]cyt oscillation in mature egg cells fused with the sperm. Combined, these data permit the hypothesis that the first sperm-induced transient increase in [Ca2+]cyt depletes an intracellular Ca2+ store, triggering an increase in plasma membrane Ca2+ permeability, and this enhanced Ca2+ influx results in [Ca2+]cyt oscillation. PMID:25535074

  20. Chemoprevention by Triticum Aestivum of mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by DMBA and croton oil - association with oxidative status.

    PubMed

    Arya, Priyanka; Kumar, Madhu

    2011-01-01

    Chemopreventive action of wheat grass (Triticum astivum) leaf extract in Swiss albino mice was evaluated. Oral administration of wheat grass leaf extract at a dose level of 20 ml/kg body weight per day at pre, peri, and post-initional phases and in combination group, caused significant variation in tumour incidence and tumour yield as compared to the control group. Moreover, the average latent period was significantly increased from 9.87 ± 0.12 to 13.4 ± 0.23 weeks in the combination group, together with significant elevation of reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalase (CAT) and reduction in lipid peroxidation (LPO) was observed as compared to the control group. PMID:21517247

  1. Polysaccharide isolated from Triticum aestivum stimulates insulin release from pancreatic cells via the ATP-sensitive K+ channel.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Hee; Lim, Sung-Won; Lee, Young-Mi; Lee, Hoi-Seon; Kim, Dae-Ki

    2012-05-01

    Traditional natural plants have been used throughout the world for their antidiabetic effects. The aim of the present study was to investigate the stimulating activity of a polysaccharide extract derived from T. aestivum sprout (TASP) on insulin secretion in vitro using the RIN-5F pancreatic β-cell line and rat pancreatic islets. In these experiments, TASP (0.1 to 2 mg/ml) augmented glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in a dose-dependent manner in the presence of a stimulatory glucose concentration (16.7 mM), but not of a basal concentration (1.1 mM). Although TASP failed to enhance the high K+-induced insulin secretion, the insulinotropic effect of TASP was significantly inhibited by diazoxide, an opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocking insulin release. TASP potentiated the insulin secretion induced by other secretagogues, such as IBMX and tolbutamide. Moreover, glucose-derived blood insulin levels were significantly elevated by oral administration of TASP to mice, similarly to antidiabetic drugs. We also demonstrated that TASP significantly increased glucose-induced 45Ca2+ uptake and proinsulin mRNA expression in rat islets. Overall, our results suggest that TASP has a stimulating effect on insulin secretion and production in pancreatic β-cells via K+ channel closure and calcium influx. These results suggest that TASP may be useful as a candidate for the therapy of diabetes mellitus. PMID:22322245

  2. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat. PMID:27048492

  3. Significant changes in cell and chloroplast development in young wheat leaves (Triticum aestivum cv Hereward) grown in elevated CO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.J.; Leech, R.M.

    1995-01-01

    Cell and chloroplast development were characterized in young Triticum aestivum cv Hereward leaves grown at ambient (350 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) or at elevated (650 {mu}L L{sup {minus}1}) CO{sub 2}. In elevated CO{sub 2}, cell and chloroplast expansion was accelerated by 10 and 25%, respectively, in the first leaf of 7-d-old wheat plants without disruption to the leaf developmental pattern. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not affect the number of chloroplasts in relation to mesophyll cell size or the linear relationship between chloroplast number or size and mesophyll cell size. No major changes in leaf anatomy or in chloroplast ultrastructure were detected as a result of growth in elevated CO{sub 2}, but there was a marked reduction in starch accumulation. In leaf sections fluorescently tagged antisera were used to visualize and quantitate the amount of cytochrome f, the {alpha}- and {beta}-subunits of the coupling factor 1 in ATP synthase, D1 protein of the photosystem II reaction center, the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex, subunit II of photosystem I, and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. A significant finding was that in 10 to 20% of the mesophyll cells grown in elevated CO{sub 2} the 33-kD protein of the extrinsic oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II and cytochrome f were deficient by 75%, but the other proteins accumulated normally. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Molecular cloning and characterization of an up-regulated UDP-glucosyltransferase gene induced by DON from Triticum aestivum L. cv. Wangshuibai.

    PubMed

    Lulin, Ma; Yi, Shang; Aizhong, Cao; Zengjun, Qi; Liping, Xing; Peidu, Chen; Dajun, Liu; Xiu-E, Wang

    2010-02-01

    Fusarium head blight, also called scab, is a serious disease of small grain cereals and maize. Scab can not only cause yield loss, more seriously is that it can also deteriorate seed quality by contaminating the infected grains with trichothecenes toxins harmful to human and animal health. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is one of the most important toxin members. It was proposed that DON acted first as a virulence factor during fungal pathogenesis and then accumulated in grain to levels posing a threat to human and animal health. In the present research, by expression analysis of DON-induced samples using GeneChip Wheat Genome Array ( http://www.affymetrix.com/products/arrays/specific/wheat.affx ), a DON-resistance related gene TaUGT3 (GenBank accession FJ236328) was cloned and characterized from a scab resistant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Wangshuibai. The full-length cDNA of TaUGT3 was 1,755 bp and contained a putative open reading frame (ORF) with 496 amino acids encoding a UDP-glucosyltransferase (UGT). TaUGT3 showed high similarity in amino acid level with DOGT1 gene in Arabidopsis, which is able to detoxify DON. TaUGT3 was located on the group 3 chromosomes of wheat using nulli-tetrasomic lines and deletion lines of Chinese Spring. Co-transformed of TaUGT3 with GFP genes to onion epidermis cells using transient transformation technique by microprojectile bombardment indicated the subcellular location of the protein encoded by TaUGT3 was in the plasma membrane and nuclear. Transformation and overexpression of the TaUGT3 gene in Arabidopsis could enhance tolerance against DON. PMID:19585272

  5. Developmental Changes in Composition and Morphology of Cuticular Waxes on Leaves and Spikes of Glossy and Glaucous Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Guaiqiang; Li, Chunlian; Hu, Yingang; Chen, Xinhong; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    The glossy varieties (A14 and Jing 2001) and glaucous varieties (Fanmai 5 and Shanken 99) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were selected for evaluation of developmental changes in the composition and morphology of cuticular waxes on leaves and spikes. The results provide us with two different wax development patterns between leaf and spike. The general accumulation trend of the total wax load on leaf and spike surfaces is first to increase and then decrease during the development growth period, but these changes were caused by different compound classes between leaf and spike. Developmental changes of leaf waxes were mainly the result of variations in composition of alcohols and alkanes. In addition, diketones were the third important contributor to the leaf wax changes in the glaucous varieties. Alkanes and diketones were the two major compound classes that caused the developmental changes of spike waxes. For leaf waxes, β- and OH-β-diketones were first detected in flag leaves from 200-day-old plants, and the amounts of β- and OH-β-diketones were significantly higher in glaucous varieties compared with glossy varieties. In spike waxes, β-diketone existed in all varieties, but OH-β-diketone was detectable only in the glaucous varieties. Unexpectedly, the glaucous variety Fanmai 5 yielded large amounts of OH-β-diketone. There was a significant shift in the chain length distribution of alkanes between early stage leaf and flag leaf. Unlike C28 alcohol being the dominant chain length in leaf waxes, the dominant alcohol chain length of spikes was C24 or C26 depending on varieties. Epicuticular wax crystals on wheat leaf and glume were comprised of platelets and tubules, and the crystal morphology changed constantly throughout plant growth, especially the abaxial leaf crystals. Moreover, our results suggested that platelets and tubules on glume surfaces could be formed rapidly within a few days. PMID:26506246

  6. A genome-wide analysis of the auxin/indole-3-acetic acid gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Linyi; Zhang, Xiaojun; Han, Xiao; Zhang, Lei; Li, Xin; Zhan, Haixian; Ma, Jian; Luo, Peigao; Zhang, Wenping; Cui, Lei; Li, Xiaoyan; Chang, Zhijian

    2015-01-01

    The Auxin/indole-3-acetic acid (Aux/IAA) gene family plays key roles in the primary auxin-response process and controls a number of important traits in plants. However, the characteristics of the Aux/IAA gene family in hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) have long been unknown. In this study, a comprehensive identification of the Aux/IAA gene family was performed using the latest draft genome sequence of the bread wheat “Chinese Spring.” Thirty-four Aux/IAA genes were identified, 30 of which have duplicated genes on the A, B or D sub-genome, with a total of 84 Aux/IAA sequences. These predicted Aux/IAA genes were non-randomly distributed in all the wheat chromosomes except for chromosome 2D. The information of wheat Aux/IAA proteins is also described. Based on an analysis of phylogeny, expression and adaptive evolution, we prove that the Aux/IAA family in wheat has been replicated twice in the two allopolyploidization events of bread wheat, when the tandem duplication also occurred. The duplicated genes have undergone an evolutionary process of purifying selection, resulting in the high conservation of copy genes among sub-genomes and functional redundancy among several members of the TaIAA family. However, functional divergence probably existed in most TaIAA members due to the diversity of the functional domain and expression pattern. Our research provides useful information for further research into the function of Aux/IAA genes in wheat. PMID:26483801

  7. Identification and mapping QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Stephens'.

    PubMed

    Santra, D K; Chen, X M; Santra, M; Campbell, K G; Kidwell, K K

    2008-09-01

    High-temperature adult-plant (HTAP) resistance from the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivar 'Stephens' has protected wheat crops from stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici for 30 years. The objectives of this study were to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) for HTAP resistance in Stephens through genetic linkage analysis and identify DNA markers linked to the QTL for use in marker-assisted breeding. Mapping populations consisted of 101 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) through single-seed descent from 'Stephens' (resistant) x 'Michigan Amber' (susceptible). F(5), F(6) and F(7) RILs were evaluated for stripe rust resistance at Pullman, WA in 1996, 1997 and 1998, respectively, whereas F(8) RILs were evaluated at Mt Vernon, WA, USA in 2005. The 101 F(8) RILs were evaluated with 250 resistance gene analog polymorphism (RGAP), 245 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 1 sequence tagged site (STS) markers for genetic linkage map construction. Two QTL, which explained 48-61% of the total phenotypic variation of the HTAP resistance in Stephens, were identified. QYrst.wgp-6BS.1 was within a 3.9-cM region flanked by Xbarc101 and Xbarc136. QYrst.wgp-6BS.2 was mapped in a 17.5-cM region flanked by Xgwm132 and Xgdm113. Both two QTL were physically mapped to the short arm of chromosome 6B, but in different bins. Validation and polymorphism tests of the flanking markers in 43 wheat genotypes indicated that the molecular markers associated with these QTL should be useful in marker-assisted breeding programs to efficiently incorporate HTAP resistance into new wheat cultivars. PMID:18584147

  8. Identifying QTL for high-temperature adult-plant resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in the spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 'Louise'.

    PubMed

    Carter, Arron Hyrum; Chen, X M; Garland-Campbell, K; Kidwell, K K

    2009-10-01

    Over time, many single, all-stage resistance genes to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are circumvented by race changes in the pathogen. In contrast, high-temperature, adult-plant resistance (HTAP), which only is expressed during the adult-plant stage and when air temperatures are warm, provides durable protection against stripe rust. Our objective was to identify major quantitative trait loci (QTL) for HTAP resistance to stripe rust in the spring wheat cultivar 'Louise'. The mapping population consisted of 188 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) from a Louise (resistant) by 'Penawawa' (susceptible) cross. F(5:6) lines were evaluated for stripe rust reaction under natural infection in replicated field trials at five locations in the US Pacific Northwest in 2007 and 2008. Infection type (IT) and disease severity were recorded for each RIL 2-4 times per location. In all environments, Penawawa, the susceptible parent, was rated with an IT ranging from 6 to 8 at all growth stages evaluated. In contrast, Louise, the resistant parent, was rated with an IT of 2 or 3 across growth stages. Distribution of IT values was bimodal, indicating a single major gene was affecting the trait. The parents and RIL population were evaluated with 295 polymorphic simple sequence repeat and one single nucleotide polymorphism markers. One major QTL, designated QYrlo.wpg-2BS, associated with HTAP resistance in Louise, was detected on chromosome 2BS (LOD scores ranging from 5.5 to 62.3 across locations and years) within a 16.9 cM region flanked by Xwmc474 and Xgwm148. SSR markers associated with QYrlo.wpg-2BS are currently being used in marker-based forward breeding strategies to transfer the target region into adapted germplasm to improve the durability of resistance in resulting cultivars. PMID:19644666

  9. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Fowler, D B; N'Diaye, A; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D; Pozniak, C J

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar 'Norstar' as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability's reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic islands

  10. Liquid chromatography-diode array detection to study the metabolism of glufosinate in Triticum aestivum T-590 and influence of the genetic modification on its resistance.

    PubMed

    Rojano-Delgado, Antonia María; Priego-Capote, Feliciano; Barro, Francisco; de Castro, María Dolores Luque; De Prado, Rafael

    2013-12-01

    The resistance to glufosinate of two lines-genetically modified (GM) and unmodified (T-590 and T-549, respectively)-of Triticum aestivum has been studied. In the GM line, the bar gene was introduced to increase the resistance to glufosinate. Experiments in a controlled growth chamber showed that line T-590 presented a high resistance to glufosinate with an ED50 value of 478.59 g active ingredient per hectare (g ai ha(-1)) versus 32.65 g ai ha(-1) for line T-549. The activity of glutamine synthetase (GS) in leaf extracts from both lines was investigated. The I50 for line T-590 was 694.10 μM glufosinate versus 55.46 μM for line T-549, with a resistance factor of 12.51. Metabolism studies showed a higher and faster penetration of glufosinate in line T-549 than in line T-590. LC-TOF/MS analysis of glufosinate metabolism at 48 h after herbicide treatment (300 g ai ha(-1)) revealed an 83.4% conversion of the herbicide (66.5% in N-acetyl-glufosinate metabolite), while in line T-549 conversion of the herbicide was about 40% (0% to N-acetyl-glufosinate). These results suggest that metabolism of glufosinate by the bar gene is a key mechanism of resistance in line T-590 that explains such high levels of herbicide tolerated by the plant, together with other mechanisms due to unmodified pathway, absorption and loss of glufosinate affinity for its target site. PMID:24189348

  11. Comparison of the effects of symmetric and asymmetric temperature elevation and CO2 enrichment on yield and evapotranspiration of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Yunzhou; Liu, Huiling; Kellomäki, Seppo; Peltola, Heli; Liu, Yueyan; Dong, Baodi; Shi, Changhai; Zhang, Huizhen; Zhang, Chao; Gong, Jinnan; Si, Fuyan; Li, Dongxiao; Zheng, Xin; Liu, Mengyu

    2014-01-01

    Under the changing climate, asymmetric warming pattern would be more likely during day and night time, instead of symmetric one. Concurrently, the growth responses and water use of plants may be different compared with those estimated based on symmetric warming. In this work, it was compared with the effects of symmetric (ETs) and asymmetric (ETa) elevation of temperature alone, and in interaction with elevated carbon dioxide concentration (EC), on the grain yield (GY) and evapotranspiration in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) based on pot experiment in the North China Plain (NCP). The experiment was carried out in six enclosed-top chambers with following climate treatments: (1) ambient temperature and ambient CO2 (CON), (2) ambient temperature and elevated CO2 (EC), (3) elevated temperature and ambient CO2 (ETs; ETa), and (4) elevated temperature and elevated CO2 (ECETs, ECETa). In symmetric warming, temperature was increased by 3°C and in asymmetric one by 3.5°C during night and 2.5°C during daytime, respectively. As a result, GY was in ETa and ETs 15.6 (P < 0.05) and 10.3% (P < 0.05) lower than that in CON. In ECETs and ECETa treatments, GY was 14.9 (P < 0.05) and 9.1% (P < 0.05) higher than that in CON. Opposite to GY, evapotranspiration was 7.8 (P < 0.05) and 17.9% (P < 0.05) higher in ETa and ETs treatments and 7.2 (P < 0.05) and 2.1% (P > 0.05) lower in ECETs and ECETa treatments compared with CON. Thus, GY of wheat could be expected to increase under the changing climate with concurrent elevation of CO2 and temperature as a result of increased WUE under the elevated CO2. However, the gain would be lower under ETa than that estimated based on ETs due to higher evapotranspiration. PMID:24963392

  12. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture.

    PubMed

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research. PMID:27625667

  13. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-03-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade. PMID:25468933

  14. FAR5, a fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase, is involved in primary alcohol biosynthesis of the leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yong; Wang, Meiling; Sun, Yulin; Wang, Yanting; Li, Tingting; Chai, Guaiqiang; Jiang, Wenhui; Shan, Liwei; Li, Chunlian; Xiao, Enshi; Wang, Zhonghua

    2015-01-01

    A waxy cuticle that serves as a protective barrier against non-stomatal water loss and environmental damage coats the aerial surfaces of land plants. It comprises a cutin polymer matrix and waxes. Cuticular waxes are complex mixtures of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFAs) and their derivatives. Results show that primary alcohols are the major components of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaf blade cuticular waxes. Here, the characterization of TaFAR5 from wheat cv Xinong 2718, which is allelic to TAA1b, an anther-specific gene, is reported. Evidence is presented for a new function for TaFAR5 in the biosynthesis of primary alcohols of leaf blade cuticular wax in wheat. Expression of TaFAR5 cDNA in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) led to production of C22:0 primary alcohol. The transgenic expression of TaFAR5 in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cv MicroTom leaves resulted in the accumulation of C26:0, C28:0, and C30:0 primary alcohols. TaFAR5 encodes an alcohol-forming fatty acyl-coenzyme A reductase (FAR). Expression analysis revealed that TaFAR5 was expressed at high levels in the leaf blades, anthers, pistils, and seeds. Fully functional green fluorescent protein-tagged TaFAR5 protein was localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the site of primary alcohol biosynthesis. SDS–PAGE analysis indicated that the TaFAR5 protein possessed a molecular mass of 58.4kDa, and it was also shown that TaFAR5 transcript levels were regulated in response to drought, cold, and abscisic acid (ABA). Overall, these data suggest that TaFAR5 plays an important role in the synthesis of primary alcohols in wheat leaf blade. PMID:25468933

  15. Uptake of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and their translocation to shoots.

    PubMed

    Jandrić, Zora; Rathor, Mohammad N; Chhem-Kieth, Sorivan; Adu-Gyamfi, Joseph; Mayr, Leopold; Resch, Christian; Bado, Souleymane; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Cannavan, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Plant uptake of toxins and their translocation to edible plant parts are important processes in the transfer of contaminants into the food chain. Atropine, a highly toxic muscarine receptor antagonist produced by Solanacea species, is found in all plant tissues and can enter the soil and hence be available for uptake by crops. The absorption of atropine and/or its transformation products from soil by wheat (Triticum aestivum var Kronjet) and its distribution to shoots was investigated by growing wheat in soil spiked with unlabeled or (14)C-labeled atropine. Radioactivity attributable to (14)C-atropine and its transformation products was measurable in plants sampled at 15 d after sowing (DAS) and thereafter until the end of experiment. The highest accumulation of (14)C-atropine and/or its transformation products by plants was detected in leaves (between 73 and 90% of the total accumulated) with lower amounts in stems, roots, and seeds (approximately 14%, 9%, and 3%, respectively). (14)C-Atropine and/or its transformation products were detected in soil leachate at 30, 60, and 90 DAS and were strongly adsorbed to soil, with 60% of the applied dose adsorbed at 30 DAS, plateauing at 70% from 60 DAS. Unlabeled atropine was detected in shoots 30 DAS at a concentration of 3.9 ± 0.1 μg kg(-1) (mean ± SD). The observed bioconcentration factor was 2.3 ± 0.04. The results suggest a potential risk of atropine toxicity to consumers. PMID:24007480

  16. Heavy metal and metalloid concentrations in components of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan province, China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Weiqin; Zhang, Hongyi; Scheckel, Kirk G; Li, Liping

    2016-01-01

    Soil contamination and human impacts have been reported in the vicinity of lead (Pb) smelters in Henan, China. However, no information is available on crop uptake of soil contaminants near these smelters. Grains, glume, rachis, and stem/leaf samples of 25 wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were collected from a small, smelter-impacted agricultural area of Beishe Village, Henan Province, and were analyzed for arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), Pb, and zinc (Zn) concentrations. The study aim was to evaluate the level of contaminant uptake in wheat and ostensibly observe if specific varieties of wheat were more susceptible to uptake. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in whole grain flour were 0.0915, 0.192, 3.22, 0.280, and 32.5 mg kg(-1), respectively. Grain concentrations of all 25 varieties for Cd as well as 16 varieties for Pb exceeded the maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) for consumption. Mean pollution indexes (MPI) (element concentration of wheat grain/MPC for As, Cd or Pb) of the grains varied 0.562-2.15. As, Pb, and Cd contributed 5.22, 40.0, and 54.8 % to the MPI for all 25 varieties, respectively. This survey highlights Cd and Pb contamination of wheat grains in the vicinity of lead smelters in Henan Province, and likely other farm villages in the area. Further work is needed to examine uptake and contamination of other crops and vegetables impacted from the lead smelters in Henan Province and the absorption of toxic elements from food sources by local inhabitants. PMID:26661959

  17. Quantitative Trait Loci Associated with Phenological Development, Low-Temperature Tolerance, Grain Quality, and Agronomic Characters in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, D. B.; N'Diaye, A.; Laudencia-Chingcuanco, D.; Pozniak, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    Plants must respond to environmental cues and schedule their development in order to react to periods of abiotic stress and commit fully to growth and reproduction under favorable conditions. This study was initiated to identify SNP markers for characters expressed from the seedling stage to plant maturity in spring and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes adapted to western Canada. Three doubled haploid populations with the winter cultivar ‘Norstar’ as a common parent were developed and genotyped with a 90K Illumina iSelect SNP assay and a 2,998.9 cM consensus map with 17,541 markers constructed. High heritability’s reflected large differences among the parents and relatively low genotype by environment interactions for all characters considered. Significant QTL were detected for the 15 traits examined. However, different QTL for days to heading in controlled environments and the field provided a strong reminder that growth and development are being orchestrated by environmental cues and caution should be exercised when extrapolating conclusions from different experiments. A QTL on chromosome 6A for minimum final leaf number, which determines the rate of phenological development in the seedling stage, was closely linked to QTL for low-temperature tolerance, grain quality, and agronomic characters expressed up to the time of maturity. This suggests phenological development plays a critical role in programming subsequent outcomes for many traits. Transgressive segregation was observed for the lines in each population and QTL with additive effects were identified suggesting that genes for desirable traits could be stacked using Marker Assisted Selection. QTL were identified for characters that could be transferred between the largely isolated western Canadian spring and winter wheat gene pools demonstrating the opportunities offered by Marker Assisted Selection to act as bridges in the identification and transfer of useful genes among related genetic

  18. Combining ability in the F1 and F2 generations of diallel cross in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell).

    PubMed

    Joshi, S K; Sharma, S N; Singhania, D L; Sain, R S

    2004-01-01

    The F(1) and F(2) progenies of a ten-parent diallel cross (excluding reciprocals) of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell) were analyzed for combining ability for quantitative and quality traits. The results indicated significant differences among the parents for general combining ability (gca) and crosses for specific combining ability (sca) for all the characters studied. The gca and sca components of variance were significant for all the traits. However, the gca component of variance was predominant indicating the predominance of additive gene effects for the traits studied. Among the parents Durgapura 65, HD 2285, Lok-1, Raj 1972 and HD 2329 were the best general combiners for grain yield and average to high combiners for tillers per plant, grain yield per spike, grains per spike and 1000-grain weight. The best specific crosses for grain yield were Sonalika x WH 157, HD 2428 x Durgapura 65, Durgapura 65 x Sonalika, HD 2428 x Lok-1 and CPAN 3004 x Raj 1972. The parent Raj 1972, Lok-1 and HD 2285 were the best general combiners for grain yield and protein content, however, Raj 3077 was the best general combiner for protein content. The most suitable specific crosses for protein content were HD 2329 x HD 2285, HD 2428 x Raj 1972 and CPAN 3004 x WH 157. Most of the specific crosses for grain yield as well as protein content involved high x average, average x average and average x poor general combiners. To ensure further increase in grain yield along with high protein, combinations of desirable yield components is advocated. Inclusion of F(1) hybrids showing high sca and having parents with good gca, into multiple crosses and/or bi-parental mating, or diallel selective mating could prove a worthwhile approach for further improvement of grain yield in bread wheat. PMID:15660971

  19. Identification and Comparative Analysis of microRNA in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Callus Derived from Mature and Immature Embryos during In vitro Culture

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Xu, Haixia; Dong, Zhongdong; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2016-01-01

    Feasible and efficient tissue culture plays an important role in plant genetic engineering. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) immature embryos (IMEs) are preferred for tissue culture to mature embryos (MEs) because IMEs easily generate embryogenic callus, producing large number of plants. The molecular mechanisms of regulation and the biological pathways involved in embryogenic callus formation in wheat remain unclear. Here, microRNAs (miRNAs) potentially involved in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis were identified through deep sequencing of small RNAs (sRNAs) and analyzed with bioinformatics tools. Six sRNA libraries derived from calli of IMEs and MEs after 3, 6, or 15 d of culture (DC) were constructed and sequenced. A total of 85 known miRNAs were identified, of which 30, 33, and 18 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the IME and ME libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. Additionally, 171 novel and 41 candidate miRNAs were also identified, of the novel miRNA, 69, 67, and 37 were differentially expressed (P < 0.05) between the two types of libraries at 3, 6, and 15 DC, respectively. The expression patterns of eight known and eight novel miRNAs were validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Gene ontology annotation of differentially expressed miRNA targets provided information regarding the underlying molecular functions, biological processes, and cellular components involved in embryogenic callus development. Functional miRNAs, such as miR156, miR164, miR1432, miR398, and miR397, differentially expressed in IMEs and MEs might be related to embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis. This study suggests that miRNA plays an important role in embryogenic callus formation and somatic embryogenesis in wheat, and our data provide a useful resource for further research. PMID:27625667

  20. Characterization of γ-aminobutyric acid metabolism and oxidative damage in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings under salt and osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Al-Quraan, Nisreen A; Sartawe, Fatima Al-Batool; Qaryouti, Muien M

    2013-07-15

    The molecular response of plants to abiotic stresses has been considered a process mainly involved in the modulation of transcriptional activity of stress-related genes. Nevertheless, recent findings have suggested new layers of regulation and complexity. Upstream molecular mechanisms are involved in the plant response to abiotic stress. Plants gain resistance to abiotic stress by reprogramming metabolism and gene expression. GABA is proposed to be a signaling molecule involved in nitrogen metabolism, regulating the cytosolic pH, and protection against oxidative damage in response to various abiotic stresses. The aim of our study was to examine the role of the GABA shunt pathway-specific response in five wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Hurani 75, Sham I, Acsad 65, Um Qayes and Nodsieh) to salt and osmotic stress in terms of seed germination, seedling growth, oxidative damage (malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation), and characterization of the glutamate decarboxylse gene (GAD) m-RNA level were determined using RT-PCR techniques. Our data showed a marked increase in GABA, MDA and GAD m-RNA levels under salt and osmotic stress in the five wheat cultivars. Um Qayes cultivar showed the highest germination percentage, GABA accumulation, and MDA level under salt and osmotic stresses. The marked increase in GAD gene expression explains the high accumulation of the GABA level under both stresses. Our results indicated that the GABA shunt is a key signaling and metabolic pathway that allows wheat to adapt to salt and osmotic stress. Based on our data, the Um Qayes wheat cultivar is the cultivar most recommended to be grown in soil with high salt and osmotic contents. PMID:23602379

  1. Isolation of a wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) mutant in ABA 8'-hydroxylase gene: effect of reduced ABA catabolism on germination inhibition under field condition.

    PubMed

    Chono, Makiko; Matsunaka, Hitoshi; Seki, Masako; Fujita, Masaya; Kiribuchi-Otobe, Chikako; Oda, Shunsuke; Kojima, Hisayo; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Kawakami, Naoto

    2013-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting, the germination of mature seeds on the mother plant under moist condition, is a serious problem in cereals. To investigate the effect of reduced abscisic acid (ABA) catabolism on germination in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), we cloned the wheat ABA 8'-hydroxyase gene which was highly expressed during seed development (TaABA8'OH1) and screened for mutations that lead to reduced ABA catabolism. In a screen for natural variation, one insertion mutation in exon 5 of TaABA8'OH1 on the D genome (TaABA8'OH1-D) was identified in Japanese cultivars including 'Tamaizumi'. However, a single mutation in TaABA8'OH1-D had no clear effect on germination inhibition in double haploid lines. In a screen for a mutation, one deletion mutant lacking the entire TaABA8'OH1 on the A genome (TaABA8'OH1-A), TM1833, was identified from gamma-ray irradiation lines of 'Tamaizumi'. TM1833 (a double mutant in TaABA8'OH1-A and TaABA8'OH1-D) showed lower TaABA8'OH1 expression, higher ABA content in embryos during seed development under field condition and lower germination than those in 'Tamaizumi' (a single mutant in TaABA8'OH1-D). These results indicate that reduced ABA catabolism through mutations in TaABA8'OH1 may be effective in germination inhibition in field-grown wheat. PMID:23641187

  2. Comparative functional analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins in response to abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Xu, Tao; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of TaRZs was markedly regulated by salt, dehydration, or cold stress. The TaRZ1 and TaRZ3 proteins were localized to the nucleus, whereas the TaRZ2 protein was localized to the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and cytoplasm. Germination of all three TaRZ-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded compared with that of wild-type seeds under salt stress conditions, whereas germination of TaRZ2- or TaRZ3-expressing transgenic Arabidopsis seeds was retarded under dehydration stress conditions. Seedling growth of TaRZ1-expressing transgenic plants was severely inhibited under cold or salt stress conditions, and seedling growth of TaRZ2-expressing plants was inhibited under salt stress conditions. By contrast, expression of TaRZ3 did not affect seedling growth of transgenic plants under any of the stress conditions. In addition, expression of TaRZ2 conferred freeze tolerance in Arabidopsis. Taken together, these results suggest that different TaRZ family members play various roles in seed germination, seedling growth, and freeze tolerance in plants under abiotic stress. PMID:24800811

  3. Integrated analysis of seed proteome and mRNA oxidation reveals distinct post-transcriptional features regulating dormancy in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Rampitsch, Christof; Chitnis, Vijaya R; Humphreys, Gavin D; Jordan, Mark C; Ayele, Belay T

    2013-10-01

    Wheat seeds can be released from a dormant state by after-ripening; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms are still mostly unknown. We previously identified transcriptional programmes involved in the regulation of after-ripening-mediated seed dormancy decay in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here, we show that seed dormancy maintenance and its release by dry after-ripening in wheat is associated with oxidative modification of distinct seed-stored mRNAs that mainly correspond to oxidative phosphorylation, ribosome biogenesis, nutrient reservoir and α-amylase inhibitor activities, suggesting the significance of post-transcriptional repression of these biological processes in regulating seed dormancy. We further show that after-ripening induced seed dormancy release in wheat is mediated by differential expression of specific proteins in both dry and hydrated states, including those involved in proteolysis, cellular signalling, translation and energy metabolism. Among the genes corresponding to these proteins, the expression of those encoding α-amylase/trypsin inhibitor and starch synthase appears to be regulated by mRNA oxidation. Co-expression analysis of the probesets differentially expressed and oxidized during dry after-ripening along with those corresponding to proteins differentially regulated between dormant and after-ripened seeds produced three co-expressed gene clusters containing more candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of seed dormancy in wheat. Two of the three clusters are enriched with elements that are either abscisic acid (ABA) responsive or recognized by ABA-regulated transcription factors, indicating the association between wheat seed dormancy and ABA sensitivity. PMID:23745731

  4. Low light intensity effects on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics, antioxidant capacity, yield and quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at different growth stages in BLSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Chen; Fu, Yuming; Liu, Guanghui; Liu, Hong

    2014-06-01

    Minimizing energy consumption and maximizing crop productivity are major challenges to growing plants in Bioregenerative Life Support System (BLSS) for future long-term space mission. As a primary source of energy, light is one of the most important environmental factors for plant growth. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of low light intensity at different stages on growth, pigment composition, photosynthetic efficiency, biological production and antioxidant defence systems of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars during ontogenesis. Experiments were divided into 3 intensity-controlled stages according to growth period (a total of 65 days): seedling stage (first 20 days), heading and flowering stage (middle 30 days) and grain filling stage (last 15 days). Initial light condition of the control was 420 μmol m-2 s-1 and the light intensity increased with the growth of wheat plants. The light intensities of group I and II at the first stage and the last stage were adjusted to the half level of the control respectively. For group III, the first and the last stage were both adjusted to half level of the control. During the middle 30 days, all treatments were kept the same intensity. The results indicated that low-light treatment at seedling stage, biomass, nutritional contents, components of inedible biomass and healthy index (including peroxidase (POD) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) and proline content) of wheat plants have no significant difference to the control. Furthermore, unit kilojoule yield of group I reached 0.591 × 10-3 g/kJ and induced the highest energy efficiency. However, low-light treatment at grain filling stage affected the final production significantly.

  5. Regulation of invertase activity in different root zones of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings in the course of osmotic adjustment under water deficit conditions.

    PubMed

    Königshofer, Helga; Löppert, Hans-Georg

    2015-07-01

    Osmotic adjustment of roots is an essential adaptive mechanism to sustain water uptake and root growth under water deficit. In this paper, the role of invertases (β-fructofuranosidase, EC 3.2.1.26) in osmotic adjustment was investigated in the root tips (cell division and elongation zone) and the root maturation zone of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Josef) in the course of osmotic stress imposed by 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000. The two root zones investigated differed distinctly in the response of invertases to water deprivation. In the root tips, the activity of the vacuolar and cell wall-bound invertases increased markedly under water stress resulting in the accumulation of hexoses (glucose and fructose) that contributed significantly to osmotic adjustment. A transient rise in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) preceded the enhancement of invertases upon exposure to osmotic stress. Treatment with the NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) abolished the stress induced H2O2 production and suppressed the stimulation of the vacuolar invertase activity, whereas the activity of the cell wall-bound invertase was not influenced by DPI. As a consequence of the inhibitory effect of DPI on the vacuolar invertase, hexose levels and osmotic adjustment were also markedly decreased in the root tips under water deficit in the presence of DPI. These data suggest that H2O2 probably generated by a NADPH oxidase is required as a signalling molecule for the up-regulation of the vacuolar invertase activity in the root tips under osmotic stress, thereby enhancing the capacity for osmotic adjustment. In the root maturation zone, an early H2O2 signal could not be detected in response to PEG application. Only an increase in the glucose level that was not paralleled by fructose and a slight stimulation of the activity of the vacuolar invertase occurred in the maturation zone after water deprivation. The stress induced accumulation of glucose in the maturation zone was not

  6. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Babben, Steve; Perovic, Dragan; Koch, Michael; Ordon, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i) identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS) of candidate genes, (ii) intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii) identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv); testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT) lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%), corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence. PMID:26565976

  7. Phytotoxicity of three plant-based biodiesels, unmodified castor oil, and Diesel fuel to alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), radish (Raphanus sativus), and wheatgrass (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Bamgbose, Ifeoluwa; Anderson, Todd A

    2015-12-01

    The wide use of plant-based oils and their derivatives, in particular biodiesel, have increased extensively over the past decade to help alleviate demand for petroleum products and improve the greenhouse gas emissions profile of the transportation sector. Biodiesel is regarded as a clean burning alternative fuel produced from livestock feeds and various vegetable oils. Although in theory these animal and/or plant derived fuels should have less environmental impact in soil based on their simplified composition relative to Diesel, they pose an environmental risk like Diesel at high concentrations when disposed. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the phytotoxicity of three different plant-derived biodiesels relative to conventional Diesel. For phytotoxicological analysis, we used seeds of four crop plants, Medicago sativa, Lactuca sativa, Raphanus sativus, and Triticum aestivum to analyze the germination of seeds in contaminated soil samples. The toxicological experiment was conducted with two different soil textures: sandy loam soil and silt loam soil. The studied plant-based biodiesels were safflower methyl-ester, castor methyl ester, and castor ethyl-ester. Biodiesel toxicity was more evident at high concentrations, affecting the germination and survival of small-seeded plants to a greater extent. Tolerance of plants to the biodiesels varied between plant species and soil textures. With the exception of R. sativus, all plant species were affected and exhibited some sensitivity to the fuels, such as delayed seedling emergence and slow germination (average=10 days) at high soil concentrations (0.85% for Diesel and 1.76% for the biodiesels). Tolerance of plants to soil contamination had a species-specific nature, and on average, decreased in the following order: Raphanus sativus (0-20%)>Triticum aestivum (10-40%) ≥ Medicago sativa> Lactuca sativa (80-100%). Thus, we conclude that there is some phytotoxicity associated with plant-based biodiesels. Further

  8. Respiration and Energy Turnover During the Seedling Development of Triticum aestivum L., Zea mays L., Helianthus annuus L., and Phaseolus vulgaris L.

    PubMed

    Bolhàr-Nordenkampf, H R; Zahrl, J

    1984-08-01

    Seedling length, CO(2) output, dry weight and energy content of the seeds and seedling organs of Triticum, Zea, Helianthus and Phaseolus were determined in order to study the efficiency of storage substance utilization and energy turnover during seedling development up to 108 h. The respiration rate is lower in the large seeds of Zea and Phaseolus (2.2 and 2.0 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)) than in the small seeds of Triticum and Helianthus (3.1 and 4.2 mgCO(2)·gDW(-1)·h(-1)). CO(2) output during the synthesis of seedling organs reaches a maximum value in Triticum, Zea and Helianthus after 36 h (1.0, 1.7 and 1.3 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1), resp.) and in Phaseolus after 60 h (3.0 gCO(2)·gDW(n)(-1)). This high CO(2) evolution is caused by the lag phase of growth at the beginning of germination, as indicated in the RGR course. The loss of mobilized storage substances caused by CO(2) evolution amounts to 46% in Phaseolus and is less (av. 30%) in the other seeds. The energy loss in relation to the energy of the ungerminated seed is relatively high in the small and energy-rich seeds of Triticum (19%) and Helianthus (21 %) compared with the large seeds of Zea (8 %) and Phaseolus (13 %). The efficiency of energy utilization corresponding to the energy stored in the newly formed seedling organs is low in Helianthus (40%) and Phaseolus (43%) and relatively high in Triticum (55%) and Zea (6 %). The calorific equivalent of the CO(2) amount evolved differs widely (11 to 24 kJ·gCO(2)(-1)). With the exception of Zea these values are much higher than the calorific equivalent of the dry weight loss. The latter may be explained by energy losses without CO(2) evolution, as well as by CO(2) refixation by PEPC and by energy dissipation in the maintenance metabolism. PMID:23194792

  9. Individual and interactive effects of elevated carbon dioxide and ozone on tropical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars with special emphasis on ROS generation and activation of antioxidant defence system.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Rai, Richa; Agrawal, S B

    2013-04-01

    The effects of elevated CO2 and O3, singly and in combination were investigated on various physiological, biochemical and yield parameters of two locally grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (HUW-37 and K-9107) in open top chambers (OTCs). Elevated CO2 stimulated photosynthetic rate (Ps) and Fv/Fm ratio and reduced the stomatal conductance (gs). Reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidative enzymes, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were higher, whereas Ps, gs, Fv/Fm, protein and photosynthetic pigments were reduced in elevated O3 exposure, as compared to their controls. Under elevated CO2 + O3, elevated levels of CO2 modified the plant performance against O3 in both the cultivars. Elevated CO2 caused significant increase in economic yield. Exposure to elevated O3 caused significant reduction in yield and the effect was cultivar-specific. The study concluded that elevated CO2 ameliorated the negative impact of elevated O3 and cultivar HUW-37 was more sensitive to elevated O3 than K-9107. PMID:23720888

  10. Marker Assisted Transfer of Two Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 from Triticum boeoticum (Boiss.) to Triticum aestivum (L.)

    PubMed Central

    Elkot, Ahmed Fawzy Abdelnaby; Chhuneja, Parveen; Kaur, Satinder; Saluja, Manny; Keller, Beat; Singh, Kuldeep

    2015-01-01

    Powdery mildew (PM), caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is one of the important wheat diseases, worldwide. Two PM resistance genes, designated as PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, were identified in T. boeoticum acc. pau5088 and mapped on chromosome 7AL approximately 48cM apart. Two resistance gene analogue (RGA)-STS markers Ta7AL-4556232 and 7AL-4426363 were identified to be linked to the PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2, at a distance of 0.6cM and 6.0cM, respectively. In the present study, following marker assisted selection (MAS), the two genes were transferred to T. aestivum using T. durum as bridging species. As many as 12,317 florets of F1 of the cross T. durum /T. boeoticum were pollinated with T. aestivum lines PBW343-IL and PBW621 to produce 61 and 65 seeds, respectively, of three-way F1. The resulting F1s of the cross T. durum/T. boeoticum//T. aestivum were screened with marker flanking both the PM resistance genes PmTb7A.1 and PmTb7A.2 (foreground selection) and the selected plants were backcrossed to generate BC1F1. Marker assisted selection was carried both in BC1F1 and the BC2F1 generations. Introgression of alien chromatin in BC2F1 plants varied from 15.4 - 62.9 percent. Out of more than 110 BC2F1 plants showing introgression for markers linked to the two PM resistance genes, 40 agronomically desirable plants were selected for background selection for the carrier chromosome to identify the plants with minimum of the alien introgression. Cytological analysis showed that most plants have chromosome number ranging from 40-42. The BC2F2 plants homozygous for the two genes have been identified. These will be crossed to generate lines combining both the PM resistance genes but with minimal of the alien introgression. The PM resistance gene PmTb7A.1 maps in a region very close to Sr22, a stem rust resistance gene effective against the race Ug99. Analysis of selected plants with markers linked to Sr22 showed introgression of Sr22 from T. boeoticum in several BC2F1 plants

  11. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L.; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R.; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95–96%) and predicted protein (96–97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated

  12. Systematic Investigation of FLOWERING LOCUS T-Like Poaceae Gene Families Identifies the Short-Day Expressed Flowering Pathway Gene, TaFT3 in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    PubMed

    Halliwell, Joanna; Borrill, Philippa; Gordon, Anna; Kowalczyk, Radoslaw; Pagano, Marina L; Saccomanno, Benedetta; Bentley, Alison R; Uauy, Cristobal; Cockram, James

    2016-01-01

    To date, a small number of major flowering time loci have been identified in the related Triticeae crops, bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (T. durum), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Natural genetic variants at these loci result in major phenotypic changes which have adapted crops to the novel environments encountered during the spread of agriculture. The polyploid nature of bread and durum wheat means that major flowering time loci in which recessive alleles confer adaptive advantage in related diploid species have not been readily identified. One such example is the PPD-H2 flowering time locus encoded by FLOWERING LOCUS T 3 (HvFT3) in the diploid crop barley, for which recessive mutant alleles confer delayed flowering under short day (SD) photoperiods. In autumn-sown barley, such alleles aid the repression of flowering over the winter, which help prevent the development of cold-sensitive floral organs until the onset of inductive long day (LD) photoperiods the following spring. While the identification of orthologous loci in wheat could provide breeders with alternative mechanisms to fine tune flowering time, systematic identification of wheat orthologs of HvFT3 has not been reported. Here, we characterize the FT gene families in six Poaceae species, identifying novel members in all taxa investigated, as well as FT3 homoeologs from the A, B and D genomes of hexaploid (TaFT3) and tetraploid wheat. Sequence analysis shows TaFT3 homoeologs display high similarity to the HvFT3 coding region (95-96%) and predicted protein (96-97%), with conservation of intron/exon structure across the five cereal species investigated. Genetic mapping and comparative analyses in hexaploid and tetraploid wheat find TaFT3 homoeologs map to the long arms of the group 1 chromosomes, collinear to HvFT3 in barley and FT3 orthologs in rice, foxtail millet and brachypodium. Genome-specific expression analyses show FT3 homoeologs in tetraploid and hexaploid wheat are upregulated under

  13. Identification of the Wheat Curl Mite as the Vector of Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered virus found infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if the wheat curl mite (WCM, Aceria tosichella Keifer) and the bird cherry oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L. ) could transmit TriMV. Using diffe...

  14. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus in wheat lines carrying Wsm1 and Wsm3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are important viruses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of United States. In addition to agronomic practices to prevent damage from these viruses, temperature sensitive resistance genes Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3, have bee...

  15. The characteristics and functions of a miniature inverted-repeat transposable element TaMITE81 in the 5' UTR of TaCHS7BL from Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Xi, Xinyuan; Li, Na; Li, Shiming; Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-10-01

    Miniature inverted-repeat transposable elements (MITEs) are truncated derivatives of autonomous DNA transposons, and are dispersed abundantly in eukaryotic and prokaryotic genomes. In this article, a MITE, TaMITE81, was isolated from the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of TaCHS7BL, chalcone synthase (CHS) catalyzing the first committed step of anthocyanin biosynthesis, in the wheat cultivar 'Opata' with white grain. TaMITE81 was only 81 nucleotides, including a terminal inverted repeat with 39 nucleotides and was flanked by two nucleotides, "TA", target site duplications that were typical features of stowaway-like MITEs. Compared with the wheat cultivar 'Gy115' with purple grain, which is without the insertion, the expression of TaCHS7BL was lower in several organs of 'Opata'. The insertion of TaMITE81 into the 5' UTR of the GUS gene also reduced the transient expression of GUS on the coleoptiles of 'Opata', which means the insertion of TaMITE81 was the reason for the low expression of TaCHS7BL in 'Opata'. But the genotype of TaCHS7BL was not linked to phenotype of grain color in the RILs derived from a cross 'Gy115' and 'Opata'. The TaMITE81 density of the hexaploid variety of T. aestivum was more than 10 times that of diploid relatives, which implies that polyploidization caused the amplification of TaMITE81 homologous sequences. Further research should be conducted on decoding the relationship between TaCHS7BL and other traits relative to anthocyanin biosynthesis in wheat, and discovering the mechanism of TaMITE81 transposon action. PMID:27481288

  16. Assessment of genomic and species relationships in Triticum and Aegilops by PAGE and by differential staining of seed albumins and globulins.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, K A; Kasarda, D D

    1978-11-01

    Endosperm protein components from common bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L.) and related species were extracted with aluminum lactate, pH 3.2, and examined by electrophoresis in the same buffer. Electrophoretic patterns of the albumins and globulins were compared to evaluate the possibility that a particular species might have contributed its genome to tetraploid or hexaploid wheat. Together with protein component mobilities, differential band staining with Coomassie Brilliant Blue R250 was employed to test the identity or non-identity of bands. Eight species and 63 accessions, representative of Triticum and Aegilops were tested. Considerable intraspecific variation was observed for patterns of diploid but not for tetraploid or hexaploid species. Patterns of some accessions of Triticum urartu agreed closely with major parts of the patterns of Triticum dicoccoides and T. aestivum. A fast-moving, green band was found in all accessions of T. urartu and of Triticum boeoticum, however, that was not found in those of T. dicoccoides or T. aestivum. This band was present in all accessions of Triticum araraticum and Triticum zhukovskyi. Patterns of Aegilops longissima, which has been suggested as the donor of the B genome, differed substantially from those of T. dicoccoides and T. aestivum. Finally, two marker proteins of intermediate mobility were also observed and may be used to discriminate between accessions of T. araraticum/T. zhukovskyi and those of T. dicoccoides/T. aestivum. PMID:24317663

  17. Incidence of Wheat streak mosaic virus, Triticum mosaic virus, and Wheat mosaic virus in wheat curl mites recovered from maturing winter wheat spikes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wheat curl mites (WCM; Aceria tosichella) transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV), and Wheat mosaic virus (WMoV) to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. These viruses can be detected in single, double, or triple combinations i...

  18. Effects of single and double infections of winter wheat by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus on yield determinants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. It is transmitted by wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella Keifer) which also transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Wheat mosaic virus. In a gree...

  19. DNA repair and crossing over favor similar chromosome regions as discovered in radiation hybrid of Triticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The uneven distribution of recombination across the length of chromosomes results in inaccurate estimates of genetic to physical distances. In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) chromosome 3B, it has been estimated that 90% of the cross over occurs in distal sub-telomeric regions representing 40% of the...

  20. Pm37, a new broadly effective powdery mildew resistance gene from Triticum timopheevii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is an important foliar disease in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), especially in areas with a cool or maritime climate. A dominant powdery mildew resistance gene transferred to the hexaploid germplasm line NC99BGTAG11 (NCAG11) from T. timophee...

  1. Genetic characterization and targeted mapping of a Triticum timopheevii-dervied powdery mildew resistance gene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are five alleles conferring race-specific resistance to powdery mildew (caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) at the Pm1 locus on the long arm of chromosome 7A of wheat (Triticum aestivum. L). A dominant powdery mildew resistance gene transferred to the hexaploid germplasm line NC99BGTAG...

  2. Genetic Mapping of a Triticum monococcum-derived Powdery Mildew Resistance Gene in Common Wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major fungal disease caused by Blumeria graminis DC f sp. tritici. A microsatellite linkage map was developed for the T. monococcum-derived powdery mildew resistant gene present in the North Carolina germplasm line NCBGT96A6 (NCA6). Genetic analys...

  3. Differentiation among Israeli Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates originating from wild vs. domesticated Triticum species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Israel and its vicinity constitute a center of diversity of domesticated wheat species (Triticum aestivum and T. durum) and their sympatrically growing wild relatives, including wild emmer wheat (T. dicoccoides). The present study explored differentiation within the forma specialis of their obligat...

  4. Protective effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin on in vitro models of the intestinal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Iacomino, Giuseppe; Di Stasio, Luigia; Fierro, Olga; Picariello, Gianluca; Venezia, Antonella; Gazza, Laura; Ferranti, Pasquale; Mamone, Gianfranco

    2016-12-01

    A growing interest in developing new strategies for preventing coeliac disease has motivated efforts to identify cereals with null or reduced toxicity. In the current study, we investigate the biological effects of ID331 Triticum monococcum gliadin-derived peptides in human Caco-2 intestinal epithelial cells. Triticum aestivum gliadin derived peptides were employed as a positive control. The effects on epithelial permeability, zonulin release, viability, and cytoskeleton reorganization were investigated. Our findings confirmed that ID331 gliadin did not enhance permeability and did not induce zonulin release, cytotoxicity or cytoskeleton reorganization of Caco-2 cell monolayers. We also demonstrated that ID331 ω-gliadin and its derived peptide ω(105-123) exerted a protective action, mitigating the injury of Triticum aestivum gliadin on cell viability and cytoskeleton reorganization. These results may represent a new opportunity for the future development of innovative strategies to reduce gluten toxicity in the diet of patients with gluten intolerance. PMID:27374565

  5. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) transformation using mature embryos.

    PubMed

    Medvecká, Eva; Harwood, Wendy A

    2015-01-01

    In most protocols for the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat, the preferred target tissues are immature embryos. However, transformation methods relying on immature embryos require the growth of plants under controlled conditions to provide a continuous supply of good-quality target tissue. The use of mature embryos as a target tissue has the advantage of only requiring good-quality seed as the starting material. Here we describe a transformation method based on the Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of callus cultures derived from mature wheat embryos of the genotype Bobwhite S56. PMID:25300842

  6. [Epigenetic variability induced by nicotinic acid in Triticum aestivum L].

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, E D

    2003-09-01

    The effect of nicotinic acid (NA) on hereditary traits of spring common wheat cultivar Kazakhstanskaya 126 (K.126) were studied under the laboratory and field conditions. Treatment of seeds and vegetating plants with 0.01-0.1% NA (aqueous solution) induced heritable epigenetic changes in wheat. As a result, strong tall plants with the long productive spike, large seeds, and several quantitative and qualitative characters other than in the original cultivar were obtained in the second and further generations after treatment. Crosses of changed plants with each other did not result in segregation with respect to leaf downiness or anthocyan stem color in F2-F4, suggesting the same epigenetic state of genes responsible for changed characters. In crosses with the original cultivar, characters of the changed plants always dominated in F1. Basing on the current views, the changes were attributed to a transition of the hl1 and pc recessive marker genes into new, dominant epiallelic states Hl1 and Pc, which respectively determine downy leaves and the colored stem. The NA effect was specific, since only one type of the variation was observed. The changed characters were stable, and no reversion to the original phenotype was detected in 57 generations. PMID:14582391

  7. [DIALLEL ANALYSIS OF STOMATAL TRAITS IN TRITICUM AESTIVUM L].

    PubMed

    Lamari, N; Fayt, V

    2015-01-01

    The guard cell size and stomatal density are important interdependent traits (r = -0.67 ± 0.146) of plant adaptive response to environmental stresses. The purpose of this study was to determine the types of inheritance, the number and effects of genes controlling phenotype of the above-mentioned leaf stomata characteristics. Hybrid F1 values, resulting from crossing by 7 x 7 half diallel crosses and values, and parental midpoints were used. Genetic control of the trait "length of guard cells" is based on the complete domination of the larger length. In the inheritance of "stomata density" the additive components were significant. It was established that recessive alleles are responsible for the increasing of stomata density (r = 0.93 ± 0.07) and their number was highest in Cultivar Odesskaya 16. PMID:26638496

  8. Novel rust resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Puccinia fungi that cause wheat rust diseases are among the most globally destructive agricultural pathogens. The most effective and utilized defense against rust is genetic resistance. The vast majority of rust resistance is racespecific conferred by single genes rapidly overcome by the pathoge...

  9. CONSERVED REGULATOR ELEMENTS IDENTIFIED FROM A COMPARATIVE PUROINDOLINE GENE SEQUENCE SURVEY OF TRITICUM AND AEGILOPS DIPLOID TAXA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kernel texture (“hardness”) is an important trait that determines end-use quality of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and T. turgidum ssp. durum [Desf.] Husn.). Variation in texture is associated with the presence/absence or sequence polymorphism of two proteins, puroindoline a and puroindoline b. This...

  10. Partial characterization of glutathione S-transferases from wheat (Triticum spp.) and purification of a safener-induced glutathione S-transferase from Triticum tauschii.

    PubMed Central

    Riechers, D E; Irzyk, G P; Jones, S S; Fuerst, E P

    1997-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has very low constitutive glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity when assayed with the chloroacetamide herbicide dimethenamid as a substrate, which may account for its low tolerance to dimethenamid in the field. Treatment of seeds with the herbicide safener fluxofenim increased the total GST activity extracted from T. aestivum shoots 9-fold when assayed with dimethenamid as a substrate, but had no effect on glutathione levels. Total GST activity in crude protein extracts from T. aestivum, Triticum durum, and Triticum tauschii was separated into several component GST activities by anion-exchange fast-protein liquid chromatography. These activities (isozymes) differed with respect to their activities toward dimethenamid or 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene as substrates and in their levels of induction by safener treatment. A safener-induced GST isozyme was subsequently purified by anion-exchange and affinity chromatography from etiolated shoots of the diploid wheat species T. tauschii (a progenitor of hexaploid wheat) treated with the herbicide safener cloquintocet-mexyl. The isozyme bound to a dimethenamid-affinity column and had a subunit molecular mass of 26 kD based on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The purified enzyme (designated GST TSI-1) was recognized by an antiserum raised against a mixture of maize (Zea mays) GSTs. Amino acid sequences obtained from protease-digested GST TSI-1 had significant homology with the safener-inducible maize GST V and two auxin-regulated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) GST isozymes. PMID:9276955