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1

Attribution of physical complaints to the air disaster in Amsterdam by exposed rescue workers: an epidemiological study using historic cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into a residential area of Amsterdam. A troublesome aftermath followed, with rumors on potential toxic exposures and health consequences. Health concerns remained even though no excess morbidity was predicted in retrospective risk evaluations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the rescue workers attribute long-term physical complaints to this disaster, including its

Pauline Slottje; Nynke Smidt; Jos WR Twisk; Anja C Huizink; Anke B Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2006-01-01

2

Attribution of physical complaints to the air disaster in Amsterdam by exposed rescue workers: an epidemiological study using historic cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into a residential area of Amsterdam. A troublesome aftermath followed, with rumors on potential toxic exposures and health consequences. Health concerns remained even though no excess morbidity was predicted in retrospective risk evaluations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the rescue workers attribute long-term physical complaints to this disaster, including its aftermath, and to examine associations between such attribution and types of exposure and background variables. Methods Historic cohort study that collected questionnaire data on occupational disaster exposure, attribution of physical complaints, and background variables on average 8.5 years post-disaster. For the present study the workers who were exposed to the disaster were selected from the historic cohort, i.e. the professional firefighters (n = 334), police officers (n = 834), and accident and wreckage investigators (n = 241) who performed disaster-related tasks. Results Across the three occupational groups, a consistent percentage (ranging from 43% to 49%) of exposed workers with long-term physical complaints attributed these to the disaster, including its aftermath. Those with more physical complaints attributed these to a stronger degree. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that attribution was significantly more often reported by firefighters who rescued people, and by police officers who reported the identification and recovery of or search for victims and human remains, clean-up, or security and surveillance of the disaster area; who witnessed the immediate disaster scene; who had a close one affected by the disaster; and who perceived the disaster as the worst thing that ever happened to them. Age, sex and educational level were not significantly associated with attribution. Conclusion This study provides further cross-sectional evidence for the role of causal attribution in post-disaster subjective physical health problems. After on average 8.5 years, almost a third (32%) of all the exposed workers, and almost half (45%) of the exposed workers with physical complaints, attributed these complaints to the disaster, including its aftermath. The similarity of the results across the occupational groups suggests a general rather than an occupation-specific attribution process. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether causal disaster attribution leads to persistence of post-disaster complaints and health care utilization. PMID:16734887

Slottje, Pauline; Smidt, Nynke; Twisk, Jos WR; Huizink, Anja C; Witteveen, Anke B; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

2006-01-01

3

Systematic Study on Genetic and Epimutational Profile of a Cohort of Amsterdam Criteria-Defined Lynch Syndrome in Singapore  

PubMed Central

Background Germline defects of mismatch repair (MMR) genes underlie Lynch Syndrome (LS). We aimed to gain comprehensive genetic and epigenetic profiles of LS families in Singapore, which will facilitate efficient molecular diagnosis of LS in Singapore and the region. Methods Fifty nine unrelated families were studied. Mutations in exons, splice-site junctions and promoters of five MMR genes were scanned by high resolution melting assay followed by DNA sequencing, large fragment deletions/duplications and promoter methylation in MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2 were evaluated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. Tumor microsatellite instability (MSI) was assessed with five mononucleotide markers and immunohistochemical staining (IHC) was also performed. Results Pathogenic defects, all confined to MLH1 and MSH2, were identified in 17 out of 59 (28.8%) families. The mutational spectrum was highly heterogeneous and 28 novel variants were identified. One recurrent mutation in MLH1 (c.793C>T) was also observed. 92.9% sensitivity for indication of germline mutations conferred by IHC surpassed 64.3% sensitivity by MSI. Furthermore, 15.6% patients with MSS tumors harbored pathogenic mutations. Conclusions Among major ethnic groups in Singapore, all pathogenic germline defects were confined to MLH1 and MSH2. Caution should be applied when the Amsterdam criteria and consensus microsatellite marker panel recommended in the revised Bethesda guidelines are applied to the local context. We recommend a screening strategy for the local LS by starting with tumor IHC and the hotspot mutation testing at MLH1 c.793C>T followed by comprehensive mutation scanning in MLH1 and MSH2 prior to proceeding to other MMR genes. PMID:24710284

Goh, Xue Wei; Tan, Soo Yong; Loi, Carol Tien Tau; Tan, Yuen Ming; Law, Hai Yang; Koh, Poh Koon; Tang, Choong Leong

2014-01-01

4

Trulaske College of Business January Intersession Study Abroad Paris/Amsterdam 2015  

E-print Network

business management in Europe. Compare Paris's market economy with Amsterdam's market economy. Six inTrulaske College of Business January Intersession Study Abroad Paris/Amsterdam 2015 1 January Intersession Course in Paris/Amsterdam FIN 4185 Problems in Finance: International Business Management Depart

Missouri-Columbia, University of

5

Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

2005-01-01

6

Shanghai Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Cohort Study consists of 18,244 men in Shanghai, China, assembled during 1986-1989 when subjects were between the ages of 45 and 64 years. At recruitment, all cohort members provided detailed dietary and medical histories as well as blood and urine specimens. In the follow-up of 2000-2001, buccal cells were collected from 13,815 original cohort participants (92% of all surviving cohort members).

7

Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study is a longitudinal study established in the 1990s by Cancer Council Victoria to investigate prospectively the role of diet and other lifestyle factors in cancer.

8

Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)  

Cancer.gov

The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) started in 1986 and includes 120,852 men and women. The study population originates from 204 municipal population registries throughout The Netherlands, by gender-stratified random sampling.

9

Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with lower increase in knee muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a 2-year follow-up study in the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the associations of elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with change in muscle strength in patients with established knee osteoarthritis (OA), at 2 years. Methods Data from 186 patients with knee OA were gathered at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. CRP (in milligrams per liter) and ESR (in millimeters per hour) were measured in serum from patients’ blood. Strength of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was assessed by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The association of inflammatory markers with change in knee muscle strength was analyzed by using uni- and multi-variate linear regression models. Results Patients with elevated CRP values at both baseline and 2-year follow-up exhibited a lower increase in knee muscle strength for a period of 2 years (??=?-0.22; P?=?0.01) compared with the group with non-elevated levels at both times of assessment. The association persisted after adjustment for relevant confounders. Elevated ESR values at both times of assessment were not significantly associated with change in knee muscle strength (??=?-0.05; P?=?0.49). Conclusions Our results indicate that elevated CRP values are related to a lower gain in muscle strength over time in patients with established knee OA. Although the mechanism to explain this relationship is not fully elucidated, these results suggest inflammation as a relevant factor influencing muscle strength in this group of patients. PMID:24928303

2014-01-01

10

Cohort Studies: Prospective versus Retrospective  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort studies form a suitable study design to assess associations between multiple exposures on the one hand and multiple outcomes on the other hand. They are especially appropriate to study rare exposures or exposures for which randomization is not possible for practical or ethical reasons. Prospective and retrospective cohort studies have higher accuracy and higher efficiency as their respective main

Anne M. Euser; Carmine Zoccali; Kitty J. Jager; Friedo W. Dekker

2009-01-01

11

Longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease using data from the longitudinal Amsterdam Growth and Health Study (AGHS). In the AGHS, 98 females and 81 males were measured six times between 1977 and 1991. In 1977, the age of the subjects was 13 years. The variables

Willem Van Mechelen; Jos W. R. Twisk; Frank J. Van Lenthe; G. Bertheke Post; Jan Snel; Han C. G. Kemper

1998-01-01

12

Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands - the GHAIA study  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among the largest SSA migrant population (Ghanaians) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Data were obtained from structured interviews along with medical examination among 212 participants from a cross-sectional study: the GHAIA study in 2010 in Amsterdam. Blood pressure was measured with a validated Oscillometric automated digital blood pressure device. Psychosocial stress was assessed by questionnaires on perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms and financial problems. Binary logistic regression was used to study associations between psychosocial stress and hypertension. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 54.7%. About two thirds of the study population experienced a moderate (31%) or high (36%) level of discrimination. 20.0% of the participants had mild depressive symptoms, whilst 9% had moderate depressive symptoms. The prevalence of financial stress was 34.8%. The psychosocial stresses we assessed were not significantly associated with hypertension: adjusted odds ratios comparing those with low levels and those with high levels were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.47–2.08) for perceived discrimination, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.26–2.49) for depressive symptoms and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.37–1.36) for financial stress, respectively. Conclusion We did not find evidence for the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension among recent SSA migrants. More efforts are needed to unravel other potential factors that may underlie the high prevalence of hypertension among these populations. PMID:25001592

2014-01-01

13

Southern Community Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The current body of knowledge regarding the etiology and prevention of cancer draws substantially from prospective epidemiologic studies, among which African Americans have been greatly underrepresented.

14

[Congress of European society of cardiology (amsterdam, 2013): new recommendations and most important clinical studies].  

PubMed

In this review we present short report on European Congress of Cardiology which took place in Amsterdam from August 3 to September 4, 2013. Four new European recommendations on the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are briefly characterized and reports of Hot Line and Clinical Trial Update scientific sessions are presented. PMID:25177890

Kanorski?, S G; Mamedov, M N

2014-01-01

15

Cohort Profile: The AGES 2003 Cohort Study in Aichi, Japan  

PubMed Central

Background The longevity of Japanese is thought to be associated with psychosocial factors such as sense of coherence, social support, and social capital. However, the actual factors responsible and the extent of their contribution to individual health status are not known. Methods The Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) 2003 Cohort Study is a prospective cohort study of community-dwelling, activities of daily living-independent people aged 65 or older living in 6 municipalities in Chita peninsula, Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Information on psychosocial factors and other individual- and community-level factors was collected in the second half of 2003 using a baseline questionnaire. Vital status and physical and cognitive decline have been followed using data derived from long-term care insurance certification. Geographical information on the study participants was also obtained. Results A total of 13 310 (6508 men; 6802 women) study participants were registered in the study. For an interim report, we followed the cohort for 48 months, yielding 24 753 person-years of observation among men and 26 456 person-years among women. Conclusions The AGES 2003 Cohort Study provides useful evidence for research in social epidemiology, gerontology, and health services. PMID:21325730

Nishi, Akihiro; Kondo, Katsunori; Hirai, Hiroshi; Kawachi, Ichiro

2011-01-01

16

Multidisciplinary integrated Parent and Child Centres in Amsterdam: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs) involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres. Study design A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (n=91). Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals [health care professionals (n=67) and PCC managers n=12)] and PCC-experts (n=12) in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts. Results Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals’ needs dominating clients’ needs. Conclusions Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended. PMID:23882163

Busch, Vincent; Van Stel, Henk Francois; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Melhuish, Edward; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus

2013-01-01

17

Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale and outline of the AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) registry  

PubMed Central

Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA. Methods and analysis We set up a large-scale prospective community-based registry (AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies, ARREST) in which we prospectively include all resuscitation attempts from OHCA in a large study region in the Netherlands in collaboration with Emergency Medical Services. Of all OHCA victims since June 2005, we prospectively collect medical history (through hospital and general practitioner), and current and previous medication use (through community pharmacy). In addition, we include DNA samples from OHCA victims with documented ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation during the resuscitation attempt since July 2007. Various study designs are employed to analyse the data of the ARREST registry, including case–control, cohort, case only and case-cross over designs. Ethics and dissemination We describe the rationale, outline and potential results of the ARREST registry. The design allows for a stable and reliable collection of multiple determinants of OHCA, while assuring that the patient, lay-caregiver or medical professional is not hindered in any way. Such comprehensive data collection is required to unravel the complex basis of OHCA. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific symposia. PMID:25332818

Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A; Berdowski, J; Souverein, P C; De Bruin, M L; Koster, R W; de Boer, A; Tan, H L

2014-01-01

18

Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. PMID:21486270

Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

2011-04-01

19

University of Amsterdam Amsterdam, The Netherlands  

E-print Network

student surveys and partner university website. Further information is available from: http of continental Europe, students based at the University of Amsterdam have the opportunity to travel throughoutA is part of the Erasmus programme, as well as a member of Universitas 21, University of Nottingham students

Hopkins, Gail

20

Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01

21

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988-2003: a population-based ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988–2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02). We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19), mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83). The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89). In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10). This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area. This observation warrants further research, for example in a study with focus on substances in urban ambient air pollution, as similar findings were observed in Greater Amsterdam. PMID:16332253

Visser, Otto; van Wijnen, Joop H; van Leeuwen, Flora E

2005-01-01

22

Cohort profile: the Helsinki Health Study.  

PubMed

The Helsinki Health Study cohort was set up to enable longitudinal studies on the social and work related determinants of health and well-being, making use of self-reported as well as objective register data. The target population is the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Baseline data for the cohort were derived from questionnaire surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among employees reaching 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 years of age in each year. The number of responders at baseline was 8960 (80% women, response rate 67%). Additional age-based health examination data were available. A follow up survey was conducted in 2007 yielding 7332 responders (response rate 83%). Measures of health include health behaviours, self-rated health, common mental disorders, functioning, pain, sleep problems, angina symptoms and major diseases. Social determinants include socio-demographics, socio-economic circumstances, working conditions, social support, and work-family interface. Further register linkages include sickness absence, hospital discharge, prescribed drugs, and retirement updated at the end of 2010. The cohort allows comparisons with the Whitehall II study, London, UK, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study from western Japan. The cohort data are available for collaborative research at Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. PMID:22467288

Lahelma, Eero; Aittomäki, Akseli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lallukka, Tea; Martikainen, Pekka; Piha, Kustaa; Rahkonen, Ossi; Saastamoinen, Peppiina

2013-06-01

23

Feasibility of cohort studies in Estonia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology and feasibility of follow up for vital status in retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. METHODS: A cohort of 7412 workers who had been employed at two factories in Tallinn between 1946 and 1988 was followed up for vital status from the date of first employment until death, emigration, or the end of the study, 31 December 1995, whichever occurred first. The cohort was electronically linked with the National Population Registry of Estonia that was created in 1992 and includes personal identification numbers of Estonian citizens and residents, and the Mortality Database that contains information from death certificates issued in 1983-95. A manual search was carried out on several non-computerised population data sources and archives. RESULTS: By 31 December 1995, the vital status of 6780 (91.5%) subjects could be traced (4495 (60.6%) subjects were alive, 1993 (26.9%) had died, and 292 (3.9%) had emigrated). Analysis by calendar period of leaving work showed that the proportion of subjects traced was lowest in the group of workers who had left work between 1946 and 1955 (58.4%), especially those whose age at leaving work was < 30 (53.2%) or > 60 years (42.3%). Among subjects who left work in 1956-65, 1966-75, and 1976-88, the follow up rate was 84.7%, 94.6%, and 98.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings, which are especially important for occupational epidemiology, confirm the feasibility of conducting retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. Most of the issues discussed in the paper apply to other former Soviet countries.   PMID:10472323

Innos, K.; Rahu, M.; Rahu, K.

1999-01-01

24

Brucellosis in Qatar: A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications and treatment of brucellosis in the State of Qatar. Methods: The medical records of patients in Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar were reviewed from January 2000 to December 2006. History, various socio-demographic features, clinical and biochemical parameters, therapeutic features, and complications were retrospectively collected from the patient database. Results: Around three quarters of the study population were males. History of raw milk consumption and animal contact were seen in 41.7% and 12.5% respectively. The main presenting features of our cohort were fever, chills and sweating (93.1%, 62.5% and 58.3% respectively). Positive antibody titre (>1:160) was detected in 95.8% and positive blood culture was reported in 63.9% of the cohort. Splenomegaly was observed in 19.4%, hepatomegaly in 15.3% and lymphadenopathy in 9.7% of the cases. Approximately half of our patients were treated with a combination of doxycycline and streptomycine and nearly one quarter received doxycycline and rifampicine combination therapy. Conclusions: Brucellosis is an important public health problem worldwide. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It may affect any organ system and can present with a variety of clinical features. Diagnosis of brucellosis requires serological tests with or without blood culture. Treatment with at least two antibiotics for six weeks or more appears to be effective. PMID:25320689

Rahil, Ali Ibrahim; Othman, Muftah; Ibrahim, Walid; Mohamed, Mohamed Yahya

2014-01-01

25

The multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, 1983 to ….  

PubMed

The Multicenter AIDS Cohort (MACS), initiated in 1983 at the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, the University of Pittsburgh School of Public Health, Northwestern University School of Medicine, and the UCLA School of Public Health, continues to conduct studies and publish key papers on the natural history of untreated and treated HIV infection in 6972 men-who-have-sex-with-men. Through May 2011, 1,490,995 specimens have been collected, 86,883 person-years of data accrued and 1195 scientific papers published in international journals. PMID:22206985

Detels, R; Jacobson, L; Margolick, J; Martinez-Maza, O; Muñoz, A; Phair, J; Rinaldo, C; Wolinsky, S

2012-03-01

26

Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.  

PubMed

Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

Jaul, Efraim

2014-12-01

27

Cohort Profile: Golestan Hepatitis B Cohort Study- A Prospective Long Term Study in Northern Iran ?  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

28

Perinatal mortality in rural China: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To explore the use of local civil registration data to assess the perinatal mortality in a typical rural county in a less developed province in China, 1999-2000. Design Retrospective cohort study. Pregnancies in a cohort of women followed from registration of pregnancy to outcome of infant seven days after birth. Setting Routine family planning records in 20 rural townships

Zhuochun Wu; Kirsi Viisainen; Ying Wang; Elina Hemminki

2003-01-01

29

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess

E S Hansen

1990-01-01

30

The wales electronic cohort for children (WECC) study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using record linkage we have designed the first complete population e-cohort in the UK: ‘Wales Electronic Cohort for Children’ (WECC) to investigate the broadest possible range of social and environmental determinants of child health and social outcomes by exploiting the potential of routinely collected datasets. Study aims, at the outset, are broad and include careful examination of how routine health,

M Hyatt; S E Rodgers; S Paranjothy; D Fone; R A Lyons

2011-01-01

31

Cohort profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS).  

PubMed

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

2014-02-01

32

Studies on the life cycle of Asymphylodora tincae (Modeer, 1790) (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) in a small lake near Amsterdam. Part 1. The morphology of various stages.  

PubMed

Aspects of the life cycle of Asymphylodora tincae have been studied in a small lake near Amsterdam. Bithynia tentaculata, being the only snail species that was very numerous in the lake, was the first as well as the main second intermediate host; adult trematodes were found exclusively in the tench, Tinca tinca. A small part of the cercariae that penetrate into B. tentaculata was able to develop into progenetic specimens. A morphological description is given of the following stages of A. tincae: adult, egg, redia, cercariaeum, metacercaria and progenetic stage. The cercariaeum is identified as Cercariaeum paludinae impurae De Filippi, 1854. It is concluded that A. tincae is a species, capable of large variation regarding both morphological structure (e.g. body spination, size) and life cycle. PMID:572385

van den Broek, E; de Jong, N

1979-03-01

33

Observational Studies: Cohort and Case-Control Studies  

PubMed Central

Observational studies are an important category of study designs. To address some investigative questions in plastic surgery, randomized controlled trials are not always indicated or ethical to conduct. Instead, observational studies may be the next best method to address these types of questions. Well-designed observational studies have been shown to provide results similar to randomized controlled trials, challenging the belief that observational studies are second-rate. Cohort studies and case-control studies are two primary types of observational studies that aid in evaluating associations between diseases and exposures. In this review article, we describe these study designs, methodological issues, and provide examples from the plastic surgery literature. PMID:20697313

Song, Jae W.; Chung, Kevin C.

2010-01-01

34

Cohort Profile: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study, a Guangzhou-Hong Kong-Birmingham collaboration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study (GBCS), initiated by TH Lam (Hong Kong), CQ Jiang (Guangzhou), and KK Cheng (Birmingham), has been in part modelled on the Kadoorie Study of Chronic Disease in China (KSCDC), and the UK Biobank., Initial seed funding came from the Universities of Hong Kong and Birmingham, the Guangzhou No. 12 Hospital (Guangzhou Occupational Disease Prevention &

Chaoqiang Jiang; G Neil Thomas; Tai Hing Lam; C Mary Schooling; Weisen Zhang

35

Implementation evaluation of the Dutch national heat plan among long-term care institutions in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007, a national heat plan was introduced in the Netherlands to effectively protect vulnerable populations (such as institutionalised elderly people) against heatwaves. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which the measures recommended in this heat plan had been implemented, and could be implemented, in long-term care institutions in Amsterdam three years on. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the care managers of all 54 eligible long-term care institutions in Amsterdam. This included questions on the presence of a heat protocol and cooling facilities in the building. Furthermore, the care managers were asked to judge the importance of 23 of the cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan in the event of a heatwave, and to report on practical problems that may affect the implementation of these cooling measures. Results Of the 54 questionnaires sent, 27 were returned. Most institutions had a heat protocol, virtually all of which had been developed in the three years preceding the survey. Outdoor sunshades were used most often to protect residents against heat (93% of all institutions). Prevalence of cooling facilities such as air conditioning and rooftop cooling had increased, but remained low (41%). Care managers confirmed the importance of most of the 23 cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan, with some exceptions. Only 41% regarded consulting physicians on medication use to be ‘very important’. Most care managers did not foresee large problems with the implementation of the recommended cooling measures. Barriers mentioned related to shortage of and expertise among personnel, and residents’ independence. Conclusion The results suggest that a national heat plan could be implemented in long-term care institutions with few problems. Possible areas of improvement include cooling of buildings and staff training. PMID:23578306

2013-01-01

36

The French GAZEL Cohort Study: 20 years of epidemiologic research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GAZEL Cohort Study was set up in 1989 among Électricité de France-Gaz de France (EDF-GDF) workers. It is an open epidemiologic laboratory characterized by a broad coverage of health problems and determinants and accessible to the community of researchers. At inception in 1989, the GAZEL Cohort Study included 20625 volunteers working at EDF-GDF then aged from 35 to 50

Marie Zins; Annette Leclerc; Marcel Goldberg

2009-01-01

37

Effect of neck pain on verticality perception: A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Grod JP, Diakow PR. Effect of neck pain on verticality perception: a cohort study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 2002;83:412-5. Objective: To use the Rod-and-Frame Test (RFT) as a quantification of the perception of verticality in subjects with and without neck pain. Design: Cohort study comparing perception of verticality in symptomatic subjects with neck pain versus a control group. Setting: Both

Jaroslaw P. Grod; Peter R. Diakow

2002-01-01

38

Incidence of cancer among UK Gulf war veterans: cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether incidence rates of cancer are higher in UK service personnel who were deployed in the Gulf war than in those not deployed and whether any increased risk of cancer is related to self reported exposures to potentially hazardous material during the period of deployment. Design A cohort study with follow up from 1 April 1991 (the end of the Gulf war) to 31 July 2002. Participants 51 721 Gulf war veterans and 50 755 service personnel matched for age, sex, rank, service, and level of fitness who were not deployed in the Gulf (the Era cohort). Main outcome measures Incident cancers, identified on the NHS central register. Results There were 270 incident cancers among the Gulf cohort and 269 among the Era cohort (incidence rate ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.17). There was no excess in site specific cancers among the Gulf cohort. Adjustment for lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption) did not alter these results. In the Gulf cohort, risk of cancer was not related to multiple vaccinations or exposure to pesticides or depleted uranium during deployment. Conclusion There is no current excess risk of cancer overall nor of site specific cancers in Gulf war veterans. Specific exposures during deployment have not resulted in a subsequent increased risk of cancer. The long latent period for cancer, however, necessitates the continued follow up of these cohorts. PMID:14670879

Macfarlane, Gary J; Biggs, Anne-Marie; Maconochie, Noreen; Hotopf, Matthew; Doyle, Patricia; Lunt, Mark

2003-01-01

39

Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araujo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fatima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Goncalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

2010-01-01

40

Southern community cohort study: establishing a cohort to investigate health disparities.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the methods of recruitment of a low-income, predominantly African-American study population for the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), a prospective epidemiologic investigation of racial disparities in cancer risk. METHODS: Partnerships with community health centers (CHCs) were formed to reach underserved populations throughout the south. Recruitment of participants (aged 40-79) in CHCs began in March 2002. Participants complete a comprehensive baseline interview and provide a blood or buccal cell sample. Recruitment will expand to the general population of the south to achieve a broad cross-section of socioeconomic status, The final cohort size is expected to be approximately 100,000. RESULTS: A high level of cooperation and recruitment was achieved in the CHCs. From March 2002 to October 2004, 32,632 participants (80% black, 41% male, 62% with total household income < $15,000, 34% with < 12 years schooling) enrolled. Participants reported a high prevalence of medical conditions (21% diabetic, 44% obese) and adverse health behaviors (45% current smokers). CONCLUSIONS: Working in CHCs is successful for recruiting a population that has been difficult to reach in previous studies. The SCCS is a unique cohort that will provide a rich resource for evaluating disparities in cancer and other chronic disease risk as it is followed over time. PMID:16080667

Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Steinwandel, Mark D.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Schlundt, David G.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Arnold, Carolyne W.; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Blot, William J.

2005-01-01

41

The Amsterdam Manifesto on OCL  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract In November 1998 the authors participated in a two - day workshop on the Object Constraint Language (OCL) in Amsterdam The focus was to clarify issues about the semantics and the use of OCL, and to discuss useful and necessary extensions of OCL Various topics have been raised and clarified This manifesto contains the results of that workshop and

Steve Cook; Anneke Kleppe; Richard Mitchell; Bernhard Rumpe; Jos Warmer; Alan Wills

2002-01-01

42

Physics Research Universiteit van Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Amsterdam 11 UvA-1 Condensed Matter Physics 11 UvA-2 Soft Condensed Matter Physics 12 UvA-3 Quantum Gases and Laser Sciences 19 VU-2 Biophysics 20 VU-3 Physics of Complex Systems 21 VU-4 Condensed Matter Physics 22

van Rooij, Robert

43

The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident study investigating psychological distress: design, methods and cohort profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident (TCOM) Study has been carried out in Tokyo since 2004. This study examined\\u000a the association of medical and psychosocial variables evaluated shortly after admission to the acute critical care center\\u000a with long-term psychiatric morbidity risk in patients with accidental injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between May 2004 and January 2008, patients with accidental injury consecutively admitted were

Yutaka Matsuoka; Daisuke Nishi; Satomi Nakajima; Naohiro Yonemoto; Kenji Hashimoto; Hiroko Noguchi; Masato Homma; Yasuhiro Otomo; Yoshiharu Kim

2009-01-01

44

Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

At entry to the cohort study, each participant completed a 26-page mail questionnaire that included an extensive quantitative diet history, as well as other demographic, medical, and lifestyle information. Multiple 24-hour diet recalls were collected on more than 2,000 of the participants in a calibration study designed to permit correction of nutrient intake estimates for measurement error.

45

Adhesive capsulitis and dynamic splinting: a controlled, cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Adhesive Capsulitis (AC) affects patient of all ages, and stretching protocols are commonly prescribed for this condition. Dynamic splinting has been shown effective in contracture reduction from pathologies including Trismus to plantar fasciitis. The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy of dynamic splinting on patients with AC. METHODS: This controlled, cohort study, was conducted at four

Paul D Gaspar; F Buck Willis

2009-01-01

46

Cohort profile: the international collaboration of incident HIV and hepatitis C in injecting cohorts (InC3) study.  

PubMed

The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC(3)) Study is an international multi-cohort project of pooled biological and behavioural data from nine prospective cohorts of people who inject drugs (PWID). InC(3) brings together researchers from Australia, Canada, USA and the Netherlands with expertise in epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical and behavioural sciences, virology and immunology to investigate research questions relevant to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV outcomes. InC(3) was established to: (i) create a merged multi-cohort study of pooled data from well-characterized cohorts of PWID with prospective data on HIV and HCV infections, with a particular focus on HCV; (ii) facilitate new studies not possible within individual cohorts; and (iii) bring together researchers across disciplines to answer a broad range of research questions. Study cohorts identify acute HCV cases through follow-up of high-risk HCV antibody-negative PWID or through clinical referral networks. To date, data from 1986 to 2010 have been received from all contributing cohorts, with 821 HCV-infected and 1216 HCV-uninfected participants (overall, n = 2037). Data collected include demographics, host genetics, HCV ribonucleic acid testing, alanine aminotransferase testing, HIV/hepatitis B virus testing, HCV therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality. Potential collaborators should contact the InC(3) PI Dr Kimberley Page (kPage@psg.ucsf.edu) for further information. PMID:23203695

Grebely, Jason; Morris, Meghan D; Rice, Thomas M; Bruneau, Julie; Cox, Andrea L; Kim, Arthur Y; McGovern, Barbara H; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lauer, Georg; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R; Hellard, Margaret; Prins, Maria; Dore, Gregory J; Page, Kimberly

2013-12-01

47

Exposure Assessment in Cohort Studies of Childhood Asthma  

PubMed Central

Background The environment is suspected to play an important role in the development of childhood asthma. Cohort studies are a powerful observational design for studying exposure–response relationships, but their power depends in part upon the accuracy of the exposure assessment. Objective The purpose of this paper is to summarize and discuss issues that make accurate exposure assessment a challenge and to suggest strategies for improving exposure assessment in longitudinal cohort studies of childhood asthma and allergies. Data synthesis Exposures of interest need to be prioritized, because a single study cannot measure all potentially relevant exposures. Hypotheses need to be based on proposed mechanisms, critical time windows for effects, prior knowledge of physical, physiologic, and immunologic development, as well as genetic pathways potentially influenced by the exposures. Modifiable exposures are most important from the public health perspective. Given the interest in evaluating gene–environment interactions, large cohort sizes are required, and planning for data pooling across independent studies is critical. Collection of additional samples, possibly through subject participation, will permit secondary analyses. Models combining air quality, environmental, and dose data provide exposure estimates across large cohorts but can still be improved. Conclusions Exposure is best characterized through a combination of information sources. Improving exposure assessment is critical for reducing measurement error and increasing power, which increase confidence in characterization of children at risk, leading to improved health outcomes. PMID:21081299

Arrandale, Victoria H.; Brauer, Michael; Brook, Jeffrey R.; Brunekreef, Bert; Gold, Diane R.; London, Stephanie J.; Miller, J. David; Özkaynak, Halûk; Ries, Nola M.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Silverman, Frances S.; Takaro, Tim K.

2011-01-01

48

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

49

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted

Sarah Schmiege; Nancy Felipe Russo

2005-01-01

50

Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether cannabis use in adolescence predisposes to higher rates of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. Design Seven wave cohort study over six years. Setting 44 schools in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants A statewide secondary school sample of 1601 students aged 14›15 followed for seven years. Main outcome measure Interview measure of depression and anxiety

George C Patton; Carolyn Coffey; John B Carlin; Louisa Degenhardt; Michael Lynskey; Wayne Hall

2002-01-01

51

Onset of obesity in a 36 year birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large national cohort of children studied from birth to 36 years was used to test the predictive value of childhood obesity for obesity in adult life. Only 21% (39) of obese 36 year olds had been obese at age 11 years, and even when associated social factors were taken into account the correctly predicted percentage was much lower than

F E Braddon; B Rodgers; M E Wadsworth; J M Davies

1986-01-01

52

Incidence of cancer among UK Gulf war veterans: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjectives To determine whether incidence rates of cancer are higher in UK service personnel who were deployed in the Gulf war than in those not deployed and whether any increased risk of cancer is related to self reported exposures to potentially hazardous material during the period of deployment.Design A cohort study with follow up from 1 April 1991 (the end

Gary J Macfarlane; Anne-Marie Biggs; Noreen Maconochie; Matthew Hotopf; Patricia Doyle; Mark Lunt

2003-01-01

53

Interactive visual analysis of heterogeneous cohort-study data.  

PubMed

Medical cohort studies enable the study of medical hypotheses with many samples. Often, these studies acquire a large amount of heterogeneous data from many subjects. Usually, researchers study a specific data subset to confirm or reject specific hypotheses. A new approach enables the interactive visual exploration and analysis of such data, helping to generate and validate hypotheses. A data-cube-based model handles partially overlapping data subsets during the interactive visualization. This model enables seamless integration of the heterogeneous data and the linking of spatial and nonspatial views of the data. Researchers implemented this model in a prototype application and used it to analyze data acquired in a cohort study on cognitive aging. Case studies employed the prototype to study aspects of brain connectivity, demonstrating the model's potential and flexibility. PMID:25248201

Angelelli, Paolo; Oeltze, Steffen; Haasz, Judit; Turkay, Cagatay; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Lundervold, Astri J; Preim, Bernhard; Hauser, Helwig

2014-01-01

54

Cohort profile: the housing regeneration and health study.  

PubMed

A cohort comprising residents of a housing regeneration and health programme was created from routinely collected data using a system which allows us to anonymously link housing data to individuals and their health. The regeneration programme incorporating four rolling work packages runs from 2009 to 2014. The main intervention cohort we describe here contains the 18 312 residents of 9051 residences at baseline. The cohort will be followed continuously through routine health data (demographics, mortality, hospital admissions and general practitioner records including prescriptions) with periodic updates of housing regeneration intervention data. Here, we describe the baseline data for the primary health outcomes of emergency hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and injuries for those aged ?60 years. We will compare the health of residents within the homes before and after the housing regeneration work has taken place, and we will calculate the change in health service costs with use of hospital and General Practitioners (GP) services. We will also use a difference in differences approach to assess changes in comparison with comparator cohorts. These data will be accessible at the end of the study period in 2016. Further information about this study can be obtained from Ronan Lyons; r.a.lyons@swansea.ac.uk. PMID:23179304

Rodgers, Sarah E; Heaven, Martin; Lacey, Arron; Poortinga, Wouter; Dunstan, Frank D; Jones, Kerina H; Palmer, Stephen R; Phillips, Ceri J; Smith, Robert; John, Ann; Davies, Gwyneth A; Lyons, Ronan A

2014-02-01

55

ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention\\/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees,\\u000a though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication\\u000a in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at\\u000a adoption and region of origin as predictors of

Frank Lindblad; Gunilla Ringbäck Weitoft; Anders Hjern

2010-01-01

56

CARLOS ARECES, ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands.  

E-print Network

Editorial CARLOS ARECES, ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: mdr@wins.uva.nl HOLGER SCHLINGLOFF, TZI but adequate budget, and the urge to do new things. It grew from the good disposition of invited speakers

de Rijke, Maarten

57

Design of the Advance Directives Cohort: a study of end-of-life decision-making focusing on Advance Directives  

PubMed Central

Background ADs are documents in which one can state one's preferences concerning end-of-life care, aimed at making someone's wishes known in situations where he/she is not able to do so in another manner. There is still a lot unclear about ADs. We designed a study aimed at investigating the whole process from the formulating of an AD to its actual use at the end of life. Methods/Design The study has mixed methods: it's longitudinal, consisting of a quantitative cohort-study which provides a framework for predominantly qualitative sub-studies. The members of the cohort are persons owning an AD, recruited through two Dutch associations who provide the most common standard ADs in the Netherlands, the NVVE (Right to Die-NL), of which 5561 members participate, and the NPV (Dutch Patient Organisation), of which 1263 members participate. Both groups were compared to a sample of the Dutch general public. NVVE-respondents are more often single, higher educated and non-religious, while amongst NPV-respondents there are more Protestants compared to the Dutch public. They are sent a questionnaire every 1,5 year with a follow-up of at least 7,5 years. The response rate after the second round was 88% respectively 90% for the NVVE and NPV. Participants were asked if we were allowed to approach close-ones after their possible death in the future. In this way we can get insight in the actual use of ADs at the end of life, also by comparing our data to that from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam, whose respondents generally do not have an AD. Discussion The cohort is representative for people with an AD as is required to study the main research questions. The longitudinal nature of the study as well as the use of qualitative methods makes it has a broad scope, focusing on the whole course of decision-making involving ADs. It is possible to compare the end of life between patients with and without an AD with the use of data from another cohort. PMID:20346111

2010-01-01

58

Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESIn Lithuania, there is little awareness of the notion that chronic symptoms may result from rear end collisions via the so-called whiplash injury. After most such collisions no contact with the health service is established. An opportunity therefore exists to study post-traumatic pain without the confounding factors present in western societies.METHODSIn a prospective, controlled inception cohort study, 210 victims of

Diana Obelieniene; Harald Schrader; Gunnar Bovim; Irena Misevic?iene; Trond Sand

1999-01-01

59

Suicide after Leaving the UK Armed Forces —A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew studies have examined suicide risk in individuals once they have left the military. We aimed to investigate the rate, timing, and risk factors for suicide in all those who had left the UK Armed Forces (1996–2005).Methods and FindingsWe carried out a cohort study of ex-Armed Forces personnel by linking national databases of discharged personnel and suicide deaths (which included

Navneet Kapur; David While; Nick Blatchley; Isabelle Bray; Kate Harrison

2009-01-01

60

[The design of a nationwide cohort study in Germany : The pretest studies of the German National Cohort (GNC)].  

PubMed

The German National Cohort (GNC) is the largest population-based cohort study in Germany. Beginning in 2014, a total of 200,000 women and men aged 20-69 years will be examined in 18 study centers. The aim of the study is to investigate the etiology of chronic diseases in relation to lifestyle, genetic, socioeconomic, and environmental factors and to develop appropriate methods for early diagnosis and prevention of diseases such as cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/psychiatric diseases, as well as musculoskeletal and infectious diseases. Pretest studies (phase 1 and 2) were conducted to select methods, instruments, and procedures for the main study, to develop standard operating procedures, and to design and test the examination program according to acceptance, expected duration, and feasibility. The pretest studies included testing of interviews, questionnaires, anthropometric measurements, several medical examinations, and the collection of biosamples. In addition, the logistic, technical, and personnel infrastructure for the main study could be established including the study centers, the central infrastructure for data management, processes to coordinate the study, and data protection and quality management concepts. The examination program for the main phase of the GNC was designed and optimized based on the results of the pretest studies. The GNC is a population-based, highly standardized and excellently phenotyped cohort that will be the basis for new strategies for risk assessment and identification, early diagnosis, and prevention of multifactorial diseases. PMID:25293884

Ahrens, W; Greiser, H; Linseisen, J; Kluttig, A; Schipf, S; Schmidt, B; Günther, K

2014-11-01

61

Cerebral palsy and placental infection: a case-cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The association between cerebral palsy in very preterm infants and clinical, histopathologic and microbiological indicators of chorioamnionitis, including the identification of specific micro-organisms in the placenta, was evaluated in a case-cohort study. METHODS: Children with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy at five years of age were identified from amongst participants in a long-term follow-up program of preterm infants. The

Rasiah Vigneswaran; Stacey J Aitchison; Helen M McDonald; T Yee Khong; Janet E Hiller

2004-01-01

62

Septic shock in older people: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Septic shock is the first cause of death in Intensive Care Units. Despite experimental data showing increased inflammatory response of aged animals following infection, the current accepted hypothesis claims that aged patients are immunocompromised, when compared to young individuals. Results Here, we describe a prospective cohort study designed to analyze the immune profile of this population. Conclusion Older people are as immunocompetent as the young individual, regarding the cytokines, chemokines and growth factors response to devastating infection. PMID:23742671

2013-01-01

63

Adult Outcomes of Child Conduct Problems: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assessed the mental health and criminal records of 6,449 males and 6,268 females who presented conduct problems as children by examining an unselected birth cohort followed up to age 30. Conduct problems were defined by teacher ratings of behavior problems and\\/or antisocial behavior in the community. There was little overlap in the children identified by teachers and

Lynn Kratzer; Sheilagh Hodgins

1997-01-01

64

Hypertension in noise-exposed sawmill workers: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective:To investigate the hypothesised association between exposure to high levels of noise and risk of hypertension using quantitative exposure assessment and administrative health data.Methods:This study followed a cohort of 10 872 sawmill workers in British Columbia from 1991 to 1998. Subjects were linked with provincial hospital discharge, outpatient and vital status databases. Cases were males who died, had at least

H Sbihi; H W Davies; P A Demers

2008-01-01

65

Complex Agent Networks explaining the HIV epidemic among homosexual men in Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Simulating the evolution of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic requires a detailed description of the population network, especially for small populations in which individuals can be represented in detail and accuracy. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a Complex Agent Network(CAN) to model the HIV epidemics by combining agent-based modelling and complex networks, in which agents represent individuals that have sexual interactions. The applicability of CANs is demonstrated by constructing and executing a detailed HIV epidemic model for men who have sex with men (MSM) in Amsterdam, including a distinction between steady and casual relationships. We focus on MSM contacts because they play an important role in HIV epidemics and have been tracked in Amsterdam for a long time. Our experiments show good correspondence between the historical data of the Amsterdam cohort and the simulation results.

Mei, Shan; Quax, Rick; van de Vijver, David; Zhu, Yifan

2008-01-01

66

Drinking water arsenic in Utah: A cohort mortality study.  

PubMed Central

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected and analyzed under the auspices of the State of Utah Department of Environmental Quality, Division of Drinking Water. Cohort members were assembled using historical documents of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Standard mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated. Using residence history and median drinking water arsenic concentration, a matrix for cumulative arsenic exposure was created. Without regard to specific exposure levels, statistically significant findings include increased mortality from hypertensive heart disease [SMR = 2.20; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.36-3.36], nephritis and nephrosis (SMR = 1.72; CI, 1.13-2.50), and prostate cancer (SMR = 1.45; CI, 1.07-1. 91) among cohort males. Among cohort females, statistically significant increased mortality was found for hypertensive heart disease (SMR = 1.73; CI, 1.11-2.58) and for the category of all other heart disease, which includes pulmonary heart disease, pericarditis, and other diseases of the pericardium (SMR = 1.43; CI, 1.11-1.80). SMR analysis by low, medium, and high arsenic exposure groups hinted at a dose relationship for prostate cancer. Although the SMRs by exposure category were elevated for hypertensive heart disease for both males and females, the increases were not sequential from low to high groups. Because the relationship between health effects and exposure to drinking water arsenic is not well established in U.S. populations, further evaluation of effects in low-exposure populations is warranted. PMID:10210691

Lewis, D R; Southwick, J W; Ouellet-Hellstrom, R; Rench, J; Calderon, R L

1999-01-01

67

Hyperemesis gravidarum and pregnancy outcomes in the Norwegian mother and child cohort - a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Hyperemesis gravidarum (HG) characterized by excessive nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, is reported to be associated with increased risks for low birthweight (LBW), preterm birth (PTB), small-for-gestational-age (SGA) and perinatal death. Conflicting results in previous studies underline the necessity to study HG’s potential effect on pregnancy outcomes using large cohorts with valid data on exposure and outcome measures, as well as potential confounders. This study aims to investigate associations between HG and adverse pregnancy outcomes using the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Methods All singleton pregnancies in MoBa from 1998 to 2008 were included. Multivariable regression was used to estimate relative risks, approximated by odds ratios, for PTB, LBW, SGA and perinatal death. Linear regression was applied to assess differences in birthweight and gestational age for children born to women with and without HG. Potential confounders were adjusted for. Results Altogether, 814 out of 71,468 women (or 1.1%) had HG. In MoBa HG was not associated with PTB, LBW or SGA. Babies born to women with HG were born on average 1 day earlier than those born to women without HG; (?0.97 day (95% confidence intervals (CI): -1.80 - -0.15). There was no difference in birthweight when maternal weight gain was adjusted for; (23.42 grams (95% CI: -56.71 - 9.86). Babies born by women with HG had lower risk for having Apgar score?

2013-01-01

68

South Yorkshire Cohort: a 'cohort trials facility' study of health and weight - Protocol for the recruitment phase  

PubMed Central

Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational, longitudinal cohort study design with a population based cohort facility for multiple randomised controlled trials in a range of long term health and weight related conditions (including obesity). This infrastructure will allow the rapid and cheap identification and recruitment of patients, and facilitate the provision of robust evidence to inform the management and self-management of health and weight. PMID:21834964

2011-01-01

69

Cohort profile: the Caerphilly Health and Social Needs Electronic Cohort Study (E-CATALyST).  

PubMed

The Caerphilly Health and Social Needs study was established to inform and support collaborative multiagency working on reducing inequalities in health and to investigate neighbourhood influences on mental health. Initially, we collated a robust small-area multiagency dataset of contextual health determinants and outcomes from routine sources and sharing of data between the National Health Service and Caerphilly county borough council. These data were widely used in local joint planning to improve health and reduce health inequalities. Secondly, we carried out a baseline population questionnaire survey, collecting data from 10 892 (60.6%) respondents aged 18-74 years on a wide range of socio-economic, lifestyle, health and housing factors and perceptions of the local neighbourhood, including access to services, social cohesion and neighbourhood quality. We carried out wave 2 of the survey after 7 years with responses from 4558 (50.2%) participants to the same range of questions. We developed the study into an electronic cohort, linking all 17 979 sampled participants aged 18-74 years to mortality and hospital admission records with 10-year follow-up and full recording of migration both within and out of the borough. Readers with an interest in collaborative use of the data should contact Professor David Fone, Principal Investigator. PMID:23132614

Fone, David L; Dunstan, Frank; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Farewell, Daniel; John, Gareth; Lyons, Ronan A; Lloyd, Keith

2013-12-01

70

Cohort Profile: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort.  

PubMed

Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13761 women (contributing 13867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19-22 years and have completed up to 20 questionnaires, have had detailed data abstracted from their medical records and have information on any cancer diagnoses and deaths through record linkage. A follow-up assessment was completed 17-18 years postnatal at which anthropometry, blood pressure, fat, lean and bone mass and carotid intima media thickness were assessed, and a fasting blood sample taken. The second follow-up clinic, which additionally measures cognitive function, physical capability, physical activity (with accelerometer) and wrist bone architecture, is underway and two further assessments with similar measurements will take place over the next 5 years. There is a detailed biobank that includes DNA, with genome-wide data available on >10000, stored serum and plasma taken repeatedly since pregnancy and other samples; a wide range of data on completed biospecimen assays are available. Details of how to access these data are provided in this cohort profile. PMID:22507742

Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John; Macleod, John; Molloy, Lynn; Ness, Andy; Ring, Susan; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

2013-02-01

71

Cohort Profile: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort  

PubMed Central

Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13?761 women (contributing 13?867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19–22 years and have completed up to 20 questionnaires, have had detailed data abstracted from their medical records and have information on any cancer diagnoses and deaths through record linkage. A follow-up assessment was completed 17–18 years postnatal at which anthropometry, blood pressure, fat, lean and bone mass and carotid intima media thickness were assessed, and a fasting blood sample taken. The second follow-up clinic, which additionally measures cognitive function, physical capability, physical activity (with accelerometer) and wrist bone architecture, is underway and two further assessments with similar measurements will take place over the next 5 years. There is a detailed biobank that includes DNA, with genome-wide data available on >10?000, stored serum and plasma taken repeatedly since pregnancy and other samples; a wide range of data on completed biospecimen assays are available. Details of how to access these data are provided in this cohort profile. PMID:22507742

Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John; Macleod, John; Molloy, Lynn; Ness, Andy; Ring, Susan; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

2013-01-01

72

Nested Cohort  

Cancer.gov

NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

73

Cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: Academic medical center infertility practice.Patient(s): All patients treated for infertility in a 1-year time span.Intervention(s): Intrauterine inseminations, clomiphene citrate and IUI (CC-IUI), hMG and IUI (hMG-IUI), assisted reproductive techniques (ART), and neosalpingostomy by laparotomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): All medical charges and pregnancy outcomes associated with the treatments were obtained. Cost-effectiveness

Bradley J. Van Voorhis; Amy E. T. Sparks; Brian D. Allen; Dale W. Stovall; Craig H. Syrop; F. K. Chapler

1997-01-01

74

Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20?years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in clinical settings in order to prevent suicide. PMID:24491380

Stenbacka, M; Romelsjo, A; Jokinen, J

2014-01-01

75

Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS): Cohort Study of Cancer- Inhibitory Factors in Men  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.

76

A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ({open_quotes}Yu-Cheng{close_quotes}) occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lan, Shou-Jen [Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung City (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1996-11-01

77

Economic crisis and smoking behaviour: prospective cohort study in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland and smoking behaviour at the national and individual levels. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study based on a mail survey (Health and Wellbeing in Iceland) assessed in 2007 and 2009. Setting National mail survey. Participants Representative cohort (n=3755) of Icelandic adults. Main outcome measure Smoking status. Results A significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking was observed from 2007 (pre-economic collapse) to 2009 (postcollapse) in both males (17.4–14.8%; p 0.01) and females (20.0–17.5%; p 0.01) in the cohort (n=3755). At the individual level of analysis, male former smokers experiencing a reduction in income during the same period were less likely to relapse (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.85). Female smokers were less likely to quit over time compared to males (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93). Among male former smokers who experienced an increase in income between 2007 and 2009, we observed an elevated risk of smoking relapse (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.15 to 14.00). Conclusions The national prevalence of smoking in Iceland declined following the 2008 economic crisis. This could be due to the procyclical relationship between macro-economic conditions and smoking behaviour (ie, hard times lead to less smoking because of lower affordability), or it may simply reflect a continuation of trends already in place prior to the crisis. In individual-level analysis, we find that former smokers who experienced a decline in income were less likely to relapse; and conversely, an increase in income raises the risk. However, caution is warranted since these findings are based on small numbers. PMID:23048059

McClure, Christopher Bruce; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Hauksdottir, Arna; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-01-01

78

The Utah Thyroid Cohort Study: analysis of the dosimetry results.  

PubMed

Above ground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the 1950s created radioactive fallout that was dispersed into the atmosphere and deposited over a large geographical area of the U.S. One area believed to have received a considerable amount of exposure to radioiodines (131I and 133I) in the fallout was southwest Utah and southeast Nevada. This paper describes the estimates of doses to the thyroid for a cohort of 3,545 subjects who were children during the atmospheric testing period. This group of children was examined for thyroid disease during 1965-1970 and again in 1985-1986. The cohort was made up of children who lived in three counties in 1965: Washington County, Utah; Lincoln County, Nevada; and Graham County, Arizona (originally thought to be an unexposed group). Pathway analysis was used in the dosimetry, considering exposures through the ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation of iodine during the passage of the fallout cloud, and external exposure. Specific data were obtained on diet (including sources and levels of milk and vegetables consumed, residence history, and lifestyle) by interviewing the parents or nearest living relative of subjects. The final dosimetry file for each member of the cohort contained specific doses to the thyroid glands and uncertainties (reported as geometric standard deviations, GSD) related to each dose estimate. The mean absorbed dose to the thyroid for subjects living in Washington County, Utah, was 170 mGy; for Lincoln County, Nevada, 50 mGy; and for those living in Graham County, Arizona, 13 mGy. The maximum dose to any subject was 4,610 mGy. There were 10 subjects who had doses greater than 1 Gy. The majority of uncertainty values calculated in this study were GSD values between 2.0 and 4.0. The results of the dosimetry were combined with the results of clinical examinations of the cohort to determine if a causal relationship exists between dose to thyroid from NTS generated radioactive iodines and the incidence of thyroid disease. PMID:7883559

Till, J E; Simon, S L; Kerber, R; Lloyd, R D; Stevens, W; Thomas, D C; Lyon, J L; Preston-Martin, S

1995-04-01

79

The Utah thyroid cohort study: Analysis of the dosimetry results  

SciTech Connect

Above ground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the 1950s created radioactive fallout that was dispersed into the atmosphere and deposited over a large geographical area of the U.S. One area believed to have received a considerable amount of exposure to radio-iodines ({sup 131}I and {sup 133}I) in the fallout was southwest Utah and southeast Nevada. This paper describes the estimates of doses to the thyroid for a cohort of 3,545 subjects who were children during the atmospheric testing period. This group was examined for thyroid disease during 1965-1970 and again in 1985-1986. The cohort was made up of children who lived in three counties in 1965: Washington County, Utah; Lincoln County, Nevada; and Graham County, Arizona. Pathway analysis was used in the dosimetry, considering exposures through the ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation of iodine during the passage of the fallout cloud, and external exposure. Specific data were obtained on diet (including sources and levels of milk and vegetables consumed, residence history, and lifestyle) by interviewing the parents or nearest living relative of subjects. The final dosimetry file for each member of the cohort contained specific doses to the thyroid glands and uncertainties (reported as geometric standard deviations, GSD) related to each dose estimate. The mean absorbed dose to the thyroid for subjects living in Washington County, Utah, was 170 mGy; for Lincoln County, Nevada, 50 mGy; and for those living in Graham County, Arizona, 13 mGy. The maximum dose to any subject was 4,610 mGy. There were 10 subjects who had doses greater than 1 Gy. The majority of uncertainty values calculated in this study were GSD values between 2.0 and 4.0. The results of the dosimetry were combined with the results of clinical examinations of the cohort to determine if a causal relationship exists between dose to thyroid from NTS generated radioactive iodines and the incidence of thyroid disease.

Till, J.E. [Radiological Assessments Corp., Nesses, SC (United States); Simon, S.L. [Nationwide Radiological Study, Majuro (Marshall Islands); Kerber, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

80

Cees Snoek & Arnold Smeulders University of Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Expert--driven searchdriven search http://e-culture.multimedian.nl #12;Cees Snoek & Arnold Smeulders University of Amsterdam viewpoint, ... ·· ThisThis is theis the sensorysensory gapgap Suit Basketball Tree 1101011011011

Worring, Marcel

81

Physical performance limitations in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.  

PubMed

Physical performance limitations are one of the potential long-term consequences following diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer. The purpose of this review is to describe the risk factors for and the participation restrictions that result from physical performance limitations among childhood cancer survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Articles previously published from the CCSS cohort related to physical performance limitations were reviewed and the results summarized. Our review showed that physical performance limitations are prevalent among childhood cancer survivors and may increase as they age. Host-based risk factors for physical disability include an original diagnosis of bone tumor, brain tumor, or Hodgkin's disease; female sex; and an income less than $20,000 per year. Treatment-based risk factors include radiation and treatment with a combination of alkylating agents and anthracyclines. Musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiac, pulmonary, sensory, and endocrine organ system dysfunction also increase the risk of developing a physical performance limitation. In summary, monitoring of physical performance limitations in an aging cohort of childhood cancer survivors is important and will help determine the impact of physical performance limitations on morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. In addition, in developing restorative and preventive interventions for childhood cancer survivors, we must take into account the special needs of survivors with physical disability to optimize their health and enhance participation in daily living activities. PMID:19332713

Ness, Kirsten K; Hudson, Melissa M; Ginsberg, Jill P; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Kaste, Sue C; Marina, Neyssa; Whitton, John; Robison, Leslie L; Gurney, James G

2009-05-10

82

Socioeconomic status, race, and mortality: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Objectives. We evaluated the independent and joint effects of race, individual socioeconomic status (SES), and neighborhood SES on mortality risk. Methods. We conducted a prospective analysis involving 52?965 non-Hispanic Black and 23?592 non-Hispanic White adults taking part in the Southern Community Cohort Study. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to determine associations of race and SES with all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Results. In our cohort, wherein Blacks and Whites had similar individual SES, Blacks were less likely than Whites to die during the follow-up period (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?0.73, 0.84). Low household income was a strong predictor of all-cause mortality among both Blacks and Whites (HR?=?1.76; 95% CI?=?1.45, 2.12). Being in the lowest (vs highest) category with respect to both individual and neighborhood SES was associated with a nearly 3-fold increase in all-cause mortality risk (HR?=?2.76; 95% CI?=?1.99, 3.84). There was no significant mortality-related interaction between individual SES and neighborhood SES among either Blacks or Whites. Conclusions. SES is a strong predictor of premature mortality, and the independent associations of individual SES and neighborhood SES with mortality risk are similar for Blacks and Whites. PMID:25322291

Signorello, Lisa B; Cohen, Sarah S; Williams, David R; Munro, Heather M; Hargreaves, Margaret K; Blot, William J

2014-12-01

83

Socioeconomic status and colon cancer incidence: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed Central

The association between socioeconomic status and colon cancer was investigated in a prospective cohort study that started in 1986 in The Netherlands among 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on socioeconomic status, alcohol consumption and other dietary and non-dietary covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated using a randomly selected subcohort (1688 men and 1812 women). After 3.3 years of follow-up, 312 incident colon cancer cases were detected: 157 men and 155 women. After adjustment for age, we found a positive association between colon cancer risk and highest level of education (trend P = 0.13) and social standing (trend P = 0.008) for men. Also, male, upper white-collar workers had a higher colon cancer risk than blue-collar workers (RR = 1.42, 95% CI 0.95-2.11). Only the significant association between social standing and colon cancer risk persisted after additional adjustment for other risk factors for colon cancer (trend P = 0.005), but the higher risk was only found in the highest social standing category (RR highest/lowest social standing = 2.60, 95% CI 1.31-5.14). In women, there were no clear associations between the socioeconomic status indicators and colon cancer. PMID:7710959

van Loon, A. J.; van den Brandt, P. A.; Golbohm, R. A.

1995-01-01

84

On the Estimation and Use of Propensity Scores in CaseControl and Case Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of propensity scores to adjust for measured confounding factors has become increasingly popular in cohort studies. However, their use in case-control and case-cohort studies has received little attention. The authors present some theory on the estimation and use of propensity scores in case-control and case-cohort studies and present the results of simulation studies that examine whether large-sample expectations

Roger Mansson; Marshall M. Joffe; Wenguang Sun; Sean Hennessy

2007-01-01

85

Cohort study of intracameral moxifloxacin in postoperative endophthalmitis prophylaxis.  

PubMed

We conducted a cohort study to evaluate post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis rates in relation to prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin administration. A total of 2332 patients (2674 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification by a single surgeon from January 2007 through December 2012 were included in the study. A total of 1056 eyes did not receive intracameral prophylactic moxifloxacin and the antibiotic was injected in 1618 eyes. The incidence of presumed postoperative endophthalmitis in the 2 groups was calculated. The rate of presumed infectious endophthalmitis after cataract surgery between January 2007 and June 2009 (without intracameral moxifloxacin) was 0.094%. The rate in the second period, from July 2009 to December 2012 (with prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin), was 0%. In our patients, a decline in the incidence of presumed infectious postoperative endophthalmitis appeared to be associated with the application of intracameral moxifloxacin. PMID:24526838

Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Sánchez, Mary Alejandra; Camacho, Paul Anthony

2014-01-01

86

Cohort Study of Intracameral Moxifloxacin in Postoperative Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

We conducted a cohort study to evaluate post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis rates in relation to prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin administration. A total of 2332 patients (2674 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification by a single surgeon from January 2007 through December 2012 were included in the study. A total of 1056 eyes did not receive intracameral prophylactic moxifloxacin and the antibiotic was injected in 1618 eyes. The incidence of presumed postoperative endophthalmitis in the 2 groups was calculated. The rate of presumed infectious endophthalmitis after cataract surgery between January 2007 and June 2009 (without intracameral moxifloxacin) was 0.094%. The rate in the second period, from July 2009 to December 2012 (with prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin), was 0%. In our patients, a decline in the incidence of presumed infectious postoperative endophthalmitis appeared to be associated with the application of intracameral moxifloxacin. PMID:24526838

Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Sánchez, Mary Alejandra; Camacho, Paul Anthony

2014-01-01

87

Weight at Birth and Subsequent Fecundability: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. Method In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study “Snart-Gravid”, conducted during 2007–2012. Participants were 18–40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, 3,000–3,999 grams, and ?4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. Results Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000–3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24) for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, and ?4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. Conclusion Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability. PMID:24736472

Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H.; Ehrenstein, Vera; Heitmann, Berit L.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; S?rensen, Henrik T.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.

2014-01-01

88

Increasing sexual risk behaviour among Dutch men who have sex with men: mathematical models versus prospective cohort data.  

PubMed

Changes in risk behaviour among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Netherlands were estimated by fitting a mathematical model to annual HIV and AIDS diagnoses in the period 1980-2009 and, independently, from rates of unprotected anal intercourse in a prospective cohort study in Amsterdam. The agreement between the two approaches was very good, confirming that in terms of incidence, increasing risk behaviour between MSM is offsetting benefits offered by enhanced testing and treatment. PMID:22781219

van Sighem, Ard; Jansen, Iralice; Bezemer, Daniela; De Wolf, Frank; Prins, Maria; Stolte, Ineke; Fraser, Christophe

2012-09-10

89

Gastroschisis: one year outcomes from national cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To describe one year outcomes for a national cohort of infants with gastroschisis. Design Population based cohort study of all liveborn infants with gastroschisis born in the United Kingdom and Ireland from October 2006 to March 2008. Setting All 28 paediatric surgical centres in the UK and Ireland. Participants 301 infants (77%) from an original cohort of 393. Main outcome measures Duration of parenteral nutrition and stay in hospital; time to establish full enteral feeding; rates of intestinal failure, liver disease associated with intestinal failure, unplanned reoperation; case fatality. Results Compared with infants with simple gastroschisis (intact, uncompromised, continuous bowel), those with complex gastroschisis (bowel perforation, necrosis, or atresia) took longer to reach full enteral feeding (median difference 21 days, 95% confidence interval 9 to 39 days); required a longer duration of parenteral nutrition (median difference 25 days, 9 to 46 days) and a longer stay in hospital (median difference 57 days, 29 to 95 days); were more likely to develop intestinal failure (81% (25 infants) v 41% (102); relative risk 1.96, 1.56 to 2.46) and liver disease associated with intestinal failure (23% (7) v 4% (11); 5.13, 2.15 to 12.3); and were more likely to require unplanned reoperation (42% (13) v 10% (24); 4.39, 2.50 to 7.70). Compared with infants managed with primary fascial closure, those managed with preformed silos took longer to reach full enteral feeding (median difference 5 days, 1 to 9) and had an increased risk of intestinal failure (52% (50) v 32% (38); 1.61, 1.17 to 2.24). Event rates for the other outcomes were low, and there were no other significant differences between these management groups. Twelve infants died (4%). Conclusions This nationally representative study provides a benchmark against which individual centres can measure outcome and performance. Stratifying neonates with gastroschisis into simple and complex groups reliably predicts outcome at one year. There is sufficient clinical equipoise concerning the initial management strategy to embark on a multicentre randomised controlled trial comparing primary fascial closure with preformed silos in infants suitable at presentation for either treatment to determine the optimal initial management strategy and define algorithms of care. PMID:22089731

2011-01-01

90

Late diagnosis among our ageing HIV population: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction With the advent of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), more people infected with HIV are living into older age; 22% of adults receiving care in the UK are aged over 50 years [1]. Age influences HIV infection; the likelihood of seroconversion illness, mean CD4 count and time from infection to development of AIDs defining illnesses decreases with increasing age. A UK study estimates that half of HIV infections in persons over 50 years are acquired at an age over 50 [2]. Studies exploring sexual practices in older persons have repeatedly shown that we cannot assume there is no risk of STI and HIV infection [3,4]. Physicians should be alert to risk of HIV even in the older cohort, where nearly half diagnoses are made late [2]. Local audit has demonstrated poor testing rates in the over 50's on the Acute Medical Unit. Late diagnosis (CD4<350) results in poorer outcomes and age confounds further; older late presenters are 2.4 times more likely to die within the first year of diagnosis than younger counterparts [2]. Materials and Methods A retrospective case notes review was conducted of all patients aged 60 years and over attending HIV clinic in the last 2 years. Outcomes audited included features around diagnosis; age, presentation, missed testing opportunities and CD4 count at diagnosis. Results Of the current cohort of 442 patients, 34 were over 60 years old (8%). Age at diagnosis in this group ranged from 36 to 80 years, mean 56.6 years. Presentation triggers included opportunistic infections or malignancies (n=10), constitutional symptoms (n=6), diagnosis of another STI (n=4), seroconversion illness (n=2), partner status (n=3). Eight patients were diagnosed through asymptomatic screening at Sexual Health. We identified missed opportunities in five patients who were not tested despite diagnoses or symptoms defined as clinical indicators for HIV. Half of older patients had a CD4 count of <200 at diagnosis. Conclusions It is imperative that general medical physicians and geriatricians are alert to enquiring about risk and testing for HIV where clinical indicators are present, irrespective of age. The oldest patient in the cohort was diagnosed with HIV aged 80 years. All patients with missed opportunities for testing were over 47 years old.

Mensforth, Sarah; Goodall, Lisa; Bodasing, Neena; Coultas, James

2014-01-01

91

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort members: Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, bi...

92

2004 Update of Dosimetry for the Utah Thyroid Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s, individual thyroid doses and uncertainties were estimated for members of a cohort of children identified in 1965 in Utah and Nevada who had potentially been exposed to fallout from the Nevada Test Site. That reconstruction rep- resented the first comprehensive assessment of doses received by the cohort and was the first large effort to assess the un-

Steven L. Simon; Lynn R. Anspaugh; F. Owen Hoffman; Alan E. Scholl; Mary B. Stone; Brian A. Thomas; Joseph L. Lyon

2006-01-01

93

Historical cohort study of mortality among chemical researchers  

SciTech Connect

This historical cohort study examined mortality among 1,510 white male researchers employed from 1950-1959 who handled chemicals. During 1950-1979, 95 deaths were observed, significantly less than the 173.2 predicted by general population rates (SMR = 55). This was due to deficits in overall cancer deaths (SMR = 66), particularly respiratory cancer (SMR = 28), and reduced mortality from circulatory diseases and accidents. Those who had worked directly with chemicals for more than 5 yr and those who had the most hazardous exposures experienced similar low mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory cancer. Although deaths due to digestive cancer were elevated among those with 1-5 yr of work experience, there was no excess among those working more than 5 yr as would be expected from occupational exposure.

Maher, K.V.; Defonso, L.R.

1986-03-01

94

The two-stage clonal expansion model in occupational cancer epidemiology: results from three cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesThe objective of this work was to apply the two-stage clonal expansion model, with the intention to expand the literature on epidemiological applications of the model and demonstrate the feasibility of incorporating biologically based modelling methods into the widely used retrospective cohort study.MethodsThe authors fitted the two-stage clonal expansion model model to three occupational cohort studies: (1) a cohort of

Ariana Zeka; Rebecca Gore; David Kriebel

2010-01-01

95

Cohort profile: the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC).  

PubMed

The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6-29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986-87 and 1987-88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/). PMID:23159828

Rouquette, Alexandra; Côté, Sylvana M; Pryor, Laura E; Carbonneau, René; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

2014-02-01

96

Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the predictors of new eating disorders in an adolescent cohort. Design Cohort study over 3 years with six waves. Subjects Students, initially aged 14›15 years, from 44 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Outcome measures Weight (kg), height (cm), dieting (adolescent dieting scale), psychiatric morbidity (revised clinical interview schedule), and eating disorder (branched eating disorders

G C Patton; R Selzer; C Coffey; J B Carlin; R Wolfe; Parkville Victoria

97

Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

98

Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study  

E-print Network

Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study Xavier or induced abortion. E3N is a large-scale cohort study collecting detailed information on environmental/or spontaneous abortion, using the data from the 100,000 women aged 40­65 at entrance in 1990. Among them, over 2

Boyer, Edmond

99

Cohort Profile: Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS).  

PubMed

The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) was originally established to study the long-term effects of early-life undernutrition on risk of cardiovascular disease. Its aims were subsequently expanded to include trans-generational influences of other environmental and genetic factors on chronic diseases in rural India. It builds on the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (HNT) conducted in 1987-90 to compare the effects on birthweight of a protein-calorie supplement for pregnant women and children. The index children of HNT and their mothers were retraced and examined in 2003-05, and the children re-examined as young adults aged 18-21 years in 2009-10. The cohort was expanded to include both parents and siblings of the index children in a recently completed follow-up conducted in 2010-12 (N = ?6225 out of 10 213 participants). Recruitment of the remaining residents of these 29 villages (N = ?55 000) in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh is now under way. Extensive data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, medical, anthropometric, physiological, vascular and body composition measures, DNA, stored plasma, and assays of lipids and inflammatory markers on APCAPS participants are available. Details of how to access these data are available from the corresponding author. PMID:24019421

Kinra, Sanjay; Radha Krishna, Kv; Kuper, Hannah; Rameshwar Sarma, Kv; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Gupta, Vipin; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Bhogadi, Santhi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kumar, Aniket; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Davey Smith, George; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-10-01

100

Cohort Profile: Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS)  

PubMed Central

The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) was originally established to study the long-term effects of early-life undernutrition on risk of cardiovascular disease. Its aims were subsequently expanded to include trans-generational influences of other environmental and genetic factors on chronic diseases in rural India. It builds on the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (HNT) conducted in 1987–90 to compare the effects on birthweight of a protein-calorie supplement for pregnant women and children. The index children of HNT and their mothers were retraced and examined in 2003–05, and the children re-examined as young adults aged 18–21 years in 2009–10. The cohort was expanded to include both parents and siblings of the index children in a recently completed follow-up conducted in 2010–12 (N = ?6225 out of 10 213 participants). Recruitment of the remaining residents of these 29 villages (N = ?55 000) in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh is now under way. Extensive data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, medical, anthropometric, physiological, vascular and body composition measures, DNA, stored plasma, and assays of lipids and inflammatory markers on APCAPS participants are available. Details of how to access these data are available from the corresponding author. PMID:24019421

Kinra, Sanjay; Radha Krishna, KV; Kuper, Hannah; Rameshwar Sarma, KV; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Gupta, Vipin; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Bhogadi, Santhi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kumar, Aniket; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Davey Smith, George; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-01-01

101

Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

2008-01-01

102

Atopic dermatitis in israeli adolescents - a large retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) has been studied mainly in infants and young children. Surveys on AD in adolescents and adults are based largely on self-reported questionnaires and cohorts of different ages, precluding meaningful comparisons and conclusions. We aimed to provide data on the prevalence of AD and its relation to demographic factors in adolescents. A large database of youths eligible for military service was searched for subjects one year before service at the age of 18. Parameters included country of origin, age of immigration to Israel, education, and presence and severity of AD. AD rose 3-fold for both genders over the study period 1998-2008 (0.4-1%). The increase was higher in females (0.5-1.2%) than males (0.3-0.9%). Mild and moderate disease was higher in females than males. Severe AD was rarely noted. Russian (OR?=?1.47), Asian (OR?=?1.15) and Euro-American (OR?=?1.26) origins had highest association with AD. Immigrants after age 7 had higher association with AD than Israeli-born subjects and immigrants before age 7 (1.88 vs. 1.33). More years of education was significantly associated with high prevalence of AD. The increased prevalence of AD during the 11-year period underscores the need for awareness of the condition in this population, in which AD affects health and quality of life. PMID:24535081

Wohl, Yonit; Wainstein, Julio; Bar-Dayan, Yosefa

2014-10-23

103

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy. PMID:16257993

Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe

2005-01-01

104

Pharmacogenomics study in a Taiwan methadone maintenance cohort  

PubMed Central

Pharmacogenomics is research to study the drug treatment responses in subgroups of patients according to their genetic variants or genetic expression information. Methadone maintenance treatment, which is usually prescribed for patients with heroin dependence, was launched in Taiwan by the government in 2006. In this study, 366 patients who had taken methadone continually in the previous 7 days were examined. Data from administration of the Treatment Outcomes Profile (TOP), Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS), and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS) were obtained from patients' report records. Genes encoding the liver cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes that are involved with the metabolism of methadone (CYP2B6, 3A4 and 2C19) were selected and genotyped in this cohort. We found that the SNPs on CYP2B6 were associated with plasma S-methadone concentration; SNPs on CYP3A4 were associated with withdrawal symptoms and side effects; and SNPs on CYP2C19 were associated with methadone dose. SNPs in the genes encoding the morphine phase II metabolic enzyme, UGT2B7, were associated with withdrawal symptom scores. In pharmacodynamic genes, the SNPs on OPRM1 were associated with insomnia and change in libido side effects. We conclude that SNP markers may be useful for future methadone dosage adjustment and to reduce adverse reactions.

Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Ho, Ing-Kang; Lin, Keh-Ming; Liu, Yu-Li

2014-01-01

105

A birth cohort study of viral infections in Vietnamese infants and children: study design, methods and characteristics of the cohort  

PubMed Central

Background In Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, more than one-third of admissions to the two paediatric hospitals are attributable to four infectious syndromes: dengue, diarrhoeal disease, acute respiratory infection, and hand, foot and mouth disease. We have established a large prospective birth cohort study to investigate individual, environmental, virological, and immunological determinants of infection and disease in infants. Specific research questions are focused on the role of maternal antibody in protection against infection in infancy, and the adaptive immune response to vaccination and natural infection. This paper presents the cohort design, methods, and baseline characteristics of the participants enrolled in the first two years. Methods/design Women are enrolled prior to delivery at one hospital in each of two catchment areas: an urban district in central HCMC, and a mixed urban/rural district in the Mekong Delta 150 km southwest of HCMC. Infants are enrolled within 3 days of birth, and maternal and cord blood samples are collected. Routine blood samples and data on growth, health status and vaccinations are collected from infants at scheduled visits at 4, 9 and 12 months. Clinical data and specimens are collected from infants presenting at a study clinic, or admitted to hospital, with any of the the four infectious syndromes of interest. Discussion In four years since since the study began in July 2009, >6400 infants have been enrolled, and enrolment is ongoing. Attrition is low: 84% of participants have completed the full 12-month follow-up period. Baseline characteristics of the first 4300 enrollees are presented here. We have demonstrated the feasibility of establishing a large prospective study of infectious diseases in infancy in a resource-limited setting, with minimal loss to follow-up. Our linked socio-demographic, clinical and laboratory data will help elucidate the viral aetiology and epidemiology of common infectious diseases of infancy, and can inform the implemention of existing and future vaccines. This study furthermore provides a platform to which additional endpoints could be added in the future. PMID:24103423

2013-01-01

106

Have serological tests changed the face of childhood coeliac disease? A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate if the use of antitransglutaminase (tTG) and antiendomysium (EM) antibodies has modified the profile of coeliac disease (CD) in children. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Monocentric study, in one major tertiary centre in Paris. Two cohorts of patients were compared; the first included patients before the use of antibodies, and the second included patients after the use of antibodies. Participants All patients from the same physician diagnosed with a CD between 1976 and 1992 (historical cohort), and between 1994 and 2007, were included in the study. 56 patients were included in the historical cohort, 59 in the recent cohort. Primary and secondary outcome measures Clinical, biological and histological profiles at diagnosis have been studied. Results The recent cohort diagnosis of CD was based in 27% on a systematic screening (type I diabetes, n=10; CD in siblings, n=6). On comparison of CD patients in the historical to the recent cohort, the following significant differences were observed: Median age at diagnosis increased from 1?year to 2.7?years (p<0.0001). Patients in the historical cohort had more gastrointestinal symptoms (93% vs 63%, p=0.0001) and failure to thrive (98% vs 80%, p=0.0025). Nutritional deficiencies and morphological lesions were more severe in the historical cohort (90% subtotal or total villous atrophy vs 51%, p<0.0001). Differences observed between the two cohorts were mainly due to the presence of screened patients. Conclusions A new type of patients, with a paucisymptomatic or asymptomatic CD, has been identified using serological tests. Silent disease has been diagnosed by screening in a target population. In the other patients of the recent cohort, symptoms were similar but less severe than those observed before. Long-term risks of untreated silent CD are not well determined as yet, and have to be evaluated in prospective studies. PMID:23180388

Garnier-Lengline, Helene; Brousse, Nicole; Candon, Sophie; Goulet, Olivier; Ruemmele, Frank M; Schmitz, Jacques

2012-01-01

107

Use Your Logic CARLOS ARECES, ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Plantage  

E-print Network

Use Your Logic CARLOS ARECES, ILLC, University of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV of Amsterdam, Plantage Muidergracht 24, 1018 TV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: mdr@wins.uva.nl HOLGER on a door, a small but adequate budget, and the urge to do new things. It grew from the good disposition

Franconi, Enrico

108

Amsterdam: planning and policy for the ideal city?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is Amsterdam the “ideal city?” Many of the social, economic, and environmental problems facing Amsterdam are considerably less than those in cities in the USA, and in most cases, Western Europe. Amsterdam, at this moment in history, might be the world's greatest city because of its ability to ensure basic necessities, freedom, and creativity. Tolerance of drugs, sexual freedom, along

John I. Gilderbloom; Matthew J. Hanka; Carrie Beth Lasley

2009-01-01

109

Strategies behind the Establishment of a Developmental Cohort Study in the Tottori City  

PubMed Central

Background The Tottori study group, part of the JCS, presides over a community-based cohort study started when subjects—children living in Tottori City—were 5 years old. The social aspects of conducting a cohort study should also be made public, as this information is crucial for conducting community-based cohort studies. Methods Documents pertaining to social aspects implemented by the Tottori study group between 2004 and 2008 were arranged chronologically. Information which is crucial for conducting community-based cohort studies were extracted and classified into several categories. Results Five categories were extracted from the documents: research staff, supporting committee, recruitment, maintenance of motivation and disclosure. Implementation of the social aspects described in maintenance of motivation resulted in fewer subjects dropping out of the study and a re-recruitment rate of approximately 90%. Conclusions The following factors are essential for a successful developmental cohort study of children: 1) A birth cohort study should be planned in hospitals with medical staff such as obstetricians and pediatricians; 2) An interdisciplinary group composed of medical or psychological clinicians and researchers with abundant experience in epidemiological study should be included; 3) If possible, an expert or widely known individual in the study’s target field should be included as a member of the study staff; 4) For long cohort studies, a researcher with expertise in school education should be included; 5) A support committee should be organized as an external part of the study team. PMID:20179363

Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Ishigami, Reiko; Takeuchi, Ariko; Terakawa, Shinako; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Tamaru, Toshitaka

2010-01-01

110

Life-course pathways to psychological distress: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Design Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Setting Aberdeen, Scotland. Participants 12?500 live-births (6282 boys) between 1950 and 1956, who were followed up in the years 2001–2003 at age 46–51 with a postal questionnaire achieving a response rate of 64% (7183). Outcome measures Psychological distress at age 46–51 (questionnaire). Results Childhood intelligence and SES and education had indirect effects on psychological distress at midlife, mediated by adult SES. Adult SES was the only variable to have a significant direct effect on psychological distress at midlife; the effect was stronger in men than in women. Alternative measurement specifications of SES (reflective and formative) resulted in greatly different model parameters and fits. Conclusions Even though formative operationalisations of SES are theoretically appropriate, SES is better specified as reflective than as a formative latent variable in the context of life-course modelling. PMID:23667162

von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

2013-01-01

111

Neighborhood socioeconomic position and tuberculosis transmission: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Current understanding of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clustering in the US is based on individual risk factors. This study sought to identify whether area-based socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with genotypic clustering among culture-confirmed TB cases. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on data collected on persons with incident TB in King County, Washington, 2004–2008. Multilevel models were used to identify the relationship between area-level SES at the block group level and clustering utilizing a socioeconomic position index (SEP). Results Of 519 patients with a known genotyping result and block group, 212 (41%) of isolates clustered genotypically. Analyses suggested an association between lower area-based SES and increased recent TB transmission, particularly among US-born populations. Models in which community characteristics were measured at the block group level demonstrated that lower area-based SEP was positively associated with genotypic clustering after controlling for individual covariates. However, the trend in higher clustering odds with lower SEP index quartile diminished when additional block-group covariates. Conclusions Results stress the need for TB control interventions that take area-based measures into account, with particular focus on poor neighborhoods. Interventions based on area-based characteristics, such as improving case finding strategies, utilizing location-based screening and addressing social inequalities, could reduce recent rates of transmission. PMID:24767197

2014-01-01

112

Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

113

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a Brazilian population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our aim was to investigate risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a population-based Brazilian cohort. Design and methods: A cohort study was conducted with 1091 individuals identified through multi-stage probability sampling in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Risk factors were investigated among demographic and anthropometric characteristics, including education, smoking habits, income, alcoholic beverage consumption, and blood pressure. A fatal or

Renan Stoll Moraes; Flávio Danni Fuchs; Leila Beltrami Moreira; Mário Wiehe; Gerson Martins Pereira; Sandra Costa Fuchs

2003-01-01

114

Implications Of Childhood Obesity For Adult Health: Findings From Thousand Families Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether being overweight in childhood increases adult obesity and risk of disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting City of Newcastle upon Tyne. Participants 932 members of thousand families 1947 birth cohort, of whom 412 attended for clinical examination age 50. Main outcome measures Blood pressure; carotid artery intima-media thickness; fibrinogen concentration; total, low density lipoprotein, and high

Charlotte M. Wright; Louise Parker; Douglas Lamont; Alan W. Craft

2001-01-01

115

Significant sequelae after bacterial meningitis in Niger: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Beside high mortality, acute bacterial meningitis may lead to a high frequency of neuropsychological sequelae. The Sahelian countries belonging to the meningitis belt experience approximately 50% of the meningitis cases occurring in the world. Studies in Africa have shown that N. meningitidis could cause hearing loss in up to 30% of the cases, exceeding sometimes measles. The situation is similar in Niger which experiences yearly meningitis epidemics and where rehabilitation wards are rare and hearing aids remain unaffordable. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of neuropsychological sequelae after acute bacterial meningitis in four of the eight regions of Niger. Methods Subjects exposed to acute bacterial meningitis were enrolled into a cohort with non exposed subjects matched on age and gender. Consenting subjects were interviewed during inclusion and at a control visit two months later. If clinical symptoms or psychological troubles persisted at both visits among the exposed subjects with a frequency significantly greater than that observed among the non exposed subjects, a sequelae was retained. The comparison of the frequency of sequelae between non exposed and exposed subjects to bacterial meningitis was also calculated using the Fisher exact test. Results Three persisting functional symptoms were registered: headaches, asthenia, and vertigo among 31.3, 36.9, and 22.4% respectively of the exposed subjects. A significant motor impairment was retrieved among 12.3% of the exposed versus 1.6% of the non exposed subjects. Hearing loss significantly disabled 31.3% of the exposed subjects and 10.4% exhibited a serious deafness. Conclusions This study carried out in Niger confirms two serious neurological sequelae occurring at high frequencies after bacterial meningitis: severe and profound hearing loss and motor impairment. Cochlear implantation and hearing aids are too expensive for populations living in developing countries. Neurological sequelae occurring after meningitis should sensitize African public health authorities on the development of rehabilitation centers. All these challenges can be met through existing strategies and guidelines. PMID:23687976

2013-01-01

116

Prospective Cohort Study of Impulse Control Disorders in Parkinson's Disease  

PubMed Central

Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are potentially serious side effects of dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but prospective data are lacking about their incidence, time course, and risk factors. This work was a 4-year, prospective cohort study of outpatients with PD and no previous ICDs (N = 164). All subjects treated with a dopamine agonist during the study were followed longitudinally for new-onset ICDs. Baseline characteristics were compared in groups with (ICD+) and without (ICD?) subsequent ICDs. Forty-six subjects were treated with a dopamine agonist, including 25 who were newly treated and 21 who received ongoing dopamine agonist therapy. Of these 46 subjects, 18 (39.1%) developed new-onset ICDs. The timing of ICD onset varied from 3.0 to 114.0 months (median, 23.0) after initiation of dopamine agonist therapy. Baseline demographic characteristics were similar in ICD+ and ICD? groups. At baseline, ICD+ subjects had a greater prevalence of motor complications (61.1% versus 25.0%; P = 0.01) than ICD? subjects, despite comparable total dopaminergic medication usage in both groups (median, 150.0 versus 150.0 levodopa equivalents; P = 0.61). Compared with ICD? subjects, ICD+ subjects had a greater baseline prevalence of caffeine use (100% versus 66.7%; P = 0.007) and higher lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking (44.4% versus 14.3%; P = 0.04). Peak dopamine agonist doses were higher in ICD+ than ICD? subjects (median 300.0 versus 165.0 L-dopa equivalents; P = 0.03), but cumulative dopamine agonist exposure was similar in both groups. In summary, the timing of new-onset ICDs in PD is highly variable. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, caffeine use, motor complications, and higher peak dopamine agonist dosage. PMID:23283708

Bastiaens, Jesse; Dorfman, Benjamin J.; Christos, Paul J.; Nirenberg, Melissa J.

2014-01-01

117

Survival after postoperative morbidity: a longitudinal observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that there may be long-term harm associated with postoperative complications. Uncertainty exists however, because of the need for risk adjustment and inconsistent definitions of postoperative morbidity. Methods We did a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients undergoing major surgery. Case-mix adjustment was applied and morbidity was recorded using a validated outcome measure. Cox proportional hazards modelling using time-dependent covariates was used to measure the independent relationship between prolonged postoperative morbidity and longer term survival. Results Data were analysed for 1362 patients. The median length of stay was 9 days and the median follow-up time was 6.5 yr. Independent of perioperative risk, postoperative neurological morbidity (prevalence 2.9%) was associated with a relative hazard for long-term mortality of 2.00 [P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–3.04]. Prolonged postoperative morbidity (prevalence 15.6%) conferred a relative hazard for death in the first 12 months after surgery of 3.51 (P<0.001; 95% CI 2.28–5.42) and for the next 2 yr of 2.44 (P<0.001; 95% CI 1.62–3.65), returning to baseline thereafter. Conclusions Prolonged morbidity after surgery is associated with a risk of premature death for a longer duration than perhaps is commonly thought; however, this risk falls with time. We suggest that prolonged postoperative morbidity measured in this way may be a valid indicator of the quality of surgical healthcare. Our findings reinforce the importance of research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing the duration and severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25012586

Moonesinghe, S. R.; Harris, S.; Mythen, M. G.; Rowan, K. M.; Haddad, F. S.; Emberton, M.; Grocott, M. P. W.

2014-01-01

118

Left Truncation, Susceptibility, and Bias in Occupational Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Left truncation occurs when subjects who otherwise meet entry criteria do not remain observable for a later start of follow-up. We investigated left truncation in occupational studies due to inclusion of workers hired before the start of follow-up in a simulation study. Methods Using Monte Carlo methods, we simulated null and positive associations between exposure (work duration) and mortality for 500 datasets of 5000 subjects, assuming the absence and presence of heterogeneity in susceptibility to disease and to the effect of exposure. We examined incident hires (followed since hire) and left-truncated prevalent hires (those hired before baseline and remained employed at baseline). We estimated the association ( ?^1?) as the mean slope using Cox proportional hazards with a linear term for exposure, under scenarios with and without susceptibility. Results With homogeneous susceptibility, there were no differences between incident and prevalent hires. Introducing only disease susceptibility did not change results. However, with heterogeneous susceptibility to the effect of exposure, downward bias was observed among prevalent hires under both the true null and positive exposure-response scenarios. The bias increased with time between hire and baseline (null: ?^1?=0.05[SD=0.08],?^1?=-0.08[SD=0.24],?^1?=-0.18[SD=0.98] if hired <15, 15 to <30, and ?30 years before baseline, respectively), coincident with a decreasing percentage of susceptible subjects. Conclusions: Prevalent hires induce downward bias in an occupational cohort. This occurs because subjects who are less susceptible to the exposure remain exposed the longest, thereby underestimating the association. PMID:21543985

Applebaum, Katie M.; Malloy, Elizabeth J.; Eisen, Ellen A.

2014-01-01

119

University of Amsterdam Programming Research Group  

E-print Network

­based Approach 1 SETTING THE STAGE 1.1 History In the late 1960s, the NATO Science Committee organized Verhoef Report P9801 januari 1998 #12; P. Klint Programming Research Group Department of Computer Science. Verhoef Programming Research Group Department of Computer Science University of Amsterdam Kruislaan 403 NL

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

120

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science  

E-print Network

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science Bitcoin and Islamic Finance J.A. Bergstra Report.A.Bergstra@uva.nl Theory of Computer Science Electronic Report Series #12; Bitcoin and Islamic Finance Jan A. Bergstra development of Islamic Finance. The argument involves the following elements: (i) an application

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

121

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science  

E-print Network

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science Bitcoin and Islamic Finance (version 2) J.A.Bergstra@uva.nl Theory of Computer Science Electronic Report Series #12;Bitcoin and Islamic Finance (version 2 ) Jan A for the further development of Islamic Finance. The argument involves the following elements: (i) an application

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

122

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science  

E-print Network

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science Bitcoin and Islamic Finance J.A. Bergstra Report.A.Bergstra@uva.nl Theory of Computer Science Electronic Report Series #12;Bitcoin and Islamic Finance Jan A. Bergstra development of Islamic Finance. The argument involves the following elements: (i) an application

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

123

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science  

E-print Network

University of Amsterdam Theory of Computer Science Bitcoin and Islamic Finance (version 2) J.A.Bergstra@uva.nl Theory of Computer Science Electronic Report Series #12; Bitcoin and Islamic Finance (version 2 # ) Jan A for the further development of Islamic Finance. The argument involves the following elements: (i) an application

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

124

Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Little is known about the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise or time spent outdoors on the development of asthma. We investigated the relation between newly-diagnosed asthma and team sports in a cohort of children exposed to different concentrations and mixtures of air pollutants. Methods 3535 children with no history of asthma were recruited from schools

Rob McConnell; Kiros Berhane; Frank Gilliland; Stephanie J London; Talat Islam; W James Gauderman; Edward Avol; Helene G Margolis; John M Peters

2002-01-01

125

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH, DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah, which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, birth date, town ...

126

Time of birth and delivery outcomes: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Studies performed previously have attributed increased risk of intrapartum anoxia to delivery outside the normal working week. We sought to determine if the time of delivery effects outcome with respect to delivery characteristics and neonatal condition at birth. We identified a cohort of 14,426 deliveries over a 3-year period. These were analysed as three groups: night (00:00-07:59); day (08:00-15:59) and twilight (16:00-23:59). We found significantly more deliveries at night 36.3% (n = 5,240; p =0.01). At night, there were non-significantly more 'normal' deliveries compared with during the day and twilight hours (78.4%, 76.2%, 77.3%, respectively; p = 0.27). The caesarean section rate did not differ significantly between the groups (14.2%, 15.6%, 14.8%; p = 0.147). There were significantly fewer assisted deliveries in the night-time period (6.6%, 8.0%, 7.3%; p = 0.03). Women who delivered at night were more likely to have a normal delivery and less likely to have obstetric intervention in the form of assisted or operative delivery. There were no significant differences in the need for resuscitation to be performed at birth across the three groups (14.3%, 13.3%, 14.8%; p = 0.111). There was no significant difference in the numbers of babies directly admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (5.9%, 6.8%, 6.3%; p = 0.198) in the three respective time periods. PMID:22519475

Woodhead, N; Lindow, S

2012-05-01

127

Alcohol Consumption and Mortality: The Khon Kaen Cohort Study, Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background The prevalence of alcohol consumption among Thais is high, around 30%. We quantified the relationship between alcohol drinking and mortality in a rural population in the most populous region of Thailand. Methods The data were from the Khon Kaen Cohort Study. About 24 000 Thai adults were enrolled between 1990 and 2001, and follow-up for vital status continued until March 16, 2012. Mortality data were obtained from the Bureau of Policy and Strategy, Ministry of the Interior, Thailand. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze the association between alcohol drinking and death, controlling for age, education level, and smoking, and floating absolute risk was used to estimate the 95% confidence intervals of hazard ratios. Results In total, 18 457 participants (5829 men and 12 628 women) were recruited, of whom 3155 died (1375 men and 1780 women) during a median follow-up period of 13.6 years. Although alcohol drinking was common (64% of men and 25% of women), the amounts consumed were very low (average, 4.3 g/day in men and 0.8 g/day in women). As compared with never drinkers, mortality risk was lower among current drinkers and higher among ex-drinkers. Current drinking was not associated with mortality from cancer or diseases of the circulatory system, although ex-drinkers appeared to have a higher risk of death from the latter. Conclusions The leading causes of mortality were not associated with current alcohol drinking at the low consumption levels observed in this population. PMID:24531003

Kamsa-ard, Siriporn; Promthet, Supannee; Lewington, Sarah; Burrett, Julie Ann; Sherliker, Paul; Kamsa-ard, Supot; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Parkin, Donald Maxwell

2014-01-01

128

Psychosocial work environment and antidepressant medication: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adverse psychosocial work environments may lead to impaired mental health, but it is still a matter of conjecture if demonstrated associations are causal or biased. We aimed at verifying whether poor psychosocial working climate is related to increase of redeemed subscription of antidepressant medication. Methods Information on all antidepressant drugs (AD) purchased at pharmacies from 1995 through 2006 was obtained for a cohort of 21,129 Danish public service workers that participated in work climate surveys carried out during the period 2002–2005. Individual self-reports of psychosocial factors at work including satisfaction with the work climate and dimensions of the job strain model were obtained by self-administered questionnaires (response rate 77,2%). Each employee was assigned the average score value for all employees at his/her managerial work unit [1094 units with an average of 18 employees (range 3–120)]. The risk of first-time AD prescription during follow-up was examined according to level of satisfaction and psychosocial strain by Cox regression with adjustment for gender, age, marital status, occupational status and calendar year of the survey. Results The proportion of employees that received at least one prescription of ADs from 1995 through 2006 was 11.9% and prescriptions rose steadily from 1.50% in 1996 to the highest level 6.47% in 2006. ADs were prescribed more frequent among women, middle aged, employees with low occupational status and those living alone. None of the measured psychosocial work environment factors were consistently related to prescription of antidepressant drugs during the follow-up period. Conclusion The study does not indicate that a poor psychosocial work environment among public service employees is related to prescription of antidepressant pharmaceuticals. These findings need cautious interpretation because of lacking individual exposure assessments. PMID:19635130

Bonde, Jens Peter E; Munch-Hansen, Torsten; Wieclaw, Joanna; Westergaard-Nielsen, Niels; Agerbo, Esben

2009-01-01

129

The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: Design and Methods.  

PubMed

Insights into end-stage renal disease have emerged from many investigations but less is known about the epidemiology of chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) and its relationship to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study was established to examine risk factors for progression of CRI and CVD among CRI patients and develop models to identify high-risk subgroups, informing future treatment trials, and increasing application of preventive therapies. CRIC will enroll approximately 3000 individuals at seven sites and follow participants for up to 5 yr. CRIC will include a racially and ethnically diverse group of adults aged 21 to 74 yr with a broad spectrum of renal disease severity, half of whom have diagnosed diabetes mellitus. CRIC will exclude subjects with polycystic kidney disease and those on active immunosuppression for glomerulonephritis. Subjects will undergo extensive clinical evaluation at baseline and at annual clinic visits and via telephone at 6 mo intervals. Data on quality of life, dietary assessment, physical activity, health behaviors, depression, cognitive function, health care resource utilization, as well as blood and urine specimens will be collected annually. (125)I-iothalamate clearances and CVD evaluations including a 12-lead surface electrocardiogram, an echocardiogram, and coronary electron beam or spiral CT will be performed serially. Analyses planned in CRIC will provide important information on potential risk factors for progressive CRI and CVD. Insights from CRIC should lead to the formulation of hypotheses regarding therapy that will serve as the basis for targeted interventional trials focused on reducing the burden of CRI and CVD. PMID:12819321

Feldman, Harold I; Appel, Lawrence J; Chertow, Glenn M; Cifelli, Denise; Cizman, Borut; Daugirdas, John; Fink, Jeffrey C; Franklin-Becker, Eunice D; Go, Alan S; Hamm, L Lee; He, Jiang; Hostetter, Tom; Hsu, Chi-Yuan; Jamerson, Kenneth; Joffe, Marshall; Kusek, John W; Landis, J Richard; Lash, James P; Miller, Edgar R; Mohler, Emile R; Muntner, Paul; Ojo, Akinlolu O; Rahman, Mahboob; Townsend, Raymond R; Wright, Jackson T

2003-07-01

130

Organisational justice and health of employees: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the association between components of organisational justice (that is, justice of decision making procedures and interpersonal treatment) and health of employees. Methods: The Poisson regression analyses of recorded all-cause sickness absences with medical certificate and the logistic regression analyses of minor psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the General Health Questionnaire, and poor self rated health status were based on a cohort of 416 male and 3357 female employees working during 1998–2000 in 10 hospitals in Finland. Results: Low versus high justice of decision making procedures was associated with a 41% higher risk of sickness absence in men (rate ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.8), and a 12% higher risk in women (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The corresponding odds ratios (OR) for minor psychiatric morbidity were 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.6) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) in women, and for self rated health 1.4 in both sexes. In interpersonal treatment, low justice increased the risk of sickness absence (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) in men and women respectively), and minor psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.2 in both sexes). These figures largely persisted after control for other risk factors (for example, job control, workload, social support, and hostility) and they were replicated in initially healthy subcohorts. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that organisational justice would represent a consequence of health (reversed causality). Conclusions: This is the first longitudinal study to show that the extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces independently predicts their health. PMID:12499453

Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J; Theorell, T

2003-01-01

131

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy: appraisal of a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the safety and effectiveness of individualized laparoscopic herniorrhaphy and to compare its intraoperative cost to that of the standard Bassini operation. Design An analytic cohort study. Setting A university teaching hospital. Patients One group of 158 patients underwent 167 laparoscopic herniorrhaphies for symptomatic groin hernias. The approach was transabdominal preperitoneal for the first 124 patients and totally preperitoneal for the last 34 patients. A second group of 50 patients underwent a conventional Bassini operation. Intervention Individualized laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy or Bassini herniorrhaphy. Main Outcome Measures Complications and recurrences encountered in the laparoscopic group. Total operative time and intraoperative cost involved in both procedures. Analgesia required in each group during the first 2 postoperative days. Results Intra- and postoperative complications of the laparoscopic approach were not life threatening. The recurrence rate at a mean follow-up of 16.8 months was 1.2%. Total operative time was significantly (p < 0.001) longer in the laparoscopy group than in the Bassini group. Patients in the Bassini group took more parenteral analgesics than those in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.02), but there was no difference with respect to the number of times enteral analgesics were required (p = 0.32). Use of mesh and staples was more expensive than sutures alone inserted laparoscopically. The Bassini procedure was a less expensive procedure than laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Conclusions The laparoscopic treatment of groin hernias is safe. The recurrence rate is low. Primary unilateral inguinal hernias could be adequately treated at a lesser cost by a standard approach. Bilateral, recurrent and femoral hernias could benefit from a laparoscopic approach. PMID:8640623

Dion, Yves-Marie

1996-01-01

132

An exploratory analysis of large health cohort study using Bayesian networks  

E-print Network

Large health cohort studies are among the most effective ways in studying the causes, treatments and outcomes of diseases by systematically collecting a wide range of data over long periods. The wealth of data in such ...

Shen, Delin

2006-01-01

133

Long term health complaints following the Amsterdam Air Disaster in police officers and fire-fighters  

PubMed Central

Background On 4 October 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Fire?fighters and police officers assisted with the rescue work. Objectives To examine the long term health complaints in rescue workers exposed to a disaster. Methods A historical cohort study was performed among police officers (n?=?834) and fire?fighters (n?=?334) who performed at least one disaster related task and reference groups of their non?exposed colleagues (n?=?634 and n?=?194, respectively). The main outcome measures included digestive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, airway, skin, post?traumatic stress, fatigue, and general mental health complaints; haematological and biochemical laboratory values; and urinalysis outcomes. Results Police officers and fire?fighters who were professionally exposed to a disaster reported more physical and mental health complaints, compared to the reference groups. No clinically relevant statistically significant differences in laboratory outcomes were found. Conclusions This study is the first to examine long term health complaints in a large sample of rescue workers exposed to a disaster in comparison to reference groups of non?exposed colleagues. Findings show that even in the long term, and in the absence of laboratory abnormalities, rescue workers report more health complaints. PMID:16644894

Huizink, A C; Slottje, P; Witteveen, A B; Bijlsma, J A; Twisk, J W R; Smidt, N; Bramsen, I; van Mechelen, W; van der Ploeg, H M; Bouter, L M; Smid, T

2006-01-01

134

Familial risk of cerebral palsy: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate risks of recurrence of cerebral palsy in family members with various degrees of relatedness to elucidate patterns of hereditability. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, linked to the Norwegian social insurance scheme to identify cases of cerebral palsy and to databases of Statistics Norway to identify relatives. Participants 2?036?741 Norwegians born during 1967-2002, 3649 of whom had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy; 22?558 pairs of twins, 1?851?144 pairs of first degree relatives, 1?699?856 pairs of second degree relatives, and 5?165?968 pairs of third degree relatives were identified. Main outcome measure Cerebral palsy. Results If one twin had cerebral palsy, the relative risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy was 15.6 (95% confidence interval 9.8 to 25) in the other twin. In families with an affected singleton child, risk was increased 9.2 (6.4 to 13)-fold in a subsequent full sibling and 3.0 (1.1 to 8.6)-fold in a half sibling. Affected parents were also at increased risk of having an affected child (6.5 (1.6 to 26)-fold). No evidence was found of differential transmission through mothers or fathers, although the study had limited power to detect such differences. For people with an affected first cousin, only weak evidence existed for an increased risk (1.5 (0.9 to 2.7)-fold). Risks in siblings or cousins were independent of sex of the index case. After exclusion of preterm births (an important risk factor for cerebral palsy), familial risks remained and were often stronger. Conclusions People born into families in which someone already has cerebral palsy are themselves at elevated risk, depending on their degree of relatedness. Elevated risk may extend even to third degree relatives (first cousins). The patterns of risk suggest multifactorial inheritance, in which multiple genes interact with each other and with environmental factors. These data offer additional evidence that the underlying causes of cerebral palsy extend beyond the clinical management of delivery. PMID:25028249

Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Moster, Dag

2014-01-01

135

Television Viewing, Walking Speed and Grip Strength in a Prospective Cohort Study  

E-print Network

, Bargh J a, Brownell KD. Priming effects of television food advertising on eating behavior. Health Psychol. 2009;28(4):404–13. 17. Hayat SA, Luben R, Keevil VL, et al. Cohort Profile: A prospective cohort study of objective physical and cognitive... 1 Television Viewing, Walking Speed and Grip Strength in a Prospective Cohort Study Keevil Victoria L1, Wijndaele Katrien2, Luben Robert1, Sayer Avan A3, Wareham Nicholas J2 & Khaw Kay-Tee1 Running Title: TV Viewing Time and Physical Function...

Keevil, Victoria L.; Wijndaele, Katrien; Luben, Robert; Sayer, Avan A.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

2014-07-18

136

The Hordaland Women's Cohort: A prospective cohort study of incontinence, other urinary tract symptoms and related health issues in middle-aged women  

PubMed Central

Background Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent symptom in middle-aged women, but data on incidence is limited and rarely reported. In order to analyze incidence, remission, or development patterns of severity and types of UI, we have established a 15-year prospective cohort (1997–2012). Methods The Cohort is based on the national collection of health data gathered from county studies (CONOR). Hordaland Health Study (HUSK) is one of them from Hordaland County. Each of the county studies may have local sub-studies and our Cohort is one of them. The Cohort included women aged 40–45 in order to have a broad approach to women's health including UI and other lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). A onefifth random sampling from HUSK was used to create the Cohort in 1997–1999. For the necessary sample size a preliminary power calculation, based on a 70% response rate at inclusion and 5% annual attrition rates was used. The Cohort is planned to collect data through questionnaires every second year for the 15-year period from 1997–2012. Discussion The Cohort represents a relatively large random sample (N = 2,230) of about 15% of the total population of women born between 1953–57 in the county of Hordaland. Our data shows that the cohort population is very similar to the source population. The baseline demographic, social and medical characteristics of the Cohort are compared with the rest of women in HUSK (N = 7,746) and there were no significant differences between them except for the level of education (P = 0.001) and yearly income (P = 0.018), which were higher in the Cohort population. Urological characteristics of participants from the Cohort (N = 1,920) were also compared with the other participants (N = 3,400). There were no significant statistical differences except for somewhat more urinary continence (P = 0.04), more stress incontinence (P = 0.048) and smaller amount of leakage (P = 0.015) in the Cohort. In conclusion, the Cohort ispopulation-based, with little selection bias, and thus is a rather unique study forinvestigating UI and LUTS in comparison with many other projects with similar purposes. PMID:18721479

Jahanlu, David; Qureshi, Samera Azeem; Hunskaar, Steinar

2008-01-01

137

Hypnotics' association with mortality or cancer: a matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives An estimated 6%–10% of US adults took a hypnotic drug for poor sleep in 2010. This study extends previous reports associating hypnotics with excess mortality. Setting A large integrated health system in the USA. Design Longitudinal electronic medical records were extracted for a one-to-two matched cohort survival analysis. Subjects Subjects (mean age 54?years) were 10?529 patients who received hypnotic prescriptions and 23?676 matched controls with no hypnotic prescriptions, followed for an average of 2.5?years between January 2002 and January 2007. Main outcome measures Data were adjusted for age, gender, smoking, body mass index, ethnicity, marital status, alcohol use and prior cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) for death were computed from Cox proportional hazards models controlled for risk factors and using up to 116 strata, which exactly matched cases and controls by 12 classes of comorbidity. Results As predicted, patients prescribed any hypnotic had substantially elevated hazards of dying compared to those prescribed no hypnotics. For groups prescribed 0.4–18, 18–132 and >132 doses/year, HRs (95% CIs) were 3.60 (2.92 to 4.44), 4.43 (3.67 to 5.36) and 5.32 (4.50 to 6.30), respectively, demonstrating a dose–response association. HRs were elevated in separate analyses for several common hypnotics, including zolpidem, temazepam, eszopiclone, zaleplon, other benzodiazepines, barbiturates and sedative antihistamines. Hypnotic use in the upper third was associated with a significant elevation of incident cancer; HR=1.35 (95% CI 1.18 to 1.55). Results were robust within groups suffering each comorbidity, indicating that the death and cancer hazards associated with hypnotic drugs were not attributable to pre-existing disease. Conclusions Receiving hypnotic prescriptions was associated with greater than threefold increased hazards of death even when prescribed <18 pills/year. This association held in separate analyses for several commonly used hypnotics and for newer shorter-acting drugs. Control of selective prescription of hypnotics for patients in poor health did not explain the observed excess mortality. PMID:22371848

Langer, Robert D; Kline, Lawrence E

2012-01-01

138

DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

139

The role of longitudinal cohort studies in epigenetic epidemiology: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach. PMID:22747597

2012-01-01

140

The Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health: Design and characteristics of a new cohort study of cancer risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: We have established a new cohort study, the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health, to investigate the relationship between diet, lifestyle factors, molecular markers, and cancer incidence in Canada. Methods: The cohort was established predominantly by recruiting alumni from the Universities of Alberta, Toronto, and Western Ontario between 1995 and 1998, but also includes a small contingent recruited

Thomas E. Rohan; Colin L. Soskolne; Kenneth K. Carroll; Nancy Kreiger

2007-01-01

141

Incidence of Dementia in a Rural Community in Spain: The Girona Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Information on dementia incidence in Spanish populations is still scarce, and there is a dearth of prospective studies. Objective: To estimate the incidence rates of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) in a population cohort aged 75 and over in a rural area in Spain. Methods: A prospective population cohort study over a 5-year period in 8

Secundino López-Pousa; Joan Vilalta-Franch; Jordi Llinàs-Regla; Josep Garre-Olmo; Gustavo C. Román

2004-01-01

142

Do refinements to original designs improve outcome of total knee replacement? A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term results of the 'classic’ low contact stress (LCS) total knee replacement (TKR) have been satisfactory; nonetheless, design changes have been made which resulted in the 'complete’ LCS TKR. The aim of this study is to compare the 5-year incidence of revision and midterm clinical performance before and after introduction of the 'complete’. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted on 100 primary uncemented TKRs of both designs. At 5-year follow-up, revision and reoperation rates were determined for these 200 TKRs. Knee Society score (KSS), the Oxford Knee score (OKS) and range of motion were determined for 143 TKRs. Results In the 'classic’ cohort, 3% of the TKRs were revised compared with 5% in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.72).The mean KSS was 134.1 (SD 38.3) in the 'classic’ cohort compared to 135.0 (SD 42.8) in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.89). Of the 'complete’ TKRs, 35.2% scored within the lowest quartile of the KSS knee compared to 16.7% of the 'classic’ TKRs (p?=?0.01). The OKS was 23.3 (SD 9.3) in the 'classic’ cohort compared to 22.5 (SD 10.1) in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.45). More than 5° flexion contracture was only found in four patients in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.04). Conclusions No statistical difference in revision rate and average scores for midterm clinical performance was observed between the 'classic’ and the 'complete’. However, the 'complete’ cohort had a higher percentage of KSS Knee in the lowest quartile, which suggests a clinical relevant difference compared with the 'classic’. Further investigation in future studies with new designs is needed. PMID:24502700

2014-01-01

143

Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uuskula, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

2014-01-01

144

The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics of the cohort. Methods: The study was a 1-year multicentre randomized controlled rater-blinded trial with randomization to follow-up and

G. Waldemar; F. B. Waldorff; D. V. Buss; A. Eckermann; N. Keiding; S. Rishøj; V. Siersma; J. Sørensen; L. V. Sørensen; A. Vogel

2011-01-01

145

Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was

AJM van Loon; A. A. M. Botterweck; R. A. Goldbohm; HAM Brants; JD van Klaveren; PA van den Brandt

1998-01-01

146

Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency\\/microwave exposure: a synopsis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies\\/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million person years). As exposures were defined: dielectric heaters in a plastic manufacturing plant, working with radio

Jürgen Breckenkamp; Gabriele Berg; Maria Blettner

2003-01-01

147

Academic achievement of twins and singletons in early adulthood: Taiwanese cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the long term effects of low birth weight on academic achievements in twins and singletons and to determine whether the academic achievement of twins in early adulthood is inferior to that of singletons.Design Cohort study.Setting Taiwanese nationwide register of academic outcome.Participants A cohort of 218 972 singletons and 1687 twins born in Taiwan, 1983-5.Main outcome measure College

Meng-Ting Tsou; Meng-Wen Tsou; Ming-Ping Wu; Jin-Tan Liu

2008-01-01

148

The Hordaland Women's Cohort: A prospective cohort study of incontinence, other urinary tract symptoms and related health issues in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent symptom in middle-aged women, but data on incidence is limited and rarely reported. In order to analyze incidence, remission, or development patterns of severity and types of UI, we have established a 15-year prospective cohort (1997–2012). METHODS: The Cohort is based on the national collection of health data gathered from county studies (CONOR).

David Jahanlu; Samera Azeem Qureshi; Steinar Hunskaar

2008-01-01

149

Als ze maar van me afblijven : Een onderzoek naar antihomoseksueel geweld in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Geweld tegen homo's is een veelvoorkomend en structureel verschijnsel in Nederlands gay capital. Ondanks de liberale reputatie van Amsterdam zijn vooroordelen over mannelijkheid en (homo)seksualiteit wijdverspreid. Dat leidt, voornamelijk bij jonge mannen, tot het plegen van geweld. Als ze maar van me afblijven is een studie naar de motieven van daders van geweld tegen homo's in de hoofdstad. De studie

Laurens Buijs; Jan Willem Duyvendak; Gert Hekma

2008-01-01

150

The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues. PMID:24895104

Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

2014-11-01

151

Quiet Areas and the Need for Quietness in Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the Quiet Places Project in Amsterdam. The purpose of the study was to find out: (1) which public quiet places there are according to Amsterdam residents; (2) what characterizes a quiet place; (3) to what extent do residents want peace and quiet; (4) how do residents realize these needs. The factors determining the need for quietness are presented in a model showing the influence of demographic and socio-economic issues, health status, sensitiveness to noise, daily activities and the noisiness in and around home. Most important of these factors is sensitivity to noise. Elderly and less healthy people are more often sensitive to noise. People who are annoyed by sound from traffic, airplanes and the like show a higher need for quietness. People with a lively household or neighbourhood report lower needs for quietness. Visiting a quiet place and going outside to walk or bike can have a compensating effect on the need for quietness. This suggests that creating quiet places and enhancing possibilities for quiet recreation in urban environments can have a positive effect on the quality of life in the city. Objective noise levels at the quiet places were taken from environmental noise maps. This shows that there may be a preference for low transportation noise levels, but levels up to 60 dB Lday are acceptable. Apparently this depends on a relative quietness or on non-acoustic characteristics of an area: the presence of vegetation and other pleasant stimuli. PMID:22690181

Booi, Hester; van den Berg, Frits

2012-01-01

152

Physica 22D (1986) 187-204 North-Holland, Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Physica 22D (1986) 187-204 North-Holland, Amsterdam THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, ADAPTATION, AND MACHINE be as short as a few days, making the immune system an ideal candidate for the study and mod- eling to machine learning and artificial intelligence introduced by Holland [4], called the classifier system. Our

153

Journal of Chromatography, 632 (1993) 201-207 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Journal of Chromatography, 632 (1993) 201-207 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam CHROMSYMP under the conditions of electroosmotically driven open-tubular liquid chromatography [l-7], capillaryth In- ternational Meeting on Column Liquid Chromatography, Basle, June 3rd-7th, 1991. era1 studies

Zare, Richard N.

154

The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders is underway and has successfully enrolled over 1,000 workers to date. PMID:22672216

2012-01-01

155

Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of nutrients and the development of ulcerative colitis in a cohort study. Methods: The study population was

Andrew R. Hart; Robert Luben; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjonneland; Jakob Linseisen; Gabriele Nagel; Göran Berglund; Stefan Lindgren; Olof Grip; Timothy Key; Paul Appleby; Manuela M. Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Göran Hallmans; Åke Danielsson; Richard Palmqvist; Hubert Sjodin; Gun Hägglund; Kim Overvad; Domenico Palli; Giovanna Masala; Elio Riboli; Hugh Kennedy; Ailsa Welch; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nicholas Day; Sheila Bingham

2008-01-01

156

Imputations of Missing Values in Practice: Results from Imputations of Serum Cholesterol in 28 Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missing values, common in epidemiologic studies, are a major issue in obtaining valid estimates. Simulation studies have suggested that multiple imputation is an attractive method for imputing missing values, but it is relatively complex and requires specialized software. For each of 28 studies in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, a comparison of eight imputation procedures (unconditional and conditional mean,

Federica Barzi; Mark Woodward

157

Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection Is Associated with Increased Respiratory Failure: A Nationwide Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose Population study on relationship between nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infection and respiratory failure (RF) is limited. This study evaluated the RF risk, including acute respiratory failure (ARF), chronic respiratory failure (CRF) and ARF on CRF, in patients with NTM infection in Taiwan. Methods We used the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan to identify 3864 newly diagnosed NTM patients (NTM cohort) from 1999 to 2009, and 15456 non-NTM patients (non-NTM cohort), frequency matched by demographic status for comparison. Incidence and hazard of developing RF were measured by the end of 2010. Results The incidence rate of RF was 4.31-fold higher in the NTM cohort than in the non-NTM cohort (44.0 vs.10.2 per 1000 person-years), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 3.11 (95% CI: 2.73–3.54). The cumulative proportional incidence of RF was 10% higher in the NTM cohort than in the non-NTM cohort (P<0.0001). The RF risk was much greater within 6 months after the diagnosis of NTM infection with a HR of 7.45 (95% CI?=?5.50–10.09). Age-specific comparison showed that the younger NTM patients had a higher HR of RF than the elderly NTM patients (HR: 4.42, 95% CI: 3.28–5.96 vs. HR: 2.52, 95% CI: 2.17–2.92). Comorbidity increased the risk of RF in both cohorts, particularly in those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Conclusion Our study suggests patients with NTM infection are at a high risk of RF. The risk appears much greater soon after patients diagnosed with NTM infection. PMID:24918925

Yeh, Jun-Jun; Wang, Yu-Chiao; Lin, Cheng-Li; Chou, Christine Yi-Ting; Yeh, Ting-Chun; Wu, Bing-Tsang

2014-01-01

158

The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health  

PubMed Central

Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases." PMID:21838884

2011-01-01

159

Global malaria challenge: the Amsterdam summit.  

PubMed

On 26-27 October 1992 the World Health Organization convened a global Ministerial Conference on Malaria in Amsterdam to draw up a global strategy for renewed attack on malaria, in view of the deteriorating situation in the control of this disease in many parts of the world. This report summarizes the key points of the strategy and the Declaration emanating from this crucial assembly of nations, which it is hoped will lead to increased tangible support nationally, from international agencies and from bilateral agreements for greatly improved programs of malaria control. PMID:1298069

Kidson, C

1992-12-01

160

Comparing Formal Frameworks of Narrative Structure ILLC, Universiteit van Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Comparing Formal Frameworks of Narrative Structure ILLC, Universiteit van Amsterdam Amsterdam other. In this note, we give a general discussion of what it entails to compare two formal frameworks) in § 3. 2 Formal Frameworks Comparing the adequacy of frameworks is not a formal task, but deals

Amsterdam, University of

161

Child Maltreatment in the "Children of the Nineties": A Cohort Study of Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…

Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon

2006-01-01

162

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2010-01-01

163

Cancer Prevention Studies (CPS I, CPS II, & CPS II Nutrition Cohort)  

Cancer.gov

In 1952, the Statistical Research Section, forerunner of the present Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, began its first large prospective cohort study, the Hammond-Horn Study, to study the effect of cigarette smoking on death rates from cancer and other diseases.

164

Sociodemographic factors and vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.  

PubMed

Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35 308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Linear regression models were used to examine the association between sociodemographic indicators and tumor size. We found that IRRs decreased gradually with decreasing level of education, with values of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49-0.78) for men and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.50-0.77) for women with a basic education compared with a higher education. Similar results were found for disposable income. Marital status was associated with a higher incidence of VS in men but not women; nonmarried men with a basic education had an IRR of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.23-0.50) compared with married men with a higher education. Lower incidence rates were also observed among unemployed or early-retirement pensioners, whereas there were no differences in incidence rates across the broad groups of occupations and across the types of districts. Sociodemographic indicators were not associated with the tumor size. The magnitude of the differences in incidence rates across the groups of different socioeconomic indicators suggests a high potential for earlier diagnosis of VS by improving the awareness of early symptoms. PMID:21068153

Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Johansen, Christoffer

2010-12-01

165

The Millennium Cohort Study: A Prospective Study of the Health of Military Service Members  

Cancer.gov

This is the first large, population-based prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term health effects of military service. After the 1991 Gulf War, research on illnesses was hampered by unavailability of objective measurements on exposures at the individual level, a lack of baseline health data, and an inability to adequately control for potential confounding factors. Public health experts recommended that the Department of Defense (DoD) establish a cohort with the capability to prospectively examine health outcomes among U.S. military service members.

166

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2011-01-01

167

Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

168

Childhood Neuromotor Dysfunction in Schizophrenia Patients and Their Unaffected Siblings: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Neuromotor dysfunction is a consistent finding in high-risk and archival studies of schizophrenia, but the sources of this dysfunction and its role in the developmental course of the disorder remain poorly understood. This study examined childhood motor predictors of adult psychiatric outcome in a birth cohort sample (72 patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, 63 unaffected siblings, and 7,941 nonpsychiatric

Isabelle M. Rosso; Carrie E. Bearden; J. Megginson Hollister; Timothy L. Gasperoni; Laura E. Sanchez; Trevor Hadley; Tyrone D. Cannon

2000-01-01

169

Pre- and Postnatal Influences on Preschool Mental Health: A Large-Scale Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Methodological challenges such as confounding have made the study of the early determinants of mental health morbidity problematic. This study aims to address these challenges in investigating antenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for the development of mental health problems in pre-school children in a cohort of Western…

Robinson, Monique; Oddy, Wendy H.; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth E.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Silburn, Sven R.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Newnham, John P.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Mattes, Eugen

2008-01-01

170

Features of infant exposure to tobacco smoke in a cohort study in Tasmania  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES: To document changes in smoking style around infants over time and to identify factors associated with the smoking hygiene of mothers and others. DESIGN: A population based cohort study. SETTING: Population based, involving 22% of live births in Tasmania, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: From 1 May 1988 to 30 April, 1993, 6109 infants and their mothers (89% of eligible infants)

A L Ponsonby; D Couper; T Dwyer

1996-01-01

171

Outcome of anthroposophic medication therapy in chronic disease: A 12-month prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are prescribed in 56 countries. Objective: To study clinical outcomes in patients prescribed AMED for chronic disease. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 110 medical practices in Germany. Participants: 665 consecutive outpatients aged 1-71 years, prescribed AMED for mental, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, genitourinary, and other chronic diseases. Main outcomes: Disease and Symptom Scores (physicians' and patients' assessment,

Harald J Hamre; Claudia M Witt; Anja Glockmann; Renatus Ziegler; Gunver S Kienle; Stefan N Willich; Helmut Kiene

2008-01-01

172

Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

173

Impact of Parent Involvement on Children's Development and Academic Performance: A Three-Cohort Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study examined the possibility of a "threshold" of parent involvement with their children's preschools, that can lead to positive child outcomes in a sample of hard-to-engage families. Three cohorts of preschool children were studied, most from low-income, single-parent families. Teachers were interviewed to determine extent of contact they…

Marcon, Rebecca A.

174

Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL Cohort Study  

E-print Network

1 Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL Cohort Study Naja Hulvej;173(3):300-9" DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwq371 #12;2 Abstract Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on sleep and mortality have addressed only duration, and not quality, of sleep

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

175

Mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although previous studies have shown increased mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives, no data are available in relation to different patterns of clinical presentation. We assessed mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their first-degree relatives. Methods We enrolled, in a prospective cohort study, 1072 adult patients with coeliac disease consecutively diagnosed in 11 gastroenterology

Giovanni Corrao; Gino Roberto Corazza; Vincenzo Bagnardi; Giovanna Brusco; Carolina Ciacci; Mario Cottone; Carla Sategna Guidetti; Paolo Usai; Pietro Cesari; Maria Antonietta Pelli; Silvano Loperfido; Umberto Volta; Antonino Calabró; Maria Certo

2001-01-01

176

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in  

E-print Network

and their determinants. Methods/Design: Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France and prevention in high-risk babies. Keywords: Preterm births, Cohort, Population-based study Background About 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

177

Aetiology of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in hospitalised adults: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The aetiology of severe gastroenteritis leading to hospitalisation in adults frequently remains unclear. Our objective was to study the causes and characteristics of community-acquired, acute gastroenteritis in adult hospitalized patients to support the clinical management of these patients. METHODS: From August 2005 to August 2007, we conducted a prospective cohort study among patients ?18 y hospitalized with community-acquired gastroenteritis

Andreas Jansen; Klaus Stark; Jan Kunkel; Eckart Schreier; Ralf Ignatius; Oliver Liesenfeld; Dirk Werber; Ulf B Göbel; Martin Zeitz; Thomas Schneider

2008-01-01

178

Does personality predict mortality? Results from the GAZEL French prospective cohort study  

E-print Network

Does personality predict mortality? Results from the GAZEL French prospective cohort study Nabi be adressed to: Hermann Nabi Abstract Background Majority of studies on personality and physical health have focused on one or two isolated personality traits. We aim to test the independent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

179

National Board Teacher Certification: A Study of a Cohort of Five Candidates in One Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if the National Board Teacher Certification (NBTC) process was an effective form of professional development for teachers that would result in changing teachers' instructional practice resulting in improved student learning. The study also examined how a cohort of NBTC candidates impacted the non-NBTC…

Fawcett, Janet

2010-01-01

180

Characteristics and Motivations That Led to Persistence in Doctoral Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate the characteristics and motivations that led to persistence in a doctoral cohort program of study. A phenomenological case study approach, utilizing a comprehensive interview format, was used to gain a deep understanding of the phenomenon. The case for this research was Robert Morris…

Santicola, Leslie Lynn

2011-01-01

181

Women's breastfeeding experiences following a significant primary postpartum haemorrhage: A multicentre cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a significant and increasing contributor to maternal mortality and morbidity. Following a PPH, women may have difficulties initiating and sustaining breastfeeding, although little has been published on this issue. The aim of this study was to describe breastfeeding experiences in a cohort of women following a significant PPH. METHODS: This is a descriptive study based

Jane F Thompson; Laura J Heal; Christine L Roberts; David A Ellwood

2010-01-01

182

Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that childhood overweight is associated with increased risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between childhood overweight and common childhood health problems. METHODS: Data were used from a general population sample of 3960 8-year-old children, participating in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. Weight and height, measured

Alet H Wijga; Salome Scholtens; Wanda JE Bemelmans; Johan C de Jongste; Marjan Kerkhof; Maarten Schipper; Elisabeth A Sanders; Jorrit Gerritsen; Bert Brunekreef; Henriette A Smit

2010-01-01

183

Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

2012-01-01

184

Pharmaco-morbidity linkage: a feasibility study comparing morbidity in two pharmacy based exposure cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aims were (1) to compare discharge diagnoses and concurrent medication in a pharmacy based cohort of users of H2 receptor antagonists to those in a population of users of other drugs in the same period, who did not use H2 receptor antagonists; (2) to compare these results to those of a similar study performed with the Tayside record

R M Herings; A Bakker; B H Stricker; G Nap

1992-01-01

185

Body Mass Index and Future Healthcare Costs: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and future healthcare costs.Research Methods and Procedures: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of the relationship between obesity and future healthcare costs at Kaiser Permanente Northwest Division, a large health maintenance organization in Portland, Oregon. Study subjects (n = 1286) consisted of persons who responded to a 1990 health survey

David Thompson; Jonathan B. Brown; Gregory A. Nichols; Patricia J. Elmer; Gerry Oster

2001-01-01

186

Very Early Predictors of Conduct Problems and Crime: Results from a National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born…

Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.

2010-01-01

187

Suicide Attempts and Severe Psychiatric Morbidity among Former Child Welfare Clients--A National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few large sample studies have examined psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare/protection clients. In this study, risks for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity in younger years were assessed for former child welfare clients in ten national birth cohorts, comparing them with general population peers and…

Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders; Lindblad, Frank

2006-01-01

188

Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

2013-01-01

189

A prospective population-based cohort study of lactation and cardiovascular disease mortality: the HUNT study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that lactation has long-term effects on risk for cardiovascular disease in women, but the effects on cardiovascular mortality are less well known. Method In a Norwegian population-based prospective cohort study, we studied the association of lifetime duration of lactation with cardiovascular mortality in 21,889 women aged 30 to 85 years who attended the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2) in 1995–1997. The cohort was followed for mortality through 2010 by a linkage with the Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death from all causes and cardiovascular disease were calculated using Cox regression. Results During follow-up, 1,246 women died from cardiovascular disease. Parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated had a higher cardiovascular mortality than the reference group of women who had lactated 24 months or more (HR 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 5.99). There was some evidence of a U-shaped association, where women who reported lactating 7–12 months had a HR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.09). No clear associations were observed among women 65 years or older. Conclusions Excess cardiovascular mortality rates were observed among parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated. These findings support the hypothesis that lactation may have long-term influences on maternal cardiovascular health. PMID:24219620

2013-01-01

190

Course of HIV-I infection in a cohort of homosexual and bisexual men: an 11 year follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To characterise the natural history of sexually transmitted HIV-I infection in homosexual and bisexual men. DESIGN--Cohort study. SETTING--San Francisco municipal sexually transmitted disease clinic. PATIENTS--Cohort included 6705 homosexual and bisexual men originally recruited from 1978 to 1980 for studies of sexually transmitted hepatitis B. This analysis is of 489 cohort members who were either HIV-I seropositive on entry into the

G W Rutherford; A R Lifson; N A Hessol; W W Darrow; P M OMalley; S P Buchbinder; J L Barnhart; T W Bodecker; L Cannon; L S Doll

1990-01-01

191

Multiple imputation in a longitudinal cohort study: a case study of sensitivity to imputation methods.  

PubMed

Multiple imputation has entered mainstream practice for the analysis of incomplete data. We have used it extensively in a large Australian longitudinal cohort study, the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study (1992-2008). Although we have endeavored to follow best practices, there is little published advice on this, and we have not previously examined the extent to which variations in our approach might lead to different results. Here, we examined sensitivity of analytical results to imputation decisions, investigating choice of imputation method, inclusion of auxiliary variables, omission of cases with excessive missing data, and approaches for imputing highly skewed continuous distributions that are analyzed as dichotomous variables. Overall, we found that decisions made about imputation approach had a discernible but rarely dramatic impact for some types of estimates. For model-based estimates of association, the choice of imputation method and decisions made to build the imputation model had little effect on results, whereas estimates of overall prevalence and prevalence stratified by subgroup were more sensitive to imputation method and settings. Multiple imputation by chained equations gave more plausible results than multivariate normal imputation for prevalence estimates but appeared to be more susceptible to numerical instability related to a highly skewed variable. PMID:25301814

Romaniuk, Helena; Patton, George C; Carlin, John B

2014-11-01

192

Trends in patterns of dengue transmission over four years of a pediatric cohort study in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease in humans and a major urban public health problem worldwide. Methods A prospective cohort study of ~3,800 children initially aged 2-9 years old was established in Managua, Nicaragua, in 2004 to study the natural history of dengue transmission in an urban pediatric population. Blood samples from healthy subjects were collected annually prior to the dengue season, and identification of dengue cases occurred via enhanced passive surveillance at the study health center. Results Over the first four years of the study, seroprevalence of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies increased from 22-40% in the 2-year-old cohort and 90-95% in the 9-year-old cohort. The incidence of symptomatic dengue cases and the ratio of inapparent to symptomatic DENV infection varied substantially year-to-year. The switch in dominant transmission from DENV-1 to DENV-2 was accompanied by an increase in disease severity but, paradoxically, a decrease in transmission. Phylogeographic analysis of full-length DENV-2 sequences revealed strong geographic clustering of dengue cases. Conclusions This large-scale cohort study of dengue in the Americas demonstrates year-to-year variation of dengue within a pediatric population, revealing expected patterns in transmission while highlighting the impact of interventions, climate, and viral evolution. PMID:19929380

Balmaseda, Angel; Standish, Katherine; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Matute, Juan Carlos; Tellez, Yolanda; Saborio, Saira; Hammond, Samantha N.; Nunez, Andrea; Aviles, William; Henn, Matthew R.; Holmes, Edward C.; Gordon, Aubree; Coloma, Josefina; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

2013-01-01

193

Physical activity and risk of inflammatory bowel disease: prospective study from the Nurses' Health Study cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between physical activity and risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II. Participants 194?711 women enrolled in the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II who provided data on physical activity and other risk factors every two to four years since 1984 in the Nurses’ Health Study and 1989 in the Nurses’ Health Study II and followed up through 2010. Main outcome measure Incident ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease. Results During 3?421?972 person years of follow-up, we documented 284 cases of Crohn’s disease and 363 cases of ulcerative colitis. The risk of Crohn’s disease was inversely associated with physical activity (P for trend 0.02). Compared with women in the lowest fifth of physical activity, the multivariate adjusted hazard ratio of Crohn’s disease among women in the highest fifth of physical activity was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.94). Active women with at least 27 metabolic equivalent task (MET) hours per week of physical activity had a 44% reduction (hazard ratio 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.37 to 0.84) in risk of developing Crohn’s disease compared with sedentary women with <3 MET h/wk. Physical activity was not associated with risk of ulcerative colitis (P for trend 0.46). The absolute risk of ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease among women in the highest fifth of physical activity was 8 and 6 events per 100?000 person years compared with 11 and 16 events per 100?000 person years among women in the lowest fifth of physical activity, respectively. Age, smoking, body mass index, and cohort did not significantly modify the association between physical activity and risk of ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease (all P for interaction >0.35). Conclusion In two large prospective cohorts of US women, physical activity was inversely associated with risk of Crohn’s disease but not of ulcerative colitis. PMID:24231178

2013-01-01

194

Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years.

Eero Pukkala; Rafael Aspholm; Anssi Auvinen; Harald Eliasch; Maryanne Gundestrup; Pentti Kyyrnen; Finnish Airline

2002-01-01

195

Anatomy of health effects of Mediterranean diet: Greek EPIC prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the relative importance of the individual components of the Mediterranean diet in generating the inverse association of increased adherence to this diet and overall mortality.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Greek segment of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC). Participants 23 349 men and women, not previously diagnosed with cancer, coronary heart disease, or diabetes, with

Antonia Trichopoulou; Christina Bamia; Dimitrios Trichopoulos

2009-01-01

196

The validity of post-concussion syndrome in children: A controlled historical cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this controlled historical cohort study was to assess the validity of post-concussion syndrome in children. We identified 301 children aged 4–15 years who had sustained an isolated brain concussion, and another group of 301 children who sustained any other mild body injury excluding the head. Parents from both groups filled in standardized questionnaires containing questions about the

Olga Nacajauskaite; Milda Endziniene; Kristina Jureniene; Harald Schrader

2006-01-01

197

USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 55,332 male pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina with no prior history of prostate cancer. Data were collected by means...

198

Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a

Timothy J Ives; Paul R Chelminski; Catherine A Hammett-Stabler; Robert M Malone; J Stephen Perhac; Nicholas M Potisek; Betsy Bryant Shilliday; Darren A DeWalt; Michael P Pignone

2006-01-01

199

Clinical prediction rule for RSV bronchiolitis in healthy newborns: prognostic birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: Our goal was to determine predictors of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) among healthy newborns. METHODS: In this prospective birth cohort study, 298 healthy term newborns born in 2 large hospitals in the Netherlands were monitored throughout the first year of life. Parents kept daily logs and collected nose\\/throat swabs during respiratory tract infections. The

M. L. Houben; L. Bont; B. Wilbrink; M. E. Belderbos; J. L. L. Kimpen; G. H. Visser; M. M. Rovers

2011-01-01

200

An Evaluation of Intraoperative Renal Support during Liver Transplantation: A Matched Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intraoperative continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been utilized during liver transplantation (LT). Our objective was to assess intraoperative CRRT for metabolic control, postoperative complications and outcomes. Methods: Retrospective matched cohort study. Cases were LT patients receiving intraoperative CRRT. Controls were matched for demographics and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Data were extracted on physiology, course and

Ambica Parmar; David Bigam; Glenda Meeberg; Dominic Cave; Derek R. Townsend; R. T. Noel Gibney; Sean M. Bagshaw

2011-01-01

201

Impact of Diabetes on Work Cessation Data from the GAZEL cohort study  

E-print Network

Impact of Diabetes on Work Cessation Data from the GAZEL cohort study ELÃ?ONORE HERQUELOT, MSC ALICE of diabetes on work cessation, i.e., on the risks of work disability, early retirement, and death while with diabetes and randomly selected 2,530 nondiabetic employed control subjects matched for major socio

Boyer, Edmond

202

The outcome of depressive disorders in neurology patients: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: In a previous prospective study of 300 consecutive new attenders at neurology outpatient clinics, depressive disorders were diagnosed in 119 patients (40%) and major depressive disorder in 77 (26%).Objective: To describe the eight month outcome of depression in this cohort.Methods: Patients were reinterviewed eight months after their baseline assessment. Mental state was examined using the primary care evaluation of

A J Carson; K Postma; J Stone; C Warlow; M Sharpe

2003-01-01

203

Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs) recruited consecutively adult patients presenting

Jean-François Chenot; Annette Becker; Corinna Leonhardt; Stefan Keller; Norbert Donner-Banzhoff; Erika Baum; Michael Pfingsten; Jan Hildebrandt; Heinz-Dieter Basler; Michael M Kochen

2007-01-01

204

A clinical prediction rule for ambulation outcomes after traumatic spinal cord injury: a longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal cord injury is a serious disorder in which early prediction of ambulation is important to counsel patients and to plan rehabilitation. We developed a reliable, validated prediction rule to assess a patient's chances of walking independently after such injury. METHODS: We undertook a longitudinal cohort study of adult patients with traumatic spinal cord injury, with early (within

Joost J van Middendorp; Allard JF Hosman; A Rogier T Donders; Martin H Pouw; John F Ditunno; Armin Curt; Alexander CH Geurts; Hendrik Van de Meent

2011-01-01

205

Does personality explain social inequalities in mortality? The French GAZEL cohort study  

E-print Network

Does personality explain social inequalities in mortality? The French GAZEL cohort study Nabi, a personality characteristic or intelligence, leads to both" " socioeconomic position (SEP) and health. We aim to quantify the contribution of personality measures to the associations between SEP and mortality. Methods 14

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

206

Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study: A cohort of early stage breast cancer survivors (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Life After Cancer Epidemiology (LACE) Study, a cohort of 2321 early stage breast cancer survivors, was established in 2000 to examine how modifiable behavioral risk factors affect quality of life and long-term survival. Women were recruited primarily from the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Cancer Registry (KPNCAL) and the Utah cancer registry (UCR), United States. Baseline data were collected, on

Bette Caan; Barbara Sternfeld; Erica Gunderson; Ashley Coates; Charles Quesenberry; Martha L. Slattery

2005-01-01

207

Wartime in Men's Lives: A Comparative Study of American and Japanese Cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wars and military conscription have involved millions of men, women, and children, though very little is known about their long-term effect on lives. Using cohorts of American and Japanese men, this study investigates three hypothesised effects of World War II. War mobilisation and related experiences: (1) altered the timing and sequencing of events in the transition to adulthood, especially when

Glen H. Elder; Yoriko Meguro

1987-01-01

208

Infant Weight Gain and Childhood Overweight Status in a Multicenter, Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine whether a rapid rate of weight gain in early infancy is associated with overweight status in childhood. Design. Prospective, cohort study from birth to age 7 years. Setting. Twelve sites across the United States. Participants. Twenty-seven thousand, eight hundred ninety-nine (27 899) eligible participants born at full term between 1959 and 1965. Main Outcome Measure. Overweight status

Nicolas Stettler; Babette S. Zemel; Shiriki Kumanyika; Virginia A. Stallings

2010-01-01

209

The outcome of extubation failure in a community hospital intensive care unit: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Extubation failure has been associated with poor intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital outcomes in tertiary care medical centers. Given the large proportion of critical care delivered in the community setting, our purpose was to determine the impact of extubation failure on patient outcomes in a community hospital ICU. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data gathered

Christopher W Seymour; Anthony Martinez; Jason D Christie; Barry D Fuchs

2004-01-01

210

Meat and Fat Intake as Risk Factors for Pancreatic Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Meat intake has been associated with risk of exocrine pancreatic cancer, but previous fi ndings have been inconsistent. This association has been attributed to both the fat and cholesterol content of meats and to food preparation methods. We analyzed data from the prospective Multiethnic Cohort Study to investigate associations between intake of meat, other animal products, fat, and cholesterol

Ute Nöthlings; Lynne R. Wilkens; Suzanne P. Murphy; Jean H. Hankin; Brian E. Henderson; Laurence N. Kolonel

211

Risk of suicide during treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the risk of suicide in adults usingthe antidepressant venlafaxine compared with citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting UK General Practice Research Database. Participants 219 088 patients, aged 18-89 years, who were prescribed venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, or dothiepin from 1995 to 2005. Main outcome measures Completed suicide and attempted suicide. Results Venlafaxine users had a

Annalisa Rubino; Neil Roskell; Pat Tennis; Daniel Mines; Scott Weich; Elizabeth Andrews

2006-01-01

212

Risk of suicide during treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare the risk of suicide in adults using the antidepressant venlafaxine compared with citalopram, fluoxetine, and dothiepin. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting UK General Practice Research Database. Participants 219 088 patients, aged 18-89 years, who were prescribed venlafaxine, citalopram, fluoxetine, or dothiepin from 1995 to 2005. Main outcome measures Completed suicide and attempted suicide. Results Venlafaxine users had

Annalisa Rubino; Neil Roskell; Pat Tennis; Daniel Mines; Scott Weich; Elizabeth Andrews

2007-01-01

213

Mortality in Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome in Britain: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Klinefelter syndrome is characterized by hypogonadism and infertility, consequent on the presence of extra X chromosome(s). There is limited information about long-term mortality in this syn- drome because there have been no large cohort studies. Objective: Our objective was to investigate mortality in men with Klinefelter syndrome. Design and Setting: We obtained data about patients diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome

Anthony J. Swerdlow; Craig D. Higgins; Minouk J. Schoemaker; Alan F. Wright; Patricia A. Jacobs

2010-01-01

214

Cancer screenee cohort study of the National Cancer Center in South Korea  

PubMed Central

The Cancer Screenee Cohort Study was first established in 2002 by the National Cancer Center in South Korea to investigate all possible risk factors related to cancers and to expand biological specimen banking for the development of effective methodologies for cancer detection, diagnosis, and prevention. As of July in 2014, total 41,105 participants were enrolled in this cohort. Data were collected via questionnaire, clinical examination, cancer screening, and biological specimen testing including blood, urine, and exfoliated cervical cells. The highest incidence was found to be thyroid cancer, according to a nested case-control study that was linked to the National Cancer Registry information as of December 31, 2011. Case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies have been published using these data since 2009. Diet and nutrition was the most published topic, followed by genetics, hepatitis B virus and liver cancer screening, methodologies, physical activity, obesity, metabolic syndrome, smoking and alcohol consumption, and blood type. Evidence from the Cancer Screenee Cohort Study is highly anticipated to reduce the burden of cancer in the Korean population and aid in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of cancer. PMID:25119453

Kim, Jeongseon

2014-01-01

215

Epidemiology of sepsis and infection in ICU patients from an international multicentre cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the incidence of infections and to describe them and their outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Design and setting: International prospective cohort study in which all patients admitted to the 28 participating units in eight countries between May 1997 and May 1998 were followed until hospital discharge. Patients: A total of 14,364 patients were admitted to

Corinne Alberti; Christian Brun-Buisson; Hilmar Burchardi; Claudio Martin; Sergey Goodman; Antonio Artigas; Alberto Sicignano; Mark Palazzo; Rui Moreno; Ronan Boulmé; Eric Lepage; Jean Roger Le Gall

2002-01-01

216

The mental health of UK Gulf war veterans: phase 2 of a two phase cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in veterans of the Gulf war with or without unexplained physical disability (a proxy measure of ill health) and in similarly disabled veterans who had not been deployed to the Gulf war (non›Gulf veterans). Design Two phase cohort study. Setting Current and ex›service UK military personnel. Participants Phase 1 consisted of three

Khalida Ismail; Kate Kent; Traolach Brugha; Matthew Hotopf; Lisa Hull; Paul Seed; Ian Palmer; Steve Reid; Catherine Unwin; Anthony S David; Simon Wessely; Gulf War Illnesses

2002-01-01

217

Xylitol Chewing Gums and Caries Rates: A 40-month Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries is a pandemic infectious disease which can affect the quality of life and consumes considerable health care resources. The chewing of xylitol, sorbitol, and even sugar gum has been suggested to reduce caries rates. No clinical study has simultaneously investigated the effectiveness of these gums when compared with a group receiving no chewing gum. A 40-month double-blind cohort

K. K. Makinen; C. A. Bennett; P. P. Hujoel; P. J. Isokangas; K. P. Isotupa; H. R. Pape; PL Makinen

1995-01-01

218

Serum Peak Sulfamethoxazole Concentrations Demonstrate Difficulty in Achieving a Target Range: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Trimethoprim (TMP)/sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has consistently demonstrated great interindividual variability. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be used to optimize dosing. Optimal peak SMX concentration has been proposed as 100 to 150 ?g/mL. The objective of our work was to determine the success rate of a TMP/SMX dosing guideline in achieving a targeted serum peak SMX concentration range. Methods Our retrospective cohort study enrolled 305 adult hospitalized patients who received treatment with TMP/SMX and underwent serum peak SMX concentration monitoring from January 2003 to November 2011. Patients receiving low-dose TMP/SMX therapy (TMP <15 mg/kg/d) were compared with those receiving high-dose therapy (TMP >15 mg/kg/d). Results Patients were classified into peak and modified peak SMX concentration cohorts based on time between TMP/SMX dose and SMX quantification. The association between dosing group and the outcome of the SMX level within the goal range was measured using logistic regression models. The primary outcome measured was serum peak SMX concentration 100 to 150 ?g/mL. Serum peak SMX concentrations were attained within range for the peak and modified peak cohort 29% and 26% of the time, respectively. The median peak SMX concentration was 144 ?g/mL (range 25–471 ?g/mL). The low daily dose cohort demonstrated a trend toward improvement in the odds of target peak concentration range attainment. The results were similar regardless of the method used to adjust for baseline characteristics. The pure peak and modified peak cohorts had 44% and 46% of patients with above-target SMX peak concentrations, respectively. Conclusions Attainment of the intended target concentration range was low with no difference in attainment between the low-dose and high-dose cohorts. Higher proportions of patients had an above-target SMX peak, which may indicate that the dosing algorithm is overly aggressive in obtaining the therapeutic goal.

Dao, Bao D.; Barreto, Jason N.; Wolf, Robert C.; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Plevak, Matthew F.; Tosh, Pritish K.

2014-01-01

219

Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. Methods and Findings We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005), Embase (1980-2001), Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues;

Meghna Ranganathan; Raj Bhopal

2006-01-01

220

Body silhouette, menstrual function at adolescence and breast cancer risk in the E3N cohort study  

E-print Network

index at baseline. Keywords: breast neoplasms; cohort study; risk factors; body shape; childhood) have examined the relation between breast cancer and adiposity in childhood. Only two studies (De (Clavel-Chapelon, 2002). Material and methods The E3N cohort consists of 98 995 women living in France

Boyer, Edmond

221

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Cohort Mortality Study With Emphasis on Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Current information points to an association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer and other mortality outcomes, but uncertainties remain. Methods We undertook a cohort mortality study of 12?315 workers exposed to diesel exhaust at eight US non-metal mining facilities. Historical measurements and surrogate exposure data, along with study industrial hygiene measurements, were used to derive retrospective quantitative estimates of respirable elemental carbon (REC) exposure for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios and internally adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate REC exposure–associated risk. Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death. Results Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer (1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.44), esophageal cancer (1.83, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.75), and pneumoconiosis (12.20, 95% CI = 6.82 to 20.12) were elevated in the complete cohort compared with state-based mortality rates, but all-cause, bladder cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality were not. Differences in risk by worker location (ever-underground vs surface only) initially obscured a positive diesel exhaust exposure–response relationship with lung cancer in the complete cohort, although it became apparent after adjustment for worker location. The hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer mortality increased with increasing 15-year lagged cumulative REC exposure for ever-underground workers with 5 or more years of tenure to a maximum in the 640 to less than 1280 ?g/m3-y category compared with the reference category (0 to <20 ?g/m3-y; 30 deaths compared with eight deaths of the total of 93; HR = 5.01, 95% CI = 1.97 to 12.76) but declined at higher exposures. Average REC intensity hazard ratios rose to a plateau around 32 ?g/m3. Elevated hazard ratios and evidence of exposure–response were also seen for surface workers. The association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk remained after inclusion of other work-related potentially confounding exposures in the models and were robust to alternative approaches to exposure derivation. Conclusions The study findings provide further evidence that exposure to diesel exhaust increases risk of mortality from lung cancer and have important public health implications. PMID:22393207

Schleiff, Patricia L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Silverman, Debra T.

2012-01-01

222

Suicide after Leaving the UK Armed Forces —A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Few studies have examined suicide risk in individuals once they have left the military. We aimed to investigate the rate, timing, and risk factors for suicide in all those who had left the UK Armed Forces (1996-2005).

Navneet Kapur; David While; Nick Blatchley; Isabelle Bray; Kate Harrison

2009-01-01

223

Consanguinity and Birth Defects in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While parental consanguinity is known to increase the risk of birth defects in offspring, it is hard to quantify this risk in populations where consanguinity is prevalent. Methods: To support ongoing studies of cancer and of psychiatric disease, we studied relationships of consanguinity to 1,053 major birth defects in 29,815 offspring, born in 1964–1976. To adjust for confounding variables

S. Harlap; K. Kleinhaus; M. C. Perrin; R. Calderon-Margalit; O. Paltiel; L. Deutsch; O Manor; E. Tiram; R. Yanetz; Y. Friedlander

2008-01-01

224

The use of rehabilitation among patients with breast cancer: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Along with improvements in treatment, the number of women who survive breast cancer has increased. Rehabilitation can alleviate post-treatment side effects and maintain quality of life. This study aimed to explore the use of rehabilitation among a cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using a National Health Insurance (NHI) research database in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of 632 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in 2005. Their NHI claims over a period spanning 2005 through 2009 were analyzed. Results Overall, 39.6% of the cohort received rehabilitation therapy, with 9,691 rehabilitation visits claimed (an average of 38.8 visits per user). The prevalence of rehabilitation service use among the cohort was 16.5%, 13.3%, 13.0%, 13.3%, and 12.8% in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. The average number of visits per rehabilitation user was 16.8, 25.0, 31.1, 24.2, and 23.8 in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. Most rehabilitation therapy occurred as an outpatient service (96.0%). Physical therapy was the most commonly used form of rehabilitation (84.2%), followed by occupational therapy (15.4%). The most frequently recorded diagnoses were malignant neoplasm of the female breast, peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes, and osteoarthrosis and allied disorders. Conclusions Only a small proportion of patients with breast cancer received rehabilitation therapy in the first five years after diagnosis. The average number of rehabilitation visits per user peaked in the third year after diagnosis. PMID:22929017

2012-01-01

225

Protocol for the Women And Their Children's Health (WATCH) Study: A Cohort of Pregnancy and Beyond  

PubMed Central

Background The developmental origins of health and disease is a conceptual framework that helps explain the links between our early life exposures and later health outcomes, and is a burgeoning field of research. In this report, we describe the study protocol used in a prospective cohort of women recruited during pregnancy, with postnatal follow-up of the mothers and offspring. Methods The Women And Their Children’s Health (WATCH) cohort (n = 180 women) is being conducted at the John Hunter Hospital, Australia (from June 2006). Women attended study visits during pregnancy at 19, 24, 30, and 36 weeks’ gestation. Postnatal follow-up of the women and their offspring occurred at 3-month intervals during the first year after birth and annually thereafter, until age 4 years. Fetal ultrasound scans were performed at each pregnancy visit. Pregnancy and birth data were obtained from hospital records. Data collection has included maternal and child anthropometric, biochemical, dietary, physical activity, socioeconomic, medical, and other variables. Conclusions The 2 most novel components of our prospective cohort study are (1) the regular and systematic tracking of fetal and child growth and body composition, starting in the second trimester of pregnancy and continuing to age 4 years, and (2) the detailed maternal and child dietary data collection, including biochemical parameters. Detailed cohorts that collect data on the early nutritional, physiological, and social determinants of health are valuable. Despite its relatively small sample size, many hypotheses on developmental origins can be tested or piloted using data collected from the WATCH cohort. PMID:22374367

Hure, Alexis J; Collins, Clare E; Giles, Warwick B; Wright, Ian MR; Smith, Roger

2012-01-01

226

The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS): Assembly, Demographics and Investigations  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma. PMID:17397526

Epton, Michael J; Town, George I; Ingham, Tristram; Wickens, Kristin; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian

2007-01-01

227

Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To identify predictors of postnatal catch-up growth from birth to two years and its relation to size and obesity at five years.Design: Regional prospective cohort study.Setting: Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood, United Kingdom.Subjects: 848 full term singletons from a 10% random sample of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood.Main outcome measures: Maternal birth weight, prepregnancy

Ken K L Ong; Marion L Ahmed; Pauline M Emmett; Michael A Preece; David B Dunger

2000-01-01

228

Risk Factors for Fatal Subarachnoid Hemorrhage The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The present study aimed to identify risk factors for mortality due to subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) using a comprehensive questionnaire from the Japan Collaborative Cohort (JACC) Study, a Japan-wide population-based prospective study. Methods—A total of 109 293 individuals (45 551 men and 63 742 women, aged 40 to 79 years) free of stroke at entry participated in the JACC

Shigeki Yamada; Akio Koizumi; Hiroyasu Iso; Yasuhiko Wada; Yoshiyuki Watanabe; Chigusa Date; Akio Yamamoto; Shogo Kikuchi; Yutaka Inaba; Hideaki Toyoshima; Takaaki Kondo; Akiko Tamakoshi

2010-01-01

229

Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in the physicians’ health study enrollment cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study examined the relationship between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and cause-specific mortality.BACKGROUNDPrevious studies suggest a J-shaped relation between alcohol and total mortality in men. A decrease in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality without a significant increase in other causes of mortality may explain the overall risk reduction at light-to-moderate levels.METHODSWe conducted a prospective cohort study of 89,299 U.S. men from the

Charles H. Hennekens; Thomas A. Gaziano; Robert J. Glynn; JoAnn E. Manson; Julie E. Buring

2000-01-01

230

Occupation and plasma fibrinogen in Japanese male and female workers: The Jichi Medical School Cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the association between socioeconomic indices and plasma fibrinogen levels in Japanese male and female workers. Occupational category (white-collar vs. blue-collar) and position (manager vs. non-manager) were examined as relevant socioeconomic indices. The study population was a total of 1677 male and 1747 female workers aged 65 and younger taken from the Jichi Medical School Cohort study, a

Kumi Hirokawa; Akizumi Tsutsumi; Kazunori Kayaba

2009-01-01

231

Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a) to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b) to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database

Florian Brunner; Lucas M Bachmann; Ulrich Weber; Alfons GH Kessels; Roberto SGM Perez; Johan Marinus; Rudolf Kissling

2008-01-01

232

Risk Set Sampling in Epidemiologic Cohort Studies Bryan Langholz  

E-print Network

was that occupational exposures to carcinogenic agents were to blame for the disease. In order to objectively assess-control study were undertaken. Investigators compiled basic information such as birth dates, sex, race with an SMR for all cancers of 0.84, likely a manifestation of the "healthy worker effect." Thus, while

Goldstein, Larry

233

Nocturnal hypoxaemia in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of the study was to find the prevalence of sleep-related disturbances in patients of Eisenmenger syndrome. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Tertiary care referral centre in North India. Participants The study included 25 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (mean age 25.2±9.6?years, 18 men) and 12 patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease with pulmonary stenosis physiology (mean age 20.5±8.5?years, 8 men) as controls. Interventions All the patients underwent an overnight comprehensive polysomnogram study and pulmonary function testing. Main outcome measure Oxygen desaturation index, which is the number of oxygen drops per hour. Results The patients and controls had significant nocturnal hypoxaemia in the absence of apnoea and hypopnoea. The mean oxygen drop index in Eisenmenger syndrome group was 9.0±6.2 and in the control group was 8.0±5.9 (p=0.63). The apnoea–hypopnoea index was 3.37±5.0 in the Eisenmenger syndrome group and was 2.1±3.6 in the control group. Patients with >10 oxygen drops per hour had significantly higher haemoglobin (17.2±1.3% vs 14.4±1.5%, p<0.001) than those with oxygen drops less than 10. Conclusions Eisenmenger syndrome patients have significant nocturnal hypoxaemia unrelated to hypopnoea and apnoea. Nocturnal desaturation occurred more frequently in patients with greater haemoglobin values. PMID:23482988

Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish; Bardolei, Neil; Sharma, Ajay; Shukla, Garima; Bhatia, Manvir; Kalaivani, Mani; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Bahl, Vinay K; Guleria, Randeep

2013-01-01

234

Mortality and lead exposure: a retrospective cohort study of Swedish smelter workers.  

PubMed Central

The study is based on the work histories and mortality data for 3832 male workers first employed before 1967 at a copper smelter in northern Sweden and followed up from 1950 to 1981. From the 3832 workers a lead cohort consisting of 437 workers employed for at least three years at sites with considerable lead exposure during 1950-74 was selected. These workers had regularly had blood lead measurements performed since 1950. Based on the cumulative blood lead dose 1950-74 and peak blood lead values, the cohort was subdivided into high mean, low mean, high peak, and low peak groups. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for the six groups using general and local reference populations. The original cohort of 3832 workers showed considerable excess of deaths for total mortality, malignant neoplasms especially lung and stomach cancer, ischaemic heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases when compared with the general population. In the lead cohort where the workers had been subjected to a considerable lead exposure only the raised SMR for lung cancer was sustained (SMR = 162; not significant). No significant differences were found between high lead and low lead exposed smelter workers. PMID:3778840

Gerhardsson, L; Lundström, N G; Nordberg, G; Wall, S

1986-01-01

235

Reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk in 2 US cohort studies, 1993-2010.  

PubMed

Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995-2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993-2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999

Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E; Schonfeld, Sara J; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Grubb, Robert L; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P

2013-06-15

236

Reproductive Factors and Kidney Cancer Risk in 2 US Cohort Studies, 1993-2010  

PubMed Central

Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995–2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993–2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999

Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E.; Schonfeld, Sara J.; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R.; Grubb, Robert L.; Hofmann, Jonathan N.; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P.

2013-01-01

237

Obstetric Complications in Adults with ADHD: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstetric complications have been associated with a number of mental disorders. In this study, we investigate how obstetric\\u000a complications relate with clinically significant determinants of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such\\u000a as gender, age of diagnosis, psychiatric co morbidity, severity of symptomatology and general functioning. Presence of obstetric\\u000a complications as reported in the psychiatric history of 64 patients in

Marios Adamou; Anna Russell; Parmjt Sanghera

238

Nonsexual household transmission of HCV infection: A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and incidence of HCV infection among non-sexual household contacts of HCV-infected women and to describe the association between HCV infection and potential household risk factors in order to examine whether non-sexual household contact is a route of transmission for HCV infection. ^ Methods. A baseline prevalence survey included 409 non-sexual household

Fenyuan Xie Xiao

1999-01-01

239

Obesity predicts primary health care visits: a cohort study.  

PubMed

The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI), its association with chronic disease, and its impact on health services utilization in the province of Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, from 1998 to 2002. A data linkage study was conducted involving a provincial health survey linked to 2 health care use administrative databases. The study population comprised 2345 adults between the ages of 20 and 64 years. Self-reported height and weight measures and other covariates, including chronic diseases, were obtained from a provincial survey. BMI categories include: normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25-29.9), obese class I (BMI 30-34.9), obese class II (BMI ? 35), and obese class III (BMI ? 40). Survey responses were linked with objective physician and hospital health services utilization over a 5-year period. Weight classifications in the study sample were as follows: 37% normal, 39% overweight, 17% obese, and 6% morbidly obese. The obese and morbidly obese were more likely to report having serious chronic conditions after adjusting for age and sex. Only the morbidly obese group (BMI ? 35 kg/m(2)) had a significantly higher number of visits to a general practitioner (GP) over a 5-year period compared to the normal weight group (median 22.0 vs. 17.0, P<0.05). Using multivariate models and controlling for the number of chronic conditions and other relevant covariates, being morbidly obese remained a significant predictor of GP visits (P<0.001), but was not a predictor for visits to a specialist or any type of hospital use. The increase in the prevalence of obesity is placing a burden at the primary health care level. More resources are needed in order to support GPs in their efforts to manage and treat obese adults who have associated comorbidities. PMID:22088164

Twells, Laurie K; Bridger, Tracey; Knight, John C; Alaghehbandan, Reza; Barrett, Brendan

2012-02-01

240

School injury and gender differentials: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study assessed the role of certain individual characteristics in school injury among male and female adolescents. The\\u000a sample included 2,398 subjects attending middle schools and high schools. Respondents completed a self-administered questionnaire\\u000a at the beginning of the school year. School nurse completed a questionnaire on injury for each school injury occurred during\\u000a the school year. The data was analyzed

Nearkasen Chau; Rosemay Prédine; Evelyne Aptel; Alphonse d’Houtaud; Marie Choquet

2007-01-01

241

Cohort Profile: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

major aspects of women's health and well-being and health service use. The surveys cover major diagnosed diseases, symptoms, health behaviours, use of health services and medications, and a range of factors relating to psychological well-being, social roles, and life events. The study began with the objective of exploring five key themes: health service use; health-related behaviours (e.g. diet and exercise);

Christina Lee; Annette J Dobson; Wendy J Brown; Lois Bryson; Julie Byles; Penny Warner-Smith; Anne F Young

2005-01-01

242

Cohort Consortium  

Cancer.gov

Adults with extreme obesity have increased risks of dying at a younger age from cancer and many other causes including heart disease, stroke, diabetes, and kidney and liver diseases, according to results of an analysis of Cohort Consortium data pooled from 20 large studies of people from three countries.

243

Personalized Multimedia Retrieval: The New Trend? University of Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Personalized Multimedia Retrieval: The New Trend? Nicu Sebe University of Amsterdam The Netherlands nicu@science.uva.nl Qi Tian University of Texas at San Antonio USA qitian@cs.utsa.edu ABSTRACT The aim

Texas at San Antonio, University of

244

Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics Universiteit van Amsterdam  

E-print Network

van Amsterdam diatoms · Kill indigenous algae (UV C light) · Add Nitzschia perminuta from culture (t=0 Chlorophyll fluorescence actinisch licht (650 nm LED) gepulseerde stroom PAM-CONTROL LED-emitter 650 nm

Geest, Harm G. van der

245

The professionalization of housing design in Amsterdam, 1909-1919  

E-print Network

Housing design became an issue of public policy in Amsterdam when population growth spawned rapid urban expansion in the late nineteenth century. Dissatisfied with social, hygienic, and aesthetic aspects of the recent ...

Stieber, Nancy

1986-01-01

246

Microbiologic Methods Utilized in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.  

PubMed

A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals. PMID:25305291

Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K M; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

2014-11-01

247

The MAL-ED Cohort Study in Mirpur, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study site in Bangladesh is located in the capital city of Dhaka in an urban slum that has one of the highest population densities in the world. The site is in the Bauniabadh area of Mirpur, Dhaka. A typical squatter settlement, the average family size of households in Mirpur Bauniabadh is 4.5, with 48% females. About 20% of households have a monthly income of only US$62. About 30% of mothers never attended school, and only 3% obtained secondary school education. The majority of the people are day laborers, garment workers, and transport workers. About 72% of caregivers always wash their hands after helping the child defecate and 6.6% never wash their hands. The diarrheal attack rate for Mirpur is 4.69 episodes per child per year. The study site is representative of a typical urban slum of Dhaka city in terms of demographics, socioeconomic status, and general health indicators. PMID:25305298

Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Islam, Md Munirul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Am Shamsir; Tofail, Fahmida; Gaffar, Sm Abdul; Haque, Rashidul; Guerrant, Richard L; Petri, William A

2014-11-01

248

Airway reactivity in welders: a controlled prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

In a 3-year survey, respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and methacholine reactivity were measured annually in welders (n = 51) and non-welder controls subjects (n = 54) to determine whether welding-related symptoms are associated with accelerated decline in lung function or changes in airway reactivity. In the cross-workshift study, maximal midexpiratory flow rate declined reversibly during a welding day, whereas 1-second forced expiratory volume and forced-vital capacity were unchanged. In the longitudinal study, the welders had significantly more reversible work-related symptoms of cough, phlegm, wheeze, and chest tightness than the non-welder shipyard control subjects. In this group of actively working welders, across-workshift changes in midflow and reversible symptoms were related to the welding occupation, but evidence for chronic irreversible effects on spirometry or airway reactivity was not seen over the 3 years of observation. The short period of observation was not optimal for detecting a chronic effect on lung function. Work practices and engineering controls may be successfully preventing irreversible respiratory effects, but not mild reversible effects, in this group of welders. PMID:8978514

Beckett, W S; Pace, P E; Sferlazza, S J; Perlman, G D; Chen, A H; Xu, X P

1996-12-01

249

Residential Trajectories of Street Youth-the Montréal Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the course of homelessness among youth between the ages of 18 and 25 despite the many characteristics distinguishing them from adolescents and from older street-involved populations. We examined the residential trajectories of homeless young adults in Montréal over a 21-month period and identified determinants of various trajectory profiles. The 365 study participants (79 % men, mean age 21.9 years) were followed for an average of 515 days (range 81-630 days). We assessed housing status with a questionnaire based on the residential follow-back calendar designed by the New Hampshire Dartmouth Research Center. Using latent growth analysis to examine achievement of residential stability over time, we observed three different trajectories: group 1 presented a low probability of housing throughout the entire study period; group 2 showed a high probability of early and stable housing; group 3 displayed a fluctuating pattern. Protective correlates of residential stability included high school education, birth in Canada, and presence of mental health problems. Drug abuse or dependence was associated with a decreased probability of housing. PMID:24515932

Roy, Elise; Robert, Marie; Fournier, Louise; Vaillancourt, Eric; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Boivin, Jean-François

2014-10-01

250

Cohort mortality study of Seattle fire fighters: 1945-1983  

SciTech Connect

Fire fighters are known to be occupationally exposed to many toxic substances. However, the limited number of previous studies has not demonstrated any consistent excess mortality from diseases of a priori concern, such as lung cancer, non-malignant respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. We studied 2,289 Seattle fire fighters from 1945 through 1983, and observed 383 deaths. Excess mortality from leukemia (SMR = 503, n = 3) and multiple myeloma (SMR = 989, n = 2) was observed among fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty. Lung cancer mortality was elevated (SMR = 177, n = 18) among fire fighters 65 years old or older. We also analyzed the data by considering fire fighters at risk only after 30 years from first exposure. In this analysis, a trend of increasing risk with increasing exposure was observed for diseases of the circulatory system. For this cause of death, fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty had a relative risk of 1.84 compared to those with less than 15 years of fire combat duty.

Heyer, N.; Weiss, N.S.; Demers, P.; Rosenstock, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1990-01-01

251

Nickel-exposed workers in China: a cohort study.  

PubMed

There are more than 50 000 workers in Jinchuan Group Co, Ltd (JNMC). Since all staff in JNMC are eligible for a medical examination every two years, only 23 484 nickel-exposed subjects who participated in medical examination were included in this study. Their data, collected from June 22, 2011 to September 28, 2012, in a comprehensive epidemiological survey and during medical examinations, permitted an extensive evaluation of the relation between metal exposure, gene, epigenetics and risk of human diseases. Their lifestyle investigation showed that the overall prevalence of current smokers, alcohol drinkers, and tea drinkers was 39.1%, 19.7%, and 55.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, allergic rhinitis and cholecystitis , the top 3 prevalent diseases, was 11.7%, 11.0%, and 8.9%, respectively. PMID:24709102

Bai, Ya Na; Yang, Ai Min; Yagn, Ai Min; Pu, Hong Quan; He, Jie; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Tong Zhang; Dai, Min; Zhang, Ya Wei; Bassing, Bryan A; Wang, Qiu Ying

2014-03-01

252

Prediction of fracture risk in men: A cohort study  

PubMed Central

FRAX is a tool that identifies individuals with high fracture risk who will benefit from pharmacological treatment of osteoporosis. However, a majority of fractures among elderly occur in people without osteoporosis and most occur after a fall. Our aim was to accurately identify men with a high future risk of fracture, independent of cause. In the population-based Uppsala Longitudinal Study of Adult Men (ULSAM) and using survival analysis we studied different models' prognostic values (R2) for any fracture and hip fracture within 10 years from age 50 (n = 2322), 60 (n = 1852), 71 (n = 1221), and 82 (n = 526) years. During the total follow-up period from age 50 years, 897 fractures occurred in 585 individuals. Of these, 281 were hip fractures occurring in 189 individuals. The rates of any fracture were 5.7/1000 person-years at risk from age 50 years and 25.9/1000 person-years at risk from age 82 years. Corresponding hip fractures rates were 2.9 and 11.7/1000 person-years at risk. The FRAX model included all variables in FRAX except bone mineral density. The full model combining FRAX variables, comorbidity, medications, and behavioral factors explained 25% to 45% of all fractures and 80% to 92% of hip fractures, depending on age. The corresponding prognostic values of the FRAX model were 7% to 17% for all fractures and 41% to 60% for hip fractures. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) comparing the full model with the FRAX model ranged between 40% and 53% for any fracture and between 40% and 87% for hip fracture. Within the highest quintile of predicted fracture risk with the full model, one-third of the men will have a fracture within 10 years after age 71 years and two-thirds after age 82 years. We conclude that the addition of comorbidity, medication, and behavioral factors to the clinical components of FRAX can substantially improve the ability to identify men at high risk of fracture, especially hip fracture. © 2012 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:22189702

Byberg, Liisa; Gedeborg, Rolf; Cars, Thomas; Sundstrom, Johan; Berglund, Lars; Kilander, Lena; Melhus, Hakan; Michaelsson, Karl

2012-01-01

253

California Teachers Study (CTS): Breast and Other Cancers in the California Teachers' Cohort  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of 133,479 California public school teachers, administrators, and other school professionals was established by a collaborative group of epidemiological investigators at the City of Hope, University of Southern California, University of California at Irvine, and Cancer Prevention Institute of California. The goals of the California Teachers Study (CTS) were, and continue to be, to evaluate unresolved issues related to breast and other cancer risk factors, and study other important issues related to women's health.

254

A retrospective cohort study of risk factors for missing preschool booster immunisation  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIMTo identify factors associated with non-uptake of preschool booster immunisation.DESIGNData from the computerised child health system was used to study all children born in 1990 and living in South Glamorgan, Wales, on their 5th birthday. Factors associated with preschool booster uptake were investigated using multiple logistic regression.RESULTSPreschool booster coverage in the study cohort was 91.4%. After adjustment for other variables,

Meirion R Evans; Daniel Rh Thomas

1998-01-01

255

Spatial Regression Models for Large-Cohort Studies Linking Community Air Pollution and Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort study designs are often used to assess the association between community-based ambient air pollution concentrations and health outcomes, such as mortality, development and prevalence of disease, and pulmonary function. Typically, a large number of subjects are enrolled in the study in each of a small number of communities. Fixed-site monitors are used to determine long-term exposure to ambient pollution.

Sabit Cakmak; Richard Burnett; Michael Jerrett; Mark Goldberg; C. Arden Pope; Renjun Ma; Timur Gultekin; Michael Thun; Daniel Krewski

2003-01-01

256

Anterior cruciate ligament injury in elite football: a prospective three-cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury causes long lay-off time and is often complicated with subsequent new knee injury\\u000a and osteoarthritis. Female gender is associated with an increased ACL injury risk, but few studies have adjusted for gender-related\\u000a differences in age although female players are often younger when sustaining their ACL injury. The objective of this three-cohort\\u000a study was to describe

Markus Waldén; Martin Hägglund; Henrik Magnusson; Jan Ekstrand

2011-01-01

257

Case-Control Cohort Study of Patients' Perceptions of Disability in Mastocytosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Indolent forms of mastocytosis account for more than 90% of all cases, but the types and type and severity of symptoms and their impact on the quality of life have not been well studied. We therefore performed a case-control cohort study to examine self-reported disability and impact of symptoms on the quality of life in patients with mastocytosis. Methodology\\/Principal

Olivier Hermine; Olivier Lortholary; Phillip S. Leventhal; Adeline Catteau; Frédérique Soppelsa; Cedric Baude; Annick Cohen-Akenine; Fabienne Palmérini; Katia Hanssens; Ying Yang; Hagay Sobol; Sylvie Fraytag; David Ghez; Felipe Suarez; Stéphane Barete; Philippe Casassus; Beatrice Sans; Michel Arock; Jean Pierre Kinet; Patrice Dubreuil; Alain Moussy

2008-01-01

258

Positive and negative affect and risk of coronary heart disease: Whitehall II prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the associations between positive and negative affect and subsequent coronary heart disease events independently of established risk factors.Design Prospective cohort study with follow-up over 12 years.Setting 20 civil service departments originally located in London.Participants 10 308 civil servants aged 35-55 years at entry into Whitehall II study in 1985.Main outcome measures Fatal coronary heart disease, clinically verified

Hermann Nabi; Mika Kivimaki; Roberto De Vogli; Michael G Marmot; Archana Singh-Manoux

2008-01-01

259

Association between radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis and pain: results from two cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relation of radiographic features of osteoarthritis to knee pain in people with knees discordant for knee pain in two cohorts.Design Within person, knee matched, case-control study.Setting and participants Participants in the Multicenter Osteoarthritis (MOST) and Framingham Osteoarthritis studies who had knee radiographs and assessments of knee pain.Main outcome measures Association of each pain measure (frequency, consistency,

Tuhina Neogi; David Felson; Jingbo Niu; Michael Nevitt; Cora E Lewis; Piran Aliabadi; Burt Sack; James Torner; Lawrence Bradley; Yuqing Zhang

2009-01-01

260

Emergency department management and outcome for self-poisoning: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Self-poisoning in adults is an important public health problem across the world, but evidence to guide psychological management is lacking. In the current cohort study we wished to investigate whether aspects of routine Emergency Department management such as receiving a psycho-social assessment, or being referred for specialist follow up, affected the rate of repetition of self-poisoning. The study was carried

Navneet Kapur; Jayne Cooper; Urara Hiroeh; Chris May; Louis Appleby; Allan House

2004-01-01

261

Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. METHODS: Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White\\/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood

Sinead Brophy; Roxanne Cooksey; Michael B Gravenor; Rupal Mistry; Non Thomas; Ronan A Lyons; Rhys Williams

2009-01-01

262

Association between muscular strength and mortality in men: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine prospectively the association between muscular strength and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer in men.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Aerobics centre longitudinal study.Participants 8762 men aged 20-80.Main outcome measures All cause mortality up to 31 December 2003; muscular strength, quantified by combining one repetition maximal measures for leg and bench presses and further categorised as age

Jonatan R Ruiz; Xuemei Sui; Felipe Lobelo; James R Morrow Jr; Allen W Jackson; Michael Sjöström; Steven N Blair

2008-01-01

263

Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the boyd orr cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the relation between energy intake in childhood and adult mortality from cancer.Study design: Cohort study.Setting: 16 rural and urban centres in England and Scotland.Subjects: 3834 people who took part in Lord Boyd Orr's Carnegie survey of family diet and health in prewar Britain between 1937 and 1939 who were followed up with the NHS central register. Standardised

Stephen Frankel; David J Gunnell; Tim J Peters; Maria Maynard; George Davey Smith

1998-01-01

264

Racial\\/Ethnic Differences in Endometrial Cancer Risk: The Multiethnic Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have examined differences in endometrial cancer risk among ethnic groups in the United States. The authors assessed the extent to which known risk factors for endometrial cancer explain the racial\\/ethnic differences in risk among 46,933 postmenopausal African-American, Native-Hawaiian, Japanese-American, Latina, and White women recruited to the prospective Multiethnic Cohort Study in 1993-1996. During a 7.3-year follow up period,

Veronica Wendy Setiawan; Malcolm C. Pike; Laurence N. Kolonel; Abraham M. Nomura; Marc T. Goodman; Brian E. Henderson

265

Reduction of Thromboembolic Events in Meningioma Surgery: A Cohort Study of 724 Consecutive Patients  

PubMed Central

Background Meningiomas are associated with the highest postoperative rate of venous thromboembolic events (VTE) among all intracranial tumors. The aim of this study is to compare two entirely different VTE prophylaxis regimens in 724 consecutive patients undergoing meningioma surgery. Methods Two cohorts at a single institution treated with different regimens to prevent VTE were reviewed retrospectively. Cohort A (n?=?482; 314 females, mean age 57 years, range: 11–87 years) received our institutional regimen during the years 1999–2006, consisting of low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and compression stockings. For cohort B (n?=?242; 163 females, mean age 56.8 years, range: 16–90 years), during the years 2008–2010, the management included intraoperative 10°–20° leg elevation with intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC), heparin and LMWH administration. We compared the incidence of the endpoints pulmonary embolism (PE), deep venous thrombosis (DVT), hemorrhage and death, taking into account several known associated risk factors. Results For all endpoints, we observed a more favorable outcome with the new regimen. The difference in incidence of PEs (cohort A: 38/482, 8%; cohort B: 6/242, 2.5%) reached statistical significance (p?=?0.002). In general, patients with skull base meningiomas had a higher risk for PE (OR 2.77). Regarding VTE prophylaxis, an adjusted subgroup analysis suggests that the new regimen is particularly beneficial for patients with skull base meningiomas. Conclusions We recommend perioperative prophylaxis using a management composed of intraoperative leg-elevation, IPC, early heparin administration and LMWH to reduce the risk for PE. PMID:24244441

Sabanés Bové, Daniel; Held, Leonhard; Sarnthein, Johannes; Krayenbühl, Niklaus

2013-01-01

266

Yoga therapy for breast cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

We sought to study the impact of yoga therapy on anxiety, depression and physical health in breast cancer patients. Stage I-III post-operative breast cancer patients were recruited with twelve 1-h weekly yoga sessions completed with an experienced yoga instructor. Before and after each module completion, assessments were obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Dallas pain scale and shoulder flexibility measurements. Fourteen patients completed the entire yoga session with 42.8% having a total mastectomy and 15.4% having breast reconstruction. Both right and left shoulder abduction flexibility significantly improved (p = 0.004; p = 0.015 respectively) as well as left shoulder flexion (p = 0.046). An improvement trend in scores for the HADS and Dallas questionnaires pre- and post-intervention was found, although it was not statistically significant. Our data indicates an improvement in physical function in addition to a consistent amelioration in anxiety, depression and pain symptoms after a yoga intervention. PMID:24199978

Sudarshan, Monisha; Petrucci, Andrea; Dumitra, Sinziana; Duplisea, Jodie; Wexler, Sharon; Meterissian, Sarkis

2013-11-01

267

A one season prospective cohort study of volleyball injuries  

PubMed Central

Objective: To estimate the overall incidence of acute and overuse volleyball injuries, and to describe factors associated with ankle sprains. Methods: 486 players from the second and third Dutch national volleyball divisions participated in the study and were followed prospectively during a whole season. Three measurements were made during the season (baseline, follow up 1, and follow up 2), where all players completed a questionnaire on demographic variables (only at baseline), sports participation, use of preventive measures, and previous injuries. Volleyball exposure during training and matches was recorded for each individual player by the coach on a weekly exposure form. In case of injury the coach provided the injured player with an injury registration form, which had to be completed within one week after the onset of injury. Results: 100 injuries were reported, resulting in an overall injury incidence of 2.6 injuries/1000 hours. The incidence of acute injuries was 2.0/1000 hours. Ankle sprains (n = 41) accounted for most of the acute injuries, and 31 (75%) of all players with an ankle sprain reported a previous ankle sprain. Twenty five overuse injuries were reported. The overall incidence of overuse injuries was 0.6/1000 hours; the back and the shoulder were the most common sites. Conclusions: Ankle sprain is the most common injury in volleyball, accounting for 41% of all volleyball related injuries. Previous injury seems to be an important risk factor for an ankle sprain. Injury prevention programmes should focus on ankle sprains and concentrate on players with previous ankle sprains. PMID:15273190

Verhagen, E; Van der Beek, A J; Bouter, L; Bahr, R; Mechelen, W

2004-01-01

268

Coffee consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

Observational studies and animal evidence suggest an association between coffee consumption and the risk of prostate cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. We evaluated the association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. PubMed and Embase were searched through June 2013 to identify studies that met predetermined inclusion criterion. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Ten prospective cohort studies involving 8973 patients with prostate cancer and 206 096 participants were included in this systematic review. Compared with individuals who seldom or never drink coffee, the pooled relative risk of prostate cancer was 0.88 (95% confidence interval: 0.82-0.95) for regular coffee drinkers. Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the combined risk estimate. Visual inspection of a funnel plot and Begg's and Egger's tests did not indicate evidence of publication bias. In summary, integrated evidence from prospective cohort studies supports the hypothesis that coffee consumption may decrease the risk of prostate cancer. PMID:24343360

Cao, Shiyi; Liu, Ling; Yin, Xiaoxu; Wang, Yunxia; Liu, Junan; Lu, Zuxun

2014-02-01

269

Cohort studies of health effects among people exposed to estuarine waters: North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland.  

PubMed Central

A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome." Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine waters that may contain Pfiesteria spp. and related organisms are in progress in North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. The three studies recruited cohorts of 118-238 subjects who work or engaged in recreation in estuary waters. Baseline health and neuropsychological evaluations are conducted, and study subjects are followed prospectively for 2-5 years with periodic assessments of health and performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Health symptoms and estuary water exposure are recorded by telephone interviews or diaries every 1-2 weeks. Water quality information, including measurements of Pfiesteria spp., is collected in the areas where the subjects are working. Because it is not possible to measure individual exposure to Pfiesteria or a toxin produced by this organism, these studies examine surrogate exposure measures (e.g., time spent in estuary waters, in a fish kill area, or in waters where Pfiesteria DNA was detected by molecular amplification). Preliminary analyses of the first 2 years (1998-2000) of data indicate that none of the three ongoing cohorts have detected adverse health effects. However, there have not been any reported fish kills associated with Pfiesteria since the studies began, so it is possible that none of the study subjects have been exposed to toxin-producing Pfiesteria spp. PMID:11677189

Moe, C L; Turf, E; Oldach, D; Bell, P; Hutton, S; Savitz, D; Koltai, D; Turf, M; Ingsrisawang, L; Hart, R; Ball, J D; Stutts, M; McCarter, R; Wilson, L; Haselow, D; Grattan, L; Morris, J G; Weber, D J

2001-01-01

270

Cohort profile: Steps to the healthy development and well-being of children (the STEPS Study).  

PubMed

The STEPS Study aims to search for the precursors and causes of problems in child health and well-being by using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort consists of all mothers (Finnish or Swedish speaking) who had live deliveries in the Hospital District of Southwest Finland from January 2008 to April 2010 and their children (n=9811 mothers, n=9936 children). Of these, 1797 mothers and their 1827 children were recruited to an intensive follow-up group during the first trimester of pregnancy or soon after delivery. Information about the whole study cohort is based on pregnancy follow-up data from maternity clinics, National Longitudinal Census Files and child welfare clinics. Data from multiple sources are used to obtain a picture of the overall well-being of the child and the family. After birth, study visits include several clinical examinations. Collaboration is encouraged, and access to the data will be available when the data set is complete. PMID:23143610

Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Päivi; Kaljonen, Anne; Räihä, Hannele; Pihlaja, Päivi; Korpilahti, Pirjo; Peltola, Ville; Rautakoski, Pirkko; Österbacka, Eva; Simell, Olli; Niemi, Pekka

2013-10-01

271

Analysis of Self-Selection Bias in a Population-Based Cohort Study of Autism Spectrum Disorders  

PubMed Central

Background This study examined potential self-selection bias in a large pregnancy cohort by comparing exposure-outcome associations from the cohort to similar associations obtained from nationwide registry data. The outcome under study was specialist-confirmed diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders. Methods The cohort sample (n = 89,836) was derived from the population-based prospective Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study and its sub-study of autism spectrum disorders, the Autism Birth Cohort study. The nationwide registry data were derived from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway (n = 507,856). The children were born in 1999-2007, and seven prenatal and perinatal exposures were selected for analyses. Results Autism spectrum disorders were reported for 234 (0.26%) children in the cohort and 2,072 (0.41%) in the nationwide population. Compared with the nationwide population, the cohort had an underrepresentation of the youngest women (<25 years), those who had single status, mothers who smoked during pregnancy, and nonusers of prenatal folic acid supplements. The ratios of the adjusted odds ratios in the cohort over the adjusted odds ratios in the nationwide population were as follows; primipara pregnancy: 1.39/1.22, prenatal folic acid use: 0.85/0.86, prenatal smoking: 1.20/1.17, preterm birth (<37 weeks): 1.48/1.42, low birthweight (<2,500 g): 1.60/1.58, male sex: 4.39/4.59 (unadjusted only); and cesarean section history: 1.03/1.04. Conclusions Associations estimated between autism spectrum disorders and perinatal and prenatal exposures in the cohort are close to those estimated in the nationwide population. Self-selection does not appear to compromise validity of exposure-outcome associations in the Autism Birth Cohort study. PMID:23919580

Nilsen, Roy M.; Suren, Pal; Gunnes, Nina; Alsaker, Elin R.; Bresnahan, Michaeline; Hirtz, Deborah; Hornig, Mady; Lie, Kari Kveim; Lipkin, W. Ian; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Roth, Christine; Schj?lberg, Synnve; Davey Smith, George; Susser, Ezra; Vollset, Stein Emil; ?yen, Anne-Siri; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla

2013-01-01

272

Living with diabetes: rationale, study design and baseline characteristics for an Australian prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus is a major global public health threat. In Australia, as elsewhere, it is responsible for a sizeable portion of the overall burden of disease, and significant costs. The psychological and social impact of diabetes on individuals with the disease can be severe, and if not adequately addressed, can lead to the worsening of the overall disease picture. The Living With Diabetes Study aims to contribute to a holistic understanding of the psychological and social aspects of diabetes mellitus. Methods/Design The Living With Diabetes Study is a 5-year prospective cohort study, based in Queensland, Australia. The first wave of data, which was collected via a mailed self-report survey, was gathered in 2008, with annual collections thereafter. Measurements include: demographic, lifestyle, health and disease characteristics; quality of life (EQ-5D, ADDQoL); emotional well-being (CES-D, LOT-R, ESSI); disease self-management (PAM); and health-care utilisation and patient-assessed quality of care (PACIC). 29% of the 14,439 adults who were invited to participate in the study agreed to do so, yielding a sample size of 3,951 people. Discussion The data collected by the Living With Diabetes Study provides a good representation of Australians with diabetes to follow over time in order to better understand the natural course of the illness. The study has potential to further illuminate, and give a comprehensive picture of the psychosocial implications of living with diabetes. Data collection is ongoing. PMID:22216947

2012-01-01

273

The origins of a research community in the Majengo observational cohort study, Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1980s the Majengo Observational Cohort Study (MOCS) has examined sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDS, in a cohort of sex workers in Majengo, an impoverished urban village in Nairobi, Kenya. The MOCS investigators have faced criticism since the women have remained in the sex trade for the duration of their participation in the study, prompting concerns about exploitation. Yet despite these concerns, the cohort has survived for almost 30 years. Methods In this retrospective qualitative case study, we examine the community engagement practices of the MOCS and explore the factors that account for its durability. Results Women in sex work in Kenya were a highly stigmatized and disfranchised community. As a result, there was no natural 'community' of sex workers either in Nairobi or in the Majengo village. The Majengo clinic aimed to reduce the barriers to health care the women experienced at the STC clinic by bringing the services closer to them and by providing a non-discriminatory environment. The women acknowledged the fact they had hoped their participation in the MOCS would have helped them find a path out of the sex trade. But our findings also add another dimension to this debate, since every cohort member we interviewed expressed her gratitude for the deep impact the MOCS has had on her life, much of it beyond the improved health status made possible by access to quality healthcare services. Participation in the MOCS has improved and enriched their lives. The CE activities have played a central role in creating a community that did not exist independently of the MOCS. Conclusions Our case study identified 3 distinct phases of community engagement in the MOCS: (1) reaching out: mobilization, dialogue and education; (2) foundations of trust through relationships of care; and (3) leveraging existing social capital to form a cohort community. The findings demonstrate the importance of some of the less obvious benefits of participation in research, namely the evolving experience of community and the accompanying gains in personal security and solidarity that have kept the women in the cohort, some for 20 years or more. PMID:20964821

2010-01-01

274

Assessment and indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking in cohort studies using relative hazards models.  

PubMed

Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950-2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950-2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer-a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. PMID:25245043

Richardson, David B; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Tchetgen, Eric Tchetgen; Cole, Stephen R

2014-11-01

275

Adult height and cancer mortality: The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration  

PubMed Central

Background The observation that taller people experience an increased risk of selected cancers is largely restricted to Caucasian cohorts. These associations may plausibly differ in Asian populations. For the first time, we make direct comparison of the associations between height and a series of malignancies in Australasian (Caucasian) and Asian populations. Methods Analyses were based on the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration of 506, 648 male and female study participants (408,381 Asia, 98267 Australasia) drawn from 38 population-based cohort studies. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate the relationship between height and cancer rates. Results A total of 3,272,600 person years of follow-up gave rise to 7497 cancer deaths (5232 in men, 2265 in women). After multiple adjustments and left censoring, taller individuals experienced increased rates of carcinoma of the intestine (men and women); all cancers, liver, lung, breast, ‘other’ malignancies (all women); and prostate and bladder (men). No consistent regional (Asia vs. Australasia) or sex-differences were observed. Conclusions In the present study, taller men and women had an elevated risk of selected malignancies. These associations did not differ appreciably between Asian and Caucasian populations. PMID:19889610

Batty, G. David; Barzi, Federica; Woodward, Mark; Jamrozik, Konrad; Woo, Jean; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Huxley, Rachel R.

2014-01-01

276

Women’s compliance with nutrition and lifestyle recommendations before pregnancy: general population cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the extent to which women planning a pregnancy comply with recommendations for nutrition and lifestyle.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Southampton, United Kingdom.Participants 12 445 non-pregnant women aged 20-34 recruited to the Southampton Women’s Survey through general practices, 238 of whom became pregnant within three months of being interviewed.Main outcome measures Folic acid supplement intake, alcohol consumption, smoking, diet,

Hazel M Inskip; Sarah R Crozier; Keith M Godfrey; Sharon E Borland; Cyrus Cooper; Siân M Robinson

2009-01-01

277

Iowa Women's Health Study: Epidemiology of Cancer in a Cohort of Older Women  

Cancer.gov

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in postmenopausal women, and detailed epidemiological investigations are warranted to identify etiologic factors, including potentially modifiable risk factors. The Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) recruited a population-based cohort of 41,837 Iowa postmenopausal women, ages 55 to 69 years in 1986, to determine whether diet, body fat distribution, and other risk factors were related to cancer incidence.

278

Association of blood pressure in late adolescence with subsequent mortality: cohort study of Swedish male conscripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the nature and magnitude of relations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in late adolescence to mortality.Design Nationwide cohort study.Setting General community in Sweden.Participants Swedish men (n=1 207 141) who had military conscription examinations between 1969 and 1995 at a mean age of 18.4 years, followed up for a median of 24 (range 0-37) years.Main outcome measures

Johan Sundström; Martin Neovius; Per Tynelius; Finn Rasmussen

2011-01-01

279

Association between hepatitis B virus infection and metabolic syndrome: a retrospective cohort study in Shanghai, China  

PubMed Central

Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) and hepatitis B (HBV) infection are two major public health problems in China. There are few studies about their association, and the results of these studies are contradictory. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to assess the association between MS and HBV in a Shanghai community-based cohort. Methods Nine hundred seventy-six Shanghai residents were recruited from the Putuo community. 480 HBV infections were in exposed group and 496 non-infections in unexposed group. All metabolic-related parameters and hepatitis B serology were tested with routine biochemical or immunological methods. “Exposed” was defined by HBV infection represented by hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and without anti-virus treatment. “Unexposed” were subjects who didn’t infect with HBV (Represented by HBsAg) and no MS when they entered the cohort. MS was defined based on the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratios (HR) and related 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) for the association between HBV infection and MS over a 20-year follow-up period. Results Of 976 subjects recruited, 480 had latent HBV infection (exposed subjects). After adjusting for age, the crude HR was 2.46 (95% CI: 1.77, 3.41). After adjusting for potential risk factors of MS (age, gender, smoking, passive smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and diet), the HR was 2.27 (95% CI: 1.52, 3.38). Conclusions This 20-year follow-up retrospective cohort study in Shanghai showed a positive association between HBV infection and MS. PMID:24885963

2014-01-01

280

Hypersensitivity reactions to human papillomavirus vaccine in Australian schoolgirls: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe the outcomes of clinical evaluation, skin testing, and vaccine challenge in adolescent schoolgirls with suspected hypersensitivity to the quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine introduced in Australian schools in 2007.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Two tertiary paediatric allergy centres in Victoria and South Australia, Australia.Participants 35 schoolgirls aged 12 to 18.9 years with suspected hypersensitivity reactions to the quadrivalent human

Liew Woei Kang; Nigel Crawford; Mimi L K Tang; Jim Buttery; Jenny Royle; Michael Gold; Christine Ziegler; Patrick Quinn; Sonja Elia; Sharon Choo

2008-01-01

281

Diagnosis-specific sickness absence as a predictor of mortality: the Whitehall II prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate whether knowing the diagnosis for sickness absence improves prediction of mortality.Design Prospective cohort study established in 1985-8. Sickness absence records including diagnoses were obtained from computerised registers.Setting 20 civil service departments in London.Participants 6478 civil servants aged 35-55 years.Main outcome measures All cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality until 2004, average follow-up 13 years.Results After adjustment for age,

Jenny Head; Jane E Ferrie; Kristina Alexanderson; Hugo Westerlund; Jussi Vahtera; Mika Kivimäki

2008-01-01

282

Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relation between intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose and the risk of incident gout in men.Design Prospective cohort over 12 years.Setting Health professionals follow-up study.Participants 46 393 men with no history of gout at baseline who provided information on intake of soft drinks and fructose through validated food frequency questionnaires.Main outcome measure Incident cases

Hyon K Choi; Gary Curhan

2008-01-01

283

Determinants of disparities between perceived and physiological risk of falling among elderly people: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To gain an understanding of elderly people’s fear of falling by exploring the prevalence and determinants of perceived and physiological fall risk and to understand the role of disparities in perceived and physiological risk in the cause of falls.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Community sample drawn from eastern Sydney, Australia.Participants 500 men and women aged 70–90 years.Main outcome measures Baseline

Kim Delbaere; Jacqueline C T Close; Henry Brodaty; Perminder Sachdev; Stephen R Lord

2010-01-01

284

Poverty or income inequality as predictor of mortality: longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To determine the effect of inequality in income between communities independent of household income on individual all cause mortality in the United States.Design: Longitudinal cohort study.Subjects: A nationally representative sample of 14 407 people aged 25-74 years in the United States from the first national health and nutrition examination survey.Setting: Subjects were followed from initial interview in 1971-5 until

Kevin Fiscella; Peter Franks

1997-01-01

285

Prognosis and prognostic factors of retinal infarction: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prognosis and adverse prognostic factors in patients with retinal infarction due to presumed atheromatous thromboembolism or cardiogenic embolism. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--University hospital departments of clinical neurology. PATIENTS--99 patients with retinal infarction, without prior stroke, referred to a single neurologist between 1976 and 1986 and evaluated and followed up prospectively until death or the end of 1986

G J Hankey; J M Slattery; C P Warlow

1991-01-01

286

Perinatal Mortality in Eastern Uganda: A Community Based Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo achieve a child mortality reduction according to millennium development goal 4, it is necessary to considerably reduce neonatal mortality. We report stillbirth and early neonatal mortality risks as well as determinants of perinatal mortality in Eastern Uganda.MethodsA community-based prospective cohort study was conducted between 2006 and 2008. A total of 835 pregnant women were followed up for pregnancy outcome

Victoria Nankabirwa; James K. Tumwine; Thorkild Tylleskär; Jolly Nankunda; Halvor Sommerfelt; Nancy Mock

2011-01-01

287

Outcomes of Antiretroviral Therapy in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: Latent Class Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An in-depth understanding of the different groups that make up the HIV-infected population should inform prevention and care.\\u000a Using latent class analysis (LCA) we identified seven groups with similar socio-demographic and behavioral characteristics\\u000a at enrolment in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study: older gay men, younger gay men, older heterosexual men, injection drug users,\\u000a single migrants, migrant women in partnerships and

Olivia KeiserBen; Ben Spycher; Andri Rauch; Alexandra Calmy; Matthias Cavassini; Tracy R. Glass; Dunja Nicca; Bruno Ledergerber; Matthias Egger

288

Appendicitis, mesenteric lymphadenitis, and subsequent risk of ulcerative colitis: cohort studies in Sweden and Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether the repeatedly observed low risk of ulcerative colitis after appendicectomy is related to the appendicectomy itself or the underlying morbidity, notably appendicitis or mesenteric lymphadenitis.Design Nationwide cohort studies.Setting Sweden and Denmark.Participants 709 353 Swedish (1964-2004) and Danish (1977-2004) patients who had undergone appendicectomy were followed up for subsequent ulcerative colitis. The impact of appendicectomy on risk

Morten Frisch; Bo V Pedersen; Roland E Andersson

2009-01-01

289

Mortality among oral contraceptive users: 20 year follow up of women in a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To see whether the use of oral contraceptives influences mortality. DESIGN--Non-randomised cohort study of 17,032 women followed up on an annual basis for an average of nearly 16 years. SETTING--17 Family planning clinics in England and Scotland. SUBJECTS--Women recruited during 1968-74. At the time of recruitment each woman was aged 25-39, married, a white British subject, willing to participate, and

M. P. Vessey; L. Villard-Mackintosh; K. McPherson; D. Yeates

1989-01-01

290

Retrospective Population Cohort Study on Hip Fracture Risk Associated with Zolpidem Medication  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: Few studies have evaluated the hip fracture risk for zolpidem users. We assessed the risk for subjects taking zolpidem. Design: Population-based retrospective cohort study using claims data of a universal insurance system. Participants: We identified 6,978 patients newly prescribed for zolpidem in 2000-2001 age 18 y and older, and 27,848 nonusers frequency matched with sex, age, and date visiting a clinic. Measurements and Results: Both cohorts were followed up to the end of 2008 to measure the hip fracture incidence and risk, which considered factors such as sex, age, occupation, days of drug use, and osteoporosis status. The zolpidem users had a 2.23-fold higher hip fracture incidence than nonusers (3.10 versus 1.39 per 1,000 person-y). The risk increased with age for both cohorts. The elderly users had a 21-fold higher incidence than the younger users, or twofold higher than the elderly nonusers. Among 33 patients (20.4%) with hip fracture occurring during presumed medication days, which was accountable for an incidence of 1,083.0 per 1,000 person-y. Those taking the medicine for 8 days or longer had a moderately higher fracture rate than those taking it for less days (6.02 versus 4.48 per 100 person-times) with a ratio of 1.34 (95% confidence interval 0.42-4.56). Subjects with blue collar occupations were at a higher fracture risk. Conclusion: The hip fracture risk of zolpidem users is higher than that of nonusers. Fracture prevention awareness should be disseminated to the users. Citation: Lin FY; Chen PC; Liao CH; Hsieh YW; Sung FC. Retrospective population cohort study on hip fracture risk associated with zolpidem medication. SLEEP 2014;37(4):673-679. PMID:24899758

Lin, Fang-Yu; Chen, Pei-Chun; Liao, Chun Hui; Hsieh, Yow-Wen; Sung, Fung-Chang

2014-01-01

291

Frailty and type of death among older adults in China: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between frailty and type of death among the world’s largest oldest-old population in China.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting 2002 and 2005 waves of the Chinese longitudinal healthy longevity survey carried out in 22 provinces throughout China.Participants 13 717 older adults (aged ?65).Main outcome measures Type of death, categorised as being bedridden for fewer than 30 days

Matthew E Dupre; Danan Gu; David F Warner; Zeng Yi

2009-01-01

292

Survival of people with clinical diagnosis of dementia in primary care: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To estimate survival after a diagnosis of dementia in primary care, compared with people without dementia, and to determine incidence of dementia.Design Cohort study using data from The Health Improvement Network (THIN), a primary care database.Setting 353 general practices in the United Kingdom providing data to THIN.Participants All adults aged 60 years or over with a first ever code

Greta Rait; Kate Walters; Christian Bottomley; Irene Petersen; Steve Iliffe; Irwin Nazareth

2010-01-01

293

Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study of modifiable risk factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the percentage reduction in incidence of dementia that would be obtained if specific risk factors were eliminated.Design Prospective seven year cohort study.Setting General population, Montpellier, France.Participants 1433 people aged over 65 with a mean baseline age of 72.5 (SD 5.1) years.Main outcome measures Diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia established by a standardised neurological examination.Results Cox

K. Ritchie; I. Carriere; C. W. Ritchie; C. Berr; S. Artero; M.-L. Ancelin

2010-01-01

294

Vitamin B12 status of patients treated with metformin: a cross-sectional cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AimTo assess the vitamin B12 status of patients with type 2diabetes who had been receiving metformin treatment for at least one year.MethodsPatients with type 2 diabetes attending a diabetes clinic were included in a cross-sectional cohort study. Patients exposed to metformin for more than one year (n=53) were compared with a non-exposed control group (n=31). Serum cobalamin and other variables

Leif Sparre Hermann; BO Nilsson; Staffan Wettre

2004-01-01

295

Early head injury and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To explore the hypothesis that medically attended head injury in young children may be causal in the later development of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.Design Retrospective cohort study.Setting Health improvement network database (1988-2003), a longitudinal UK general practice dataset.Participants All children registered in the database from birth until their 10th birthday.Main outcome measures Risk of a child with a head

Heather T Keenan; Gillian C Hall; Stephen W Marshall

2008-01-01

296

Analysis of 13 32P-DNA Postlabeling Studies on Occupational Cohorts Exposed to Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial and urban workers may be exposed to significant levels of air pollutants resulting from the incomplete combustion of organic matter. The authors performed a meta-analysis of 13 DNA-adduct studies ( 32 P-DNA postlabeling technique) on occupational cohorts exposed to air pollution. The association between levels of DNA adducts and air pollution exposure was significant both in heavily exposed industrial

M. Peluso; M. Ceppi; A. Munnia; R. Puntoni; S. Parodi

2001-01-01

297

Rates of medication errors among depressed and burnt out residents: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine the prevalence of depression and burnout among residents in paediatrics and to establish if a relation exists between these disorders and medication errors.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Three urban freestanding children’s hospitals in the United States.Participants 123 residents in three paediatric residency programmes.Main outcome measures Prevalence of depression using the Harvard national depression screening day scale, burnout using

Amy M Fahrenkopf; Theodore C Sectish; Laura K Barger; Paul J Sharek; Daniel Lewin; Vincent W Chiang; Sarah Edwards; Bernhard L Wiedermann; Christopher P Landrigan

2008-01-01

298

Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years.Design Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data.Setting 40 primary care practices in Scotland.Participants 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease,

Brian S Buckley; Colin R Simpson; David J McLernon; Andrew W Murphy; Philip C Hannaford

2009-01-01

299

Retrospective cohort mortality study of workers at an aircraft maintenance facility. II. Exposures and their assessment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are presented that were used for assessing exposures in a cohort mortality study of 15,000 employees who held 150,000 jobs at an Air Force base from 1939 to 1982. Standardisation of the word order and spelling of the job titles identified 43,000 unique job title organisation combinations. Walkthrough surveys were conducted, long term employees were interviewed, and available industrial

P A Stewart; J S Lee; D E Marano; R Spirtas; C D Forbes; A Blair

1991-01-01

300

Reporting of eligibility criteria of randomised trials: cohort study comparing trial protocols with subsequent articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether and how eligibility criteria of participants prespecified in protocols of randomised trials are reported in subsequent articles.Design Cohort study.Setting Protocols submitted to the ethics committee of a German medical faculty.Data sources 52 trial protocols and 78 subsequent publications published between 2000 and 2006.Main outcome measure Proportion of matching, missing, modified, or newly added eligibility criteria between

Anette Blümle; Joerg J Meerpohl; Gerta Rücker; Gerd Antes; Martin Schumacher; Erik von Elm

2011-01-01

301

Anti-tobacco television advertising and indicators of smoking cessation in adults: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between exposure to state-sponsored anti-tobacco advertising and smoking cessation. Cessation rates in 2001 among a cohort of 2061 smokers who participated in the Community Intervention Trial for Smoking Cessation be- tween 1988 and 1993 and completed a follow-up survey in 2001 were merged with the 2000-01 television advertising exposure data

A. Hyland; M. Wakefield; Cheryl Higbee; G. Szczypka; K. M. Cummings

2006-01-01

302

Inequalities in maternal health: national cohort study of ethnic variation in severe maternal morbidities  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To describe on a national basis ethnic differences in severe maternal morbidity in the United Kingdom.Design National cohort study using the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS).Setting All hospitals with consultant led maternity units in the UK.Participants 686 women with severe maternal morbidity between February 2005 and February 2006.Main outcome measures Rates, risk ratios, and odds ratios of severe maternal

Marian Knight; Jennifer J Kurinczuk; Patsy Spark; Peter Brocklehurst

2009-01-01

303

Maternal Psychosocial Stress during Pregnancy and Placenta Weight: Evidence from a National Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundTo study in a large-scale cohort with prospective data the associations between psychosocial stress during pregnancy and placenta weight at birth. Animal data suggest that the placenta is involved in stress-related fetal programming.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe defined a priori two types of psychosocial stress during pregnancy, life stress (perceived burdens in major areas of life) and emotional symptoms (e.g. anxiety). We estimated

Marion Tegethoff; Naomi Greene; Jørn Olsen; Andrea H. Meyer; Gunther Meinlschmidt

2010-01-01

304

Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. Design Cohort studies. Setting Three counties in central Sweden. Participants Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61?433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45?339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997. Main outcome measure Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture. Results During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15?541 women died and 17?252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10?112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases. In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2? (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker). Conclusions High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended. PMID:25352269

Wolk, Alicja; Langenskiold, Sophie; Basu, Samar; Warensjo Lemming, Eva; Melhus, Hakan; Byberg, Liisa

2014-01-01

305

INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health and well-being of children. Approximately 10...

306

Longitudinal study of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli isolated from integrated multi-site cohorts of humans and swine  

E-print Network

Many studies have attempted to link antimicrobial use in food animal agriculture with an increased risk of antimicrobial-resistant (AR) bacterial levels in humans. Our data arise from longitudinal aggregated fecal samples in a 3-year cohort study...

Alali, Walid Qasim

2009-05-15

307

Within pair association between birth weight and blood pressure at age 8 in twins from a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To study the association between birth weight and blood pressure in children from multiple pregnancies (multiplets), mostly twins, to determine whether maternal or genetic factors are responsible for the association. Design Cohort study.

Terence Dwyer; Ruth Morley; Louise Ponsonby; Leigh Blizzard

1999-01-01

308

Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa). A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age) with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state’s births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7) in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer) compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. Conclusion Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research. PMID:23874873

Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.

2013-01-01

309

Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders among welders: a Danish cohort study.  

PubMed

It has been hypothesized that welders are at increased risk for neurological disorders, including Parkinson's disease, but few well-designed cohort studies have been conducted. The risk for Parkinson's disease and other neurodegenerative disorders was examined in an updated follow-up study based on a previous cohort of 5867 Danish welders and 1735 nonwelding metal workers exposed to welding fume. Occupational history and information on smoking were obtained from questionnaires, supplemented by information from the compulsory Danish Supplementary Pension Fund. Hospital contacts, including outpatient data from 1994, for Parkinson's disease and other neurological disorders were ascertained from the Danish National Hospital Register. Based on first-time hospital contacts, standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) were calculated for the entire cohort and for welders, metal workers, and nonresponders separately and for the general Danish population in 1987-2008. In an internal analysis of welders, Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hospitalization rate ratios (HRRs) for Parkinson's disease associated with lifelong exposure to welding. Overall, 45 cohort members had a hospital contact for Parkinson's disease (SHR, 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-1.50), of whom 25 were welders (standardized incidence rate ratio, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.68-1.55). When duration of welding was compared among 5736 welders, the HRR was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.59-1.16) per 10 years' welding, after adjustment for smoking. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that welders are at increased risk for Parkinson's disease; these findings are consistent with those of our previously published analysis. © 2012 Movement Disorder Society. PMID:22833432

Kenborg, Line; Lassen, Christina Funch; Hansen, Johnni; Olsen, Jørgen H

2012-09-01

310

Why Do Males in Scotland Die Younger than Those in England? Evidence from Three Prospective Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background To examine explanations for the higher rates of male mortality in two Scottish cohorts compared with a cohort in south-east England for which similar data were collected. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared three cohort studies which recruited participants in the late 1960s and early 1970s. A total of 13,884 men aged 45–64 years at recruitment in the Whitehall occupational cohort (south-east England), 3,956 men in the Collaborative occupational cohort and 6,813 men in the Renfrew & Paisley population-based study (both central Scotland) were included in analyses of all-cause and cause-specific mortality. All-cause mortality was 25% (age-adjusted hazard ratio 1.25, 95% confidence interval (CI)1.21 to 1.30) and 41% (hazard ratio 1.41 (95% CI 1.36 to 1.45) higher in the Collaborative and Renfrew & Paisley cohorts respectively compared to the Whitehall cohort. The higher mortality rates were substantially attenuated by social class (to 8% and 17% higher respectively), and were effectively eliminated upon the further addition of the other baseline risk factors, such as smoking habit, lung function and pre-existing self-reported morbidity. Despite this, coronary heart disease mortality remained 11% and 16% higher, stroke mortality 45% and 37% higher, mortality from accidents and suicide 51% and 70% higher, and alcohol-related mortality 46% and 73% higher in the Collaborative and Renfrew & Paisley cohorts respectively compared with the Whitehall cohort in the fully adjusted model. Conclusions/Significance The higher all-cause, respiratory, and lung cancer male mortality in the Scottish cohorts was almost entirely explained by social class differences and higher prevalence of known risk factors, but reasons for the excess mortality from stroke, alcohol-related causes, accidents and suicide remained unknown. PMID:22808017

McCartney, Gerry; Shipley, Martin; Hart, Carole; Davey-Smith, George; Kivimaki, Mika; Walsh, David; Watt, Graham C.; Batty, G. David

2012-01-01

311

The effects of soy consumption before diagnosis on breast cancer survival: the Multiethnic Cohort Study.  

PubMed

This study tested the hypothesis that prediagnostic soy intake was inversely associated with all-cause and breast cancer-specific mortality. The analyses included 3842 women in the Multiethnic Cohort (MEC) study of African Americans, Native Hawaiians, Japanese Americans, Latinos, and Caucasians, who completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire, aged ?50 yr at cohort entry, and diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer following cohort entry (1993-2007). Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from Cox proportional hazards regression with adjustment for known clinical and lifestyle factors. During a mean follow-up after diagnosis of invasive breast cancer of 6.2 ± 3.8 yr, there were 804 deaths including 376 breast cancer-specific deaths. The HR (95%CI) for all-cause and breast cancer-specific morality comparing the highest versus lowest tertiles were 1.03 (0.81-1.33) and 1.03 (0.71-1.50) for soy products and 0.99 (0.82-1.20) and 0.95 (0.71-1.28) for total isoflavones, respectively (Ptrend > 0.60 for all). There was limited evidence of differences by hormone receptor status, tumor stage, or ethnic group. Prediagnostic soy intake was unrelated to mortality in postmenopausal women. Our findings are consistent with the literature that soy consumption does not adversely affect breast cancer survival in women. PMID:23659444

Conroy, Shannon M; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Park, Song-Yi; Wilkens, Lynne R; Henderson, Brian E; Kolonel, Laurence N

2013-01-01

312

A genome-wide association study for reading and language abilities in two population cohorts  

PubMed Central

Candidate genes have been identified for both reading and language, but most of the heritable variance in these traits remains unexplained. Here, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of two large cohorts: population samples of Australian twins and siblings aged 12–25?years (n?=?1177 from 538 families), and a younger cohort of children of the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (aged 8 and 9?years; maximum n?=?5472). Suggestive association was indicated for reading measures and non-word repetition (NWR), with the greatest support found for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pseudogene, ABCC13 (P?=?7.34?×?10?8), and the gene, DAZAP1 (P?=?1.32?×?10?6). Gene-based analyses showed significant association (P?study in additional cohorts for reading and language abilities. PMID:23738518

Luciano, M; Evans, D M; Hansell, N K; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Bates, T C

2013-01-01

313

A Prospective Cohort Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Risk and Opium Addiction in South Eastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by ?2 and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

2014-01-01

314

Retrospective cohort study of smoking and lung cancer incidence in rural prefecture, Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives  We conducted an epidemiological study of the relationship between lung cancer incidence and smoking, with special reference\\u000a to the benefits of smoking cessation for reducing lung cancer incidence, to promote a local smoking control program.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The study was a retrospective cohort study. The population studied was 16,383 male examinees of lung cancer health examinations\\u000a in 1995 in Tottori Prefecture, Japan.

Yoneatsu Osaki; Mikizo Okamoto; Akihiko Kaetsu; Takuji Kishimoto; Akihiko Suyama

2007-01-01

315

Cohort and Age Effects of Mass Drug Administration on Prevalence of Trachoma: A Longitudinal Study in Rural Tanzania  

PubMed Central

Purpose. Mass drug administration (MDA) is part of the SAFE strategy for trachoma elimination. This study examined the effect of three annual MDAs on prevalence of trachoma among 13 longitudinal cohorts of Tanzanian children. Methods. Children younger than 10 years were assigned to cohorts based on age at baseline and followed annually for 3 years, with newborns assigned to new cohorts over time. Annual MDA consisted of topical tetracycline for children younger than 6 months and oral azithromycin for those 6 months and older. Follicular trachoma (TF) and Chlamydia trachomatis infection status were assessed annually before the next MDA. Prevalence and risk factors for TF and infection at each age were compared across cohorts. Results. At each survey, most age groups and cohorts had MDA coverage of more than 80% and showed decreased TF prevalence after every MDA. One cohort had consistently lower coverage, higher-than-expected TF and infection at ages 6 and 7, and elevated risk of TF at age 7 relative to the preceding cohort in spite of receiving one additional MDA (odds ratio 2.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0–5.2). Cohorts aged 1 or older at baseline generally showed reductions in TF and infection after each MDA, whereas younger cohorts showed decreased infection but increased TF over time. Successive cohorts of never-treated children younger than 1 year showed sequential TF and infection reductions with each MDA (P < 0.001). Conclusions. Multiple MDAs significantly reduce trachoma prevalence and appear to increasingly protect children born into these communities. The youngest children show declining/stable rates of infection but increasing rates of trachoma, which may reflect longer duration of clinical signs. PMID:24448262

Shekhawat, Nakul; Mkocha, Harran; Munoz, Beatriz; Gaydos, Charlotte; Dize, Laura; Quinn, Thomas C.; West, Sheila K.

2014-01-01

316

Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health  

PubMed Central

Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)—and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C.

2012-01-01

317

Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health.  

PubMed

Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)-and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C

2011-12-01

318

A systematic review of the effect of retention methods in population-based cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Longitudinal studies are of aetiological and public health relevance but can be undermined by attrition. The aim of this paper was to identify effective retention strategies to increase participation in population-based cohort studies. Methods Systematic review of the literature to identify prospective population-based cohort studies with health outcomes in which retention strategies had been evaluated. Results Twenty-eight studies published up to January 2011 were included. Eleven of which were randomized controlled trials of retention strategies (RCT). Fifty-seven percent of the studies were postal, 21% in-person, 14% telephone and 7% had mixed data collection methods. A total of 45 different retention strategies were used, categorised as 1) incentives, 2) reminder methods, repeat visits or repeat questionnaires, alternative modes of data collection or 3) other methods. Incentives were associated with an increase in retention rates, which improved with greater incentive value. Whether cash was the most effective incentive was not clear from studies that compared cash and gifts of similar value. The average increase in retention rate was 12% for reminder letters, 5% for reminder calls and 12% for repeat questionnaires. Ten studies used alternative data collection methods, mainly as a last resort. All postal studies offered telephone interviews to non-responders, which increased retention rates by 3%. Studies that used face-to-face interviews increased their retention rates by 24% by offering alternative locations and modes of data collection. Conclusions Incentives boosted retention rates in prospective cohort studies. Other methods appeared to have a beneficial effect but there was a general lack of a systematic approach to their evaluation. PMID:21504610

2011-01-01

319

Maternal health study: a prospective cohort study of nulliparous women recruited in early pregnancy  

PubMed Central

Background In the first year after childbirth, 94% of women experience one or more major health problems (urinary incontinence, faecal incontinence, perineal pain, back pain). Difficulties in intimate partner relationships and changes affecting sexual health are also common. The aim of this study is to investigate changes in women's health from early pregnancy until four years after the birth of a first child. Methods/design The Maternal Health Study is a longitudinal study designed to fill in some of the gaps in current research evidence regarding women's physical and psychological health and recovery after childbirth. A prospective pregnancy cohort of >1500 nulliparous women has been recruited in early pregnancy at six metropolitan public hospitals in Melbourne, Australia between April 2003 and December 2005. In the first phase of the study participants are being followed up at 30–32 weeks gestation in pregnancy, and at three, six, nine, 12 and 18 months postpartum using a combination of self-administered questionnaires and telephone interviews. Women consenting to extended follow-up (phase 2) will be followed up six and 12 months after any subsequent births and when their first child is four years old. Study instruments incorporate assessment of the frequency and severity of urinary and bowel symptoms, sexual health issues, perineal and abdominal pain, depression and intimate partner violence. Pregnancy and birth outcome data will be obtained by review of hospital case notes. Discussion Features of the study which distinguish it from prior research include: the capacity to identify incident cases of morbidity and clustering of health problems; a large enough sample to detect clinically important differences in maternal health outcomes associated with the method of birth; careful exposure measurement involving manual abstraction of data from medical records in order to explore mediating factors and possible causal pathways; and use of a variety of strategies to improve ascertainment of health outcomes. PMID:16608507

Brown, Stephanie J; Lumley, Judith M; McDonald, Ellie A; Krastev, Ann H

2006-01-01

320

Effect of body mass index and alcohol consumption on liver disease: analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate whether alcohol consumption and raised body mass index (BMI) act together to increase risk of liver disease.Design Analysis of data from prospective cohort studies.Setting Scotland.Participants Data were from two of the Midspan prospective cohort studies (9559 men): “Main” study 1965-8, participants from workplaces across central belt of Scotland, population of island of Tiree, and mainland relatives, and

Carole L Hart; David S Morrison; G David Batty; Richard J Mitchell; George Davey Smith

2010-01-01

321

Utilization of Surveillance after Polypectomy in the Medicare Population – A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Surveillance in patients with previous polypectomy was underused in the Medicare population in 1994. This study investigates whether expansion of Medicare reimbursement for colonoscopy screening in high-risk individuals has reduced the inappropriate use of surveillance. Methods We used Kaplan-Meier analysis to estimate time to surveillance and polyp recurrence rates for Medicare beneficiaries with a colonoscopy with polypectomy between 1998 and 2003 who were followed through 2008 for receipt of surveillance colonoscopy. Generalized Estimating Equations were used to estimate risk factors for: 1) failing to undergo surveillance and 2) polyp recurrence among these individuals. Analyses were stratified into three 2-year cohorts based on baseline colonoscopy date. Results Medicare beneficiaries undergoing a colonoscopy with polypectomy in the 1998–1999 (n?=?4,136), 2000–2001 (n?=?3,538) and 2002–2003 (n?=?4,655) cohorts had respective probabilities of 30%, 26% and 20% (p<0.001) of subsequent surveillance events within 3 years. At the same time, 58%, 52% and 45% (p<0.001) of beneficiaries received a surveillance event within 5 years. Polyp recurrence rates after 5 years were 36%, 30% and 26% (p<0.001) respectively. Older age (? 70 years), female gender, later cohort (2000–2001 & 2002–2003), and severe comorbidity were the most important risk factors for failure to undergo a surveillance event. Male gender and early cohort (1998–1999) were the most important risk factors for polyp recurrence. Conclusions Expansion of Medicare reimbursement for colonoscopy screening in high-risk individuals has not reduced underutilization of surveillance in the Medicare population. It is important to take action now to improve this situation, because polyp recurrence is substantial in this population. PMID:25393312

Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Fedewa, Stacey; Lin, Chun Chieh; Virgo, Katherine S.; Jemal, Ahmedin

2014-01-01

322

Socioeconomic Changes and Adolescent Psychopathology in a Brazilian Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To investigate the effects of socioeconomic changes from birth to 11 years of life on emotional, conduct, and attentional/hyperactivity problems in 15-year-old adolescents, from the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study. Methods The original cohort was composed of 5,249 hospital-born children whose mothers answered a questionnaire. We conducted interviews with 87.5% and 85.7% of the original cohort in 2004–2005 and 2008, respectively. We divided family income changes into nine possible categories based on two assessment points (birth and 11 years of age) and three income levels. To assess the psychopathology of the adolescents at 15 years of age, 4,423 mothers answered the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results Adolescents who were always poor or who became poor between birth and 11 years of age had greater conduct problems at 15 years of age. There was no consistent association between poverty and emotional and attentional/hyperactivity problems. Conclusions The effects of income change were more specific to conduct problems than to emotional and attentional/hyperactivity problems, similar to what has been previously described in developed countries. PMID:23283161

Anselmi, Luciana; Menezes, Ana M.B.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Wehrmeister, Fernando; Goncalves, Helen; Barros, Fernando C.; Murray, Joseph; Rohde, Luis A.

2012-01-01

323

Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

2009-02-15

324

Analysis of motivations that lead women to participate (or not) in a newborn cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about reasons that influence parents’ decision to participate in studies enrolling healthy children. The aim of this observational study was to verify the reasons that lead pregnant women to give their consent or to refuse participation to a newborn cohort study with a long follow up time. Methods To prospectively investigate the reasons that lead women to participate, to refuse the participation or to withdraw from a newborn cohort study, three different questionnaires were administered to pregnant women contacted or enrolled in the Phime cohort study, carried out in an Italian Hospital from 2007 to 2010. Results Phime study participation was refused by 304 women and 145 withdrew their consent during the follow up. All these women filled in the related questionnaires. Within 632 mothers in follow up at 18 months, 430 filled in the questionnaire on motivation to participate: 97% stated that the main reason was to contribute to research; 96% and 90% stated that they wanted to benefit future babies’ and mothers’ health. Ninety-six percent of women would appreciate to know the results of analysis carried out on biological samples collected and of the overall study results. One third of the mothers (37%) wanted to be involved in the definition of future similar studies, bringing their experience and their views. Within the 304 women who refused participation, 56% stated that the study was too demanding, 26% was not interested in participating and 18% was concerned about the need to collect biological samples and to be submitted to neurocognitive tests. Fifty-two percent of 145 women who withdrew after enrollment stated that the study was too demanding (52%), and 6% was concerned about the biological samples collection. Conclusions The altruistic reason appears to be the main reported by women to decide to participate in a newborn cohort study. The fact that the study was too demanding and the need to collect biological samples are important reasons that lead women to refuse participation or to withdraw from the study. An adequate communication on these aspects should minimize difficulties in enrolment and losses to follow up. PMID:23577644

2013-01-01

325

Endogenous estrogens and breast cancer risk: the case for prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

It is generally agreed that estrogens, and possibly androgens, are important in the etiology of breast cancer, but no consensus exists as to the precise estrogenic or androgenic environment that characterizes risk, or the exogenous factors that influence the hormonal milieu. Nearly all the epidemiological studies conducted in the 1970s and 1980s were hospital-based case-control studies in which specimen sampling was performed well after the clinical appearance of the disease. Early prospective cohort studies also had limitations in their small sample sizes or short follow-up periods. However, more recent case-control studies nested within large cohorts, such as the New York University Women's Health Study and the Ormoni e Dieta nell'Eziologia dei Tumori study in Italy, are generating new data indicating that increased levels of estrone, estradiol and bioavailable estradiol, as well as their androgenic precursors, may be associated with a 4- to 6-fold increase in the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer. Further new evidence, which complements and expands the observations from the latter studies, shows that women with the thickest bone density, which may be a surrogate for cumulated exposure to hormones, experience severalfold increased risk of subsequent breast cancer as compared to women with thin bones. These data suggests that endogenous sex hormones are a key factor in the etiology of postmenopausal breast cancer. New prospective cohort studies should be conducted to examine the role of endogenous sex hormones in blood and urine samples obtained early in the natural history of breast cancer jointly with an assessment of bone density and of other important risk factors, such as mammographic density, physical activity, body weight, and markers of individual susceptibility, which may confer increased risk through an effect on the metabolism of endogenous hormones or through specific metabolic responses to Western lifestyle and diet. PMID:9168000

Toniolo, P G

1997-04-01

326

COHORT STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG PEOPLE EXPOSED TO ESTUARINE WATERS: NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND MARYLAND. (R827084)  

EPA Science Inventory

A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome," Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine w...

327

Mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters in Hamburg, Germany: a cohort study 1950 - 2000  

PubMed Central

Background The healthy worker effect may hide adverse health effects in hazardous jobs, especially those where physical fitness is required. Fire fighters may serve as a good example because they sometimes are severely exposed to hazardous substances while on the other hand their physical fitness and their strong health surveillance by far exceeds that of comparable persons from the general population. Methods To study this effect a historic cohort study was conducted to assess mortality and life expectancy of professional fire fighters of the City of Hamburg, Germany. Fire departments and trade unions questioned the validity of existing studies from outside Germany because of specific differences in the professional career. No mortality study had been conducted so far in Germany and only few in Europe. Information on all active and retired fire fighters was extracted from personnel records. To assure completeness of data the cohort was restricted to all fire fighters being active on January 1, 1950 or later. Follow up of the cohort ended on June 30th 2000. Vital status was assessed by personnel records, pension fund records and the German residence registries. Mortality of fire fighters was compared to mortality of the Hamburg and German male population by means of standardized mortality ratios. Life expectancy was calculated using life table analysis. Multivariate proportional hazard models were used to assess the effect of seniority, time from first employment, and other occupational characteristics on mortality. Results The cohort consists of 4640 fire fighters accumulating 111796 person years. Vital status could be determined for 98.2% of the cohort. By the end of follow up 1052 person were deceased. Standardized Mortality Ratio (SMR) for the total cohort was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.74–0.84) compared to Hamburg reference data and 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74–0.83) compared to National German reference data. Conditional life expectancy of a 30 year old fire fighter was 45.3 years as compared to 42.9 year of a German male in normal population. Job tasks, rank status and early retirement negatively influenced mortality. For fire fighters with comparably short duration of employment the mortality advantage diminished with longer time since first employment. SMR of persons who retired early was 1.25 (95% CI, 1.13–1.60) in reference to the general German population and the SMR of 1.71 (1.18–2.50) in the multivariate regression model. Conclusion A strong healthy worker effect was observed for the cohort, which diminished with longer time since first employment for fire fighters with shorter duration of employment, as expected. The negative effects on mortality of job tasks, rank status and in particular early retirement indicate the presence of undetermined and specific risks related to occupational hazards of fire fighters. PMID:17020604

Wagner, Norbert L; Berger, Jurgen; Flesch-Janys, Dieter; Koch, Peter; Kochel, Anja; Peschke, Michel; Ossenbach, Trude

2006-01-01

328

Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 43 (1990) 113-132 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam  

E-print Network

.V., Amsterdam 113 Case study of an extensive silicic lava: the Rhyolite, Trans-Pecos Texas Bracks CHRISTOPHER D lava: the Bracks Rhyolite. Trans-Pecos Texas. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 43: 113-132. Field, petrographic, and chemical data indicate that the Bracks Rhyolite of western Trans-Pecos Texas is a single lava

Tingley, Joseph V.

329

Improved low visibility forecasts at Amsterdam Airport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, reliable and unambiguous information concerning the actual and expected (low) visibility conditions at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is very important for the available operational flow capacity. Therefore visibility forecast errors can have a negative impact on safety and operational expenses. KNMI has performed an update of the visibility forecast system in close collaboration with the main users of the forecasts (Air Traffic Control, the airport authorities and KLM airlines). This automatic forecasting system consists of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model (Hirlam) with a statistical post processing module on top of it. Output of both components is supplied to a human forecaster who issues a special probabilistic forecast bulletin. This bulletin is tailored to the specific requirements of the airport community. The improvements made to the forecast system are twofold: 1) In addition to the Meteorological Optical Range (MOR) values, RVR (Runway Visual Range) is forecasted. Since RVR depends on both MOR and the local Background Luminance, a (deterministic) statistical forecast for the latter has been developed. 2) Another improvement was achieved by calculating joint probabilities for specific combinations of visibility and cloud base height for thresholds which have direct impact on the flow capacity at the airport. The development of this new visibility forecast will be presented briefly. Also a few verification results will be shown to demonstrate the improvements made. Finally, the importance of explaining the user the use of the forecast information, in relation to their decision making process, will be discussed. For that reason, a simple guideline model to make a cost-optimal choice will be introduced.

Wijngaard, J.; Vogelezang, D.; Maat, N.; van Bruggen, H.

2009-09-01

330

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic studies have reported coffee consumption to be associated with various health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer incidence in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Japan. Methods We used data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). Here, we analyzed a total of 58 221 persons (23 607 men, 34 614 women) followed from 1988 to the end of 2009. During 738 669 person-years of follow-up for the analysis of colorectal cancer risk with coffee consumption at baseline, we identified 687 cases of colon cancer (355 males and 332 females) and 314 cases of rectal cancer (202 males and 112 females). We used the Cox proportional-hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratio (HR). Results Compared to those who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day, men who consumed 2–3 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–1.70), and men who consumed more than 4 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.79 (95% CI 1.01–3.18). A statistically significant increase in the risk of colon cancer was associated with increasing coffee consumption among men (P for trend = 0.03). On the other hand, coffee consumption in women was not associated with incident risk of colon cancer. Coffee consumption was also not associated with rectal cancer incidence in men or women. Conclusions This large-scale population-based cohort study showed that coffee consumption increases the risk of colon cancer among Japanese men. PMID:24857957

Yamada, Hiroya; Kawado, Miyuki; Aoyama, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Suzuki, Sadao; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

2014-01-01

331

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients’ quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, Jose; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

332

Effectiveness of Compounded Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy: An Observational Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy (BHRT) is believed it to be a safer and equally effective alternative to Conventional\\u000a Hormone Therapy for the relief of menopausal symptoms; however, data are needed to support these claims. The objective of\\u000a this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of compounded BHRT provided in six community pharmacies.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  This was an observational cohort study of women

Andres D Ruiz; Kelly R Daniels; Jamie C Barner; John J Carson; Christopher R Frei

2011-01-01

333

Multimorbidity in a marginalised, street-health Australian population: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Demographic and presentation profile of patients using an innovative mobile outreach clinic compared with mainstream practice. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary care mobile street health clinic and mainstream practice in Western Australia. Participants 2587 street health and 4583 mainstream patients. Main outcome measures Prevalence and patterns of chronic diseases in anatomical domains across the entire age spectrum of patients and disease severity burden using Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Results Multimorbidity (2+ CIRS domains) prevalence was significantly higher in the street health cohort (46.3%, 1199/2587) than age–sex-adjusted mainstream estimate (43.1%, 2000/4583), p=0.011. Multimorbidity prevalence was significantly higher in street health patients <45?years (37.7%, 615/1649) compared with age–sex-adjusted mainstream patients (33%, 977/2961), p=0.003 but significantly lower if 65+ years (62%, 114/184 vs 90.7%, 322/355, p<0.001). Controlling for age and gender, the mean CIRS Severity Index score for street health (M=1.4, SD=0.91) was significantly higher than for mainstream patients (M=1.1, SD=0.80), p<0.001. Furthermore, 44.2% (530/1199) of street health patients had at least one level 3 or 4 score across domains compared with 18.3% (420/2294) for mainstream patients, p<0.001. Street health population comprised 29.6% (766/2587) Aboriginal patients with 50.4% (386/766) having multimorbidity compared with 44.6% (813/1821) for non-Aboriginals, p=0.007. There were no comprehensive data on Indigenous status in the mainstream cohort available for comparison. Musculoskeletal, respiratory and psychiatric domains were most commonly affected with multimorbidity significantly associated with male gender, increasing age and Indigenous status. Conclusions Age–sex-adjusted multimorbidity prevalence and disease severity is higher in the street health cohort. Earlier onset (23–34?years) multimorbidity is found in the street health cohort but prevalence is lower in 65+ years than in mainstream patients. Multimorbidity prevalence is higher for Aboriginal patients of all ages. PMID:25138806

Brett, Tom; Arnold-Reed, Diane E; Troeung, Lakkhina; Bulsara, Max K; Williams, Annalisse; Moorhead, Robert G

2014-01-01

334

A case-cohort study of human herpesvirus 8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer in Tobago  

PubMed Central

Background We previously reported a cross-sectional association between the presence of human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) serum antibodies and screen-detected prostate cancer in men living in Tobago. In the same study population, we examined the association between HHV-8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer discovered at later screenings. Methods In 40-81 year-old men without prostate cancer discovered at initial digital rectal examination (DRE) and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening, a case-cohort design measured the association between baseline HHV-8 seropositivity (modified immunofluorescence assay for antibodies against HHV-8 lytic antigens) and incident prostate cancer detected at DRE and PSA screenings three or five years later. Results Analyses included 486 unique individuals, 96 incident prostate cancer cases, and 415 randomly selected subjects representing an at-risk cohort. By design, the random sub-cohort contained 25 incident prostate cancer cases. In the sub-cohort, the frequency of HHV-8 seropositivity increased across age groupings (40-49 years: 3.5%, 50-59 years: 13.6%, and ? 60 years: 22.9%). HHV-8 seropositivity was higher in men with elevated (? 4.0 ng/mL) than men with non-elevated PSA at initial screening (30.4% vs. 9.9% seropositive; crude odds ratio (OR) 3.96, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.53-10.2; age-adjusted OR 2.42, 95% CI 0.91-6.47). HHV-8 seropositivity did not increase incident prostate cancer risk (age-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.88, 95% CI 0.46-1.69). Conclusions Case-cohort analysis did not identify association between HHV-8 seropositivity and incident prostate cancer. However, analyses uncovered possible association between HHV-8 and PSA (a marker of prostate inflammation). Co-occurrence of HHV-8 seropositivity and PSA elevation may explain cross-sectional association between HHV-8 and PSA screen-detected prostate cancer. PMID:22151996

2011-01-01

335

Childhood Sleep Duration and Quality in Relation to Leptin Concentration in Two Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Poor sleep in childhood is associated with increased obesity risk, possibly by affecting appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin. We examined short- and long-term sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin in two US pediatric cohorts. Design: Analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies. Setting: Population-based. Adolescent polysomnography assessments performed in a clinical research unit. Patients or Participants: Children in Project Viva (n = 655) and adolescents in the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study (n = 502). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In Project Viva, mothers reported average child sleep duration annually from infancy through age 7, and we measured leptin at ages 3 and 7. In the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study, we collected self-reported sleep duration, polysomnography-derived measures of sleep quality, and fasting leptin at ages 16-19. In sex-stratified linear regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and adiposity, chronic curtailed sleep was associated with lower leptin at age 7 in girls; a one-unit decrease in sleep score was associated with a 0.08 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.01,0.15). The association was stronger in girls with greater adiposity (P = 0.01). Among adolescents, shorter sleep was associated with lower leptin in males; each one-hour decrease in sleep duration was associated with a 0.06 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.00, 0.11). Sleep duration was not associated with leptin at other ages. Sleep quality indices were not associated with leptin. Conclusions: Our results suggest possible age-specific sexual dimorphism in the influence of sleep on leptin, which may partly explain inconsistencies in the literature. Citation: Boeke CE; Storfer-Isser A; Redline S; Taveras EM. Childhood sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin concentration in two cohort studies. SLEEP 2014;37(3):613-620. PMID:24587585

Boeke, Caroline E.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

2014-01-01

336

Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.  

PubMed

An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age. PMID:25034053

Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

2014-10-15

337

Depression following fracture in women: a study of age-matched cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objectives High levels of disability, functional impairment and mortality are independently associated with fracture and depression, however the relationship between fracture and depression is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate whether fracture is associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in a population-based sample of women. Design A study of age-matched fracture versus non-fracture cohorts of women. Setting Barwon Statistical Division, southeastern Australia. Participants Two samples of women aged ?35?years were drawn from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study (GOS). The fracture cohort included women with incident fracture identified from radiology reports and the non-fracture cohort were randomly selected from the electoral roll during 1994–1996. Outcome measure Symptoms of depression for women with and without fracture during the 12-month period 2000–2001 were identified by self-report questionnaire based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. Results A total of 296 women with fracture (12 hip, 48 vertebral, 91 wrist/forearm, 17 upper arm, 7 pelvis, 11 rib, 62 lower leg and 48 other fractures) and 590 women without fracture were included. Associations between fracture and depression differed between younger (?65?years) and older (>65?years) women. Age and weight-adjusted odds ratio for depression following fracture among younger women was 0.62 (0.35 to 1.11, p=0.12) and 3.33 (1.24 to 8.98, p=0.02) for older women. Further adjustment for lifestyle factors did not affect the results. Conclusions This study demonstrated that differences in mood status exist between older and younger women following fracture and that fracture is associated with increased depression in older women. Assessment of mood status in both the short and long term following fracture in the elderly seems justified, with early detection and treatment likely to result in improved outcomes. PMID:24561497

Williams, Lana J; Berk, Michael; Henry, Margaret J; Stuart, Amanda L; Brennan, Sharon L; Jacka, Felice N; Pasco, Julie A

2014-01-01

338

Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Objective Diabetes is associated with increased risk of cancer at several sites, but its association with risk of bladder cancer is still controversial. We examined this association by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane register, and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases through April 29, 2012. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Results A total of fifteen cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies showed that diabetes was associated with a borderline statistically significant increased risk of bladder cancer (RR 1.11, 95% CI 1.00–1.23; p<0.001 for heterogeneity; I2?=?84%). When restricting the analysis to studies that had adjusted for cigarette smoking (n?=?6) or more than three confounders (n?=?7), the RRs were 1.32 (95% CI 1.18–1.49) and 1.20 (95% CI 1.02–1.42), respectively. There was no significant publication bias (p?=?0.62 for Egger’s regression asymmetry test). Conclusions Our findings support that diabetes was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. More future studies are warranted to get a better understanding of the association and to provide convincing evidence for clinical practice in bladder cancer prevention. PMID:23472134

Xu, Xin; Wu, Jian; Mao, Yeqing; Zhu, Yi; Hu, Zhenghui; Xu, Xianglai; Lin, Yiwei; Chen, Hong; Zheng, Xiangyi; Qin, Jie; Xie, Liping

2013-01-01

339

Traumatic Brain Injuries in Children and Young Adults: A Birth Cohort Study from Northern Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: Incidence and mortality rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) were investigated by using the Northern Finland Birth Cohort. This cohort provides a valuable source of data from the population born in 1966 (n = 12,058) in the 2 northernmost provinces of Finland. Methods: The cohort was followed for 34 years, and data were gathered from the Finnish Hospital Discharge

Satu Winqvist; Maria Lehtilahti; Jari Jokelainen; Heikki Luukinen; Matti Hillbom

2007-01-01

340

PERIOD, COHORT, AND AGING EFFECTSS Study of Television Exposure in Presidential Election Campaigns, 1952-1980  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research investigated effects of audience generational composition, aging, and period on exposure to televised presidential campaign information from 1952 to 1980. A categorical regression cohort analysis, controlling for sex and education, revealed that cohort effects explained 40% of the variance in such television exposure. The hypothesis was supported that the cohort in midlife when television initially diffused used television

JAMES A. DANOWSKI; JOHN E. RUCHINSKAS

1983-01-01

341

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer risk that started in 1986 in The Netherlands on 58,279 men, aged 55-69 years. Based on information about job history obtained from a self-administered questionnaire, case by case expert assessment was carried out to assign to each study subject a cumulative probability of occupational exposure for each carcinogenic exposure. For analysis, a case-cohort approach was used, in which the person-years at risk were estimated from a randomly selected subcohort (n = 1688). After 4.3 years of follow up, 524 lung cancer cases with complete job history were available. RESULTS: After adjustment for age, each of the other occupational exposures, and for smoking habits and intake of vitamin C, beta-carotene, and retinol, significant associations were found between risk of lung cancer and cumulative probability of occupational exposure to asbestos (relative risk (RR) highest/no exposure = 3.49, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.69 to 7.18, trend P < 0.01 or paint dust (RR highest/no exposure = 2.48, 95% CI 0.88 to 6.97, trend P < 0.01). The population attributable risks (PARs) for the four exposures based on the multivariately adjusted RRs for ever exposed versus never exposed workers were calculated. The PAR of lifetime occupational exposure to asbestos was calculated to be 11.6%. CONCLUSIONS: This prospective cohort study among the general population showed that occupational exposure to asbestos or paint dust is associated with higher RRs for lung cancer. This study shows that after adjustment for smoking and diet about 11.6% of the cases of lung cancer in men is attributable to lifetime occupational exposure to asbestos. PMID:9538355

van Loon, A J; Kant, I J; Swaen, G M; Goldbohm, R A; Kremer, A M; van den Brandt, P A

1997-01-01

342

OCCUPATION AND BREAST CANCER RISK AMONG SHANGHAI WOMEN IN A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Introduction A total of 74,942 female subjects were recruited in a population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China between 1997 and 2000. We examined the relationship between occupation and breast cancer risk by using baseline data from the cohort study. Methods Cases were 586 women previously diagnosed with breast cancer at baseline and 438 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer by December 2004 during follow-up. Eight controls were randomly selected for each case from cancer-free cohort members and frequency-matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer risk associated with occupations adjusting for typical breast cancer risk factors. Results In the prevalent breast cancer data analysis, increased risks of breast cancer were associated with technicians in engineering/agriculture/forestry (OR= 1.6, 1.0-2.4), teaching personnel (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.0), tailoring/sewing workers (OR=1.6, 1.0-2.7), examiners/measurers/testers (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.1) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. In the incident cases, the significantly increased risks were associated with medical/health care workers (OR=1.4, 1.0-2.0), administrative clerical workers (OR=1.5, 1.0-2.4), postal/telecommunication workers (OR=2.2, 1.0-5.5), and odd-job workers (OR=1.7, 1.1-2.8) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. The excess risks were found in both prevalent and incident cases for postal/telecommunication workers and purchasing/marketing personnel, although ORs reached only marginal significance. Conclusions This study suggests that white-collar professionals and several production occupations may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:18067183

Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hauptmann, Michael; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Yang, Gong; Lubin, Jay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, W

2010-01-01

343

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

2005-01-01

344

Risk Factors of Developmental Defects of Enamel-A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Current studies on the aetiology of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are subject to recall bias because of the retrospective collection of information. Our objective was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of DDE through a prospective cohort study. Methods Using a random community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997, we performed a cohort study in which the subjects’ background information, medical and dental records were prospectively collected. A clinical examination to identify DDE was conducted in 2010 when the subjects were 12 years old. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as the index teeth and were examined ‘wet’ by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. Results With a response rate of 74.9%, the 514 examined subjects had matched data for background information. Diffuse opacites were the most common type of DDE. Of the various possible aetiological factors considered, only experience of severe diseases during the period 0–3 years was associated with the occurrence of ‘any defect’ (p?=?0.017) and diffuse opacities (p?=?0.044). The children with experience of severe diseases before 3 years of age were 7.89 times more likely to be affected by ‘any defect’ compared with those who did not have the experience (OR 7.89; 95% CI 1.07, 58.14; p?=?0.043). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the association no longer existed. Conclusion No variables could be identified as risk factors of DDE in this Hong Kong birth cohort. PMID:25275499

Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; Wen, Yi Feng; King, Nigel M.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

2014-01-01

345

A retrospective cohort study of lidocaine in divers with neurological decompression illness.  

PubMed

Lidocaine is the most extensively studied substance for adjuvant therapy in neurological decompression illness (DCI), but results have been conflicting. In this retrospective cohort study, we compared 14 patients who received adjuvant intravenous lidocaine for neurological decompression sickness and cerebral arterial gas embolism between 2001 and 2011 against 21 patients who were treated between 1996 and 2001 and did not receive lidocaine. All patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy according to accepted guidelines. Groups were comparable for all investigated confounding factors, except that significantly more control patients had made an unsafe dive (62% vs. 14%, p = 0.007). Groups had comparable injury severity as measured by Dick and Massey score (lidocaine 2.7 +/- 1.7, control 2.0 +/- 1.6), an adapted version of the Dick and Massey score, and the Blatteau score. Number of HBO2 sessions given was comparable in both groups (lidocaine 2.7 +/- 2.3, control 2.0 +/- 1.0). There was neither a positive nor a negative effect of lidocaine on outcome (relative risk for objective neurological signs at follow-up in the lidocaine group was 1.8, 95% CI 0.2-16). This is the first retrospective cohort study of lidocaine in neurological DCI. Since our study is under-powered to draw definitive conclusions, a prospective multicenter study remains the only way to reliably determine the effect of lidocaine in neurological decompression illness. PMID:24851549

Weenink, Robert P; Hollmann, Markus W; Zomervrucht, Astrid; van Ooij, Pieter-Jan A M; van Hulst, Robert A

2014-01-01

346

Longitudinal age-and cohort trends in body mass index in Sweden - a 24-year follow-up study  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this longitudinal study was to analyze whether mean Body Mass Index (BMI), assessed at four occasions, changed within different age groups and birth cohorts over time, i.e., between 1980/81 and 2004/05, after adjustment for possible confounders. Methods A sample of 2728 men and 2770 women aged 16–71 years at study start were randomly drawn from the Swedish Total Population Register and followed from 1980/81 to 2004/05. The same sample was assessed on four occasions during the 24-year study period (i.e., every eighth year). The outcome variable, BMI, was based on self-reported height and weight. A mixed model, with random intercept and random slope, was used to estimate annual changes in BMI within the different age groups and birth cohorts. Results Mean BMI increased from 24.1 to 25.5 for men and from 23.1 to 24.3 for women during the 24-year study period. The annual change by age group was highest in the ages of 32–39, 40–47 and 48–55 years among men, and in the ages of 24–31, 32–39, and 40–47 years among women. The highest annual changes were found in the youngest birth cohorts for both men and women, i.e., those born 1958–65, 1966–73, and 1974–81. For each birth cohort, the annual change in BMI increased compared to the previous, i.e., older, birth cohort. In addition, age-by-cohort interaction tests revealed that the increase in BMI by increasing age was higher in the younger birth cohorts (1966–1989) than in the older ones. Conclusions Public health policies should target those age groups and birth cohorts with the highest increases in BMI. For example, younger birth cohorts had higher annual increases in BMI than older birth cohorts, which means that younger cohorts increased their BMI more than older ones during the study period. PMID:24074433

2013-01-01

347

Effect of tobacco smoking on survival of men and women by social position: a 28 year cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the impact of tobacco smoking on the survival of men and women in different social positions.Design A cohort observational study.Setting Renfrew and Paisley, two towns in west central Scotland.Participants 8353 women and 7049 men aged 45-64 years recruited in 1972-6 (almost 80% of the population in this age group). The cohort was divided into 24 groups by

Laurence Gruer; Carole L Hart; David S Gordon; Graham C M Watt

2009-01-01

348

Association between Sjogren's Syndrome and Respiratory Failure: Put Airway, Interstitia, and Vessels Close Together: A National Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have evaluated the association between Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and respiratory failure (RF). Thus, we conducted a retrospective national cohort study to investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome (SS) increases the risk of respiratory failure (RF). Methods The cohort consisted of 4954 newly diagnosed patients with SS but without a previous diagnosis of RF, and 19816 patients as the comparison cohort from the catastrophic illnesses registry, obtained from the 2000–2005 period. All of the study participants were followed from the index date to December 31, 2011. We analyzed the association between the risk of RF and SS by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of RF showed a 3.21-fold increase in the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort. The adjusted HR of RF was 3.04 for the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort, after we adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. The HRs of RF for patients with primary SS and secondary SS compared with the comparison cohort were 2.99 and 3.93, respectively (P for trend <.001). The HRs of RF increased as the severity of SS increased, from 2.34 for those with no inpatient care experience to 5.15 for those with inpatient care experience (P for trend <.001). Conclusion This study indicates that clinical physicians should not only consider secondary SS but also primary SS as a critical factor that increases the risk of RF. PMID:25350278

Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wong, Yi-Sin; Tang, Hsien-Chin; Yeh, Ting-Chun; Kao, Chia-Hung

2014-01-01

349

Visual estimation versus gravimetric measurement of postpartum blood loss: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  One of the major problems in international literature is how to measure postpartum blood loss with accuracy. We aimed in this\\u000a research to assess the accuracy of visual estimation of postpartum blood loss (by each of two main health-care providers)\\u000a compared with the gravimetric calculation method.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We carried out a prospective cohort study at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi

Hanan M. F. Al Kadri; Bedayah K. Al Anazi; Hani M. Tamim

2011-01-01

350

Cervical spine instability following cervical laminectomies for Chiari II malformation: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  The treatment of symptomatic Chiari II malformations typically involves multilevel cervical laminectomies in very young children.\\u000a These patients are at significant risk of cervical instability. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and\\u000a significance of cervical instability after multilevel cervical laminectomies in a cohort of patients decompressed for Chiari\\u000a II malformation.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Postoperative dynamic lateral cervical spine radiographs

Fred C. Lam; Beverly J. Irwin; Kenneth J. Poskitt; Paul Steinbok

2009-01-01

351

Resting heart rate as a low tech predictor of coronary events in women: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate resting heart rate as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk in women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.\\u000aSETTING: The Women's Health Initiative was undertaken at 40 research clinics in the United States.\\u000aPARTICIPANTS: 129 135 postmenopausal women.\\u000aMAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical cardiovascular events.\\u000aRESULTS: During a mean of 7.8 (SD 1.6) years of follow up, 2281 women were

Judith Hsia; Joseph C. Larson; Judith K. Ockene; Gloria E. Sarto; Matthew A. Allison; Susan L. Hendrix; Jennifer G. Robinson; Andrea Z. LaCroix; JoAnn E. Manson

2009-01-01

352

Risk of cancer associated with cardiac catheterization procedures during childhood: a cohort study in France  

PubMed Central

Background Radiation can be used effectively for diagnosis and medical treatment, but it can also cause cancers later on. Children with congenital heart disease frequently undergo cardiac catheterization procedures for diagnostic or treatment purposes. Despite the clear clinical benefit to the patient, the complexity of these procedures may result in high cumulative radiation exposure. Given children’s greater sensitivity to radiation and the longer life span during which radiation health effects can develop, an epidemiological cohort study is being launched in France to evaluate the risks of leukaemia and solid cancers in this specific population. Methods/design The study population will include all children who have undergone at least one cardiac catheterization procedure since 2000 and were under 10 years old and permanent residents of France at the time of the procedure. Electronically stored patient records from the departments of paediatric cardiology of the French national network for complex congenital heart diseases (M3C) are being searched to identify the children to be included. The minimum dataset will comprise: identification of the subject (file number in the centre or department, full name, sex, date and place of birth), and characteristics of the intervention (date, underlying disease, type of procedure, technical details, such as fluoroscopy time and dose area product, (DAP), which are needed to reconstruct the doses received by each child). The cohort will be followed up through linkage with the two French paediatric cancer registries, which have recorded all cases of childhood leukaemia and solid cancers in France since 1990 and 2000, respectively. Radiation exposure will be estimated retrospectively for each child. 4500 children with catherizations between 2000 and 2011 have been already included in the cohort, and recruitment is ongoing at the national level. The study is expected to finally include a total of 8000 children. Discussion This French cohort study is specifically designed to provide further knowledge about the potential cancer risks associated with paediatric cardiac catheterization procedures. It will also provide new information on typical dose levels associated with these procedures in France. Finally, it should help improve awareness of the importance of radiation protection in these procedures. PMID:23521893

2013-01-01

353

Childhood meat eating and inflammatory markers: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We hypothesized that socio-economic development could, via nutritionally driven levels of pubertal sex-steroids, promote a\\u000a pro-inflammatory state among men but not women in developing countries. We tested this hypothesis, using recalled childhood\\u000a meat eating as a proxy for childhood nutrition, in southern China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used multivariable linear regression in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study phase 3 (2006-8) to examine the

CM Schooling; CQ Jiang; TH Lam; WS Zhang; KK Cheng; GM Leung

2011-01-01

354

Design of the Japan Nurses' Health Study: A Prospective Occupational Cohort Study of Women's Health in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Japan Nurses' Health Study (JNHS) is a prospective occupational cohort study investigating the effects of lifestyle and healthcare practices on women's health. It was initiated in 2001, with a six-year entry period and a proposed ten-year follow-up. Participants comprise female registered nurses, licensed practical nurses, public health nurses, and midwives, aged 25 yr or over at the baseline survey.

Kunihiko HAYASHI; Hideki MIZUNUMA; Toshiharu FUJITA; Shosuke SUZUKI; Setsuko IMAZEKI; Kota KATANODA; Yasuhiro MATSUMURA; Toshiro KUBOTA; Takeshi ASO

2007-01-01

355

The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)  

PubMed

The purpose of the present study was to assess patients' anxiety level and information requirement in the preoperative phase. During routine preoperative screening, 320 patients were asked to assess their anxiety and information requirement on a six-item questionnaire, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). Two hundred patients also completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-State). Patients were able to complete the questionnaire in less than 2 min. On factor analysis, two factors emerged clearly: anxiety and the need for information. The anxiety scale correlated highly (0.74) with the STAI-State. It emerged that 32% of the patients could be considered as "anxiety cases" and over 80% of patients have a positive attitude toward receiving information. Moreover, results demonstrated that 1) women were more anxious that men; 2) patients with a high information requirement also had a high level of anxiety; 3) patients who had never undergone an operation had a higher information requirement than those who had. The APAIS can provide anesthesiologists with a valid, reliable, and easily applicable instrument for assessing the level of patients' preoperative anxiety and the need for information. PMID:8623940

Moerman, N; van Dam, F S; Muller, M J; Oosting, H

1996-03-01

356

The Netherlands study of depression in older persons (NESDO); a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To study late-life depression and its unfavourable course and co morbidities in The Netherlands. Methods We designed the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (NESDO), a multi-site naturalistic prospective cohort study which makes it possible to examine the determinants, the course and the consequences of depressive disorders in older persons over a period of six years, and to compare these with those of depression earlier in adulthood. Results From 2007 until 2010, the NESDO consortium has recruited 510 depressed and non depressed older persons (? 60 years) at 5 locations throughout the Netherlands. Depressed persons were recruited from both mental health care institutes and general practices in order to include persons with late-life depression in various developmental and severity stages. Non-depressed persons were recruited from general practices. The baseline assessment included written questionnaires, interviews, a medical examination, cognitive tests and collection of blood and saliva samples. Information was gathered about mental health outcomes and demographic, psychosocial, biological, cognitive and genetic determinants. The baseline NESDO sample consists of 378 depressed (according to DSM-IV criteria) and 132 non-depressed persons aged 60 through 93 years. 95% had a major depression and 26.5% had dysthymia. Mean age of onset of the depressive disorder was around 49 year. For 33.1% of the depressed persons it was their first episode. 41.0% of the depressed persons had a co morbid anxiety disorder. Follow up assessments are currently going on with 6 monthly written questionnaires and face-to-face interviews after 2 and 6 years. Conclusions The NESDO sample offers the opportunity to study the neurobiological, psychosocial and physical determinants of depression and its long-term course in older persons. Since largely similar measures were used as in the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA; age range 18-65 years), data can be pooled thus creating a large longitudinal database of clinically depressed persons with adequate power and a large set of neurobiological, psychosocial and physical variables from both younger and older depressed persons. PMID:22142532

2011-01-01

357

Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (?7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25335105

2014-01-01

358

A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico), using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort), in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort). Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type. PMID:22471857

2012-01-01

359

Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Chronic Fatigue 6 Years After Giardia Infection: A Controlled Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background.?Functional gastrointestinal disorders and fatigue may follow acute infections. This study aimed to estimate the persistence, prevalence, and risk of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years after Giardia infection. Methods.?We performed a controlled prospective study of a cohort of 1252 individuals who had laboratory-confirmed Giardia infection during a waterborne outbreak in 2004. In total, 748 cohort cases (exposed) and 878 matched controls responded to a postal questionnaire 6 years later (in 2010). Responses were compared to data from the same cohort 3 years before (in 2007). Results.?The prevalences of irritable bowel syndrome (39.4%) by Rome III criteria and chronic fatigue (30.8%) in the exposed group 6 years after giardiasis were significantly elevated compared with controls, with adjusted relative risks (RRs) of 3.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.9–3.9) and 2.9 (95% CI, 2.3–3.4), respectively. In the exposed group, the prevalence of irritable bowel syndrome decreased by 6.7% (RR, 0.85 [95% CI, .77–.93]), whereas the prevalence of chronic fatigue decreased by 15.3% from 3 to 6 years after Giardia infection (RR, 0.69 [95% CI, .62–.77]). Giardia exposure was a significant risk factor for persistence of both conditions, and increasing age was a risk factor for persisting chronic fatigue. Conclusions.?Giardia infection in a nonendemic setting is associated with an increased risk for irritable bowel syndrome and chronic fatigue 6 years later. The prevalences of both conditions decrease over time, indicating that this intestinal protozoan parasite may elicit very long-term, but slowly self-limiting, complications. PMID:25115874

Hanevik, Kurt; Wensaas, Knut-Arne; Rortveit, Guri; Eide, Geir Egil; M?rch, Kristine; Langeland, Nina

2014-01-01

360

Incidence of disease after vasectomy: a record linkage retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether vasectomy is associated with an increased risk of several diseases, and in particular testicular cancer, after operation. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study using linked medical record abstracts. SETTING--Six health districts in Oxford region. SUBJECTS--13,246 men aged 25-49 years who had undergone vasectomy between 1970 and 1986, and 22,196 comparison subjects who had been admitted during the same period for one of three specified elective operations, appendicitis, or injuries. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Hospital admission and death after vasectomy or comparison event. RESULTS--The mean durations of follow up were 6.6 years for men with a vasectomy and 7.5 years for men with a comparison condition. The relative risk of cancer of the testis in the vasectomy cohort (4 cases) compared with that in the other cohorts (17 cases) was 0.46 (95% confidence interval 0.1 to 1.4), that of cancer of the prostate (1 v 5 cases) 0.44 (0.1 to 4.0), and that of myocardial infarction (97 v 226 cases) 1.00 (0.8 to 1.3). There was no evidence of an increase associated with vasectomy in the incidence of a range of other diseases. CONCLUSIONS--Vasectomy was not associated with an increased risk of testicular cancer or the other diseases studied. With respect to prostatic cancer, while we found no cause for concern, longer periods of observation on large numbers of men are required. PMID:1571679

Nienhuis, H.; Goldacre, M.; Seagroatt, V.; Gill, L.; Vessey, M.

1992-01-01

361

Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood. PMID:24699459

Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

2014-01-01

362

Adverse effects of isoniazid preventative therapy for latent tuberculosis infection: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Isoniazid preventative therapy (IPT) is a widely used intervention for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), particularly in patients at high risk for reactivation. While treatment-limiting adverse effects have been well studied, few prospective studies have considered the range of adverse effects that patients may experience with IPT. Methods All patients commencing treatment for LTBI were prospectively enrolled in an ongoing database of LTBI treatment outcomes particularly related to adverse effects, treatment adherence, and treatment completion. Results Data on the first 100 patients who were prescribed IPT are presented. Fifty-six patients reported at least one adverse effect at some stage during treatment, with six experiencing at least one World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3–4 adverse effect. Increased age was significantly associated with risk of adverse effects (odds ratio [OR] =1.05 per year; confidence interval [CI] of 1.02–1.08=95%). Eighty-five patients had documented completion of therapy locally, with ten patients ceasing IPT due to adverse effects. Discussion This report highlights a variety of somatic adverse effects that occurred in a real-world cohort of patients receiving IPT. While adverse effects were frequently identified in this study, the considerable majority were low grade and transient. Despite frequent adverse effects of LTBI in our treatment cohort, the study demonstrated high levels of treatment adherence and completion. PMID:25364275

Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S; Eisen, Damon P; Penington, Jocelyn S; Chen, Caroline; Street, Alan C

2014-01-01

363

Impact of tamsulosin exposure on late complications following cataract surgery: retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to measure the impact of tamsulosin intake on five postoperative cataract surgery complications (toxic anterior segment syndrome, rebound uveitis, retinal detachment, macular edema, and postoperative endophthalmitis). This retrospective cohort study was conducted at University Hospital of Henares. The study included 660-eyes of 660 patients submitted to cataract surgery at the ophthalmology unit of Hospital del Henares (Madrid) between 2 March 2009 and 28 February 2010. Extracapsular cataract extraction, combined glaucoma and cataract surgery phacovitrectomy, posterior capsule rupture and zonular damage were considered exclusion criteria. Clinical charts were reviewed during July 2012. Patients were divided in two groups (exposed and non-exposed to tamsulosin). Cumulative incidence of toxic anterior segment syndrome, rebound uveitis, retinal detachment, macular edema and postoperative endophthalmitis were compared in both groups. Rebound uveitis (relative risk [RR] 3.39; confidence interval [CI] 1.63-7.08) and macular edema (RR 4.15; CI 1.06-16.22) were more common in the tamsulosin-exposed group. Retinal detachment had a similar incidence in both groups. We observed no cases of endophthalmitis or toxic anterior segment syndrome in either of the two groups. Tamsulosin exposure in this cohort was associated with a higher risk of rebound uveitis and macular edema but the other three studied postoperative complications had a similar incidence in both groups. PMID:24158613

González-Martín-Moro, Julio; González-López, Julio José; Gómez-Sanz, Fernando; Zarallo-Gallardo, Jesús; Cobo-Soriano, Rosario

2014-08-01

364

Methods of Analysis of Enteropathogen Infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes. PMID:25305292

Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

2014-11-01

365

The frequency of rehospitalization and associated factors in Colombian psychiatric patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The rehospitalization of patients with mental disorders is common, with rehospitalization rates of up to 80% observed in these patients. This phenomenon negatively impacts families, patients, and the health care system. Several factors have been associated with an increased likelihood of rehospitalization. This study was aimed at determining the frequency and the factors associated with rehospitalization in a psychiatric clinic. Methods We performed a prospective cohort study with 361 patients who were hospitalized at the Clinic of Our Lady of Peace in Bogota, Colombia from August-December 2009. We calculated the incidence rates of rehospitalization and the risk factors using Cox regression. Results Overall, 60% of the patients in this cohort were rehospitalized during the year that followed the index event. The variables associated with rehospitalization were separated, divorced, or single status; higher socio-economic strata; a longer duration of index hospitalization; and a diagnosis of substance abuse, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or depression. Conclusions The rehospitalization rate in our study was as high as reported in other studies. The associated factors with it in this group, may contribute to the design of programs that will reduce the frequency of rehospitalization among patients with mental disorders, in countries like Colombia. Additionally, these results may be useful in interventions, such as coping skills training, psycho-education, and community care strategies, which have been demonstrated to reduce the frequency of rehospitalization. PMID:24888262

2014-01-01

366

What Are the Health Benefits of Active Travel? A Systematic Review of Trials and Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling) has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. Methods The study design was a systematic review of (i) non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii) prospective observational studies examining either (a) the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b) the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. Results Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. Conclusions Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such interventions should include an assessment of their impacts on obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:23967064

Saunders, Lucinda E.; Green, Judith M.; Petticrew, Mark P.; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen

2013-01-01

367

Individual asbestos exposure: smoking and mortality--a cohort study in the asbestos cement industry.  

PubMed Central

A historical prospective cohort study comprised all persons employed from 1950 to 1981 for at least three years in the oldest asbestos cement factory in the world. From 2816 persons eligible for the study, record based estimates and measurements of dust and fibres and histories of smoking based on interviews were used to calculate individual exposures over time. After observation of 51,218 person-years and registration of 540 deaths, underlying causes of death for this cohort were compared with those for the regional population on the basis of death certificates. Deaths from lung cancer in asbestos cement workers were higher (standard mortality ratio (SMR) 1.7), but after adjustment for age and sex specific smoking habits this was not significant (SMR 1.04). The study had a probability of greater than 92% of detecting a smoking adjusted SMR of 1.5 or more. Using the best available evidence (including necropsy records) 52 deaths were assigned to lung cancer and five to mesothelioma. Life table analyses confirmed the predominant influence of smoking on lung cancer. Mesothelioma was associated with the use of crocidolite in pipe production. From present working conditions with much lower concentrations of chrysotile and no crocidolite no more occupational cancers are expected in the asbestos cement industry. PMID:2169860

Neuberger, M; Kundi, M

1990-01-01

368

The Jerusalem Perinatal Study cohort, 1964-2005: methods and a review of the main results  

PubMed Central

Summary The Jerusalem Perinatal Study recorded information on population-based cohorts of 92 408 live- and stillbirths in 1964–76, and their parents, with active surveillance of infant deaths and birth defects. Data on maternal conditions, obstetric complications and interventions during labour and delivery were recorded for 92% of the births. Subsets were surveyed with antenatal interviews in 1965–68 (n = 11 467), paediatric admissions to hospital (n = 17 782) and postpartum interviews in 1975–76 (n = 16 912). Data from some offspring were linked to records of a health examination at age 17. The offspring, mothers and fathers have been traced recently, their vital status assessed, and the data linked to Israel’s Cancer Registry and Psychiatric Registry. This paper describes the different types of data available, their sources, and some potential biases. Characteristics of this unique population are shown. Findings from the study are reviewed and a list of references is provided. The cohorts provide a unique source of data for a wide variety of studies. PMID:17439536

Harlap, Susan; Davies, A. Michael; Deutsch, Lisa; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Manor, Orly; Paltiel, Ora; Tiram, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Perrin, Mary C.; Terry, Mary B.; Malaspina, Dolores; Friedlander, Yechiel

2010-01-01

369

Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR ratio of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users. PMID:23788669

Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Allan; Frei, Patrizia; Kjaear, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Schüz, Joachim

2013-07-15

370

Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.  

PubMed

Inconsistent information exists in the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and perinatal outcomes. This study was intended to investigate whether OSA in pregnant women has a potential to elevate the incidence of the maternal and neonatal outcomes by performing a meta-analysis of all available cohort studies. Five cohort studies including 977 participants were eligible for inclusion. The association between OSA and the risk of perinatal outcomes was expressed as relative risks (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Our results revealed that OSA group was associated with more frequent preeclampsia (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.86), preterm birth (RR 1.90; 95%CI 1.24 to 2.91), cesarean delivery (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.29) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 2.65; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.76). On analyzing data for the prevalence of gestational diabetes and small gestational age (SGA) < 10th percentile (RR 1.40; 95% CI 0.62 to 3.19, and RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.33 to1.24, respectively), there were no significant differences in both group. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that OSA in pregnant women significantly increases the incidence of maternal and neonatal outcomes, which is associated with more frequent preeclampsia, preterm birth, cesarean delivery and NICU admission. PMID:25382105

Xu, Ting; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Hui; Guo, Dongying; Li, Taoping

2014-01-01

371

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Perinatal Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Inconsistent information exists in the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and perinatal outcomes. This study was intended to investigate whether OSA in pregnant women has a potential to elevate the incidence of the maternal and neonatal outcomes by performing a meta-analysis of all available cohort studies. Five cohort studies including 977 participants were eligible for inclusion. The association between OSA and the risk of perinatal outcomes was expressed as relative risks (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Our results revealed that OSA group was associated with more frequent preeclampsia (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.86), preterm birth (RR 1.90; 95%CI 1.24 to 2.91), cesarean delivery (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.29) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 2.65; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.76). On analyzing data for the prevalence of gestational diabetes and small gestational age (SGA) < 10th percentile (RR 1.40; 95% CI 0.62 to 3.19, and RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.33 to1.24, respectively), there were no significant differences in both group. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that OSA in pregnant women significantly increases the incidence of maternal and neonatal outcomes, which is associated with more frequent preeclampsia, preterm birth, cesarean delivery and NICU admission. PMID:25382105

Xu, Ting; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Hui; Guo, Dongying; Li, Taoping

2014-01-01

372

A retrospective cohort study of leukemia and other cancers in benzene workers  

SciTech Connect

A retrospective cohort study was carried out in 1982-1983 among 28,460 benzene-exposed workers (15,643 males, 12,817 females) from 233 factories and 28,257 control workers (16,621 males, 12,366 females) from 83 factories in 12 large cities in China. All-cause mortality was significantly higher among the exposed than among the unexposed, as was mortality from all malignant neoplasms. For certain cancers, increased mortality was noted among benzene-exposed males in comparison with that among unexposed males; the standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were elevated for leukemia, lung cancer, primary hepatocarcinoma, and stomach cancer. For females only leukemia occurred in excess among the exposed. Risk of leukemia rose as duration to exposure to benzene increased up to 15 years, and then declined with additional years of exposure. Leukemia occurred among some workers with as little as 6 to 10 ppm average exposure and 50 ppm-years (or possibly less) cumulative lifetime exposure. During 1972 to 1981, the annual incidence of leukemia ranged from 5.83 to 28.33 per 100,000 with higher rates occurring in the interval 1977 to 1981 than in the earlier years of the study period. Future studies should evaluate more precisely the relationship between exposure levels, job title, and development of leukemia among cases and noncases within the exposed cohort.

Yin, S.N.; Li, G.L.; Tain, F.D.; Fu, Z.I.; Jin, C. (Chinese Academy of Preventive Medicine, Beijing (China)); Chen, Y.J. (Station for Health and Prevention of Infection of Shanghai (China)); Luo, S.J. (Station for Health and Prevention of Infection of Sichuan (China)); Ye, P.Z. (Station for Health and Prevention of Infection of Tianjin (China)); Zhang, J.Z. (Station for Health and Prevention of Infection of Nanchang (China)); Wang, G.C. (China Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Disease of Heilongjing (China)); Zhang, X.C. (China Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Disease of Shenyang (China)); Wu, H.N. (China Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Disease of Helan (China)); Zhong, Q.C. (China Institute for Prevention and Treatment of Occupational Disease of Guangzhou (China))

1989-07-01

373

Use and Safety of Anthroposophic Medications for Acute Respiratory and Ear Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections. Methods A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged ?1 month, treated by anthroposophic physicians for acute otitis and respiratory infections. Physicians’ prescription data and patient reports of adverse events were analyzed. Main outcome measures were use of AMED and ADR to AMED. Results Two patients had confirmed ADR to AMED: 1) swelling and redness at the injection site after subcutaneous injections of Prunus spinosa 5%, 2) sleeplessness after intake of Pneumodoron® 2 liquid. These ADR lasted one and two days respectively; both subsided after dose reduction; none were unexpected; none were serious. The frequency of confirmed ADR to AMED was 0.61% (2/327) of all different AMED used, 0.28% (2/715) of patients, and 0.004% (3/73,443) of applications. Conclusion In this prospective study, anthroposophic medications used by primary care patients with acute respiratory or ear infections were well tolerated. PMID:21901075

Hamre, Harald J.; Glockmann, Anja; Fischer, Michael; Riley, David S.; Baars, Erik; Kiene, Helmut

2007-01-01

374

SHOCK WAVE LITHOTRIPSY AND DIABETES MELLITUS: A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES The pancreas is vulnerable to injury at the time of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) as evidenced by case studies; thus, concern exists for the development of diabetes mellitus following SWL. Since previous studies may have been limited by referral and detection biases, the current study was completed in a population-based cohort. METHODS The Rochester Epidemiologic Project (REP) was used to identify all Olmsted County, Minnesota residents diagnosed with urolithiasis from 1985 to 2008. New onset diabetes was identified by diagnostic codes and treatment with SWL by surgical codes. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the risk of diabetes following SWL therapy. RESULTS There were 5,287 incident stone formers without pre-existing diabetes and with at least 3 months of follow-up. After an average follow-up of 8.7 years, 423 patients (8%) were treated with SWL and new onset diabetes developed in 743 (12%). The diagnosis of diabetes followed SWL in 77 patients. However, there was no evident association between SWL and the development of diabetes before (HR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.76 to 1.26) or after (HR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.71 to 1.18) controlling for age, gender, and obesity. CONCLUSION In this large, population-based cohort, the long-term risk for developing diabetes was not increased in persons who received SWL to treat their kidney stones. PMID:22088569

de Cogain, Mitra; Krambeck, Amy E.; Rule, Andrew D.; Li, Xujian; Bergstralh, Eric J.; Gettman, Matthew T.; Lieske, John C.

2011-01-01

375

Long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a Danish nationwide cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term mortality and causes of death in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) are poorly documented. In this study, long-term mortality and causes of death in PTB and EPTB patients were compared with the background population and it was investigated whether mortality was associated with family-related risk factors. Methods A nationwide cohort study was conducted including: all adult Danes notified with PTB or EPTB from 1977 to 2008 and alive 1 year after diagnosis; a randomly selected comparison cohort matched on birth date and sex; adult siblings of PTB patients; and population controls. Data were extracted from national registries. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios were calculated for patients and siblings and compared with their respective control cohorts. A total of 8,291 patients (6,402 PTB and 1,889 EPTB), 24,873 population controls, 1,990 siblings of PTB patients and 11,679 siblings of PTB population controls were included. Results Overall, the mortality rate ratio was 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77–1.96) for PTB patients and 1.24 (95% CI 1.12–1.37) for EPTB patients. Both patient cohorts had significantly increased risk of death due to infectious diseases and diabetes. Further, the PTB patients had increased mortality due to cancers (mainly respiratory and gastrointestinal tract), liver and respiratory system diseases, and alcohol and drug abuse. The PTB patients had increased mortality compared with their siblings (mortality rate ratio 3.55; 95% CI 2.57–4.91) as did the siblings of the PTB patients compared with the siblings of population controls (mortality rate ratio 2.16; 95% CI 1.62–2.87). Conclusion We conclude that adult PTB patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality whereas EPTB patients have a slightly increased long-term mortality compared with the background population. The increased long-term mortality in PTB patients stems from diseases associated with alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse as well as immune suppression, and family-related factors.

Christensen, Anne-Sophie Halkjær; Roed, Casper; Andersen, Peter H; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Obel, Niels

2014-01-01

376

A Case-Control Study of Lung Cancer Nested in a Cohort of European Asphalt Workers  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a nested case–control study in a cohort of European asphalt workers in which an increase in lung cancer risk has been reported among workers exposed to airborne bitumen fume, although potential bias and confounding were not fully addressed. Objective We investigated the contribution of exposure to bitumen, other occupational agents, and tobacco smoking to the risk of lung cancer among asphalt workers. Methods Cases were cohort members in Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, and Israel who had died of lung cancer between 1980 and the end of follow-up (2002–2005). Controls were individually matched in a 3:1 ratio to cases on year of birth and country. We derived exposure estimates for bitumen fume and condensate, organic vapor, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as well as for asbestos, crystalline silica, diesel motor exhaust, and coal tar. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated for ever-exposure, duration, average exposure, and cumulative exposure after adjusting for tobacco smoking and exposure to coal tar. Results A total of 433 cases and 1,253 controls were included in the analysis. The OR was 1.12 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.84–1.49] for inhalation exposure to bitumen fume and 1.17 (95% CI, 0.88–1.56) for dermal exposure to bitumen condensate. No significant trend was observed between lung cancer risk and duration, average exposure, or cumulative exposure to bitumen fume or condensate. Conclusions We found no consistent evidence of an association between indicators of either inhalation or dermal exposure to bitumen and lung cancer risk. A sizable proportion of the excess mortality from lung cancer relative to the general population observed in the earlier cohort phase is likely attributable to high tobacco consumption and possibly to coal tar exposure, whereas other occupational agents do not appear to play an important role. PMID:20529766

Olsson, Ann; Kromhout, Hans; Agostini, Michela; Hansen, Johnni; Lassen, Christina Funch; Johansen, Christoffer; Kjaerheim, Kristina; Langard, Sverre; Stucker, Isabelle; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Behrens, Thomas; Lindbohm, Marja-Liisa; Heikkila, Pirjo; Heederik, Dick; Portengen, Lutzen; Shaham, Judith; Ferro, Gilles; de Vocht, Frank; Burstyn, Igor; Boffetta, Paolo

2010-01-01

377

Establishment of the MAL-ED Birth Cohort Study Site in Vellore, Southern India.  

PubMed

The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children. PMID:25305300

John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep

2014-11-01

378

Body Mass Index and Attempted Suicide: Cohort Study of 1,133,019 Swedish Men  

PubMed Central

Associations between body mass index (BMI) and attempted (nonfatal) suicide have recently been reported. However, the few existing studies are relatively small in scale, the majority cross-sectional, and results contradictory. The authors have explored BMI–attempted suicide associations in a large cohort of 1,133,019 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1976, with BMI measured in early adulthood. During a mean follow-up of 23.9 years, a total of 18,277 (1.6%) men had at least 1 hospital admission for attempted suicide. After adjustment for confounding factors, there was a stepwise, linear decrease in attempted suicide with increasing BMI across the full BMI range (per standard deviation increase in BMI, hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.94). Analyses excluding men with depression at baseline were essentially identical to those based on the complete cohort. In men free from depression at baseline, controlling for subsequent depression slightly attenuated the raised risk of attempted suicide, particularly in lower weight men. This study suggests that lower weight men have an increased risk of attempted suicide and that associations may extend into the “normal” BMI range. PMID:20829269

Batty, G. David; Whitley, Elise; Kivimaki, Mika; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

2010-01-01

379

Hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly: an Australian case-cohort study.  

PubMed

This study describes the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in elderly Australians for the first time. Using a case-cohort design, cases with CAP were in-patients aged > or = 65 years with ICD-10-AM codes J10-J18 admitted over 2 years to two tertiary hospitals. The cohort sample was randomly selected from all hospital discharges, frequency-matched to cases by month. Logistic regression was used to estimate risk ratios for factors predicting CAP or associated mortality. A total of 4772 in-patients were studied. There were 1952 cases with CAP that represented 4% of all elderly admissions: mean length of stay was 9.0 days and 30-day mortality was 18%. Excluding chest radiograph, 520/1864 (28%) cases had no investigations performed. The strongest predictors of CAP were previous pneumonia, history of other respiratory disease, and aspiration. Intensive-care-unit admission, renal disease and increasing age were the strongest predictors of mortality, while influenza vaccination conferred protection. Hospitalization with CAP in the elderly is common, frequently fatal and a considerable burden to the Australian community. Investigation is ad hoc and management empirical. Influenza vaccination is associated with reduced mortality. Patient characteristics can predict risk of CAP and subsequent mortality. PMID:18559126

Skull, S A; Andrews, R M; Byrnes, G B; Campbell, D A; Kelly, H A; Brown, G V; Nolan, T M

2009-02-01

380

Iodine supplementation during pregnancy and infant neuropsychological development. INMA Mother and Child Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Iodine supplementation during pregnancy is a common practice in developed countries. However, scant evidence is available regarding the safety and effectiveness of maternal iodine supplementation with regard to child neuropsychological development. We previously reported an inverse association between iodine supplementation and the psychomotor development of infants in a birth cohort from Valencia, Spain. In the present study, we assessed this association in a wider sample of mother and child pairs from 3 other regions in Spain. Neuropsychological development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development in 1,519 infants (median age, 16 months) between 2006 and 2009. In multivariate analyses, maternal consumption of 150 ?g/day or more of iodine from supplements was related to a 1.5-fold increase in the odds of a psychomotor score less than 85 (95% confidence interval: 0.8, 2.9) and to a 1.7-fold increase in the odds of a mental score less than 85 (95% confidence interval: 0.9, 3.0). Findings previously reported in the Valencia cohort were only partially verified. The results of the present study suggest that, at least in these regions, iodine supplementation does not improve infant neuropsychological development at 1 year of age. Further research is needed on the risks and benefits of supplementary iodine for both maternal thyroid function and child neurodevelopment. PMID:23548753

Rebagliato, Marisa; Murcia, Mario; Alvarez-Pedrerol, Mar; Espada, Mercedes; Fernández-Somoano, Ana; Lertxundi, Nerea; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva-María; Forns, Joan; Aranbarri, Aritz; Llop, Sabrina; Julvez, Jordi; Tardón, Adonina; Ballester, Ferran

2013-05-01

381

Caffeine intake is associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline: a cohort study from Portugal.  

PubMed

Alzheimer's disease has emerged in recent decades as a major health problem and the role of lifestyles in the modulation of risk has been increasingly recognized. Recent epidemiological studies suggest a protective effect for caffeine intake in dementia. We aimed to quantify the association between caffeine dietary intake and cognitive decline, in a cohort of adults living in Porto. A cohort of 648 subjects aged > or =65 years was recruited between 1999-2003. Follow-up evaluation (2005-2008) was carried out on 58.2% of the eligible participants and 10.9% were deceased. Caffeine exposure in the year preceding baseline evaluation was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Cognitive evaluation consisted of baseline and follow-up Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cognitive decline was defined by a decrease > or =2 points in the MMSE score between evaluations. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI) estimates adjusted for age, education, smoking, alcohol drinking, body mass index, hypertension, and diabetes were computed using Poisson regression. Caffeine intake (> 62 mg/day [3rd third] vs. < 22 mg/day [1st third]) was associated with a lower risk of cognitive decline in women (RR=0.49, 95%CI 0.24-0.97), but not significantly in men (RR=0.65, 95%CI 0.27-1.54). Our study confirms the negative association between caffeine and cognitive decline in women. PMID:20182036

Santos, Catarina; Lunet, Nuno; Azevedo, Ana; de Mendonça, Alexandre; Ritchie, Karen; Barros, Henrique

2010-01-01

382

In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys: a pregnancy cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. Setting Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. Participants Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. Primary and secondary outcome measures Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. Results We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ?5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3?months (95% CI ?2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9?months (95% CI ?0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. Conclusions We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further. PMID:24916086

Hakonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise; Hounsgaard, Marie Louise; Olsen, J?rn; Ernst, Andreas; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H?st

2014-01-01

383

Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. Design A prospective population-based study. Setting In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. Participants 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. Primary outcome measure The risk of dementia during the 20?years of follow-up. Results Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20?years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (?=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; p<0.03). Conclusions A possible beneficial effect of board game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players. PMID:23988362

Dartigues, Jean Francois; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Melanie; Viltard, Melanie; Amieva, Helene; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

2013-01-01

384

The cohort of young Danish farmers - A longitudinal study of the health effects of farming exposure  

PubMed Central

Working in agriculture poses a serious risk for development of respiratory diseases, especially when working in animal housing. Animal workers are exposed to a mixture of organic and inorganic dust together with fumes and gases, including allergens and microbial-associated molecular patterns with a potentially major impact on respiratory health and the immune system. Exposure to microbial agents in animal housing is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, accelerated lung function decline, and neutrophil-mediated inflammation. These clinical findings are often seen without IgE-mediated sensitization. In fact it has been found in recent studies that the prevalence of atopic sensitization and atopic asthma is low among farmers compared with other populations. The SUS study was designed to identify the type and occurrence of respiratory symptoms and disease, and to investigate risk factors for respiratory disorders and changes in lung function among young farming students. The cohort of young Danish farmers was established in 1992/1994 and followed up in 2007/2008 with a participation rate of 51.7%. The cohort consists of 1734 male farming students, 230 female farming students, and 407 army recruits as controls. PMID:20865102

Elholm, Grethe; Omland, ?yvind; Schlunssen, Vivi; Hjort, Charlotte; Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben

2010-01-01

385

Mortality study of civilian employees exposed to contaminated drinking water at USMC Base Camp Lejeune: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Two drinking water systems at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina were contaminated with solvents during 1950s-1985. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of 4,647 civilian, full-time workers employed at Camp Lejeune during 1973–1985 and potentially exposed to contaminated drinking water. We selected a comparison cohort of 4,690 Camp Pendleton workers employed during 1973–1985 and unexposed to contaminated drinking water. Mortality follow-up period was 1979-2008. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios utilized U.S. age-, sex-, race-, and calendar period-specific mortality rates as reference. We used survival analysis to compare mortality rates between Camp Lejeune and Camp Pendleton workers and assess the effects of estimated cumulative contaminant exposures within the Camp Lejeune cohort. Ground water contaminant fate/transport and distribution system models provided monthly estimated contaminant levels in drinking water serving workplaces at Camp Lejeune. The confidence interval (CI) indicated precision of effect estimates. Results Compared to Camp Pendleton, Camp Lejeune workers had mortality hazard ratios (HRs) >1.50 for kidney cancer (HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 0.58, 6.34), leukemias (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.66, 3.84), multiple myeloma (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 0.45, 7.58), rectal cancer (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 0.36, 7.44), oral cavity cancers (HR = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.34, 10.81), and Parkinson’s disease (HR = 3.13, 95% CI: 0.76, 12.81). Within the Camp Lejeune cohort, monotonic exposure-response relationships were observed for leukemia and vinyl chloride and PCE, with mortality HRs at the high exposure category of 1.72 (95% CI: 0.33, 8.83) and 1.82 (95% CI: 0.36, 9.32), respectively. Cumulative exposures were above the median for most deaths from cancers of the kidney, esophagus, rectum, prostate, and Parkinson’s disease, but small numbers precluded evaluation of exposure-response relationships. Conclusion The study found elevated HRs in the Camp Lejeune cohort for several causes of death including cancers of the kidney, rectum, oral cavity, leukemias, multiple myeloma, and Parkinson’s disease. Only 14% of the Camp Lejeune cohort died by end of follow-up, producing small numbers of cause-specific deaths and wide CIs. Additional follow-up would be necessary to comprehensively assess drinking water exposure effects at the base. PMID:25115749

2014-01-01

386

Gene expression analyses in breast cancer epidemiology: the Norwegian Women and Cancer postgenome cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The introduction of high-throughput technologies, also called -omics technologies, into epidemiology has raised the need for high-quality observational studies to reduce several sources of error and bias. Methods The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) postgenome cohort study consists of approximately 50,000 women born between 1943 and 1957 who gave blood samples between 2003 and 2006 and filled out a two-page questionnaire. Blood was collected in such a way that RNA is preserved and can be used for gene expression analyses. The women are part of the NOWAC study consisting of 172,471 women 30 to 70 years of age at recruitment from 1991 to 2006 who answered one to three questionnaires on diet, medication use, and lifestyle. In collaboration with the Norwegian Breast Cancer Group, every NOWAC participant born between 1943 and 1957 who is admitted to a collaborating hospital for a diagnostic biopsy or for surgery of breast cancer will be asked to donate a tumor biopsy and two blood samples. In parallel, at least three controls are approached for each breast cancer case in order to obtain blood samples from at least two controls per case. The controls are drawn at random from NOWAC matched by time of follow-up and age. In addition, 400 normal breast tissues as well as blood samples will be collected among healthy women participating at the Norwegian Mammography Screening program at the Breast Imaging Center at the University Hospital of North-Norway, Tromsø. Results The NOWAC postgenome cohort offers a unique opportunity (a) to study blood-derived gene expression profiles as a diagnostic test for breast cancer in a nested case-control design with adjustment for confounding factors related to different exposures, (b) to improve the reliability and accuracy of this approach by adjusting for an individual's genotype (for example, variants in genes coding for hormone and drug-metabolizing and detoxifying enzymes), (c) to study gene expression profiles from peripheral blood as surrogate tissue to biomonitor defined exposure (for example, hormone) and its association with disease risk (that is, breast cancer), and (d) to study gene variants (single nucleotide polymorphisms and copy number variations) and environmental exposure (endogenous and exogenous hormones) and their influence on the incidence of different molecular subtypes of breast cancer. Conclusion The NOWAC postgenome cohort combining a valid epidemiological approach with richness of biological samples should make an important contribution to the study of the etiology and system biology of breast cancer. PMID:18271962

Dumeaux, Vanessa; B?rresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Frantzen, Jan-Ole; Kumle, Merethe; Kristensen, Vessela N; Lund, Eiliv

2008-01-01

387

The Treaty of Amsterdam: The Next Step Towards Gender Equality?  

Microsoft Academic Search

This Article explores the evolution of the European Union's effort to achieve gender equality in employment and the impact of the Amsterdam Treaty on this effort. It examines the developments of the European Union, the legislation promulgated to promote equality between men and women in employment, and the decisions of the European Court of Justice in relation to such legislation.

Elizabeth F Defeis

1999-01-01

388

Amsterdam in Bloom: An Inner City School Garden Project  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the author describes the educational potential of a garden project. When the opportunity to visit a school in Amsterdam arose as part of her primary science PGCE course, the author jumped at the chance to experience science learning in another country. The majority of teaching that took place was topic-based, and science was…

McFadyen, Elen

2004-01-01

389

UNIVERSITEIT VAN AMSTERDAM INSTITUTE FOR LOGIC, LANGUAGE AND COMPUTATION  

E-print Network

UNIVERSITEIT VAN AMSTERDAM INSTITUTE FOR LOGIC, LANGUAGE AND COMPUTATION Core Logic 2007/2008; 1st die of old age" after the birth cycle. Which of the two formalizations would you choose information was "10% of all old sheep die of old age"? Discuss. (1 point) #12;2 Give a precise definition

Löwe, Benedikt

390

Computation as Conversation Johan van Benthem, Amsterdam & Stanford, July 2006  

E-print Network

on Science. 1 Imagine 60 children aged aged around 8 sitting in a small amphitheatre ­ with parents present for children, and logical dynamics The Amsterdam Science Museum NEMO organizes regular Kids' Lectures or upsetting them? Was there anything in common between children that age and the abstractions that drive one

Amsterdam, University of

391

Assessment of Environmental Enteropathy in the MAL-ED Cohort Study: Theoretical and Analytic Framework.  

PubMed

Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

2014-11-01

392

Participation in sports clubs is a strong predictor of injury hospitalization: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate the nature and risk factors of injuries leading to hospitalization. A cohort of 57 407 Finns aged 14-18 years was followed in the Hospital Discharge Register for an average of 10.6 years, totaling 608 990 person-years. We identified 5889 respondents (10.3%) with injury hospitalization. The most common anatomical location was the knee and shin (23.9%), followed by the head and neck (17.8%), and the ankle and foot (16.7%). Fractures (30.4%) and distortions (25.4%) were the most common injury types. The strongest risk factor for injury hospitalization was frequent participation in sports clubs [hazard ratio (HR) in males 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.7-2.0 and in females 2.3; 95% CI: 1.9-2.7], followed by recurring drunkenness (HR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.4-2.7 in males and 1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6 in females) and daily smoking (HR 1.4; 95% CI: 1.3-1.5 in males and 1.43 95% CI: 1.2-1.5 in females). The association between injuries and sports clubs participation remained after adjusting for sociodemographic background, health, and health behaviors. Health behavior in adolescence, particularly sports club activity, predicted injury hospitalization. Preventive interventions directed toward adolescents who participate in sports clubs may decrease injury occurrence. PMID:18435690

Mattila, V M; Parkkari, J; Koivusilta, L; Kannus, P; Rimpelä, A

2009-04-01

393

Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study  

PubMed Central

Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

2013-01-01

394

Vitamin D deficiency and sudden unexpected death in infancy and childhood: a cohort study.  

PubMed

We sought to (1) determine if there is an increased prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (VDD) in cases of sudden death in infancy and childhood; (2) establish whether there is a link between VDD and infection; and (3) assess if the level of vitamin D can be related to abnormalities in the skeletal survey and rib histology in our cohort. The postmortem reports of cases in which vitamin D levels were measured in 2009 and 2010 were retrieved. When parental consent for audit had been granted, rib histology and skeletal surveys were reviewed. Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were measured in 41 postmortem cases. Ten (24.5%) had adequate levels, 5 (12%) had suboptimal levels, 16 (39%) had moderate deficiency, and 10 (24.5%) had severe deficiency. We had only 4 cases with VDD and infection. There were 25 cases of unexplained death in our cohort, and 76% of these had inadequate vitamin D levels. The rib histology was abnormal in 69% of cases that had inadequate vitamin D levels, while the radiology was abnormal in 19% of cases. A significant proportion of infants and children who died suddenly and unexpectedly had inadequate levels of vitamin D. We were unable to confirm or exclude an association between VDD and infection due to the small number of cases with confirmed infection. Further multicenter studies are needed to confirm our findings and explore possible associations between VDD and other known risk factors for sudden unexplained death in infancy and childhood. PMID:23600989

Cohen, Marta C; Offiah, Amaka; Sprigg, Alan; Al-Adnani, Mudher

2013-01-01

395

Road Traffic Noise and Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. Methods In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993–1997, we identified 1600 cases of first-ever MI between enrolment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.8 years. Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution from 1988 to 2006 was estimated for all cohort members from residential address history. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident MI were analysed in a Cox regression model with adjustment for air pollution (NOx) and other potential confounders: age, sex, education, lifestyle confounders, railway and airport noise. Results We found that residential exposure to road traffic noise (Lden) was significantly associated with MI, with an incidence rate ratio IRR of 1.12 per 10 dB for both of the two exposure windows: yearly exposure at the time of diagnosis (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.22) and 5-years time-weighted mean (95% CI: 1.02–1.23) preceding the diagnosis. Visualizing of the results using restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response relationship. Conclusions Exposure to long-term residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk for MI, in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22745727

S?rensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J.; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Jensen, Steen S.; Lillelund, Kenneth G.; Beelen, Rob; Schmidt, Erik B.; Tj?nneland, Anne

2012-01-01

396

Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires in May 2008 (baseline) and May 2009 (follow-up). We also asked about mobile and cordless phone use and asked study participants for consent to obtain their mobile phone connection data from the mobile phone operators. Exposure to environmental RF-EMF was computed for each study participant using a previously developed and validated prediction model. In a nested sample of 119 study participants, RF-EMF exposure was measured in the bedroom and data on sleep behavior was collected by means of actigraphy during two weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results In the longitudinal analyses neither operator-recorded nor self-reported mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness. Also, exposure to environmental RF-EMF did not affect self-reported sleep quality. The results from the longitudinal analyses were confirmed in the nested sleep study with objectively recorded exposure and measured sleep behavior data. Conclusions We did not find evidence for adverse effects on sleep quality from RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. PMID:22624036

Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Frohlich, Jurg; Braun-Fahrlander, Charlotte; Roosli, Martin

2012-01-01

397

VTE Risk assessment - a prognostic Model: BATER Cohort Study of young women.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Community-based cohort studies are not available that evaluated the predictive power of both clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is, however, clinical need to forecast the likelihood of future occurrence of VTE, at least qualitatively, to support decisions about intensity of diagnostic or preventive measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-year observation period of the Bavarian Thromboembolic Risk (BATER) study, a cohort study of 4337 women (18-55 years), was used to develop a predictive model of VTE based on clinical and genetic variables at baseline (1993). The objective was to prepare a probabilistic scheme that discriminates women with virtually no VTE risk from those at higher levels of absolute VTE risk in the foreseeable future. A multivariate analysis determined which variables at baseline were the best predictors of a future VTE event, provided a ranking according to the predictive power, and permitted to design a simple graphic scheme to assess the individual VTE risk using five predictor variables. RESULTS: Thirty-four new confirmed VTEs occurred during the observation period of over 32,000 women-years (WYs). A model was developed mainly based on clinical information (personal history of previous VTE and family history of VTE, age, BMI) and one composite genetic risk markers (combining Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation). Four levels of increasing VTE risk were arbitrarily defined to map the prevalence in the study population: No/low risk of VTE (61.3%), moderate risk (21.1%), high risk (6.0%), very high risk of future VTE (0.9%). In 10.6% of the population the risk assessment was not possible due to lacking VTE cases. The average incidence rates for VTE in these four levels were: 4.1, 12.3, 47.2, and 170.5 per 104 WYs for no, moderate, high, and very high risk, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our prognostic tool - containing clinical information (and if available also genetic data) - seems to be worthwhile testing in medical practice in order to confirm or refute the positive findings of this study. Our cohort study will be continued to include more VTE cases and to increase predictive value of the model. PMID:15836797

Heinemann, Lothar Aj; Dominh, Thai; Assmann, Anita; Schramm, Wolfgang; Schürmann, Rolf; Hilpert, Jan; Spannagl, Michael

2005-04-18

398

VTE Risk assessment - a prognostic Model: BATER Cohort Study of young women  

PubMed Central

Background Community-based cohort studies are not available that evaluated the predictive power of both clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is, however, clinical need to forecast the likelihood of future occurrence of VTE, at least qualitatively, to support decisions about intensity of diagnostic or preventive measures. Materials and methods A 10-year observation period of the Bavarian Thromboembolic Risk (BATER) study, a cohort study of 4337 women (18–55 years), was used to develop a predictive model of VTE based on clinical and genetic variables at baseline (1993). The objective was to prepare a probabilistic scheme that discriminates women with virtually no VTE risk from those at higher levels of absolute VTE risk in the foreseeable future. A multivariate analysis determined which variables at baseline were the best predictors of a future VTE event, provided a ranking according to the predictive power, and permitted to design a simple graphic scheme to assess the individual VTE risk using five predictor variables. Results Thirty-four new confirmed VTEs occurred during the observation period of over 32,000 women-years (WYs). A model was developed mainly based on clinical information (personal history of previous VTE and family history of VTE, age, BMI) and one composite genetic risk markers (combining Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation). Four levels of increasing VTE risk were arbitrarily defined to map the prevalence in the study population: No/low risk of VTE (61.3%), moderate risk (21.1%), high risk (6.0%), very high risk of future VTE (0.9%). In 10.6% of the population the risk assessment was not possible due to lacking VTE cases. The average incidence rates for VTE in these four levels were: 4.1, 12.3, 47.2, and 170.5 per 104 WYs for no, moderate, high, and very high risk, respectively. Conclusion Our prognostic tool – containing clinical information (and if available also genetic data) – seems to be worthwhile testing in medical practice in order to confirm or refute the positive findings of this study. Our cohort study will be continued to include more VTE cases and to increase predictive value of the model. PMID:15836797

Heinemann, Lothar AJ; DoMinh, Thai; Assmann, Anita; Schramm, Wolfgang; Schurmann, Rolf; Hilpert, Jan; Spannagl, Michael

2005-01-01

399

Endometrial and ovarian cancer and oral contraceptives--findings in a large cohort study.  

PubMed Central

Many case-control studies have shown that oral contraceptives protect against endometrial cancer and epithelial ovarian cancer, but little information is available from cohort studies. The findings from the Oxford Family Planning Association contraceptive study are reported here; the relative risks for ever users of oral contraceptives in comparison with never users were 0.1 (95% confidence interval 0.0-0.7) for endometrial cancer and 0.4 (95% confidence interval 0.2-0.8) for ovarian cancer. There was a strong negative relationship between duration of oral contraceptive use and ovarian cancer risk. Thus, in comparison with never users of oral contraceptives, the relative risk for users of up to 48 months' duration was 1.0 (95% confidence interval 0.4-2.5), while the relative risk for users of 97 months' duration or more was only 0.3 (95% confidence interval 0.1-0.7). PMID:7779735

Vessey, M. P.; Painter, R.

1995-01-01

400

Self-reported ill health in male UK Gulf War veterans: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Forces deployed to the first Gulf War report more ill health than veterans who did not serve there. Many studies of post-Gulf morbidity are based on relatively small sample sizes and selection bias is often a concern. In a setting where selection bias relating to the ill health of veterans may be reduced, we: i) examined self-reported adult ill health in a large sample of male UK Gulf War veterans and a demographically similar non-deployed comparison group; and ii) explored self-reported ill health among veterans who believed that they had Gulf War syndrome. Methods This study uses data from a retrospective cohort study of reproduction and child health in which a validated postal questionnaire was sent to all UK Gulf War veterans (GWV) and a comparison cohort of Armed Service personnel who were not deployed to the Gulf (NGWV). The cohort for analysis comprises 42,818 males who responded to the questionnaire. Results We confirmed that GWV report higher rates of general ill health. GWV were significantly more likely to have reported at least one new medical symptom or disease since 1990 than NGWV (61% versus 37%, OR 2.7, 95% CI 2.5–2.8). They were also more likely to report higher numbers of symptoms. The strongest associations were for mood swings (OR 20.9, 95%CI 16.2–27.0), memory loss/lack of concentration (OR 19.6, 95% CI 15.5–24.8), night sweats (OR 9.9, 95% CI 6.5–15.2), general fatigue (OR 9.6, 95% CI 8.3–11.1) and sexual dysfunction (OR 4.6, 95%CI 3.2–6.6). 6% of GWV believed they had Gulf War syndrome (GWS), and this was associated with the highest symptom reporting. Conclusions Increased levels of reported ill health among GWV were confirmed. This study was the first to use a questionnaire which did not focus specifically on the veterans' symptoms themselves. Nevertheless, the results are consistent with those of other studies of post-Gulf war illness and thus strengthen overall findings in this area of research. Further examination of the mechanisms underlying the reporting of ill health is required. PMID:15251045

Simmons, Rebecca; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat

2004-01-01

401

Fish consumption and risk of gastrointestinal cancers: A meta-analysis of cohort studies  

PubMed Central

AIM: To assess quantitatively the relationship between fish intake and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of various cancers with respect to fish intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Two investigators extracted the data independently and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed random-effect meta-analyses and meta-regressions of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of cancer associated with a 20-g/d increment of fish consumption. RESULTS: Forty-two studies, comprising 27 independent cohorts, met our inclusion criteria. The studies included 2325040 participants and 24115 incident cases of gastrointestinal cancer, with an average follow-up of 13.6 years. Compared with individuals who did not eat, or seldom ate, fish, the pooled RR of gastrointestinal cancers was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.98) for regular fish consumers, 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for low to moderate fish consumers, and 0.91 (0.84-0.97) for high fish consumers. Overall, a 20-g increase in fish consumption per day was associated with a 2% reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancers (RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96-1.01). In subgroup analyses, we noted that fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal (RR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87-0.99; P < 0.01), esophageal (RR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.83-0.99; P < 0.05) and hepatocellular cancers (RR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.48-0.95; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that fish consumption may reduce total gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Inverse relationships were also detected between fish consumption and specific types of cancers. PMID:25386090

Yu, Xiao-Feng; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

2014-01-01

402

Markers of Endogenous Desaturase Activity and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in the CAREMA Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Intakes of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), especially EPA (C20?5n-3) and DHA (C22?6n-3), are known to prevent fatal coronary heart disease (CHD). The effects of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid (C20?4n-6), however, remain unclear. ?-5 and ?-6 desaturases are rate-limiting enzymes for synthesizing long-chain n-3 and n-6 PUFAs. C20?4n-6 to C20?3n-6 and C18?3n-6 to C18?2n-6 ratios are markers of endogenous ?-5 and ?-6 desaturase activities, but have never been studied in relation to incident CHD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relation between these ratios as well as genotypes of FADS1 rs174547 and CHD incidence. Methods We applied a case-cohort design within the CAREMA cohort, a large prospective study among the general Dutch population followed up for a median of 12.1 years. Fatty acid profile in plasma cholesteryl esters and FADS1 genotype at baseline were measured in a random subcohort (n?=?1323) and incident CHD cases (n?=?537). Main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs) of incident CHD adjusted for major CHD risk factors. Results The AA genotype of rs174547 was associated with increased plasma levels of C204n-6, C20?5n-3 and C22?6n-3 and increased ?-5 and ?-6 desaturase activities, but not with CHD risk. In multivariable adjusted models, high baseline ?-5 desaturase activity was associated with reduced CHD risk (P for trend?=?0.02), especially among those carrying the high desaturase activity genotype (AA): HR (95% CI)?=?0.35 (0.15–0.81) for comparing the extreme quintiles. High plasma DHA levels were also associated with reduced CHD risk. Conclusion In this prospective cohort study, we observed a reduced CHD risk with an increased C20?4n-6 to C20?3n-6 ratio, suggesting that ?-5 desaturase activity plays a role in CHD etiology. This should be investigated further in other independent studies. PMID:22911844

Lu, Yingchang; Vaarhorst, Anika; Merry, Audrey H. H.; Dollé, Martijn E. T.; Hovenier, Robert; Imholz, Sandra; Schouten, Leo J.; Heijmans, Bastiaan T.; Müller, Michael; Slagboom, P. Eline; van den Brandt, Piet A.; Gorgels, Anton P. M.; Boer, Jolanda M. A.; Feskens, Edith J. M.

2012-01-01

403

Rationale, design and baseline results of the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC) study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the relationship between biomarkers of exposure, disease and susceptibility, and early health effects and long-term diseases related to occupational manganese (Mn) exposure. Design Baseline survey of a longitudinal cohort study of workers in a ferromanganese refinery. Participants A total of 1888 individuals (1197 men, 691 women; average seniority 15.34?years) were enrolled in the Guangxi manganese-exposed workers healthy cohort (GXMEWHC) study. Participants were between 18 and 60?years of age (mean 40.31?years), had worked in the ferromanganese refinery for at least 1?year and lived in the local area. Results The GXMEWHC study included a baseline survey. Participants were divided into four groups according to manganese (Mn) cumulative exposure index (Mn-CEI) levels: an internal control group (Mn-CEI <1.0?mg/m3?year), a low exposure group (1.0?mg/m3?year?Mn-CEI<2.0?mg/m3?year), a medium exposure group (2.0?mg/m3?year?Mn-CEI<5.0?mg/m3?year) and a high exposure group (Mn-CEI?5.0?mg/m3?year). Genome-wide association studies of quantitative trait loci and binary trait loci in 500 Mn-exposed workers were performed using Illumina Infinium HumanExome BeadChip arrays. Stored plasma, DNA, hair and urine are available for further study. Participants will be followed up every 3?years. Conclusions The GXMEWHC study provides abundant data for exploring the systemic health effects of occupational Mn exposure using biomarkers of exposure, disease and susceptibility. PMID:24993760

Lv, Yingnan; Zou, Yunfeng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Kangcheng; Huang, Damin; Shen, Yuefei; Zhong, Yaoqiu; Liu, Zhihao; Jiang, Bei; Li, Qin; Qing, Li; Zhang, Wei; Chen, Lang; Wang, Fenfen; Xia, Bing; Yang, Li; Yang, Xiaobo

2014-01-01

404

Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity. Discussion There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children. PMID:23800270

2013-01-01

405

Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR?=?1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR?=?1.13, 95% CI?=?1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR?=?2.25, 95% CI?=?1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful predictor of retention that could be applied in the project setting. Conclusion Factors that affect retention of CHWs may change over time, with some factors that are important in the early years of a project losing importance as the project matures. Community health programs operating in fragile urban slums should consider changing factors over program duration for better retention of volunteer CHWs. PMID:24886046

2014-01-01

406

The Healthy Young Men's Study: Sampling Methods to Recruit a Random Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex with Men  

PubMed Central

Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on non-probability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations is limited. In this paper the authors describe a venue-based sampling methodology used to recruit a large and diverse cohort of YMSM from public venues in Los Angeles County. Venue-based sampling is a multi-stage, probability sampling design that uses standard outreach techniques and standard survey methods to systematically enumerate, sample, and survey hard-to-reach populations. The study design allowed the authors to estimate individual, familial and interpersonal psychosocial factors associated with HIV risk and health seeking behaviors for a cohort of YMSM with known properties. Study participants completed an extensive baseline survey and over a two year period will complete four follow-up surveys at six-month intervals. The baseline survey was administered in both English and Spanish. PMID:20823947

Ford, Wesley L.; Weiss, George; Kipke, Michele D.; Ritt-Olson, Anamara; Iverson, Ellen; Lopez, Donna

2010-01-01

407

The Yabu Cohort Study: Design and Profile of Participants at Baseline  

PubMed Central

Background Further evidence into the effects of social relationships on health (including those at both the individual and community levels) is needed in Japan. The Yabu Cohort Study was launched in 2012 to identify the associations between social relationships and health among community-dwelling older Japanese people and to evaluate population approaches for preventive long-term care in the community. This report describes the study design and the profile of the participants at baseline. Methods The Yabu Cohort Study is a prospective study of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older in Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The baseline survey, using a mailed self-administered questionnaire, was conducted from July through August 2012. It included information on socioeconomic status, general and psychological health, and social relationships (social network, social support, and social capital). Survival time, long-term care insurance certification, and medical and long-term care costs after the baseline survey will be followed. Results Of 7271 questionnaires distributed, a total of 6652 were returned (91.5% response rate), and 6241 were included in the analysis. Mean age was 71.9 ± 5.2 years, 43.2% were men, and 83.8% had lived in their neighborhood for more than 40 years. Approximately 45.2% expressed general trust. About 82.4%, 49.9%, and 55.5% have participated in neighborhood association activities, municipal seminars for preventive long-term care, and salon activities in the community, respectively. Conclusions The study is expected to provide valuable evidence on the effects of social relationships on health and to suggest the usefulness of population approaches for preventive long-term care in Japanese communities. PMID:25196168

Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

2014-01-01

408

The Northern Finland Birth Cohort Eye Study: Design and baseline characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background To describe the rationale and design of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC) Eye Study. Methods The NFBC Eye Study is a randomised prospective cohort study. The original NFBC study population consists of 12058 subjects born in the region of Lapland and the Province of Oulu. A postal questionnaire covering extensively the medical and socioeconomical background was sent to the 10300 subjects of the NFBC alive and residing in Finland. For the NFBC eye study the subjects were randomised to the screening group (50%) and the control group (50%). The screening protocol includes the following tests: automated and manifest refraction, best corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness, intraocular pressure, Humphrey 24–2 perimetry, stereoscopic optic nerve head (ONH) and retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) photography and imaging with Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy (HRT), Scanning Laser Polarimetry (GDx) and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT). Two ophthalmologists evaluate the ONH and RNFL photographs and the visual fields independently. All suspected glaucoma cases are re-evaluated by two independent glaucoma experts. HRT, GDx and OCT findings are assessed separately. In the future, both groups (100%) will be examined. The effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of glaucoma screening will be calculated. The response rate of the questionnaire was 67% (n?=?6855) and 871 randomised subjects had undergone the eye screening protocol by the end of April 2013. Discussion The trial is designed to address the following questions: what is the best combination of diagnostic tests for detecting glaucoma in an unscreened population, what are the benefits and disadvantages of the screening to the individual and the society and is glaucoma screening both effective and cost-effective. The prevalence, incidence and risk factors of glaucoma and other eye diseases will be evaluated, as well as their impact on quality of life. PMID:24103057

2013-01-01

409

The net effect of smoking on healthcare and welfare costs. A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To study the net economic effect of smoking on society. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eastern Finland. Patients We studied mortality, paid income and tobacco taxes, and the cumulative costs due to pensions and medical care among tobacco smoking and non-smoking individuals in a 27-year prospective cohort study of 1976 men from Eastern Finland. These individuals were 54–60?years old at the beginning of the follow-up. Main outcome measures The net contribution of smoking versus non-smoking individuals to public finance balance (euros). Results Smoking was associated with a greater mean annual healthcare cost of €1600 per living individual during follow-up. However, due to a shorter lifespan of 8.6?years, smokers’ mean total healthcare costs during the entire study period were actually €4700 lower than for non-smokers. For the same reason, each smoker missed 7.3?years (€126?850) of pension. Overall, smokers’ average net contribution to the public finance balance was €133?800 greater per individual compared with non-smokers. However, if each lost quality adjusted life year is considered to be worth €22?200, the net effect is reversed to be €70?200 (€71.600 when adjusted with propensity score) per individual in favour of non-smoking. Conclusions Smoking was associated with a moderate decrease in healthcare costs, and a marked decrease in pension costs due to increased mortality. However, when a monetary value for life years lost was taken into account, the beneficial net effect of non-smoking to society was about €70?000 per individual. PMID:23233699

Tiihonen, Jari; Ronkainen, Kimmo; Kangasharju, Aki; Kauhanen, Jussi

2012-01-01