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1

Attribution of physical complaints to the air disaster in Amsterdam by exposed rescue workers: an epidemiological study using historic cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into a residential area of Amsterdam. A troublesome aftermath followed, with rumors on potential toxic exposures and health consequences. Health concerns remained even though no excess morbidity was predicted in retrospective risk evaluations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the rescue workers attribute long-term physical complaints to this disaster, including its aftermath, and to examine associations between such attribution and types of exposure and background variables. Methods Historic cohort study that collected questionnaire data on occupational disaster exposure, attribution of physical complaints, and background variables on average 8.5 years post-disaster. For the present study the workers who were exposed to the disaster were selected from the historic cohort, i.e. the professional firefighters (n = 334), police officers (n = 834), and accident and wreckage investigators (n = 241) who performed disaster-related tasks. Results Across the three occupational groups, a consistent percentage (ranging from 43% to 49%) of exposed workers with long-term physical complaints attributed these to the disaster, including its aftermath. Those with more physical complaints attributed these to a stronger degree. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that attribution was significantly more often reported by firefighters who rescued people, and by police officers who reported the identification and recovery of or search for victims and human remains, clean-up, or security and surveillance of the disaster area; who witnessed the immediate disaster scene; who had a close one affected by the disaster; and who perceived the disaster as the worst thing that ever happened to them. Age, sex and educational level were not significantly associated with attribution. Conclusion This study provides further cross-sectional evidence for the role of causal attribution in post-disaster subjective physical health problems. After on average 8.5 years, almost a third (32%) of all the exposed workers, and almost half (45%) of the exposed workers with physical complaints, attributed these complaints to the disaster, including its aftermath. The similarity of the results across the occupational groups suggests a general rather than an occupation-specific attribution process. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether causal disaster attribution leads to persistence of post-disaster complaints and health care utilization.

Slottje, Pauline; Smidt, Nynke; Twisk, Jos WR; Huizink, Anja C; Witteveen, Anke B; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

2006-01-01

2

The Amsterdam Studies of Acute Psychiatry I (ASAP-I); A prospective cohort study of determinants and outcome of coercive versus voluntary treatment interventions in a metropolitan area  

PubMed Central

Background The overall number of involuntary admissions is increasing in many European countries. Patients with severe mental illnesses more often progress to stages in which acute, coercive treatment is warranted. The number of studies that have examined this development and possible consequences in terms of optimizing health care delivery in emergency psychiatry is small and have a number of methodological shortcomings. The current study seeks to examine factors associated with compulsory admissions in the Amsterdam region, taking into account a comprehensive model with four groups of predictors: patient vulnerability, social support, responsiveness of the health care system and treatment adherence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of the Amsterdam Study of Acute Psychiatry-I (ASAP-I). The study is a prospective cohort study, with one and two-year follow-up, comparing patients with and without forced admission by means of a selected nested case-control design. An estimated total number of 4,600 patients, aged 18 years and over, consecutively coming into contact with the Psychiatric Emergency Service Amsterdam (PESA) are included in the study. From this cohort, a randomly selected group of 125 involuntary admitted subjects and 125 subjects receiving non-coercive treatment are selected for further evaluation and comparison. First, socio-demographic, psychopathological and network characteristics, and prior use of health services will be described for all patients who come into contact with PESA. Second, the in-depth study of compulsory versus voluntary patients will examine which patient characteristics are associated with acute compulsory admission, also taking into account social network and healthcare variables. The third focus of the study is on the associations between patient vulnerability, social support, healthcare characteristics and treatment adherence in a two-year follow-up for patients with or without involuntarily admittance at the index consultation. Discussion The current study seeks to establish a picture of the determinants of acute compulsory admissions in the Netherlands and tries to gain a better understanding of the association with the course of illness and patient's perception of services and treatment adherence. The final aim is to find specific patient and health care factors that can be influenced by adjusting treatment programs in order to reduce the number of involuntary admissions.

van der Post, Louk; Schoevers, Robert; Koppelmans, Vincent; Visch, Irene; Bernardt, Clemens; Mulder, Niels; Beekman, Aartjan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Dekker, Jack

2008-01-01

3

Systematic Study on Genetic and Epimutational Profile of a Cohort of Amsterdam Criteria-Defined Lynch Syndrome in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Germline defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes underlie Lynch Syndrome (LS). We aimed to gain comprehensive genetic and epigenetic profiles of LS families in Singapore, which will facilitate efficient molecular diagnosis of LS in Singapore and the region. Methods Fifty nine unrelated families were studied. Mutations in exons, splice-site junctions and promoters of five MMR genes were scanned by high resolution melting assay followed by DNA sequencing, large fragment deletions/duplications and promoter methylation in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 were evaluated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) was assessed with five mononucleotide markers and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was also performed. Results Pathogenic defects, all confined to MLH1 and MSH2, were identified in 17 out of 59 (28.8%) families. The mutational spectrum was highly heterogeneous and 28 novel variants were identified. One recurrent mutation in MLH1 (c.793C>T) was also observed. 92.9% sensitivity for indication of germline mutations conferred by IHC surpassed 64.3% sensitivity by MSI. Furthermore, 15.6% patients with MSS tumors harbored pathogenic mutations. Conclusions Among major ethnic groups in Singapore, all pathogenic germline defects were confined to MLH1 and MSH2. Caution should be applied when the Amsterdam criteria and consensus microsatellite marker panel recommended in the revised Bethesda guidelines are applied to the local context. We recommend a screening strategy for the local LS by starting with tumor IHC and the hotspot mutation testing at MLH1 c.793C>T followed by comprehensive mutation scanning in MLH1 and MSH2 prior to proceeding to other MMR genes.

Goh, Xue Wei; Tan, Soo Yong; Loi, Carol Tien Tau; Tan, Yuen Ming; Law, Hai Yang; Koh, Poh Koon; Tang, Choong Leong

2014-01-01

4

Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers.

Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

2005-01-01

5

Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with lower increase in knee muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a 2-year follow-up study in the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the associations of elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with change in muscle strength in patients with established knee osteoarthritis (OA), at 2 years. Methods Data from 186 patients with knee OA were gathered at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. CRP (in milligrams per liter) and ESR (in millimeters per hour) were measured in serum from patients’ blood. Strength of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was assessed by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The association of inflammatory markers with change in knee muscle strength was analyzed by using uni- and multi-variate linear regression models. Results Patients with elevated CRP values at both baseline and 2-year follow-up exhibited a lower increase in knee muscle strength for a period of 2 years (??=?-0.22; P?=?0.01) compared with the group with non-elevated levels at both times of assessment. The association persisted after adjustment for relevant confounders. Elevated ESR values at both times of assessment were not significantly associated with change in knee muscle strength (??=?-0.05; P?=?0.49). Conclusions Our results indicate that elevated CRP values are related to a lower gain in muscle strength over time in patients with established knee OA. Although the mechanism to explain this relationship is not fully elucidated, these results suggest inflammation as a relevant factor influencing muscle strength in this group of patients.

2014-01-01

6

Do major life events influence physical activity among older adults: the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

Background Major life events are associated with a change in daily routine and could thus also affect habitual levels of physical activity. Major life events remain largely unexplored as determinants of older adults’ participation in physical activity and sports. This study focused on two major life events, widowhood and retirement, and asked whether these major life events were associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sports participation. Methods Data from the first (1992–93) and second (1995–96) wave of the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA), a prospective cohort study among Dutch adults aged 55 and older, were used. Change in marital status and employment status between baseline and follow-up was assessed by self-report. Time spent in MVPA (min/d) and sports participation (yes/no) was calculated based on the LASA Physical Activity Questionnaire. The association of retirement and widowhood with MVPA and sports participation was assessed in separate multivariate linear and logistic regression analyses, respectively. Results Widowhood - N=136 versus 1324 stable married- was not associated with MVPA (B= 3.5 [95%CI:-57.9;64.9]) or sports participation (OR= 0.8 [95%CI:0.5;1.3]). Retired participants (N= 65) significantly increased their time spent in MVPA (B= 32.5 [95%CI:17.8;47.1]) compared to participants who continued to be employed (N= 121), but not their sports participation. Age was a significant effect modifier (B= 7.5 [90%CI:-1.1;13.8]), indicating a greater increase in MVPA in older retirees. Discussion Our results suggest that the associations found varied by the two major life events under investigation. MVPA increased after retirement, but no association with widowhood was seen.

2012-01-01

7

Shanghai Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Cohort Study consists of 18,244 men in Shanghai, China, assembled during 1986-1989 when subjects were between the ages of 45 and 64 years. At recruitment, all cohort members provided detailed dietary and medical histories as well as blood and urine specimens. In the follow-up of 2000-2001, buccal cells were collected from 13,815 original cohort participants (92% of all surviving cohort members).

8

Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)  

Cancer.gov

The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) started in 1986 and includes 120,852 men and women. The study population originates from 204 municipal population registries throughout The Netherlands, by gender-stratified random sampling.

9

Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands - the GHAIA study  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among the largest SSA migrant population (Ghanaians) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Data were obtained from structured interviews along with medical examination among 212 participants from a cross-sectional study: the GHAIA study in 2010 in Amsterdam. Blood pressure was measured with a validated Oscillometric automated digital blood pressure device. Psychosocial stress was assessed by questionnaires on perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms and financial problems. Binary logistic regression was used to study associations between psychosocial stress and hypertension. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 54.7%. About two thirds of the study population experienced a moderate (31%) or high (36%) level of discrimination. 20.0% of the participants had mild depressive symptoms, whilst 9% had moderate depressive symptoms. The prevalence of financial stress was 34.8%. The psychosocial stresses we assessed were not significantly associated with hypertension: adjusted odds ratios comparing those with low levels and those with high levels were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.47–2.08) for perceived discrimination, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.26–2.49) for depressive symptoms and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.37–1.36) for financial stress, respectively. Conclusion We did not find evidence for the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension among recent SSA migrants. More efforts are needed to unravel other potential factors that may underlie the high prevalence of hypertension among these populations.

2014-01-01

10

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. METHODS: In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer

Otto Visser; Joop H van Wijnen; Flora E van Leeuwen

2005-01-01

11

Rijksmuseum Amsterdam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rijksmuseum Museum is in Amsterdam and their elegant website has many multimedia features of note. Visitors should definitely start by going to "The Masterpieces of the Rijksmuseum" link. Once there, visitors can view the Masterpieces of the Golden Age in several different ways, such as on a "Timeline", via a 3D interactive panorama of the Philips Wing (QuickTime is required) or through an online presentation. The online presentation offers visitors a "Golden Age Quiz", zoomable artworks in the "Look Closer" tab, and an audio tour of an exquisite 17th century "Dollhouse" commissioned by the wife of a wealthy silk merchant. The "Restoration" link in the "Collection" tab provides those visitors interested in the process of restoring and conserving with a look at six artworks that are to be ready for the 2013 opening of the new Rijksmuseum. The works include a Vermeer, two portraits by MattheusVerheyden, and a silver table ornament from 1549 by Jamnitzer. Visitors who are visually impaired can also listen to any of the webpages read by a digitized voice.

12

Associations between Safety from Crime, Cycling, and Obesity in a Dutch Elderly Population: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63–70?y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered.

Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Thomese, G. C. Fleur; Visser, Marjolein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

2012-01-01

13

The developmental origins of ageing: study protocol for the Dutch famine birth cohort study on ageing  

PubMed Central

Introduction Evidence from animal studies suggest that the rate of ageing may be influenced not only by genetic and lifestyle factors, but also by the prenatal environment. We have previously shown that people who were exposed to famine during early gestation performed worse on a selective attention task, which may be a first sign of cognitive decline, and were on average 3?years younger at the time of coronary artery disease diagnosis. Women in this group seem to die at a younger age. We hypothesise that an accelerated ageing process, set in motion by the poor prenatal environment, underlies these findings. Methods and analysis The Dutch Famine Birth Cohort consists of 2414 men and women born in Amsterdam as term singletons around the time of the Dutch famine. In a subsample of 150 cohort members, who now are about 68?years of age, we are currently measuring cognitive decline and the incidence of white matter hyperintensities and cerebral microbleeds (through MRI), incidence of fractures, grip strength and physical performance, visual acuity and incidence of cataract operations. In this same subgroup, we will assess telomere length, oxidative stress and inflammatory status as potential underlying mechanisms. Furthermore, in the entire cohort, we will assess mortality as well as hospital admissions for age-related diseases up to the age of 68 years. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the local medical ethics committee (Academic Medical Centre, University of Amsterdam) and is being carried out in agreement with the Declaration of Helsinki. All participants give written informed consent. Study findings will be widely disseminated to the scientific public as well as to the medical society and general public.

de Rooij, Susanne R; Roseboom, Tessa J

2013-01-01

14

Ethnicity and thrombolysis in ischemic stroke: a hospital based study in Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic differences have been reported with regard to several medical therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between ethnicity and thrombolysis in stroke patients. Methods Retrospective single-centre study. Patients admitted with an ischemic stroke between 2003 and 2008 were included. Ethnicity was determined by self-identification and stratified into white and non-white (all other ethnicities). The main outcome measure was the difference in thrombolysis rate between white and non-white patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential confounders of the relation between ethnicity and thrombolysis. Results 510 patients were included, 392 (77%) white and 118 (23%) non-white. Non-white patients were younger (median 69 vs. 60 years, p < 0.001), had a higher blood pressure at admission (median systolic 150 vs. 160 mmHg, p = 0.02) and a lower stroke severity (median NIHSS 5 vs. 4, p = 0.04). Non-white patients were significantly less often treated with thrombolysis compared to white patients (odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.71), which was partly explained by a later arrival at the hospital. After adjustment for potential confounders (late arrival, age, blood pressure above upper limit for thrombolysis, and oral anticoagulation use), a trend towards a lower thrombolysis rate in non-whites remained (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.16). Conclusions Non-white stroke patients less often received thrombolysis than white patients, partly as a result of a delay in presentation. In this single centre study, potential bias due to hospital differences or insurance status could be ruled out as a cause. The magnitude of the difference is worrisome and requires further investigation. Modifiable causes, such as patient delay, awareness of stroke symptoms, language barriers and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors, should be addressed specifically in these ethnic groups in future stroke campaigns.

2011-01-01

15

Millennium Cohort Study: A 21-Year Prospective Cohort Study of 140, 000 Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans. The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will att...

K. B. Chesbrough M. A. Ryan P. Amoroso E. J. Boyko G. D. Gackstetter

2001-01-01

16

Amsterdam's North\\/South metroline  

Microsoft Academic Search

The new Amsterdam North\\/South Metroline will use several innovative tunnelling techniques unique in the Netherlands' tunnelling history. This paper describes the determining characteristics of the Amsterdam Metroline such as the presence of pile foundations, the tunnel boring technology, and the deep underground stations. The paper also deals with risk management and operational safety in underground space, as applied to this

D. R. S. van Hasselt; V. Hentschel; M. Hutteman; F. J. Kaalberg; J. C. G. van Liebergen; H. Netzel; A. J. M. Snel; E. A. H. Teunissen; J. C. W. M. de Wit

1999-01-01

17

REGRESSION MODELS FOR COHORT MORTALITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort studies evaluate suspect health hazards from occupational or environmental exposures by recording tile facts and causes of deaths in the exposed group as they occur over an extended time period. his article reviews several methods for analyzing cohort: mortality data and s...

18

Epidemiological disaster research: the necessity to include representative samples of the involved disaster workers. Experience from the epidemiological study air disaster Amsterdam-ESADA  

PubMed Central

Objective To study whether the methods used to select participants in research on prevalence rates of the health effects of exposure to a disaster may cause bias. This study compared background characteristics, disaster exposure, and complaints reported by (1) police officers who participated in an epidemiological study and underwent a medical examination, and (2) police officers who only participated in an epidemiological study. Design and Setting In 2000, an epidemiological study was started to investigate the health status among police officers who were involved in assistance work related to the air disaster in Amsterdam: the epidemiological study air disaster Amsterdam (ESADA). These police officers were personally invited to participate in the epidemiological study and were additionally offered a medical examination, providing them with the opportunity to have their health checked by a medical doctor. Participants Of the total group of involved police officers who were invited, 834 (70%) participated in the ESADA: 224 (26.9%) only participated in the study, but 610 (73.1%) also underwent the medical examination. Main results Police officers who underwent a medical examination significantly more often reported one or more musculoskeletal complaints, skin complaints, general or non?specific complaints, had more often experienced an event with potentially traumatic impact, or had performed one or more potentially traumatic tasks. Conclusions The methods of selection of participants are important in research on health effects after disasters and can result in an overestimation of some of the effects, on average, by a factor of 1.5 to 2.

Huizink, Anja C; Smidt, Nynke; Twisk, Jos W R; Slottje, Pauline; Smid, Tjabe

2006-01-01

19

Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among men who have sex with men attending an STI clinic in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is unknown whether this is also the case in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sexually transmitted infection outpatient low-threshold clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants Between October 2008 and April 2010, a total of 211 men were included, in two groups: (1) 74 MSM with clinical signs of a skin or soft tissue infection (symptomatic group) and (2) 137 MSM without clinical signs of such infections (asymptomatic group). Primary outcome measures S aureus and MRSA infection and/or colonisation. Swabs were collected from the anterior nasal cavity, throat, perineum, penile glans and, if present, from infected skin lesions. Culture for S aureus was carried out on blood agar plates and for MRSA on selective chromagar plates after enrichment in broth. If MRSA was found, the spa-gene was sequenced. Secondary outcome measures Associated demographic characteristics, medical history, risk factors for colonisation with S aureus and high-risk sexual behaviour were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. Results The prevalence of S aureus colonisation in the nares was 37%, the pharynx 11%, the perianal region 12%, the glans penis 10% and in skin lesions 40%. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, anogenital S aureus colonisation was significantly associated with the symptomatic group (p=0.01) and marginally with HIV (p=0.06). MRSA was diagnosed in two cases: prevalence 0.9% (95% CI 0.1% to 3.4%)). Neither had CA-MRSA strains. Conclusions CA-MRSA among MSM in Amsterdam is rare. Genital colonisation of S aureus is not associated with high-risk sexual behaviour.

Joore, I K C W; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; de Neeling, A J; van Dam, Alje; de Vries, Henry J C

2013-01-01

20

Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01

21

Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship  

PubMed Central

Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored.

Eldredge, Jonathan

2002-01-01

22

The Creation of Play Spaces in Twentieth-century Amsterdam: From an Intervention of Civil Actors to a Public Policy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This case study uncovers a turning point in the production of play space in Amsterdam. Whereas over the first half of the twentieth century the creation of play spaces used to be the primary responsibility of the Amsterdam civil society, this situation started to change after the Second World War. Between 1947 and 1970, the Amsterdam Urban Planning Department created

Lianne Verstrate; Lia Karsten

2011-01-01

23

Feasibility of cohort studies in Estonia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology and feasibility of follow up for vital status in retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. METHODS: A cohort of 7412 workers who had been employed at two factories in Tallinn between 1946 and 1988 was followed up for vital status from the date of first employment until death, emigration, or the end of the study, 31 December 1995, whichever occurred first. The cohort was electronically linked with the National Population Registry of Estonia that was created in 1992 and includes personal identification numbers of Estonian citizens and residents, and the Mortality Database that contains information from death certificates issued in 1983-95. A manual search was carried out on several non-computerised population data sources and archives. RESULTS: By 31 December 1995, the vital status of 6780 (91.5%) subjects could be traced (4495 (60.6%) subjects were alive, 1993 (26.9%) had died, and 292 (3.9%) had emigrated). Analysis by calendar period of leaving work showed that the proportion of subjects traced was lowest in the group of workers who had left work between 1946 and 1955 (58.4%), especially those whose age at leaving work was < 30 (53.2%) or > 60 years (42.3%). Among subjects who left work in 1956-65, 1966-75, and 1976-88, the follow up rate was 84.7%, 94.6%, and 98.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings, which are especially important for occupational epidemiology, confirm the feasibility of conducting retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. Most of the issues discussed in the paper apply to other former Soviet countries.  

Innos, K.; Rahu, M.; Rahu, K.

1999-01-01

24

The Amsterdam quintuplet nuclear microprobe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new nuclear microprobe comprising of a quintuplet lens system is being constructed at the Ion Beam Facility of the "Vrije Universiteit" Amsterdam in collaboration with the Microanalytical Research Centre of the University of Melbourne. An overview of the Amsterdam set-up will be presented. Detailed characterisation of the individual lenses was performed with the grid shadow method using a 2000 mesh Cu grid mounted at a relative angle of 0.5° to the vertical lens line focus. The lenses were found to have very low parasitic aberrations equal or below the minimum detectable limit for the method, which was approximately 0.1% for the sextupole component and 0.2% for the octupole component. We present experimental and theoretical grid shadow patterns, showing results for all five lenses.

van den Putte, M. J. J.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; Jamieson, D. N.; Rout, B.; Szymanski, R.

2003-09-01

25

How are European birth-cohort studies engaging and consulting with young cohort members?  

PubMed Central

Background Birth cohort studies, where parents consent for their child to be enrolled in a longitudinal study prior to or soon after birth, are a powerful study design in epidemiology and developmental research. Participation often continues into adulthood. Where participants are enrolled as infants, provision should be made for consent, consultation and involvement in study design as they age. This study aims to audit and describe the extent and types of consultation and engagement currently used in birth cohorts in Europe. Methods Seventy study groups (representing 84 cohorts) were contacted to ask about their practice in engaging and involving study members. Information was gathered from study websites and publications, 15 cohorts provided additional information via email and 17 cohorts were interviewed over the phone. Results The cohorts identified confirm the growth of this study design, with more than half beginning since 1990, and 4 since 2011. Most studies maintain a website open to the general public, although many are written for the scientific community only. Five studies have web pages specifically for young cohort members and one study provides a dedicated page for fathers. Cohorts send newsletters, cards, and summaries of findings to participants to stay in touch. Six cohorts use Facebook for this purpose. Five cohorts provide feedback opportunities for participants after completing a round of data collection. We know of just 8 cohorts who have a mechanism for consulting with parents and 3 a mechanism for consulting with young people themselves, although these were ‘one off’ consultations for some groups. Barriers to further consultation with cohort members were: concerns about impact on quality of research, ethical constraints, resource limitations, lack of importance, and previous adverse experiences. Conclusions Although the children in some of the cohorts are still young (born in the last 10 years) many are old enough to include some element of consultation. Barriers to greater participation identified here have been overcome in some cohorts and in other fields. Within the scope of their funding and resources, birth cohort studies should consider ways in which they could increase engagement, consultation, and co-production with research participants.

2013-01-01

26

Maternal Care in the Subantarctic fur Seals on Amsterdam Island  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the first study of maternal input and care from birth to weaning in a fur seal with a long pup-rearing period: the subantarctic fur seal Arctocephalus tropicalis breeding on the temperate Amsterdam Island, Indian Ocean. The protracted wean- ing period provided the opportunity for examination of maternal care in relation to seasonal changes in the requirements of

Jean-Yves Georges; Christophe Guinet

2000-01-01

27

Cohort profile: the gubbio population study.  

PubMed

The Gubbio Study is a prospective epidemiological study on the population residing in the city of Gubbio, Italy. Original objectives of the study were the control of hypertension and the role of cellular electrolyte handling in hypertension. Other objectives were added during the 30-year activity of the study. The original target cohort consists of individuals aged ? 5 years residing within the medieval walls of the city. To complete family genealogies, individuals residing outside the city were also included. Three active screenings (exams) were conducted. A total of 5376 individuals (response rate 92%) participated in Exam 1 which was performed in 1983-86. Follow-up exams were completed between 1989-92 and 2001-2007. Data categories included demographics, personal and family medical history, lifestyle habits, education, type of work, anthropometry, blood pressure, pulse rate, blood biochemistry, urine biochemistry and special investigations on cellular electrolyte handling. Electrocardiogram, echocardiogram, 24-h ambulatory blood pressure and uroflowmetry were performed in selected subgroups defined by age and/or sex. Data about hospitalizations, mortality and causes of death were collected starting from completion of Exam 1. The study shared the data with other studies. PMID:23543599

Cirillo, Massimo; Terradura-Vagnarelli, Oscar; Mancini, Mario; Menotti, Alessandro; Zanchetti, Alberto; Laurenzi, Martino

2014-06-01

28

Cohort Profile: the HUNT Study, Norway.  

PubMed

The HUNT Study includes large total population-based cohorts from the 1980ies, covering 125 000 Norwegian participants; HUNT1 (1984-86), HUNT2 (1995-97) and HUNT3 (2006-08). The study was primarily set up to address arterial hypertension, diabetes, screening of tuberculosis, and quality of life. However, the scope has expanded over time. In the latest survey a state of the art biobank was established, with availability of biomaterial for decades ahead. The three population based surveys now contribute to important knowledge regarding health related lifestyle, prevalence and incidence of somatic and mental illness and disease, health determinants, and associations between disease phenotypes and genotypes. Every citizen of Nord-Trøndelag County in Norway being 20 years or older, have been invited to all the surveys for adults. Participants may be linked in families and followed up longitudinally between the surveys and in several national health- and other registers covering the total population. The HUNT Study includes data from questionnaires, interviews, clinical measurements and biological samples (blood and urine). The questionnaires included questions on socioeconomic conditions, health related behaviours, symptoms, illnesses and diseases. Data from the HUNT Study are available for researchers who satisfy some basic requirements (www.ntnu.edu/hunt), whether affiliated in Norway or abroad. PMID:22879362

Krokstad, S; Langhammer, A; Hveem, K; Holmen, T L; Midthjell, K; Stene, T R; Bratberg, G; Heggland, J; Holmen, J

2013-08-01

29

Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.  

PubMed

A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

2012-09-01

30

Drug Users in Amsterdam: Are They Still at Risk for HIV?  

PubMed Central

Background and Aims To examine whether drug users (DU) in the Amsterdam Cohort Study (ACS) are still at risk for HIV, we studied trends in HIV incidence and injecting and sexual risk behaviour from 1986 to 2011. Methods The ACS is an open, prospective cohort study on HIV. Calendar time trends in HIV incidence were modelled using Poisson regression. Trends in risk behaviour were modelled via generalized estimating equations. In 2010, a screening for STI (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis) was performed. Determinants of unprotected sex were studied using logistic regression analysis. Results The HIV incidence among 1298 participants of the ACS with a total follow-up of 12,921 person-years (PY) declined from 6.0/100 PY (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.2–11.1) in 1986 to less than 1/100 PY from 1997 onwards. Both injection and sexual risk behaviour declined significantly over time. Out of 197 participants screened for STI in 2010–2011, median age 49 years (IQR 43–59), only 5 (2.5%) were diagnosed with an STI. In multivariable analysis, having a steady partner (aOR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6–10.5) was associated with unprotected sex. HIV-infected participants were less likely to report unprotected sex (aOR 0.07, 95% CI 0.02–0.37). Conclusions HIV incidence and injection risk behaviour declined from 1986 onwards. STI prevalence is low; unprotected sex is associated with steady partners and is less common among HIV-infected participants. These findings indicate a low transmission risk of HIV and STI, which suggests that DU do not play a significant role in the current spread of HIV in Amsterdam.

Schim van der Loeff, Maarten F.; Heijman, Titia; Speksnijder, Arjen; Geskus, Ronald; Prins, Maria

2013-01-01

31

Cohort profile: the Young Lives study.  

PubMed

Young Lives is an international longitudinal study investigating the changing nature of childhood poverty in four low-income countries [Ethiopia, India (Andhra Pradesh), Peru and Vietnam] over a 15-year period. In each country, the cohort is comprised of ? 2000 children aged between 6 and 18 months and up to 1000 children aged between 7 and 8 years, recruited in 2002 and sampled from 20 sentinel sites. The first survey data collection from primary caregivers and older children took place in 2002, the second in 2006-07 and the third in 2009-10. Data on the community contexts were collected to complement the household surveys. To elaborate and extend the quantitative data, longitudinal qualitative research with a subgroup of the children was carried out in 2007, 2008 and 2010-11. Topic areas covered included nutrition, health and well-being, cognitive and physical development, health behaviours and education, as well as the social, demographic and economic status of the household. Survey data from the study are archived in the International Section of the UK Public Data Archive. PMID:22617687

Barnett, Inka; Ariana, Proochista; Petrou, Stavros; Penny, Mary E; Duc, Le Thuc; Galab, S; Woldehanna, Tassew; Escobal, Javier A; Plugge, Emma; Boyden, Jo

2013-06-01

32

Multicenter cohort association study of SLC2A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older adults and has a genetically complex background. This study examines the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1) gene and AMD. SLC2A1 regulates the bioavailability of glucose in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which might influence oxidative stress–mediated AMD pathology. Methods Twenty-two SNPs spanning the SLC2A1 gene were genotyped in 375 cases and 199 controls from an initial discovery cohort (the Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Netherlands study). Replication testing was performed in The Rotterdam Study (the Netherlands) and study populations from Würzburg (Germany), the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS; United States), Columbia University (United States), and Iowa University (United States). Subsequently, a meta-analysis of SNP association was performed. Results In the discovery cohort, significant genotypic association between three SNPs (rs3754219, rs4660687, and rs841853) and AMD was found. Replication in five large independent (Caucasian) cohorts (4,860 cases and 4,004 controls) did not yield consistent association results. The genotype frequencies for these SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases among the six individual populations. Meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity of effect between the studies. Conclusions No overall association between SLC2A1 SNPs and AMD was demonstrated. Since the genotype frequencies for the three SLC2A1 SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases between the six cohorts, this study corroborates previous evidence that population dependent genetic risk heterogeneity in AMD exists.

Baas, Dominique C.; Ho, Lintje; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Fritsche, Lars G.; Merriam, Joanna E.; van het Slot, Ruben; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Gorgels, Theo G.M.F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Hofman, Albert; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Dean, Michael; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Allikmets, Rando; Hageman, Gregory S.

2012-01-01

33

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess

E S Hansen

1990-01-01

34

Massachusetts Health Care Panel Study: Successive Cohort.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project, conducted by the Center for Survey Research, University of Massachusetts was only for data collection. These data were obtained on a probability sample of 374 elders 65 years of age or older, for comparison with a cohort of elders taken 10 ye...

M. E. Colten

1987-01-01

35

Cohort Study of Uterine Contractions in Black Women.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The prospective cohort study examined uterine activity in 89 black inner city women without major medical risks for preterm labor. The objective of the study was to describe the participants' uterine activity during the second and third trimesters of preg...

D. Main J. A. Grisso

1989-01-01

36

Nested case-control studies in cohorts with competing events.  

PubMed

In nested case-control studies, incidence density sampling is the time-dependent matching procedure to approximate hazard ratios. The cumulative incidence function can also be estimated if information from the full cohort is used. In the presence of competing events, however, the cumulative incidence function depends on the hazard of the disease of interest and on the competing events hazard. Using hospital-acquired infection as an example (full cohort), we propose a sampling method for nested case-control studies to estimate subdistribution hazard ratios. With further information on the full cohort, the cumulative incidence function for the event of interest can then be estimated as well. PMID:24240653

Wolkewitz, Martin; Cooper, Ben S; Palomar-Martinez, Mercedes; Olaechea-Astigarraga, Pedro; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; Schumacher, Martin

2014-01-01

37

Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.  

PubMed

Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking. PMID:24749879

Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

2014-04-01

38

More efficient estimators for case-cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Summary The case-cohort study design, used to reduce costs in large cohort studies, is a random sample of the entire cohort, named the subcohort, augmented with subjects having the disease of interest but not in the subcohort sample. When several diseases are of interest, several case-cohort studies may be conducted using the same subcohort, with each disease analyzed separately, ignoring the additional exposure measurements collected on subjects with the other diseases. This is not an efficient use of the data, and in this paper, we propose more efficient estimators. We consider both joint and separate analyses for the multiple diseases. We propose an estimating equation approach with a new weight function, and we establish the consistency and asymptotic normality of the resulting estimator. Simulation studies show that the proposed methods using all available information gain efficiency. We apply our proposed method to the data from the Busselton Health Study.

KIM, S.; CAI, J.; LU, W.

2014-01-01

39

Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis cohort study: Prognostic factors for relapse  

Microsoft Academic Search

To date, there is no available epidemiological study about prognostic factors of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) in children, using a cohort of patients with homogenous inclusion criteria. We aimed to evaluate prognostic factors for relapse after ADEM in children. A total of 132 children from the French National KIDSEP Neuropediatric Cohort (mean age at onset: 6±3.3 years; mean follow-up: 5.4±3.3

Yann Mikaeloff; Guillaume Caridade; Béatrice Husson; Samy Suissa; Marc Tardieu

2007-01-01

40

Breastfeeding and Snoring: A Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the relationship between breastfeeding and snoring in childhood. Methods In a cohort of children with a family history of asthma who were recruited antenatally we prospectively recorded data on infant feeding practices throughout the first year of life. Snoring status and witnessed sleep apnea were measured at age 8 years by parent-completed questionnaire. Associations were estimated by logistic regression with, and without, adjustment for sets of confounders designed to exclude biasing effects. Results Habitual snoring was reported in 18.8% of the sample, and witnessed apnea in 2.7%. Any breastfeeding for longer than one month was associated with a reduced risk of habitual snoring at age 8 (adjusted OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.81) and duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated with the prevalence of habitual snoring (adjusted OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.00). Any breastfeeding for longer than 1 month was associated with a lower risk of witnessed sleep apnea (adjusted OR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.71). The protective associations were not mediated by BMI, current asthma, atopy or rhinitis at age 8 years. Conclusions Breastfeeding for longer than one month decreases the risk of habitual snoring and witnessed apneas in this cohort of children with a family history of asthma. The underlying mechanism remains unclear but the finding would be consistent with a beneficial effect of the breast in the mouth on oropharyngeal development with consequent protection against upper airway dysfunction causing sleep-disordered breathing.

Brew, Bronwyn K.; Marks, Guy B.; Almqvist, Catarina; Cistulli, Peter A.; Webb, Karen; Marshall, Nathaniel S.

2014-01-01

41

Uitlijning van de Amsterdam Pulsstretcher (AMPS) (Alignment of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (AMPS)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The alignment procedure carried out during the construction of the AmPS ring (Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher) is described. The main lines were fixed using theodolites, water leveling instruments, and measuring tape. The installation and mounting sequence of t...

J. A. Heemskerk

1993-01-01

42

Energy balance and breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  While there is evidence that breast cancer risk is positively associated with body mass index (in postmenopausal women) and energy intake and inversely associated with physical activity, few studies have examined breast cancer risk in association with energy balance, the balance between energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, in the cohort study reported here, we studied the independent and combined associations

Stephanie A. Navarro Silvera; Meera Jain; Geoffrey R. Howe; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan

2006-01-01

43

Cohort profile: the Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant study.  

PubMed

The Skin Cancer after Organ Transplant (SCOT) study was designed to investigate the link between genus beta human papillomavirus (HPV) and squamous cell skin cancer (SCSC). We focused on a population receiving immunosuppressive therapy for extended periods, transplant patients, as they are at extremely high risk for developing SCSC. Two complementary projects were conducted in the Seattle area: (i) a retrospective cohort with interview data from 2004 recipients of renal or cardiac transplants between 1995 and 2010 and (ii) a prospective cohort with interview data from 328 people on the transplant waiting lists between 2009 and 2011. Within the retrospective cohort, we developed a nested case-control study (172 cases and 337 control subjects) to assess risk of SCSC associated with markers of HPV in SCSC tumour tissue and eyebrow hair bulb DNA (HPV genotypes) and blood (HPV antibodies). In the prospective cohort, 135 participants had a 1-year post-transplant visit and 71 completed a 2-year post-transplant visit. In both arms of the cohort, we collected samples to assess markers of HPV infection such as acquisition of new types, proportion positive for each type, persistence of types at consecutive visits and number of HPV types detected. In the prospective cohort, we will also examine these HPV markers in relation to levels of cell-mediated immunity. The goal of the SCOT study is to use the data we collected to gain a more complete understanding of the role of immune suppression in HPV kinetics and of genus beta HPV types in SCSC. For more information, please contact the principal investigator through the study website: http://www.fhcrc.org/science/phs/cerc/The_SCOT_Study.html. PMID:23171871

Madeleine, Margaret M; Johnson, Lisa G; Daling, Janet R; Schwartz, Stephen M; Carter, Joseph J; Berg, Daniel; Nelson, Karen; Davis, Connie L; Galloway, Denise A

2013-12-01

44

A Cohort Study on Mortality and Exposure to Polychlorinated Biphenyls  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning (“Yu-Cheng”) occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2 000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of

Shu-Feng Hsieh; Yea-Yin Yen; Shou-Jen Lan; Chung-Cheng Hsieh; Chien-Hung Lee; Ying-Chin Ko

1996-01-01

45

Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

At entry to the cohort study, each participant completed a 26-page mail questionnaire that included an extensive quantitative diet history, as well as other demographic, medical, and lifestyle information. Multiple 24-hour diet recalls were collected on more than 2,000 of the participants in a calibration study designed to permit correction of nutrient intake estimates for measurement error.

46

The betula prospective cohort study: Memory, health, and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to present an overview of a prospective cohort study involving a total of 3,000 subjects whose ages were 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years when first tested. the design of the study includes three waves of data collection. the first of these waves was conducted in 1988-1990, the

Lars-GÖRan Nilsson; Lars BÄCkman; Karin Erngrund; Lars Nyberg; Rolf Adolfsson; GÖSta Bucht; Stig Karlsson; Maud Widing; Bengt Winblad

1997-01-01

47

Lung cancer mortality and body mass index in a Japanese cohort: findings from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study (JACC Study)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:  To determine the relationship of body mass index (BMI) and BMI changes during adulthood to lung cancer mortality in a large-sized\\u000a Japanese cohort.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods:  We followed 29,350 men for a maximum of 11 years in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC\\u000a Study), which was initiated from 1988 to 1990. Complementary log–log modeling was employed with age,

Takaaki Kondo; Yoko Hori; Hiroshi Yatsuya; Koji Tamakoshi; Hideaki Toyoshima; Yoshikazu Nishino; Nao Seki; Yoshinori Ito; Koji Suzuki; Kotaro Ozasa; Yoshiyuki Watanabe; Masahiko Ando; Kenji Wakai; Akiko Tamakoshi

2007-01-01

48

Exposure Assessment in Cohort Studies of Childhood Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of childhood asthma and allergies. Data synthesis Exposures of interest need to be prioritized, because a single study cannot measure all potentially relevant exposures. Hypotheses need to be based on proposed mechanisms, critical time windows for effects, prior knowledge of physical, physiologic, and immunologic development, as well as genetic pathways potentially influenced by the exposures. Modifiable exposures are most important from the public health perspective. Given the interest in evaluating gene–environment interactions, large cohort sizes are required, and planning for data pooling across independent studies is critical. Collection of additional samples, possibly through subject participation, will permit secondary analyses. Models combining air quality, environmental, and dose data provide exposure estimates across large cohorts but can still be improved. Conclusions Exposure is best characterized through a combination of information sources. Improving exposure assessment is critical for reducing measurement error and increasing power, which increase confidence in characterization of children at risk, leading to improved health outcomes.

Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K.

2011-01-01

49

Cohort Profile: The Fangshan Cohort Study of Cardiovascular Epidemiology in Beijing, China  

PubMed Central

Background Urbanizing rural areas in China face a rapidly growing cardiovascular disease burden. Epidemiologic studies and effective preventive strategies are urgently needed. Methods The Fangshan Cohort Study is a prospective study that began in 2008 and targets local residents aged 40 years or older living in 3 towns in the Fangshan district of Beijing. The baseline examination included a questionnaire on medical history, health knowledge, and behaviors related to cardiovascular disease, as well as physical and blood biochemical examinations. The questionnaire survey will be readministered every 2 years. A system for surveillance of mortality and morbidity of cardiovascular disease is under development. Results A total of 20 115 adults (6710 men and 13 405 women) were investigated at baseline (participation rate = 84.5%). The data indicate that overweight/obesity is a serious public health issue in Fangshan: average body mass index was 25.4 kg/m2 among men and 26.5 kg/m2 among women, and the prevalences of overweight and obesity were 43.6% and 10.3% among men and 47.0% and 17.7% among women. Conclusions The Fangshan Cohort Study will provide data on cardiovascular risk factors and disease profile, which will assist in developing appropriate prevention and control strategies for cardiovascular disease in rural Chinese communities.

Wu, Na; Tang, Xun; Wu, Yiqun; Qin, Xueying; He, Liu; Wang, Jinwei; Li, Na; Li, Jingrong; Zhang, Zongxin; Dou, Huidong; Liu, Jianjiang; Yu, Liping; Xu, Haitao; Zhang, Jianguo; Hu, Yonghua; Iso, Hiroyasu

2014-01-01

50

The multiethnic cohort study: exploring genes, lifestyle and cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

The search for the causes of cancer and means of cancer prevention has entered a new era as recent developments allow correlation of environmental and behavioural exposures, genetic variation and patient outcomes. The Multiethnic Cohort Study was designed to take advantage of these advances to prospectively explore the roles of lifestyle and genetic susceptibility in the occurrence of cancer. The

Laurence N. Kolonel; David Altshuler; Brian E. Henderson

2004-01-01

51

Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether cannabis use in adolescence predisposes to higher rates of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. Design Seven wave cohort study over six years. Setting 44 schools in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants A statewide secondary school sample of 1601 students aged 14›15 followed for seven years. Main outcome measure Interview measure of depression and anxiety

George C Patton; Carolyn Coffey; John B Carlin; Louisa Degenhardt; Michael Lynskey; Wayne Hall

2002-01-01

52

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

53

Mortality and Cancer Incidence in Acromegaly: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Patients with acromegaly have a reduced life expectancy, with the accepted causes for premature death being vascular and respiratory disease. Increased mortality from malignant disease has also been reported. We, therefore, performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study of 1362 patients with acromegaly and investigated the rela- tionships of mortality and cancer incidence with GH levels, duration of disease, and age

RICHARD J. Q. MCNALLY; RAY A. CARTWRIGHT; Paul E. Belchetz

1999-01-01

54

Cohort profile: the housing regeneration and health study.  

PubMed

A cohort comprising residents of a housing regeneration and health programme was created from routinely collected data using a system which allows us to anonymously link housing data to individuals and their health. The regeneration programme incorporating four rolling work packages runs from 2009 to 2014. The main intervention cohort we describe here contains the 18 312 residents of 9051 residences at baseline. The cohort will be followed continuously through routine health data (demographics, mortality, hospital admissions and general practitioner records including prescriptions) with periodic updates of housing regeneration intervention data. Here, we describe the baseline data for the primary health outcomes of emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and injuries for those aged ?60 years. We will compare the health of residents within the homes before and after the housing regeneration work has taken place, and we will calculate the change in health service costs with use of hospital and General Practitioners (GP) services. We will also use a difference in differences approach to assess changes in comparison with comparator cohorts. These data will be accessible at the end of the study period in 2016. Further information about this study can be obtained from Ronan Lyons; r.a.lyons@swansea.ac.uk. PMID:23179304

Rodgers, Sarah E; Heaven, Martin; Lacey, Arron; Poortinga, Wouter; Dunstan, Frank D; Jones, Kerina H; Palmer, Stephen R; Phillips, Ceri J; Smith, Robert; John, Ann; Davies, Gwyneth A; Lyons, Ronan A

2014-02-01

55

Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy\\u000a with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force\\u000a classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between\\u000a 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology.

Michael K. Hohl; Nik Hauser

2010-01-01

56

Cancer Patient and Survivor Cohort Studies  

Cancer.gov

The list below provides links to cancer survivor data resources identified during an EGRP-sponsored workshop held November 3, 2011 that may be of interest to cancer epidemiologists, but is not exhaustive. Access to resources is dependent on procedures outlined for each individual study or resource.

57

Cohort profile: the European Male Ageing Study.  

PubMed

The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) was designed to examine the hypothesis that inter-individual and regional variability in symptomatic dysfunctions, alterations in body composition and health outcomes in ageing men can be explained by different rates of decline in anabolic hormones, the most important of which being testosterone. Between 2003 and 2005, 3369 community-dwelling men, aged between 40 and 79 years, were recruited from population-based registers in eight European centres to participate in the baseline survey, with follow-up investigations performed a median of 4.3 years later. Largely, identical questionnaire instruments and clinical investigations were used in both phases to capture contemporaneous data on general health (including cardiovascular diseases and chronic conditions), physical and cognitive functioning, mental health, sexual function, quality of life, bone health, chronic pain, disease biomarkers, hormones (sex hormones and metabolic hormones) and genetic polymorphisms. EMAS actively encourages new collaborations, data sharing for validation studies and participation in genetic study consortia. Potential collaborators should contact the principal investigator (F.C.W.W.) in the first instance. PMID:22314965

Lee, David M; Pye, Stephen R; Tajar, Abdelouahid; O'Neill, Terence W; Finn, Joseph D; Boonen, Steven; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C W

2013-04-01

58

The Antecedents of Schizophrenia: A Review of Birth Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Birth cohort (BC) studies demonstrate that individuals who develop schizophrenia differ from the general population on a range of developmental indices. The aims of this article were to summarize key findings from BC studies in order to identify areas of convergence and to outline areas requiring further research. Method: We define BC studies as studies based on general population BCs where data are collected prospectively from birth or childhood and which identify schizophrenia or related disorders as an outcome. To identify such studies, we searched various electronic databases using the search parameters (schizo* OR psych*) AND (birth cohort). We also checked the references of relevant articles and previous reviews. Results: We identified 11 BCs from 7 countries that have examined schizophrenia as an outcome in adulthood. There is relatively consistent evidence that, as a group, children who later develop schizophrenia have behavioral disturbances and psychopathology, intellectual and language deficits, and early motor delays. Evidence with respect to alterations in language, educational performance, and physical growth has also been identified in some studies. BC studies have also contributed evidence about a wide range of putative risk factors for schizophrenia. Conclusions: BC studies have provided important, convergent insights into how the developmental trajectory of individuals who develop schizophrenia differs from their peers. The combination of new paradigms and larger cohorts, with the tools of modern epidemiology and biomedical science, is advancing our understanding of the developmental pathways to schizophrenia.

Welham, Joy; Isohanni, Matti; Jones, Peter; McGrath, John

2009-01-01

59

Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS): protocol for a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Meniscus surgery is a high-volume surgery carried out on 1 million patients annually in the USA. The procedure is conducted on an outpatient basis and the patients leave the hospital a few hours after surgery. A critical oversight of previous studies is their failure to account for the type of meniscal tears. Meniscus tears can be categorised as traumatic or non-traumatic. Traumatic tears (TT) are usually observed in younger, more active individuals in an otherwise ‘healthy’ meniscus and joint. Non-traumatic tears (NTT) (ie, degenerative tears) are typically observed in the middle-aged (35–55?years) and older population but the aetiology is largely unclear. Knowledge about the potential difference of the effect of arthroscopic meniscus surgery on patient symptoms between patients with traumatic and NTT is sparse. Furthermore, little is known about the natural time course of patient perceived pain, function and quality of life after meniscus surgery and factors affecting these outcomes. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the natural time course of patient-reported outcomes in patients undergoing meniscus surgery, with particular emphasis on the role of type of symptom onset. Methods/design This prospective cohort study enrol patients assigned for meniscus surgery. At the baseline (PRE surgery), patient characteristics are assessed using an email-based questionnaire also comprising several validated questionnaires assessing general health, knee-specific characteristics and patient's expectations of the surgery. Follow-up will be conducted at 12 and 52?weeks after meniscus surgery. The major outcomes will be differences in changes, from before to 52?weeks after surgery, in each of the five domains on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) between patients undergoing surgery for traumatic compared with non-traumatic meniscus tears. Dissemination The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01871272.

Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Christensen, Robin; Nissen, Nis; J?rgensen, Uffe; Schjerning, Jeppe; P?rneki, Jens Christian; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan

2013-01-01

60

Suicide after Leaving the UK Armed Forces —A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew studies have examined suicide risk in individuals once they have left the military. We aimed to investigate the rate, timing, and risk factors for suicide in all those who had left the UK Armed Forces (1996–2005).Methods and FindingsWe carried out a cohort study of ex-Armed Forces personnel by linking national databases of discharged personnel and suicide deaths (which included

Navneet Kapur; David While; Nick Blatchley; Isabelle Bray; Kate Harrison

2009-01-01

61

Literatuur Onderzoek Naar Kickers en Septa voor de Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (Literature Search on Kickers and Septa for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (APS)).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A study of the literature was performed with a view to the design of kickers and septa for the injection and extraction line of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher Ring (APS) in the UPDATE project. The UPDATE kickers were given the following specifications: def...

J. Kuijt A. V.D.Linden

1988-01-01

62

Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa  

PubMed Central

Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment.

Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor

2011-01-01

63

Estimating acute air pollution health effects from cohort study data.  

PubMed

Traditional studies of short-term air pollution health effects use time series data, while cohort studies generally focus on long-term effects. There is increasing interest in exploiting individual level cohort data to assess short-term health effects in order to understand the mechanisms and time scales of action. We extend semiparametric regression methods used to adjust for unmeasured confounding in time series studies to the cohort setting. Time series methods are not directly applicable since cohort data are typically collected over a prespecified time period and include exposure measurements on days without health observations. Therefore, long-time asymptotics are not appropriate, and it is possible to improve efficiency by exploiting the additional exposure data. We show that flexibility of the semiparametric adjustment model should match the complexity of the trend in the health outcome, in contrast to the time series setting where it suffices to match temporal structure in the exposure. We also demonstrate that pre-adjusting exposures concurrent with the health endpoints using trends in the complete exposure time series results in unbiased health effect estimation and can improve efficiency without additional confounding adjustment. A recently published article found evidence of an association between short-term exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and retinal arteriolar diameter as measured by retinal photography in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). We reanalyze the data from this article in order to compare the methods described here, and we evaluate our methods in a simulation study based on the MESA data. PMID:24571570

Szpiro, Adam A; Sheppard, Lianne; Adar, Sara D; Kaufman, Joel D

2014-03-01

64

Long term health complaints following the Amsterdam Air Disaster in police officers and fire-fighters  

PubMed Central

Background On 4 October 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Fire?fighters and police officers assisted with the rescue work. Objectives To examine the long term health complaints in rescue workers exposed to a disaster. Methods A historical cohort study was performed among police officers (n?=?834) and fire?fighters (n?=?334) who performed at least one disaster related task and reference groups of their non?exposed colleagues (n?=?634 and n?=?194, respectively). The main outcome measures included digestive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, airway, skin, post?traumatic stress, fatigue, and general mental health complaints; haematological and biochemical laboratory values; and urinalysis outcomes. Results Police officers and fire?fighters who were professionally exposed to a disaster reported more physical and mental health complaints, compared to the reference groups. No clinically relevant statistically significant differences in laboratory outcomes were found. Conclusions This study is the first to examine long term health complaints in a large sample of rescue workers exposed to a disaster in comparison to reference groups of non?exposed colleagues. Findings show that even in the long term, and in the absence of laboratory abnormalities, rescue workers report more health complaints.

Huizink, A C; Slottje, P; Witteveen, A B; Bijlsma, J A; Twisk, J W R; Smidt, N; Bramsen, I; van Mechelen, W; van der Ploeg, H M; Bouter, L M; Smid, T

2006-01-01

65

Mysid Population Responses to Resource Limitation Differ from those Predicted by Cohort Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...

66

A mortality cohort study in a north Italian aircraft factory.  

PubMed Central

Mortality in a cohort of 8626 workers employed between 1954 and 1981 in an aircraft manufacturing factory in northern Italy was studied. Total follow up was 132,042 person-years, with 76% accumulated in the age range 15 to 54. Median duration of follow up from the date of first employment was 16 years. Vital status was ascertained for 98.5% of the cohort. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated based on Italian national mortality rates. Altogether 685 deaths occurred (SMR = 85). There was a significant excess of mortality for melanoma (6 cases, SMR = 561). Six deaths certified as due to pleural tumours occurred. No significant excess of mortality was found in specific jobs or work areas.

Costa, G; Merletti, F; Segnan, N

1989-01-01

67

A Cohort Study of Vitamin D Intake and Melanoma Risk  

PubMed Central

Data suggest that vitamin D intake may have chemopreventive efficacy against melanoma, but there have been no published epidemiologic studies examining the association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk in a large prospective cohort. We examined whether dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake was associated with melanoma risk among 68,611 men and women who were participants of the Vitamins and Lifestyle cohort study. Participants reported dietary vitamin D intake over the past year and 10-year use of multivitamin and individual vitamin D supplements on a baseline questionnaire. After follow-up through 2006, 455 incident melanomas were identified through linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vitamin D intake after adjustment for melanoma risk factors. Compared with the lowest quartile, we did not detect a risk reduction of melanoma in the highest quartiles of dietary vitamin D intake (RR = 1.31, CI = 0.94–1.82), 10-year average supplemental vitamin D intake (RR = 1.13, CI = 0.89–1.43), or combined dietary and supplemental intake (1.05, CI = 0.79–1.40). In this large prospective cohort, we did not find an association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk.

Asgari, Maryam M.; Maruti, Sonia S.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; White, Emily

2009-01-01

68

A cohort study of vitamin D intake and melanoma risk.  

PubMed

Data suggest that vitamin D intake may have chemopreventive efficacy against melanoma, but there have been no published epidemiologic studies examining the association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk in a large prospective cohort. We examined whether dietary and supplemental vitamin D intake was associated with melanoma risk among 68,611 men and women who were participants of the Vitamins and Lifestyle cohort study. Participants reported dietary vitamin D intake over the past year and 10-year use of multivitamin and individual vitamin D supplements on a baseline questionnaire. After follow-up through 2006, 455 incident melanomas were identified through linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for vitamin D intake after adjustment for melanoma risk factors. Compared with the lowest quartile, we did not detect a risk reduction of melanoma in the highest quartiles of dietary vitamin D intake (RR=1.31, CI=0.94-1.82), 10-year average supplemental vitamin D intake (RR=1.13, CI=0.89-1.43), or combined dietary and supplemental intake (1.05, CI=0.79-1.40). In this large prospective cohort, we did not find an association between vitamin D intake and melanoma risk. PMID:19194478

Asgari, Maryam M; Maruti, Sonia S; Kushi, Lawrence H; White, Emily

2009-07-01

69

Analysis of partial and complete protection in malaria cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous and analysis of incidence data must account for this for correct statistical inference. Less widely appreciated is the occurrence of a large number of zero counts (children without a malaria episode) in malaria cohort studies. Zero-inflated regression methods provide one means of addressing this issue, and also allow risk factors providing complete and partial protection to be disentangled. Methods Poisson, negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were fitted to data from two cohort studies of malaria in children in Ghana. Multivariate models were used to understand risk factors for elevated incidence of malaria and for remaining malaria-free, and to estimate the fraction of the population not at risk of malaria. Results ZINB models, which account for both heterogeneity in individual risk and an unexposed sub-group within the population, provided the best fit to data in both cohorts. These approaches gave additional insight into the mechanism of factors influencing the incidence of malaria compared to simpler approaches, such as NB regression. For example, compared to urban areas, rural residence was found to both increase the incidence rate of malaria among exposed children, and increase the probability of being exposed. In Navrongo, 34% of urban residents were estimated to be at no risk, compared to 3% of rural residents. In Kintampo, 47% of urban residents and 13% of rural residents were estimated to be at no risk. Conclusion These results illustrate the utility of zero-inflated regression methods for analysis of malaria cohort data that include a large number of zero counts. Specifically, these results suggest that interventions that reach mainly urban residents will have limited overall impact, since some urban residents are essentially at no risk, even in areas of high endemicity, such as in Ghana.

2013-01-01

70

Land use regression model for ultrafine particles in Amsterdam.  

PubMed

There are currently no epidemiological studies on health effects of long-term exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP), largely because data on spatial exposure contrasts for UFP is lacking. The objective of this study was to develop a land use regression (LUR) model for UFP in the city of Amsterdam. Total particle number concentrations (PNC), PM10, PM2.5, and its soot content were measured directly outside 50 homes spread over the city of Amsterdam. Each home was measured during one week. Continuous measurements at a central urban background site were used to adjust the average concentration for temporal variation. Predictor variables (traffic, address density, land use) were obtained using geographic information systems. A model including the product of traffic intensity and the inverse distance to the nearest road squared, address density, and location near the port explained 67% of the variability in measured PNC. LUR models for PM2.5, soot, and coarse particles (PM10, PM2.5) explained 57%, 76%, and 37% of the variability in measured concentrations. Predictions from the PNC model correlated highly with predictions from LUR models for PM2.5, soot, and coarse particles. A LUR model for PNC has been developed, with similar validity as previous models for more commonly measured pollutants. PMID:21158386

Hoek, Gerard; Beelen, Rob; Kos, Gerard; Dijkema, Marieke; van der Zee, Saskia C; Fischer, Paul H; Brunekreef, Bert

2011-01-15

71

Hyperemesis gravidarum and pregnancy outcomes in the Norwegian mother and child cohort - a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) characterized by excessive nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, is reported to be associated with increased risks for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and perinatal death. Conflicting results in previous studies underline the necessity to study HG’s potential effect on pregnancy outcomes using large cohorts with valid data on exposure and outcome measures, as well as potential confounders. This study aims to investigate associations between HG and adverse pregnancy outcomes using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods All singleton pregnancies in MoBa from 1998 to 2008 were included. Multivariable regression was used to estimate relative risks, approximated by odds ratios, for PTB, LBW, SGA and perinatal death. Linear regression was applied to assess differences in birthweight and gestational age for children born to women with and without HG. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Results Altogether, 814 out of 71,468 women (or 1.1%) had HG. In MoBa HG was not associated with PTB, LBW or SGA. Babies born to women with HG were born on average 1 day earlier than those born to women without HG; (?0.97 day (95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.80 - -0.15). There was no difference in birthweight when maternal weight gain was adjusted for; (23.42 grams (95% CI: -56.71 - 9.86). Babies born by women with HG had lower risk for having Apgar score?

2013-01-01

72

Reliability of Standard Health Assessment Instruments in a Large, Population-Based Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Millennium Cohort Study began in 2001 using mail and Internet questionnaires to gather occupational and environmental exposure, behavioral risk factor, and health outcome data from a large, population-based US military cohort. Standardized instruments...

B. Smith I. G. Jacobson M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith T. E. Corbeil

2006-01-01

73

Quiet areas and the need for quietness in Amsterdam.  

PubMed

This paper describes the Quiet Places Project in Amsterdam. The purpose of the study was to find out: (1) which public quiet places there are according to Amsterdam residents; (2) what characterizes a quiet place; (3) to what extent do residents want peace and quiet; (4) how do residents realize these needs. The factors determining the need for quietness are presented in a model showing the influence of demographic and socio-economic issues, health status, sensitiveness to noise, daily activities and the noisiness in and around home. Most important of these factors is sensitivity to noise. Elderly and less healthy people are more often sensitive to noise. People who are annoyed by sound from traffic, airplanes and the like show a higher need for quietness. People with a lively household or neighbourhood report lower needs for quietness. Visiting a quiet place and going outside to walk or bike can have a compensating effect on the need for quietness. This suggests that creating quiet places and enhancing possibilities for quiet recreation in urban environments can have a positive effect on the quality of life in the city. Objective noise levels at the quiet places were taken from environmental noise maps. This shows that there may be a preference for low transportation noise levels, but levels up to 60 dB L(day) are acceptable. Apparently this depends on a relative quietness or on non-acoustic characteristics of an area: the presence of vegetation and other pleasant stimuli. PMID:22690181

Booi, Hester; van den Berg, Frits

2012-04-01

74

Quiet Areas and the Need for Quietness in Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the Quiet Places Project in Amsterdam. The purpose of the study was to find out: (1) which public quiet places there are according to Amsterdam residents; (2) what characterizes a quiet place; (3) to what extent do residents want peace and quiet; (4) how do residents realize these needs. The factors determining the need for quietness are presented in a model showing the influence of demographic and socio-economic issues, health status, sensitiveness to noise, daily activities and the noisiness in and around home. Most important of these factors is sensitivity to noise. Elderly and less healthy people are more often sensitive to noise. People who are annoyed by sound from traffic, airplanes and the like show a higher need for quietness. People with a lively household or neighbourhood report lower needs for quietness. Visiting a quiet place and going outside to walk or bike can have a compensating effect on the need for quietness. This suggests that creating quiet places and enhancing possibilities for quiet recreation in urban environments can have a positive effect on the quality of life in the city. Objective noise levels at the quiet places were taken from environmental noise maps. This shows that there may be a preference for low transportation noise levels, but levels up to 60 dB Lday are acceptable. Apparently this depends on a relative quietness or on non-acoustic characteristics of an area: the presence of vegetation and other pleasant stimuli.

Booi, Hester; van den Berg, Frits

2012-01-01

75

South Yorkshire Cohort: a 'cohort trials facility' study of health and weight - Protocol for the recruitment phase  

PubMed Central

Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational, longitudinal cohort study design with a population based cohort facility for multiple randomised controlled trials in a range of long term health and weight related conditions (including obesity). This infrastructure will allow the rapid and cheap identification and recruitment of patients, and facilitate the provision of robust evidence to inform the management and self-management of health and weight.

2011-01-01

76

Cohort profile: the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Electronic Cohort Study (E-CATALyST).  

PubMed

The Caerphilly Health and Social Needs study was established to inform and support collaborative multiagency working on reducing inequalities in health and to investigate neighbourhood influences on mental health. Initially, we collated a robust small-area multiagency dataset of contextual health determinants and outcomes from routine sources and sharing of data between the National Health Service and Caerphilly county borough council. These data were widely used in local joint planning to improve health and reduce health inequalities. Secondly, we carried out a baseline population questionnaire survey, collecting data from 10 892 (60.6%) respondents aged 18-74 years on a wide range of socio-economic, lifestyle, health and housing factors and perceptions of the local neighbourhood, including access to services, social cohesion and neighbourhood quality. We carried out wave 2 of the survey after 7 years with responses from 4558 (50.2%) participants to the same range of questions. We developed the study into an electronic cohort, linking all 17 979 sampled participants aged 18-74 years to mortality and hospital admission records with 10-year follow-up and full recording of migration both within and out of the borough. Readers with an interest in collaborative use of the data should contact Professor David Fone, Principal Investigator. PMID:23132614

Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Farewell, Daniel; John, Gareth; Lyons, Ronan A; Lloyd, Keith

2013-12-01

77

Snoring during Pregnancy and Delivery Outcomes: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: This cohort study examined the impact of maternal snoring on key delivery outcomes such as mode of delivery, infant birth centile, and small-for-gestational age. Design: Cohort study. Setting: A large tertiary medical center. Patients or Participants: Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited between March 2007 and December 2010. Measurements and Results: Women were screened for habitual snoring, as a known marker for sleep disordered breathing. Outcome data were obtained from medical records following delivery and birth centiles were calculated. Of 1,673 women, a total of 35% reported habitual snoring (26% with pregnancy-onset snoring and 9% with chronic snoring). After adjusting for confounders, chronic snoring was associated with small-forgestational age (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66, P = 0.041) and elective cesarean delivery (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.22-4.18, P = 0.008). Pregnancy-onset snoring was associated with emergency cesarean delivery (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.22-2.30, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Maternal snoring during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse delivery outcomes including cesarean delivery and small-for-gestational age. Screening pregnant women for symptoms of SDB may provide an early opportunity to identify women at risk of poor delivery outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration: Identifier: NCT01030003. Citation: O'Brien LM; Bullough AS; Owusu JT; Tremblay KA; Brincat CA; Chames MC; Kalbfleisch JD; Chervin RD. Snoring during pregnancy and delivery outcomes: a cohort study. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1625-1632.

O'Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Tremblay, Kimberley A.; Brincat, Cynthia A.; Chames, Mark C.; Kalbfleisch, John D.; Chervin, Ronald D.

2013-01-01

78

Nested Cohort  

Cancer.gov

NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

79

Cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: Academic medical center infertility practice.Patient(s): All patients treated for infertility in a 1-year time span.Intervention(s): Intrauterine inseminations, clomiphene citrate and IUI (CC-IUI), hMG and IUI (hMG-IUI), assisted reproductive techniques (ART), and neosalpingostomy by laparotomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): All medical charges and pregnancy outcomes associated with the treatments were obtained. Cost-effectiveness

Bradley J. Van Voorhis; Amy E. T. Sparks; Brian D. Allen; Dale W. Stovall; Craig H. Syrop; F. K. Chapler

1997-01-01

80

Overview of the Japan Children's Study 2004-2009; Cohort Study of Early Childhood Development  

PubMed Central

Background There are still a lot of unknown aspects about the childhood development of sociability which are based on neuroscientific basis. Purpose of the Japan Children’s Study (JCS) was to verify the normal process of child development of sociability; the trajectory and factors related development of sociability, and to collect findings and integrate the knowledge to make the plan of long-term and large scale cohort study. Methods A child cohort study underway in Japan since 2005. There are the cohort study including a infant cohort study at age of 4 months to 30 months and a preschool cohort study at age of 5 years old to 8 years old. Questionnaires, direct observation of children and cognitive testing were performed. Results In infant cohort study, 465 infants were recruited at 4 months and 367 children were followed up to 30 months, follow up rate was 78.9% and in the preschool cohort study, total 192 children (112 at 2005 and 80 at 2007) at age of 5 years old and 169 followed up to 6 years (follow up rate was 88.0%), and 79 children were followed up to 8 years old (follow up rate was 70.5%) old. Several new measurements to evaluate child sociability were developed. Some factors related to development of child sociability were found for example the ‘praise’ was related to child sociability in cohort study based on neuroscience findings. Conclusions Though the trajectory of child sociability development were not clarified, some significant factors related to development of sociability, and the basic findings to conduct a long-term and large scale cohort study were provided.

Yamagata, Zentaro; Maeda, Tadahiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

2010-01-01

81

Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20?years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in clinical settings in order to prevent suicide.

Stenbacka, M; Romelsjo, A; Jokinen, J

2014-01-01

82

Study design of DIACORE (DIAbetes COhoRtE) - a cohort study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE). Methods DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness. Discussion DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies.

2013-01-01

83

Literature search on kickers and septa for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (APS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the literature was performed with a view to the design of kickers and septa for the injection and extraction line of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher Ring (APS) in the UPDATE project. The UPDATE kickers were given the following specifications: deflection angle 2 mrad, pulse width 2 micrometer, fall time 70 ans, available length 2 m. A comparison

J. Kuijt; A. V. D. Linden

1988-01-01

84

Acute Hepatitis C in HIV-1 Infected Japanese Cohort: Single Center Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives HCV co-infection is a poor prognostic factor in HIV-1-infected patients. Although the number of newly reported patients who show seroconversion is increasing, the clinical features are still unclear, especially in Asian countries. Design A single-center retrospective cohort study of patients diagnosed between 2001–2012. Methods Acute hepatitis C (AHC) was diagnosed upon detection of high serum ALT (>100 IU) followed by anti-HCV seroconversion. Clinical characteristics, HIV-1-related immunological status and IL-28B genotypes (rs12979860, rs8099917) were collected. We compared these variables between patients with and without spontaneous clearance of HCV and between responders and non-responders to treatment with pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus ribavirin. Results Thirty-five patients were diagnosed with AHC during the study period. The majority (96.9%) were MSM. Three were lost to follow-up. Seventy-five percent of patients with AHC (24/32) were asymptomatic and found incidentally to have high serum ALT. Compared to those who did not show spontaneous clearance, patients with spontaneous HCV viral clearance showed more symptoms and more severe abnormalities related to acute hepatitis. Spontaneous clearance was seen in 4 out of 28 patients with CC+TT genotype, but not in 6 patients with IL-28B CT+TG genotype. PEG-IFN plus ribavirin treatment was initiated in 12 out of 28 cases without spontaneous clearance. The sustained virological response rate was high (81.8%, 9/11), even in cases with CT+TG genotype infected with HCV genotype 1b (SVR 2/2). Conclusions Careful attention to AHC is needed in HIV-1-infected MSM. Early diagnosis and PEG-IFN plus ribavirin treatment should be considered for AHC cases.

Ishikane, Masahiro; Watanabe, Koji; Tsukada, Kunihisa; Nozaki, Yuichi; Yanase, Mikio; Igari, Toru; Masaki, Naohiko; Kikuchi, Yoshimi; Oka, Shinichi; Gatanaga, Hiroyuki

2014-01-01

85

A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ({open_quotes}Yu-Cheng{close_quotes}) occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lan, Shou-Jen [Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung City (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1996-11-01

86

The role of electric cars in Amsterdam’s transport system in the year 2015; a scenario approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electric cars may contribute significantly to a reduction in external costs of urban transport. This paper investigates, using a scenario analysis, the necessary conditions for their possible introduction in the city of Amsterdam. First, a background sketch of recent developments in Amsterdam is given, followed by an outline of the potential of, and the problems inherent in, the introduction of

Sytze A Rienstra; Peter Nijkamp

1998-01-01

87

Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS): Cohort Study of Cancer- Inhibitory Factors in Men  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.

88

Potential impact of observational cohort studies in Japan on rheumatoid arthritis research and practice.  

PubMed

For better management of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we need information both from well-designed clinical trials, such as randomized controlled trials, and from observational cohorts. Observational cohort study has not been developed in Japanese RA patients; however, two cohorts, IORRA (formerly J-ARAMIS) from 2000 and NinJa by iR-net from 2002, have been established. These two cohorts are an important source not only for better management of Japanese RA patients but also for solutions to a variety of issues concerning RA clinical practice in general. In this minireview, necessities of observational cohort studies are discussed. PMID:16633925

Yamanaka, Hisashi; Tohma, Shigeto

2006-01-01

89

Determinants of workplace injury among Thai Cohort Study participants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes.

Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

2013-01-01

90

Personality and cancer survival: the Miyagi cohort study  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that personality plays a role in cancer outcome in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. In July 1990, 41?442 residents of Japan completed a short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and a questionnaire on various health habits, and between January 1993 and December 1997, 890 incident cases of cancer were identified among them. These 890 cases were followed up until March 2001, and a total of 356 deaths from all causes was identified among them. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death according to four score levels on each of four personality subscales (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie), with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Multivariable HRs of deaths from all causes for individuals in the highest score level on each personality subscale compared with those at the lowest level were 1.0 for extraversion (95% CI=0.8–1.4; Trend P=0.73), 1.1 for neuroticism (0.8–1.6; Trend P=0.24), 1.2 for psychoticism (0.9–1.6; Trend P=0.29), and 1.0 for lie (0.7–1.5; Trend P=0.90). The data obtained in this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan do not support the hypothesis that personality is associated with cancer survival.

Nakaya, N; Tsubono, Y; Nishino, Y; Hosokawa, T; Fukudo, S; Shibuya, D; Akizuki, N; Yoshikawa, E; Kobayakawa, M; Fujimori, M; Saito-Nakaya, K; Uchitomi, Y; Tsuji, I

2005-01-01

91

The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study: Design and Baseline Results  

PubMed Central

The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000–2001. Participants have been surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study are to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data are collected to characterize each of these levels. This paper presents the details of the multilevel study design. We also provide baseline information about MACC participants including demographics and tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. This paper describes smoking prevalence at the local level, and compares MACC participants to the state as a whole.

Forster, Jean; Chen, Vincent; Perry, Cheryl; Oswald, John; Willmorth, Michael

2014-01-01

92

A cohort study of mortality among Ontario pipe trades workers  

PubMed Central

Aims: To study mortality in a cohort of members of the United Association of Journeymen and Apprentices of the Plumbing and Pipe Fitting Industry of the United States and Canada and to compare results with two previous proportional mortality studies. Methods: A cohort of 25 285 workers who entered the trade after 1949 was assembled from records of the international head office. Mortality was ascertained by linkage to the Canadian Mortality Registry at Statistics Canada. Standardised mortality ratios were computed using Ontario general population mortality rates as the reference. Results: There were significant increases in lung cancer mortality rates (SMR 1.27; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.42). Increased lung cancer risk was observed among plumbers, pipefitters, and sprinkler fitters. Increased risk was observed among workers joining the Union as late as the 1970s. A random effects meta-analysis of this study and the two PMR studies found significant increases in oesophageal (RR 1.24; 95% CI 1.00 to 1.53), lung (RR 1.31; 95% CI 1.19 to 1.44), and haematological/lymphatic (RR 1.21; 95% CI 1.08 to 1.35) malignancies. Conclusions: The mortality pattern is consistent with the effects of occupational exposure to asbestos. Increased risk due to other respiratory carcinogens such as welding fume cannot be excluded. There are substantial amounts of asbestos in place in industrial and commercial environments. The education and training of workers to protect themselves against inhalation hazards will be necessary well into the future.

Finkelstein, M; Verma, D

2004-01-01

93

Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort differences in the rate of cognitive aging and if, at the very end of life, pervasive mortality-related processes overshadow and minimize cohort differences. We used data on 5 primary mental abilities from the Seattle Longitudinal Study (Schaie, 2005) to compare both age-related and mortality-related changes between earlier born cohorts (1886–1913) and later born cohorts (1914–1948). Our models covary for several individual and cohort differences in central indicators of life expectancy, education, health, and gender. Age-related growth models corroborate and extend earlier findings by documenting level differences at age 70 of up to 0.50 SD and less steep rates of cognitive aging on all abilities between 50 and 80 years of age favoring the later born cohort. In contrast, mortality-related models provide limited support for positive cohort differences. The later born cohort showed steeper mortality-related declines. We discuss possible reasons why often reported positive secular trends in age-related processes may not generalize to the vulnerable segment of the population that is close to death and suggest routes for further inquiry.

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

2011-01-01

94

Gastroschisis: one year outcomes from national cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe one year outcomes for a national cohort of infants with gastroschisis. Design Population based cohort study of all liveborn infants with gastroschisis born in the United Kingdom and Ireland from October 2006 to March 2008. Setting All 28 paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland. Participants 301 infants (77%) from an original cohort of 393. Main outcome measures Duration of parenteral nutrition and stay in hospital; time to establish full enteral feeding; rates of intestinal failure, liver disease associated with intestinal failure, unplanned reoperation; case fatality. Results Compared with infants with simple gastroschisis (intact, uncompromised, continuous bowel), those with complex gastroschisis (bowel perforation, necrosis, or atresia) took longer to reach full enteral feeding (median difference 21 days, 95% confidence interval 9 to 39 days); required a longer duration of parenteral nutrition (median difference 25 days, 9 to 46 days) and a longer stay in hospital (median difference 57 days, 29 to 95 days); were more likely to develop intestinal failure (81% (25 infants) v 41% (102); relative risk 1.96, 1.56 to 2.46) and liver disease associated with intestinal failure (23% (7) v 4% (11); 5.13, 2.15 to 12.3); and were more likely to require unplanned reoperation (42% (13) v 10% (24); 4.39, 2.50 to 7.70). Compared with infants managed with primary fascial closure, those managed with preformed silos took longer to reach full enteral feeding (median difference 5 days, 1 to 9) and had an increased risk of intestinal failure (52% (50) v 32% (38); 1.61, 1.17 to 2.24). Event rates for the other outcomes were low, and there were no other significant differences between these management groups. Twelve infants died (4%). Conclusions This nationally representative study provides a benchmark against which individual centres can measure outcome and performance. Stratifying neonates with gastroschisis into simple and complex groups reliably predicts outcome at one year. There is sufficient clinical equipoise concerning the initial management strategy to embark on a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing primary fascial closure with preformed silos in infants suitable at presentation for either treatment to determine the optimal initial management strategy and define algorithms of care.

2011-01-01

95

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort members: Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, bi...

96

Health and disease in 85 year olds: baseline findings from the Newcastle 85+ cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives The Newcastle 85+ Study aims to systematically study the clinical, biological, and psychosocial attributes of an unselected cohort of 85 year olds and to examine subsequent health trajectories as the cohort ages; health at baseline is reported.Design Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study.Setting Newcastle upon Tyne and North Tyneside primary care trusts, United Kingdom.Participants 1042

Joanna Collerton; Karen Davies; Carol Jagger; Andrew Kingston; John Bond; Martin P Eccles; Louise A Robinson; Carmen Martin-Ruiz; Thomas von Zglinicki; Oliver F W James; Thomas B L Kirkwood

2009-01-01

97

Investigating the psychological impact of bank robbery: A cohort study.  

PubMed

Despite numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is sparse and characterized by several limitations. To overcome these limitations we investigated the psychological impact of bank robbery in a cohort study by comparing general levels of traumatization and somatization in employees never exposed to robbery and employees exposed to robbery at different degrees and time-points, while controlling for selected risk factors of posttraumatic distress. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only the acute directly exposed robbery group which had a significantly higher score on general traumatization and somatization compared to the control group whilst controlling for other factors. In conclusion, bank robbery exposure appears to be especially associated with psychological distress in the acute phase and in victims present during the robbery. After the acute phase, other factors appear more important in predicting general traumatization and somatization in bank employees compared to exposure to robbery. PMID:24846493

Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

2014-06-01

98

The Isfahan cohort study: rationale, methods and main findings.  

PubMed

A 10-year longitudinal population-based study, entitled the Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) is being conducted. The ICS commenced in 2001, recruiting individuals aged 35+ living in urban and rural areas of three counties in central Iran, to determine the individual and combined impact of various risk factors on the incidence of cardiovascular events. After 24379 person-years of follow-up with a median follow-up of 4.8 years, we documented 219 incident cases of ischemic heart disease (IHD) (125 in men and 94 in women) and 57 incident cases of stroke (28 in men and 29 in women). The absolute risk of IHD was 8.9 (7.8-10.2) per 1000 person-years for all participants, 10.6 (8.8-12.5) per 1000 person-years for men and 7.4 (6.0-9.0) per 1000 person-years for women. The respective risk of ischemic stroke was 2.3 (1.7-3.0), 2.3 (1.6-3.3) and 2.3 (1.5-3.2) per 1000 person-years. The risk of IHD was approximately 3.5-fold higher in the presence of hypertension, followed by diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia with near 2.5- and twofold higher risk, respectively. This cohort provides confirmatory evidence of the ethnic differences in the magnitude of the impact of various risk factors on cardiovascular events. The differences may be due to varying absolute risk levels among populations and the existing ethnic disparities for using western risk equations to local requirements. PMID:21107436

Sarrafzadegan, N; Talaei, M; Sadeghi, M; Kelishadi, R; Oveisgharan, S; Mohammadifard, N; Sajjadieh, A R; Kabiri, P; Marshall, T; Thomas, G N; Tavasoli, A

2011-09-01

99

Health status of UK care home residents: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: UK care home residents are often poorly served by existing healthcare arrangements. Published descriptions of residents’ health status have been limited by lack of detail and use of data derived from surveys drawn from social, rather than health, care records. Aim: to describe in detail the health status and healthcare resource use of UK care home residents Design and setting: a 180-day longitudinal cohort study of 227 residents across 11 UK care homes, 5 nursing and 6 residential, selected to be representative for nursing/residential status and dementia registration. Method: Barthel index (BI), Mini-mental state examination (MMSE), Neuropsychiatric index (NPI), Mini-nutritional index (MNA), EuroQoL-5D (EQ-5D), 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), diagnoses and medications were recorded at baseline and BI, NPI, GHQ-12 and EQ-5D at follow-up after 180 days. National Health Service (NHS) resource use data were collected from databases of local healthcare providers. Results: out of a total of 323, 227 residents were recruited. The median BI was 9 (IQR: 2.5–15.5), MMSE 13 (4–22) and number of medications 8 (5.5–10.5). The mean number of diagnoses per resident was 6.2 (SD: 4). Thirty per cent were malnourished, 66% had evidence of behavioural disturbance. Residents had contact with the NHS on average once per month. Conclusion: residents from both residential and nursing settings are dependent, cognitively impaired, have mild frequent behavioural symptoms, multimorbidity, polypharmacy and frequently use NHS resources. Effective care for such a cohort requires broad expertise from multiple disciplines delivered in a co-ordinated and managed way.

Gordon, Adam Lee; Franklin, Matthew; Bradshaw, Lucy; Logan, Pip; Elliott, Rachel; Gladman, John R.F.

2014-01-01

100

Food and nutrient consumption trends in older Australians: a 10-year cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Objectives:Few longitudinal population-based cohort studies of older people have described dietary intakes over time. The objective of this study was to assess changes in the food and nutrient intake in a cohort of older Australians, using longitudinal data collected over 10 years.Subjects\\/Methods:Population-based cohort of people aged 49 years and over at baseline (82% of those eligible) living in two postcode

V M Flood; G Burlutsky; K L Webb; J J Wang; W T Smith; P Mitchell; P Mitchell

2010-01-01

101

The Generation R Study: design and cohort update 2010  

PubMed Central

The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes of normal and abnormal growth, development and health during fetal life, childhood and adulthood. The study focuses on four primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) diseases in childhood; and (4) health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. In total, 9,778 mothers with a delivery date from April 2002 until January 2006 were enrolled in the study. General follow-up rates until the age of 4 years exceed 75%. Data collection in mothers, fathers and preschool children included questionnaires, detailed physical and ultrasound examinations, behavioural observations, and biological samples. A genome wide association screen is available in the participating children. Regular detailed hands on assessment are performed from the age of 5 years onwards. Eventually, results forthcoming from the Generation R Study have to contribute to the development of strategies for optimizing health and healthcare for pregnant women and children.

van Duijn, Cock M.; van der Heijden, Albert J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Moll, Henriette A.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert

2010-01-01

102

Opium use and mortality in Golestan Cohort Study: prospective cohort study of 50 000 adults in Iran  

PubMed Central

Objectives To investigate the association between opium use and subsequent risk of death. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting The Golestan Cohort Study in north-eastern Iran collected detailed validated data on opium use and other exposures at baseline. Participants were enrolled between January 2004 and June 2008 and were followed to May 2011, with a follow-up success rate of over 99%. Participants 50?045 participants aged 40-75 at baseline. Main outcomes Mortality, all cause and major subcategories. Results 17% (n=8487) of the participants reported opium use, with a mean duration of 12.7 years. During the follow-up period 2145 deaths were reported. The adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality associated with ever use of opium was 1.86 (95% confidence interval 1.68 to 2.06). Opium consumption was significantly associated with increased risks of deaths from several causes including circulatory diseases (hazard ratio 1.81) and cancer (1.61). The strongest associations were seen with deaths from asthma, tuberculosis, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (11.0, 6.22, and 5.44, respectively). After exclusion of people who self prescribed opium after the onset of major chronic illnesses, the associations remained strong with a dose-response relation. Conclusion Opium users have an increased risk of death from multiple causes compared with non-users. Increased risks were also seen in people who used low amounts of opium for a long period and those who had no major illness before use.

2012-01-01

103

Gulf war illness--better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Design Occupational cohort study in the

M. Hotopf; Anthony S David; Lisa Hull; Vasilis Nikalaou; Catherine Unwin; Simon Wessely

2003-01-01

104

Assessing evidence for a causal link between cannabis and psychosis: A review of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over the past five years, the release of cohort studies assessing the link between cannabis and psychosis has increased attention on this relationship. Existing reviews generally conclude that these cohort studies show cannabis has a causal relationship to psychosis, or at least that one cannot be excluded. Few studies have evaluated the relative strengths and limitations of these methodologically heterogeneous

Jennifer A. McLaren; Edmund Silins; Delyse Hutchinson; Richard P. Mattick; Wayne Hall

2010-01-01

105

Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15%) patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32%) had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35%) had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR) seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal.

2011-01-01

106

Migraine and cognitive decline among women: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between migraine and cognitive decline among women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Women’s Health Study, United States. Participants 6349 women aged 65 or older enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine status at baseline and participated in cognitive testing during follow-up. Participants were classified into four groups: no history of migraine, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and past history of migraine (reports of migraine history but no migraine in the year prior to baseline). Main outcome measures Cognitive testing was carried out at two year intervals up to three times using the telephone interview for cognitive status, immediate and delayed recall trials of the east Boston memory test, delayed recall trial of the telephone interview for cognitive status 10 word list, and a category fluency test. All tests were combined into a global cognitive score, and tests assessing verbal memory were combined to create a verbal memory score. Results Of the 6349 women, 853 (13.4%) reported any migraine; of these, 195 (22.9%) reported migraine with aura, 248 (29.1%) migraine without aura, and 410 (48.1%) a past history of migraine. Compared with women with no history of migraine, those who experienced migraine with or without aura or had a past history of migraine did not have significantly different rates of cognitive decline in any of the cognitive scores: values for the rate of change of the global cognitive score between baseline and the last observation ranged from ?0.01 (SE 0.04) for past history of migraine to 0.08 (SE 0.04) for migraine with aura when compared with women without any history of migraine. Women who experienced migraine were also not at increased risk of substantial cognitive decline (worst 10% of the distribution of decline). When compared with women without a history of migraine, the relative risks for the global score ranged from 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.46 to 1.28) for women with migraine without aura to 1.17 (0.84 to 1.63) for women with a past history of migraine. Conclusion In this prospective cohort of women, migraine status was not associated with faster rates of cognitive decline.

2012-01-01

107

Bone loss in chronic hemiplegia: a longitudinal cohort study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to evaluate hemiplegic stroke patients in terms of long-term changes in bone mineral density and related factors. We conducted a longitudinal cohort study, involving 57 first-stroke patients (40 males) with chronic hemiplegia (for more than 12mo), at a university rehabilitation center in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Bone loss, body composition, lean mass, and fat mass were evaluated at 2 time points (mean interval, 16mo). Bone loss was significantly greater in paretic forearms than in nonparetic forearms (p=0.001) and in patients having suffered strokes more recently (p=0.015). We found no difference between paretic and nonparetic femurs. Femoral bone loss was significantly greater in patients using anticoagulants or anticonvulsants (p=0.025) and in those with greater spasticity (p=0.040), regardless of the time since stroke. Our results provide additional evidence that hemiplegic stroke patients have progressive bone loss and that such bone loss is more common in the arms than in the legs. Patients with poststroke hemiplegia should be densitometric monitored mainly in paretic arm and treated for bone loss, with attention to the determinants identified in this study. PMID:22677198

de Brito, Christina May Moran; Garcia, Ana Cristina Ferreira; Takayama, Liliam; Fregni, Felipe; Battistella, Linamara Rizzo; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

2013-01-01

108

Cholelithiasis in Childhood: A Cohort Study in North of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective Cholelithiasis rarely occurs in children but the increased use of ultrasonography has led to increased detection of gallstones in patients. The epidemiology and predisposing factors of cholelithiasis vary in different populations. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and to evaluate management and outcome of patients referred to Amirkola Children's Hospital jn Babol. Methods This cohort study was performed on children with cholelithiasis referred during 2000 to 2011. Cholelithiasis was diagnosed with ultrasonography. The data was obtained based on history, physical exam, clinical and paraclinical investigations and analyzed by SPSS version 18. P-value <0.05 was considered being significant. Findings From the 66 patients with cholelithiasis, 39 (59.1%) were males. The mean age at diagnosis was 6.6±4.5 years. The most common predisposing factor included ceftriaxone therapy (27.3%), hemolytic diseases (13.6%), hepatobiliary diseases (7.5%) and cystic fibrosis (7.5%). In 30.3% of patients, no predisposing factor was detected. The most common complaint was abdominal pain (67%). Among the patients in whom abdominal X-Ray was performed, only 20% had radiopaque gallstones; 6 (9%) patients underwent cholecystectomy. Conclusion According to this study, ceftriaxone therapy and hemolytic diseases were the most common predisposing factors in children with cholelithiasis in our area and cholecystectomy had not been needed in most patients.

Dooki, Mohammad-Reza Esmaeili; Norouzi, Alireza

2013-01-01

109

Ten years of progress in the Hokkaido birth cohort study on environment and children's health: cohort profile--updated 2013.  

PubMed

The Hokkaido Study on Environment and Children's Health is an ongoing cohort study that began in 2002. The study consists of two prospective birth cohorts, the Sapporo cohort (n = 514) and the Hokkaido large-scale cohort (n = 20,940). The primary goals of this study are to first examine the potential negative effects of perinatal environmental chemical exposures on birth outcomes, including congenital malformations and growth retardation; second, to evaluate the development of allergies, infectious diseases and neurodevelopmental disorders and perform longitudinal observations of the children's physical development to clarify the causal relationship between these outcomes and environmental chemicals; third, to identify individuals genetically susceptible to environmental chemicals; finally, to identify the additive effects of various environmental factors in our daily life, such as secondhand smoke exposure or low folate intake during early pregnancy. In this paper, we introduce our recent progress in the Hokkaido study with a cohort profile updated in 2013. For the last ten years, we followed pregnant women and their offspring, measuring various environmental chemicals, i.e., PCB, OH-PCB and dioxins, PFCs (Perfluorinated Compounds), Organochlorine pesticides, Phthalates, bisphenol A and mercury. We discovered that the concentration of toxic equivalents (TEQ) of dioxin and other specific congeners of PCDF or PCDD have effects on birth weight, infants' neurodevelopment and immune function. There were significant gender differences in these effects; our results suggest that male infants have more susceptibility to those chemical exposures than female infants. Interestingly, we found maternal genetic polymorphisms in AHR, CYP1A1 or GSTs that significantly modified the dioxin concentrations in maternal blood, suggesting different dioxin accumulations in the bodies of individuals with these genotypes, which would lead to different dioxin exposure levels. These genetic susceptibility factors influenced the body size of children born from mothers that either smoked or were passively exposed to tobacco smoke. Further studies investigating the correlation between epigenetics, the effects of intrauterine exposure to environmental chemicals and developmental factors related to health and disease are warranted. PMID:23959649

Kishi, Reiko; Kobayashi, Sachiko; Ikeno, Tamiko; Araki, Atsuko; Miyashita, Chihiro; Itoh, Sachiko; Sasaki, Seiko; Okada, Emiko; Kobayashi, Sumitaka; Kashino, Ikuko; Itoh, Kumiko; Nakajima, Sonomi

2013-11-01

110

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

1997-01-01

111

IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relation between IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood. Design Prospective cohort study in which IQ was assessed by tests of mental ability at age 10 years and vegetarianism by self-report at age 30 years. Setting Great Britain. Participants 8170 men and women aged 30 years participating in the 1970 British cohort study, a national birth

Catharine R Gale; Ian J Deary; Ingrid Schoon; G David Batty

2007-01-01

112

The outcome of adolescent eating disorders: findings from the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study aimed to ascertain the outcome of adolescent onset eating disorders in a representative cohort of females. The design was a seven wave cohort study conducted over 6 years. 982 female participants from a total sample of 2032 secondary school students initially aged 14-15 years at 44 schools in the state of Victoria Australia. Branched questionnaires (BET) were used

G. C. Patton; C. Coffey; S. M. Sawyer

2003-01-01

113

Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the predictors of new eating disorders in an adolescent cohort. Design Cohort study over 3 years with six waves. Subjects Students, initially aged 14›15 years, from 44 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Outcome measures Weight (kg), height (cm), dieting (adolescent dieting scale), psychiatric morbidity (revised clinical interview schedule), and eating disorder (branched eating disorders

G C Patton; R Selzer; C Coffey; J B Carlin; R Wolfe; Parkville Victoria

114

Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

115

Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results  

PubMed Central

To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35–80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (?=0.74). Most questionnaire data had ? >0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (?=0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality.

Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

2004-01-01

116

The Nakuru eye disease cohort study: methodology & rationale  

PubMed Central

Background No longitudinal data from population-based studies of eye disease in sub-Saharan-Africa are available. A population-based survey was undertaken in 2007/08 to estimate the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision in Nakuru district, Kenya. This survey formed the baseline to a six-year prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence and progression of eye disease in this population. Methods/Design A nationally representative sample of persons aged 50 years and above were selected between January 2007 and November 2008 through probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters, with sampling of individuals within clusters through compact segment sampling. Selected participants underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations which included: visual acuity, autorefraction, visual fields, slit lamp assessment of the anterior and posterior segments, lens grading and fundus photography. In addition, anthropometric measures were taken and risk factors were assessed through structured interviews. Six years later (2013/2014) all subjects were invited for follow-up assessment, repeating the baseline examination methodology. Discussion The methodology will provide estimates of the progression of eye diseases and incidence of blindness, visual impairment, and eye diseases in an adult Kenyan population.

2014-01-01

117

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy.

Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe

2005-01-01

118

Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study - The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal cancer were registered. Using case-cohort analysis, the authors calculated rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age,

L. E. Voorrips; R. A. Goldbohm; G. van Poppel; F. Sturmans; P. A. van den Brandt

2000-01-01

119

Inadequate Dissemination of Phase I Trials: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Drug development is ideally a logical sequence in which information from small early studies (Phase I) is subsequently used to inform and plan larger, more definitive studies (Phases II–IV). Phase I trials are unique because they generally provide the first evaluation of new drugs in humans. The conduct and dissemination of Phase I trials have not previously been empirically evaluated. Our objective was to describe the initiation, completion, and publication of Phase I trials in comparison with Phase II–IV trials. Methods and Findings We reviewed a cohort of all protocols approved by a sample of ethics committees in France from January 1, 1994 to December 31, 1994. The comparison of 140 Phase I trials with 304 Phase II–IV trials, showed that Phase I studies were more likely to be initiated (133/140 [95%] versus 269/304 [88%]), more likely to be completed (127/133 [95%] versus 218/269 [81%]), and more likely to produce confirmatory results (71/83 [86%] versus 125/175 [71%]) than Phase II–IV trials. Publication was less frequent for Phase I studies (21/127 [17%] versus 93/218 [43%]), even if only accounting for studies providing confirmatory results (18/71 [25%] versus 79/125 [63%]). Conclusions The initiation, completion, and publications of Phase I trials are different from those of other studies. Moreover, the results of these trials should be published in order to ensure the integrity of the overall body of scientific knowledge, and ultimately the safety of future trial participants and patients.

Decullier, Evelyne; Chan, An-Wen; Chapuis, Francois

2009-01-01

120

Neighborhood socioeconomic position and tuberculosis transmission: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Current understanding of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clustering in the US is based on individual risk factors. This study sought to identify whether area-based socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with genotypic clustering among culture-confirmed TB cases. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on data collected on persons with incident TB in King County, Washington, 2004–2008. Multilevel models were used to identify the relationship between area-level SES at the block group level and clustering utilizing a socioeconomic position index (SEP). Results Of 519 patients with a known genotyping result and block group, 212 (41%) of isolates clustered genotypically. Analyses suggested an association between lower area-based SES and increased recent TB transmission, particularly among US-born populations. Models in which community characteristics were measured at the block group level demonstrated that lower area-based SEP was positively associated with genotypic clustering after controlling for individual covariates. However, the trend in higher clustering odds with lower SEP index quartile diminished when additional block-group covariates. Conclusions Results stress the need for TB control interventions that take area-based measures into account, with particular focus on poor neighborhoods. Interventions based on area-based characteristics, such as improving case finding strategies, utilizing location-based screening and addressing social inequalities, could reduce recent rates of transmission.

2014-01-01

121

Introduction of the AmpliChip CYP450 Test to a South African cohort: a platform comparative prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse drug reactions and lack of therapeutic efficacy associated with currently prescribed pharmacotherapeutics may be attributed, in part, to inter-individual variability in drug metabolism. Studies on the pharmacogenetics of Cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes offer insight into this variability. The objective of this study was to compare the AmpliChip CYP450 Test® (AmpliChip) to alternative genotyping platforms for phenotype prediction of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 in a representative cohort of the South African population. Methods AmpliChip was used to screen for thirty-three CYP2D6 and three CYP2C19 alleles in two different cohorts. As a comparison cohort 2 was then genotyped using a CYP2D6 specific long range PCR with sequencing (CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing) platform and a PCR-RFLP platform for seven CYP2C19 alleles. Results Even though there was a low success rate for the AmpliChip, allele frequencies for both CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 were very similar between the two different cohorts. The CYP2D6 XL-PCR + Sequencing platform detected CYP2D6*5 more reliably and could correctly distinguish between CYP2D6*2 and *41 in the Black African individuals. Alleles not covered by the AmpliChip were identified and four novel CYP2D6 alleles were also detected. CYP2C19 PCR-RFLP identified CYP2C19*9,*15, *17 and *27 in the Black African individuals, with *2, *17 and *27 being relatively frequent in the cohort. Eliminating mismatches and identifying additional alleles will contribute to improving phenotype prediction for both enzymes. Phenotype prediction differed between platforms for both genes. Conclusion Comprehensive genotyping of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 with the platforms used in this study, would be more appropriate than AmpliChip for phenotypic prediction in the South African population. Pharmacogenetically important novel alleles may remain undiscovered when using assays that are designed according to Caucasian specific variation, unless alternate strategies are utilised.

2013-01-01

122

Psychiatric outcome following paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission is associated with greater psychiatric morbidity in children and parents as compared with general paediatric ward admissions. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Paediatric intensive care unit and two general paediatric wards of a London teaching hospital. Participants Children aged 5–18 years discharged from PICU (exposed cohort) and general paediatric wards (unexposed

Gwyneth Rees; Julia Gledhill; M. Elena Garralda; Simon Nadel

2004-01-01

123

Testicular cancer risk and maternal parity: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's

T Westergaard; PK Andersen; JB Pedersen; M Frisch; JH Olsen; M Melbye

1998-01-01

124

Antiretroviral Therapy and the Prevalence and Incidence of Diabetes Mellitus in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The risk of diabetes mellitus (DM) in hu- man immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients re- ceiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has not been well defined. Methods: We conducted an analysis in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study to determine the prevalence and incidence of DM in this cohort of HIV-infected and HIV- seronegative men. Prevalence analysis included 1278 men (710

Todd T. Brown; Stephen R. Cole; Xiuhong Li; Lawrence A. Kingsley; Frank J. Palella; Sharon A. Riddler; Barbara R. Visscher; Joseph B. Margolick; Adrian S. Dobs

2005-01-01

125

Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

126

Myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery is traditionally discouraged because of the risk of hemorrhage. A retrospective cohort study was performed to determine whether myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery leads to an increased incidence of intrapartum and short-term postpartum complications. Methods A computer search of medical records from May 1991 to April 2001 identified a total of 111 women who underwent myomectomy at time of cesarean delivery and 257 women with documented fibroids during the index pregnancy who underwent cesarean delivery alone. Charts were reviewed for the following outcome variables: change in hematocrit from preoperative to postoperative period, length of operation, length of postpartum stay, incidence of postpartum fever, and incidence of hemorrhage. Hemorrhage was defined as a change in hematocrit of 10 points or the need for intraoperative blood transfusion. Results The incidence of hemorrhage in the study group was 12.6% as compared with 12.8% in the control group (p = 0.95). There was also no statistically significant increase in the incidence of postpartum fever, operating time, and length of postpartum stay. No patient in either group required hysterectomy or embolization. Size of fibroid did not appear to affect the incidence of hemorrhage. After stratifying the procedures by type of fibroid removed, intramural myomectomy was found to be associated with a 21.2% incidence of hemorrhage compared with 12.8% in the control group, but this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.08). This study had 80% power to detect a two-fold increase in the overall incidence of hemorrhage. Conclusion In selected patients, myomectomy during cesarean delivery does not appear to result in an increased risk of intrapartum or short-term postpartum morbidity.

Roman, Ashley S; Tabsh, Khalil MA

2004-01-01

127

Obstructive sleep apnea and incident diabetes. A historical cohort study.  

PubMed

Rationale: Despite emerging evidence that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) may cause metabolic disturbances independently of other known risk factors, it remains unclear whether OSA is associated with incident diabetes. Objectives: To evaluate whether risk of incident diabetes was related to the severity and physiologic consequences of OSA. Methods: A historical cohort study was conducted using clinical and provincial health administrative data. All adults without previous diabetes referred with suspected OSA who underwent a diagnostic sleep study at St. Michael's Hospital (Toronto, Canada) between 1994 and 2010 were followed through health administrative data until May 2011 to examine the occurrence of diabetes. All OSA-related variables collected from the sleep study were examined as predictors in Cox regression models, controlling for sex, age, body mass index, smoking status, comorbidities, and income. Measurements and Main Results: Over a median follow-up of 67 months, 1,017 (11.7%) of 8,678 patients developed diabetes, giving a cumulative incidence at 5 years of 9.1% (95% confidence interval, 8.4-9.8%). In fully adjusted models, patients with apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) greater than 30 had a 30% higher hazard of developing diabetes than those with AHI less than 5. Among other OSA-related variables, AHI in rapid eye movement sleep and time spent with oxygen saturation less than 90% were associated with incident diabetes, as were heart rate, neck circumference, and sleep time. Conclusions: Among people with OSA, and controlling for multiple confounders, initial OSA severity and its physiologic consequences predicted subsequent risk for incident diabetes. PMID:24897551

Kendzerska, Tetyana; Gershon, Andrea S; Hawker, Gillian; Tomlinson, George; Leung, Richard S

2014-07-15

128

Citrus consumption and cancer incidence: the Ohsaki cohort study.  

PubMed

Basic research and case-control studies have suggested that citrus consumption may protect against cancer. However, the protective effect has been observed from few prospective studies. This study investigated the association of citrus consumption with cancer incidence among 42,470 Japanese adults in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort, which covered an age range of 40-79 years, and was followed up from 1995 to 2003 for all-cancer and individual cancer incidence. Citrus consumption was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. The Cox proportional hazard model was applied to estimate relative risks (RRs) and 95% CIs. During the 323,204 person-years of follow-up, 3,398 cases were identified totally. Citrus consumption, especially daily consumption, was correlated with reduced all-cancer incidence, the RRs were 0.89 (95% CI = 0.80-0.98) for total participants, 0.86 (0.76-0.98) for males and 0.93 (0.79-1.09) for females, as well as multiple cancers at individual sites, especially pancreatic (RR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.38-1.00) and prostate cancer (RR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.97). Joint effect analysis showed a reduced risk of overall cancer existed only for subjects who consumed >or=1 cup green tea/day (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.73-0.93) as well as for males (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.71-0.97) or females (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68-0.99). These findings suggest that citrus consumption is associated with reduced all-cancer incidence, especially for subjects having simultaneously high green tea consumption. Further work on the specific citrus constituents is warranted, and clinical trials are ultimately necessary to confirm the protective effect. PMID:20104526

Li, Wen-Qing; Kuriyama, Shinichi; Li, Qiang; Nagai, Masato; Hozawa, Atsushi; Nishino, Yoshikazu; Tsuji, Ichiro

2010-10-15

129

Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger. Methods Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test. Results Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness. Conclusions This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines.

2013-01-01

130

Mortality in the California Farmer Health Study cohort.  

PubMed

Western agriculture, in comparison with Midwestern and Eastern, is more diverse, with a drier climate, mild winters, and different exposures. This randomly selected cohort of 1947 Californian farmers confirmed the usual finding: a lower mortality rate than general population (by 50%). A low smoking prevalence and healthy worker effect are likely contributors. Although farmers were more likely to die from injuries and skin cancer, death was less likely from Alzheimer's and cerebrovascular diseases. Within the cohort, disability and persistent wheeze were associated with increased mortality. The 200 deaths were insufficient to determine the significance of rare diseases. PMID:22732069

Armitage, Tracey L; Mitchell, Diane; Schenker, Marc

2012-01-01

131

Midline episiotomy and anal incontinence: retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the relation between midline episiotomy and postpartum anal incontinence. Design Retrospective cohort study with three study arms and six months of follow up. Setting University teaching hospital. Participants Primiparous women who vaginally delivered a live full term, singleton baby between 1 August 1996 and 8 February 1997: 209 who received an episiotomy; 206 who did not receive an episiotomy but experienced a second, third, or fourth degree spontaneous perineal laceration; and 211 who experienced either no laceration or a first degree perineal laceration. Main outcome measures Self reported faecal and flatus incontinence at three and six months postpartum. Results Women who had episiotomies had a higher risk of faecal incontinence at three (odds ratio 5.5, 95% confidence interval 1.8 to 16.2) and six (3.7, 0.9 to 15.6) months postpartum compared with women with an intact perineum. Compared with women with a spontaneous laceration, episiotomy tripled the risk of faecal incontinence at three months (95% confidence interval 1.3 to 7.9) and six months (0.7 to 11.2) postpartum, and doubled the risk of flatus incontinence at three months (1.3 to 3.4) and six months (1.2 to 3.7) postpartum. A non-extending episiotomy (that is, second degree surgical incision) tripled the risk of faecal incontinence (1.1 to 9.0) and nearly doubled the risk of flatus incontinence (1.0 to 3.0) at three months postpartum compared with women who had a second degree spontaneous tear. The effect of episiotomy was independent of maternal age, infant birth weight, duration of second stage of labour, use of obstetric instrumentation during delivery, and complications of labour. Conclusions Midline episiotomy is not effective in protecting the perineum and sphincters during childbirth and may impair anal continence.

Signorello, Lisa B; Harlow, Bernard L; Chekos, Amy K; Repke, John T

2000-01-01

132

Maternal Caffeine Consumption and Infant Nighttime Waking: Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: Coffee and other caffeinated beverages are commonly consumed in pregnancy. In adults, caffeine may interfere with sleep onset and have a dose-response effect similar to those seen during insomnia. In infancy, nighttime waking is a common event. With this study, we aimed to investigate if maternal caffeine consumption during pregnancy and lactation leads to frequent nocturnal awakening among infants at 3 months of age. METHODS: All children born in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, during 2004 were enrolled on a cohort study. Mothers were interviewed at delivery and after 3 months to obtain information on caffeine drinking consumption, sociodemographic, reproductive, and behavioral characteristics. Infant sleeping pattern in the previous 15 days was obtained from a subsample. Night waking was defined as an episode of infant arousal that woke the parents during nighttime. Multivariable analysis was performed by using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The subsample included 885 of the 4231 infants born in 2004. All but 1 mother consumed caffeine in pregnancy. Nearly 20% were heavy consumers (?300 mg/day) during pregnancy and 14.3% at 3 months postpartum. Prevalence of frequent nighttime awakeners (>3 episodes per night) was 13.8% (95% confidence interval: 11.5%–16.0%). The highest prevalence ratio was observed among breastfed infants from mothers consuming ?300 mg/day during the whole pregnancy and in the postpartum period (1.65; 95% confidence interval: 0.86–3.17) but at a nonsignificant level. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine consumption during pregnancy and by nursing mothers seems not to have consequences on sleep of infants at the age of 3 months.

Santos, Ina S.; Matijasevich, Alicia

2012-01-01

133

Resuscitation room blood alcohol concentrations: one-year cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To clarify the relationship between presenting clinical condition and blood alcohol concentration (BAC) among adult patients admitted to a resuscitation room (RR) of an emergency department (ED) in order to help guide clinical practice. Method: Single-site prospective cohort study of all patients admitted to the RR of an inner-city hospital over a one-year period. The study sample comprised all those aged 16 years and over from whom a blood sample was taken, with BAC (results not known to ED staff), pathology by International Classification of Diseases (ICD) version 10 coding, injury severity score for trauma, return visit to hospital and mortality during the subsequent 6-month period, being recorded. Results: 291 (15%) of 1908 presentations had a positive BAC (ie, BAC >10 mg/100 ml) ranging from 11 to 574 mg/100 ml, of which almost 40% were over 240 mg/100 ml (ICD-10 code Y90.8). In addition to collapse from alcohol/drugs, almost half of those presenting following self-harm or assault had a positive BAC. Those with a positive BAC had a higher rate of ED re-attendance in the following 6 months. 10% of all presentations were due to trauma. Conclusion: The following five presentations to the RR are associated with a positive BAC: collapse from alcohol/drugs, self-harm, trauma, gastrointestinal bleeding (ICD-10 code K92.2) and non-cardiac chest pain (ICD-10 code R07). Patients with a positive BAC demonstrate a very wide range of pathology, some with severe levels of misuse. This highlights the opportunity for prompt feedback when sober, to ensure all is done to encourage patients to contemplate change in order to reduce re-attendance.

Touquet, R; Csipke, E; Holloway, P; Brown, A; Patel, T; Seddon, A J; Gulati, P; Moore, H; Batrick, N; Crawford, M J

2008-01-01

134

A cohort study on Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae colonisation in suckling piglets.  

PubMed

Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae causes respiratory disease in pigs and despite the use of preventive measures such as vaccination and antimicrobials clinical outbreaks still occur. At weaning often many piglets are not colonised. If differences in prevalence between litters are large and if factors were known that could explain these differences, this may provide an opportunity to raise groups of A. pleuropneumoniae free piglets. To this end, a cohort study was performed on two endemically infected farrow-to-finish farms. Seventy-six of 133 sows were selected using stratified random selection by parity. Farmers complied with a strict hygiene and animal management protocol to prevent transmission between litters. Tonsil brush and serum samples taken three weeks before parturition were tested for antigen with an apxIVA qPCR and antibodies with Apx and Omp ELISAs, respectively. Three days before weaning tonsil brush samples from all piglets (n=871) were collected and tested for antigen. Whereas all sows tested positive both in serology tests as well as qPCR, 0.41 of the litters tested fully negative and 0.73 of all piglets tested negative. The proportion of positively tested piglets in positive litters ranged from 0.08-1.0 (median=0.36). A grouped logistic regression model with a beta binomial distribution of the probability for piglets to become infected was fitted to the data and associations with explanatory variables were explored. To test the possibility that alternatively the clustering was caused by onwards transmission among the piglets, a transmission model was fitted to the data incorporating sow-piglet and piglet-piglet transmission, but this model did not fit better. The results of this study showed that the number of colonised suckling piglets was highly clustered and mainly attributable to the variability of infectiousness of the dam, but no dam related risk factor for colonisation status of litter or piglets within litters could be identified. PMID:24630401

Tobias, T J; Klinkenberg, D; Bouma, A; van den Broek, J; Daemen, A J J M; Wagenaar, J A; Stegeman, J A

2014-06-01

135

Oral health-related quality of life and dental esthetics in Amsterdam schoolchildren  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of schoolchildren in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and to assess the relationship between OHRQoL and self-reported dental esthetics. Methods: The Child Oral Health Impact Profile (COHIP) was completed by 510 seventh and eighth graders of public primary schools. Subjects also assessed their own dentition with

E. M. Calis; L. M. Geels; B. Prahl-Andersen; A. Zentner

2009-01-01

136

Determinants of penicillinase producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in heterosexuals in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES--At the STD clinic of the Municipal Health Service in Amsterdam, the annual number of infections with penicillinase-producing Neisseria gonorrhoeae (PPNG) strains remained relatively stable from 1983 until 1990, while the number of non-PPNG infections declined dramatically. To investigate the PPNG and non-PPNG epidemic, a cross sectional study was conducted in 1989 and 1990. The purpose of this

M Prins; P J Bindels; R A Coutinho; C J Henquet; G J van Doornum; J A van den Hoek

1994-01-01

137

Cohort study of mortality of vermiculite miners exposed to tremolite.  

PubMed Central

A cohort of 406 men employed before 1963 for at least one year in a vermiculite mine in Montana was followed up until July 1983. The vermiculite ore as fed to the mill contained 4-6% of amphibole fibre in the tremolite series. Vital status was established in all but one of the 406 and death certificates were obtained and coded for 163 of the 165 men who died. Compared with white men in the United States, the cohort experienced excess mortality from all causes (SMR 1.17), respiratory cancer (SMR 2.45), non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 2.55), and accidents (SMR 2.14). Four deaths were from malignant mesothelioma (proportional mortality 2.4%). Compared with Montana death rates, the SMR for respiratory cancer was somewhat higher (3.03). Man-year analyses of respiratory cancer and estimated cumulative exposure gave a relation that did not depart significantly from linearity. The results of this and case-referent analyses indicate an increased risk of mortality from respiratory cancer in this cohort of about 1% for each fibre year of exposure. In relation to estimated exposure the mortality experienced by the cohort from both lung cancer and mesothelial tumours was higher than in chrysotile mining. Images

McDonald, J C; McDonald, A D; Armstrong, B; Sebastien, P

1986-01-01

138

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH, DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah, which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, birth date, town ...

139

The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Design and Methods.  

PubMed

Insights into end-stage renal disease have emerged from many investigations but less is known about the epidemiology of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and its relationship to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for progression of CRI and CVD among CRI patients and develop models to identify high-risk subgroups, informing future treatment trials, and increasing application of preventive therapies. CRIC will enroll approximately 3000 individuals at seven sites and follow participants for up to 5 yr. CRIC will include a racially and ethnically diverse group of adults aged 21 to 74 yr with a broad spectrum of renal disease severity, half of whom have diagnosed diabetes mellitus. CRIC will exclude subjects with polycystic kidney disease and those on active immunosuppression for glomerulonephritis. Subjects will undergo extensive clinical evaluation at baseline and at annual clinic visits and via telephone at 6 mo intervals. Data on quality of life, dietary assessment, physical activity, health behaviors, depression, cognitive function, health care resource utilization, as well as blood and urine specimens will be collected annually. (125)I-iothalamate clearances and CVD evaluations including a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram, and coronary electron beam or spiral CT will be performed serially. Analyses planned in CRIC will provide important information on potential risk factors for progressive CRI and CVD. Insights from CRIC should lead to the formulation of hypotheses regarding therapy that will serve as the basis for targeted interventional trials focused on reducing the burden of CRI and CVD. PMID:12819321

Feldman, Harold I; Appel, Lawrence J; Chertow, Glenn M; Cifelli, Denise; Cizman, Borut; Daugirdas, John; Fink, Jeffrey C; Franklin-Becker, Eunice D; Go, Alan S; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang; Hostetter, Tom; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Jamerson, Kenneth; Joffe, Marshall; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Lash, James P; Miller, Edgar R; Mohler, Emile R; Muntner, Paul; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R; Wright, Jackson T

2003-07-01

140

Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality, and whether leukoreduction might be efficacious.

Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

2013-01-01

141

Risk of Tuberculosis in Dialysis Patients: A Nationwide Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The ability to identify individuals at increased risk of developing tuberculosis (TB) has important implications for public health policy and patient care. We conducted a general population historical cohort study in all Australian States and Territories to establish the risk of TB arising in people on chronic hemo- or peritoneal dialysis. Methodology/Principal Findings Cases of TB disease in patients receiving chronic dialysis were identified by record linkage using the Australia & New Zealand Dialysis and Transplant Registry (ANZDATA) and State and Territory TB notification databases 2001 to 2006. Main outcome measure was the relative risk of TB in people on dialysis, adjusted for TB incidence in country of birth, sex, age and indigenous status. A total of 6,276 cases of active TB were reported among 19,855,283 people living in Australia between 2001 and 2006. Among 14,506 patients on dialysis, 37 had a notification for TB disease after commencing dialysis, of whom 28 were culture positive. The incidence of TB was 66.8/100,000/year (95% CI 47.7 to 93.2) among people on dialysis and 5.7/100,000/year (95% CI 5.5 to 5.8) in the general population. The adjusted relative risk (aRR) of TB in people on dialysis was 7.8 (95% CI 3.3 to 18.7), and the aRR of culture positive TB was 8.6 (95% CI 3.9 to 19.3). Conclusions/Significance Patients on dialysis are at increased risk of TB. The final decision to screen for, and to treat, LTBI in individual dialysis patients will be influenced by a cumulative assessment of the risk of reactivation of TB and by assessment of risk factors for adverse effects of treatment.

Dobler, Claudia C.; McDonald, Stephen P.; Marks, Guy B.

2011-01-01

142

Is the clinical course of HIV-1 changing? Cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the clinical course of HIV infection has changed from 1985 to 1995. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: Infectious disease clinic. SUBJECTS: 285 patients recruited from September 1985 to January 1995 with < or = 12 months between the dates of their last seronegative and first seropositive test result and with first follow up visit in the six months after seroconversion and at least 12 months' follow up. Patients were grouped according to the date of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to CD4 cell count of < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l, and clinical outcome defining AIDS; variation in cell count per day between consecutive visits, and ratio between this variation and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit. RESULTS: The groups were similar in age, number with acute primary HIV infection, CD4 cell count at intake, and cell count at the beginning of antiretroviral treatment; they differed in sex ratio, risk factors for HIV, probability of CD4 cell decline to < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l. and risk of developing AIDS. Acute infection, seroconversion after December 1989, and serum beta 2 microglobulin > 296 nmol/l were independent predictors of poor clinical course. The speed of CD4 cell decline, expressed as cell variation divided by the number of days between consecutive visits, increased with more recent seroconversion (P = 0.02). Ratio between the speed of CD4 cell decline and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit was also higher in the patients who seroconverted after December 1989. CONCLUSIONS: The faster disease progression and the higher speed of CD4 cell decline at early stages in the patients with recently acquired HIV infection suggest changes in the clinical course of HIV infection.

Sinicco, A.; Fora, R.; Raiteri, R.; Sciandra, M.; Bechis, G.; Calvo, M. M.; Gioannini, P.

1997-01-01

143

Participation Following Knee Replacement: The MOST Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Participation is an important, yet seldom studied, outcome after total knee replacement (TKR). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and predictors of participation and participation restriction among people after TKR. Materials and Methods This study investigated the changes in pain, function, and participation scores (measured using a subscale of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument) from pre-TKR to ?1 year post-TKR among a subsample of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) longitudinal cohort (MOST is funded by the National Institutes of Health). The proportions of individuals with participation restriction pre-TKR and ?1 and ?2 years post-TKR were calculated for all participants and for important demographic subgroups. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation was estimated using linear regression. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation restriction was estimated using logistic regression. Results There were 292 individuals with outcome data ?1 year post-TKR. Of these, 218 (75%) had data pre-TKR and ?1 year post-TKR and 160 (55%) had data ?2 years post-TKR. There were mean improvements in pain, function, and participation at ?1 and 2 years. However, approximately 30% of the study sample had participation restriction pre-TKR and post-TKR, and the proportion decreased significantly only for those <65 years old. Non-whites had a higher proportion of participation restriction than any other subgroup (41% ?1 year, 48% ?2 years). Female sex and non-white race were associated with a worse participation score, and several demographic and modifiable factors were associated with participation restriction following TKR. Limitations The time between pre-TKR and post-TKR assessment varied across study participants, and data were not available on their rehabilitation utilization. Conclusions Although there was a mean increase in participation ?1 year following TKR, participation restriction was common. The likelihood of low participation was increased among women, non-whites, and those with depressive symptoms, severe pain in either knee, or worse pre-TKR function.

Keysor, Julie J.; Niu, Jingbo; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Wise, Barton L.; Frey-Law, Laura; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, David T.

2013-01-01

144

Initial experiences with endoscopic rhino-neurosurgery in Amsterdam.  

PubMed

Endoscopic surgery of the skull base has been on the rise for several years. Endoscopic access for surgery can be achieved from the frontal sinus anteriorly along the skull base to the odontoid process posterior inferiorly. An endoscope is inserted through one nasal corridor and allows visualization of the working field and up to three surgical instruments can be used to address the lesion. This is called the "two nostrils-four hands technique". This is a retrospective study of 67 cases. Setting of the study is an Amsterdam University hospital. Cases were identified in the department of otorhinolaryngology and department of neurosurgery database. All patients operated between 1 January, 2008 and 1 February, 2012 with pituitary tumours that extend beyond the sella, sinonasal tumours and all non-pituitary skull-base tumours were included. Mean tumour diameter was 3.8 cm. We performed a near-to-gross total resection in 92 % of cases where we intended to perform a total resection. The most frequent complication was CSF leakage. This study demonstrates that this technique is safe and reliable. What is needed is a dedicated team, which includes a dedicated anesthesiologist, endocrinologist, ophthalmologist, and radiation oncologist. PMID:24065187

de Bruin, Rick; van Furth, Wouter R; Verbaan, Dagmar; Georgalas, Christos; Fokkens, W F; Reinartz, S M

2014-06-01

145

Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether cannabis use in adolescence predisposes to higher rates of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. Design Seven wave cohort study over six years. Setting 44 schools in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants A statewide secondary school sample of 1601 students aged 14-15 followed for seven years. Main outcome measure Interview measure of depression and anxiety (revised clinical interview schedule) at wave 7. Results Some 60% of participants had used cannabis by the age of 20; 7% were daily users at that point. Daily use in young women was associated with an over fivefold increase in the odds of reporting a state of depression and anxiety after adjustment for intercurrent use of other substances (odds ratio 5.6, 95% confidence interval 2.6 to 12). Weekly or more frequent cannabis use in teenagers predicted an approximately twofold increase in risk for later depression and anxiety (1.9, 1.1 to 3.3) after adjustment for potential baseline confounders. In contrast, depression and anxiety in teenagers predicted neither later weekly nor daily cannabis use. Conclusions Frequent cannabis use in teenage girls predicts later depression and anxiety, with daily users carrying the highest risk. Given recent increasing levels of cannabis use, measures to reduce frequent and heavy recreational use seem warranted. What is already known on this topicFrequent recreational use of cannabis has been linked to high rates of depression and anxiety in cross sectional surveys and studies of long term usersWhy cannabis users have higher rates of depression and anxiety is uncertainPrevious longitudinal studies of cannabis use in youth have not analysed associations with frequent cannabis useWhat this study addsA strong association between daily use of cannabis and depression and anxiety in young women persists after adjustment for intercurrent use of other substancesFrequent cannabis use in teenage girls predicts later higher rates of depression and anxietyDepression and anxiety in teenagers do not predict later cannabis use; self medication is therefore unlikely to be the reason for the association

Patton, George C; Coffey, Carolyn; Carlin, John B; Degenhardt, Louisa; Lynskey, Michael; Hall, Wayne

2002-01-01

146

Familial risk of cerebral palsy: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate risks of recurrence of cerebral palsy in family members with various degrees of relatedness to elucidate patterns of hereditability. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, linked to the Norwegian social insurance scheme to identify cases of cerebral palsy and to databases of Statistics Norway to identify relatives. Participants 2?036?741 Norwegians born during 1967-2002, 3649 of whom had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy; 22?558 pairs of twins, 1?851?144 pairs of first degree relatives, 1?699?856 pairs of second degree relatives, and 5?165?968 pairs of third degree relatives were identified. Main outcome measure Cerebral palsy. Results If one twin had cerebral palsy, the relative risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy was 15.6 (95% confidence interval 9.8 to 25) in the other twin. In families with an affected singleton child, risk was increased 9.2 (6.4 to 13)-fold in a subsequent full sibling and 3.0 (1.1 to 8.6)-fold in a half sibling. Affected parents were also at increased risk of having an affected child (6.5 (1.6 to 26)-fold). No evidence was found of differential transmission through mothers or fathers, although the study had limited power to detect such differences. For people with an affected first cousin, only weak evidence existed for an increased risk (1.5 (0.9 to 2.7)-fold). Risks in siblings or cousins were independent of sex of the index case. After exclusion of preterm births (an important risk factor for cerebral palsy), familial risks remained and were often stronger. Conclusions People born into families in which someone already has cerebral palsy are themselves at elevated risk, depending on their degree of relatedness. Elevated risk may extend even to third degree relatives (first cousins). The patterns of risk suggest multifactorial inheritance, in which multiple genes interact with each other and with environmental factors. These data offer additional evidence that the underlying causes of cerebral palsy extend beyond the clinical management of delivery.

Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Moster, Dag

2014-01-01

147

Sleep-Disordered Breathing and Mortality: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Sleep-disordered breathing is a common condition associated with adverse health outcomes including hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The overall objective of this study was to determine whether sleep-disordered breathing and its sequelae of intermittent hypoxemia and recurrent arousals are associated with mortality in a community sample of adults aged 40 years or older. Methods and Findings We prospectively examined whether sleep-disordered breathing was associated with an increased risk of death from any cause in 6,441 men and women participating in the Sleep Heart Health Study. Sleep-disordered breathing was assessed with the apnea–hypopnea index (AHI) based on an in-home polysomnogram. Survival analysis and proportional hazards regression models were used to calculate hazard ratios for mortality after adjusting for age, sex, race, smoking status, body mass index, and prevalent medical conditions. The average follow-up period for the cohort was 8.2 y during which 1,047 participants (587 men and 460 women) died. Compared to those without sleep-disordered breathing (AHI: <5 events/h), the fully adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality in those with mild (AHI: 5.0–14.9 events/h), moderate (AHI: 15.0–29.9 events/h), and severe (AHI: ?30.0 events/h) sleep-disordered breathing were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.80–1.08), 1.17 (95% CI: 0.97–1.42), and 1.46 (95% CI: 1.14–1.86), respectively. Stratified analyses by sex and age showed that the increased risk of death associated with severe sleep-disordered breathing was statistically significant in men aged 40–70 y (hazard ratio: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.31–3.33). Measures of sleep-related intermittent hypoxemia, but not sleep fragmentation, were independently associated with all-cause mortality. Coronary artery disease–related mortality associated with sleep-disordered breathing showed a pattern of association similar to all-cause mortality. Conclusions Sleep-disordered breathing is associated with all-cause mortality and specifically that due to coronary artery disease, particularly in men aged 40–70 y with severe sleep-disordered breathing. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

Punjabi, Naresh M.; Caffo, Brian S.; Goodwin, James L.; Gottlieb, Daniel J.; Newman, Anne B.; O'Connor, George T.; Rapoport, David M.; Redline, Susan; Resnick, Helaine E.; Robbins, John A.; Shahar, Eyal; Unruh, Mark L.; Samet, Jonathan M.

2009-01-01

148

Longitudinal cohort survey of women's smoking behaviour and attitudes in pregnancy: study methods and baseline data  

PubMed Central

Objectives To report the methods used to assemble a contemporary pregnancy cohort for investigating influences on smoking behaviour before, during and after pregnancy and to report characteristics of women recruited. Design Longitudinal cohort survey. Setting Two maternity hospitals, Nottingham, England. Participants 3265 women who attended antenatal ultrasound scan clinics were offered cohort enrolment; those who were 8–26?weeks pregnant and were currently smoking or had recently stopped smoking were eligible. Cohort enrollment took place between August 2011 and August 2012. Primary and secondary outcome measures Prevalence of smoking at cohort entry and at two follow-up time points (34–36?weeks gestation and 3?months postnatally); response rate, participants’ sociodemographic characteristics. Results 1101 (33.7%, 95% CI 32.1% to 35.4%) women were eligible for inclusion in the cohort, and of these 850 (77.2%, 95% CI 74.6% to 79.6%) were recruited. Within the cohort, 57.4% (N=488, 95% CI 54.1% to 60.7%) reported to be current smokers. Current smokers were significantly younger than ex-smokers (p<0.05), more likely to have no formal qualifications and to not be in current paid employment compared to recent ex-smokers (p<0.001). Conclusions This contemporary cohort, which seeks very detailed information on smoking in pregnancy and its determinants, includes women with comparable sociodemographic characteristics to those in other UK cross-sectional studies and cohorts. This suggests that future analyses using this cohort and aimed at understanding smoking behaviour in pregnancy may produce findings that are broadly generalisable.

Orton, Sophie; Bowker, Katharine; Cooper, Sue; Naughton, Felix; Ussher, Michael; Pickett, Kate E; Leonardi-Bee, Jo; Sutton, Stephen; Dhalwani, Nafeesa N; Coleman, Tim

2014-01-01

149

The Hordaland Women's Cohort: A prospective cohort study of incontinence, other urinary tract symptoms and related health issues in middle-aged women  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent symptom in middle-aged women, but data on incidence is limited and rarely reported. In order to analyze incidence, remission, or development patterns of severity and types of UI, we have established a 15-year prospective cohort (1997–2012). Methods The Cohort is based on the national collection of health data gathered from county studies (CONOR). Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) is one of them from Hordaland County. Each of the county studies may have local sub-studies and our Cohort is one of them. The Cohort included women aged 40–45 in order to have a broad approach to women's health including UI and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A onefifth random sampling from HUSK was used to create the Cohort in 1997–1999. For the necessary sample size a preliminary power calculation, based on a 70% response rate at inclusion and 5% annual attrition rates was used. The Cohort is planned to collect data through questionnaires every second year for the 15-year period from 1997–2012. Discussion The Cohort represents a relatively large random sample (N = 2,230) of about 15% of the total population of women born between 1953–57 in the county of Hordaland. Our data shows that the cohort population is very similar to the source population. The baseline demographic, social and medical characteristics of the Cohort are compared with the rest of women in HUSK (N = 7,746) and there were no significant differences between them except for the level of education (P = 0.001) and yearly income (P = 0.018), which were higher in the Cohort population. Urological characteristics of participants from the Cohort (N = 1,920) were also compared with the other participants (N = 3,400). There were no significant statistical differences except for somewhat more urinary continence (P = 0.04), more stress incontinence (P = 0.048) and smaller amount of leakage (P = 0.015) in the Cohort. In conclusion, the Cohort ispopulation-based, with little selection bias, and thus is a rather unique study forinvestigating UI and LUTS in comparison with many other projects with similar purposes.

Jahanlu, David; Qureshi, Samera Azeem; Hunskaar, Steinar

2008-01-01

150

Kawasaki disease and subsequent risk of allergic diseases: a population-based matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of allergic diseases among Kawasaki disease (KD) patients relative to the general population is not known. The aim of this study was to perform a population-based cohort study to investigate the risk of allergic diseases among children after KD in Taiwan- a country with the third highest incidence of KD in the world. Methods Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 253 patients who were 5 years of age or younger and had a first-time hospitalization with a diagnosis of KD between 1997 and 2005 were included as the study cohort and 1,012 non-KD patients matched for age and sex were included as comparison cohort. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to adjust for confounding and to compare the 6-year allergic-free survival rate between these two cohorts. Results The incidence rate of allergic diseases (184.66 per 1000 person-year) was significantly higher in the KD cohort than in the control cohort (124.99 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios of asthma and allergic rhinitis were 1.51 (95% confidence interval?=?1.17-1.95) and 1.30 (95% confidence interval?=?1.04-1.62), respectively. Conclusion We conclude that KD patients were at an increased risk for allergic diseases compared with the comparison cohort.

2013-01-01

151

Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis\\u000a of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed\\u000a database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported\\u000a relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for

Jia-Yi DongLijun; Lijun Zhang; Ka He; Li-Qiang Qin

2011-01-01

152

Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment.MethodsWe conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality

Evelyn Mohler; Patrizia Frei; Jürg Fröhlich; Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer; Martin Röösli

2012-01-01

153

Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to december 1999. Cases and controls in the case-control study supplied a questionnaire and stool samples. The standardized

M. A. S. de Wit; M. P. G. Koopmans; L. M. Kortbeek; W. J. B. Wannet; J. Vinjé; F. van Leusden; A. I. M. Bartelds

2001-01-01

154

Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/?L, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following the first episode was 10 days (range 3 to 14 days, n?=?13). The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following a subsequent meningitic episode was 9 days (range 7 days to indefinite period, n?=?9). No patient was reported to have seizures, neurological disability, or death in extended follow-up (mean follow-up 3.4 years). Recurrence of meningitic symptoms was not universal. PMID:23494382

Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

2013-04-01

155

Functional decline after incident wrist fractures—Study of Osteoporotic Fractures: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the effect of an incident wrist fracture on functional status in women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Baltimore, Minneapolis, Portland, and the Monongahela valley in Pennsylvania, USAParticipants 6107 women aged 65 years and older without previous wrist or hip fracture recruited from the community between September 1986 and October 1988.Main outcome measure

Beatrice J Edwards; Jing Song; Dorothy D Dunlop; Howard A Fink; Jane A Cauley

2010-01-01

156

The Shozu Herpes Zoster (SHEZ) Study: Rationale, Design, and Description of a Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence and risk factors for herpes zoster have been studied in cross-sectional and cohort studies, although most such studies have been conducted in Western countries. Evidence from Asian populations is limited, and no cohort study has been conducted in Asia. We are conducting a 3-year prospective cohort study in Shozu County in Kagawa Prefecture, Japan to determine the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster among Japanese. Methods The participants are followed for 3 years, and a telephone survey is conducted every 4 weeks. The participants were assigned to 1 of 3 studies. Participants in study A gave information on past history of herpes zoster and completed health questionnaires. Study B participants additionally underwent varicella-zoster virus (VZV) skin testing, and study C participants additionally underwent blood testing. If the participants develop herpes zoster, we evaluate clinical symptoms, measure cell-mediated immunity and humoral immunity using venous blood sampling, photograph skin areas with rash, conduct virus identification testing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and virus isolation from crust sampling, and evaluate postherpetic pain. Results We recruited 12 522 participants aged 50 years or older in Shozu County from December 2009 through November 2010. The participation rate was 65.7% of the target population. Conclusions The present study is likely to provide valuable data on the incidence and predictive and immunologic factors for herpes zoster in a defined community-based population of Japanese.

Takao, Yukiko; Miyazaki, Yoshiyuki; Onishi, Fumitake; Kumihashi, Hideaki; Gomi, Yasuyuki; Ishikawa, Toyokazu; Okuno, Yoshinobu; Mori, Yasuko; Asada, Hideo; Yamanishi, Koichi; Iso, Hiroyasu

2012-01-01

157

Health and function of participants in the Long Life Family Study: A comparison with other cohorts  

PubMed Central

Individuals from families recruited for the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) (n= 4559) were examined and compared to individuals from other cohorts to determine whether the recruitment targeting longevity resulted in a cohort of individuals with better health and function. Other cohorts with similar data included the Cardiovascular Health Study, the Framingham Heart Study, and the New England Centenarian Study. Diabetes, chronic pulmonary disease and peripheral artery disease tended to be less common in LLFS probands and offspring compared to similar aged persons in the other cohorts. Pulse pressure and triglycerides were lower, high density lipids were higher, and a perceptual speed task and gait speed were better in LLFS. Age-specific comparisons showed differences that would be consistent with a higher peak, later onset of decline or slower rate of change across age in LLFS participants. These findings suggest several priority phenotypes for inclusion in future genetic analysis to identify loci contributing to exceptional survival.

Newman, Anne B.; Glynn, Nancy W.; Taylor, Christopher A.; Sebastiani, Paola; Perls, Thomas T.; Mayeux, Richard; Christensen, Kaare; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Barral, Sandra; Lee, Joseph H.; Simonsick, Eleanor M.; Walston, Jeremy D.; Yashin, Anatoli I.; Hadley, Evan

2011-01-01

158

The role of longitudinal cohort studies in epigenetic epidemiology: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach.

2012-01-01

159

Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 +/- 2.4, 8.8 +/- 4.0 and 10.4 +/- 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25-6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16-4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05-12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

Hohl, Michael K; Hauser, Nik

2010-09-01

160

Poverty and the family-income cycle: Casual laborers in Amsterdam in the first half of the 20th century  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based on data collected from the files of the municipal poor relief institutions, the incomes of Amsterdam casual (dock) laborers and of their wives and children, poor relief, and other sources of income are plotted against their family cycles. The emerging patterns confirm results arrived at in American, British, and Belgian studies: Married women worked for wages mainly in the

Ad Knotter

2004-01-01

161

Smoking cessation in pregnancy and the risk of child behavioural problems: A longitudinal prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of smoking in pregnancy on child and adolescent behavioural development, in comparison with mothers who ceased smoking in the first 18 weeks of pregnancy and with those who never smoked, in a large prospective pregnancy cohort.\\u000aMethods: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900

Monique Robinson; Neil J McLean; Wendy H Oddy; Eugen Mattes; Max K Bulsara; Jianghong Li; Stephen R Zubrick; Fiona J Stanley; John P Newnham

2010-01-01

162

Paracetamol use in early life and asthma: prospective birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if use of paracetamol in early life is an independent risk factor for childhood asthma.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study.Participants 620 children with a family history of allergic disease, with paracetamol use prospectively documented on 18 occasions from birth to 2 years of age, followed until age 7 years.Main outcome measures The primary outcome

Adrian J Lowe; John B Carlin; Catherine M Bennett; Clifford S Hosking; Katrina J Allen; Colin F Robertson; Christine Axelrad; Michael J Abramson; David J Hill; Shyamali C Dharmage

2010-01-01

163

Early determinants of physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective To examine the effects of early social, anthropometric, and behavioural variables on physical activity in adolescence.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Pelotas, southern Brazil.Participants 4453 adolescents aged 10-12 years participating in the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study (follow-up rate 87.5%).Main outcome measures Sedentary lifestyle (< 300 minutes of physical activity per week) and median physical activity score (minutes per week).Results

Pedro C Hallal; Jonathan C K Wells; Felipe F Reichert; Luciana Anselmi; Cesar G Victora

2006-01-01

164

Early motherhood and mental health in midlife: A study of British and American cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: Examine the relationship between early age at first birth and mental health among women in their fifties.Methods: Analysis of data on women from a British 1946 birth cohort study and the U.S. Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931–1941.Results: In both samples a first birth before 21 years, compared to a later first birth, is associated with poorer

John C. Henretta; Emily M. D. Grundy; Lucy C. Okell; Michael E. J. Wadsworth

2008-01-01

165

Childhood psychological function and obesity risk across the lifecourse: findings from the 1970 British Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Psychological comorbidities of obesity are well recognised. However, the role of childhood psychological problems in the aetiology of later obesity has been little studied.Design:Secondary analyses of a national birth cohort (1970 British Cohort Study). Analysis: Logistic regression models to predict obesity risk at 26, 30 and 34 years related to hypothesised predictors: maternal and teacher reported child psychological function at

B White; D Nicholls; D Christie; T J Cole; R M Viner

2012-01-01

166

Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort.

Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uuskula, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

2014-01-01

167

Path Planning and Path Following for the Amsterdam Autonomous Cart.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At the University of Amsterdam an autonomous cart has been developed for research on intelligent multisensor systems. The main design criteria for the cart have been the following: The vehicle must be capable of finding its way through a simple environmen...

H. Muller

1986-01-01

168

Fifteen years medical information sciences: the Amsterdam curriculum  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To inform the medical informatics community on the rational, goals, evolution and present contents of the Medical Information Sciences program of the University of Amsterdam and our achievements. Methods: We elaborate on the history of our program, the philosophy, contents and organizational structure of the present-day curriculum. Besides, we describe the various didactic approaches in the program and the

Monique W. M. Jaspers; Paul Fockens; Jan H. Ravesloot; Martien Limburg; Ameen Abu-hanna

2004-01-01

169

Observational research methods. Research design II: cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies  

PubMed Central

Cohort, cross sectional, and case-control studies are collectively referred to as observational studies. Often these studies are the only practicable method of studying various problems, for example, studies of aetiology, instances where a randomised controlled trial might be unethical, or if the condition to be studied is rare. Cohort studies are used to study incidence, causes, and prognosis. Because they measure events in chronological order they can be used to distinguish between cause and effect. Cross sectional studies are used to determine prevalence. They are relatively quick and easy but do not permit distinction between cause and effect. Case controlled studies compare groups retrospectively. They seek to identify possible predictors of outcome and are useful for studying rare diseases or outcomes. They are often used to generate hypotheses that can then be studied via prospective cohort or other studies.

Mann, C

2003-01-01

170

Does decreasing serum uric acid level prevent hypertension? - a nested RCT in cohort study: rationale, methods, and baseline characteristics of study cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Previous epidemiologic studies have demonstrated an association between uric acid and hypertension. Our objective was to conduct a prospective cohort study with a nested randomised controlled trial (RCT in cohort) that aims to identify the association of hyperuricemia with the development of hypertension and to examine the efficacy of dietary intervention in lowering uric acid level and prevention of hypertension. Methods/Design Participants were considered eligible to enrol for this cohort study if they were not diagnosed with hypertension until their last routine health examination. The characteristics of the eligible participants were analyzed. After enrolment, participants with prehypertension and hyperuricemia simultaneously were randomly distributed to either the intervention group or the control group. An education package of dietary intervention for lowering uric acid was delivered to the intervention group. The primary evaluation criterion was the first manifestation of hypertension. Discussion Based on the results of their health examination in 2010, 19, 724 subjects met the inclusion criteria and this source population guaranteed the required minimum sample size for this study. The baseline characteristics of the study cohort showed that hyperuricemia was associated with prehypertension, and was independent of age, body mass index (BMI), and abdominal obesity in females; however, in males it was contrary. The impact of lowering uric acid on the prevention of hypertension is still inconclusive. This RCT in cohort study provides important data on the prevention of hypertension, especially in patients with a high risk for hypertension development. Results are expected to be available in 2015. Trial registration The study is registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (ChiCTR-TRC-12002925).

2013-01-01

171

Risk of disability pension for patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies: A register-based cohort study.  

PubMed

Abstract Patients with haematological malignancies are at increased risk of experiencing work-related problems. The aims of this study were to compare the risk of disability pension (DP) among patients diagnosed with eight subtypes of haematological malignancies to a reference cohort, and to determine if relative risks differ between these subtypes; to evaluate the influence of socioeconomic factors, demographic factors, and clinical factors on the risk of DP; and to investigate if these associations differ between the reference cohort and the patient cohort. Material and methods. We combined data from national registers on Danish patients diagnosed with haematological malignancies between 2000 and 2007 and a reference cohort without a history of these diseases. A total of 3194 patients and 28 627 reference individuals were followed until DP, emigration, old age pension or anticipatory pension, death or 26 February 2012, whichever came first. Results. A total of 550 (17%) patients and 1511 (5%) reference individuals were granted DP. Age- and gender-adjusted relative risks differed significantly between the subgroups of haematological malignancies and ranged from 2.64 (95% CI 1.84-3.78) for patients with Hodgkin lymphoma to 12.53 (95% CI 10.57-14.85) for patients with multiple myeloma. In the patient cohort we found that gender, age, comorbidity, ethnicity, educational level, household income, history of long-term sick leave, and need of treatment with anxiolytics or antidepressants after diagnosis were associated with receiving DP. However, most of these associations were stronger in the reference cohort. Conclusion. All eight subtypes of haematological malignancies were associated with an increased risk of DP compared to the reference cohort. The relative risks differed according to subtype, and patients with multiple myeloma had the highest risk of DP. Furthermore, most socioeconomic, demographic and clinical factors had a stronger impact on the risk of DP in the reference cohort than in the patient cohort. PMID:24456498

Horsboel, Trine A; Nielsen, Claus V; Andersen, Niels T; Nielsen, Bendt; de Thurah, Annette

2014-06-01

172

Study Design and Outcomes of Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study is a prospective longitudinal study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other unclassified obstructive lung diseases. It was designed to develop new classification models and biomarkers that predict clinically relevant outcomes for patients with obstructive lung diseases. Methods Patients over 18 years old who have chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitations or bronchial hyper-responsiveness were enrolled at 17 centers in South Korea. After a baseline visit, the subjects were followed up every 3 months for various assessments. Results From June 2005 to October 2013, a total of 477 subjects (433 [91%] males; 381 [80%] diagnosed with COPD) were enrolled. Analyses of the KOLD Cohort Study identified distinct phenotypes in patients with COPD, and predictors of therapeutic responses and exacerbations as well as the factors related to pulmonary hypertension in COPD. In addition, several genotypes were associated with radiological phenotypes and therapeutic responses among Korean COPD patients. Conclusion The KOLD Cohort Study is one of the leading long-term prospective longitudinal studies investigating heterogeneity of the COPD and is expected to provide new insights for pathogenesis and the long-term progression of COPD.

Park, Tai Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Seo, Joon Beom; Hong, Yoonki; Yoo, Jung-Wan; Kang, Byung Ju; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

2014-01-01

173

A Study of the Impact of a K-12 School District-University Doctoral Cohort on District Leadership Capacity  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The phenomenological study examined how a K-12 school district-university partnership impacted a school district's leadership from the perspectives of cohort members and non-cohort members. The doctoral cohort consisted of 22 candidates. The intent of the program was to merge theory with best practice and to focus on increasing the district's…

Davis, Sharon

2010-01-01

174

A Prospective Cohort Study on Dietary Fat and the Risk of Postmenopausal Breast Cancer1  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1986 a prospective cohort study on diet and cancer was started in the Netherlands among 62,573 women ages 55-69 years. Baseline information on diet and other risk factors was collected with a questionnaire. Cancer incidence was measured by record linkage with cancer registries and a pathology register. A case-cohort approach was used, in which the accu mulated person time

Piet A. van den Brandt; Pieter van' t Veer; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Elisabeth Dorant; Alexander Volovics; Rudolph J. J. Hermus; Ferd Sturmans

175

Correlation between Epilepsy and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background This study presents an evaluation of the bidirectional correlation between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy using 2 cohorts from the same population database. Methods We used data from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to establish 2 separate cohort studies with participants <19 years old. We subdivided Cohort 1 in 2 groups: (1) 2468 patients initially diagnosed with epilepsy during the period 1999–2008, and (2) 9810 randomly selected sex- and age-matched non-epileptic controls. We subdivided Cohort 2 into 2 groups: (1) 3664 patients with newly diagnosed ADHD and (2) 14?522 sex- and age-matched non-ADHD patients. We evaluated the risk of subsequent ADHD in relationship to epilepsy and vice versa in the 2 cohorts at the end of 2008. Results The ADHD incidence in Cohort 1 was 7.76 in patients with epilepsy and 3.22 in those without epilepsy (per 1000 person-years) after a median follow-up of 7–7.5 years. The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for ADHD was 2.54 (95% CI 2.02–3.18) in the epilepsy group compared to the non-epilepsy group. In Cohort 2, the incidence of epilepsy was 3.24 in patients with ADHD and 0.78 in those without ADHD (per 1000 person-years) after a median follow-up of 3–3.5 years and an HR of 3.94 (95% CI 2.58–6.03). Conclusion This study shows a bidirectional association between ADHD and epilepsy in the 2 cohort studies. Causative factors may be common between these 2 disorders, leading to a cascade of transcriptional changes in the brain that alter behavior or cognition prior to seizures.

Chou, I-Ching; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Chin, Zheng-Nan; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kuo, Huang-Tsung; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Kao, Chia-Hung

2013-01-01

176

A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate individual radiation doses and current thyroid disease status for a previously identified cohort of 4818 schoolchildren potentially exposed to fallout from detonations of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1958. DESIGN--Cohort analytic study. SETTING--Communities in southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and southeastern Arizona. PARTICIPANTS--Individuals who were still residing in the three-state area (n = 3122)

R. A. Kerber; J. E. Till; S. L. Simon; J. L. Lyon; D. C. Thomas; S. Preston-Martin; M. L. Rallison; R. D. Lloyd; W. Stevens

1993-01-01

177

Incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer in advanced age: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the influence of increasing age on the incidence and remaining lifetime risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer in a cohort of older men.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting United States.Participants 22 048 male doctors aged 40-84 who were free of major disease in 1982.Main outcome measures Incidence and remaining lifetime risk of major cardiovascular disease (myocardial infarction, stroke, and

Jane A Driver; Luc Djoussé; Giancarlo Logroscino; J Michael Gaziano; Tobias Kurth

2008-01-01

178

Fetal growth in early pregnancy and risk of delivering low birth weight infant: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if first trimester fetal growth is associated with birth weight, duration of pregnancy, and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant.Design Prospective cohort study of 38 033 pregnancies between 1999 and 2003.Setting 15 centres representing major regions of the United States.Participants 976 women from the original cohort who conceived as the result of assisted

Radek Bukowski; Gordon C S Smith; Fergal D Malone; Robert H Ball; David A Nyberg; Christine H Comstock; Gary D V Hankins; Richard L Berkowitz; Susan J Gross; Lorraine Dugoff; Sabrina D Craigo; Ilan E Timor-Tritsch; Stephen R Carr; Honor M Wolfe; Mary E DAlton

2007-01-01

179

Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency\\/microwave exposure: a synopsis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies\\/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million person years). As exposures were defined: dielectric heaters in a plastic manufacturing plant, working with radio

Jürgen Breckenkamp; Gabriele Berg; Maria Blettner

2003-01-01

180

Survival and cause-specific mortality in inflammatory bowel disease: A population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND & AIMS: A population-based cohort study of 1251 subjects with Crohn's disease and 1547 subjects with ulcerative colitis, diagnosed in Stockholm between 1955 and 1984, was performed to examine the survival, changes in survival over time, and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: The cohort of patients was followed up in the National Cause-of-Death register until 1990. National mortality rates were used

PG Persson; O Bernell; CE Leijonmarck; G Hellers; A Ahlbom

1996-01-01

181

Prospective Study of Attitudinal and Relationship Predictors of Sexual Risk in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of attitudes concerning HIV transmission, safe sex, and sexual sensation seeking, as well as negotiated\\u000a risk reduction with primary partners, on the proportion of unprotected sexual partners (%UASP) among men who have sex with\\u000a men (MSM). Participants were 263 HIV-seropositive and 238 HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between\\u000a 1999 and 2003 who completed

David G. Ostrow; Michael J. Silverberg; Robert L. Cook; Joan S. Chmiel; Lisette Johnson; Xiuhong Li; Lisa P. Jacobson

2008-01-01

182

Clinical Disorders in a Post War British Cohort Reaching Retirement: Evidence from the First National Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The medical needs of older people are growing because the proportion of the older population is increasing and disease boundaries are widening. This study describes the distribution and clustering of 15 common clinical disorders requiring medical treatment or supervision in a representative British cohort approaching retirement, and how health tracked across adulthood. Methods and Findings The data come from a cohort of 2661 men and women, 84% of the target sample, followed since birth in England, Scotland and Wales in 1946, and assessed at 60–64 years for: cardio and cerebro-vascular disease, hypertension, raised cholesterol, renal impairment, diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, anaemia, respiratory disease, liver disease, psychiatric problems, cancers, atrial fibrillation on ECG and osteoporosis. We calculated the proportions disorder-free, with one or more disorders, and the level of undiagnosed disorders; and how these disorders cluster into latent classes and relate to health assessed at 36 years. Participants had, on average, two disorders (range 0–9); only 15% were disorder-free. The commonest disorders were hypertension (54.3%, 95% CI 51.8%–56.7%), obesity (31.1%, 28.8%–33.5%), raised cholesterol (25.6%, 23.1–28.26%), and diabetes or impaired fasting glucose (25.0%, 22.6–27.5%). A cluster of one in five individuals had a high probability of cardio-metabolic disorders and were twice as likely than others to have been in the poorest health at 36 years. The main limitations are that the native born sample is entirely white, and a combination of clinical assessments and self reports were used. Conclusions Most British people reaching retirement already have clinical disorders requiring medical supervision. Widening disease definitions and the move from a disease-based to a risk-based medical model will increase pressure on health services. The promotion of healthy ageing should start earlier in life and consider the individual's ability to adapt to and self manage changes in health.

Pierce, Mary B.; Silverwood, Richard J.; Nitsch, Dorothea; Adams, Judith E.; Stephen, Alison M.; Nip, Wing; Macfarlane, Peter; Wong, Andrew; Richards, Marcus; Hardy, Rebecca; Kuh, Diana

2012-01-01

183

Examining the influence of gender, education, social class and birth cohort on MMSE tracking over time: a population-based prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Whilst many studies have analysed predictors of longitudinal cognitive decline, few have described their impact on population distributions of cognition by age cohort. The aim of this paper was to examine whether gender, education, social class and birth cohort affect how mean population cognition changes with age. Methods The Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Study (MRC CFAS) is a multi-centre population based longitudinal study of 13,004 individuals in England and Wales. Using ten years of follow-up data, mean Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE) scores were modelled by age and birth cohort adjusting for non-random drop-out. The model included terms to estimate cohort effects. Results are presented for five year age bands between 65–95 years. Results At a population level, women show greater change in MMSE scores with age than men. Populations with lower education level and manual work also show similar effects. More recent birth cohorts have slightly higher scores. Conclusion Longitudinal data can allow examination of population patterns by gender, educational level, social class and cohort. Each of these major socio-demographic factors shows some effect on whole population change in MMSE with age.

2012-01-01

184

A Review of Published Analyses of Case-Cohort Studies and Recommendations for Future Reporting  

PubMed Central

The case-cohort study design combines the advantages of a cohort study with the efficiency of a nested case-control study. However, unlike more standard observational study designs, there are currently no guidelines for reporting results from case-cohort studies. Our aim was to review recent practice in reporting these studies, and develop recommendations for the future. By searching papers published in 24 major medical and epidemiological journals between January 2010 and March 2013 using PubMed, Scopus and Web of Knowledge, we identified 32 papers reporting case-cohort studies. The median subcohort sampling fraction was 4.1% (interquartile range 3.7% to 9.1%). The papers varied in their approaches to describing the numbers of individuals in the original cohort and the subcohort, presenting descriptive data, and in the level of detail provided about the statistical methods used, so it was not always possible to be sure that appropriate analyses had been conducted. Based on the findings of our review, we make recommendations about reporting of the study design, subcohort definition, numbers of participants, descriptive information and statistical methods, which could be used alongside existing STROBE guidelines for reporting observational studies.

Sharp, Stephen J.; Poulaliou, Manon; Thompson, Simon G.; White, Ian R.; Wood, Angela M.

2014-01-01

185

Magnesium intake and risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from five large cohort studies.  

PubMed

A low magnesium intake has been suggested to be associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in pathological and case-control studies, but prospective studies in humans are lacking. The relation between dietary intake of magnesium and ALS risk was explored in five large prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study, the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort, the Multiethnic Cohort Study, and the National Institutes of Health - AARP Diet and Health Study), comprising over 1,050,000 males and females contributing 1093 cases of ALS during a mean of 15 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. Results demonstrated that dietary magnesium intake was not associated with ALS risk, relative risk 1.07, 95% confidence interval 0.88 - 1.31 comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest. This finding does not support a protective effect of magnesium intake on ALS risk. Further analyses should explore magnesium intake in combination with heavy metal exposure and genetic variants affecting magnesium absorption. PMID:23777266

Fondell, Elinor; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Falcone, Guido J; McCullough, Marjorie L; Park, Yikyung; Kolonel, Laurence N; Ascherio, Alberto

2013-09-01

186

A Study of Psychological Distress in Two Cohorts of First-Year Medical Students that Underwent Different Admission Selection Processes  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%–50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by comparing 2 cohorts of first-year medical students; 1 group (cohort 1) was selected based purely on academic merit (2008/2009 cohort) and the other group (cohort 2) was selected based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance (2009/2010 cohort). Their distress levels were measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and scores higher than 3 were considered indicative of significant psychological distress. Results: The prevalence (P = 0.003) and levels (P = 0.001) of psychological distress were significantly different between the 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 had 1.2–3.3 times higher risk of developing psychological distress compared to cohort 2 (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Cohort 2 had better psychological health than cohort 1 and was less likely to develop psychological distress. This study provided evidence of a potential benefit of multimodal student selection based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance. This selection process might identify medical students who will maintain better psychological health.

Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Rahim, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Baba, Abdul Aziz; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Esa, Ab Rahman

2012-01-01

187

Imputations of Missing Values in Practice: Results from Imputations of Serum Cholesterol in 28 Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missing values, common in epidemiologic studies, are a major issue in obtaining valid estimates. Simulation studies have suggested that multiple imputation is an attractive method for imputing missing values, but it is relatively complex and requires specialized software. For each of 28 studies in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, a comparison of eight imputation procedures (unconditional and conditional mean,

Federica Barzi; Mark Woodward

188

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection Is Associated with Increased Respiratory Failure: A Nationwide Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Population study on relationship between nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection and respiratory failure (RF) is limited. This study evaluated the RF risk, including acute respiratory failure (ARF), chronic respiratory failure (CRF) and ARF on CRF, in patients with NTM infection in Taiwan. Methods We used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to identify 3864 newly diagnosed NTM patients (NTM cohort) from 1999 to 2009, and 15456 non-NTM patients (non-NTM cohort), frequency matched by demographic status for comparison. Incidence and hazard of developing RF were measured by the end of 2010. Results The incidence rate of RF was 4.31-fold higher in the NTM cohort than in the non-NTM cohort (44.0 vs.10.2 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.11 (95% CI: 2.73–3.54). The cumulative proportional incidence of RF was 10% higher in the NTM cohort than in the non-NTM cohort (P<0.0001). The RF risk was much greater within 6 months after the diagnosis of NTM infection with a HR of 7.45 (95% CI?=?5.50–10.09). Age-specific comparison showed that the younger NTM patients had a higher HR of RF than the elderly NTM patients (HR: 4.42, 95% CI: 3.28–5.96 vs. HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 2.17–2.92). Comorbidity increased the risk of RF in both cohorts, particularly in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion Our study suggests patients with NTM infection are at a high risk of RF. The risk appears much greater soon after patients diagnosed with NTM infection.

Yeh, Jun-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chou, Christine Yi-Ting; Yeh, Ting-Chun; Wu, Bing-Tsang

2014-01-01

189

Work injury rehabilitation in Guangzhou: 380 case cohort study.  

PubMed

Work injury rehabilitation is a new concept in Mainland China. In 2001, the first work injury rehabilitation centre was established in Guangzhou under the management of the Guanghzhou Bureau of Labour and Security. This paper reviews the profile of a cohort of workers with injuries who received rehabilitation services at this centre. The changes in the physical capacity, daily function, and quality of life of the workers with injuries before and after the treatment services were also reviewed. A total of 380 were extracted from the database which occupied 79% of the total patient population admitted to the centre between 2003 to 2004. The assessment results suggested that workers with injuries showed increases in physical capacity in terms of the range of motion, muscle strength and walking tolerance. The daily functioning by using Barthel Index was also improved. Quality of life assessed with the WHOQOL also demonstrated an increase in the physical and psychological domains. Work injury rehabilitation in Guangzhou is at its infancy stage. The cooperation between the rehabilitation centre, employers and workers is of the utmost importance for a successful return to work outcome. The workers' compensation and rehabilitation policy also dictates the future of success of the rehabilitation services. PMID:18198443

Tang, Dan

2008-01-01

190

The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health  

PubMed Central

Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases."

2011-01-01

191

The Korean urban rural elderly cohort study: study design and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Korea is one of the fastest aging countries and is expected to become a super-aged society within 12 years. The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study was developed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and establish the prevention and management of major disorders of the elderly in Korea. Methods/Design The KURE study is a community-based prospective cohort study on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of Korean elderly persons aged at least 65 years. To construct a cohort reflecting both urban and rural areas, we selected 2 representative communities in the country. To establish multidisciplinary approaches to geriatric health, this study was performed by researchers in the divisions of geriatrics, preventive medicine, endocrinology, and sociology. The baseline examinations began in 2012; the study will follow more than 4,000 elderly Koreans over 10 years. The first and second follow-up health examinations will be performed every 4 years. Every 2 years after each health examination, inter-assessment interview will be conducted to improve participant retention. Discussion The KURE study will provide longitudinal epidemiologic data on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of the elderly in Korea. This is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to biological, physical, socio-economic, and environmental factors. The results of this study will contribute to improve public health and welfare policies for the aging society in Korea.

2014-01-01

192

The fetal safety of cetirizine: An observational cohort study and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Abstract Cetirizine, a second-generation antihistamine, is an active metabolite of hydroxyzine used in the treatment of allergies, but the data on fetal safety are inconclusive. Pregnant women who were counselled by the 'Motherisk Program' regarding cetirizine exposure were enrolled in a cohort study and compared with pregnant women counselled for non-teratogenic exposures. The objective was to measure the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Subsequently, we also conducted a meta-analysis of cohort studies that examined the pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to hydroxyzine or cetirizine during pregnancy. In the cohort study, there were no significant differences in the rates of major malformations between the cetirizine exposed and comparison group. In the meta-analysis, cetirizine was not associated with increased teratogenic risk. In contrast, a meta-analysis of cetirizine and hydroxyzine studies showed a marginal association with major malformations. Cetirizine is not associated with a clinically important increase in risk of adverse fetal outcomes. PMID:24678814

Etwel, F; Djokanovic, N; Moretti, M E; Boskovic, R; Martinovic, J; Koren, G

2014-07-01

193

Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier.

Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

2010-01-01

194

An inventory of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies: research in progress  

PubMed Central

Background A web-based inventory was developed as a voluntary registry of Canadian pregnancy and birth cohort studies, with the objective to foster collaboration and sharing of research tools among cohort study groups as a means to enrich research in maternal and child health across Canada. Description Information on existing birth cohort studies conducted in Canada exclusively or as part of broader international initiatives was accessed by searching the literature in PubMed and PsychInfo databases. Additional studies were identified by enquiring about the research activities of researchers at Canadian universities or working in affiliated hospitals or research centres or institutes. Of the fifty-eight birth cohort studies initially identified, forty-six were incorporated into the inventory if they were of a retrospective and/or prospective longitudinal design and with a minimum of two phases of data collection, with the first period having occurred before, during, or shortly after pregnancy and had an initial study sample size of a minimum of 200 participants. Information collected from each study was organized into four main categories: basic information, data source and period of collection, exposures, and outcome measures and was coded and entered into an Excel spreadsheet. The information incorporated into the Excel spreadsheet was double checked, completed when necessary, and verified for completeness and accuracy by contacting the principal investigator or research coordinator. All data collected were then uploaded onto the website of the Institute of Human Development Child and Youth Health of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research. Subsequently, the database was updated and developed as an online searchable inventory on the website of the Maternal, Infant, Child and Youth Research Network. Conclusions This inventory is unique, as it represents detailed information assembled for the first time on a large number of Canadian birth cohort studies. Such information provides a valuable resource for investigators in the planning stages of cohort studies and identifying current research gaps.

2012-01-01

195

Amsterdam's Airport Library Serves Passengers in 30 Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2010, Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam started offering the world's first library in an airport. This article describes Airport Library which is no ordinary library. It holds more than 1,200 items, but it lends nothing. It operates 24/7, yet it's only staffed by volunteers for 2 or 3 hours a day. It offers just nine public-access…

Dempsey, Kathy

2011-01-01

196

Stratification for smoking in case-cohort studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk estimates obtained in studies of genetic polymorphisms and lung cancer differ markedly between studies, which might be due to chance or differences in study design, in particular the stratification\\/match of comparison group. The effect of different strategies for stratification and adjustment for smoking on the estimated effect of polymorphisms on lung cancer risk was explored in the case-cohort

Mette Sørensen; Ana García López; Per Kragh Andersen; Ulla Vogel; Herman Autrup; Anne Tjønneland; Kim Overvad; Ole Raaschou-Nielsen

2009-01-01

197

Cancer Prevention Studies (CPS I, CPS II, & CPS II Nutrition Cohort)  

Cancer.gov

In 1952, the Statistical Research Section, forerunner of the present Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, began its first large prospective cohort study, the Hammond-Horn Study, to study the effect of cigarette smoking on death rates from cancer and other diseases.

198

Child Maltreatment in the "Children of the Nineties": A Cohort Study of Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…

Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon

2006-01-01

199

Issues of methods and interpretation in the National Cancer Institute formaldehyde cohort study  

PubMed Central

In 2004, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reclassified formaldehyde (FA) from a probable (Group 2A) to a known human carcinogen (Group 1) citing results for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) mortality from the follow-up through 1994 of the National Cancer Institute formaldehyde cohort study. To the contrary, in 2012, the Committee for Risk Assessment of the European Chemicals Agency disagreed with the proposal to classify FA as a known human carcinogen (Carc. 1A), proposing a lower but still protective category, namely as a substance which is presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans (Carc. 1B). Thus, U.S. and European regulatory agencies currently disagree about the potential human carcinogenicity of FA. In 2013, the National Cancer Institute reported results from their follow-up through 2004 of the formaldehyde cohort and concluded that the results continue to suggest a link between FA exposure and NPC. We discuss in this commentary why we believe that this interpretation is neither consistent with the available data from the most recent update of the National Cancer Institute cohort study nor with other research findings from that cohort, other large cohort studies and the series of publications by some of the current authors, including an independent study of one of the National Cancer Institute’s study plants. Another serious concern relates to the incorrectness of the data from the follow-up through 1994 of the National Cancer Institute study stemming from incomplete mortality ascertainment. While these data were corrected by the National Cancer Institute in subsequent supplemental publications, incorrect data from the original publications have been cited extensively in recent causal evaluations of FA, including IARC. We conclude that the NCI publications that contain incorrect data from the incomplete 1994 mortality follow-up should be retracted entirely or corrected via published errata in the corresponding journals, and efforts should be made to re-analyze data from the 2004 follow-up of the NCI cohort study.

2014-01-01

200

A cohort mortality study of forestry workers exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides.  

PubMed Central

A cohort mortality study was undertaken of forestry workers at a public electrical utility who had worked for six months or more during 1950-82 and who were routinely exposed to herbicides including phenoxy acids. A total of 1222 men with 25 274 years at risk experienced 80 deaths. Ascertainment of vital state at the end of follow up was 95.5%. The male population of the province (Ontario) was used as the reference group. Overall, no excess mortality was found in this cohort relative to the reference population. A statistically significant increase in deaths occurred, however, due to suicide (SMR = 210, 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 105-376) for the cohort as a whole. No deaths were seen due to cancers such as soft tissue sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma that have been cited by other authors as being associated with exposure to phenoxy acid herbicides. Although the cohort is not large, the absence of deaths due to these cancers is consistent with findings from other studies with sufficient numbers to allow examination of specific risks. The cohort is still young, however, and at the end of follow up most had not reached an age when increased incidence of cancer would normally be expected.

Green, L M

1991-01-01

201

The Millennium Cohort Study: A Prospective Study of the Health of Military Service Members  

Cancer.gov

This is the first large, population-based prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term health effects of military service. After the 1991 Gulf War, research on illnesses was hampered by unavailability of objective measurements on exposures at the individual level, a lack of baseline health data, and an inability to adequately control for potential confounding factors. Public health experts recommended that the Department of Defense (DoD) establish a cohort with the capability to prospectively examine health outcomes among U.S. military service members.

202

Bleeding complications of oral anticoagulant treatment: an inception-cohort, prospective collaborative study (ISCOAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Bleeding is the most serious complication of the use of oral anticoagulation in the prevention and treatment of thromoboembolic complications. We studied the frequency of bleeding complications in outpatients treated routinely in anticoagulation clinics. Methods In a prospective cohort from thirty-four Italian anticoagulation clinics, 2745 consecutive patients were studied from the start of their oral anticoagulation (warfarin in

Gualtiero Palareti; Nicoletta Leali; Sergio Coccheri; Mario Poggi; Cesare Manotti; Armando D'Angelo; Vittorio Pengo; Nicoletta Erba; Marco Moia; Nicola Ciavarella; Gianluigi Devoto; Mauro Berrettini; Serena Musolesi

1996-01-01

203

Quality of care in elder emergency department patients with pneumonia: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The goals of the study were to assess the relationship between age and processes of care in emergency department (ED) patients admitted with pneumonia and to identify independent predictors of failure to meet recommended quality care measures. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of a pre-existing database undertaken at a university hospital ED in the Midwest. ED patients

Jeffrey M Caterino; Brian C Hiestand; Daniel R Martin

2008-01-01

204

Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

2013-01-01

205

Endometriosis and spontaneous abortion rate: a cohort study in infertile women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To ascertain if there is an association between endometriosis and spontaneous abortion. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Medical School Hospital. Population: 174 infertile women laparoscopically diagnosed with endometriosis and 174 infertile women in which endometriosis was ruled out by laparoscopy, in the same period of time. Main outcome measure: Spontaneous abortion. Non-progressive gestational sac and\\/or histological study. Results: Per

Roberto Matorras; Fernando Rodr??guez; Gloria Gutierrez de Terán; Jose Ignacio Pijoan; Olga Ramón; Francisco Javier Rodr??guez-Escudero

1998-01-01

206

Suicide Attempts and Severe Psychiatric Morbidity among Former Child Welfare Clients--A National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few large sample studies have examined psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare/protection clients. In this study, risks for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity in younger years were assessed for former child welfare clients in ten national birth cohorts, comparing them with general population peers and…

Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders; Lindblad, Frank

2006-01-01

207

Informed consent, participation in, and withdrawal from a population based cohort study involving genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Population based cohort studies involving genetic research have been initiated in several countries. However, research published to date provides little information on the willingness of the general population to participate in such studies. Furthermore, there is a need to discover the optimal methods for acquiring fully informed consent from the general population. We therefore examined the results of a

K Matsui; Y Kita; H Ueshima

2005-01-01

208

EVALUATION OF A REMOTE EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGY FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...

209

The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS): Assembly, Demographics and Investigations  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease

Michael J Epton; George I Town; Tristram Ingham; Kristin Wickens; David Fishwick; Julian Crane

2007-01-01

210

Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

211

Cancer risk following organ transplantation: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who

J Adami; H Gäbel; B Lindelöf; K Ekström; B Rydh; B Glimelius; A Ekbom; H-O Adami; F Granath

2003-01-01

212

High School Seniors Cohort Study, 1965 and 1973 [machine-readable data file].  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The "High School Senior Cohort Study for 1965 and 1973" is a two-part machine-readable data file (MRDF) containing background information about the social and political climate of the peer groups and the entire senior classes of the high school students interviewed for the "Student-Parent Socialization Study, 1965" (ICPSR-7286). The schools in…

Jennings, M. Kent

213

Association Between Allergy and Asthma from Childhood to Middle Adulthood in an Australian Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort of 378 asthmatic children was studied from 7 to 35 yr of age at 7-yr intervals. On selection for inclusion in the study sam- ple, the children had a wide range of severity of wheezing. At each 7-yr review, asthma severity, the presence of eczema or hay fever, and skin test reactivity to house dust mite or rye

RORY WOLFE; JOHN B. CARLIN; HELMUT OSWALD; ANTHONY OLINSKY; PETER D. PHELAN; COLIN F. ROBERTSON

2000-01-01

214

Associations between outdoor temperature and markers of inflammation: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Associations between ambient temperature and cardiovascular mortality are well established. This study investigated whether inflammation could be part of the mechanism leading to temperature-related cardiovascular deaths. METHODS: The study population consisted of a cohort of 673 men with mean age of 74.6 years, living in the greater Boston area. They were seen for examination roughly every 4 years, and

Jaana I Halonen; Antonella Zanobetti; David Sparrow; Pantel S Vokonas; Joel Schwartz

2010-01-01

215

Burnout in health-care professionals during reorganizations and downsizing. A cohort study in nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a psychological reaction triggered by interaction between personal characteristics and stress factors. Reorganizations and downsizing with increased workload imply stress for health-care professionals. This is a study of burnout in nurses during a period with two comprehensive reorganizations. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study, burnout was assessed in nurses with long work experience in three surveys

Kirsten Nordang; Marie-Louise Hall-Lord; Per G Farup

2010-01-01

216

Alcohol sensitivity, alcohol use and hypertension in an older Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and blood pressure (BP) is well known, the effect of alcohol sensitivity on this relationship is less clear. We studied the association of alcohol sensitivity and alcohol use with BP and hypertension. This cross-sectional analysis included 19 335 older participants from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study recruited from 2003 to 2006, using clinically

Wei Sen Zhang; Chao Qiang Jiang; Kar Keung Cheng; Peymane Adab; G Neil Thomas; Bin Liu; Kin-Bong Hubert Lam; C Mary Schooling; Tai Hing Lam

2009-01-01

217

Prevalence of deliberate self harm and attempted suicide within contemporary Goth youth subculture: longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate whether deliberate self harm is associated with contemporary Goth youth subculture. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting School and community based study of young people living in the Central Clydeside Conurbation, Scotland. Participants 1258 people aged 19, surveyed in 2002-4 and followed-up since age 11 (1994). Main outcome measures Lifetime prevalence of self harm and attempted suicide and

Robert Young; Helen Sweeting; Patrick West

2006-01-01

218

The Jerusalem Perinatal Study cohort, 1964–2005: methods and a review of the main results  

Cancer.gov

256 Study design The Jerusalem Perinatal Study cohort, 1964–2005: methods and a review of the main results Susan Harlapa, A. Michael Daviesc, Lisa Deutschd, Ronit Calderon-Margalitd, Orly Manorc, Ora Paltield,e, Efrat Tiramd, Rivka Yanetzd, Mary

219

Postpartum sexual functioning and its relationship to perineal trauma: A retrospective cohort study of primiparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between obstetric perineal trauma and postpartum sexual functioning. Study Design: Our study was carried out with a retrospective cohort design in 3 groups of primiparous women after vaginal birth: Group 1 (n = 211) had an intact perineum or first-degree perineal tear; group 2 (n = 336) had second-degree perineal trauma; group

Lisa B. Signorello; Bernard L. Harlow; Amy K. Chekos; John T. Repke

2001-01-01

220

Childhood Behavioral Problems Predict Young Adults' BMI and Obesity: Evidence From a Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence are associated with young adults' BMI and obesity, and tested whether childhood behavioral problems have a greater impact on young adults' obesity than adolescent behavioral problems. The data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and Its Outcomes, a population-based birth cohort study commenced in Brisbane, Australia, in

Abdullah A. Mamun; Michael J. O'Callaghan; Susanna M. Cramb; Jake M. Najman; Gail M. Williams; William Bor

2009-01-01

221

Impact of Parent Involvement on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

222

Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

2014-07-01

223

Asymptotic results for fitting marginal hazards models from stratified case-cohort studies with multiple disease outcomes  

PubMed Central

In stratified case-cohort designs, samplings of case-cohort samples are conducted via a stratified random sampling based on covariate information available on the entire cohort members. In this paper, we extended the work of Kang & Cai (2009) to a generalized stratified case-cohort study design for failure time data with multiple disease outcomes. Under this study design, we developed weighted estimating procedures for model parameters in marginal multiplicative intensity models and for the cumulative baseline hazard function. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are studied using martingales, modern empirical process theory, and results for finite population sampling.

Kang, Sangwook; Cai, Jianwen

2010-01-01

224

Amsterdam-St. Paul Hotspot: Composition, Motion and History  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amsterdam-St Paul (ASP) plateau results of the excess of melting induced by the interaction between the ASP hotspot and the South-East Indian Ridge. The ASP plume was originally located beneath the Australian Plate and its interaction with the SEIR began about 10 Ma ago. This location provides an unique opportunity to study the hotspot prior to its interaction with the SEIR and its chemical and physical evolution. An exhaustive study of the hotspot characteristics prior to its interaction lead to know its geochemical compositions. The geochemistry of its interaction with the SEIR (i. e. ASP plateau) provides indirect information on the regional Indian Ocean upper mantle. ASP plume has a moderately enriched composition with resulting seamount melts having 2.5 < (La/Sm)C1norm < 2.8. In addition isotope ratios are not as extreme as estimated in previous works [Doucet et al. 2004; Nicolaysen et al., 2007] with 86Sr/87Sr ? 0.7040, 143Nd/144Nd ? 0.5128, 206Pb/204Pb ? 19.0 and 208Pb/204Pb ? 39.2. The ASP plateau isotopic composition reveals that the Indian Ocean upper mantle is extremely heterogeneous. It was proposed that the ridge segments across the plateau have interacted 40 My ago with Kerguelen plume [Frey et al. 2000]. We therefore assume that some plume material has been left behind in the Indian Ocean upper mantle during the movement of the Australian plate above it. Consequently, the upper mantle in the area might be a good example of 'marble cake' [Allegre&Turcotte, 1986]. When the SEIR approaches the ASP hotspot, plume derived material mixes with the surrounded mantle leading to the complexity seen in ASP plateau materials. K-Ar datings reveal that the absolute motion of the Australian plate calculated with respect to the fixity of ASP plume is of about 77 km/My. With a spreading rate of about 6-7 cm/yr the accretion at the SEIR axis cannot account for this velocity. In consequence, an absolute motion of the ASP plume of about 10-20km/My, comparable to that of Hawaii [Tarduno et al. 2003], could account for this discrepancy. References: Allegre & Turcotte. (1986). Nature 323, 123-127. Doucet, S., et al. (2004). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 208, 179-195. Frey, F.A., et al. 2000). Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 176, 73-89. Nicolaysen, K. P., et al. (2007). Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q09007. Tarduno, J. A., et al., (2003). Science 301, 1064-1069.

Janin, Myriam; Hemond, Christophe; Maia, Marcia; Guillou, Herve; Nonnotte, Philippe; Ponzevera, Emmanuel

2010-05-01

225

Trends in patterns of dengue transmission over four years of a pediatric cohort study in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease in humans and a major urban public health problem worldwide. Methods A prospective cohort study of ~3,800 children initially aged 2-9 years old was established in Managua, Nicaragua, in 2004 to study the natural history of dengue transmission in an urban pediatric population. Blood samples from healthy subjects were collected annually prior to the dengue season, and identification of dengue cases occurred via enhanced passive surveillance at the study health center. Results Over the first four years of the study, seroprevalence of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies increased from 22-40% in the 2-year-old cohort and 90-95% in the 9-year-old cohort. The incidence of symptomatic dengue cases and the ratio of inapparent to symptomatic DENV infection varied substantially year-to-year. The switch in dominant transmission from DENV-1 to DENV-2 was accompanied by an increase in disease severity but, paradoxically, a decrease in transmission. Phylogeographic analysis of full-length DENV-2 sequences revealed strong geographic clustering of dengue cases. Conclusions This large-scale cohort study of dengue in the Americas demonstrates year-to-year variation of dengue within a pediatric population, revealing expected patterns in transmission while highlighting the impact of interventions, climate, and viral evolution.

Balmaseda, Angel; Standish, Katherine; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Matute, Juan Carlos; Tellez, Yolanda; Saborio, Saira; Hammond, Samantha N.; Nunez, Andrea; Aviles, William; Henn, Matthew R.; Holmes, Edward C.; Gordon, Aubree; Coloma, Josefina; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

2013-01-01

226

The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS): study protocol and participation in the first decade  

PubMed Central

Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60?years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n?=?3,326 (48?%) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n?=?1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort study of older persons is feasible and can maintain a good participation rate over ten years, even when extensive self-reported health data are collected repeatedly through self-filled questionnaires. Evidently individual health developments of elderly persons can be tracked quantifying simultaneously behaviour, co-morbidity, functional competence and their changes. In future, we expect to generate results of significance about the five study aims listed above.

2012-01-01

227

Physical activity and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: prospective study from the Nurses' Health Study cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between physical activity and risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II. Participants 194?711 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II who provided data on physical activity and other risk factors every two to four years since 1984 in the Nurses’ Health Study and 1989 in the Nurses’ Health Study II and followed up through 2010. Main outcome measure Incident ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Results During 3?421?972 person years of follow-up, we documented 284 cases of Crohn’s disease and 363 cases of ulcerative colitis. The risk of Crohn’s disease was inversely associated with physical activity (P for trend 0.02). Compared with women in the lowest fifth of physical activity, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio of Crohn’s disease among women in the highest fifth of physical activity was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.94). Active women with at least 27 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week of physical activity had a 44% reduction (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.84) in risk of developing Crohn’s disease compared with sedentary women with <3 MET h/wk. Physical activity was not associated with risk of ulcerative colitis (P for trend 0.46). The absolute risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease among women in the highest fifth of physical activity was 8 and 6 events per 100?000 person years compared with 11 and 16 events per 100?000 person years among women in the lowest fifth of physical activity, respectively. Age, smoking, body mass index, and cohort did not significantly modify the association between physical activity and risk of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease (all P for interaction >0.35). Conclusion In two large prospective cohorts of US women, physical activity was inversely associated with risk of Crohn’s disease but not of ulcerative colitis.

2013-01-01

228

Depressive Symptoms and the Metabolic Syndrome in Childhood and Adulthood: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine the reciprocal associations between depressive symptoms and clinical definitions of the metabolic syndrome in childhood and adulthood. Design: Population-based prospective cohort study of 921 participants (538 women and 383 men) in Finland. The components of the metabolic syndrome were measured in childhood (mean age 12 years) and again in adulthood (mean age 33 years). A revised version

Laura Pulkki-Råback; Marko Elovainio; Mika Kivimäki; Noora Mattsson; Olli T. Raitakari; Sampsa Puttonen; Jukka Marniemi; Jorma S. A. Viikari; Liisa Keltikangas-Järvinen

2009-01-01

229

Toward validation of atypical depression in the community: results of the Zurich cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This paper (1) examines the validity of the atypical subtype of depression in a community-based longitudinal cohort study, (2) presents estimates of the prevalence and sex differences of DSM-IV atypical depression and a newly more broadly defined atypical syndrome in the community and (3) compares the clinical correlates and treatment patterns of those with atypical depression with other depressives.

Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Robert Sellaro; Heping Zhang; Kathleen Merikangas

2002-01-01

230

The mental health of UK Gulf war veterans: phase 2 of a two phase cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in veterans of the Gulf war with or without unexplained physical disability (a proxy measure of ill health) and in similarly disabled veterans who had not been deployed to the Gulf war (non›Gulf veterans). Design Two phase cohort study. Setting Current and ex›service UK military personnel. Participants Phase 1 consisted of three

Khalida Ismail; Kate Kent; Traolach Brugha; Matthew Hotopf; Lisa Hull; Paul Seed; Ian Palmer; Steve Reid; Catherine Unwin; Anthony S David; Simon Wessely; Gulf War Illnesses

2002-01-01

231

Cancer risks of dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The association of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) and malignancies has been reported, but rarely in Asian countries. Our aim was to investigate the risk of cancer among IIM patients without a prior history of malignancies, in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study of 1,012 patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and 643 patients with polymyositis (PM), but without prior

Yi-Ju Chen; Chun-Ying Wu; Yu-Lin Huang; Chang-Bi Wang; Jui-Lung Shen; Yun-Ting Chang

2010-01-01

232

Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background More than 20 studies have investigated the relation between meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk with conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with meat and dairy food consump- tion and to assess whether non-dietary risk factors modify the relation. Methods We combined the primary data from eight prospective cohort

Stacey A Missmer; Stephanie A Smith-Warner; Donna Spiegelman; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; P. A. van den Brandt

2002-01-01

233

Pathways to the diagnosis of lung cancer in the UK: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in the UK. Patients generally present to their general practitioner, but the pathway of diagnosis from first symptom to diagnosis has not been mapped. We performed a cohort study of 246 patients with lung cancer in Exeter, Devon UK. All patients had their cancer symptoms, referrals and diagnoses identified and

Jacqueline Barrett; William Hamilton

2008-01-01

234

Risk Associated With Preoperative Anemia in Cardiac Surgery A Multicenter Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background—Preoperative anemia is an important risk factor for perioperative red blood cell transfusions, which are associated with postoperative morbidity and mortality. Whether preoperative anemia also is an independent risk factor for adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery, however, has not been fully elucidated. Methods and Results—In this multicenter cohort study, data were collected on 3500 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac surgery

Keyvan Karkouti; Duminda N. Wijeysundera; W. Scott Beattie

235

Prognostic factors of whiplash-associated disorders: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a systematic review of prospective cohort studies. Our aim was to assess prognostic factors associated with functional recovery of patients with whiplash injuries. The failure of some patients to recover following whiplash injury has been linked to a number of prognostic factors. However, there is some inconsistency in the literature and there have been no systematic attempts to

Gwendolijne G. M Scholten-Peeters; Arianne P Verhagen; Geertruida E Bekkering; Daniëlle A. W. M van der Windt; Les Barnsley; Rob A. B Oostendorp; Erik J. M Hendriks

2003-01-01

236

A clinical prediction rule for ambulation outcomes after traumatic spinal cord injury: a longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury is a serious disorder in which early prediction of ambulation is important to counsel patients and to plan rehabilitation. We developed a reliable, validated prediction rule to assess a patient's chances of walking independently after such injury. METHODS: We undertook a longitudinal cohort study of adult patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, with early (within

Joost J van Middendorp; Allard JF Hosman; A Rogier T Donders; Martin H Pouw; John F Ditunno; Armin Curt; Alexander CH Geurts; Hendrik Van de Meent

2011-01-01

237

Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a

Timothy J Ives; Paul R Chelminski; Catherine A Hammett-Stabler; Robert M Malone; J Stephen Perhac; Nicholas M Potisek; Betsy Bryant Shilliday; Darren A DeWalt; Michael P Pignone

2006-01-01

238

Incomplete functional recovery after delirium in elderly people: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Delirium often has a poor outcome, but why some people have incomplete recovery is not well understood. Our objective was to identify factors associated with short-term (by discharge) and long-term (by 6 month) incomplete recovery of function following delirium. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with delirium seen by geriatric medicine services, function was assessed at

Melissa K Andrew; Susan H Freter; Kenneth Rockwood

2005-01-01

239

Fluoroquinolone Safety in Pediatric Patients: A Prospective, Multicenter, Comparative Cohort Study in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the safety of fluo- roquinolones (FQ) in comparison with other antibiotics in pediatric patients. Methods. A multicenter, observational, comparative cohort study was conducted between 1998 and 2000 in French pediatric departments. Patients who were receiv- ing systemic FQ were included and matched to control patients who were receiving other antibiotics. Antibiotic- associated potential adverse events (PAEs) were

Martin Chalumeau; Sylvie Tonnelier; Philippe d'Athis; Jean-Marc Treluyer; Dominique Gendrel; Gerard Breart; Gerard Pons

240

Determinants of High Sex Ratio among Newborns: A Cohort Study from Rural Anhui Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analysed the relative contributions of three possible determinants to the high sex ratio among newborns in rural China – under-reporting of female births, abortions of female fetuses and excess early female neonatal mortality. A cohort of 3,697 pregnancies collected at village level in 20 rural townships from a county in Anhui province in 1999 was followed from pregnancy

Zhuochun Wu; Kirsi Viisainen; Elina Hemminki

2006-01-01

241

Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population based retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of admissions to hospital for stroke among older adults with dementia receiving atypical or typical antipsychotics. DESIGN: Population based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. Patients 32,710 older adults (< or = 65 years) with dementia (17,845 dispensed an atypical antipsychotic and 14,865 dispensed a typical antipsychotic). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Admission to hospital with the

Sudeep S. Gill; Paula A. Rochon; Nathan Herrmann; Philip E. Lee; Kathy Sykora; Nadia Gunraj; Sharon-Lise T. Normand; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Connie Marras; Walter P. Wodchis; Muhammad M. Mamdani

2005-01-01

242

Expressed emotion among families and course of schizophrenia in Japan: A 2-year cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 2-year cohort study was conducted to determine whether expressed emotion (EE) in families is associated with relapse of schizophrenia in Japan. Key relatives of 52 schizophrenic patients were interviewed using the Camberwell Family Interview (CFI) and the patients were classified into high and low EE groups. The 2-year relapse risks were 71% (17\\/24) in the high EE group and

Yoshio Mino; Shimpei Inoue; Shuichi Tanaka; Toshihide Tsuda

1997-01-01

243

Quality of rehabilitation among workers with adjustment disorders according to practice guidelines; a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the quality of occupational rehabilitation for patients with adjustment disorders and to determine whether high quality of care is related to a shorter period of sickness absence.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by means of an audit of 100 files of patients with adjustment disorders who visited their occupational physicians. Quality of rehabilitation was assessed by

K. Nieuwenhuijsen; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; J. C. M. J. Siemerink; D. Tummers-Nijsen

2003-01-01

244

Mortality in Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome in Britain: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Klinefelter syndrome is characterized by hypogonadism and infertility, consequent on the presence of extra X chromosome(s). There is limited information about long-term mortality in this syn- drome because there have been no large cohort studies. Objective: Our objective was to investigate mortality in men with Klinefelter syndrome. Design and Setting: We obtained data about patients diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome

Anthony J. Swerdlow; Craig D. Higgins; Minouk J. Schoemaker; Alan F. Wright; Patricia A. Jacobs

2010-01-01

245

THE EFFECT OF RECORD LINKAGE ERRORS ON STATISTICAL INFERENCE IN COHORT MORTALITY STUDIES  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advent of computerized record linkage methodology has facilitated the conduct of cohort mortality studies in which exposure data in one database are electronically linked with mortality data from another database. In this article, the impact of linkage errors on estimates of epidemiological indicators of risk such as standardized mortality ratios and relative risk regression model parameters is explored. It

D. Krewski; Y. Wang; S. Bartlett; J. M. Zielinski; R. Mallick

2001-01-01

246

Impact of Helicobacter pylori Infection on Growth of Children: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively follow a cohort of children without Helicobacter pylori infection and to compare growth velocity in the children who become infected during follow-up with that of children who remained infection- free. Methods: Three hundred forty-seven children in general good health, aged 12 to 60 months, who tested negative for H. pylori by

Luis Eduardo Bravo; Robertino Mera; Julio Cesar Reina; Alberto Pradilla; Alberto Alzate; Elizabeth Fontham; Pelayo Correa

2003-01-01

247

Non-residential Fatherhood and Child Involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved

Kathleen E Kiernan

2005-01-01

248

Non-residential Fatherhood and Child Involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved

KATHLEEN KIERNAN

2006-01-01

249

Common Dietary Patterns and Risk of Breast Cancer: Analysis From the United Kingdom Women's Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between diet and breast cancer is uncertain. We assessed the relationship of 4 common dietary patterns to the risk of breast cancer using the UK Women's Cohort Study (UKWCS). A total of 35,372 women aged between 35 to 69 yr were recruited from 1995 to 1998. The UKWCS was selected to have a wide range of dietary intakes;

Janet E. Cade; E. Faye Taylor; Victoria J. Burley; Darren C. Greenwood

2010-01-01

250

Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relative importance of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet in generating the inverse association of increased adherence to this diet and overall mortality.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Participants 23 349 men and women, not previously diagnosed with cancer, coronary heart disease, or diabetes, with

Antonia Trichopoulou; Christina Bamia; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

2009-01-01

251

Cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients taking antipsychotic drugs: cohort study using administrative data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the rates of cardiac arrest and ventricular arrhythmia in patients with treated schizophrenia and in non›schizophrenic controls. Design Cohort study of outpatients using administrative data. Setting 3 US Medicaid programmes. Participants Patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine, haloperidol, risperidone, or thioridazine; a control group of patients with glaucoma; and a control group of patients with psoriasis. Main

Sean Hennessy; Warren B Bilker; Jill S Knauss; David J Margolis; Stephen E Kimmel; Robert F Reynolds; Dale B Glasser; Mary F Morrison; Brian L Strom

2002-01-01

252

Medically unexplained symptoms in frequent attenders of secondary health care: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the prevalence of medically unexplained symptoms in patients who most frequently attend outpatient services. Design Retrospective cohort study over three years with review of case notes. Setting Secondary care services in the South Thames (West) NHS region. Participants Outpatient attenders with new appointments in 1993. Main outcome measures Number of outpatient appointments, and number of consultation episodes

Steven Reid; Simon Wessely; Tim Crayford; Matthew Hotopf

2001-01-01

253

Minimal Changes of Serum Creatinine Predict Prognosis in Patients after Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal failure increases risk of death after car- diac surgery. However, it is not known whether more subtle changes in renal function might have an impact on outcome. Thus, the association between small serum creatinine changes after surgery and mortality, independent of other established perioperative risk indicators, was analyzed. In a prospective cohort study in 4118 patients who underwent

ANDREA LASSNIGG; DANIEL SCHMIDLIN; MOHAMED MOUHIEDDINE; LUCAS M. BACHMANN; WILFRED DRUML; PETER BAUER; MICHAEL HIESMAYR

2004-01-01

254

Epidemiology of sepsis and infection in ICU patients from an international multicentre cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the incidence of infections and to describe them and their outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Design and setting: International prospective cohort study in which all patients admitted to the 28 participating units in eight countries between May 1997 and May 1998 were followed until hospital discharge. Patients: A total of 14,364 patients were admitted to

Corinne Alberti; Christian Brun-Buisson; Hilmar Burchardi; Claudio Martin; Sergey Goodman; Antonio Artigas; Alberto Sicignano; Mark Palazzo; Rui Moreno; Ronan Boulmé; Eric Lepage; Jean Roger Le Gall

2002-01-01

255

Birth order, gestational age, and risk of delivery related perinatal death in twins: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether twins born second are at increased risk of perinatal death because of complications during labour and delivery. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Scotland, 1992 and 1997. Participants All twin births at or after 24 weeks' gestation, excluding twin pairs in which either twin died before labour or delivery or died during or after labour and delivery

Gordon C S Smith; Jill P Pell; Richard Dobbie

2002-01-01

256

Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) Public Use Data Set: Release PO1 (1984-1988).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The public use data tape of 'Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study' covers data from 1984 through 1988, or visit 1 through 9. Data components include: semi-annual visit of physical examination, section 2, 3 and 4 questionnaire, and laboratory tests. Other data in...

1994-01-01

257

USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 55,332 male pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina with no prior history of prostate cancer. Data were collected by means...

258

Child Care in Infancy and Cognitive Performance until Middle Childhood in the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a British cohort ("n" = [approximately]13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age…

Cote, Sylvana M.; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amelie; Timmins, Lori

2013-01-01

259

Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between work stress, according to the job strain model and the effort›reward imbalance model, and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Baseline examination in 1973 determined cases of cardiovascular disease, behavioural and biological risks, and stressful characteristics of work. Biological risks were measured at 5 year and 10 year follow

Mika Kivim; Jussi Vahtera

2002-01-01

260

High incidence of childhood pneumonia at high altitudes in Pakistan: a longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the incidence of pneumonia and severe pneumonia among children living at high altitudes in Pakistan. Methods A longitudinal cohort study was conducted in which 99 female government health workers in Punial and Ishkoman valleys (Ghizer district, Northern Areas of Pakistan) enrolled children at home, conducted home visits every 2 weeks and actively referred sick children to 15

Aamir J Khan; Hamidah Hussain; Saad B Omer; Sajida Chaudry; Sajid Ali; Adil Khan; Zayed Yasin; Imran J Khan; Rozina Mistry; Imam Yar Baig; Franklin White; Lawrence H Moulton; Neal A Halsey

2009-01-01

261

Mortality in the UK industrial silica sand industry: 2. A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the mortality experience of a cohort of employees in the UK silica sand industry exposed to respirable crystalline silica (RCS). Methods: A retrospective cohort mortality study followed all workers to 2001 with at least one year's employment at one of seven UK silica sand producing quarries between 1950 and 1986. Each worker was assigned a job category and cumulative exposure to RCS was estimated using a job-exposure matrix. Results: A total of 764 deaths were identified in 2703 cohort members. The overall mortality rate for the cohort was lower than would be expected in the general population. Mortality from circulatory and respiratory disease was also less than expected, but death due to pneumoconiosis was slightly raised (two deaths). Mortality from all cancers was slightly decreased. Mortality was not raised in any job category. Cancer mortality was raised at one quarry due to a significant increase in lung (standardised mortality rate (SMR) 162.0, 95% CI 113.5 to 224.3) and bladder (SMR 366.5, 95% CI 167.6 to 695.7) cancers. Mortality from lung cancer and other causes did not show a trend with cumulative exposure to RCS. Conclusions: This study did not show any consistent relation between RCS exposure (in the absence of other known carcinogens) and the development of lung cancer. This contrasts with a number of studies that have shown positive findings in similar and related industries.

Brown, T; Rushton, L

2005-01-01

262

Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Combat-intense, lengthy, and multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan have characterized the new millennium. The US military's all-volunteer force has never been better trained and technologically equipped to engage enemy combatants in multiple theaters of operations. Nonetheless, concerns over potential lasting effects of deployment on long-term health continue to mount and are yet to be elucidated. This report outlines how findings from the first 7 years of the Millennium Cohort Study have helped to address health concerns related to military service including deployments. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study was designed in the late 1990s to address veteran and public concerns for the first time using prospectively collected health and behavioral data. Results Over 150 000 active-duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from all service branches have enrolled, and more than 70% of the first 2 enrollment panels submitted at least 1 follow-up survey. Approximately half of the Cohort has deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusion The Millennium Cohort Study is providing prospective data that will guide public health policymakers for years to come by exploring associations between military exposures and important health outcomes. Strategic studies aim to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes that may be associated with military service, including those related to deployment.

2011-01-01

263

HIV prevalence among clients attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Amsterdam: the potential risk for heterosexual transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION--Patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases (STD) in general have engaged in at risk sexual behaviour. Therefore they are at increased risk of acquiring HIV through sexual contact. OBJECTIVE--To determine the HIV prevalence among patients attending a STD clinic in Amsterdam. METHODS--An anonymous cross sectional study was conducted in two 5-week periods in Spring and Autumn 1991. RESULTS--Of

J S Fennema; E J van Ameijden; R A Coutinho; G J van Doornum; C J Henquet; J A van den Hoek

1993-01-01

264

Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. Methods and Findings We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005), Embase (1980-2001), Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues;

Meghna Ranganathan; Raj Bhopal

2006-01-01

265

Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women.  

PubMed

The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its antioestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study in the ‘Diet, Cancer and Health’ cohort. The cohort study included 29 875 women aged 50–64 years enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was provided by self-administrated questionnaires and blood was drawn from each participant. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used for biochemical determination of plasma enterolactone. A total of 173 cases and 149 randomly selected cohort members were included. We estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% CI by a Cox proportional hazards model. A 20 nmol/l higher plasma concentration of enterolactone was associated with a non-significant lower risk of endometrial cancer (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84, 1.04). When excluding women with low enterolactone concentrations (quartile 1) due to potential recent antibiotic use, the association became slightly stronger, but remained non-significant (IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79, 1.02). Menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy or BMI did not modify the association. In conclusion, we found some support for a possible inverse association between plasma enterolactone concentration and endometrial cancer incidence. PMID:23114205

Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Kristensen, Mette; Würtz, Anne M L; Johnsen, Nina F; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

2013-06-28

266

Different effects of ethnic diversity on social capital: density of foundations and leisure associations in Amsterdam neighbourhoods.  

PubMed

This article examines the effect of ethnic diversity on social capital in Amsterdam neighbourhoods by looking at the effects of the ethnic diversity of a neighbourhood on the social networks that underpin civil society. A distinction is made between homogeneous, more individually oriented social networks, on the one hand, and horizontal heterogeneous networks on the other. The density of foundations—i.e. the number of foundations in a neighbourhood—is used as the indicator for the first type of networks and the density of leisure associations for the latter type. In addition, the study looks at the effect of a changing context in Amsterdam in which ethnic diversity has increasingly come to be perceived as problematic by inhabitants and local politicians. The results indeed show that ethnic diversity has a different effect on both forms of civil society: the horizontal heterogeneous networks suffer more from ethnic diversity than the homogeneous networks. PMID:22375291

Vermeulen, Floris; Tillie, Jean; van de Walle, Robert

2012-01-01

267

Cohort profile: the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS).  

PubMed

The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of persons in China 45 years of age or older and their spouses, including assessments of social, economic, and health circumstances of community-residents. CHARLS examines health and economic adjustments to rapid ageing of the population in China. The national baseline survey for the study was conducted between June 2011 and March 2012 and involved 17 708 respondents. CHARLS respondents are followed every 2 years, using a face-to-face computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI). Physical measurements are made at every 2-year follow-up, and blood sample collection is done once in every two follow-up periods. A pilot survey for CHARLS was conducted in two provinces of China in 2008, on 2685 individuals, who were resurveyed in 2012. To ensure the adoption of best practices and international comparability of results, CHARLS was harmonized with leading international research studies in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) model. Requests for collaborations should be directed to Dr Yaohui Zhao (yhzhao@nsd.edu.cn). All data in CHARLS are maintained at the National School of Development of Peking University and will be accessible to researchers around the world at the study website. The 2008 pilot data for CHARLS are available at: http://charls.ccer.edu.cn/charls/. National baseline data for the study are expected to be released in January 2013. PMID:23243115

Zhao, Yaohui; Hu, Yisong; Smith, James P; Strauss, John; Yang, Gonghuan

2014-02-01

268

The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS): Assembly, Demographics and Investigations  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

Epton, Michael J; Town, George I; Ingham, Tristram; Wickens, Kristin; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian

2007-01-01

269

The use of rehabilitation among patients with breast cancer: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Along with improvements in treatment, the number of women who survive breast cancer has increased. Rehabilitation can alleviate post-treatment side effects and maintain quality of life. This study aimed to explore the use of rehabilitation among a cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using a National Health Insurance (NHI) research database in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of 632 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in 2005. Their NHI claims over a period spanning 2005 through 2009 were analyzed. Results Overall, 39.6% of the cohort received rehabilitation therapy, with 9,691 rehabilitation visits claimed (an average of 38.8 visits per user). The prevalence of rehabilitation service use among the cohort was 16.5%, 13.3%, 13.0%, 13.3%, and 12.8% in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. The average number of visits per rehabilitation user was 16.8, 25.0, 31.1, 24.2, and 23.8 in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. Most rehabilitation therapy occurred as an outpatient service (96.0%). Physical therapy was the most commonly used form of rehabilitation (84.2%), followed by occupational therapy (15.4%). The most frequently recorded diagnoses were malignant neoplasm of the female breast, peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes, and osteoarthrosis and allied disorders. Conclusions Only a small proportion of patients with breast cancer received rehabilitation therapy in the first five years after diagnosis. The average number of rehabilitation visits per user peaked in the third year after diagnosis.

2012-01-01

270

Medication adherence in patients with dementia: an austrian cohort study.  

PubMed

Sustained treatment with effective doses of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine is crucial to transfer treatment effects in dementia. Numerous studies, with often small samples sizes, describe low adherence rates. The purpose of current study was to examine the medical adherence of antidementia therapy in Austria. We analyzed the data of 10 Austrian Health Insurance Funds, including treatment-naive dementia patients. Study outcome measures were discontinuation, switching, number of days on therapy, Medication-Possession-Ratio, and compliance. A total of 15,809 patients (mean age: 79.9 y, female: 67.3%) met the study's inclusion criteria. After stratification by index medication there were 40.3% on donepezil (n=6371); 26.6% on rivastigmine (n=4206); 15.3% on galantamine (n=2424); and 17.8% on memantine (n=2808). After 6 and 12 months on therapy, 5376 (34.0%) and 9243 (58.5%) patients stopped the initially prescribed antidementia therapy; after 12 months the highest discontinuation rate was seen for patients taking rivastigmine (67.3%), whereas patients on memantine (45.0%) had the lowest. After 12 months, a total of 1874 (11.9%) patients switched from their index medication to another cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine. A total of 6163 patients (39.0%) were compliant (Medication-Possession-Ratio >80%) during the first 6 months and 5366 patients (33.9%) during 12 months of the study. Our study shows that memantine-treated patients adhere significantly better to treatment. Specifically, after 12 months, 45.0% discontinued medication, 7.9% switched, and 50.8% of patients on therapy were compliant. PMID:24113561

Haider, Bernhard; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schweiger, Christine; Forstner, Thomas; Labek, Anna; Lampl, Christian

2014-01-01

271

Mental health: A cause or consequence of injury? A population-based matched cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While a number of studies report high prevalence of mental health problems among injured people, the temporal relationship between injury and mental health service use has not been established. This study aimed to quantify this relationship using 10 years of follow-up on a population-based cohort of hospitalised injured adults. METHODS: The Manitoba Injury Outcome Study is a retrospective population-based

Cate M Cameron; David M Purdie; Erich V Kliewer; Rod J McClure

2006-01-01

272

Risks for Acquisition of Bacterial Vaginosis Among Women Who Report Sex with Women: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16–35 years) who reported sex with other women (?1 partner, prior year). Women

Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Katherine K. Thomas; Tina L. Fiedler; Kathleen Ringwood; David N. Fredricks; Landon Myer

2010-01-01

273

Obesity and depression: results from the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To examine the association between body size and depression in a longitudinal setting and to explore the connection between obesity and depression in young adults at the age of 31 years.Design:This study forms part of the longitudinal Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study (N=12 058). The follow-up studies were performed at 14 and 31 years. Data were collected by postal

A Herva; J Laitinen; J Miettunen; J Veijola; J T Karvonen; K Läksy; M Joukamaa

2006-01-01

274

Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To identify predictors of postnatal catch-up growth from birth to two years and its relation to size and obesity at five years.Design: Regional prospective cohort study.Setting: Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood, United Kingdom.Subjects: 848 full term singletons from a 10% random sample of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood.Main outcome measures: Maternal birth weight, prepregnancy

Ken K L Ong; Marion L Ahmed; Pauline M Emmett; Michael A Preece; David B Dunger

2000-01-01

275

A cohort study of psychosurgery cases from a defined population  

Microsoft Academic Search

All cases from an urban population treated by psychosurgery over a 20 year period were followed up; 44 out of 47 were available for study, and 33 of these were interviewed. Outcome was measured on a five-point scale, and follow-up was from 1 to 20 years, with a mean of 11; almost all patients previously had had severe, disabling and

E S Hussain; H Freeman; R A Jones

1988-01-01

276

Betula: A Prospective Cohort Study on Memory, Health and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the Betula Study with respect to objectives, design, participants, and assessment instruments for health and cognition. Three waves of data collection have been completed in 5-year intervals since 1988–1990. A fourth wave started in 2003 and will be completed in 2005. An overview of Betula research is presented under the headings of memory and cognition and cognitive

Lars-Göran Nilsson; Rolf Adolfsson; Lars Bäckman; Cindy M. de Frias; Bo Molander; Lars Nyberg

2004-01-01

277

Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

2012-01-01

278

Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a) to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b) to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database

Florian Brunner; Lucas M Bachmann; Ulrich Weber; Alfons GH Kessels; Roberto SGM Perez; Johan Marinus; Rudolf Kissling

2008-01-01

279

Pulmonary embolism in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based cohort study.  

PubMed

ABSTRACT Background: To evaluate the incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Taiwan. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based cohort study using data retrieved from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (2000 to 2008), which contains 99% of Taiwanese healthcare data. The evaluations included 355,878 COPD patients and 355,878 non-COPD patients for comparison. Results: The incidence of PE in the COPD cohort was 12.31 per 10,000 person-years (1.37/10,000 persons/y), which was approximately 4-times higher than in the comparison cohort (0.35/10,000 persons/y). In the COPD cohort, risk of PE was higher in the young age group (20-59 y, HR 4.64, 95% CI 3.06-7.03) than in other age groups. Risk of PE was higher in patients with COPD combined with hypertension, coronary artery disease, and cancer, or those with previous operation (HR 4.16, 4.75, 4.56, and 4.50 respectively) than in those with COPD and no comorbidity. Conclusions: The overall incidence of PE is lower in Taiwan than in western countries. However, the prevalence of PE in COPD patients is higher than in non-COPD patients and increases with age. It is crucial to incorporate PE into the differential diagnosis of COPD exacerbation for clinical physicians. PMID:25010753

Chen, Wei-Ji; Lin, Che-Chen; Lin, Chang-Yi; Chang, Yen-Jung; Sung, Fung-Chang; Kao, Chia-Hung; Yeh, Jun-Jun

2014-08-01

280

Mortality and lead exposure: a retrospective cohort study of Swedish smelter workers.  

PubMed Central

The study is based on the work histories and mortality data for 3832 male workers first employed before 1967 at a copper smelter in northern Sweden and followed up from 1950 to 1981. From the 3832 workers a lead cohort consisting of 437 workers employed for at least three years at sites with considerable lead exposure during 1950-74 was selected. These workers had regularly had blood lead measurements performed since 1950. Based on the cumulative blood lead dose 1950-74 and peak blood lead values, the cohort was subdivided into high mean, low mean, high peak, and low peak groups. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for the six groups using general and local reference populations. The original cohort of 3832 workers showed considerable excess of deaths for total mortality, malignant neoplasms especially lung and stomach cancer, ischaemic heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases when compared with the general population. In the lead cohort where the workers had been subjected to a considerable lead exposure only the raised SMR for lung cancer was sustained (SMR = 162; not significant). No significant differences were found between high lead and low lead exposed smelter workers.

Gerhardsson, L; Lundstrom, N G; Nordberg, G; Wall, S

1986-01-01

281

IS LUNG FUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY? RESULTS FROM THE HERTFORDSHIRE COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is limited information available regarding the association between lung function and bone mineral density among healthy elderly subjects. We addressed this issue in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Methods 985 subjects (496 men and 489 women) aged 60-72 years were recruited from the above cohort. All subjects underwent bone density measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and lung function tests using standardised spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined as a Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1)/ Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) ratio < lower limit of normal (LLN), calculated using separate equations for men and women. Results Measures of lung function (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC) were not associated with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip in men or women; associations with bone mineral content and bone area were removed by adjustment for body size and lifestyle confounders. In this cohort, there were no associations observed between COPD and any measure of bone mass. Conclusions There was no association between lung function and bone mass in this community dwelling cohort after adjustment for body size and other confounders.

Dennison, EM; Dhanwal, DK; Shaheen, SO; Azagra, R; Reading, I; Jameson, KA; Sayer, AA; Cooper, C

2013-01-01

282

KNOW-KT (KoreaN cohort study for outcome in patients with kidney transplantation: a 9-year longitudinal cohort study): study rationale and methodology  

PubMed Central

Background Asian patients undergoing kidney transplantation (KT) generally have better renal allograft survival and a lower burden of cardiovascular disease than those of other racial groups. The KNOW-KT aims to explore allograft survival rate, cardiovascular events, and metabolic profiles and to elucidate the risk factors in Korean KT patients. Methods KNOW-KT is a multicenter, observational cohort study encompassing 8 transplant centers in the Republic of Korea. KNOW-KT will enroll 1,000 KT recipients between 2012 and 2015 and follow them up to 9 years. At the time of KT and at pre-specified intervals, clinical information, laboratory test results, and functional and imaging studies on cardiovascular disease and metabolic complications will be recorded. Comorbid status will be assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index. Medication adherence and information on quality of life (QoL) will be monitored periodically. The QoL will be assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Donors will include both living donors and deceased donors whose status will be assessed by the Kidney Donor Risk Index. Primary endpoints include graft loss and patient mortality. Secondary endpoints include renal functional deterioration (a decrease in eGFR to <30 mL/min/1.73 m2), acute rejection, cardiovascular event, albuminuria, new-onset diabetes after transplant, and QoL. Data on other adverse outcomes including episodes of infection, malignancy, recurrence of original renal disease, fracture, and hospitalization will also be collected. A bio-bank has been established for the acquisition of DNA, RNA, and protein from serum and urine samples of recipients at regular intervals. Bio-samples from donors will also be collected at the time of KT. KNOW-KT was registered in an international clinical trial registry (NCT02042963 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) on January 20th, 2014. Conclusion The KNOW-KT, the first large-scale cohort study in Asian KT patients, is expected to represent the Asian KT population and provide information on their natural course, complications, and risk factors for complications.

2014-01-01

283

Obstetric Complications in Adults with ADHD: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstetric complications have been associated with a number of mental disorders. In this study, we investigate how obstetric\\u000a complications relate with clinically significant determinants of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such\\u000a as gender, age of diagnosis, psychiatric co morbidity, severity of symptomatology and general functioning. Presence of obstetric\\u000a complications as reported in the psychiatric history of 64 patients in

Marios Adamou; Anna Russell; Parmjt Sanghera

284

Metrics for covariate balance in cohort studies of causal effects.  

PubMed

Inferring causation from non-randomized studies of exposure requires that exposure groups can be balanced with respect to prognostic factors for the outcome. Although there is broad agreement in the literature that balance should be checked, there is confusion regarding the appropriate metric. We present a simulation study that compares several balance metrics with respect to the strength of their association with bias in estimation of the effect of a binary exposure on a binary, count, or continuous outcome. The simulations utilize matching on the propensity score with successively decreasing calipers to produce datasets with varying covariate balance. We propose the post-matching C-statistic as a balance metric and found that it had consistently strong associations with estimation bias, even when the propensity score model was misspecified, as long as the propensity score was estimated with sufficient study size. This metric, along with the average standardized difference and the general weighted difference, outperformed all other metrics considered in association with bias, including the unstandardized absolute difference, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Lévy distances, overlapping coefficient, Mahalanobis balance, and L1 metrics. Of the best-performing metrics, the C-statistic and general weighted difference also have the advantage that they automatically evaluate balance on all covariates simultaneously and can easily incorporate balance on interactions among covariates. Therefore, when combined with the usual practice of comparing individual covariate means and standard deviations across exposure groups, these metrics may provide useful summaries of the observed covariate imbalance. PMID:24323618

Franklin, Jessica M; Rassen, Jeremy A; Ackermann, Diana; Bartels, Dorothee B; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2014-05-10

285

Sense of coherence and diabetes: A prospective occupational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Sense of coherence (SOC) is an individual characteristic related to a positive life orientation leading to effective coping. A weak SOC has been associated with indicators of general morbidity and mortality. However, the relationship between SOC and diabetes has not been studied in prospective design. The present study prospectively examined the relationship between a weak SOC and the incidence of diabetes. Methods The relationship between a weak SOC and the incidence of diabetes was investigated among 5827 Finnish male employees aged 18–65 at baseline (1986). SOC was measured by questionnaire survey at baseline. Data on prescription diabetes drugs from 1987 to 2004 were obtained from the Drug Imbursement Register held by the Social Insurance Institution. Results During the follow-up, 313 cases of diabetes were recorded. A weak SOC was associated with a 46% higher risk of diabetes in participants who had been =<50 years of age on entry into the study. This association was independent of age, education, marital status, psychological distress, self-rated health, smoking status, binge drinking and physical activity. No similar association was observed in older employees. Conclusion The results suggest that besides focusing on well-known risk factors for diabetes, strengthening SOC in employees of =<50 years of age can also play a role in attempts to tackle increasing rates of diabetes.

Kouvonen, Anne M; Vaananen, Ari; Woods, Stephen A; Heponiemi, Tarja; Koskinen, Aki; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla

2008-01-01

286

Cohort mortality study of Seattle fire fighters: 1945-1983  

SciTech Connect

Fire fighters are known to be occupationally exposed to many toxic substances. However, the limited number of previous studies has not demonstrated any consistent excess mortality from diseases of a priori concern, such as lung cancer, non-malignant respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. We studied 2,289 Seattle fire fighters from 1945 through 1983, and observed 383 deaths. Excess mortality from leukemia (SMR = 503, n = 3) and multiple myeloma (SMR = 989, n = 2) was observed among fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty. Lung cancer mortality was elevated (SMR = 177, n = 18) among fire fighters 65 years old or older. We also analyzed the data by considering fire fighters at risk only after 30 years from first exposure. In this analysis, a trend of increasing risk with increasing exposure was observed for diseases of the circulatory system. For this cause of death, fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty had a relative risk of 1.84 compared to those with less than 15 years of fire combat duty.

Heyer, N.; Weiss, N.S.; Demers, P.; Rosenstock, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1990-01-01

287

Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS).  

PubMed

The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics-income and wealth; health, cognition and use of healthcare services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran's Administration, the National Death Index and employer-provided pension plan information. Since 2006, data collection has expanded to include biomarkers and genetics as well as much greater depth in psychology and social context. This blend of economic, health and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about ageing and retirement. The HRS has been a leading force for rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data-public, sensitive and restricted-can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu). PMID:24671021

Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Langa, Kenneth M; Phillips, John W R; Weir, David R

2014-04-01

288

HCMV infection in renal transplant recipients: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Human Cytomegalovirus (HCMV) represents the most common viral complication affecting solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) and its management is still debated. This study analyzes the association between HCMV infection and renal transplant recipients' outcomes. From January 2008 through December 2009, 97 consecutive renal transplant recipients were retrospectively studied. HCMV disease prevention was pursued by pre-emptive therapy, reserving long-term prophylaxis for high-risk patients. A total of 32/97 patients (32.9%) developed HCMV positivity in blood for a cumulative estimated proportion at 3 months post-transplantation of 0.21. HCMV disease developed in 7 patients (7.2%), while 25 patients had asymptomatic infection (25.7%). No patient died from HCMV. HCMV disease, older graft age and post-transplant renal dysfunction were independent predictors of rejection while HCMV infection without disease was associated with a higher number of other complications. The use of basiliximab was independently associated with a reduced hazard of HCMV infection/ disease. In renal transplant recipients HCMV infection still represents a major issue influencing the outcome, not only because of the potential to develop the disease and its link to graft rejection, but also in terms of higher number of complications. The choice of different immunosuppressive strategies might be associated with HCMV replication. PMID:24177298

Puttini, Camilla; Carmellini, Mario; Garosi, Guido; Rossetti, Barbara; Riccio, Maria Letizia; Tordini, Giacinta; Cusi, Maria Grazia; De Luca, Andrea; Zanelli, Giacomo

2013-10-01

289

Autonomic Function following Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Autonomic dysfunction after chronic low level exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has been consistently reported in the literature, but not following a single acute overdose. In order to study autonomic function after an acute OP overdose, sixty-six overdose patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Assessment of autonomic function was done by heart rate response to standing, deep breathing (HR-DB) and Valsalva manoeuvre; blood pressure (BP) response to standing and sustained hand grip; amplitude and latency of sympathetic skin response (SSR); pupil size and post-void urine volume. The patients were assessed one and six weeks after the exposure. The number of patients who showed abnormal autonomic function compared to standard cut-off values did not show statistically significantly difference from that of controls by Chi-Square test. When compared to the controls at one week the only significant differences consistent with autonomic dysfunction were change of diastolic BP 3 min after standing, HR-DB, SSR-Amplitude, SSR-Latency, post-void urine volume and size of the pupil. At 6 weeks significant recovery of autonomic function was observed and only HR-DB was decreased to a minor degree, ?5 beats/min [95%CI 2–8]. This study provides good evidence for the lack of long term autonomic dysfunction following acute exposure to OP pesticides.

Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.

2012-01-01

290

Airway reactivity in welders: a controlled prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

In a 3-year survey, respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and methacholine reactivity were measured annually in welders (n = 51) and non-welder controls subjects (n = 54) to determine whether welding-related symptoms are associated with accelerated decline in lung function or changes in airway reactivity. In the cross-workshift study, maximal midexpiratory flow rate declined reversibly during a welding day, whereas 1-second forced expiratory volume and forced-vital capacity were unchanged. In the longitudinal study, the welders had significantly more reversible work-related symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheeze, and chest tightness than the non-welder shipyard control subjects. In this group of actively working welders, across-workshift changes in midflow and reversible symptoms were related to the welding occupation, but evidence for chronic irreversible effects on spirometry or airway reactivity was not seen over the 3 years of observation. The short period of observation was not optimal for detecting a chronic effect on lung function. Work practices and engineering controls may be successfully preventing irreversible respiratory effects, but not mild reversible effects, in this group of welders. PMID:8978514

Beckett, W S; Pace, P E; Sferlazza, S J; Perlman, G D; Chen, A H; Xu, X P

1996-12-01

291

The effect of dairy foods on CHD: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

There is interest in the degree to which fats in dairy foods contribute to CHD. We undertook a systematic review to investigate the effect of dairy consumption on CHD using prospective cohort studies. A systematic search of electronic databases identified studies relating dairy food intake in adulthood to episodes or death from CHD, IHD and myocardial infarction. Included studies were assessed for quality based on study methodology, validity of dietary assessment, success of follow-up, standardised assessment of CHD, IHD or myocardial infarction end points and appropriateness of statistical adjustment. Data from twelve cohorts involving >280,000 subjects were included. Most studies had follow-up of >80 %, adjusted statistically for three or more confounders and used standard criteria to determine end points. About half the studies used a validated FFQ, administered the FFQ more than once or had follow-up of >20 years. Fewer than half the studies involved subjects representative of the general population. Four of the twelve cohorts found no association between dairy intake and CHD. Eight studies reported varying relationships between different dairy foods and CHD or differential associations based on race, sex or over time. Although dairy foods contribute to the SFA composition of the diet, this systematic review could find no consistent evidence that dairy food consumption is associated with a higher risk of CHD. This could be due to the limited sensitivity of the dietary assessment methods to detect an effect of a single food in a mixed diet on complex clinical outcomes. PMID:19682399

Gibson, Robert A; Makrides, Maria; Smithers, Lisa G; Voevodin, Melanie; Sinclair, Andrew J

2009-11-01

292

Nickel-exposed workers in China: a cohort study.  

PubMed

There are more than 50 000 workers in Jinchuan Group Co, Ltd (JNMC). Since all staff in JNMC are eligible for a medical examination every two years, only 23 484 nickel-exposed subjects who participated in medical examination were included in this study. Their data, collected from June 22, 2011 to September 28, 2012, in a comprehensive epidemiological survey and during medical examinations, permitted an extensive evaluation of the relation between metal exposure, gene, epigenetics and risk of human diseases. Their lifestyle investigation showed that the overall prevalence of current smokers, alcohol drinkers, and tea drinkers was 39.1%, 19.7%, and 55.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, allergic rhinitis and cholecystitis , the top 3 prevalent diseases, was 11.7%, 11.0%, and 8.9%, respectively. PMID:24709102

Bai, Ya Na; Yagn, Ai Min; Pu, Hong Quan; He, Jie; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Tong Zhang; Dai, Min; Zhang, Ya Wei; Bassing, Bryan A; Wang, Qiu Ying

2014-03-01

293

Physiologic effects of rhythmical massage: a prospective exploratory cohort study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective: This study was performed to characterize the physiologic effects of rhythmical massage (RM), an anthroposophic therapy whose effectiveness is supported by empirical observations and a prospective observational study. Methods: Patients referred to RM at the Paracelsus Hospital Richterswil for any indication were continuously enrolled. They received an average of 10 RM sessions, which included not only the massage but also therapeutic rest in the supine position immediately thereafter. Effects of RM on surface temperature and on heart rate variability (HRV) were determined with infrared imaging (IRI) and electrocardiography (ECG), respectively. IRI of the patients' dorsal region was performed without clothes, in standing position, at the start and at the end of two waiting periods before and after RM. ECG was performed from the beginning of the first waiting period until the end of the second one. Results: Results on IRI from 9 and ECG from 11 patients could be analyzed. RM led to an immediate increase in dorsal temperature. Furthermore, comparison of the IRI images for consecutive RM sessions showed a tendency toward improved warmth distribution as a progressive therapy effect. Analysis of the EGC results recorded during the waiting periods-in the sitting position--showed a significant increase of HRV after RM, as detected by the standard deviation of the beat-to-beat periods and a relative increase of low-frequency power. During the course of the RM sessions, the change in HRV during the therapeutic rest period depended on the initial value: Low initial values were enhanced, whereas high ones were reduced. Conclusions: RM led to an immediate increase in the patient's dorsal surface temperature, as well as increased HRV and sympathetic stimulation. In the long term, RM resulted in a progressive improvement of warmth distribution and regulation of the resting HRV. PMID:23700977

Wälchli, Chantal; Saltzwedel, Georg; Krüerke, Daniel; Kaufmann, Christoph; Schnorr, Bettina; Rist, Lukas; Eberhard, Jutta; Decker, Michael; Simões-Wüst, Ana Paula

2014-06-01

294

Radon and risk of extrapulmonary cancers: results of the German uranium miners' cohort study, 1960–2003  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data from the German miners' cohort study were analysed to investigate whether radon in ambient air causes cancers other than lung cancer. The cohort includes 58 987 men who were employed for at least 6 months from 1946 to 1989 at the former Wismut uranium mining company in Eastern Germany. A total of 20 684 deaths were observed in the

M Kreuzer; L Walsh; M Schnelzer; A Tschense; B Grosche

2008-01-01

295

Unique features of HLA-mediated HIV evolution in a Mexican cohort: a comparative study  

PubMed Central

Background Mounting evidence indicates that HLA-mediated HIV evolution follows highly stereotypic pathways that result in HLA-associated footprints in HIV at the population level. However, it is not known whether characteristic HLA frequency distributions in different populations have resulted in additional unique footprints. Methods The phylogenetic dependency network model was applied to assess HLA-mediated evolution in datasets of HIV pol sequences from free plasma viruses and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC)-integrated proviruses in an immunogenetically unique cohort of Mexican individuals. Our data were compared with data from the IHAC cohort, a large multi-center cohort of individuals from Canada, Australia and the USA. Results Forty three different HLA-HIV codon associations representing 30 HLA-HIV codon pairs were observed in the Mexican cohort (q < 0.2). Strikingly, 23 (53%) of these associations differed from those observed in the well-powered IHAC cohort, strongly suggesting the existence of unique characteristics in HLA-mediated HIV evolution in the Mexican cohort. Furthermore, 17 of the 23 novel associations involved HLA alleles whose frequencies were not significantly different from those in IHAC, suggesting that their detection was not due to increased statistical power but to differences in patterns of epitope targeting. Interestingly, the consensus differed in four positions between the two cohorts and three of these positions could be explained by HLA-associated selection. Additionally, different HLA-HIV codon associations were seen when comparing HLA-mediated selection in plasma viruses and PBMC archived proviruses at the population level, with a significantly lower number of associations in the proviral dataset. Conclusion Our data support universal HLA-mediated HIV evolution at the population level, resulting in detectable HLA-associated footprints in the circulating virus. However, it also strongly suggests that unique genetic backgrounds in different HIV-infected populations may influence HIV evolution in a particular direction as particular HLA-HIV codon associations are determined by specific HLA frequency distributions. Our analysis also suggests a dynamic HLA-associated evolution in HIV with fewer HLA-HIV codon associations observed in the proviral compartment, which is likely enriched in early archived HIV sequences, compared to the plasma virus compartment. These results highlight the importance of comparative HIV evolutionary studies in immunologically different populations worldwide.

Avila-Rios, Santiago; Ormsby, Christopher E; Carlson, Jonathan M; Valenzuela-Ponce, Humberto; Blanco-Heredia, Juan; Garrido-Rodriguez, Daniela; Garcia-Morales, Claudia; Heckerman, David; Brumme, Zabrina L; Mallal, Simon; John, Mina; Espinosa, Enrique; Reyes-Teran, Gustavo

2009-01-01

296

Restless legs syndrome and all-cause mortality in four prospective cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and all-cause mortality. Design Four prospective cohort studies. Setting The Dortmund Health Study (DHS) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) from Germany. The Women's Health Study (WHS) and the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) from the USA. Participants In DHS: a random sample (n=1?299) from the population of Dortmund; in SHIP: a sample (n=4?291) from residents living in West Pomerania were drawn by multistage random sampling design; in WHS: female healthcare professionals (n=31?370); in PHS: male physicians (n=22?926) Main outcome measures All-cause mortality. Results The prevalence of RLS ranged between 7.4% and 11.9% at baseline. During follow-up (ranging between 6 and 11?years) RLS was not associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in any of the four cohorts. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality ranged from 0.21 (0.03 to 1.53) to 1.07 (0.93 to 1.23) across the four studies. The HRs for all-cause mortality did not differ according to gender. Conclusions In these four independently conducted large prospective cohort studies from Germany and the USA, RLS did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the hypothesis that RLS is a risk factor for mortality of any cause.

Szentkiralyi, Andras; Winter, Anke C; Schurks, Markus; Volzke, Henry; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; E Buring, Julie; Gaziano, J Michael; Kurth, Tobias; Berger, Klaus

2012-01-01

297

A case-cohort study of human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer in Tobago  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported a cross-sectional association between the presence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) serum antibodies and screen-detected prostate cancer in men living in Tobago. In the same study population, we examined the association between HHV-8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer discovered at later screenings. Methods In 40-81 year-old men without prostate cancer discovered at initial digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, a case-cohort design measured the association between baseline HHV-8 seropositivity (modified immunofluorescence assay for antibodies against HHV-8 lytic antigens) and incident prostate cancer detected at DRE and PSA screenings three or five years later. Results Analyses included 486 unique individuals, 96 incident prostate cancer cases, and 415 randomly selected subjects representing an at-risk cohort. By design, the random sub-cohort contained 25 incident prostate cancer cases. In the sub-cohort, the frequency of HHV-8 seropositivity increased across age groupings (40-49 years: 3.5%, 50-59 years: 13.6%, and ? 60 years: 22.9%). HHV-8 seropositivity was higher in men with elevated (? 4.0 ng/mL) than men with non-elevated PSA at initial screening (30.4% vs. 9.9% seropositive; crude odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-10.2; age-adjusted OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.91-6.47). HHV-8 seropositivity did not increase incident prostate cancer risk (age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.46-1.69). Conclusions Case-cohort analysis did not identify association between HHV-8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer. However, analyses uncovered possible association between HHV-8 and PSA (a marker of prostate inflammation). Co-occurrence of HHV-8 seropositivity and PSA elevation may explain cross-sectional association between HHV-8 and PSA screen-detected prostate cancer.

2011-01-01

298

Choice of time-scale in Cox's model analysis of epidemiologic cohort data: a simulation study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SUMMARY Cox's regression model is widely used for assessing associations between potential risk factors and disease occurrence in epidemiologic cohort studies. Although age is often a strong determinant of disease risk, authors have frequently used time-on-study instead of age as the time-scale, as for clinical trials. Unless the baseline hazard is an exponential function of age, this approach can yield

Anne C. M. Thiebaut; Jacques Benichou

299

Retrospective cohort study of risk-factors for esophageal cancer in Linxian, People's Republic of China  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective cohort study of esophageal (including gastric cardia) cancer was conducted to examine dietary and other potential risk factors in Linxian, a high-risk area in P.R. China. Study subjects were identified based on participation in a cytology examination conducted in 1974. They were interviewed in 1989 to obtain information on esophageal cancer risk-factors and identify new cases and deaths.

Yu Yu; Philip R. Taylor; Jun-Yao Li; Sanford M. Dawsey; Guo-Qing Wang; Wan-De Guo; Wen Wang; Bo-Qi Liu; William J. Blot; Qiong Shen; Bing Li

1993-01-01

300

Body mass index in early and mid-adulthood, and subsequent mortality: a historical cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the associations between body mass index (BMI) in early and mid-adulthood, and BMI change between these ages, and mortality.METHODS: Historical cohort study of 629 men, who had height and weight measured at the Student Health Service of the University of Glasgow in 1948–1949 (median age 22 y) and who reported their

M Jeffreys; P McCarron; D Gunnell; J McEwen; G Davey Smith

2003-01-01

301

Green tea consumption and gastric cancer in Japanese: a pooled analysis of six cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Previous experimental studies have suggested many possible anti-cancer mechanisms for green tea, but epidemiological evidence for the effect of green tea consumption on gastric cancer risk is conflicting.Objective:To examine the association between green tea consumption and gastric cancer.Methods:We analysed original data from six cohort studies that measured green tea consumption using validated questionnaires at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) in the

M Inoue; S Sasazuki; K Wakai; T Suzuki; K Matsuo; T Shimazu; I Tsuji; K Tanaka; T Mizoue; C Nagata; A Tamakoshi; N Sawada; S Tsugane

2009-01-01

302

Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine, using longitudinal analyses, if retirement is followed by a change in the risk of incident chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, and fatigue.Design Prospective study with repeat measures from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement.Setting Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007.Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women.Main outcome measures Respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease

Hugo Westerlund; Jussi Vahtera; Jane E Ferrie; Archana Singh-Manoux; Jaana Pentti; Maria Melchior; Constanze Leineweber; Markus Jokela; Johannes Siegrist; Marcel Goldberg; Marie Zins; Mika Kivimäki

2010-01-01

303

Influenza vaccination and mortality: prospective cohort study of the elderly in a large geographical area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 50% reduced overall mortality previously associated with influenza vaccination among the elderly was based on studies neither fully taking into account systematic differences between individuals who accept or decline vaccination nor encompassing the entire general population. A population-based prospective cohort study was performed in Stockholm County (Sweden), including all persons aged o65 yrs (n5,260,000), over three influenza seasons: 1998\\/1999,

A. Ortqvist; F. Granath; J. Askling; J. Hedlund

2007-01-01

304

Diabetes mellitus and breast cancer: a retrospective population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SummaryPurpose  Evidence suggests that women with type 2 diabetes may be at increased risk of breast cancer, possibly due to chronic exposure to insulin resistance and\\/or hyperinsulinemia. The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with and without diabetes.Methods  Using population-based validated health databases from Ontario, Canada, this retrospective cohort study compared breast cancer

Lorraine L. Lipscombe; Pamela J. Goodwin; Bernard Zinman; John R. McLaughlin; Janet E. Hux

2006-01-01

305

Psychosocial work environment and risk of ischaemic heart disease in women: the Danish Nurse Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate the effect of work pressure and job influence on the development of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) in women.MethodsThe effect of work pressure and job influence on the 15-year incidence of IHD in women participating in the Danish Nurse Cohort Study was prospectively studied. A total of 12 116 participants, aged 45–64 years, were examined in 1993 using a

Karen Allesøe; Yrsa Andersen Hundrup; Jane Frølund Thomsen; Merete Osler

2010-01-01

306

Population dynamics of wandering albatross Diomedea exulans and Amsterdam albatross D. amsterdamensis in the Indian Ocean and their relationships with long-line fisheries: Conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies carried out over the past three decades at Crozet and Kerguelen Islands in the Indian Ocean indicate that wandering albatross Diomedea exulans populations declined markedly, but since 1986 have shown slow recovery. The population of the endangered Amsterdam albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis appears to have similarly recovered since 1985, but remains close to extinction. A demographic study of the Crozet

Henri Weimerskirch; Nigel Brothers; P. Jouventin

1997-01-01

307

Mortality among shipyard Coast Guard workers: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The mortality experience of 4702 (4413 men and 289 women) civilian workers in a US Coast Guard shipyard was evaluated. Methods All workers employed at the shipyard between 1 January 1950 and 31 December 1964 were included in the study and were followed through 31 December 2001 for vital status. Detailed shipyard and lifetime work histories found in the shipyard personnel records and job descriptions were evaluated. Workers were classified as likely exposed to any potential hazardous substances. In addition, 20 job groups were created on likely similar exposures. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on the general population of the state and adjusted for age, calendar period, sex and race. Results The follow?up was successful for 93.3% of the workers. Among all men employed in the shipyard, there was an excess of mortality from all causes of death (SMR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12), respiratory cancers (SMR 1.29; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.43), lung cancer (SMR 1.26; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.41), mesothelioma (SMR 5.07; 95% CI 1.85 to 11.03) and emphysema (SMR 1.44; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.99) and a decrease for cardiovascular diseases (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00), vascular lesions of the central nervous system (SMR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 0.38; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57) and external causes of death (SMR 0.55; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.68). A similar pattern was observed for the men classified as exposed. No increasing trend of mortality was found with duration of employment in the shipyard, with the exception of mesothelioma (SMRs of 4.23 and 6.27 for <10 years and ?10 years, respectively). In occupations with at least three cases and with an SMR of ?1.3, the authors observed a significantly elevated mortality for lung cancer among machinists (SMR 1.60; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.29) and shipfitters, welders and cutters (SMR 1.34; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.65) and for oral and nasopharyngeal cancers among wood workers (SMR 6.20; 95% CI 2.27 to 13.50). Conclusion Employment in this Coast Guard shipyard revealed a small but significant excess mortality from all causes, lung cancer and mesothelioma, most of which is probably related to asbestos exposure.

Krstev, S; Stewart, P; Rusiecki, J; Blair, A

2007-01-01

308

Evaluation of quality control procedures in an oesophageal cancer cohort study in Anyang, China.  

PubMed

We wished to evaluate the efficiency of internal quality control procedures of a cohort study investigating human papilloma virus (HPV) infection as a key exposure factor in oesophageal cancer in Anyang, China. This was done by testing 2395 environmental/equipment swab and mock quality control samples from 14 loci on sample collection equipment for human ?-globin and HPV DNA. Human ?-globin was present in 3.88% of these samples but no HPV DNA was detected. There was no evidence of HPV DNA contamination in the sample collection or processing under the rigorous quality control in our ongoing cohort study. The study results indicated that use of disposable appliances, rigorous environmental cleaning and a high standard of sterilisation of reusable instruments are important in contamination prevention. PMID:20708302

He, Z; Chen, K; Liu, Y; Sun, M; Liu, F; Cai, H; Ke, Y

2010-12-01

309

Design and Analysis of the Community Youth Development Study Longitudinal Cohort Sample  

PubMed Central

Communities That Care (CTC) is a prevention system designed to reduce adolescent substance use and delinquency through the selection of effective preventive interventions tailored to a community’s specific profile of risk and protection. A community-randomized trial of CTC, the Community Youth Development Study, is currently being conducted in 24 communities across the United States. This paper describes the rationale, multilevel analyses, and baseline comparability for the study’s longitudinal cohort design. The cohort sample consists of 4,407 fifth- and sixth-grade students recruited in 2004 and 2005, and surveyed annually through ninth grade. Results of mixed-model ANOVAs indicated that students in CTC and control communities exhibited no significant differences (ps > .05) in baseline levels of student outcomes.

Brown, Eric C.; Graham, John W.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.; Baldwin, Megan M.; Oesterle, Sabrina; Briney, John S.; Catalano, Richard F.; Abbott, Robert D.

2009-01-01

310

Cohort profile: Steps to the healthy development and well-being of children (the STEPS Study).  

PubMed

The STEPS Study aims to search for the precursors and causes of problems in child health and well-being by using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort consists of all mothers (Finnish or Swedish speaking) who had live deliveries in the Hospital District of Southwest Finland from January 2008 to April 2010 and their children (n=9811 mothers, n=9936 children). Of these, 1797 mothers and their 1827 children were recruited to an intensive follow-up group during the first trimester of pregnancy or soon after delivery. Information about the whole study cohort is based on pregnancy follow-up data from maternity clinics, National Longitudinal Census Files and child welfare clinics. Data from multiple sources are used to obtain a picture of the overall well-being of the child and the family. After birth, study visits include several clinical examinations. Collaboration is encouraged, and access to the data will be available when the data set is complete. PMID:23143610

Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Päivi; Kaljonen, Anne; Räihä, Hannele; Pihlaja, Päivi; Korpilahti, Pirjo; Peltola, Ville; Rautakoski, Pirkko; Österbacka, Eva; Simell, Olli; Niemi, Pekka

2013-10-01

311

Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

2009-01-01

312

Developing and refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): five years of experience.  

PubMed

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pilot study underpinning the TBCS, testing of the TBCS developmental instrument and the resolution of methodological challenges. Bayesian analysis fill in missing data, three-step regression analysis for the investigation of mediating and moderating effect, the use of structural equation modeling in a large scale investigation, investigating direct and indirect effects, confounding factors and reciprocal relationships in children's development, and used latent growth model in longitudinal observations are described. The TBCS will provide ongoing longitudinal information regarding the predisposing and maintaining factors affecting the long term outcome of pediatric illnesses. PMID:21724363

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

313

Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. METHODS: All households in a geographically defined area were

Jennifer C Davis; Tamara D Clark; Sarah K Kemble; Nalugwa Talemwa; Denise Njama-Meya; Sarah G Staedke; Grant Dorsey

2006-01-01

314

Vermiculite, Respiratory Disease, and Asbestos Exposure in Libby, Montana: Update of a Cohort Mortality Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

METHODS: This historical cohort mortality study uses life table analysis methods to compare the age-adjusted mortality experience through 2001 of 1,672 Libby workers to that of white men in the U.S. population. RESULTS: Libby workers were significantly more likely to die from asbestosis (standardized mortality ratio (SMR) = 165.8; 95% confidence interval (CI), 103.9-251.1), lung cancer (SMR = 1.7; 95%

Patricia A. Sullivan

2007-01-01

315

Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein þ zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in

Satu Mannisto; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Hans-Olov Adami; Demetrius Albanes; Brandt van den Piet A; Julie E. Buring; James R. Cerhan; Graham A. Colditz; Jo L. Freudenheim; Charles S. Fuchs; Edward Giovannucci; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Lisa Harnack; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan; Arthur Schatzkin; Jarmo Virtamo; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

2007-01-01

316

Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective To examine whether adherence to the modified Mediterranean diet, in which unsaturates were substituted for monounsaturates, is associated with longer life expectancy among elderly Europeans.Design Multicentre, prospective cohort study.Setting Nine European countries (Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom).Participants 74 607 men and women, aged 60 or more, without coronary heart disease, stroke, or cancer

Antonia Trichopoulou; Philippos Orfanos; Teresa Norat; Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita; Marga C Ocké; Petra HM Peeters; Yvonne T van der Schouw; Heiner Boeing; Kurt Hoffmann; Paolo Boffetta; Gabriele Nagel; Giovanna Masala; Vittorio Krogh; Salvatore Panico; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Christina Bamia; Androniki Naska; Vassiliki Benetou; Pietro Ferrari; Nadia Slimani; Guillem Pera; Carmen Martinez-Garcia; Carmen Navarro; Miguel Rodriguez-Barranco; Miren Dorronsoro; Elizabeth A Spencer; Timothy J Key; Sheila Bingham; Kay-Tee Khaw; Emmanuelle Kesse; Francoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Goran Berglund; Elisabet Wirfalt; Goran Hallmans; Ingegerd Johansson; Anne Tjonneland; Anja Olsen; Kim Overvad; Heidi H Hundborg; Elio Riboli; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

2005-01-01

317

Mothers, places and small for gestational age births: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveThis study examines whether neighbourhood deprivation increases the risk of giving birth to a small for gestational age (SGA) infant, after accounting for individual-level maternal socioeconomic characteristics.DesignAn open cohort of women, aged 20–44 years, was followed from 1 January 1992 through 31 December 2004 for first singleton births. The women's residential addresses during the two consecutive years preceding the birth

Jan Sundquist; Kristina Sundquist; Sven-Erik Johansson; Xinjun Li; Marilyn Winkleby

2011-01-01

318

Patient, hospital, and general practitioner characteristics associated with non-attendance: a cohort study.  

PubMed

Studies examining characteristics of non-attendance at hospital outpatients have given inconsistent results. We examined a cohort of 1972 referrals from 26 general practitioners, with complete follow-up. Five factors were found to be significantly associated with non-attendance: male sex, younger age, longer interval between referral and appointment, higher Jarman score and patients of a high-referring general practitioner. Targeting of strategies to reduce non-attendance is possible using these results. PMID:11942451

Hamilton, William; Round, Alison; Sharp, Deborah

2002-04-01

319

Efficacy of statins in familial hypercholesterolaemia: a long term cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the efficacy of statin treatment on risk of coronary heart disease in patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia.Design Cohort study with a mean follow-up of 8.5 years.Setting 27 outpatient lipid clinics.Subjects 2146 patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia without prevalent coronary heart disease before 1 January 1990.Main outcome measures Risk of coronary heart disease in treated and “untreated” (delay in starting

Jorie Versmissen; Daniëlla M Oosterveer; Mojgan Yazdanpanah; Joep C Defesche; Dick C G Basart; Anho H Liem; Jan Heeringa; Jacqueline C Witteman; Peter J Lansberg; John J P Kastelein; Eric J G Sijbrands

2008-01-01

320

Factors associated with mortality and functional disability after hip fracture: an inception cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hip fracture results in excess mortality and functional disability. This study sought to identify predictors of mortality and limited functional ability 1 year after hip fracture. We conducted a 1-year follow-up of a prospective population-based inception cohort of 218 hip fracture patients who had been consecutively admitted and discharged from hospital during the previous year. Mortality was observed to be independently

Javier Alegre-López; José Cordero-Guevara; José L. Alonso-Valdivielso; Julia Fernández-Melón

2005-01-01

321

Calcium and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of intakes of calcium and vitamin D with colorectal cancer risk were examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (Hawaii and Los Angeles, California). In 1993-1996, 85,903 men and 105,108 women aged ? 45 years completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 2,110 incident cases of colorectal cancer (1,138 in men and 972 in women) were identified

Song-Yi Park; Suzanne P. Murphy; Lynne R. Wilkens; Abraham M. Y. Nomura; Brian E. Henderson; Laurence N. Kolonel

2007-01-01

322

Exposure to Nonsteroidal Antiinflammatory Drugs During Pregnancy and Risk of Miscarriage: Population-Based Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate whether prenatal use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) is associated with increased risk of miscarriage. Design Population based cohort study. Prenatal use of NSAIDs, aspirin, and paracetamol (acetaminophen) ascertained by in-person interview. Setting Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, a healthcare delivery system, in the San Francisco area of the United States. Participants 1055 pregnant women recruited and

De-Kun Li; Liyan Liu; Roxana Odouli

2004-01-01

323

Association between hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatitis B (HBV) infection are two major public health problems in China. There are few studies about their association, and the results of these studies are contradictory. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the association between MS and HBV in a Shanghai community-based cohort. Methods Nine hundred seventy-six Shanghai residents were recruited from the Putuo community. 480 HBV infections were in exposed group and 496 non-infections in unexposed group. All metabolic-related parameters and hepatitis B serology were tested with routine biochemical or immunological methods. “Exposed” was defined by HBV infection represented by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and without anti-virus treatment. “Unexposed” were subjects who didn’t infect with HBV (Represented by HBsAg) and no MS when they entered the cohort. MS was defined based on the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and related 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between HBV infection and MS over a 20-year follow-up period. Results Of 976 subjects recruited, 480 had latent HBV infection (exposed subjects). After adjusting for age, the crude HR was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.41). After adjusting for potential risk factors of MS (age, gender, smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet), the HR was 2.27 (95% CI: 1.52, 3.38). Conclusions This 20-year follow-up retrospective cohort study in Shanghai showed a positive association between HBV infection and MS.

2014-01-01

324

Increased hospitalization for hemorrhages in patients taking amiodarone with warfarin: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND\\u000aAmiodarone is believed to inhibit the hepatic metabolism of warfarin, potentiating its hypoprothrombinemic effect and increasing the risk of hemorrhage. The consequences of this drug interaction on important clinical outcomes are unknown.\\u000aMETHODOLOGY\\u000aUsing linked health administrative databases, we conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study among Ontario residents aged 66 years or older who had been treated with warfarin

Jason Lam

2011-01-01

325

Readmission Rates of Patients Discharged against Medical Advice: A Matched Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe compared the readmission rates and the pattern of readmission among patients discharged against medical advice (AMA) to control patients discharged with approval over a one-year follow-up period.MethodsA retrospective matched-cohort study of 656 patients(328 were discharged AMA) who were followed for one year after their initial hospitalization at an urban university-affiliated teaching hospital in Vancouver, Canada that serves a population

Mark Choi; Haerin Kim; Hong Qian; Anita Palepu; Jerson Laks

2011-01-01

326

Electronic alerts for hospitalized high-VTE risk patients not receiving prophylaxis: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Despite existing consensus guidelines, venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis is underused in high-risk hospitalized patients.\\u000a The present study evaluated the effects of an electronic alert to the responsible physician in a cohort of hospitalized high-risk\\u000a patients not receiving VTE prophylaxis. Methods The absence of VTE prophylaxis orders in hospitalized patients at high-risk for VTE triggered an electronic alert to the

Steven Baroletti; Kristin Munz; Jonathan Sonis; John Fanikos; Karen Fiumara; Marilyn Paterno; Samuel Z. Goldhaber

2008-01-01

327

Do Childhood Sleeping Problems Predict Obesity in Young Adulthood? Evidence from a Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that sleeping problems are causally associated with obesity in early life, but most studies examining this association have been cross-sectional. The authors used a population-based birth cohort of 2,494 children who were born between 1981 and 1983 in Brisbane, Australia, to examine the prospective association between early-life sleeping problems (at ages 6 months and 2-4 years)

Abdullah Al Mamun; Debbie A. Lawlor; Susanna Cramb; Michael O'Callaghan; Gail Williams; Jake Najman

2007-01-01

328

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Cannabis Use in Early Adulthood: Findings from an Australian Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The impact of CSA on young\\u000a adults’ use of cannabis remains under-studied. We examined the extent to which exposure to CSA was associated with increased\\u000a rates of use of cannabis in early adulthood in a birth cohort of 3,285 Australian children followed-up to the

Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Jake M. Najman; Konrad Jamrozik; Abdullah A. Mamun; Michael J. O’Callaghan; Gail M. Williams

2009-01-01

329

Cosmic radiation and cancer mortality among airline pilots: results from a European cohort study (ESCAPE)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cosmic radiation is an occupational risk factor for commercial aircrews. In this large European cohort study (ESCAPE) its association with cancer mortality was investigated on the basis of individual effective dose estimates for 19,184 male pilots. Mean annual doses were in the range of 2–5 mSv and cumulative lifetime doses did not exceed 80 mSv. All-cause and all-cancer mortality was low for

I. Langner; M. Blettner; M. Gundestrup; H. Storm; R. Aspholm; A. Auvinen; E. Pukkala; G. P. Hammer; H. Zeeb; J. Hrafnkelsson; V. Rafnsson; H. Tulinius; G. De Angelis; A. Verdecchia; T. Haldorsen; U. Tveten; N. Hammar; A. Linnersjö

2004-01-01

330

Gestational Weight Gain and Body Mass Index in Children: Results from Three German Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionPrevious studies suggested potential priming effects of gestational weight gain (GWG) on offspring’s body composition in later life. However, consistency of these effects in normal weight, overweight and obese mothers is less clear.MethodsWe combined the individual data of three German cohorts and assessed associations of total and excessive GWG (as defined by criteria of the Institute of Medicine) with offspring’s

Andreas Beyerlein; Ina Nehring; Peter Rzehak; Joachim Heinrich; Manfred J. Müller; Sandra Plachta-Danielzik; Martin Wabitsch; Melanie Weck; Hermann Brenner; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Rüdiger von Kries

2012-01-01

331

Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years.Design Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data.Setting 40 primary care practices in Scotland.Participants 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease,

Brian S Buckley; Colin R Simpson; David J McLernon; Andrew W Murphy; Philip C Hannaford

2009-01-01

332

Peripheral blood culture contamination in adults and venepuncture technique: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims:To test the hypothesis that compliance with a hospital protocol on peripheral blood culture (PBC) collection in adults is associated with a reduction in PBC contamination, and to investigate likely contributing factors for contamination.Methods:A prospective cohort study was conducted, utilising data collection by participant questionnaire completion, and utilising bacteriology laboratory results on PBCs. Participants were all healthcare workers involved in

A Qamruddin; N Khanna; D Orr

2008-01-01

333

Validation of de-identified record linkage to ascertain hospital admissions in a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Cohort studies can provide valuable evidence of cause and effect relationships but are subject to loss of participants over time, limiting the validity of findings. Computerised record linkage offers a passive and ongoing method of obtaining health outcomes from existing routinely collected data sources. However, the quality of record linkage is reliant upon the availability and accuracy of common identifying variables. We sought to develop and validate a method for linking a cohort study to a state-wide hospital admissions dataset with limited availability of unique identifying variables. Methods A sample of 2000 participants from a cohort study (n = 41 514) was linked to a state-wide hospitalisations dataset in Victoria, Australia using the national health insurance (Medicare) number and demographic data as identifying variables. Availability of the health insurance number was limited in both datasets; therefore linkage was undertaken both with and without use of this number and agreement tested between both algorithms. Sensitivity was calculated for a sub-sample of 101 participants with a hospital admission confirmed by medical record review. Results Of the 2000 study participants, 85% were found to have a record in the hospitalisations dataset when the national health insurance number and sex were used as linkage variables and 92% when demographic details only were used. When agreement between the two methods was tested the disagreement fraction was 9%, mainly due to "false positive" links when demographic details only were used. A final algorithm that used multiple combinations of identifying variables resulted in a match proportion of 87%. Sensitivity of this final linkage was 95%. Conclusions High quality record linkage of cohort data with a hospitalisations dataset that has limited identifiers can be achieved using combinations of a national health insurance number and demographic data as identifying variables.

2011-01-01

334

Incidence of disease after vasectomy: a record linkage retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether vasectomy is associated with an increased risk of several diseases, and in particular testicular cancer, after operation. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study using linked medical record abstracts. SETTING--Six health districts in Oxford region. SUBJECTS--13,246 men aged 25-49 years who had undergone vasectomy between 1970 and 1986, and 22,196 comparison subjects who had been admitted during the same period for

H. Nienhuis; M. Goldacre; V. Seagroatt; L. Gill; M. Vessey

1992-01-01

335

Factors Affecting the Severity of Injuries Among Young Motorcyclists—A Swedish Nationwide Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine factors affecting the severity of motorcycle injuries, considering variables related to the individual, the environment, the vehicle, and the crash.Methods. This is a register-based retrospective cohort study. All individuals born in 1970–1972 (n = 334,070) were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 and followed up from 1988 to 2000, when aged 16–30. All

Francesco Zambon; Marie Hasselberg

2006-01-01

336

Adverse cardiovascular events during treatment with pioglitazone and rosiglitazone: population based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the risk of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and death in patients with type 2 diabetes treated with rosiglitazone and pioglitazone.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Ontario, Canada.Participants Outpatients aged 66 years and older who were started on rosiglitazone or pioglitazone between 1 April 2002 and 31 March 2008.Main outcome measure Composite of death or hospital admission for either

David N Juurlink; Tara Gomes; Lorraine L Lipscombe; Peter C Austin; Janet E Hux; Muhammad M Mamdani

2009-01-01

337

Multiple vaccinations, health, and recall bias within UK armed forces deployed to Iraq: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the relation between self reported number of vaccinations received and health, and between numbers of vaccinations recorded from individuals’ medical records and health.Design First phase of a cohort study.Setting UK armed forces personnel.Participants 4882 randomly selected military personnel deployed to Iraq since 2003 and a subset of 378 whose vaccination records were accessed.Main outcome measures Psychological distress,

Dominic Murphy; Matthew Hotopf; Simon Wessely

2008-01-01

338

Hospital admissions for self harm after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the risk of non-fatal self harm in the 12 months after discharge from psychiatric inpatient care.Design Cohort study based on national hospital episode statistics.Setting England.Population Patients aged 16-64 years discharged from psychiatric inpatient care between 1 April 2004 and 31 March 2005 and followed up for one year.Results 75 401 people were discharged from psychiatric inpatient care

David Gunnell; Keith Hawton; Davidson Ho; Jonathan Evans; Susan O’Connor; John Potokar; Jenny Donovan; Nav Kapur

2008-01-01

339

Bruxism is associated with nicotine dependence: a nationwide Finnish twin cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To investigate the association of smoking with bruxism while controlling for genetic and environmental factors using a co-twin-control design. Especially, the role of nicotine dependence was studied in this context. Methods: The material derives from the Finnish Twin Cohort consisting of 12,502 twin individuals who responded to a questionnaire in 1990 (response rate of 77%). All were born in

K. Rintakoski; J. Ahlberg; C. Hublin; C. Broms; P. Madden; M. Könönen; M. Koskenvuo; F. Lobbezoo; J. Kaprio

2010-01-01

340

Seven unique food consumption patterns identified among women in the UK Women’s Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify groups of subjects with similar food consumption patterns so that complex disease–diet relationships can be investigated at the level of the whole diet, rather than just in terms of nutrient intake.Subjects: 33, 971 women in the UK Women’s Cohort Study. 60, 000 women on the World Cancer Research Fund mailing list were initially invited to take part.

DC Greenwood; JE Cade; A Draper; JH Barrett; C Calvert; A Greenhalgh

2000-01-01

341

Early head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the hypothesis that medically attended head injury in young children may be causal in the later development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Health improvement network database (1988-2003), a longitudinal UK general practice dataset.Participants All children registered in the database from birth until their 10th birthday.Main outcome measures Risk of a child with a head

Heather T Keenan; Gillian C Hall; Stephen W Marshall

2008-01-01

342

Statins and Hip Fracture Prevention - A Population Based Cohort Study in Women  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the association of long-term statin use and the risk of low-energy hip fractures in middle-aged and elderly women. Design A register-based cohort study. Setting Finland. Participants Women aged 45–75 years initiating statin therapy between 1996 and 2001 with adherence to statins ?80% during the subsequent five years (n?=?40 254), a respective cohort initiating hypertension drugs (n?=?41 610), and women randomly selected from the population (n?=?62 585). Main Outcome Measures Incidence rate of and hazard ratio (HR) for low-energy hip fracture during the follow-up extending up to 7 years after the 5-year exposure period. Results Altogether 199 low-energy hip fractures occurred during the 135 330 person-years (py) of follow-up in the statin cohort, giving an incidence rate of 1.5 hip fractures per 1000 py. In the hypertension and the population cohorts, the rates were 2.0 per 1000 py (312 fractures per 157 090 py) and 1.0 per 1000 py (212 fractures per 216 329 py), respectively. Adjusting for a propensity score and individual variables strongly predicting the outcome, good adherence to statins for five years was associated with a 29% decreased risk (HR 0.71; 95% CI 0.58–0.86) of a low-energy hip fracture in comparison with adherent use of hypertension drugs. The association was of the same magnitude when comparing the statin users with the population cohort, the HR being 0.69 (0.55–0.87). When women with poor (<40%), moderate (40 to 80%), and good adherence (?80%) to statins were compared to those with good adherence to hypertension drugs (?80%) or to the population cohort, the protective effect associated with statin use attenuated with the decreasing level of adherence. Conclusions 5-year exposure to statins is associated with a reduced risk of low-energy hip fracture in women aged 50–80 years without prior hospitalizations for fractures.

Helin-Salmivaara, Arja; Korhonen, Maarit J.; Lehenkari, Petri; Junnila, Seppo Y. T.; Neuvonen, Pertti J.; Ruokoniemi, Paivi; Huupponen, Risto

2012-01-01

343

Association Between Longer Therapy With Thiazolidinediones and Risk of Bladder Cancer: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione (TZD), may increase the risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the risk of bladder cancer associated with the use of TZDs and between pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, an alternative TZD. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who initiated treatment with a TZD (n = 18 459 patients) or a sulfonylurea (SU) (n = 41 396 patients) between July 1, 2000, and August 31, 2010, using The Health Improvement Network database in the United Kingdom. Incident cancers were identified for 196 708 person-years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of bladder cancer in the TZD cohort compared with the SU cohort (referent), adjusted for potential confounders. Risk associated with increasing duration of drug exposure was also examined. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We identified 60 incident bladder cancers in the TZD cohort and 137 cancers in the SU cohort. No difference in bladder cancer risk was found between the two cohorts (TZD vs SU, HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.29) in analyses that did not account for duration of exposure. However, the risk of bladder cancer was increased among patients with the longest duration of TZD vs SU therapy (?5 years of use, HR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.08 to 9.71) and among those with the longest time since initiation of therapy (?5 years since first use, HR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.12 to 5.77). Risk of bladder cancer also increased with increasing time since initiation of pioglitazone (P trend < .001) and rosiglitazone (P trend = .006). Comparison of pioglitazone to rosiglitazone use did not demonstrate difference in cancer risk (P = .49). Conclusion Long-term TZD therapy (?5 years) in patients with type 2 diabetes may be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, which may be common to all TZDs.

2012-01-01

344

Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100?166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 ?m (PMcoarse), and <10 ?m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 ?g/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 ?g/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values.

2014-01-01

345

Dietary fiber and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: results from 5 large cohort studies.  

PubMed

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fast-progressing neurodegenerative disease with a median survival time from diagnosis of 1.5-3 years. The cause of ALS is unknown, but inflammation may play a role. Fiber has been shown to lower inflammatory markers, and a high fiber intake was associated with a lower risk of ALS in a case-control study; however, prospective studies are lacking. We explored the relation between dietary intake of fiber and the risk of ALS in 5 large prospective cohort studies comprising over 1,050,000 US citizens who contributed 1,133 ALS cases during a mean of 15 years of follow-up (1980-2008). Cox proportional hazards models were used within each cohort, and cohort-specific estimates were subsequently pooled using a random-effects model. We found that intakes of total fiber, cereal fiber, vegetable fiber, and fruit fiber were not associated with ALS risk when comparing the highest quintile of intake with the lowest (for total fiber, pooled multivariable relative risk (RR) = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.80, 1.24; for cereal fiber, RR = 1.13, 95% CI: 0.94, 1.37; for vegetable fiber, RR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.77, 1.23; and for fruit fiber, RR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.86, 1.29). These findings do not support the hypothesis that fiber intake is a major determinant of ALS risk. PMID:24816788

Fondell, Elinor; O'Reilly, Eilis J; Fitzgerald, Kathryn C; Falcone, Guido J; Kolonel, Laurence N; Park, Yikyung; McCullough, Marjorie L; Ascherio, Alberto

2014-06-15

346

Within pair association between birth weight and blood pressure at age 8 in twins from a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To study the association between birth weight and blood pressure in children from multiple pregnancies (multiplets), mostly twins, to determine whether maternal or genetic factors are responsible for the association. Design Cohort study.

Terence Dwyer; Ruth Morley; Louise Ponsonby; Leigh Blizzard

1999-01-01

347

INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health and well-being of children. Approximately 10...

348

Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders among welders: a Danish cohort study.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that welders are at increased risk for neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, but few well-designed cohort studies have been conducted. The risk for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders was examined in an updated follow-up study based on a previous cohort of 5867 Danish welders and 1735 nonwelding metal workers exposed to welding fume. Occupational history and information on smoking were obtained from questionnaires, supplemented by information from the compulsory Danish Supplementary Pension Fund. Hospital contacts, including outpatient data from 1994, for Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders were ascertained from the Danish National Hospital Register. Based on first-time hospital contacts, standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) were calculated for the entire cohort and for welders, metal workers, and nonresponders separately and for the general Danish population in 1987-2008. In an internal analysis of welders, Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hospitalization rate ratios (HRRs) for Parkinson's disease associated with lifelong exposure to welding. Overall, 45 cohort members had a hospital contact for Parkinson's disease (SHR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.50), of whom 25 were welders (standardized incidence rate ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.68-1.55). When duration of welding was compared among 5736 welders, the HRR was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.59-1.16) per 10 years' welding, after adjustment for smoking. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that welders are at increased risk for Parkinson's disease; these findings are consistent with those of our previously published analysis. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:22833432

Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Olsen, Jørgen H

2012-09-01

349

Testicular cancer risk and maternal parity: a population-based cohort study.  

PubMed Central

The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's parity over time might explain the increasing incidence of testicular cancer. By using data from the Civil Registration System, a database was established of all women born in Denmark since 1935 and all their children alive in 1968 or born later. Sons with testicular cancer were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. Among 1015994 sons followed for 15981 967 person-years, 626 developed testicular cancer (443 non-seminomas, 183 seminomas). Later born sons had a decreased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.95) compared with first-born sons. The RR was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98) for non-seminomas and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.58-1.13) for seminomas. There was no association between testicular cancer risk and overall parity of the mother, maternal or paternal age at the birth of the son, or maternal age at first birth. The decreased risk of testicular cancer among later born sons was not modified by age, birth cohort, interval to the previous birth, sex of the first-born child, or maternal age at birth of the son or at first birth. The increased proportion of first-borns from birth cohort 1946 to birth cohort 1969 only explained around 3% of an approximated two-fold increase in incidence between the cohorts. Our data document a distinctly higher risk of testicular cancer in first-born compared with later born sons and suggest that the most likely explanation should be sought among exposures in utero. The increase in the proportion of first-borns in the population has only contributed marginally to the increase in testicular cancer incidence.

Westergaard, T.; Andersen, P. K.; Pedersen, J. B.; Frisch, M.; Olsen, J. H.; Melbye, M.

1998-01-01

350

Factors associated with uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and use of single antigen vaccines in a contemporary UK cohort: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To estimate uptake of the combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and single antigen vaccines and explore factors associated with uptake and reasons for not using MMR.Design Nationally representative cohort study.Setting Children born in the UK, 2000-2.Participants 14 578 children for whom data on immunisation were available.Main outcome measures Immunisation status at 3 years defined as “immunised with

Anna Pearce; Catherine Law; David Elliman; Tim J Cole; Helen Bedford

2008-01-01

351

Why Do Males in Scotland Die Younger than Those in England? Evidence from Three Prospective Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background To examine explanations for the higher rates of male mortality in two Scottish cohorts compared with a cohort in south-east England for which similar data were collected. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared three cohort studies which recruited participants in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A total of 13,884 men aged 45–64 years at recruitment in the Whitehall occupational cohort (south-east England), 3,956 men in the Collaborative occupational cohort and 6,813 men in the Renfrew & Paisley population-based study (both central Scotland) were included in analyses of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. All-cause mortality was 25% (age-adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI)1.21 to 1.30) and 41% (hazard ratio 1.41 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.45) higher in the Collaborative and Renfrew & Paisley cohorts respectively compared to the Whitehall cohort. The higher mortality rates were substantially attenuated by social class (to 8% and 17% higher respectively), and were effectively eliminated upon the further addition of the other baseline risk factors, such as smoking habit, lung function and pre-existing self-reported morbidity. Despite this, coronary heart disease mortality remained 11% and 16% higher, stroke mortality 45% and 37% higher, mortality from accidents and suicide 51% and 70% higher, and alcohol-related mortality 46% and 73% higher in the Collaborative and Renfrew & Paisley cohorts respectively compared with the Whitehall cohort in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions/Significance The higher all-cause, respiratory, and lung cancer male mortality in the Scottish cohorts was almost entirely explained by social class differences and higher prevalence of known risk factors, but reasons for the excess mortality from stroke, alcohol-related causes, accidents and suicide remained unknown.

McCartney, Gerry; Shipley, Martin; Hart, Carole; Davey-Smith, George; Kivimaki, Mika; Walsh, David; Watt, Graham C.; Batty, G. David

2012-01-01

352

A genome-wide association study for reading and language abilities in two population cohorts.  

PubMed

Candidate genes have been identified for both reading and language, but most of the heritable variance in these traits remains unexplained. Here, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of two large cohorts: population samples of Australian twins and siblings aged 12-25?years (n?=?1177 from 538 families), and a younger cohort of children of the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (aged 8 and 9?years; maximum n?=?5472). Suggestive association was indicated for reading measures and non-word repetition (NWR), with the greatest support found for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pseudogene, ABCC13 (P?=?7.34?×?10(-8)), and the gene, DAZAP1 (P?=?1.32?×?10(-6)). Gene-based analyses showed significant association (P?study in additional cohorts for reading and language abilities. PMID:23738518

Luciano, M; Evans, D M; Hansell, N K; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Bates, T C

2013-08-01

353

Predicting postnatal mental disorder with a screening questionnaire: a prospective cohort study from Zimbabwe  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND: Postnatal mental disorders are common causes of morbidity but are rarely diagnosed or treated in busy primary care clinics in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a brief psychiatric screening questionnaire used in the 8th month of pregnancy can predict postnatal mental disorder. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SITE: A peri-urban settlement in Zimbabwe. POPULATION: 500 women in the 8th month of pregnancy identified by traditional birth attendants and primary care clinics. SAMPLE: "High risk" cohort consisted of all women who scored 8 or more on the Shona Symptom Questionnaire (SSQ), an indigenous psychiatric questionnaire (n = 95). Low risk cohort consisted of 105 women randomly selected from the remainder of the sampling frame. OUTCOME MEASURE: Revised Clinical Interview Schedule at six to eight weeks postpartum; scores of 14 or more indicate psychiatric caseness. RESULTS: The prevalence of postnatal mental illness was 16%. Odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for high risk women becoming cases in the postnatal period were 10.6, 4.8, 23.9, p < 0.0001 after adjustment for age, marital status, and occupation. CONCLUSIONS: A brief method of detecting women at high risk of developing a postnatal mental disorder can be used with reasonable accuracy in the 8th month of pregnancy. Further research is needed to determine whether interventions applied to this high risk group can reduce their postnatal morbidity.  

Nhiwatiwa, S.; Patel, V.; Acuda, W.

1998-01-01

354

Cohort studies with low baseline response may not be generalisable to populations with different exposure distributions.  

PubMed

Several advocates of mega-cohorts in epidemiology recently stated that high baseline response needs not be a driving scientific factor. We illustrate how cohort studies with low baseline response can become less generalisable than cohort studies with reasonable high baseline response. Assuming exposure prevalences of 32%, and 39% for former, and current smoking in the general population, we postulate that 10% in each group have a specific genotype G that makes them susceptible for the effect of smoking on the outcome (synergism between genotype and smoking). The existence and the mechanism of this synergism is unknown to the investigator. The parameter of interest is the average effect of smoking on the outcome expressed as relative risk (RR). We consider three different scenarios. In scenario 1, the RR for former and present smokers is 50 and 100 for subjects with G, translating into RR of 5.9 and 10.9 at population level. In scenario 2, the according figures are 10 and 20 for subjects with G and 1.9 and 2.9 at the population level, while in scenario 3, the according numbers are 2 and 5, and 1.1 and 1.4, respectively. We assume a differential baseline response by genotype G with overall baseline responses of 10% (low) and 50% (high). In all scenarios, we observe generalisability for a high baseline response. In contrast, for low baseline response the RRs for former and current smokers lack generalisability with loss of dose response relationship leading to 2.58 and 2.09 in scenario 1, to 1.29 and 1.21 in scenario 2, and in scenario 3 with RRs very close to unity (1.03 and 1.04 respectively). RR estimates may lack generalisability and dose response relationships even may be inverted if baseline response is low. Thus, even mega-cohorts should strive for a reasonable high baseline response. PMID:23456137

Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Stang, Andreas

2013-03-01

355

The Central Institute forBrain Research in Amsterdam and its directors.  

PubMed

The Central Institute for Brain Research was founded in Amsterdam in 1908 as part of an international effort to study the nervous system with multiple institutions and various disciplines. The development of research in the past hundred years at the Brain Institute has hardly been documented. We analyze the history of this institute by means of brief portraits of its directors and their main research topics. It appears that each director introduced his own branch of neuroscience into the institute. Initially, mainly comparative neuroanatomical data were collected. Following the Second World War, the multidisciplinary approach slowly developed with research programs on systems neuroscience, neuroendocrinology, and brain disorders. Every new director introduced new approaches to the study of the brain and thus played an important role in keeping brain research in the Netherlands at the international forefront where it has been ever since its foundation in 1908. PMID:24256502

Eling, Paul; Hofman, Michel A

2014-01-01

356

Literature search on kickers and septa for the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher (APS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of the literature was performed with a view to the design of kickers and septa for the injection and extraction line of the Amsterdam Pulse Stretcher Ring (APS) in the UPDATE project. The UPDATE kickers were given the following specifications: deflection angle 2 mrad, pulse width 2 micrometer, fall time 70 ans, available length 2 m. A comparison of the characteristic parameters (kick strength, pulse characteristics, required peak power) with the existing system shows correspondence with two ferrite kicker designs (CERN-CPS and ELSA), the Los Alamos TEM-kicker, and the Saskatoon electrostatic kicker. On account of the relative simplicity of construction and the pulse forming network, the Saskatoon kicker was chosen as the starting point for a design study. Septum magnets and electrostatic wire septa are overviewed.

Kuijt, J.; Linden, A. V. D.

357

Geographical movement of doctors from education to training and eventual career post: UK cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the geographical mobility of UK-trained doctors. Design Cohort studies conducted by postal questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants A total 31,353 UK-trained doctors in 11 cohorts defined by year of qualification, from 1974 to 2008. Main outcome measures Location of family home prior to medical school, location of medical school, region of first training post, region of first career post. Analysis for the UK divided into 17 standard geographical regions. Results The response rate was 81.2% (31,353/45,061; denominators, below, depended on how far the doctors’ careers had progressed). Of all respondents, 36% (11,381/31,353) attended a medical school in their home region and 48% (10,370/21,740) undertook specialty training in the same region as their medical school. Of respondents who had reached the grade of consultant or principal in general practice in the UK, 34% (4169/12,119) settled in the same region as their home before entering medical school. Of those in the UK, 70% (7643/10,887) held their first career post in the same region as either their home before medical school, or their medical school or their location of training. For 18% (1938/10,887), all four locations – family home, medical school, place of training, place of first career post – were within the same region. A higher percentage of doctors from the more recent than from the older cohorts settled in the region of their family home. Conclusion Many doctors do not change geographical region in their successive career moves, and recent cohorts appear less inclined to do so.

Goldacre, Michael; Davidson, Jean; Maisonneuve, Jenny; Lambert, Trevor

2013-01-01

358

Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: II. Mortality from mesothelioma.  

PubMed

As part of our ongoing mortality surveillance program for the US man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF) industry, we examined mortality from malignant mesothelioma using data from our 1989 follow-up of 3478 rock/slag wool workers and our 1992 follow-up of 32,110 fiberglass workers. A manual search of death certificates for 1011 rock/slag wool workers and 9060 fiberglass workers revealed only 10 death certificates with any mention of the word "mesothelioma." A subsequent review of medical records and pathology specimens for 3 of the 10 workers deemed two deaths as definitely not due to mesothelioma and one as having a 50% chance of being caused by mesothelioma. Two other deaths, for which only medical records were available, were given less than a 50% chance of being due to mesothelioma. Eight of the 10 decedents had potential occupational asbestos exposure inside or outside the MMVF industry. We also estimated the mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma in the cohort using two cause-of-death categorizations that included both malignant and benign coding rubrics. Using the more comprehensive scheme, we observed overall deficits in deaths among the total cohort and fiberglass workers and an overall excess among rock/slag wool workers. The excess in respiratory system cancer is largely a reflection of elevated lung cancer risks that we attributed mainly to confounding by smoking, to exposures outside the MMVF industry to agents such as asbestos, or to one or more of the several co-exposures present in many of the study plants (including asbestos). The second scheme, which focused on pleural mesothelioma in time periods when specific malignant mesothelioma coding rubrics were available, classified only one cohort death as being caused by malignant mesothelioma, compared with 2.19 expected deaths (local county comparison). We conclude that the overall mortality risk from malignant mesothelioma does not seem to be elevated in the US MMVF cohort. PMID:11561359

Marsh, G M; Gula, M J; Youk, A O; Buchanich, J M; Churg, A; Colby, T V

2001-09-01

359

Methodological lessons from a cohort study of high risk women in Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To describe the development, characteristics, and follow up of a high risk cohort of women in Tanzania. Differences in social background and sexual behaviour of women working in traditional and modern alcohol selling workplaces are shown. Methods: Data from questionnaires four months before the enrolment of the cohort, at enrolment, and at 32 months were compared. Key informant interviews, social mapping exercises, and focus group discussions were held before the start of the cohort. Results: In the absence of organised prostitution, two different groups of women with high risk exposure were identified during the baseline survey: female workers in modern alcohol selling places such as bars, guesthouses, and restaurants (barmaids) and in traditional places (local brew sellers). Overall, the population had a mean age of 27.7 years with barmaids tending to be younger (24.3 years) than local brew sellers (34.2 years). The main duration of stay in the current workplace was 2.1 years (barmaids 0.9 years; local brew sellers 4.1 years). Barmaids were more likely to have paying casual sex partners than local brew sellers and used condoms more regularly. Local brew sellers tend to be more stable with only 10% lost to follow up after 32 months compared with 24.4% of the bar workers. Conclusions: Preliminary work revealed major differences in characteristics and behaviour between women working in modern and traditional alcohol selling outlets. Thorough preparation of the study, close monitoring of the cohort, and provision of selected benefits resulted in high retention rates over a 32 month project in a highly mobile population.

Hoffmann, O; Zaba, B; Wolff, B; Sanga, E; Maboko, L; Mmbando, D; von Sonnenburg, F; Hoelscher, M

2004-01-01

360

Pathways to the diagnosis of lung cancer in the UK: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Lung cancer is the commonest cause of cancer death in the UK. Patients generally present to their general practitioner, but the pathway of diagnosis from first symptom to diagnosis has not been mapped. We performed a cohort study of 246 patients with lung cancer in Exeter, Devon UK. All patients had their cancer symptoms, referrals and diagnoses identified and dated using their doctors' records. Results Three main routes to diagnosis emerged. The first was the expected route of outpatient referral; 150 (61% of the cohort) of patients took this route, although only 110 (45% of the whole cohort, 73% of those referred to outpatients) were referred to a respiratory department. 56 (23%) were admitted as an emergency, having previously described a lung cancer symptom to their doctor. 26 patients (11%) had no symptom of lung cancer reported before their diagnosis. The interval from first symptom to referral was similar across the different pathways. However, the referral to diagnosis interval was longer in patients misdirected to other outpatient departments (66 days, interquartile range 37,110) than those sent to respiratory clinics (29 days, 17,61) or admitted as an emergency (16 days 8,40); p < 0.001. Conclusion Only a minority of lung cancer patients follow the traditional route to diagnosis. Clinical and research efforts need to consider the alternative routes if they are to maximise their impact on speed of diagnosis.

Barrett, Jacqueline; Hamilton, William

2008-01-01

361

Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

2009-02-15

362

Cigarette smoking and the risk of adult leukemia: results from the Three Mile Island cohort study.  

PubMed

Smoking is an unconfirmed risk factor for the development of leukemia. The authors examined the potential link using data from the Three Mile Island cohort for the period 1979-1995. Eligible for analysis were 24,539 individuals aged 14 years or older who were followed up over 16 years from the Three Mile Island cohort. The authors identified all incident leukemia cases through the Pennsylvania Department of Health Cancer Registry. They used the Cox proportional hazards model to evaluate the relationships and observed 42 incident leukemia cases, including 15 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cases, in the cohort. After controlling for other confounding factors, the authors found current smoking to be associated with an increased risk of adult AML (relative risk = 3.47; 95% confidence interval = 1.002-11.99). The authors also observed a marginally significant linear trend of risk of AML associated with the number of years smoked (p = .06). The results from this study suggested that cigarette smoking was associated with an increased risk of adult AML. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings. PMID:18400653

Xu, Xiaohui; Talbott, Evelyn O; Zborowski, Jeanne V; Rager, Judith R

2007-01-01

363

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Methodology Report for the 9-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 1: Psychometric Characteristics.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study project (ECLS) provides decision-makers, researchers, child care providers, teachers, and parents with detailed information about children's early life experiences through two cohorts, the Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) and t...

C. Andreassen P. Fletcher J. West

2005-01-01

364

Analysis of motivations that lead women to participate (or not) in a newborn cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about reasons that influence parents’ decision to participate in studies enrolling healthy children. The aim of this observational study was to verify the reasons that lead pregnant women to give their consent or to refuse participation to a newborn cohort study with a long follow up time. Methods To prospectively investigate the reasons that lead women to participate, to refuse the participation or to withdraw from a newborn cohort study, three different questionnaires were administered to pregnant women contacted or enrolled in the Phime cohort study, carried out in an Italian Hospital from 2007 to 2010. Results Phime study participation was refused by 304 women and 145 withdrew their consent during the follow up. All these women filled in the related questionnaires. Within 632 mothers in follow up at 18 months, 430 filled in the questionnaire on motivation to participate: 97% stated that the main reason was to contribute to research; 96% and 90% stated that they wanted to benefit future babies’ and mothers’ health. Ninety-six percent of women would appreciate to know the results of analysis carried out on biological samples collected and of the overall study results. One third of the mothers (37%) wanted to be involved in the definition of future similar studies, bringing their experience and their views. Within the 304 women who refused participation, 56% stated that the study was too demanding, 26% was not interested in participating and 18% was concerned about the need to collect biological samples and to be submitted to neurocognitive tests. Fifty-two percent of 145 women who withdrew after enrollment stated that the study was too demanding (52%), and 6% was concerned about the biological samples collection. Conclusions The altruistic reason appears to be the main reported by women to decide to participate in a newborn cohort study. The fact that the study was too demanding and the need to collect biological samples are important reasons that lead women to refuse participation or to withdraw from the study. An adequate communication on these aspects should minimize difficulties in enrolment and losses to follow up.

2013-01-01

365

Cohort Consortium  

Cancer.gov

The Cohort Consortium is an extramural-intramural partnership formed by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to address the need for large-scale collaborations to pool the large quantity of data and biospecimens necessary to conduct a wide range of cancer studies. The Consortium, through its collaborative network of investigators, provides a coordinated, interdisciplinary approach to tackling important scientific questions, economies of scale, and opportunities to quicken the pace of research.

366

Prospective study of attitudinal and relationship predictors of sexual risk in the multicenter AIDS cohort study.  

PubMed

We examined the influence of attitudes concerning HIV transmission, safe sex, and sexual sensation seeking, as well as negotiated risk reduction with primary partners, on the proportion of unprotected sexual partners (%UASP) among men who have sex with men (MSM). Participants were 263 HIV-seropositive and 238 HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between 1999 and 2003 who completed a 20-item attitude survey twice. Behavioral data were collected concurrently and 6-12 months after each survey. Among seropositives, decreased HIV concern and increased safer sex fatigue were associated with higher %UASP at 6 and 12 months. Among seronegatives, increased %UASP at 12 months was associated with safer sex fatigue. At 6 months and 12 months, risk reduction agreements were associated with increased %UASP among seronegatives in seroconcordant monogamous relationships, reflecting their abandonment of condoms in such partnerships. We conclude that HIV prevention efforts should target modifiable attitudes (reduced concern about HIV and safer sex fatigue) and increases in sexual risk-taking of MSM, particularly among HIV+ men having sex with serodiscordant partners. PMID:17410419

Ostrow, David G; Silverberg, Michael J; Cook, Robert L; Chmiel, Joan S; Johnson, Lisette; Li, Xiuhong; Jacobson, Lisa P

2008-01-01

367

COHORT STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG PEOPLE EXPOSED TO ESTUARINE WATERS: NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND MARYLAND. (R827084)  

EPA Science Inventory

A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome," Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine w...

368

[Veterinarians of the Zoological Garden 'Natura Artis Magistra' in Amsterdam (ca. 1845-1962].  

PubMed

A study in the archives of the Amsterdam Zoological Garden, established in 1838, revealed the names of nine veterinarians during the period under review, who were in charge of the health care of the zoo animals. All of them were in private practice and acted as consultants. Their written inheritance consists of bills for their services and medicines provided, and of the records of 1510 post-mortem examinations, covering the years 1927-1953. Of special interest is a manuscript of J. A. Dekker (1812-1859) that contains 22 of his publications devoted to diseases of zoo animals and other observations. Short biographies of all nine veterinarians are included in order to show how their work for the Zoological Garden, that was only an additional job, was related to their other occupations. PMID:20642132

Mathijsen, A H H M

2009-01-01

369

Examining smoking behaviours among parents from the UK Millennium Cohort Study after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo investigate parental smoking behaviours between England and Scotland after the smoke-free legislation in Scotland came into effect in 2006 and examine inequalities in maternal smoking behaviours between countries.Methods5954 white mothers and 3757 fathers resident in England and 1522 white mothers and 904 fathers resident in Scotland who participated in the Millennium Cohort Study (a prospective nationally representative cohort study)

Summer Sherburne Hawkins; Tim J Cole; Catherine Law

2010-01-01

370

Serum calcium and breast cancer risk: results from a prospective cohort study of 7,847 women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest that calcium-regulating hormones—parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D—may\\u000a be associated with breast cancer risk. No prospective cohort study has investigated the association between pre-diagnostic\\u000a calcium levels and subsequent risk of breast cancer. We have examined this in a cohort of 7,847 women where serum calcium\\u000a levels and established risk factors for breast cancer had been

Martin Almquist; Jonas Manjer; Lennart Bondeson; Anne-Greth Bondeson

2007-01-01

371

Does traffic exhaust contribute to the development of asthma and allergic sensitization in children: findings from recent cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this review was to assess the evidence from recent prospective studies that long-term traffic pollution could contribute to the development of asthma-like symptoms and allergic sensitization in children. We have reviewed cohort studies published since 2002 and found in PubMed in Oct 2008. In all, 13 papers based on data from 9 cohorts have evaluated the relationship

Lennart Bråbäck; Bertil Forsberg

2009-01-01

372

Long-term peptic ulcer rebleeding risk estimation in patients undergoing haemodialysis: a 10-year nationwide cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveWe aimed to study 1-, 5- and 10-year risks of peptic ulcer rebleeding among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients with regular haemodialysis, to identify the high-risk subpopulation, and to estimate the number needed to harm (NNH) to increase a peptic ulcer rebleeding in different periods.DesignA nationwide cohort study.SettingData from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database.PatientsUraemic cohort and matched controls

Chun-Ying Wu; Ming-Shiang Wu; Ken N Kuo; Chang-Bi Wang; Yi-Ju Chen; Jaw-Town Lin

2011-01-01

373

Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings.Design: Cohort study of siblings of the same sex.Setting: 12 cities in the United States.Subjects: 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. The sample was

Thomas D Matte; Michaeline Bresnahan; Melissa D Begg; Ezra Susser

2001-01-01

374

The relation between dietary flavonol intake and coronary heart disease mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the association of dietary flavonol intake with the subsequent risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality.Design: Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies published before September 2001. Studies were identified by MEDLINE and EMBASE searches and by scanning relevant reference lists. The following information was extracted from published reports: size of cohort, mean age, mean duration of follow-up, number

R R Huxley; H A W Neil

2003-01-01

375

Rare AIDS-Defining Diseases in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to investigate the spectrum and frequency of rare AIDS-defining diseases in the Swiss HIV\\u000a Cohort Study. AIDS-defining diseases contributing less than 1% to the absolute number of all recorded AIDS-defining diseases\\u000a in at least one of five periods (1988–1990, 1991–1992, 1993–1994, 1995–1996, 1997) were defined as being rare. A total of\\u000a 9110 HIV-infected subjects

B. Burckhardt; P. Sendi; D. Pfluger; W. Zimmerli; R. Nüesch; H. C. Bucher; J. Drewe; N. Gyr; M. Battegay

1999-01-01

376

[Cigarette smoking and mortality among Japanese males in a prospective cohort study].  

PubMed

The relationship between smoking and disease was studied in a prospective cohort study among a Japanese male working population. The relative risk of cigarette smoking was positively associated with mortality for all diseases and major neoplasms. In current smokers consuming 25 to 34 cigarettes per day, relative risk for all diseases, major neoplasms, and lung cancer compared to nonsmokers was 1.38, 2.04, 2.36, respectively. These data suggest that there is a positive relation between smoking and disease mortality in this male working population. As for ex-smokers, estimated relative risk for all neoplasms was between that of current smokers and nonsmokers. PMID:1747539

Tomita, M; Odaka, M; Matsumoto, M; Yamaguchi, M; Hosoda, Y; Mizuno, S

1991-07-01

377

There is no age limit for methadone: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Data from the US indicates that methadone-maintained populations are aging, with an increase of patients aged 50 or older.\\u000a Data from European methadone populations is sparse. This retrospective cohort study sought to evaluate the age trends and\\u000a related developments in the methadone population of Basel-City, Switzerland.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study included methadone patients between April 1, 1995 and March 31, 2003. Anonymized

Kenneth M Dürsteler-MacFarland; Marc Vogel; Gerhard A Wiesbeck; Sylvie A Petitjean

2011-01-01

378

Cultural competency in a physician assistant curriculum in the United States: a longitudinal study with two cohorts  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Many physician assistant (PA) programs have recently integrated cultural competency into their curricula. However, there is little evidence of the longitudinal effectiveness of such curricula on culture competency. This study tested whether the amount of exposure to a cultural competency curriculum affected self-assessments of cultural awareness in two cohorts of students. Methods: Cohort 1 and Cohort 2 students completed a cultural awareness survey at the beginning of the program and retook the survey at three intervals during the first year. Results: Regression analyses confirmed a significant linear relationship (two-tailed 0.05) between the responses and the interval number on all questions for each cohort, with the exception of Question 8, on the ability to identify discrimination, for Cohort 2. Conclusion: Results from Cohort 2 replicated those from Cohort 1, suggesting that cultural awareness among PA students benefits from repeated exposure to lessons on cultural competency. Schools attempting to develop or expand cultural awareness among students should consider integrating cultural competency training throughout the PA curriculum.

2014-01-01

379

Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for the association of dairy consumption and breast cancer risk. A random effects model was used to calculate the summary risk estimates. We identified 18 prospective cohort studies eligible for analysis, involving 24,187 cases and 1,063,471 participants. The summary relative risk of breast cancer for the highest intake of total dairy food compared with the lowest was 0.85 (95% confidence interval: 0.76-0.95), with evidence of heterogeneity (P = 0.01, I (2) = 54.5%). For milk consumption, the summary relative risk was 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.80-1.02), and substantial heterogeneity was observed (P = 0.003, I (2) = 59.7%). Subgroup analyses based on limited numbers of studies suggested that the associations were somewhat stronger for low-fat dairy intake than for high-fat dairy intake and for premenopausal women than for postmenopausal women. There was a significant dose-response relationship of total dairy food, but not milk, consumption with breast cancer risk. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis indicate that increased consumption of total dairy food, but not milk, may be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. PMID:21442197

Dong, Jia-Yi; Zhang, Lijun; He, Ka; Qin, Li-Qiang

2011-05-01

380

Neuropsychological test performance before and after HIV-1 seroconversion: the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study is to compare neuropsychological test performance before and after HIV-1 seroconversion in order to identify possible acute changes in psychomotor speed, memory, attention, and concentration secondary to seroconversion. The study utilized mixed effects models to examine longitudinal neuropsychological test data. We conducted a nested cohort study of 362 male HIV-1 seroconverters enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. We used linear mixed models with random subject effects to compare repeated neuropsychological test outcomes from 5 years before seroconversion to 2 years after seroconversion on the Trail Making Test (parts A and B), Symbol-Digit Test, Grooved Pegboard (dominant and non-dominant hands), Stroop Color-Interference Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the CalCAP Reaction Time Test. We found no significant changes in the time-dependent score after seroconversion for the majority of neuropsychological tests used in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. There was a significant change in time trend after seroconversion on part B of the Trail Making Test (p=0.042), but the difference only represented a 2 % decrease in performance. We found the following characteristics to be associated with worse neuropsychological test performance: lower education levels, history of depression, older age, and no previous neurocognitive testing (p

Vo, Quynh T; Cox, Christopher; Li, Xiuhong; Jacobson, Lisa P; McKaig, Rosemary; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A; Martin, Eileen; Becker, James T; Miller, Eric N

2013-02-01

381

The Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study: Study Design, Methods, Use of Information Technology, and Extension to Other Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2004, the Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study was established in Managua, Nicaragua, to study the natural history and transmission of dengue in children. Here, the authors describe the study design, methods, and results from 2004 to 2008. Initially, 3,721 children 2-9 years of age were recruited

Guillermina Kuan; Aubree Gordon; William Aviles; Oscar Ortega; Samantha N. Hammond; Douglas Elizondo; Andrea Nunez; Josefina Coloma; Angel Balmaseda; Eva Harris

2009-01-01

382

Background and design of a Danish cohort study of workers in phenoxy herbicide manufacture.  

PubMed

In 1982, a Danish cohort study was initiated of workers in the manufacture of 2,4-dichlorophenol- and 4-chloro-ortho-cresol-based phenoxy herbicides, after a governmental working group had indicated the need for further data on the long-term health consequences of exposure to these phenoxy herbicides. A cohort study of workers in the manufacture of these substances was considered to be a valuable supplement to the Swedish case-control studies of patients exposed mainly in spraying. Manufacture of phenoxy herbicides was commenced in Denmark by Kemisk Vaerk Koege (KVK) in 1947, and this company has produced 2,4-D and MCPA, and later 2,4-DP and MCPP. Very limited amounts of 2,4,5-T have been processed in this plant, mainly in the formation of esters based on a purchased acid. Manufacture of MCPA was commenced by Esbjerg Kemikaliefabrik (EK) in 1951, and this production was later supplemented with 2,4-DP. Furthermore, MCPA was produced by Cheminova and Danske Gasvaerkers Tjaerekompagni for short periods in the late 1950s. All persons employed at KVK and EK from the time when these plants began operation, in 1933 and 1951 respectively, until 1982 were intended to be included in this cohort study. The registration was based on company records and, from 1964 onward, supplemented with data from a public pension scheme (ATP). Linkage of company records from KVK with ATP records for the overlapping period 1964-1980 showed 2,163 persons to be known in both datasets, whereas 614 persons were known only from the ATP records. The data collection has consequently shown that ATP provides a valuable data source for control of company records in Denmark. For the study period before 1964, the number of registered employees could be controlled by comparison with the number of employees reported by the companies on questionnaires for the national industrial statistics 1945-1969. In the analysis of this cohort study, special attention was given to soft tissue sarcomas and malignant lymphomas, which are the diagnostic groups associated with exposure to phenoxy herbicides in the Swedish case-control studies. Soft tissue sarcomas, in both organs and connective tissue, can be identified using the classifications found in the Danish Cancer Registry. PMID:3578295

Lynge, E

1987-01-01

383

Cancer incidence among paraquat exposed applicators in the agricultural health study: prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Paraquat (1,1'-dimethyl-4, 4'-bipyridinium dichloride) is a nonselective herbicide that is extremely toxic after acute exposure. It was once widely used in North America and is still used in some countries, including the United States. Although there is little firm evidence that paraquat is a carcinogen, previous studies have suggested a potential relationship with some cancers. This prospective cohort study was performed to evaluate the association between lifetime paraquat exposure and cancer incidence among licensed pesticide applicators with 9.1 years of median follow-up. The lifetime ever-use of paraquat was evaluated in 56,224 subjects at baseline and exposure-response relationship was evaluated in 24,667 subjects (44%) who provided detailed information on total life-time paraquat exposure in a second questionnaire. Among the total subjects, the risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) in the exposed group was marginally elevated (Relative risk [RR], 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.97-2.23) compared to the non-exposed group. However, among the 24,667 applicators who supplied total life-time exposure days, the highest tertile of lifetime exposure-days (LE) and intensity-weighted lifetime exposure-days (IWLE) was not significantly associated with NHL risk (RR, 1.57; 95%CI, 0.57-4.23 for LE; RR, 1.42; 95%CI, 0.40-4.71 for IWLE, respectively) and there was no significant exposure-response trend (p-trend > 0.1). There was some suggestion of a possible link between paraquat exposure and NHL risk in humans, but the inconsistency in exposure level trend suggests that this could be a chance finding. PMID:19650582

Park, Sue K; Kang, Daehee; Beane-Freeman, Laura; Blair, Aaron; Hoppin, Jane A; Sandler, Dale P; Lynch, Charles F; Knott, Charles; Gwak, Jin; Alavanja, Michael

2009-01-01

384

Extent of publication bias in different categories of research cohorts: a meta-analysis of empirical studies  

PubMed Central

Background The validity of research synthesis is threatened if published studies comprise a biased selection of all studies that have been conducted. We conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the strength and consistency of the association between study results and formal publication. Methods The Cochrane Methodology Register Database, MEDLINE and other electronic bibliographic databases were searched (to May 2009) to identify empirical studies that tracked a cohort of studies and reported the odds of formal publication by study results. Reference lists of retrieved articles were also examined for relevant studies. Odds ratios were used to measure the association between formal publication and significant or positive results. Included studies were separated into subgroups according to starting time of follow-up, and results from individual cohort studies within the subgroups were quantitatively pooled. Results We identified 12 cohort studies that followed up research from inception, four that included trials submitted to a regulatory authority, 28 that assessed the fate of studies presented as conference abstracts, and four cohort studies that followed manuscripts submitted to journals. The pooled odds ratio of publication of studies with positive results, compared to those without positive results (publication bias) was 2.78 (95% CI: 2.10 to 3.69) in cohorts that followed from inception, 5.00 (95% CI: 2.01 to 12.45) in trials submitted to regulatory authority, 1.70 (95% CI: 1.44 to 2.02) in abstract cohorts, and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.80 to 1.39) in cohorts of manuscripts. Conclusion Dissemination of research findings is likely to be a biased process. Publication bias appears to occur early, mainly before the presentation of findings at conferences or submission of manuscripts to journals.

2009-01-01

385

Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) Study: Baseline Characteristics of Enrolled Subjects  

PubMed Central

Background: The Pathobiology of Prediabetes in a Biracial Cohort (POP-ABC) study is a prospective evaluation of the natural history impaired glucose regulation. Design and Methods: The eligibility requirements include age 18–65 yr, history of type 2 diabetes in one or both parents, normal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) or normal glucose tolerance, and African-American or Caucasian status. Participants underwent assessments (including dietary and exercise behavior, clinical examination, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, ?-cell function, body composition, energy expenditure) during 2.25–5.5 yr of quarterly follow-up. The primary outcome is the occurrence of prediabetes. Baseline data are presented for the 376 enrolled participants. The cohort was also compared with National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007/2008 participants meeting the age and glycemic criteria for the POP-ABC study. Results: The POP-ABC cohort [mean (±sd) age was 44.2 ± 10.6 yr] was 57.7% African-Americans, 42.3% Caucasians, and 70.7% females; 86% had one parent with diabetes and 14% had both parents affected. Although greater than 70% of the cohort were employed and 75% had more than 13 yr of education, more African-Americans reported incomes less than $20,000 and fewer reported incomes more than $75,000 compared with Caucasians. Compared with Caucasians, African-Americans had a higher body mass index (31.3 ± 7.8 vs. 28.8 ± 7.8 kg/m2, P = 0.001), a lower FPG (90.0 ± 7.72 vs. 92.2 ± 7.60 mg/dl, P = 0.008), higher glycosylated hemoglobin, lower triglycerides, and similar blood pressure, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, homeostasis model assessment of ?-cell function, high-density lipoprotein, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. Compared with a cross-section of U.S. subjects (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007/2008) with normal FPG and normal glucose tolerance, participants in the POP-ABC study had similar lipid profile but were more educated and had higher body mass index, glycosylated hemoglobin, and blood pressure. Conclusions: The POP-ABC study has successfully enrolled healthy African-American and Caucasian adults with parental type 2 diabetes mellitus. The study will generate novel data on incidence rates and predictors of prediabetes, and clarify the role of race/ethnicity on early dysglycemia.

Edeoga, Chimaroke; Ebenibo, Sotonte; Chapp-Jumbo, Emmanuel

2013-01-01

386

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study.

Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

2005-01-01

387

Statins are Associated with Reduced Use of Steroids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Statin medications have anti-inflammatory effects. We sought to determine whether statin use in persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was associated with reduced rates of steroid use or other markers of disease activity. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using administrative data. Statin users with IBD were compared to statin-unexposed IBD subjects. The primary outcome was an oral steroid prescription; secondary outcomes included anti-TNF initiation, hospitalization, or abdominal surgery. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for potential confounders. Results The study cohort included 1,986 statin-exposed and 9,871 unexposed subjects. Statin use was associated with an 18% reduction in the rate of steroid initiation [HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71, 0.94)]. A statistically significant result was seen with atorvastatin only [HR 0.76 (95% CI 0.60, 0.96)]. Statins were associated with a reduced rate of steroids in ulcerative colitis [HRs 0.75 (95% CI 0.62, 0.91)], but not in Crohn’s disease [HR 0.91 (95% CI 0.74, 1.12)]. Statin use was associated with reduced hazard of anti-TNF use [HR 0.72 (95% CI 0.46, 1.11)], abdominal surgery [HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.63, 1.02)], and hospitalization [HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74, 1.05)], but these results did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion In this large retrospective cohort study, statin use amongst persons with IBD was associated with reduced use of oral steroids, particularly for UC. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm whether adjuvant treatment of IBD with statin drugs may spare immunosuppressant therapy or ameliorate flares.

Crockett, Seth D.; Hansen, Richard A.; Sturmer, Til; Schectman, Robin; Darter, Jane; Sandler, Robert S.; Kappelman, Michael D.

2011-01-01

388

Alcohol- or drug-use disorders and motor vehicle accident mortality: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

A large body of research has linked alcohol consumption and motor vehicle accidents (MVAs), but far fewer studies have estimated the risk of MVA fatality among drug users. Our study addresses this gap. We identified cohorts of individuals hospitalized in California from 1990 to 2005 with ICD-9 diagnoses of methamphetamine- (n=74,170), alcohol- (n=592,406), opioids- (n=68,066), cannabis- (n=47,048), cocaine- (n=48,949), or polydrug-related disorders (n=411,175), and these groups were followed for up to 16 years. Age-, sex-, and race-adjusted standardized mortality rates (SMRs) for deaths due to MVAs were generated in relation to the California general population. Standardized MVA mortality ratios were elevated across all drug cohorts: alcohol (4.5, 95% CI, 4.1-4.9), cocaine (3.8, 95% CI, 2.3-5.3), opioids (2.8, 95% CI, 2.1-3.5), methamphetamine (2.6, 95% CI, 2-3.1), cannabis (2.3, 95% CI, 1.5-3.2) and polydrug (2.6, 95% CI, 2.4-2.9). Males and females had similar MVA SMRs. Our large, population-based study found elevated risk of MVA mortality across all cohorts of individuals with alcohol- or drug-use disorders. Given that illicit drug users are often unaware of or misperceive the impacts of drug use on safe driving, it may be important for health-service or public-health interventions to address such biases and improve road safety. PMID:23434842

Callaghan, Russell C; Gatley, Jodi M; Veldhuizen, Scott; Lev-Ran, Shaul; Mann, Robert; Asbridge, Mark

2013-04-01

389

A retrospective cohort study of lidocaine in divers with neurological decompression illness.  

PubMed

Lidocaine is the most extensively studied substance for adjuvant therapy in neurological decompression illness (DCI), but results have been conflicting. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared 14 patients who received adjuvant intravenous lidocaine for neurological decompression sickness and cerebral arterial gas embolism between 2001 and 2011 against 21 patients who were treated between 1996 and 2001 and did not receive lidocaine. All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy according to accepted guidelines. Groups were comparable for all investigated confounding factors, except that significantly more control patients had made an unsafe dive (62% vs. 14%, p = 0.007). Groups had comparable injury severity as measured by Dick and Massey score (lidocaine 2.7 +/- 1.7, control 2.0 +/- 1.6), an adapted version of the Dick and Massey score, and the Blatteau score. Number of HBO2 sessions given was comparable in both groups (lidocaine 2.7 +/- 2.3, control 2.0 +/- 1.0). There was neither a positive nor a negative effect of lidocaine on outcome (relative risk for objective neurological signs at follow-up in the lidocaine group was 1.8, 95% CI 0.2-16). This is the first retrospective cohort study of lidocaine in neurological DCI. Since our study is under-powered to draw definitive conclusions, a prospective multicenter study remains the only way to reliably determine the effect of lidocaine in neurological decompression illness. PMID:24851549

Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; Zomervrucht, Astrid; van Ooij, Pieter-Jan A M; van Hulst, Robert A

2014-01-01

390

Outcome-dependent sampling from existing cohorts with longitudinal binary response data: study planning and analysis.  

PubMed

When novel scientific questions arise after longitudinal binary data have been collected, the subsequent selection of subjects from the cohort for whom further detailed assessment will be undertaken is often necessary to efficiently collect new information. Key examples of additional data collection include retrospective questionnaire data, novel data linkage, or evaluation of stored biological specimens. In such cases, all data required for the new analyses are available except for the new target predictor or exposure. We propose a class of longitudinal outcome-dependent sampling schemes and detail a design corrected conditional maximum likelihood analysis for highly efficient estimation of time-varying and time-invariant covariate coefficients when resource limitations prohibit exposure ascertainment on all participants. Additionally, we detail an important study planning phase that exploits available cohort data to proactively examine the feasibility of any proposed substudy as well as to inform decisions regarding the most desirable study design. The proposed designs and associated analyses are discussed in the context of a study that seeks to examine the modifying effect of an interleukin-10 cytokine single nucleotide polymorphism on asthma symptom regression in adolescents participating Childhood Asthma Management Program Continuation Study. Using this example we assume that all data necessary to conduct the study are available except subject-specific genotype data. We also assume that these data would be ascertained by analyzing stored blood samples, the cost of which limits the sample size. PMID:21457191

Schildcrout, Jonathan S; Heagerty, Patrick J

2011-12-01

391

Fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer: the Ohsaki Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence from laboratory and animal studies suggests that high fish consumption may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer, but the results of studies in humans have been inconsistent. The objective of this study was to prospectively examine the association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer incidence in Japan, where fish is widely consumed. Methods: We analysed data from 39?498 men and women registered in the Ohsaki National Health Insurance Cohort Study who were 40–79 years old and free of cancer at the baseline. Fish consumption was assessed at the baseline using a self-administered food frequency questionnaire. Results: During 9 years of follow-up, we identified 566 incident cases of colorectal cancer (379 men and 187 women). The hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for colorectal cancer incidence in the highest quartile of fish consumption compared with the lowest quartile were 1.07 (95% CIs; 0.78–1.46, P-trend=0.43) for men, and 0.96 (95% CIs; 0.61–1.53, P-trend=0.69) for women. Conclusion: The results of this prospective cohort study revealed no association between fish consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer.

Sugawara, Y; Kuriyama, S; Kakizaki, M; Nagai, M; Ohmori-Matsuda, K; Sone, T; Hozawa, A; Nishino, Y; Tsuji, I

2009-01-01

392

Adult Consequences of Late Adolescent Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Although important to public policy, there have been no rigorous evidence syntheses of the long-term consequences of late adolescent drinking. Methods and Findings This systematic review summarises evidence from general population cohort studies of drinking between 15–19 years old and any subsequent outcomes aged 20 or greater, with at least 3 years of follow-up study. Fifty-four studies were included, of which 35 were assessed to be vulnerable to bias and/or confounding. The principal findings are: (1) There is consistent evidence that higher alcohol consumption in late adolescence continues into adulthood and is also associated with alcohol problems including dependence; (2) Although a number of studies suggest links to adult physical and mental health and social consequences, existing evidence is of insufficient quality to warrant causal inferences at this stage. Conclusions There is an urgent need for high quality long-term prospective cohort studies in order to better understand the public health burden that is consequent on late adolescent drinking, both in relation to adult drinking and more broadly. Reducing drinking during late adolescence is likely to be important for preventing long-term adverse consequences as well as protecting against more immediate harms. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary

McCambridge, Jim; McAlaney, John; Rowe, Richard

2011-01-01

393

Longitudinal age-and cohort trends in body mass index in Sweden - a 24-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze whether mean Body Mass Index (BMI), assessed at four occasions, changed within different age groups and birth cohorts over time, i.e., between 1980/81 and 2004/05, after adjustment for possible confounders. Methods A sample of 2728 men and 2770 women aged 16–71 years at study start were randomly drawn from the Swedish Total Population Register and followed from 1980/81 to 2004/05. The same sample was assessed on four occasions during the 24-year study period (i.e., every eighth year). The outcome variable, BMI, was based on self-reported height and weight. A mixed model, with random intercept and random slope, was used to estimate annual changes in BMI within the different age groups and birth cohorts. Results Mean BMI increased from 24.1 to 25.5 for men and from 23.1 to 24.3 for women during the 24-year study period. The annual change by age group was highest in the ages of 32–39, 40–47 and 48–55 years among men, and in the ages of 24–31, 32–39, and 40–47 years among women. The highest annual changes were found in the youngest birth cohorts for both men and women, i.e., those born 1958–65, 1966–73, and 1974–81. For each birth cohort, the annual change in BMI increased compared to the previous, i.e., older, birth cohort. In addition, age-by-cohort interaction tests revealed that the increase in BMI by increasing age was higher in the younger birth cohorts (1966–1989) than in the older ones. Conclusions Public health policies should target those age groups and birth cohorts with the highest increases in BMI. For example, younger birth cohorts had higher annual increases in BMI than older birth cohorts, which means that younger cohorts increased their BMI more than older ones during the study period.

2013-01-01

394

Body Mass Index, Change in Body Silhouette, and Risk of Asthma in the E3N Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To evaluate the impact of body mass index (BMI) (weight (kg)\\/height (m)2) and change in body silhouette on asthma risk, the authors investigated a cohort of women participating in the E3N Cohort Study in France from 1990 to 1993. The authors identified 372 incident cases of asthma among 67,229 women aged 40-65 years at baseline. Data were analyzed using proportional

I. Romieu; V. Avenel; B. Leynaert; F. Kauffmann; F. Clavel-Chapelon

2003-01-01

395

Epidural anaesthesia and survival after intermediate-to-high risk non-cardiac surgery: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We used population-based linked administrative databases to do a retrospective cohort study of 259 037 patients, aged 40 years or older, who underwent selected elective intermediate-to-high risk non-cardiac surgical procedures between April 1, 1994, and March 31, 2004, in Ontario, Canada. Propensity-score methods were used to construct a matched-pairs cohort that reduced important baseline diff erences between patients who

Duminda N Wijeysundera; W Scott Beattie; Peter C Austin; Janet E Hux; Andreas Laupacis

2008-01-01

396

Visual estimation versus gravimetric measurement of postpartum blood loss: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  One of the major problems in international literature is how to measure postpartum blood loss with accuracy. We aimed in this\\u000a research to assess the accuracy of visual estimation of postpartum blood loss (by each of two main health-care providers)\\u000a compared with the gravimetric calculation method.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We carried out a prospective cohort study at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi

Hanan M. F. Al Kadri; Bedayah K. Al Anazi; Hani M. Tamim

2011-01-01

397

Cohort study of a campylobacteriosis outbreak associated with chicken liver parfait, United Kingdom, June 2010.  

PubMed

In an outbreak of 24 cases of gastroenteritis among guests at a wedding reception, 13 cases had confirmed Campylobacter infection. In a cohort study, univariate analysis revealed a strong association with consumption of chicken liver parfait: risk ratio (RR): 30.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.34-208.44, p<0.001, which remained after adjustment for potential confounders in a multivariable model: RR=27.8, 95% CI=3.9-199.7, p=0.001. These analyses strongly support the hypothesis that this outbreak was caused by the consumption of chicken liver parfait. PMID:21087588

Inns, T; Foster, K; Gorton, R

2010-01-01

398

Wine and other alcohol consumption and risk of ovarian cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  Whether alcohol consumption influences ovarian cancer risk is unclear. Therefore, we investigated the association between\\u000a alcohol intake at various ages and risk of ovarian cancer.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Among 90,371 eligible members of the California Teachers Study cohort who completed a baseline alcohol assessment in 1995–1996,\\u000a 253 women were diagnosed with epithelial ovarian cancer by the end of 2003. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards

Ellen T. Chang; Alison J. Canchola; Valerie S. Lee; Christina A. Clarke; David M. Purdie; Peggy Reynolds; Leslie Bernstein; Daniel O. Stram; Hoda Anton-Culver; Dennis Deapen; Harvey Mohrenweiser; David Peel; Rich Pinder; Ronald K. Ross; Dee W. West; William Wright; Argyrios Ziogas; Pamela L. Horn-Ross

2007-01-01

399

Failure of non-invasive ventilation in patients with acute lung injury: observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction  The role of non-invasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) in the treatment of acute lung injury (ALI) is controversial.\\u000a We sought to assess the outcome of ALI that was initially treated with NIPPV and to identify specific risk factors for NIPPV\\u000a failure.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  In this observational cohort study at the two intensive care units of a tertiary center, we identified consecutive patients

Sameer Rana; Hussam Jenad; Peter C Gay; Curtis F Buck; Rolf D Hubmayr; Ognjen Gajic

2006-01-01

400

Risk of cancer associated with cardiac catheterization procedures during childhood: a cohort study in France  

PubMed Central

Background Radiation can be used effectively for diagnosis and medical treatment, but it can also cause cancers later on. Children with congenital heart disease frequently undergo cardiac catheterization procedures for diagnostic or treatment purposes. Despite the clear clinical benefit to the patient, the complexity of these procedures may result in high cumulative radiation exposure. Given children’s greater sensitivity to radiation and the longer life span during which radiation health effects can develop, an epidemiological cohort study is being launched in France to evaluate the risks of leukaemia and solid cancers in this specific population. Methods/design The study population will include all children who have undergone at least one cardiac catheterization procedure since 2000 and were under 10 years old and permanent residents of France at the time of the procedure. Electronically stored patient records from the departments of paediatric cardiology of the French national network for complex congenital heart diseases (M3C) are being searched to identify the children to be included. The minimum dataset will comprise: identification of the subject (file number in the centre or department, full name, sex, date and place of birth), and characteristics of the intervention (date, underlying disease, type of procedure, technical details, such as fluoroscopy time and dose area product, (DAP), which are needed to reconstruct the doses received by each child). The cohort will be followed up through linkage with the two French paediatric cancer registries, which have recorded all cases of childhood leukaemia and solid cancers in France since 1990 and 2000, respectively. Radiation exposure will be estimated retrospectively for each child. 4500 children with catherizations between 2000 and 2011 have been already included in the cohort, and recruitment is ongoing at the national level. The study is expected to finally include a total of 8000 children. Discussion This French cohort study is specifically designed to provide further knowledge about the potential cancer risks associated with paediatric cardiac catheterization procedures. It will also provide new information on typical dose levels associated with these procedures in France. Finally, it should help improve awareness of the importance of radiation protection in these procedures.

2013-01-01

401

Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood.

Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

2014-01-01

402

A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico), using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort), in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort). Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type.

2012-01-01

403

Tuberculosis After One Year of Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Nigeria: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Abstract Our objective was to determine tuberculosis (TB) incidence and evaluate TB risk in adults after one or more years of use of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) through a retrospective cohort study in Jos, Nigeria. We studied a cohort of HIV-infected adults treated with ART for at least 1 year. Based on immunologic and virologic responses to ART, patients were categorized into four groups: CD4 T cell count ?350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level ?400 copies/ml (group 1), CD4 T cell count ?350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level >400 copies/ml (group 2), CD4 T cell count <350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level ?400 copies/ml (group 3), and CD4 T cell count <350 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA level >400 copies/ml (group 4). Time to incident TB for the four groups was analyzed using the Kaplan–Meier method. Cox regression models were used to evaluate predictors of incident TB. In this cohort of 5,093 HIV-infected adults, of which 68.4% were female, with a mean age 35.1 years (standard deviation 9.1 years), we observed 98 cases of incident TB during 4 years and 3 months of follow-up. The overall TB incidence rate was 8.7 cases/1,000 patient-years of follow-up. Adjusted hazards for incident TB were 2.11 (95% CI 0.97–4.61), 2.05 (95% CI 1.10–3.79), and 3.65 (95% CI 1.15–5.06) in group 2, 3, and 4 patients, respectively, compared to group 1. Tuberculosis incidence in patients on ART is driven by poor immunologic and/or virologic response. Optimization of HIV treatment should be prioritized to reduce the burden of TB in this high-risk population.

Achenbach, Chad J.; Feinglass, Joe; Taiwo, Babafemi; Onu, Adamu; Pho, Mai T.; Agbaji, Oche; Kanki, Phyllis; Murphy, Robert L.

2013-01-01

404

The frequency of rehospitalization and associated factors in Colombian psychiatric patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The rehospitalization of patients with mental disorders is common, with rehospitalization rates of up to 80% observed in these patients. This phenomenon negatively impacts families, patients, and the health care system. Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of rehospitalization. This study was aimed at determining the frequency and the factors associated with rehospitalization in a psychiatric clinic. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 361 patients who were hospitalized at the Clinic of Our Lady of Peace in Bogota, Colombia from August-December 2009. We calculated the incidence rates of rehospitalization and the risk factors using Cox regression. Results Overall, 60% of the patients in this cohort were rehospitalized during the year that followed the index event. The variables associated with rehospitalization were separated, divorced, or single status; higher socio-economic strata; a longer duration of index hospitalization; and a diagnosis of substance abuse, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression. Conclusions The rehospitalization rate in our study was as high as reported in other studies. The associated factors with it in this group, may contribute to the design of programs that will reduce the frequency of rehospitalization among patients with mental disorders, in countries like Colombia. Additionally, these results may be useful in interventions, such as coping skills training, psycho-education, and community care strategies, which have been demonstrated to reduce the frequency of rehospitalization.

2014-01-01

405

Towards the prevention of acute lung injury: a population based cohort study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Acute lung injury (ALI) is an example of a critical care syndrome with limited treatment options once the condition is fully established. Despite improved understanding of pathophysiology of ALI, the clinical impact has been limited to improvements in supportive treatment. On the other hand, little has been done on the prevention of ALI. Olmsted County, MN, geographically isolated from other urban areas offers the opportunity to study clinical pathogenesis of ALI in a search for potential prevention targets. Methods/Design In this population-based observational cohort study, the investigators identify patients at high risk of ALI using the prediction model applied within the first six hours of hospital admission. Using a validated system-wide electronic surveillance, Olmsted County patients at risk are followed until ALI, death or hospital discharge. Detailed in-hospital (second hit) exposures and meaningful short and long term outcomes (quality-adjusted survival) are compared between ALI cases and high risk controls matched by age, gender and probability of developing ALI. Time sensitive biospecimens are collected for collaborative research studies. Nested case control comparison of 500 patients who developed ALI with 500 matched controls will provide an adequate power to determine significant differences in common hospital exposures and outcomes between the two groups. Discussion This population-based observational cohort study will identify patients at high risk early in the course of disease, the burden of ALI in the community, and the potential targets for future prevention trials.

2010-01-01

406

Retrospective study of biopsied head and neck lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction A study of the whole spectrum of biopsied head and neck (HN) diseases in Taiwan has not yet been performed. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide updated information about HN lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients for histopathological examination. Methods HN lesions (2000–2011) in patients with records of age, sex, and histological diagnoses were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Department of the institution. These lesions were classified into four main categories: tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, inflammatory/infective lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Results A total of 37,210 HN lesions were included in the current study. Most of these lesions were distributed in the group of tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, followed by the groups of inflammatory/infective lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common HN lesion, and was also the most frequent malignant lesion among the referral patients. Conclusion It was worthy of note that squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders comprised high percentages of all HN lesions for the present cohort of referral patients.

2014-01-01

407

Diet and risk of ovarian cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort.  

PubMed

Dietary phytochemical compounds, including isoflavones and isothiocyanates, may inhibit cancer development but have not yet been examined in prospective epidemiologic studies of ovarian cancer. The authors have investigated the association between consumption of these and other nutrients and ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Among 97,275 eligible women in the California Teachers Study cohort who completed the baseline dietary assessment in 1995-1996, 280 women developed invasive or borderline ovarian cancer by December 31, 2003. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, with age as the timescale, was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals; all statistical tests were two sided. Intake of isoflavones was associated with lower risk of ovarian cancer. Compared with the risk for women who consumed less than 1 mg of total isoflavones per day, the relative risk of ovarian cancer associated with consumption of more than 3 mg/day was 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.96). Intake of isothiocyanates or foods high in isothiocyanates was not associated with ovarian cancer risk, nor was intake of macronutrients, antioxidant vitamins, or other micronutrients. Although dietary consumption of isoflavones may be associated with decreased ovarian cancer risk, most dietary factors are unlikely to play a major role in ovarian cancer development. PMID:17210953

Chang, Ellen T; Lee, Valerie S; Canchola, Alison J; Clarke, Christina A; Purdie, David M; Reynolds, Peggy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Peel, David; Pinder, Rich; Ross, Ronald K; Stram, Daniel O; West, Dee W; Wright, William; Ziogas, Argyrios; Horn-Ross, Pamela L

2007-04-01

408

Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available for analysis. In multivariate case-cohort analyses adjusted for age, family history of prostate cancer and socioeconomic status, no associations were found for consumption of fresh meat, fish, cheese and eggs. Positive trends in risk were found for consumption of cured meat and milk products (P-values 0.04 and 0.02 respectively). For calcium and protein intake, no associations were observed. The hypothesis that dietary factors might be more strongly related to advanced prostate tumours could not be confirmed in our study. We conclude that, in this study, animal products are not strongly related to prostate cancer risk. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign

Schuurman, A G; Brandt, P A van den; Dorant, E; Goldbohm, R A

1999-01-01

409

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Initiating Injection Drug Use: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective This study examined whether childhood sexual abuse predicts initiation of injection drug use in a prospective cohort of youth. Method From October 2005 to November 2010, data were collected from the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a prospective cohort study of street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada. Inclusion criteria were age 14-26 years, no lifetime drug injection, and non-injection drug use in the month preceding enrollment. Participants were interviewed at baseline and semiannually thereafter. Cox regression was employed to identify ri