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1

The Amsterdam Studies of Acute Psychiatry I (ASAP-I); A prospective cohort study of determinants and outcome of coercive versus voluntary treatment interventions in a metropolitan area  

PubMed Central

Background The overall number of involuntary admissions is increasing in many European countries. Patients with severe mental illnesses more often progress to stages in which acute, coercive treatment is warranted. The number of studies that have examined this development and possible consequences in terms of optimizing health care delivery in emergency psychiatry is small and have a number of methodological shortcomings. The current study seeks to examine factors associated with compulsory admissions in the Amsterdam region, taking into account a comprehensive model with four groups of predictors: patient vulnerability, social support, responsiveness of the health care system and treatment adherence. Methods/Design This paper describes the design of the Amsterdam Study of Acute Psychiatry-I (ASAP-I). The study is a prospective cohort study, with one and two-year follow-up, comparing patients with and without forced admission by means of a selected nested case-control design. An estimated total number of 4,600 patients, aged 18 years and over, consecutively coming into contact with the Psychiatric Emergency Service Amsterdam (PESA) are included in the study. From this cohort, a randomly selected group of 125 involuntary admitted subjects and 125 subjects receiving non-coercive treatment are selected for further evaluation and comparison. First, socio-demographic, psychopathological and network characteristics, and prior use of health services will be described for all patients who come into contact with PESA. Second, the in-depth study of compulsory versus voluntary patients will examine which patient characteristics are associated with acute compulsory admission, also taking into account social network and healthcare variables. The third focus of the study is on the associations between patient vulnerability, social support, healthcare characteristics and treatment adherence in a two-year follow-up for patients with or without involuntarily admittance at the index consultation. Discussion The current study seeks to establish a picture of the determinants of acute compulsory admissions in the Netherlands and tries to gain a better understanding of the association with the course of illness and patient's perception of services and treatment adherence. The final aim is to find specific patient and health care factors that can be influenced by adjusting treatment programs in order to reduce the number of involuntary admissions. PMID:18479518

van der Post, Louk; Schoevers, Robert; Koppelmans, Vincent; Visch, Irene; Bernardt, Clemens; Mulder, Niels; Beekman, Aartjan; de Haan, Lieuwe; Dekker, Jack

2008-01-01

2

Optimizing patient care and research: the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort.  

PubMed

Since its opening in 2000, patient care and research go hand in hand at the Alzheimer center of the VU University Medical Center, both organized in such a way that they mutually strengthen each other. Our mission is to give patients a voice by lifting the stigma on dementia, to find new diagnostic and treatment strategies, and, ultimately, to cure diseases that cause dementia. Our healthcare pathway is uniquely designed to accommodate all necessary investigations for the diagnostic work-up of dementia in one day (one-stop shop). A second unique feature is that research has been fully integrated in the healthcare pathway. The resulting Amsterdam Dementia Cohort now includes over 4000 patients, and for the majority of these, we have MRI, EEG, blood (serum, plasma), DNA, and CSF available. The Amsterdam Dementia Cohort forms the basis of much of our research, which focuses on four major research lines: 1) variability in manifestation, 2) early diagnosis, 3) vascular factors, and 4) interventions. By answering research questions closely related to clinical practice, the results of our research can be looped back to improve clinical work-up for our patients. PMID:24614907

van der Flier, Wiesje M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Prins, Niels; Lemstra, Afina W; Bouwman, Femke H; Teunissen, Charlotte E; van Berckel, Bart N M; Stam, Cornelis J; Barkhof, Frederik; Visser, Pieter Jelle; van Egmond, Evan; Scheltens, Philip

2014-01-01

3

Shanghai Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Cohort Study consists of 18,244 men in Shanghai, China, assembled during 1986-1989 when subjects were between the ages of 45 and 64 years. At recruitment, all cohort members provided detailed dietary and medical histories as well as blood and urine specimens. In the follow-up of 2000-2001, buccal cells were collected from 13,815 original cohort participants (92% of all surviving cohort members).

4

Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS)  

Cancer.gov

The Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) started in 1986 and includes 120,852 men and women. The study population originates from 204 municipal population registries throughout The Netherlands, by gender-stratified random sampling.

5

Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study is a longitudinal study established in the 1990s by Cancer Council Victoria to investigate prospectively the role of diet and other lifestyle factors in cancer.

6

Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20?625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15?011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study. PMID:25422284

Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

2015-02-01

7

Cohort profile: UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS).  

PubMed

The UK Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) is an observational, multidisciplinary cohort study that was set up to follow the lives of children born at the turn of the new century. The MCS is nationally representative and 18 552 families (18 827 children) were recruited to the cohort in the first sweep. There have currently been five main sweeps of data collection, at ages 9 months and 3, 5, 7 and 11 years. A further sweep of data collection is planned for age 14 years. A range of health-related data have been collected as well as measures concerning child development, cognitive ability and educational attainment. The data also include a wealth of information describing the social, economic and demographic characteristics of the cohort members and their families. In addition, the MCS data have been linked to administrative data resources including health records. The MCS provides a unique and valuable resource for the analysis of health outcomes and health inequalities. The MCS data are freely available to bona fide researchers under standard access conditions via the UK Data Service (http://ukdataservice.ac.uk) and the MCS website provides detailed information on the study (http://www.cls.ioe.ac.uk/mcs). PMID:24550246

Connelly, Roxanne; Platt, Lucinda

2014-12-01

8

The Millennium Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The Millennium Cohort Study is the latest in the line of British birth cohort studies. MCS resembles its predecessors which follow people born in 1946, 1958 and 1970 in the intention to become multi-purpose longitudinal data resource charting many aspects of individual's lives over time. The families of a sample of around 20,000 babies are being interviewed during 2001-02, when eligible babies reach 9 months, to establish the conditions from which they set out in life. The survey contrasts with the previous cohort studies in various ways. Instead of taking all births in one week, the sample of births is spread over a year; the births are from a selection of electoral wards, thereby enabling eventual analysis by neighbourhood characteristics; it also over samples children living in deprived areas, wards with high ethnic minority populations and samples have been boosted in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. The latter UK country has not been covered by the other studies. It interviews fathers as well as mothers, and given that its initial funding comes via the ESRC, puts a greater emphasis on socio-economic data than in early parts of the other studies. MCS has been enhanced by additional Government funding. The research team, based at the Institute of Education, aims to deposit a multi-purpose dataset for public use at the ESRC data Archive in the Spring of 2003. PMID:12152184

Smith, Kate; Joshi, Heather

2002-01-01

9

Attrition in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study addresses the relation between attrition and characteristics of the study protocol, specifically contact frequency, and respondent burden. The study is based on data from a longitudinal study with side studies on various topics, so that respondents have differential exposure to these study characteristics. Attrition outcomes are refusal and ineligibility through frailty. The effect of side study contact frequency

Dorly J. H. Deeg; Theo van Tilburg; Johannes H. Smit; Edith D. de Leeuw

2002-01-01

10

Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with lower increase in knee muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a 2-year follow-up study in the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the associations of elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with change in muscle strength in patients with established knee osteoarthritis (OA), at 2 years. Methods Data from 186 patients with knee OA were gathered at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. CRP (in milligrams per liter) and ESR (in millimeters per hour) were measured in serum from patients’ blood. Strength of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was assessed by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The association of inflammatory markers with change in knee muscle strength was analyzed by using uni- and multi-variate linear regression models. Results Patients with elevated CRP values at both baseline and 2-year follow-up exhibited a lower increase in knee muscle strength for a period of 2 years (??=?-0.22; P?=?0.01) compared with the group with non-elevated levels at both times of assessment. The association persisted after adjustment for relevant confounders. Elevated ESR values at both times of assessment were not significantly associated with change in knee muscle strength (??=?-0.05; P?=?0.49). Conclusions Our results indicate that elevated CRP values are related to a lower gain in muscle strength over time in patients with established knee OA. Although the mechanism to explain this relationship is not fully elucidated, these results suggest inflammation as a relevant factor influencing muscle strength in this group of patients. PMID:24928303

2014-01-01

11

Cohort profile update: the Danish HIV Cohort Study (DHCS).  

PubMed

The DHCS is a cohort of all HIV-infected individuals seen in one of the eight Danish HIV centres after 31 December 1994. Here we update the 2009 cohort profile emphasizing the development of the cohort. Every 12-24 months, DHCS is linked with the Danish Civil Registration System (CRS) in order to extract an age- and sex-matched comparison cohort from the general population, as well as cohorts of family members of the HIV-infected patients and of the comparison cohort. The combined cohort is linked with CRS, the Danish Cancer Registry, the Danish National Hospital Registry, the Danish Registry of Causes of Death, the Danish National Prescription Registry, the Attainment Register and the Integrated Database for Labour Market Research to get information on vital status, migration, cancer, hospital contacts, causes of death, dispensed prescriptions, education and employment. Using this design, rates of a range of outcomes have been compared between HIV-infected patients and the comparison cohort, as well as between families of these two cohorts in order to disaggregate the effects of HIV infection and familial/environmental factors. Data can be shared with foreign institutions following approval from the Danish Data Protection Agency. Potential collaborators can contact the study director, Niels Obel (e-mail: niels.obel@regionh.dk). PMID:25074406

Omland, Lars Haukali; Ahlström, Magnus Glindvad; Obel, Niels

2014-12-01

12

Southern Community Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The current body of knowledge regarding the etiology and prevention of cancer draws substantially from prospective epidemiologic studies, among which African Americans have been greatly underrepresented.

13

Cohort profile: the Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS).  

PubMed

The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS) is an observational, open dynamic cohort of people who are receiving medical care for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in Ontario, Canada. Established in the mid-1990s, the OCS has its roots in AIDS activists' demands for research that would improve the quality of life of people living with HIV while respecting their privacy. It is a collaborative and community-driven study, including a Governance Committee made up of people with HIV and other stakeholders that evaluates analysis project proposals for community relevance and ethics. From 1995 to 2010, a total of 5644 participants were enrolled and 27,720 person-years of observation were accumulated; follow-up will continue until at least 2015. In the initial years of study, the focus was on clinical data from medical chart reviews. It has since evolved into a comprehensive study that collects extensive de-identified information on clinical, laboratory and psychosocial and behavioural measures based on medical chart abstractions, interviews using a standardized questionnaire and linkage with external administrative health databases in Ontario. Interested collaborators are encouraged to submit analysis project proposals as instructed on the study website (www.ohtncohortstudy.ca). PMID:22345312

Rourke, Sean B; Gardner, Sandra; Burchell, Ann N; Raboud, Janet; Rueda, Sergio; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Loutfy, Mona; Cooper, Curtis; Smieja, Marek; Taylor, Darien; DiPede, Tony; Wobeser, Wendy; Major, Carol; Waring, Virginia; Fisher, Mark; Cairney, John; Mittmann, Nicole; Salit, Irving E; Crouzat, Fred; Gough, Kevin; Ralph, Edward; Sandre, Roger; Kilby, Don; Rachlis, Anita

2013-04-01

14

A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

2010-01-01

15

Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01

16

Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship  

PubMed Central

Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

Eldredge, Jonathan

2002-01-01

17

Cultivating Cohort Studies for Observational Translational Research  

PubMed Central

Background “Discovery” research about molecular markers for diagnosis, prognosis, or prediction of response to therapy has frequently produced results that were not reproducible in subsequent studies. What are the reasons, and can observational cohorts be cultivated to provide strong and reliable answers to those questions? Methods Selected examples are used to illustrate: 1) What features of research design provide strength and reliability in observational studies about markers of diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy? 2) How can those design features be cultivated in existing observational cohorts, for example within RCTs, other existing observational research studies, or practice settings like HMOs? Results Examples include a study of RNA expression profiles of tumor tissue to predict prognosis of breast cancer; a study of serum proteomics profiles to diagnose ovarian cancer; and a study of stool-based DNA assays to screen for colon cancer. Strengths and weaknesses of observational study design features are discussed, along with lessons about how features that help assure strength might be “cultivated” in the future. Conclusions and Impact By considering these examples and others, it may be possible to develop a process of “cultivating cohorts” - in on-going RCTs, observational cohort studies, and practice settings like HMOs - that have strong features of study design. Such an effort could produce sources of data and specimens to reliably answer questions about the use of molecular markers in diagnosis, prognosis, and response to therapy. PMID:23462919

Ransohoff, David F.

2013-01-01

18

Cohort profile: the Helsinki Health Study.  

PubMed

The Helsinki Health Study cohort was set up to enable longitudinal studies on the social and work related determinants of health and well-being, making use of self-reported as well as objective register data. The target population is the staff of the City of Helsinki, Finland. Baseline data for the cohort were derived from questionnaire surveys conducted in 2000, 2001 and 2002 among employees reaching 40, 45, 50, 55 or 60 years of age in each year. The number of responders at baseline was 8960 (80% women, response rate 67%). Additional age-based health examination data were available. A follow up survey was conducted in 2007 yielding 7332 responders (response rate 83%). Measures of health include health behaviours, self-rated health, common mental disorders, functioning, pain, sleep problems, angina symptoms and major diseases. Social determinants include socio-demographics, socio-economic circumstances, working conditions, social support, and work-family interface. Further register linkages include sickness absence, hospital discharge, prescribed drugs, and retirement updated at the end of 2010. The cohort allows comparisons with the Whitehall II study, London, UK, and the Japanese Civil Servants Study from western Japan. The cohort data are available for collaborative research at Hjelt Institute, Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki, Finland. PMID:22467288

Lahelma, Eero; Aittomäki, Akseli; Laaksonen, Mikko; Lallukka, Tea; Martikainen, Pekka; Piha, Kustaa; Rahkonen, Ossi; Saastamoinen, Peppiina

2013-06-01

19

Contested conceptions of identity, community and multiculturalism in the staging of alternative sport events: a case study of the Amsterdam World Cup football tournament  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a case study of the Amsterdam World Cup (WK Amsterdam), an annual amateur football competition and multicultural festival. Placing the event within the context of Dutch integration policy, it examines the differing and contested conceptions of identity, community and multiculturalism articulated by participants and organisers and, more broadly, the role that ‘alternative’ events play in resisting or

Daniel Burdsey

2008-01-01

20

Feasibility of cohort studies in Estonia  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodology and feasibility of follow up for vital status in retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. METHODS: A cohort of 7412 workers who had been employed at two factories in Tallinn between 1946 and 1988 was followed up for vital status from the date of first employment until death, emigration, or the end of the study, 31 December 1995, whichever occurred first. The cohort was electronically linked with the National Population Registry of Estonia that was created in 1992 and includes personal identification numbers of Estonian citizens and residents, and the Mortality Database that contains information from death certificates issued in 1983-95. A manual search was carried out on several non-computerised population data sources and archives. RESULTS: By 31 December 1995, the vital status of 6780 (91.5%) subjects could be traced (4495 (60.6%) subjects were alive, 1993 (26.9%) had died, and 292 (3.9%) had emigrated). Analysis by calendar period of leaving work showed that the proportion of subjects traced was lowest in the group of workers who had left work between 1946 and 1955 (58.4%), especially those whose age at leaving work was < 30 (53.2%) or > 60 years (42.3%). Among subjects who left work in 1956-65, 1966-75, and 1976-88, the follow up rate was 84.7%, 94.6%, and 98.2%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The findings, which are especially important for occupational epidemiology, confirm the feasibility of conducting retrospective cohort studies in Estonia. Most of the issues discussed in the paper apply to other former Soviet countries.   PMID:10472323

Innos, K.; Rahu, M.; Rahu, K.

1999-01-01

21

Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation  

PubMed Central

The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

2014-01-01

22

Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands – the GHAIA study  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among the largest SSA migrant population (Ghanaians) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Data were obtained from structured interviews along with medical examination among 212 participants from a cross-sectional study: the GHAIA study in 2010 in Amsterdam. Blood pressure was measured with a validated Oscillometric automated digital blood pressure device. Psychosocial stress was assessed by questionnaires on perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms and financial problems. Binary logistic regression was used to study associations between psychosocial stress and hypertension. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 54.7%. About two thirds of the study population experienced a moderate (31%) or high (36%) level of discrimination. 20.0% of the participants had mild depressive symptoms, whilst 9% had moderate depressive symptoms. The prevalence of financial stress was 34.8%. The psychosocial stresses we assessed were not significantly associated with hypertension: adjusted odds ratios comparing those with low levels and those with high levels were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.47–2.08) for perceived discrimination, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.26–2.49) for depressive symptoms and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.37–1.36) for financial stress, respectively. Conclusion We did not find evidence for the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension among recent SSA migrants. More efforts are needed to unravel other potential factors that may underlie the high prevalence of hypertension among these populations. PMID:25001592

2014-01-01

23

Chickpea Seeding Date x Cultivar and Seeding Date x Seeding Rate Studies at Amsterdam, MT Perry Miller and Jeff Holmes  

E-print Network

1 Chickpea Seeding Date x Cultivar and Seeding Date x Seeding Rate Studies at Amsterdam, MT Perry.2 0.5 3.4 -2.0 0.4 -0.1 #12;2 #12;3 Table 1b. Physical site parameters for chickpea seeding date and independent disc coulters for side-banding fertilizer. Chickpea and pea were treated with recommended rates

Lawrence, Rick L.

24

Statins and congenital malformations: cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the teratogenic potential of statins. Design Cohort study. Setting United States. Participants A cohort of 886?996 completed pregnancies linked to liveborn infants of women enrolled in Medicaid from 2000 to 2007. Methods We examined the risk of major congenital malformations and organ specific malformations in offspring associated with maternal use of a statin in the first trimester. Propensity score based methods were used to control for potential confounders, including maternal demographic characteristics, obstetric and medical conditions, and use of other drugs. Results 1152 (0.13%) women used a statin during the first trimester. In unadjusted analyses, the prevalence of malformations in the offspring of these women was 6.34% compared with 3.55% in those of women who did not use a statin in the first trimester (relative risk 1.79, 95% confidence interval 1.43 to 2.23). Controlling for confounders, particularly pre-existing diabetes, accounted for this increase in risk (1.07, 0.85 to 1.37). There were also no statistically significant increases in any of the organ specific malformations assessed after accounting for confounders. Results were similar across a range of sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our analysis did not find a significant teratogenic effect from maternal use of statins in the first trimester. However, these findings need to be replicated in other large studies, and the long term effects of in utero exposure to statins needs to be assessed, before use of statins in pregnancy can be considered safe. PMID:25784688

Hernandez-Diaz, Sonia; Fischer, Michael A; Seely, Ellen W; Ecker, Jeffrey L; Franklin, Jessica M; Desai, Rishi J; Allen-Coleman, Cora; Mogun, Helen; Avorn, Jerry; Huybrechts, Krista F

2015-01-01

25

Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ?.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

2014-10-01

26

Cohort Profile: Golestan Hepatitis B Cohort Study- A Prospective Long Term Study in Northern Iran ?  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

27

Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies  

PubMed Central

A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

Paulus, Jessica K.; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O.; Mattsson, Jens G.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

2015-01-01

28

Early life risk factors for obesity in childhood: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To identify risk factors in early life (up to 3 years of age) for obesity in children in the United Kingdom. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants 8234 children in cohort aged 7 years and a subsample of 909 children (children in focus) with data on additional early growth related

John J. Reilly; Julie Armstrong; Ahmad R. Dorosty; Pauline M. Emmett; A. Ness; I. Rodgers; Colin Steer; Andrea Sherriff

2005-01-01

29

Cohort study of silicon carbide production workers.  

PubMed

Silicon carbide is produced by a chemical reaction at high temperature between free crystalline silica and petroleum coke. The process generates airborne fibers and fibrogenic dusts such as alpha-quartz and cristobalite, which are also potentially carcinogenic. The authors report that this is the first cohort study in this industry. The study was carried out among 585 Québec silicon carbide production workers who had worked at any time from 1950 to 1980. Follow-up was to December 31, 1989, and 167 deaths were observed. The standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for all causes of death was 1.05 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90-1.23); for nonmalignant respiratory diseases it was 2.03 (95% CI 1.21-3.22); and for lung cancer it was 1.69 (95% CI 1.09-2.52). Controlling for smoking status using a Cox regression analysis, the risk for nonmalignant respiratory diseases and for lung cancer increased with exposure to total dust; in the highest exposure category, rate ratios (RR) were 4.08 (95% CI 1.11-14.96) for nonmalignant respiratory diseases and 1.67 (95% CI 0.57-4.83) for lung cancer. Results were in the expected direction, but the power of the study was low, because of small sample size and use of cumulative total dust as the exposure variable, which may be a poor indicator of lung irritants and other potential carcinogens in this industry, notably silicon carbide ceramic fibers. PMID:7985648

Infante-Rivard, C; Dufresne, A; Armstrong, B; Bouchard, P; Thériault, G

1994-12-01

30

Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale and outline of the AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) registry  

PubMed Central

Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA. Methods and analysis We set up a large-scale prospective community-based registry (AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies, ARREST) in which we prospectively include all resuscitation attempts from OHCA in a large study region in the Netherlands in collaboration with Emergency Medical Services. Of all OHCA victims since June 2005, we prospectively collect medical history (through hospital and general practitioner), and current and previous medication use (through community pharmacy). In addition, we include DNA samples from OHCA victims with documented ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation during the resuscitation attempt since July 2007. Various study designs are employed to analyse the data of the ARREST registry, including case–control, cohort, case only and case-cross over designs. Ethics and dissemination We describe the rationale, outline and potential results of the ARREST registry. The design allows for a stable and reliable collection of multiple determinants of OHCA, while assuring that the patient, lay-caregiver or medical professional is not hindered in any way. Such comprehensive data collection is required to unravel the complex basis of OHCA. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific symposia. PMID:25332818

Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A; Berdowski, J; Souverein, P C; De Bruin, M L; Koster, R W; de Boer, A; Tan, H L

2014-01-01

31

Multidisciplinary integrated Parent and Child Centres in Amsterdam: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs) involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres. Study design A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (n=91). Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals [health care professionals (n=67) and PCC managers n=12)] and PCC-experts (n=12) in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts. Results Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals’ needs dominating clients’ needs. Conclusions Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended. PMID:23882163

Busch, Vincent; Van Stel, Henk François; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Melhuish, Edward; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus

2013-01-01

32

Cohort Profile: Wisconsin longitudinal study (WLS)  

PubMed Central

The Wisconsin Longitudinal Study (WLS) is a longitudinal study of men and women who graduated from Wisconsin high schools in 1957 and one of their randomly selected siblings. Wisconsin is located in the upper midwest of the United States and had a population of approximately 14 000 000 in 1957, making it the 14th most populous state at that time. Data spanning almost 60 years allow researchers to link family background, adolescent characteristics, educational experiences, employment experiences, income, wealth, family formation and social and religious engagement to midlife and late-life physical health, mental health, psychological well-being, cognition, end of life planning and mortality. The WLS is one of the few longitudinal data sets that include an administrative measure of cognition from childhood. Further, recently collected saliva samples allow researchers to explore the inter-relationships among genes, behaviours and environment, including genetic determinants of behaviours (e.g. educational attainment); the interactions between genes and environment; and how these interactions predict behaviours. Most panel members were born in 1939, and the sample is broadly representative of White, non-Hispanic American men and women who have completed at least a high school education. Siblings cover several adjoining cohorts: they were born primarily between 1930 and 1948. At each interview, about two-thirds of the sample lived in Wisconsin, and about one-third lived elsewhere in the United States or abroad. The data, along with documentation, are publicly accessible and can be accessed at http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/wlsresearch/. Requests for protected data or assistance should be sent to wls@ssc.wisc.edu. PMID:24585852

Herd, Pamela; Carr, Deborah; Roan, Carol

2014-01-01

33

75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes...Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and...

2010-03-04

34

Returning findings within longitudinal cohort studies: the 1958 birth cohort as an exemplar  

PubMed Central

Population-based, prospective longitudinal cohort studies are considering the issues surrounding returning findings to individuals as a result of genomic and other medical research studies. While guidance is being developed for clinical settings, the process is less clear for those conducting longitudinal research. This paper discusses work conducted on behalf of The UK Cohort and Longitudinal Study Enhancement Resource programme (CLOSER) to examine consent requirements, process considerations and specific examples of potential findings in the context of the 1958 British Birth cohort. Beyond deciding which findings to return, there are questions of whether re-consent is needed and the possible impact on the study, how the feedback process will be managed, and what resources are needed to support that process. Recommendations are made for actions a cohort study should consider taking when making vital decisions regarding returning findings. Any decisions need to be context-specific, arrived at transparently, communicated clearly, and in the best interests of both the participants and the study. PMID:25126104

2014-01-01

35

Multicenter cohort association study of SLC2A1 single nucleotide polymorphisms and age-related macular degeneration  

PubMed Central

Purpose Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a major cause of blindness in older adults and has a genetically complex background. This study examines the potential association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1) gene and AMD. SLC2A1 regulates the bioavailability of glucose in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), which might influence oxidative stress–mediated AMD pathology. Methods Twenty-two SNPs spanning the SLC2A1 gene were genotyped in 375 cases and 199 controls from an initial discovery cohort (the Amsterdam-Rotterdam-Netherlands study). Replication testing was performed in The Rotterdam Study (the Netherlands) and study populations from Würzburg (Germany), the Age Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS; United States), Columbia University (United States), and Iowa University (United States). Subsequently, a meta-analysis of SNP association was performed. Results In the discovery cohort, significant genotypic association between three SNPs (rs3754219, rs4660687, and rs841853) and AMD was found. Replication in five large independent (Caucasian) cohorts (4,860 cases and 4,004 controls) did not yield consistent association results. The genotype frequencies for these SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases among the six individual populations. Meta-analysis revealed significant heterogeneity of effect between the studies. Conclusions No overall association between SLC2A1 SNPs and AMD was demonstrated. Since the genotype frequencies for the three SLC2A1 SNPs were significantly different for the controls and/or cases between the six cohorts, this study corroborates previous evidence that population dependent genetic risk heterogeneity in AMD exists. PMID:22509097

Baas, Dominique C.; Ho, Lintje; Tanck, Michael W.T.; Fritsche, Lars G.; Merriam, Joanna E.; van het Slot, Ruben; Koeleman, Bobby P.C.; Gorgels, Theo G.M.F.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Uitterlinden, André G.; de Jong, Paulus T.V.M.; Hofman, Albert; ten Brink, Jacoline B.; Vingerling, Johannes R.; Klaver, Caroline C.W.; Dean, Michael; Weber, Bernhard H. F.; Allikmets, Rando; Hageman, Gregory S.

2012-01-01

36

The rationale and design of the AASK cohort study.  

PubMed

Hypertensive kidney disease commonly progresses. The primary objective of the AASK (African American Study of Kidney Disease and Hypertension) Cohort Study is to determine prospectively the course of kidney function and risk factors for kidney disease progression in African Americans with hypertensive kidney disease who receive recommended anti-hypertensive therapy. The AASK Cohort Study is a prospective, observational study that is an extension of the AASK trial. The AASK trial tested the effects of three medications used as initial anti-hypertensive therapy (ramipril, metoprolol, and amlodipine) and two levels of BP control. Of the 1094 trial participants, approximately 650 to 700 individuals who have not reached ESRD will likely enroll in the Cohort Study. Risk factors to be studied include environmental, genetic, physiologic, and socioeconomic variables. The primary renal outcome is a composite clinical outcome defined by doubling of serum creatinine, ESRD, or death. Medication treatment for hypertension, beginning with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ramipril, is offered to all participants. In this fashion, the study directly controls two of the major determinants of kidney disease progression: treatment of hypertension and use of renoprotective, anti-hypertensive medication. The minimum duration of follow-up in the Cohort Study is 5 yr (total of 9 to 12 yr, including the period of the AASK trial). Ultimately, data from the AASK Cohort Study should enhance our understanding of the risk factors and processes that determine the progression of kidney disease. Such results might eventually lead to new strategies that delay or prevent ESRD. PMID:12819323

Appel, Lawrence J; Middleton, John; Miller, Edgar R; Lipkowitz, Michael; Norris, Keith; Agodoa, Lawrence Y; Bakris, George; Douglas, Janice G; Charleston, Jeanne; Gassman, Jennifer; Greene, Tom; Jamerson, Kenneth; Kusek, John W; Lewis, Julia A; Phillips, Robert A; Rostand, Stephen G; Wright, Jackson T

2003-07-01

37

Methodological aspects of the 1993 Pelotas (Brazil) Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This paper describes the main methodological aspects of a cohort study, with emphasis on its recent phases, which may be relevant to investigators planning to carry out similar studies. In 1993, a population based study was launched in Pelotas, Southern Brazil. All 5,249 newborns delivered in the city’s hospitals were enrolled, and sub-samples were visited at the ages of one, three and six months and of one and four years. In 2004-5 it was possible to trace 87.5% of the cohort at the age of 10-12 years. Sub-studies are addressing issues related to oral health, psychological development and mental health, body composition, and ethnography. Birth cohort studies are essential for investigating the early determinants of adult disease and nutritional status, yet few such studies are available from low and middle-income countries where these determinants may differ from those documented in more developed settings. PMID:16410981

Victora, Cesar Gomes; Araújo, Cora Luiza Pavin; Menezes, Ana Maria Batista; Hallal, Pedro Curi; Vieira, Maria de Fátima; Neutzling, Marilda Borges; Gonçalves, Helen; Valle, Neiva Cristina; Lima, Rosangela Costa; Anselmi, Luciana; Behague, Dominique; Gigante, Denise Petrucci; Barros, Fernando Celso

2010-01-01

38

Longitudinal interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development: results from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

This study is part of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, which was undertaken to assess the long-term interrelationships between cumulative frequency of geographic relocation (CFGR) and the development of personality characteristics (i.e., Inadequacy, Rigidity, Social Inadequacy, Dominance, Self-sufficiency, Self-esteem, and Hostility). We found that participants who had more mobility experiences had lower consistency in their personality characteristics (the exception being Rigidity). Residential mobility from different life stages was positively associated with the continuity and change of Inadequacy and Dominance. In addition, young adults with higher Rigidity personality experienced fewer geographic moves during the transition from young adulthood to mid-life. Our study provides evidence that CFGR in different life stages may be associated with the development of personality characteristics from young adulthood to mid-life in different ways. Increased awareness of the potential interrelationships between frequent geographic relocation and personality development may have positive consequences for adult psychological health. PMID:21486270

Lin, Kuan-Chia; Twisk, Jos W R; Rong, Jiin-Ru

2011-04-01

39

Cohort profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at final follow-up.  

PubMed

The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results. PMID:23583921

Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu; Sakauchi, Fumio; Motohashi, Yutaka; Tsuji, Ichiro; Nakamura, Yosikazu; Mikami, Haruo; Kurosawa, Michiko; Hoshiyama, Yoshiharu; Tanabe, Naohito; Tamakoshi, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Tokudome, Shinkan; Hashimoto, Shuji; Wada, Yasuhiko; Kawamura, Takashi; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Miki, Tsuneharu; Date, Chigusa; Kurozawa, Yoichi; Yoshimura, Takesumi; Shibata, Akira; Okamoto, Naoyuki; Shio, Hideo

2013-01-01

40

Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

At entry to the cohort study, each participant completed a 26-page mail questionnaire that included an extensive quantitative diet history, as well as other demographic, medical, and lifestyle information. Multiple 24-hour diet recalls were collected on more than 2,000 of the participants in a calibration study designed to permit correction of nutrient intake estimates for measurement error.

41

Investing in Prospective Cohorts for Etiologic Study of Occupational Exposures  

EPA Science Inventory

Prospective cohorts have played a major role in understanding the role of diet, physical activity, medical conditions, and genes in the development of many diseases, but have not been widely used in the study of occupational exposures. Studies in agriculture are an exception. W...

42

Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS). METHODS: Prospective, observational, cohort study of

François Verdon; Bernard Burnand; Lilli Herzig; Michel Junod; Alain Pécoud; Bernard Favrat

2007-01-01

43

A comparative clinical study of fetal phono- and movement-sensors from Amsterdam, Cambridge and Edinburgh.  

PubMed

In a European collaboration, a joint project to conduct an experimental and clinical investigation of recently developed sensors from three centres (Amsterdam, Cambridge and Edinburgh) has been carried out. The Amsterdam sensor was based on an inductive principle whereas the Cambridge and Edinburgh transducers used a piezo-electric material (PVDF) as transducing element. Nine patients with varying gestational age (29-38 weeks) were measured in a clinical investigation. Recordings of fetal heart sounds (FHS) and fetal breathing movements (FBM) were made using three sensors; one from each centre. These recordings were digitized directly into a computer using a purpose-built data acquisition system. For each patient 3 min of FBM data, and 1 min of FHS data were recorded by each sensor. The FBM recordings were carried out simultaneously with ultrasound, so as to enable a correlation to be made between both recordings. The FHS recordings were carried out simultaneously with the maternal heart pulse, to discount any maternal heart influences on the resulting signals. Of the nine patients analysed, FHS were recorded in seven patients. On the other hand, it appeared difficult to identify fetal breathing movements in the FBM recordings due to the dominance of the maternal breathing component. The analysis of the FBM signals and its correlation with ultrasound could not be carried out due to the relatively poor quality of the signals detected by the sensors, given the present techniques of analysis. The evaluation of the FHS recordings showed that although there is relatively little difference between the sensors, the inductive sensor performed best. PMID:1770810

Goovaerts, H G; Cohen, D; Dripps, J H; Mantel, R; Mooney, P; Jongsma, H W; Dalton, K J; van Geijn, H P

1991-11-01

44

Cohort profile: the international collaboration of incident HIV and hepatitis C in injecting cohorts (InC3) study.  

PubMed

The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC(3)) Study is an international multi-cohort project of pooled biological and behavioural data from nine prospective cohorts of people who inject drugs (PWID). InC(3) brings together researchers from Australia, Canada, USA and the Netherlands with expertise in epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical and behavioural sciences, virology and immunology to investigate research questions relevant to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV outcomes. InC(3) was established to: (i) create a merged multi-cohort study of pooled data from well-characterized cohorts of PWID with prospective data on HIV and HCV infections, with a particular focus on HCV; (ii) facilitate new studies not possible within individual cohorts; and (iii) bring together researchers across disciplines to answer a broad range of research questions. Study cohorts identify acute HCV cases through follow-up of high-risk HCV antibody-negative PWID or through clinical referral networks. To date, data from 1986 to 2010 have been received from all contributing cohorts, with 821 HCV-infected and 1216 HCV-uninfected participants (overall, n = 2037). Data collected include demographics, host genetics, HCV ribonucleic acid testing, alanine aminotransferase testing, HIV/hepatitis B virus testing, HCV therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality. Potential collaborators should contact the InC(3) PI Dr Kimberley Page (kPage@psg.ucsf.edu) for further information. PMID:23203695

Grebely, Jason; Morris, Meghan D; Rice, Thomas M; Bruneau, Julie; Cox, Andrea L; Kim, Arthur Y; McGovern, Barbara H; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lauer, Georg; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R; Hellard, Margaret; Prins, Maria; Dore, Gregory J; Page, Kimberly

2013-12-01

45

DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

46

Onset of obesity in a 36 year birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large national cohort of children studied from birth to 36 years was used to test the predictive value of childhood obesity for obesity in adult life. Only 21% (39) of obese 36 year olds had been obese at age 11 years, and even when associated social factors were taken into account the correctly predicted percentage was much lower than

F E Braddon; B Rodgers; M E Wadsworth; J M Davies

1986-01-01

47

The Southern Community Cohort Study: Investigating Health Disparities  

PubMed Central

Summary Over 73,700 adults age 40–79, nearly 70% African American, were recruited at community health centers across 12 southeastern states; individual characteristics were recorded and biologic specimens collected at baseline for later follow-up. The Southern Community Cohort Study is a unique national resource for assessing determinants of racial/ethnic differentials in diseases. PMID:20173283

Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Blot, William J.

2010-01-01

48

Cohort Profile: the French childhood cancer survivor study for leukaemia (LEA Cohort).  

PubMed

The main aim of the Leucémies de l'Enfant et l'Adolescent (LEA) project (Childhood and Adolescent Leukaemia) is to study the determinants (medical, socioeconomic, behavioural and environmental) of medium- and long-term outcomes of patients treated for childhood acute leukaemia (AL). The LEA study began in 2004 and is based on a French multicentric prospective cohort. Included are children treated for AL since January 1980 (incident and prevalent cases), surviving at month 24 for myeloblastic AL and lymphoblastic AL grafted in first complete remission or at month 48 for lymphoblastic AL not grafted in first complete remission. Information is collected during specific medical visits and notably includes the following data: socioeconomic data, AL history, physical late effects (such as fertility, cardiac function and metabolic syndrome) and quality of life. Data are collected every 2 years until the patient is 20 years old and has had a 10-year follow-up duration from diagnosis or last relapse. Thereafter, assessments are planned every 4 years. In active centres in 2013, eligible patients number more than 3000. The cohort has already included 2385 survivors, with rate of exhaustiveness of almost 80%. Data access can be requested from principal coordinators and must be approved by the steering committee. PMID:24639445

Berbis, Julie; Michel, Gérard; Baruchel, André; Bertrand, Yves; Chastagner, Pascal; Demeocq, François; Kanold, Justyna; Leverger, Guy; Plantaz, Dominique; Poirée, Marilyne; Stephan, Jean-Louis; Auquier, Pascal; Contet, Audrey; Dalle, Jean-Hugues; Ducassou, Stéphane; Gandemer, Virginie; Lutz, Patrick; Sirvent, Nicolas; Tabone, Marie-Dominique; Thouvenin-Doulet, Sandrine

2015-02-01

49

Cohort Profile: The Likoma Network Study (LNS)  

PubMed Central

The Likoma network study (LNS) investigates the sexual networks connecting the inhabitants of Likoma, a small island of Lake Malawi with high HIV prevalence. Whereas previous studies of sexual networks and HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan countries have focused solely on the personal networks of a small number of respondents, the LNS attempts to document the sexual networks of the entire adult population of Likoma. To do so, it uses a unique sociocentric study design, in which all members of the local population are contacted for a survey interview and are asked to nominate their five most recent sexual partners. Using these data, quasi-complete ‘maps’ of the sexual networks connecting inhabitants of the island can be constructed. These maps allow investigation of the impact of networks on HIV epidemiology and can inform mathematical models of HIV prevention. In addition to data on sexual networks, the LNS data include information on the social networks (e.g. friendship), socioeconomic characteristics and HIV status of Likoma’s residents. Baseline data were collected in 2005–06. A first follow-up was conducted in 2007–08 and a second follow-up is planned for early 2013. Access to the LNS data is contingent upon review of a short concept paper and forming collaborations with LNS investigators. PMID:23543589

Helleringer, Stéphane; Mkandawire, James; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Kohler, Hans-Peter

2014-01-01

50

Cohort profile: the European Male Ageing Study.  

PubMed

The European Male Ageing Study (EMAS) was designed to examine the hypothesis that inter-individual and regional variability in symptomatic dysfunctions, alterations in body composition and health outcomes in ageing men can be explained by different rates of decline in anabolic hormones, the most important of which being testosterone. Between 2003 and 2005, 3369 community-dwelling men, aged between 40 and 79 years, were recruited from population-based registers in eight European centres to participate in the baseline survey, with follow-up investigations performed a median of 4.3 years later. Largely, identical questionnaire instruments and clinical investigations were used in both phases to capture contemporaneous data on general health (including cardiovascular diseases and chronic conditions), physical and cognitive functioning, mental health, sexual function, quality of life, bone health, chronic pain, disease biomarkers, hormones (sex hormones and metabolic hormones) and genetic polymorphisms. EMAS actively encourages new collaborations, data sharing for validation studies and participation in genetic study consortia. Potential collaborators should contact the principal investigator (F.C.W.W.) in the first instance. PMID:22314965

Lee, David M; Pye, Stephen R; Tajar, Abdelouahid; O'Neill, Terence W; Finn, Joseph D; Boonen, Steven; Bartfai, Gyorgy; Casanueva, Felipe F; Forti, Gianni; Giwercman, Aleksander; Han, Thang S; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T; Kula, Krzysztof; Lean, Michael E J; Pendleton, Neil; Punab, Margus; Silman, Alan J; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Wu, Frederick C W

2013-04-01

51

Veterans aging cohort three-site study (VACS 3)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Outcomes for middle-aged and older individuals with HIV infection are poor, and are likely to be mediated by age-related differences in risks and resources (access to care, relationship with the provider, comorbid conditions, health habits, and changes brought about by aging). The goal of the Veterans Aging Cohort Three-Site Study (VACS 3) is to study the influence of age and

S Smola; A. C Justice; J Wagner; L Rabeneck; S Weissman; M Rodriguez-Barradas

2001-01-01

52

Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESIn Lithuania, there is little awareness of the notion that chronic symptoms may result from rear end collisions via the so-called whiplash injury. After most such collisions no contact with the health service is established. An opportunity therefore exists to study post-traumatic pain without the confounding factors present in western societies.METHODSIn a prospective, controlled inception cohort study, 210 victims of

Diana Obelieniene; Harald Schrader; Gunnar Bovim; Irena Misevic?iene; Trond Sand

1999-01-01

53

Maternal cortisol and offspring birthweight: results from a large prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Maternal psychosocial problems may affect fetal growth through maternal cortisol. This large prospective cohort study examined among 2810 women (1) the association of maternal cortisol levels with offspring birthweight and small for gestational age (SGA) risk and (2) the mediating role of maternal cortisol on the relation between maternal psychosocial problems and fetal growth. Pregnant women in Amsterdam were approached during their first prepartum visit (+/-13 weeks gestation). Total maternal cortisol level was determined in serum and maternal psychosocial indicators were collected through a questionnaire. Maternal cortisol levels were negatively related to offspring birthweight (B=-0.35; p<.001) and positively to SGA (OR=1.00; p=.027); after adjustment (for gestational age at birth, infant gender, ethnicity, maternal age, parity, BMI, and smoking), these effects were statistically insignificant. Post hoc analysis revealed a moderation effect by time of day: only in those women who provided a blood sample < or =09:00h (n=94), higher maternal cortisol levels were independently related to lower birthweights (B=-0.94; p=.025) and a higher SGA risk (OR=1.01; p=.032). Maternal psychosocial problems were not associated with cortisol levels. In conclusion, although an independent association between maternal cortisol levels in early pregnancy and offspring birthweight and SGA risk was not observed, exploratory post hoc analysis suggested that the association was moderated by time of day, such that the association was only present in the early morning. The hypothesis that maternal psychosocial problems affect fetal growth through elevated maternal cortisol levels could not be supported. PMID:19889503

Goedhart, Geertje; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Roseboom, Tessa J; van der Wal, Marcel F; Cuijpers, Pim; Bonsel, Gouke J

2010-06-01

54

Mysid Population Responses to Resource Limitation Differ from those Predicted by Cohort Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...

55

Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the Leisure World Cohort Study.  

PubMed

To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort—smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M

2015-01-15

56

Attending cultural events and cancer mortality: A Swedish cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Attendance at cultural events is associated with better survival and self-rated health. This study aimed to determine whether attendance at cinemas, theater, art galleries, live music shows, and museums was associated with cancer-related mortality. A randomly selected, cancer-free cohort of Swedish adults aged 25–74 years (n = 9011), formed in 1990–91, was followed up to 31 December 2003. The outcome measure was

Lars Olov Bygren; Sven-Erik Johansson; Benson Boinkum Konlaan; Andrej M. Grjibovski; Anna V. Wilkinson; Michael Sjöström

2009-01-01

57

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters.  

PubMed Central

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386

Hansen, E S

1990-01-01

58

Advertising Amsterdam: the rise and growth of an international advertising industry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cultural industries have experienced dynamic growth in the Netherlands since the 1990s. Amsterdam is the indisputable cultural and creative capital of the country and one of the city’s most prominent cultural industries is the advertising industry. This study has explored processes of globalisation in the international advertising industry and the position of Amsterdam herein. The book tells us how Amsterdam

R. Röling

2011-01-01

59

Reducing the Ecological Footprint of Inbound Tourism and Transport to Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental pressure of inbound tourism of both day-visitors and tourists to Amsterdam was analysed using the ecological footprint (EF) concept. The impacts of accommodation, activities, local transport and transport from the normal place of residence to Amsterdam were all included in the study. The total EF of inbound tourism to Amsterdam was 1.42 million hectares. Approximately 70% of the

Paul Peeters; Frans Schouten

2006-01-01

60

Comparison of Two Procedures to Estimate the Hospital Stay Attributable to Nosocomial Infection: Matched Cohort Study versus Analysis of Covariance of the Total Unmatched Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the results of a matched cohort study with those yielded by analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) in the cohort where the matched study was nested to assess whether the matching design underestimates (as it has been assumed) the extra length of hospitalization due to nosocomial infection. A total of 218 patients developed hospital infection in a cohort of 1483

Miguel Delgado-Rodr??guez; Marcelino Medina-Cuadros; Aurora Bueno-Cavanillas; Gabriel Mart??nez-Gallego; Trinidad Dierssen; Mar??a Sillero-Arenas

1997-01-01

61

Evaluating factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension: Isfahan cohort study, Iran  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND Hypertension (HTN) considers as one of the most common risk factors, which potentially raises the risk of cardiovascular disease. Regarding high prevalence of HTN among Iranian population this study designed to examine a range of socio-demographic and clinical variables to determine the association with failure to achieve blood pressure control in a cohort of hypertensive subjects. METHODS This retrospective cohort study is a part of Isfahan cohort study which carried out on adults aged 35 years old or more. Subjects with confirmed HTN entered in this sub-study. For all subjects questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, clinical data and lifestyle behavior completed by trained nurses. Uncontrolled HTN was defined as systolic and diastolic blood pressure more than 140/90 in the presence or absent of pharmacological treatment. RESULTS The prevalence of uncontrolled men was significantly higher than controlled in both 2001 and 2007 (P < 0.001). A significant association was found between sex and control of blood pressure: compared with women, being men [odds ratio (OR) = 2.31; 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.64-3.24] was significantly associated with uncontrolled HTN in 2001 and (OR = 2.38; 95% CI = 1.78-3.18). Among lifestyle behaviors, tendency for more consumption of salty foods increased the risk of uncontrolled HTN in 2001 by 1.73 times [OR = 1.73, 95% CI = 1.20-2.50, (P = 0.003)]. Patients who were naive to mono-therapy without considering the type of antihypertensive drug were found to be associated with uncontrolled blood pressure (OR = 0.14; 95 % CI =0.1-0.2). CONCLUSION Uncontrolled HTN was sex, marital status, diabetes, tendency to salty foods and medication adherence. Assessment of them presence of these risk factors is warranted to recommend an aggressive HTN management with the goal of reducing excessive risk of cardiovascular events caused by uncontrolled HTN.

Khosravi, Alireza; Pourheidar, Behrouz; Roohafza, Hamidreza; Moezzi, Masoumeh; Mousavi, Mehdi; Hajiannejad, Alireza; Bidram, Peyman; Gharipour, Mojgan; Shirani, Shahin; Golshahi, Jafar; Boshtam, Mansoureh; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

2014-01-01

62

Snoring during Pregnancy and Delivery Outcomes: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Study Objective: This cohort study examined the impact of maternal snoring on key delivery outcomes such as mode of delivery, infant birth centile, and small-for-gestational age. Design: Cohort study. Setting: A large tertiary medical center. Patients or Participants: Pregnant women in their third trimester were recruited between March 2007 and December 2010. Measurements and Results: Women were screened for habitual snoring, as a known marker for sleep disordered breathing. Outcome data were obtained from medical records following delivery and birth centiles were calculated. Of 1,673 women, a total of 35% reported habitual snoring (26% with pregnancy-onset snoring and 9% with chronic snoring). After adjusting for confounders, chronic snoring was associated with small-forgestational age (OR 1.65, 95%CI 1.02-2.66, P = 0.041) and elective cesarean delivery (OR 2.25, 95%CI 1.22-4.18, P = 0.008). Pregnancy-onset snoring was associated with emergency cesarean delivery (OR 1.68, 95%CI 1.22-2.30, P = 0.001). Conclusion: Maternal snoring during pregnancy is a risk factor for adverse delivery outcomes including cesarean delivery and small-for-gestational age. Screening pregnant women for symptoms of SDB may provide an early opportunity to identify women at risk of poor delivery outcomes. Clinical Trials Registration: Identifier: NCT01030003. Citation: O'Brien LM; Bullough AS; Owusu JT; Tremblay KA; Brincat CA; Chames MC; Kalbfleisch JD; Chervin RD. Snoring during pregnancy and delivery outcomes: a cohort study. SLEEP 2013;36(11):1625-1632. PMID:24179294

O'Brien, Louise M.; Bullough, Alexandra S.; Owusu, Jocelynn T.; Tremblay, Kimberley A.; Brincat, Cynthia A.; Chames, Mark C.; Kalbfleisch, John D.; Chervin, Ronald D.

2013-01-01

63

Nested Cohort  

Cancer.gov

NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

64

Cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: Academic medical center infertility practice.Patient(s): All patients treated for infertility in a 1-year time span.Intervention(s): Intrauterine inseminations, clomiphene citrate and IUI (CC-IUI), hMG and IUI (hMG-IUI), assisted reproductive techniques (ART), and neosalpingostomy by laparotomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): All medical charges and pregnancy outcomes associated with the treatments were obtained. Cost-effectiveness

Bradley J. Van Voorhis; Amy E. T. Sparks; Brian D. Allen; Dale W. Stovall; Craig H. Syrop; F. K. Chapler

1997-01-01

65

Predictors of relapse in problem gambling: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

To explore the variation of predictors of relapse in treatment and support seeking gamblers. A prospective cohort study with 158 treatment and support seeking problem gamblers in South Australia. Key measures were selected using a consensus process with international experts in problem gambling and related addictions. The outcome measures were Victorian Gambling Screen (VGS) and behaviours related to gambling. Potential predictors were gambling related cognitions and urge, emotional disturbance, social support, sensation seeking traits, and levels of work and social functioning. Mean age of participants was 44 years (SD = 12.92 years) and 85 (54 %) were male. Median time for participants enrolment in the study was 8.38 months (IQR = 2.57 months). Patterns of completed measures for points in time included 116 (73.4 %) with at least a 3 month follow-up. Using generalised mixed-effects regression models we found gambling related urge was significantly associated with relapse in problem gambling as measured by VGS (OR 1.29; 95 % CI 1.12-1.49) and gambling behaviours (OR 1.16; 95 % CI 1.06-1.27). Gambling related cognitions were also significantly associated with VGS (OR 1.06; 95 % CI 1.01-1.12). There is consistent association between urge to gamble and relapse in problem gambling but estimates for other potential predictors may have been attenuated because of methodological limitations. This study also highlighted the challenges presented from a cohort study of treatment and support seeking problem gamblers. PMID:24065314

Smith, David P; Battersby, Malcolm W; Pols, Rene G; Harvey, Peter W; Oakes, Jane E; Baigent, Michael F

2015-03-01

66

Study design of DIACORE (DIAbetes COhoRtE) – a cohort study of patients with diabetes mellitus type 2  

PubMed Central

Background Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) is highly associated with increased risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD), end stage renal disease (ESRD) and cardiovascular morbidity. Epidemiological and genetic studies generate hypotheses for innovative strategies in DM2 management by unravelling novel mechanisms of diabetes complications, which is essential for future intervention trials. We have thus initiated the DIAbetes COhoRtE study (DIACORE). Methods DIACORE is a prospective cohort study aiming to recruit 6000 patients of self-reported Caucasian ethnicity with prevalent DM2 for at least 10 years of follow-up. Study visits are performed in University-based recruiting clinics in Germany using standard operating procedures. All prevalent DM2 patients in outpatient clinics surrounding the recruiting centers are invited to participate. At baseline and at each 2-year follow-up examination, patients are subjected to a core phenotyping protocol. This includes a standardized online questionnaire and physical examination to determine incident micro- and macrovascular DM2 complications, malignancy and hospitalization, with a primary focus on renal events. Confirmatory outcome information is requested from patient records. Blood samples are obtained for a centrally analyzed standard laboratory panel and for biobanking of aliquots of serum, plasma, urine, mRNA and DNA for future scientific use. A subset of the cohort is subjected to extended phenotyping, e.g. sleep apnea screening, skin autofluorescence measurement, non-mydriatic retinal photography and non-invasive determination of arterial stiffness. Discussion DIACORE will enable the prospective evaluation of factors involved in DM2 complication pathogenesis using high-throughput technologies in biosamples and genetic epidemiological studies. PMID:23409726

2013-01-01

67

Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS): Cohort Study of Cancer- Inhibitory Factors in Men  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.

68

Criminality and suicide: a longitudinal Swedish cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate whether violent and non-violent offending were related to elevated risk of suicide. We also investigated whether the risk was higher among those with repeated offences and how experiences of substance misuse and suicide attempt modified the relationship. Design A nationwide prospective cohort study. Setting A register study of 48 834 conscripted men in 1969/1970 in Sweden followed up during a 35-year period in official registers. Participants A birth cohort of 48 834 men who were mandatory conscripted for military service in 1969/70 at the age of 18–20?years. Possible confounders were retrieved from psychological assessments at conscription and the cohort was linked to mortality and hospitalisation and crime records from 1970 onwards. Estimates of suicide risks were calculated as HR with 95% CIs using Cox proportional regression analyses with adjustment for potential confounding by family, psychological and behavioural factors including substance use and psychiatric disorders. Results Of the total cohort, 2671 (5.5%) persons died during the follow-up period. Of these, 615 (23%) persons died due to suicide. Non-violent criminality was evident for 29% and violent criminality for 4.7% of all the participants. In the crude model, the violent offenders had nearly five times higher risk (HR=4.69, 3.56 to 6.19) to die from suicide and non-violent criminals had about two times higher risk (HR=2.08, 1.72 to 2.52). In the fully adjusted model, the HRs were still significant for suicide in the non-violent group. Conclusions Experiences of violent or non-violent criminality were associated with increased risk of suicide. Comorbidity with alcohol and substance use and psychiatric disorders modified the risk, but the suicide risk remained significantly elevated for non-violent criminals. It is crucial to identify offenders and especially repeated offenders who also suffer from alcohol or substance misuse and psychiatric illness in clinical settings in order to prevent suicide. PMID:24491380

Stenbacka, M; Romelsjö, A; Jokinen, J

2014-01-01

69

Assessing the order of magnitude of outcomes in single-arm cohorts through systematic comparison with corresponding cohorts: An example from the AMOS study  

PubMed Central

Background When a therapy has been evaluated in the first clinical study, the outcome is often compared descriptively to outcomes in corresponding cohorts receiving other treatments. Such comparisons are often limited to selected studies, and often mix different outcomes and follow-up periods. Here we give an example of a systematic comparison to all cohorts with identical outcomes and follow-up periods. Methods The therapy to be compared (anthroposophic medicine, a complementary therapy system) had been evaluated in one single-arm cohort study: the Anthroposophic Medicine Outcomes Study (AMOS). The five largest AMOS diagnosis groups (A-cohorts: asthma, depression, low back pain, migraine, neck pain) were compared to all retrievable corresponding cohorts (C-cohorts) receiving other therapies with identical outcomes (SF-36 scales or summary measures) and identical follow-up periods (3, 6 or 12 months). Between-group differences (pre-post difference in an A-cohort minus pre-post difference in the respective C-cohort) were divided with the standard deviation (SD) of the baseline score of the A-cohort. Results A-cohorts (5 cohorts with 392 patients) were similar to C-cohorts (84 cohorts with 16,167 patients) regarding age, disease duration, baseline affection and follow-up rates. A-cohorts had ? 0.50 SD larger improvements than C-cohorts in 13.5% (70/517) of comparisons; improvements of the same order of magnitude (small or minimal differences: -0.49 to 0.49 SD) were found in 80.1% of comparisons; and C-cohorts had ? 0.50 SD larger improvements than A-cohorts in 6.4% of comparisons. Analyses stratified by diagnosis had similar results. Sensitivity analyses, restricting the comparisons to C-cohorts with similar study design (observational studies), setting (primary care) or interventions (drugs, physical therapies, mixed), or restricting comparisons to SF-36 scales with small baseline differences between A- and C-cohorts (-0.49 to 0.49 SD) also had similar results. Conclusion In this descriptive analysis, anthroposophic therapy was associated with SF-36 improvements largely of the same order of magnitude as improvements following other treatments. Although these non-concurrent comparisons cannot assess comparative effectiveness, they suggest that improvements in health status following anthroposophic therapy can be clinically meaningful. The analysis also demonstrates the value of a systematic approach when comparing a therapy cohort to corresponding therapy cohorts. PMID:18366683

Hamre, Harald J; Glockmann, Anja; Tröger, Wilfried; Kienle, Gunver S; Kiene, Helmut

2008-01-01

70

A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ({open_quotes}Yu-Cheng{close_quotes}) occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lan, Shou-Jen [Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung City (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1996-11-01

71

The Netherlands Cohort Study – Meat Investigation Cohort; a population-based cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and low meat consumers  

PubMed Central

Background Vegetarian diets have been associated with lower risk of chronic disease, but little is known about the health effects of low meat diets and the reliability of self-reported vegetarian status. We aimed to establish an analytical cohort over-represented with vegetarians, pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers, and to describe their lifestyle and dietary characteristics. In addition, we were able to compare self-reported vegetarians with vegetarians whose status has been confirmed by their response on the extensive food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Study methods Embedded within the Netherlands Cohort Study (n = 120,852; including 1150 self-reported vegetarians), the NLCS-Meat Investigation Cohort (NLCS-MIC) was defined by combining all FFQ-confirmed-vegetarians (n = 702), pescetarians (n = 394), and 1 day/week meat consumers (n = 1,396) from the total cohort with a random sample of 2–5 days/week- and 6–7 days/week meat consumers (n = 2,965 and 5,648, respectively). Results Vegetarians, pescetarians, and 1 day/week meat consumers had more favorable dietary intakes (e.g. higher fiber/vegetables) and lifestyle characteristics (e.g. lower smoking rates) compared to regular meat consumers in both sexes. Vegetarians adhered to their diet longer than pescetarians and 1 day/week meat consumers. 75% of vegetarians with a prevalent cancer at baseline had changed to this diet after diagnosis. 50% of self-reported vegetarians reported meat or fish consumption on the FFQ. Although the misclassification that occurred in terms of diet and lifestyle when merely relying on self-reporting was relatively small, the impact on associations with disease risk remains to be studied. Conclusion We established an analytical cohort over-represented with persons at the lower end of the meat consumption spectrum which should facilitate prospective studies of major cancers and causes of death using ?20.3 years of follow-up. PMID:24289207

2013-01-01

72

Economic crisis and smoking behaviour: prospective cohort study in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland and smoking behaviour at the national and individual levels. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study based on a mail survey (Health and Wellbeing in Iceland) assessed in 2007 and 2009. Setting National mail survey. Participants Representative cohort (n=3755) of Icelandic adults. Main outcome measure Smoking status. Results A significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking was observed from 2007 (pre-economic collapse) to 2009 (postcollapse) in both males (17.4–14.8%; p 0.01) and females (20.0–17.5%; p 0.01) in the cohort (n=3755). At the individual level of analysis, male former smokers experiencing a reduction in income during the same period were less likely to relapse (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.85). Female smokers were less likely to quit over time compared to males (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93). Among male former smokers who experienced an increase in income between 2007 and 2009, we observed an elevated risk of smoking relapse (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.15 to 14.00). Conclusions The national prevalence of smoking in Iceland declined following the 2008 economic crisis. This could be due to the procyclical relationship between macro-economic conditions and smoking behaviour (ie, hard times lead to less smoking because of lower affordability), or it may simply reflect a continuation of trends already in place prior to the crisis. In individual-level analysis, we find that former smokers who experienced a decline in income were less likely to relapse; and conversely, an increase in income raises the risk. However, caution is warranted since these findings are based on small numbers. PMID:23048059

McClure, Christopher Bruce; Valdimarsdóttir, Unnur A; Hauksdóttir, Arna; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-01-01

73

Retrospective mortality cohort study of Italian workers compensated for silicosis  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate cause specific mortality in a large cohort of Italian workers compensated for silicosis. Methods The cohort included 14?929 subjects (14?098 men and 831 women) compensated for silicosis between 1946 and 1979, alive on 1 January 1980, and resident in Tuscany (a region of central Italy with 3?547?000 inhabitants). Mortality follow up ranged from 1980 to 1999. Vital status and the causes of death were determined by linkage with the regional mortality registry and with the national mortality database. The cohort mortality rates were compared to the rates of the local reference population. SMRs and their 95% confidence intervals were computed assuming a Poisson distribution of the observed deaths. Specific SMR analyses were performed according to the level of disability, the year of compensation assignment, and the job type. Results A significant excess mortality was observed in male silicotics for cancer of the lung, trachea, and bronchus and cancer of the liver, respiratory diseases (silicosis, asbestosis, antracosilicosis, and other pneumoconiosis), and for tubercolosis. Statistically significant mortality excess was observed in female silicotics for respiratory diseases (specifically silicosis and other pneumoconiosis) and tuberculosis. Analyses for period of compensation assignment showed a twofold increased SMR for biliary tract cancer among female workers and for liver cancer among male workers compensated before 1970. Conclusions The excess mortality from respiratory tract cancers and respiratory tract diseases detected in Italian compensated silicotics are in agreement with previous epidemiological studies. Although the twofold increased risk for liver cancer among males is suggestive of a possible association with silica dust exposure, the finding needs to be confirmed. PMID:16847031

Marinaccio, A; Scarselli, A; Gorini, G; Chellini, E; Mastrantonio, M; Uccelli, R; Altavista, P; Pirastu, R; Merlo, D F; Nesti, M

2006-01-01

74

Determinants of workplace injury among Thai Cohort Study participants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes. PMID:23869104

Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

2013-01-01

75

A cohort study of Danish patients with interstitial lung diseases.  

PubMed

Interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) form a heterogeneous group of rare diseases characterised by varying degrees of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. We hypothesised that IPF and unclassifiable ILD were common in a Danish ILD cohort and that prognostic factors based on disease characteristics and comorbidities could be identified The aims of the PhD study were to describe the demographics of ILD in Central Denmark, to characterise the distribution of ILD diagnoses, and to assess prognostic factors in IPF and unclassifiable ILD. The study is based on a cohort of 431 ILD patients referred to our department during a 6-year period. All ILD diagnoses were re-evaluated according to current diagnostic criteria. Patients were followed from the time of first visit on suspicion of an ILD to the last visit to the centre, death, transplantation, or discharge from follow-up. The incidence of ILD was 4.1 per 100,000 inhabitants, and the incidence of IPF was 1.3 per 100,000 inhabitants in Central Den-mark. The most frequently occurring ILDs were IPF (28%), unclassifiable ILDs (extensive fibrotic disease and other unclassifiable ILDs) (24%), connective tissue disease-related ILD (14%), hyper-sensitivity pneumonitis (7%) and NSIP (7%). Cardiovascular dis-ease was present in 21% of the patients. The presence of cardio-vascular disease at the time of IPF diagnosis did not lead to increased mortality, whereas cardiovascular disease diagnosed during the course of IPF was a statistically significant predictor of mortality. Our study also showed that diabetes and concomitant anticoagulant therapy were associated with worse outcome in IPF, and that a simple HRCT scoring system could be used in the prediction of outcome in fibrotic ILDs. The study of unclassifiable ILD revealed two disease categories: one group characterised by extensive fibrotic disease and one characterised by more inflammatory features. The latter group was characterised by younger age and significantly better prognosis. We evaluated the pragmatic disease classification based on the clinical disease pattern included in the 2013 revision of the guidelines of diagnosis and treatment of interstitial lung diseases. We found that it was able to separate patients with unclassifiable ILD into categories with highly significant differences in survival. We also evaluated the ILD-GAP model, which is based on gender, age and pulmonary function (physiology), and found that it was a valuable predictor of survival in unclassifiable ILD. In a multivariate model, the two prediction scores showed significant individual contribution to the prognostic assessment. The present study has provided the first estimate of ILD and IPF incidence in the Danish population and has shown that demo-graphics and survival of IPF in this cohort were comparable to what has been reported in other studies. Comorbidities were common among patients with IPF, and the results of the study have led us to believe that careful diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities are important in order to optimise outcome in patients with IPF, although our findings need to be confirmed in larger studies. Unclassifiable ILD is frequent in daily clinical practice but has not been characterised in detail. Our study showed that it was possible to identify predictors of outcome and to validate the ILD-GAP model in this cohort. The study also showed that the Disease Behaviour Classification can be used in the management of patients with unclassifiable ILD. PMID:25872544

Hyldgaard, Charlotte

2015-04-01

76

Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among men who have sex with men attending an STI clinic in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is unknown whether this is also the case in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sexually transmitted infection outpatient low-threshold clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants Between October 2008 and April 2010, a total of 211 men were included, in two groups: (1) 74 MSM with clinical signs of a skin or soft tissue infection (symptomatic group) and (2) 137 MSM without clinical signs of such infections (asymptomatic group). Primary outcome measures S aureus and MRSA infection and/or colonisation. Swabs were collected from the anterior nasal cavity, throat, perineum, penile glans and, if present, from infected skin lesions. Culture for S aureus was carried out on blood agar plates and for MRSA on selective chromagar plates after enrichment in broth. If MRSA was found, the spa-gene was sequenced. Secondary outcome measures Associated demographic characteristics, medical history, risk factors for colonisation with S aureus and high-risk sexual behaviour were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. Results The prevalence of S aureus colonisation in the nares was 37%, the pharynx 11%, the perianal region 12%, the glans penis 10% and in skin lesions 40%. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, anogenital S aureus colonisation was significantly associated with the symptomatic group (p=0.01) and marginally with HIV (p=0.06). MRSA was diagnosed in two cases: prevalence 0.9% (95% CI 0.1% to 3.4%)). Neither had CA-MRSA strains. Conclusions CA-MRSA among MSM in Amsterdam is rare. Genital colonisation of S aureus is not associated with high-risk sexual behaviour. PMID:23468471

Joore, I K C W; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; de Neeling, A J; van Dam, Alje; de Vries, Henry J C

2013-01-01

77

Spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities: a cohort study in hungary.  

PubMed

The spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities was studied in a cohort of patients in Hungary. A search for etiologies and assessment of the degree of intellectual disability were carried out. The study included 241 (131 boys) patients. Disability occurred without any prenatal, perinatal, and/or neonatal adverse events in 167 patients. They were classified into the following subgroups: genetic syndromes with recognized etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability in association with dysmorphic features but unknown etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability without dysmorphic features and recognized etiology, brain malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, leukoencephalopathies, epileptic syndromes, developmental language impairment, and neuromuscular disorders. Adverse events occurred in 74 children classified into subgroups such as cerebral palsy after delivery preterm or at term, and disabilities without cerebral palsy. The etiology was identified in 66.4%, and genetic diagnosis was found in 19.5%. Classification of neurodevelopmental disorders contribute to etiological diagnosis, proper rehabilitation, and genetic counseling. PMID:24868008

Gergev, Gyurgyinka; Máté, Adrienn; Zimmermann, Alíz; Rárosi, Ferenc; Sztriha, László

2015-03-01

78

Cohort Study of Intracameral Moxifloxacin in Postoperative Endophthalmitis Prophylaxis  

PubMed Central

We conducted a cohort study to evaluate post-cataract surgery endophthalmitis rates in relation to prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin administration. A total of 2332 patients (2674 eyes) who underwent phacoemulsification by a single surgeon from January 2007 through December 2012 were included in the study. A total of 1056 eyes did not receive intracameral prophylactic moxifloxacin and the antibiotic was injected in 1618 eyes. The incidence of presumed postoperative endophthalmitis in the 2 groups was calculated. The rate of presumed infectious endophthalmitis after cataract surgery between January 2007 and June 2009 (without intracameral moxifloxacin) was 0.094%. The rate in the second period, from July 2009 to December 2012 (with prophylactic intracameral moxifloxacin), was 0%. In our patients, a decline in the incidence of presumed infectious postoperative endophthalmitis appeared to be associated with the application of intracameral moxifloxacin. PMID:24526838

Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Sánchez, Mary Alejandra; Camacho, Paul Anthony

2014-01-01

79

New Insights from Major Prospective Cohort Studies with Cardiac CT.  

PubMed

Each year, 11 million patients present in the USA with new symptoms suggestive of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). Most undergo stress testing but <10 % demonstrate myocardial ischemia. Moreover, up to 60 % will have CAD which adversely affects outcomes. Cardiac computed tomography (CCT) is being used increasingly as an alternative to stress testing to rule out obstructive CAD in symptomatic patients, and large cohort studies in asymptomatic patients have identified burden of coronary atherosclerosis as a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). This review article will critically evaluate major clinical studies on the use of CCT in both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients and discuss the lessons for the clinical use of CCT. PMID:25725603

Janjua, Sumbal A; Hoffmann, Udo

2015-04-01

80

Descriptive Epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. Purpose To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. Results As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (<1%), and no response (<1%). Previous graft present at the time of injury was 70% autograft, 27% allograft, 2% combination, and 1% unknown. Sixty-two percent were more than 2 years removed from their last reconstruction. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction was 45% autograft, 54% allograft, and more than 1% both allograft and autograft. Meniscus and/or chondral damage was found in 90% of patients. Conclusion The MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population. PMID:20889962

2013-01-01

81

Weight at Birth and Subsequent Fecundability: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. Method In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study “Snart-Gravid”, conducted during 2007–2012. Participants were 18–40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, 3,000–3,999 grams, and ?4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. Results Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000–3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24) for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, and ?4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. Conclusion Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability. PMID:24736472

Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H.; Ehrenstein, Vera; Heitmann, Berit L.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.

2014-01-01

82

Historical cohort study of mortality among chemical researchers  

SciTech Connect

This historical cohort study examined mortality among 1,510 white male researchers employed from 1950-1959 who handled chemicals. During 1950-1979, 95 deaths were observed, significantly less than the 173.2 predicted by general population rates (SMR = 55). This was due to deficits in overall cancer deaths (SMR = 66), particularly respiratory cancer (SMR = 28), and reduced mortality from circulatory diseases and accidents. Those who had worked directly with chemicals for more than 5 yr and those who had the most hazardous exposures experienced similar low mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory cancer. Although deaths due to digestive cancer were elevated among those with 1-5 yr of work experience, there was no excess among those working more than 5 yr as would be expected from occupational exposure.

Maher, K.V.; Defonso, L.R.

1986-03-01

83

2004 Update of Dosimetry for the Utah Thyroid Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s, individual thyroid doses and uncertainties were estimated for members of a cohort of children identified in 1965 in Utah and Nevada who had potentially been exposed to fallout from the Nevada Test Site. That reconstruction rep- resented the first comprehensive assessment of doses received by the cohort and was the first large effort to assess the un-

Steven L. Simon; Lynn R. Anspaugh; F. Owen Hoffman; Alan E. Scholl; Mary B. Stone; Brian A. Thomas; Joseph L. Lyon

2006-01-01

84

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort members: Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, bi...

85

Multicenter Cohort Study of In-Hospital Pediatric Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Objectives (1) Describe the clinical characteristics, hospital courses and outcomes of a cohort of children cared for within the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest with sustained return of circulation between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, and (2) identify factors associated with hospital mortality in this population. These data are required to prepare a randomized trial of therapeutic hypothermia on neurobehavioral outcomes in children after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Fifteen children’s hospitals associated with PECARN. Patients Patients between one day and 18 years of age who had cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and received chest compressions for >1 minute, and had a return of circulation for >20 minutes. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results A total of 353 patients met entry criteria; 172 (48.7%) survived to hospital discharge. Among survivors, 132 (76.7%) had good neurological outcome documented by Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scores. After adjustment for age, gender and first documented cardiac arrest rhythm, variables available prior to and during the arrest that were independently associated with increased mortality included pre-existing hematologic, oncologic, or immunologic disorders, genetic or metabolic disorders, presence of an endotracheal tube prior to the arrest, and the use of sodium bicarbonate during the arrest. Variables associated with decreased mortality included post-operative CPR. Extending the time frame to include variables available prior to, during, and within 12 hours following arrest, variables independently associated with increased mortality included the use of calcium during the arrest. Variables associated with decreased mortality included higher minimum blood pH and pupillary responsiveness. Conclusions Many factors are associated with hospital mortality among children after in-hospital cardiac arrest and return of circulation. Such factors must be considered when designing a trial of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in pediatric patients. PMID:19451846

Meert, Kathleen L.; Donaldson, Amy; Nadkarni, Vinay; Tieves, Kelly S.; Schleien, Charles L.; Brilli, Richard J.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Shaffner, D. H.; Levy, Fiona; Statler, Kimberly; Dalton, H.J.; van der Jagt, Elise W.; Hackbarth, Richard; Pretzlaff, Robert; Hernan, Lynn; Dean, J. Michael; Moler, Frank W.

2009-01-01

86

STATUS REPORT, BEGIN TO DEVELOP COMPLETE OPERATIONS MANUALS FOR THE COHORT: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

As a precursor to the National Children's Study (NCS), the North Carolina Cohort Study (NC Cohort Study) will provide the opportunity to field test procedures to better inform the implementation of the NCS. In order to test some of the study hypotheses, it will be important to ob...

87

The Generation R Study: design and cohort update 2010  

PubMed Central

The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes of normal and abnormal growth, development and health during fetal life, childhood and adulthood. The study focuses on four primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) diseases in childhood; and (4) health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. In total, 9,778 mothers with a delivery date from April 2002 until January 2006 were enrolled in the study. General follow-up rates until the age of 4 years exceed 75%. Data collection in mothers, fathers and preschool children included questionnaires, detailed physical and ultrasound examinations, behavioural observations, and biological samples. A genome wide association screen is available in the participating children. Regular detailed hands on assessment are performed from the age of 5 years onwards. Eventually, results forthcoming from the Generation R Study have to contribute to the development of strategies for optimizing health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. PMID:20967563

van Duijn, Cock M.; van der Heijden, Albert J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert

2010-01-01

88

Cohort Profile: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing  

PubMed Central

The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ?50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

2013-01-01

89

Cohort Profile: The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC)  

PubMed Central

The Quebec Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children (QLSKC) is an ongoing population-based prospective longitudinal study presently spanning ages 6–29 years, designed to study the prevalence, risk factors, development and consequences of behavioural and emotional problems during elementary school. Kindergarten boys and girls attending French-speaking public schools in the Canadian province of Quebec during the 1986–87 and 1987–88 school years were included in the cohort: 2000 children representative of the population and 1017 children exhibiting disruptive behaviour problems. To date, 12 waves of data have been collected, and three generations of participants have been involved in the study (i.e. the study child, his parents and the first child of the study child). Information on demographics, psycho-social and lifestyle factors, child and family member characteristics (physical and mental health), and outcomes such as psychiatric diagnoses, delinquency or school diploma were assessed during three important developmental stages (childhood, adolescence and early adulthood). Blood samples were also collected in early adulthood for genetic analyses. Information on publications, available data and access to data can be found on the following website (http://www.gripinfo.ca/Grip/Public/www/). PMID:23159828

Tremblay, Richard E

2014-01-01

90

Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description  

PubMed Central

Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10?years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N?=?5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N?=?351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in the carotid or femoral arteries. Discussion Baseline data from the AWHS show a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of sublinical atherosclerosis. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis progression and the link of disease progression to traditional and emergent risk factors. PMID:22712826

2012-01-01

91

Institute of Phonetic Sciences, University of Amsterdam,  

E-print Network

Institute of Phonetic Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Proceedings 26 (2005), 7-23. SAMENSPRAAK. ACQUIRING AND IMPLEMENTING PHONETIC KNOWLEDGE Louis C.W. Pols Abstract This is the slightly adapted English is on acquiring phonetic knowledge via phonetics research, via speech databases, as well as in studying phonetics

Geest, Harm G. van der

92

Sleep quality and duration are related to microvascular function: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

Sleep and sleep disorders are related to cardiovascular disease, and microvascular function is an early cardiovascular disease marker. Therefore, the relationship of sleep (measured in sleep quality and duration) with microvascular function was examined in healthy adults. Sleep quality was assessed with the validated Sleep Wake Experience List (SWEL) questionnaire. Duration of sleep was self-reported in an additional question. Microvascular function was measured using nailfold capillaroscopy. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between sleep and microvascular function. Potential confounders included physical activity, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index and several biochemical parameters. Analyses were performed in 259 participants (116 men). For women reporting insufficient (<7 h) sleep duration, microvascular function (post-ischaemic capillary recruitment) was significantly lower (b = -11.17; P = 0.04) compared to women reporting sufficient sleep duration. There was no relationship between sleep quality and microvascular function in females. In males, a trend towards lower capillary recruitment was found in those reporting a combination of poor sleep quality and insufficient duration (b = -7.54; P = 0.09), compared to those reporting good sleep quality as well as sufficient duration. This study suggests an association between sleep and microvascular function. Which aspects of sleep exactly affect microvascular function, and if indeed the association is different between males and females in other samples, needs further research. PMID:25402367

Bonsen, Thomas; Wijnstok, Nienke J; Hoekstra, Trynke; Eringa, Etto C; Serné, Erik H; Smulders, Yvo M; Twisk, Jos W R

2015-04-01

93

Genome-wide association study of survival from sepsis due to pneumonia: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Sepsis continues to be a major cause of death, disability, and health-care expenditure worldwide. Despite evidence suggesting that host genetics can influence sepsis outcomes, no specific loci have yet been convincingly replicated. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants that influence sepsis survival. Methods We did a genome-wide association study in three independent cohorts of white adult patients admitted to intensive care units with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock (as defined by the International Consensus Criteria) due to pneumonia or intra-abdominal infection (cohorts 1–3, n=2534 patients). The primary outcome was 28 day survival. Results for the cohort of patients with sepsis due to pneumonia were combined in a meta-analysis of 1553 patients from all three cohorts, of whom 359 died within 28 days of admission to the intensive-care unit. The most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a further 538 white patients with sepsis due to pneumonia (cohort 4), of whom 106 died. Findings In the genome-wide meta-analysis of three independent pneumonia cohorts (cohorts 1–3), common variants in the FER gene were strongly associated with survival (p=9·7?×?10?8). Further genotyping of the top associated SNP (rs4957796) in the additional cohort (cohort 4) resulted in a combined p value of 5·6?×?10?8 (odds ratio 0·56, 95% CI 0·45–0·69). In a time-to-event analysis, each allele reduced the mortality over 28 days by 44% (hazard ratio for death 0·56, 95% CI 0·45–0·69; likelihood ratio test p=3·4 × 10?9, after adjustment for age and stratification by cohort). Mortality was 9·5% in patients carrying the CC genotype, 15·2% in those carrying the TC genotype, and 25·3% in those carrying the TT genotype. No significant genetic associations were identified when patients with sepsis due to pneumonia and intra-abdominal infection were combined. Interpretation We have identified common variants in the FER gene that associate with a reduced risk of death from sepsis due to pneumonia. The FER gene and associated molecular pathways are potential novel targets for therapy or prevention and candidates for the development of biomarkers for risk stratification. Funding European Commission and the Wellcome Trust. PMID:25533491

Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Gordon, Anthony C; Hutton, Paula; Steffens, Michael; Nuamah, Rosamond; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Parks, Tom; Chapman, Stephen J; Davenport, Emma E; Elliott, Katherine S; Bion, Julian; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F; Caulfield, Mark J; Mein, Charles; Bloos, Frank; Bobek, Ilona; Cotogni, Paolo; Sramek, Vladimir; Sarapuu, Silver; Kobilay, Makbule; Ranieri, V Marco; Rello, Jordi; Sirgo, Gonzalo; Weiss, Yoram G; Russwurm, Stefan; Schneider, E Marion; Reinhart, Konrad; Holloway, Paul A H; Knight, Julian C; Garrard, Chris S; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R; Stüber, Frank; Hill, Adrian V S; Hinds, Charles J

2015-01-01

94

Schizophrenia, Alcohol Abuse, and Violent Behavior: A 26Year Followup Study of an Unselected Birth Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that schizophrenia and alco- holism are associated with violent behavior. But so far there are no published studies from unselected cohorts quantifying the actual risk associated with schizophre- nia both with and without comorbid alcoholism. In this study, an unselected birth cohort (n = 11,017) was prospectively followed to the age of 26, and data on

Pirkko Rasanen; Jari Tiihonen; Matti Isohanni; Jari Lehtonen

95

Schizophrenia, Alcohol Abuse, and Violent Behavior: A 26Year Followup Study of an Unselected Birth Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that schizophrenia and alcoholism are associated with violent behavior. But so far there are no published studies from unselected cohorts quantifying the actual risk associated with schizophrenia both with and without comorbid alcoholism. In this study, an unselected birth cohort (n = 11,017) was prospectively followed to the age of 26, and data on psychiatric disorders

Pirkko Räsänen; Jari Tiihonen; Matti Isohanni; Paula Rantakallio; Jari Lehtonen; Juha Moring

1998-01-01

96

Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the predictors of new eating disorders in an adolescent cohort. Design Cohort study over 3 years with six waves. Subjects Students, initially aged 14›15 years, from 44 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Outcome measures Weight (kg), height (cm), dieting (adolescent dieting scale), psychiatric morbidity (revised clinical interview schedule), and eating disorder (branched eating disorders

G C Patton; R Selzer; C Coffey; J B Carlin; R Wolfe; Parkville Victoria

97

Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study  

E-print Network

Induced and spontaneous abortion and breast cancer risk: results from the E3N cohort study Xavier or induced abortion. E3N is a large-scale cohort study collecting detailed information on environmental/or spontaneous abortion, using the data from the 100,000 women aged 40­65 at entrance in 1990. Among them, over 2

Boyer, Edmond

98

Coffee and risk of death from hepatocellular carcinoma in a large cohort study in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the relation between coffee drinking and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) mortality in the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). In total, 110 688 cohort members (46 399 male and 64 289 female subjects) aged 40–79 years were grouped by coffee intake into three categories: one or more cups per day, less than one cup

Y Kurozawa; I Ogimoto; A Shibata; T Nose; T Yoshimura; H Suzuki; R Sakata; Y Fujita; S Ichikawa; N Iwai; A Tamakoshi

2005-01-01

99

Seventh-day Adventist Cohort Study: Cancer Epidemiology in Adventists-A Low Risk Group  

Cancer.gov

The investigators have formed a cohort study of 71,000 white and 25,000 black adult Seventh-day Adventists who were enrolled from across the United States. This cohort will enable questions about diet and cancer to be addressed that are not easily answered with other study populations.

100

Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

101

Cholelithiasis in Childhood: A Cohort Study in North of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective Cholelithiasis rarely occurs in children but the increased use of ultrasonography has led to increased detection of gallstones in patients. The epidemiology and predisposing factors of cholelithiasis vary in different populations. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and to evaluate management and outcome of patients referred to Amirkola Children's Hospital jn Babol. Methods This cohort study was performed on children with cholelithiasis referred during 2000 to 2011. Cholelithiasis was diagnosed with ultrasonography. The data was obtained based on history, physical exam, clinical and paraclinical investigations and analyzed by SPSS version 18. P-value <0.05 was considered being significant. Findings From the 66 patients with cholelithiasis, 39 (59.1%) were males. The mean age at diagnosis was 6.6±4.5 years. The most common predisposing factor included ceftriaxone therapy (27.3%), hemolytic diseases (13.6%), hepatobiliary diseases (7.5%) and cystic fibrosis (7.5%). In 30.3% of patients, no predisposing factor was detected. The most common complaint was abdominal pain (67%). Among the patients in whom abdominal X-Ray was performed, only 20% had radiopaque gallstones; 6 (9%) patients underwent cholecystectomy. Conclusion According to this study, ceftriaxone therapy and hemolytic diseases were the most common predisposing factors in children with cholelithiasis in our area and cholecystectomy had not been needed in most patients. PMID:24800022

Dooki, Mohammad-Reza Esmaeili; Norouzi, Alireza

2013-01-01

102

Cohort Profile: The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) Study.  

PubMed

The Nicotine Dependence in Teens (NDIT) study is a prospective cohort investigation of 1294 students recruited in 1999-2000 from all grade 7 classes in a convenience sample of 10 high schools in Montreal, Canada. Its primary objectives were to study the natural course and determinants of cigarette smoking and nicotine dependence in novice smokers. The main source of data was self-report questionnaires administered in class at school every 3 months from grade 7 to grade 11 (1999-2005), for a total of 20 survey cycles during high school education. Questionnaires were also completed after graduation from high school in 2007-08 and 2011-12 (survey cycles 21 and 22, respectively) when participants were aged 20 and 24 years on average, respectively. In addition to its primary objectives, NDIT has embedded studies on obesity, blood pressure, physical activity, team sports, sedentary behaviour, diet, genetics, alcohol use, use of illicit drugs, second-hand smoke, gambling, sleep and mental health. Results to date are described in 58 publications, 20 manuscripts in preparation, 13 MSc and PhD theses and 111 conference presentations. Access to NDIT data is open to university-appointed or affiliated investigators and to masters, doctoral and postdoctoral students, through their primary supervisor (www.nditstudy.ca). PMID:25022274

O'Loughlin, Jennifer; Dugas, Erika N; Brunet, Jennifer; DiFranza, Joseph; Engert, James C; Gervais, Andre; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Karp, Igor; Low, Nancy C; Sabiston, Catherine; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Tyndale, Rachel F; Auger, Nathalie; Auger, Nathalie; Mathieu, Belanger; Tracie, Barnett; Chaiton, Michael; Chenoweth, Meghan J; Constantin, Evelyn; Contreras, Gisèle; Kakinami, Lisa; Labbe, Aurelie; Maximova, Katerina; McMillan, Elizabeth; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Pabayo, Roman; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Tremblay, Michèle; Wellman, Robert J; Hulst, Andraeavan; Paradis, Gilles

2014-07-13

103

The PREVENT study: a prospective cohort study to identify mid-life  

E-print Network

The PREVENT study: a prospective cohort study to identify mid-life biomarkers of late-onset Alzheimer's disease Craig W Ritchie,1,2 Karen Ritchie3,4,5 To cite: Ritchie CW, Ritchie K. The PREVENT study Neuroepidemiology of Ageing Research Unit, Imperial College, London, UK 4 U1061 Neuropsychiatry, Inserm, Montpellier

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

104

Strategies behind the Establishment of a Developmental Cohort Study in the Tottori City  

PubMed Central

Background The Tottori study group, part of the JCS, presides over a community-based cohort study started when subjects—children living in Tottori City—were 5 years old. The social aspects of conducting a cohort study should also be made public, as this information is crucial for conducting community-based cohort studies. Methods Documents pertaining to social aspects implemented by the Tottori study group between 2004 and 2008 were arranged chronologically. Information which is crucial for conducting community-based cohort studies were extracted and classified into several categories. Results Five categories were extracted from the documents: research staff, supporting committee, recruitment, maintenance of motivation and disclosure. Implementation of the social aspects described in maintenance of motivation resulted in fewer subjects dropping out of the study and a re-recruitment rate of approximately 90%. Conclusions The following factors are essential for a successful developmental cohort study of children: 1) A birth cohort study should be planned in hospitals with medical staff such as obstetricians and pediatricians; 2) An interdisciplinary group composed of medical or psychological clinicians and researchers with abundant experience in epidemiological study should be included; 3) If possible, an expert or widely known individual in the study’s target field should be included as a member of the study staff; 4) For long cohort studies, a researcher with expertise in school education should be included; 5) A support committee should be organized as an external part of the study team. PMID:20179363

Koeda, Tatsuya; Ishida, Hiraku; Ishigami, Reiko; Takeuchi, Ariko; Terakawa, Shinako; Kobayashi, Katsutoshi; Seki, Ayumi; Tamaru, Toshitaka

2010-01-01

105

Cohort Profile: Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil)  

PubMed Central

Chronic diseases are a global problem, yet information on their determinants is generally scant in low- and middle-income countries. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) aims to contribute relevant information regarding the development and progression of clinical and subclinical chronic diseases, particularly cardiovascular diseases and diabetes, in one such setting. At Visit 1, we enrolled 15 105 civil servants from predefined universities or research institutes. Baseline assessment (2008–10) included detailed interviews and measurements to assess social and biological determinants of health, as well as various clinical and subclinical conditions related to diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and mental health. A second visit of interviews and examinations is under way (2012–14) to enrich the assessment of cohort exposures and to detect initial incident events. Annual surveillance has been conducted since 2009 for the ascertainment of incident events. Biological samples (sera, plasma, urine and DNA) obtained at both visits have been placed in long-term storage. Baseline data are available for analyses, and collaboration via specific research proposals directed to study investigators is welcome. PMID:24585730

Schmidt, Maria Inês; Duncan, Bruce B; Mill, José Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Chor, Dóra; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Aquino, Estela ML; Passos, Valéria Maria Azeredo; Matos, Sheila MA; Molina, Maria del Carmen B; Carvalho, Marilia S; Bensenor, Isabela M

2015-01-01

106

Cohort profile: Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS).  

PubMed

The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) was originally established to study the long-term effects of early-life undernutrition on risk of cardiovascular disease. Its aims were subsequently expanded to include trans-generational influences of other environmental and genetic factors on chronic diseases in rural India. It builds on the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (HNT) conducted in 1987-90 to compare the effects on birthweight of a protein-calorie supplement for pregnant women and children. The index children of HNT and their mothers were retraced and examined in 2003-05, and the children re-examined as young adults aged 18-21 years in 2009-10. The cohort was expanded to include both parents and siblings of the index children in a recently completed follow-up conducted in 2010-12 (N=?6225 out of 10,213 participants). Recruitment of the remaining residents of these 29 villages (N=?55,000) in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh is now under way. Extensive data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, medical, anthropometric, physiological, vascular and body composition measures, DNA, stored plasma, and assays of lipids and inflammatory markers on APCAPS participants are available. Details of how to access these data are available from the corresponding author. PMID:24019421

Kinra, Sanjay; Radha Krishna, K V; Kuper, Hannah; Rameshwar Sarma, K V; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Gupta, Vipin; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Bhogadi, Santhi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kumar, Aniket; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-10-01

107

Childhood social hardships and fertility: A prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of lifetime social hardships on fertility. Methods Using the British National Child Development Study, a longitudinal cohort study, the impact of exposure to childhood hardships on becoming pregnant, reported infertility, and time to pregnancy was investigated. 6477 women reported on whether they had become pregnant by age 41, and 5198 women had data on at least one pregnancy. Factor analysis was used to identify six types of childhood hardships (as reported by parent, child, social worker, or teacher); retrospective report of child abuse was also examined. Logistic regression and discrete failure-time analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Never-married women were more likely to have become pregnant at some point if they had experienced more childhood hardships. Retrospectively reported child abuse was associated with an increased likelihood of having been told one was unable to have children. Among ever-married women, childhood hardships were associated with reduced fecundability, but the association was weakened by adjustment for adult social class. Conclusions The relationship between childhood adversity and adult fertility is complex. Future research should investigate pathways between characteristics of adversities and fertility. PMID:24404568

Harville, Emily W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

2013-01-01

108

Feasibility of a cohort study on health risks caused by occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields  

PubMed Central

Background The aim of this study was to examine the feasibility of performing a cohort study on health risks from occupational exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in Germany. Methods A set of criteria was developed to evaluate the feasibility of such a cohort study. The criteria aimed at conditions of exposure and exposure assessment (level, duration, preferably on an individual basis), the possibility to assemble a cohort and the feasibility of ascertaining various disease endpoints. Results Twenty occupational settings with workers potentially exposed to RF-EMF and, in addition, a cohort of amateur radio operators were considered. Based on expert ratings, literature reviews and our set of predefined criteria, three of the cohorts were identified as promising for further evaluation: the personnel (technicians) of medium/short wave broadcasting stations, amateur radio operators, and workers on dielectric heat sealers. After further analyses, the cohort of workers on dielectric heat sealers seems not to be feasible due to the small number of exposed workers available and to the difficulty of assessing exposure (exposure depends heavily on the respective working process and mixture of exposures, e.g. plastic vapours), although exposure was highest in this occupational setting. The advantage of the cohort of amateur radio operators was the large number of persons it includes, while the advantage of the cohort of personnel working at broadcasting stations was the quality of retrospective exposure assessment. However, in the cohort of amateur radio operators the exposure assessment was limited, and the cohort of technicians was hampered by the small number of persons working in this profession. Conclusion The majority of occupational groups exposed to RF-EMF are not practicable for setting up an occupational cohort study due to the small numbers of exposed subjects or due to exposure levels being only marginally higher than those of the general public. PMID:19480652

2009-01-01

109

Application of meta-analysis in reviewing occupational cohort studies.  

PubMed Central

Meta-analysis has been used increasingly in reviewing and summarising epidemiological studies. Reviews incorporating meta-analyses have appeared in medical journals in increasing numbers. Although there are several methodology papers on meta-analysis, most of these papers have been written primarily for discussion among epidemiologists. The present paper considers some of the basic methodological issues, the more practical aspects of meta-analysis, and targets an audience of mainly non-epidemiologists. Thus, the main objective of this paper is to provide some basic guidelines for non-epidemiologists to evaluate meta-analysis in occupational cohort studies. In this methodology paper, the limitations and problems of traditional qualitative reviews are pointed out. Some of these problems can be dealt with by quantitative meta-analysis. The potential limitations and benefits of quantitative meta-analysis are discussed. Rather than replacing traditional qualitative review, quantitative meta-analysis should be made part of the overall assessment. The term "meta-review" is proposed to emphasise the importance of both qualitative and quantitative components in a comprehensive review process. The basic steps in a meta-review are outlined, with a discussion on how to recognise and avoid some of the problems which are likely to occur at each step. A meta-review is useful in selecting studies, and in organising, presenting, and summarising results from individual studies. A meta-review can also be used to detect heterogeneity among studies. Major benefits of conducting a meta-analysis (the quantitative component in a meta-review) include the increase in statistical power and the estimate of a properly weighted summary risk estimate. PMID:8994397

Wong, O; Raabe, G K

1996-01-01

110

A cohort study on cancer incidence among Danish gardeners.  

PubMed

This study was performed to examine the cancer risk of Danish gardeners having been highly exposed to pesticides. We have followed a cohort of 4,015 employed gardeners (859 females and 3,156 males) from May 1975 until the end of 1984 with regard to cancer incidence. The observed incidence was compared with expected numbers calculated from national incidence rates. For all cancer sites combined, the standardized morbidity ratio (SMbR) was 104. Among male gardeners a significantly increased incidence was seen for soft tissue sarcoma (SMbR = 526, 95% confidence interval (CI): 109-1,538), an chronic lymphatic leukemia (SMbR = 275, 95% CI: 101-599). The incidence of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was twice that which was expected (SMbR = 200, 95% CI: 86-393). We suggest that some of the pesticides to which the gardeners have been exposed are capable of initiating or promoting the development of malignant neoplasms in tissues of mesenchymal origin. PMID:1609812

Hansen, E S; Hasle, H; Lander, F

1992-01-01

111

Trajectories of pain in adolescents: A prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Identification of different patterns of change in pain over time – trajectories – has the potential to provide new information on the course of pain. Describing trajectories among adolescents would improve understanding of how pain conditions can develop. This prospective cohort study identified distinct trajectories of pain among adolescents (11–14 years) in the general population (n = 1336). Latent class growth analysis was carried out on the self-reported frequency of back pain, headache, stomach pain and facial pain, which was collected every 3 months for 3 years. Forty four percent of adolescents had a ‘painful’ trajectory for at least one pain site, and 12% reported persistent pain at one or more pain site. Headache was the most common; 25% of subjects were in a ‘painful’ trajectory and 5% reported persistent pain. Back pain and stomach pain were also common, with 22% and 21% of subjects in painful trajectories, respectively. Facial pain was the least common, with only 10% in a painful trajectory, and 1% reporting persistent pain. Trajectory characteristics were similar at baseline across pain sites, with the more painful trajectories having significantly higher levels of depression and somatization, lower life satisfaction and more females. Trajectories did not differ significantly at baseline in physical activity levels or BMI. Agreement of trajectory membership among pain sites was moderate. In summary, reporting a painful trajectory was common among adolescents, but persistent pain was reported by a small minority, and was usually experienced at a single pain site. PMID:20971561

Dunn, Kate M.; Jordan, Kelvin P.; Mancl, Lloyd; Drangsholt, Mark T.; Le Resche, Linda

2011-01-01

112

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external

E Cardis; M Vrijheid; M Blettner; E Gilbert; M Hakama; C Hill; G Howe; J Kaldor; C R Muirhead; T Yoshimura; F Bermann; G Cowper; C Hacker; M Marshall; I Thierry-Chef; D Utterback; E Amoros; P Ashmore; A Auvinen; J Bernar Solano; A Biau; E Combalot; P Deboodt; A Diez Sacristan; M Eklof; H Engels; G Engholm; G Gulis; K Holan R Habib; A Kerekes; J Kurtinaitis; H Malker; M Martuzzi; A Mastauskas; A Monnet; M Moser; M S Pearce; D B Richardson; F Rodriguez-Artalejo; A Rogel; H Tardy; M Telle-Lamberton; I Turai; M Usel; K Veress

2005-01-01

113

Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

114

Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies  

E-print Network

concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheezeDevelopmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether

Bishop, Christopher M.

115

Butorphanol in labour analgesia: A prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective Parenteral opioids can be administered with ease at a very low cost with high efficacy as labour analgesia. However, there are insufficient data available to accept the benefits of parenteral opioids over other proven methods of labour analgesia. Butorphanol, a new synthetic opioid, has emerged as a promising agent in terms of efficacy and a better safety profile. This study investigates the effect of butorphanol as a labour analgesia to gather further evidence of its safety and efficacy to pave the way for its widespread use in low resource settings. Material and Methods One hundred low risk term consenting pregnant women were recruited to take part in a prospective cohort study. Intramuscular injections of butorphanol tartrate 1 mg (Butrum 1/2mg, Aristo, Mumbai, India) were given in the active phase of labour and repeated two hourly. Pain relief was noted on a 10-point visual pain analogue scale (VPAS). Obstetric and neonatal outcome measures were mode of delivery, duration of labour, Apgar scores at 1 and 5 minutes and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit admissions. Collected data were analysed for statistically significant pain relief between pre- and post-administration VPAS scores and also for the incidence of adverse outcomes. Results Pain started to decrease significantly within 15 minutes of administration and reached the nadir (3.08 SD0.51) at the end of two hours. The pain remained below four on the VPAS until the end of six hours and was still significantly low after eight hours. The incidence of adverse outcomes was low in the present study. Conclusion Butorphanol is an effective parenteral opioid analgesic which can be administered with reasonable safety for the mother and the neonate. The study has the drawback of lack of control and small sample size. PMID:24592110

Halder, Ajay; Agarwal, Rachana

2013-01-01

116

Smoking cessation treatment in primary care: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective: To compare the characteristics of smokers who do and do not receive smoking cessation treatment in primary care. Design: Prospective cohort study using practices registered with the pilot QRESEARCH database. Setting: 156 550 patients aged 18 years and over from 39 general practices located within four strategic health authorities, representing the former Trent Region, UK. Subjects: Patients registered with practices between 1 April 2001 and 31 March 2003 aged 18 years and over who were identified as smokers before the two year study period. Outcome: Prescription for smoking cessation treatment (nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) or bupropion) in the two year study period. Variables: Age, sex, deprivation score, co-morbidity. Results: Of the 29 492 patients recorded as current smokers at the start of the study period 1892 (6.4%) were given prescriptions for smoking cessation treatment during the subsequent two years. Of these, 1378 (72.8%) were given NRT alone, 406 (21.5%) bupropion alone, and 108 (5.7%) both treatments. Smokers were more likely to receive smoking cessation treatment if they lived in the most deprived areas (odds ratio (OR) for the most relative to the least deprived fifth, adjusted for sex, age, and co-morbidity, 1.50, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26 to 1.78), and if they were aged 25–74 years compared to 18–24 years or 75 and over. Smokers with co-morbidity were also more likely to receive smoking cessation treatment. Smokers were less likely to receive smoking cessation treatment if they were male (adjusted OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.75). Conclusion: The low proportion of smokers being prescribed these products strongly suggests that a major public health opportunity to prevent smoking related illness is being missed. PMID:16046686

Wilson, A; Hippisley-Cox, J; Coupland, C; Coleman, T; Britton, J; Barrett, S

2005-01-01

117

Student performance and leadership practices of selected elementary school principals: a cohort study  

E-print Network

STUDENT PERFORMANCE AND LEADERSHIP PRACTICES OF SELECTED ELEMENTARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS: A COHORT STUDY A Record of Study by STACEY RAE ARNOLD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University... COHORT STUDY A Record of Study by STACEY RAE ARNOLD Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF EDUCATION Approved by...

Arnold, Stacey Rae

2007-09-17

118

The German National Cohort: aims, study design and organization.  

PubMed

The German National Cohort (GNC) is a joint interdisciplinary endeavour of scientists from the Helmholtz and the Leibniz Association, universities, and other research institutes. Its aim is to investigate the causes for the development of major chronic diseases, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes, neurodegenerative/-psychiatric diseases, musculoskeletal diseases, respiratory and infectious diseases, and their pre-clinical stages or functional health impairments. Across Germany, a random sample of the general population will be drawn by 18 regional study centres, including a total of 100,000 women and 100,000 men aged 20-69 years. The baseline assessments include an extensive interview and self-completion questionnaires, a wide range of medical examinations and the collection of various biomaterials. In a random subgroup of 20 % of the participants (n = 40,000) an intensified examination ("Level 2") programme will be performed. In addition, in five of the 18 study centres a total of 30,000 study participants will take part in a magnetic resonance imaging examination programme, and all of these participants will also be offered the intensified Level 2 examinations. After 4-5 years, all participants will be invited for a re-assessment. Information about chronic disease endpoints will be collected through a combination of active follow-up (including questionnaires every 2-3 years) and record linkages. The GNC is planned for an overall duration of 25-30 years. It will provide a major, central resource for population-based epidemiology in Germany, and will help to identify new and tailored strategies for early detection, prediction, and primary prevention of major diseases. PMID:24840228

2014-05-01

119

Trace elements and cognitive impairment: an elderly cohort study.  

PubMed

Dementia is one of the most pressing public health problems with social and economic implication. The form called cognitive impairment non-dementia (CIND)represents a subclinical phase of dementia. Different studies have shown a possible effect of micro- and macro-nutrients on cognitive function. Trace elements, being involved in metabolic processes and redox reactions in the central nervous system (CNS), could influence the cognitive functions. This study evaluated the presence of an eventual correlation between serum trace element concentrations and cognitive function in a group of subjects with CIND and manifest dementia (Alzheimer dementia = AD, and vascular dementia = VaD), and compared them with a control group. Thirty -five patients were enrolled in this study. Each patient underwent a clinical and biochemical examination. We also performed a neuropsychological and functional assessment (the Milan overall dementia assessment = MODA, activities of daily living = ADL, and instrumental activities of daily living = IADL), and a computerized tomographic (CT) cerebral scan. Patients were than divided in 4 groups according to the obtained diagnosis (Controls, CIND, AD, VaD). The presence of any acute or chronic conditions, affecting cognitive functions, was considered as exclusion criteria. A blood sample was collected to determine iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), selenium (Se), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu),molybdenum (Mo) and aluminium (Al) serum concentrations (chromatographic,spectrophotometric methods). In our cohort we found a positive correlation between cognitive function, expressed as the MODA score, and Se, Cr, Co and Fe serum levels,while a negative correlation was observed between MODA score, Cu and Al serum levels.Moreover, some statistically significant differences in Se, Cr, Co, Cu and Al concentrations were found among the groups. According to these results, we may suppose that Se, Cr and Co protect cognitive function, Cu influences the evolution of cognitive impairment, while Al contributes to the pathogenesis of AD. PMID:15207438

Smorgon, C; Mari, E; Atti, A R; Dalla Nora, E; Zamboni, P F; Calzoni, F; Passaro, A; Fellin, R

2004-01-01

120

Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been dramatic changes in the approach to screening for aneuploidy over the last 20 years. However, the approach to screening for other complications of pregnancy such as intra-uterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and stillbirth remains largely unchanged. Randomised controlled trials of routine application of high tech screening methods to the general population have generally failed to show improvement in outcome. We have previously reviewed this and concluded it was due, in large part, to poor performance of screening tests. Here, we report a study design where the primary aim is to generate clinically useful methods to screen women to assess their risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods/design We report the design of a prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women recruited at the time of their first ultrasound scan. Participation involves serial phlebotomy and obstetric ultrasound at the dating ultrasound scan (typically 10–14 weeks), 20 weeks, 28 weeks and 36 weeks gestation. In addition, maternal demographic details are obtained; maternal and paternal height are measured and maternal weight is serially measured during the pregnancy; maternal, paternal and offspring DNA are collected; and, samples of placenta and membranes are collected at birth. Data will be analysed as a prospective cohort study, a case-cohort study, and a nested case-control study. Discussion The study is expected to provide a resource for the identification of novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcome and to evaluate the performance of biomarkers and serial ultrasonography in providing clinically useful prediction of risk. PMID:19019223

Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dacey, Alison; Cook, Emma; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; White, Ian R; Smith, Gordon CS

2008-01-01

121

Physics Research Universiteit van Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Physics Research 1996-2002 Universiteit van Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam October 2005 #12;QANU / Physics UvA and VU2 Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) Catharijnesingel 56 with the permission of QANU if the source is men- tioned. #12;QANU / Physics UvA and VU 3 Table of contents Preface 5

van Rooij, Robert

122

Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—In Lithuania, there is little awareness of the notion that chronic symptoms may result from rear end collisions via the so-called whiplash injury. After most such collisions no contact with the health service is established. An opportunity therefore exists to study post-traumatic pain without the confounding factors present in western societies.?METHODS—In a prospective, controlled inception cohort study, 210 victims of a rear end collision were consecutively identified from the daily records of the Kaunas traffic police. Neck pain and headache were evaluated by mailed questionnaires shortly after the accident, after 2 months, and after 1 year. As controls, 210sex and age matched subjects were randomly taken from the population register of the same geographical area and evaluated for the same symptoms immediately after their identification and after 1year.?RESULTS—Initial pain was reported by 47% of accident victims; 10% had neck pain alone, 18% had neck pain together with headache, and 19% had headache alone. The median duration of the initial neck pain was 3 days and maximal duration 17 days. The median duration of headache was 4.5 hours and the maximum duration was 20 days. After 1 year, there were no significant differences between the accident victims and the control group concerning frequency and intensity of these symptoms.?CONCLUSIONS—In a country were there is no preconceived notion of chronic pain arising from rear end collisions, and thus no fear of long term disability, and usually no involvement of the therapeutic community, insurance companies, or litigation, symptoms after an acute whiplash injury are self limiting, brief, and do not seem to evolve to the so-called late whiplash syndrome.?? PMID:10084524

Obelieniene, D.; Schrader, H.; Bovim, G.; Miseviciene, I.; Sand, T.

1999-01-01

123

Stillbirths at a hospital in Nablus, 2010: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Stillbirths are insufficiently reported in many countries. In Nablus, reporting has recently started; little is published in Palestine on the stillbirth rate and its risk factors. Objective To study the rate of stillbirths at Rafidia Hospital in 2010 and some of its risk factors. Design A retrospective cohort design. Methods Data were collected from the delivery registry for all births and we analysed those with a gestation of 28 weeks or more at Rafidia Hospital. Stillbirth rates were estimated for available determinants. Results In 2010, a total of 5,644 women gave birth to 5,782 babies, of whom 41 were stillbirths, that is, a stillbirth rate of 7.1/1,000 births (95% confidence interval 5.2–9.5). Premature babies had a higher risk of being a stillbirth. For small babies, the lower the birth weight the higher was the probability of being a stillbirth, and for babies weighing 4,500 g or more there was a higher risk of being stillborn. The risk of stillbirth was also higher among babies from mothers with high haemoglobin concentration, but low maternal haemoglobin was not associated with stillbirths. Conclusions The stillbirth rates at Rafidia hospital assessed in this study compares favourably with the reported national numbers, indicating a good reliability of the on-going registration. The rates were highest among premature births. Stillbirth was linked to low birth weight, foetal macrosomia, and maternal haemoconcentration. We believe the findings identify areas to address when designing antenatal care with the aim of improving perinatal mortality in the country. PMID:25196827

Cung, Tam Giao; Paus, Anne Sofie; Aghbar, Ammar; Kiserud, Torvid; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

2014-01-01

124

Studies on the life cycle of Asymphylodora tincae (Modeer, 1790) (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) in a small lake near Amsterdam. Part 1. The morphology of various stages.  

PubMed

Aspects of the life cycle of Asymphylodora tincae have been studied in a small lake near Amsterdam. Bithynia tentaculata, being the only snail species that was very numerous in the lake, was the first as well as the main second intermediate host; adult trematodes were found exclusively in the tench, Tinca tinca. A small part of the cercariae that penetrate into B. tentaculata was able to develop into progenetic specimens. A morphological description is given of the following stages of A. tincae: adult, egg, redia, cercariaeum, metacercaria and progenetic stage. The cercariaeum is identified as Cercariaeum paludinae impurae De Filippi, 1854. It is concluded that A. tincae is a species, capable of large variation regarding both morphological structure (e.g. body spination, size) and life cycle. PMID:572385

van den Broek, E; de Jong, N

1979-03-01

125

Selective reporting bias of harm outcomes within studies: findings from a cohort of systematic reviews  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the extent and nature of selective non-reporting of harm outcomes in clinical studies that were eligible for inclusion in a cohort of systematic reviews. Design Cohort study of systematic reviews from two databases. Setting Outcome reporting bias in trials for harm outcomes (ORBIT II) in systematic reviews from the Cochrane Library and a separate cohort of systematic reviews of adverse events. Participants 92 systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials and non-randomised studies published in the Cochrane Library between issue 9, 2012 and issue 2, 2013 (Cochrane cohort) and 230 systematic reviews published between 1 January 2007 and 31 December 2011 in other publications, synthesising data on harm outcomes (adverse event cohort). Methods A 13 point classification system for missing outcome data on harm was developed and applied to the studies. Results 86% (79/92) of reviews in the Cochrane cohort did not include full data from the main harm outcome of interest of each review for all of the eligible studies included within that review; 76% (173/230) for the adverse event cohort. Overall, the single primary harm outcome was inadequately reported in 76% (705/931) of the studies included in the 92 reviews from the Cochrane cohort and not reported in 47% (4159/8837) of the 230 reviews in the adverse event cohort. In a sample of primary studies not reporting on the single primary harm outcome in the review, scrutiny of the study publication revealed that outcome reporting bias was suspected in nearly two thirds (63%, 248/393). Conclusions The number of reviews suspected of outcome reporting bias as a result of missing or partially reported harm related outcomes from at least one eligible study is high. The declaration of important harms and the quality of the reporting of harm outcomes must be improved in both primary studies and systematic reviews. PMID:25416499

Saini, Pooja; Loke, Yoon K; Gamble, Carrol; Altman, Douglas G; Williamson, Paula R

2014-01-01

126

An exploratory analysis of large health cohort study using Bayesian networks  

E-print Network

Large health cohort studies are among the most effective ways in studying the causes, treatments and outcomes of diseases by systematically collecting a wide range of data over long periods. The wealth of data in such ...

Shen, Delin

2006-01-01

127

Participation Following Knee Replacement: The MOST Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Participation is an important, yet seldom studied, outcome after total knee replacement (TKR). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and predictors of participation and participation restriction among people after TKR. Materials and Methods This study investigated the changes in pain, function, and participation scores (measured using a subscale of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument) from pre-TKR to ?1 year post-TKR among a subsample of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) longitudinal cohort (MOST is funded by the National Institutes of Health). The proportions of individuals with participation restriction pre-TKR and ?1 and ?2 years post-TKR were calculated for all participants and for important demographic subgroups. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation was estimated using linear regression. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation restriction was estimated using logistic regression. Results There were 292 individuals with outcome data ?1 year post-TKR. Of these, 218 (75%) had data pre-TKR and ?1 year post-TKR and 160 (55%) had data ?2 years post-TKR. There were mean improvements in pain, function, and participation at ?1 and 2 years. However, approximately 30% of the study sample had participation restriction pre-TKR and post-TKR, and the proportion decreased significantly only for those <65 years old. Non-whites had a higher proportion of participation restriction than any other subgroup (41% ?1 year, 48% ?2 years). Female sex and non-white race were associated with a worse participation score, and several demographic and modifiable factors were associated with participation restriction following TKR. Limitations The time between pre-TKR and post-TKR assessment varied across study participants, and data were not available on their rehabilitation utilization. Conclusions Although there was a mean increase in participation ?1 year following TKR, participation restriction was common. The likelihood of low participation was increased among women, non-whites, and those with depressive symptoms, severe pain in either knee, or worse pre-TKR function. PMID:23813082

Keysor, Julie J.; Niu, Jingbo; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Wise, Barton L.; Frey-Law, Laura; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, David T.

2013-01-01

128

Asthma in exercising children exposed to ozone: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Little is known about the effect of exposure to air pollution during exercise or time spent outdoors on the development of asthma. We investigated the relation between newly-diagnosed asthma and team sports in a cohort of children exposed to different concentrations and mixtures of air pollutants. Methods 3535 children with no history of asthma were recruited from schools

Rob McConnell; Kiros Berhane; Frank Gilliland; Stephanie J London; Talat Islam; W James Gauderman; Edward Avol; Helene G Margolis; John M Peters

2002-01-01

129

Hospital admissions, age, and death: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Ageing of the population brings the possibility of increased burdens for acute hospital services because of the marked increase in many common diseases with age. We aimed to examine the relation between age and use of acute services in hospitals in the period before death in a national sample of deaths in hospital. Design Retrospective cohort analysis of English

Tracy Dixon; Mary Shaw; Stephen Frankel; Shah Ebrahim

2004-01-01

130

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH, DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah, which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, birth date, town ...

131

Organisational justice and health of employees: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the association between components of organisational justice (that is, justice of decision making procedures and interpersonal treatment) and health of employees. Methods: The Poisson regression analyses of recorded all-cause sickness absences with medical certificate and the logistic regression analyses of minor psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the General Health Questionnaire, and poor self rated health status were based on a cohort of 416 male and 3357 female employees working during 1998–2000 in 10 hospitals in Finland. Results: Low versus high justice of decision making procedures was associated with a 41% higher risk of sickness absence in men (rate ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.8), and a 12% higher risk in women (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The corresponding odds ratios (OR) for minor psychiatric morbidity were 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.6) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) in women, and for self rated health 1.4 in both sexes. In interpersonal treatment, low justice increased the risk of sickness absence (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) in men and women respectively), and minor psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.2 in both sexes). These figures largely persisted after control for other risk factors (for example, job control, workload, social support, and hostility) and they were replicated in initially healthy subcohorts. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that organisational justice would represent a consequence of health (reversed causality). Conclusions: This is the first longitudinal study to show that the extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces independently predicts their health. PMID:12499453

Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J; Theorell, T

2003-01-01

132

Doctors' age at domestic partnership and parenthood: cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To report on doctors’ family formation. Design Cohort studies using structured questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants Doctors who qualified in 1988, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002 were followed up. Main Outcome Measures Living with spouse or partner; and doctors’ age when first child was born. Results The response to surveys including questions about domestic circumstances was 89.8% (20,717/23,077 doctors). The main outcomes – living with spouse or partner, and parenthood – varied according to age at qualification. Using the modal ages of 23–24 years at qualification, by the age of 24–25 (i.e. in their first year of medical work) a much smaller percentage of doctors than the general population was living with spouse or partner. By the age of 33, 75% of both women and men doctors were living with spouse or partner, compared with 68% of women and 61% of men aged 33 in the general population. By the age of 24–25, 2% of women doctors and 41% of women in the general population had a child; but women doctors caught up with the general population, in this respect, in their 30s. The specialty with the highest percentage of women doctors who, aged 35, had children was general practice (74%); the lowest was surgery (41%). Conclusions Doctors are more likely than other people to live with a spouse or partner, and to have children, albeit typically at later ages. Differences between specialties in rates of motherhood may indicate sacrifice by some women of family in favour of career. PMID:22977049

Goldacre, Michael J; Davidson, Jean M; Lambert, Trevor W

2012-01-01

133

Is the clinical course of HIV-1 changing? Cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the clinical course of HIV infection has changed from 1985 to 1995. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: Infectious disease clinic. SUBJECTS: 285 patients recruited from September 1985 to January 1995 with < or = 12 months between the dates of their last seronegative and first seropositive test result and with first follow up visit in the six months after seroconversion and at least 12 months' follow up. Patients were grouped according to the date of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to CD4 cell count of < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l, and clinical outcome defining AIDS; variation in cell count per day between consecutive visits, and ratio between this variation and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit. RESULTS: The groups were similar in age, number with acute primary HIV infection, CD4 cell count at intake, and cell count at the beginning of antiretroviral treatment; they differed in sex ratio, risk factors for HIV, probability of CD4 cell decline to < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l. and risk of developing AIDS. Acute infection, seroconversion after December 1989, and serum beta 2 microglobulin > 296 nmol/l were independent predictors of poor clinical course. The speed of CD4 cell decline, expressed as cell variation divided by the number of days between consecutive visits, increased with more recent seroconversion (P = 0.02). Ratio between the speed of CD4 cell decline and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit was also higher in the patients who seroconverted after December 1989. CONCLUSIONS: The faster disease progression and the higher speed of CD4 cell decline at early stages in the patients with recently acquired HIV infection suggest changes in the clinical course of HIV infection. PMID:9154026

Sinicco, A.; Fora, R.; Raiteri, R.; Sciandra, M.; Bechis, G.; Calvo, M. M.; Gioannini, P.

1997-01-01

134

Critical Pertussis Illness in Children, A Multicenter Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Pertussis persists in the United States despite high immunization rates. The present report characterizes the presentation and acute course of critical pertussis by quantifying demographic data, laboratory findings, clinical complications, and critical care therapies required among children requiring admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Eight PICUs comprising the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network and 17 additional PICUs across the United States. Patients Eligible patients had laboratory confirmation of pertussis infection, were < 18 years of age, and died in the PICU or were admitted to the PICU for at least 24 hours between June 2008 and August 2011. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results 127 patients were identified. Median age was 49 days, and 105 (83%) patients were < 3 months of age. Fifty-five (43%) required mechanical ventilation. Twelve (9.4%) died during initial hospitalization. Pulmonary hypertension was found in 16 patients (12.5%), and was present in 75% of patients who died, compared with 6% of survivors (p< 0.001). Median white blood cell count (WBC) was significantly higher in those requiring mechanical ventilation (p<0.001), those with pulmonary hypertension (p<0.001) and non-survivors (p<0.001). Age, sex and immunization status did not differ between survivors and non-survivors. Fourteen patients received leukoreduction therapy (exchange transfusion (12), leukopheresis (1) or both (1)). Survival benefit was not apparent. Conclusions Pulmonary hypertension may be associated with mortality in pertussis critical illness. Elevated WBC is associated with the need for mechanical ventilation, pulmonary hypertension, and mortality risk. Research is indicated to elucidate how pulmonary hypertension, immune responsiveness, and elevated WBC contribute to morbidity and mortality, and whether leukoreduction might be efficacious. PMID:23548960

Berger, John T.; Carcillo, Joseph A.; Shanley, Thomas P.; Wessel, David L.; Clark, Amy; Holubkov, Richard; Meert, Kathleen L.; Newth, Christopher J.L.; Berg, Robert A.; Heidemann, Sabrina; Harrison, Rick; Pollack, Murray; Dalton, Heidi; Harvill, Eric; Karanikas, Alexia; Liu, Teresa; Burr, Jeri S.; Doctor, Allan; Dean, J. Michael; Jenkins, Tammara L.; Nicholson, Carol E.

2013-01-01

135

Implementation evaluation of the Dutch national heat plan among long-term care institutions in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007, a national heat plan was introduced in the Netherlands to effectively protect vulnerable populations (such as institutionalised elderly people) against heatwaves. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which the measures recommended in this heat plan had been implemented, and could be implemented, in long-term care institutions in Amsterdam three years on. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the care managers of all 54 eligible long-term care institutions in Amsterdam. This included questions on the presence of a heat protocol and cooling facilities in the building. Furthermore, the care managers were asked to judge the importance of 23 of the cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan in the event of a heatwave, and to report on practical problems that may affect the implementation of these cooling measures. Results Of the 54 questionnaires sent, 27 were returned. Most institutions had a heat protocol, virtually all of which had been developed in the three years preceding the survey. Outdoor sunshades were used most often to protect residents against heat (93% of all institutions). Prevalence of cooling facilities such as air conditioning and rooftop cooling had increased, but remained low (41%). Care managers confirmed the importance of most of the 23 cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan, with some exceptions. Only 41% regarded consulting physicians on medication use to be ‘very important’. Most care managers did not foresee large problems with the implementation of the recommended cooling measures. Barriers mentioned related to shortage of and expertise among personnel, and residents’ independence. Conclusion The results suggest that a national heat plan could be implemented in long-term care institutions with few problems. Possible areas of improvement include cooling of buildings and staff training. PMID:23578306

2013-01-01

136

Overdiagnosis in screening mammography in Denmark: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To use data from two longstanding, population based screening programmes to study overdiagnosis in screening mammography. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Copenhagen municipality (from 1991) and Funen County (from 1993), Denmark. Participants 57?763 women targeted by organised screening, aged 56-69 when the screening programmes started, and followed up to 2009. Main outcome measures Overdiagnosis of breast cancer in women targeted by screening, assessed by relative risks compared with historical control groups from screening regions, national control groups from non-screening regions, and historical national control groups. Results In total, 3279 invasive breast carcinomas and ductal carcinomas in situ occurred. The start of screening led to prevalence peaks in breast cancer incidence: relative risk 2.06 (95% confidence interval 1.64 to 2.59) for Copenhagen and 1.84 (1.46 to 2.32) for Funen. During subsequent screening rounds, relative risks were slightly above unity: 1.04 (0.85 to 1.27) for Copenhagen and 1.14 (0.98 to 1.32) for Funen. A compensatory dip was seen after the end of invitation to screening: relative risk 0.80 (0.65 to 0.98) for Copenhagen and 0.67 (0.55 to 0.81) for Funen during the first four years. The relative risk of breast cancer accumulated over the entire follow-up period was 1.06 (0.90 to 1.25) for Copenhagen and 1.01 (0.93 to 1.10) for Funen. Relative risks for participants corrected for selection bias were estimated to be 1.08 for Copenhagen and 1.02 for Funen; for participants followed for at least eight years after the end of screening, they were 1.05 and 1.01. A pooled estimate gave 1.040 (0.99 to 1.09) for all targeted women and 1.023 (0.97 to 1.08) for targeted women followed for at least eight years after the end of screening. Conclusions On the basis of combined data from the two screening programmes, this study indicated that overdiagnosis most likely amounted to 2.3% (95% confidence interval ?3% to 8%) in targeted women. Among participants, it was most likely 1-5%. At least eight years after the end of screening were needed to compensate for the excess incidence during screening. PMID:23444414

2013-01-01

137

Health effects following the Eyjafjallajökull volcanic eruption: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The study aimed to determine whether exposure to a volcanic eruption was associated with increased prevalence of physical and/or mental symptoms. Design Cohort, with non-exposed control group. Setting Natural disasters like volcanic eruptions constitute a major public-health threat. The Icelandic volcano Eyjafjallajökull exposed residents in southern Iceland to continuous ash fall for more than 5?weeks in spring 2010. This study was conducted during November 2010–March 2011, 6–9?months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption. Participants Adult (18–80?years of age) eruption-exposed South Icelanders (N=1148) and a control population of residents of Skagafjörður, North Iceland (N=510). The participation rate was 72%. Main outcome measures Physical symptoms in the previous year (chronic), in the previous month (recent), General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) measured psychological morbidity. Results The likelihood of having symptoms during the last month was higher in the exposed population, such as; tightness in the chest (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.1 to 5.8), cough (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.7 to 3.9), phlegm (OR 2.1; 95% CI 1.3 to 3.2), eye irritation (OR 2.9; 95% CI 2.0 to 4.1) and psychological morbidity symptoms (OR 1.3; 95% CI 1.0 to 1.7). Respiratory symptoms during the last 12?months were also more common in the exposed population; cough (OR 2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9), dyspnoea (OR 1.6; 95% CI 1.1 to 2.3), although the prevalence of underlying asthma and heart disease was similar. Twice as many in the exposed population had two or more symptoms from nose, eyes or upper-respiratory tract (24% vs 13%, p<0.001); these individuals were also more likely to experience psychological morbidity (OR 4.7; 95% CI 3.4 to 6.5) compared with individuals with no symptoms. Most symptoms exhibited a dose–response pattern within the exposed population, corresponding to low, medium and high exposure to the eruption. Conclusions 6–9?months after the Eyjafjallajökull eruption, residents living in the exposed area, particularly those closest to the volcano, had markedly increased prevalence of various physical symptoms. A portion of the exposed population reported multiple symptoms and may be at risk for long-term physical and psychological morbidity. Studies of long-term consequences are therefore warranted. PMID:23144261

Carlsen, Hanne Krage; Hauksdottir, Arna; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur Anna; Gíslason, Thorarinn; Einarsdottir, Gunnlaug; Runolfsson, Halldor; Briem, Haraldur; Finnbjornsdottir, Ragnhildur Gudrun; Gudmundsson, Sigurdur; Kolbeinsson, Thorir Björn; Thorsteinsson, Throstur; Pétursdóttir, Gudrun

2012-01-01

138

Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to december 1999. Cases and controls in the case-control study supplied a questionnaire and stool samples. The standardized

M. A. S. de Wit; M. P. G. Koopmans; L. M. Kortbeek; W. J. B. Wannet; J. Vinjé; F. van Leusden; A. I. M. Bartelds

2001-01-01

139

Familial risk of cerebral palsy: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate risks of recurrence of cerebral palsy in family members with various degrees of relatedness to elucidate patterns of hereditability. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Data from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway, linked to the Norwegian social insurance scheme to identify cases of cerebral palsy and to databases of Statistics Norway to identify relatives. Participants 2?036?741 Norwegians born during 1967-2002, 3649 of whom had a diagnosis of cerebral palsy; 22?558 pairs of twins, 1?851?144 pairs of first degree relatives, 1?699?856 pairs of second degree relatives, and 5?165?968 pairs of third degree relatives were identified. Main outcome measure Cerebral palsy. Results If one twin had cerebral palsy, the relative risk of recurrence of cerebral palsy was 15.6 (95% confidence interval 9.8 to 25) in the other twin. In families with an affected singleton child, risk was increased 9.2 (6.4 to 13)-fold in a subsequent full sibling and 3.0 (1.1 to 8.6)-fold in a half sibling. Affected parents were also at increased risk of having an affected child (6.5 (1.6 to 26)-fold). No evidence was found of differential transmission through mothers or fathers, although the study had limited power to detect such differences. For people with an affected first cousin, only weak evidence existed for an increased risk (1.5 (0.9 to 2.7)-fold). Risks in siblings or cousins were independent of sex of the index case. After exclusion of preterm births (an important risk factor for cerebral palsy), familial risks remained and were often stronger. Conclusions People born into families in which someone already has cerebral palsy are themselves at elevated risk, depending on their degree of relatedness. Elevated risk may extend even to third degree relatives (first cousins). The patterns of risk suggest multifactorial inheritance, in which multiple genes interact with each other and with environmental factors. These data offer additional evidence that the underlying causes of cerebral palsy extend beyond the clinical management of delivery. PMID:25028249

Wilcox, Allen J; Lie, Rolv T; Moster, Dag

2014-01-01

140

An Interview Study of the '12 & '13 Cohorts' Experience in 20.020  

E-print Network

The 20.020 assessment study focused on the freshman student experience of the spring, 2012 and 2013 classes which included interviews and a survey administered at the end of the semester. Seven students from each cohort ...

Mitchell, Rudolph

2014-12-05

141

DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

142

Herpes simplex virus 2 meningitis: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Herpes simplex virus 2 is a leading cause of viral meningitis and the most commonly recognized infectious cause of benign, recurrent meningitis. We report a retrospective, observational cohort study of patients with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) meningitis, confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The terms "herpes simplex," "meningitis," or "encephalitis" were searched in the medical records system of the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota (1995-2008). Patients were included if they had a clinical diagnosis of meningitis and HSV-2 detected by PCR in the CSF. There were 28 patients with 33 episodes identified (83 % female; mean age at presentation of meningitis 36 years, range 17-53; mean time to HSV2 detection from symptom onset 3 days, range 0-6; history of genital herpes 23 %). No patient took oral antiviral treatment at the time of presentation. Episodes were most likely to include headache (100 %), photophobia (47 %), self-reported fever (45 %), meningismus (44 %), and nausea and/or vomiting (29 %). CSF at the time of meningitis was notable for elevated protein (mean 156 g/dL, range 60-258) and white cell count (mean 504 cells/?L, range 86-1,860) with normal glucose (mean 54 mg/dL, range 32-80). Mollaret cells were never detected. Neuroimaging was most often normal (83 %) when performed, although some cases showed nonspecific (14 %) or meningeal changes (3 %). There was no consistent relationship to genital herpes. The duration of treatment with intravenous acyclovir ranged from 3 to 14 days for the first meningitic episode (daily dose range from 500 to 1,000 mg and total dose range from 500 mg q8h for 3 days to 800 mg q8h for 14 days). For subsequent episodes, the duration of treatment of intravenous acyclovir ranged from less than 1 to 14 days (total dose range from 1,390 mg for 1 day to 900 mg q8h for 10 days). The dose of valacyclovir ranged from 500 mg once daily to 500 mg four times daily. The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following the first episode was 10 days (range 3 to 14 days, n?=?13). The median duration of valacyclovir treatment following a subsequent meningitic episode was 9 days (range 7 days to indefinite period, n?=?9). No patient was reported to have seizures, neurological disability, or death in extended follow-up (mean follow-up 3.4 years). Recurrence of meningitic symptoms was not universal. PMID:23494382

Miller, Stephanie; Mateen, Farrah J; Aksamit, Allen J

2013-04-01

143

Prescribing of antipsychotics in UK primary care: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the recorded indication for antipsychotic prescriptions in UK primary care. Design Cohort study. Setting Primary care. Participants Individuals prescribed antipsychotics between 2007 and 2011. Measures The proportion of individuals prescribed antipsychotics with a diagnosis of (1) psychosis and bipolar disorder, (2) other diagnoses including depression, anxiety and dementia and (3) none of these diagnoses. Results We identified 47?724 individuals prescribed antipsychotic agents. 13?941 received first-generation agents and 27?966 received second-generation agents. The rates of prescribing were higher in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.092 (95% CI 1.088 to 1.095), older people (80+ vs 40–49; IRR 2.234 (2.222 to 2.246)) and in those from the most deprived areas (most deprived vs least deprived IRR 3.487 (3.567 to 3.606). Of those receiving first-generation antipsychotics, less than 50% had a diagnosis of psychosis/bipolar disorder. For the second-generation agents, the numbers ranged from 4824 (36%) for quetiapine to 7094 (62%) for olanzapine. In patients without psychosis/bipolar disorder, common diagnoses included anxiety, depression, dementia, sleep and personality disorders. For example, in risperidone users, 14% had an anxiety code, 22% depression, 12% dementia, 11% sleep disorder and 4% personality disorder. The median daily doses and duration of treatment were greater in those with schizophrenia (eg, risperidone median daily dose 4?mg; IQR 2–6: median duration 1.2?years) than in those with non-psychotic/bipolar disorders such as depression or anxiety (eg, risperidone 1?mg; IQR 1–2: 0.6?years). A relatively large proportion (between 6% and 17%) of people receiving individual antipsychotics had none of the diagnoses stated above. Conclusions In UK primary care, a large proportion of people prescribed antipsychotics have no record of psychotic or bipolar disorder. They are often older people with conditions including dementia, non-psychotic depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. PMID:25524544

Marston, Louise; Nazareth, Irwin; Petersen, Irene; Walters, Kate; Osborn, David P J

2014-01-01

144

Incidence of Dementia in a Rural Community in Spain: The Girona Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Information on dementia incidence in Spanish populations is still scarce, and there is a dearth of prospective studies. Objective: To estimate the incidence rates of dementia, Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) in a population cohort aged 75 and over in a rural area in Spain. Methods: A prospective population cohort study over a 5-year period in 8

Secundino López-Pousa; Joan Vilalta-Franch; Jordi Llinàs-Regla; Josep Garre-Olmo; Gustavo C. Román

2004-01-01

145

Smoking cessation in pregnancy and the risk of child behavioural problems: A longitudinal prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of smoking in pregnancy on child and adolescent behavioural development, in comparison with mothers who ceased smoking in the first 18 weeks of pregnancy and with those who never smoked, in a large prospective pregnancy cohort.\\u000aMethods: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900

Monique Robinson; Neil J McLean; Wendy H Oddy; Eugen Mattes; Max K Bulsara; Jianghong Li; Stephen R Zubrick; Fiona J Stanley; John P Newnham

2010-01-01

146

The Danish Alzheimer Intervention Study: Rationale, Study Design and Baseline Characteristics of the Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is a lack of appropriately designed trials investigating the efficacy of psychosocial interventions for patients with mild dementia and their family caregivers. This paper reports the rationale and design of the Danish Alzheimer Disease Intervention Study and baseline characteristics of the cohort. Methods: The study was a 1-year multicentre randomized controlled rater-blinded trial with randomization to follow-up and

G. Waldemar; F. B. Waldorff; D. V. Buss; A. Eckermann; N. Keiding; S. Rishøj; V. Siersma; J. Sørensen; L. V. Sørensen; A. Vogel

2011-01-01

147

Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL™ hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8?±?2.4, 8.8?±?4.0 and 10.4?±?3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL™ hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL™ hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25–6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16–4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL™ hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05–12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL™ hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL™ hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL™) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

Hohl, Michael K.

2010-01-01

148

Do refinements to original designs improve outcome of total knee replacement? A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term results of the 'classic’ low contact stress (LCS) total knee replacement (TKR) have been satisfactory; nonetheless, design changes have been made which resulted in the 'complete’ LCS TKR. The aim of this study is to compare the 5-year incidence of revision and midterm clinical performance before and after introduction of the 'complete’. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was conducted on 100 primary uncemented TKRs of both designs. At 5-year follow-up, revision and reoperation rates were determined for these 200 TKRs. Knee Society score (KSS), the Oxford Knee score (OKS) and range of motion were determined for 143 TKRs. Results In the 'classic’ cohort, 3% of the TKRs were revised compared with 5% in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.72).The mean KSS was 134.1 (SD 38.3) in the 'classic’ cohort compared to 135.0 (SD 42.8) in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.89). Of the 'complete’ TKRs, 35.2% scored within the lowest quartile of the KSS knee compared to 16.7% of the 'classic’ TKRs (p?=?0.01). The OKS was 23.3 (SD 9.3) in the 'classic’ cohort compared to 22.5 (SD 10.1) in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.45). More than 5° flexion contracture was only found in four patients in the 'complete’ cohort (p?=?0.04). Conclusions No statistical difference in revision rate and average scores for midterm clinical performance was observed between the 'classic’ and the 'complete’. However, the 'complete’ cohort had a higher percentage of KSS Knee in the lowest quartile, which suggests a clinical relevant difference compared with the 'classic’. Further investigation in future studies with new designs is needed. PMID:24502700

2014-01-01

149

Non-cancer morbidity among Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers: a register-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine non-cancer morbidity in the Estonian Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort compared with the population sample with special attention to radiation-related diseases and mental health disorders. Design Register-based cohort study. Setting Estonia. Participants An exposed cohort of 3680 men (cleanup workers) and an unexposed cohort of 7631 men (population sample) were followed from 2004 to 2012 through the Population Registry and Health Insurance Fund database. Methods Morbidity in the exposed cohort compared with the unexposed controls was estimated in terms of rate ratio (RR) with 95% CIs using Poisson regression models. Results Elevated morbidity in the exposed cohort was found for diseases of the nervous system, digestive system, musculoskeletal system, ischaemic heart disease and for external causes. The most salient excess risk was observed for thyroid diseases (RR=1.69; 95% CI 1.38 to 2.07), intentional self-harm (RR=1.47; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.09) and selected alcohol-related diagnoses (RR=1.25; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.39). No increase in morbidity for stress reactions, depression, headaches or sleep disorders was detected. Conclusions No obvious excess morbidity consistent with biological effects of radiation was seen in the exposed cohort, with the possible exception of benign thyroid diseases. Increased alcohol-induced morbidity may reflect alcohol abuse, and could underlie some of the higher morbidity rates. Mental disorders in the exposed cohort were probably under-reported. The future challenge will be to study mental and physical comorbidities in the Chernobyl cleanup workers cohort. PMID:24833681

Rahu, Kaja; Bromet, Evelyn J; Hakulinen, Timo; Auvinen, Anssi; Uusküla, Anneli; Rahu, Mati

2014-01-01

150

Cohort profile: mental health following extreme trauma in a northern Ugandan cohort of War-Affected Youth Study (The WAYS Study)  

E-print Network

Abstract War experiences are associated with the risk of long-term mental health problems. The War-affected Youths (WAYS) Study comprises a cohort of 539 youths (61% female) aged between 18 to 25 (at baseline) randomly sampled from the population...

Amone-P’Olak, Kennedy; Jones, Peter B; Abbott, Rosemary; Meiser-Stedman, Richard; Ovuga, Emilio; Croudace, Tim J

2013-07-03

151

Study Design and Outcomes of Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study is a prospective longitudinal study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other unclassified obstructive lung diseases. It was designed to develop new classification models and biomarkers that predict clinically relevant outcomes for patients with obstructive lung diseases. Methods Patients over 18 years old who have chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitations or bronchial hyper-responsiveness were enrolled at 17 centers in South Korea. After a baseline visit, the subjects were followed up every 3 months for various assessments. Results From June 2005 to October 2013, a total of 477 subjects (433 [91%] males; 381 [80%] diagnosed with COPD) were enrolled. Analyses of the KOLD Cohort Study identified distinct phenotypes in patients with COPD, and predictors of therapeutic responses and exacerbations as well as the factors related to pulmonary hypertension in COPD. In addition, several genotypes were associated with radiological phenotypes and therapeutic responses among Korean COPD patients. Conclusion The KOLD Cohort Study is one of the leading long-term prospective longitudinal studies investigating heterogeneity of the COPD and is expected to provide new insights for pathogenesis and the long-term progression of COPD. PMID:24851130

Park, Tai Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Seo, Joon Beom; Hong, Yoonki; Yoo, Jung-Wan; Kang, Byung Ju; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

2014-01-01

152

Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency\\/microwave exposure: a synopsis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies\\/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million person years). As exposures were defined: dielectric heaters in a plastic manufacturing plant, working with radio

Jürgen Breckenkamp; Gabriele Berg; Maria Blettner

2003-01-01

153

A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate individual radiation doses and current thyroid disease status for a previously identified cohort of 4818 schoolchildren potentially exposed to fallout from detonations of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1958. DESIGN--Cohort analytic study. SETTING--Communities in southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and southeastern Arizona. PARTICIPANTS--Individuals who were still residing in the three-state area (n = 3122)

R. A. Kerber; J. E. Till; S. L. Simon; J. L. Lyon; D. C. Thomas; S. Preston-Martin; M. L. Rallison; R. D. Lloyd; W. Stevens

1993-01-01

154

Prognosis in Patients with Recent Onset Low Back Pain in Australian Primary Care: Inception Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To estimate the one year prognosis and identify prognostic factors in cases of recent onset low back pain managed in primary care. Design: Cohort study with one year follow-up. Setting: Primary care clinics in Sydney, Australia. Participants: An inception cohort of 973 consecutive primary care patients (mean age 43.3, 54.8% men) with non-specific low back pain of less than

Nicholas Henschke; Christopher G. Maher; Kathryn M. Refshauge; Robert D. Herbert; Robert G. Cumming; Jane Bleasel; John York; Anurina Das; James H. McAuley

2008-01-01

155

RERF Life Span Study, Adult Health Study, and F1 Cohorts (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)  

Cancer.gov

The main cohort, called the Life Span Study (LSS), consisted of about 120,000 persons of all ages and both genders in 1950 of whom more than 90,000 were exposed to atomic bomb radiation, with a wide range of exposure doses. About 45,000 LSS participants completed questionnaires in the late 1960s and periodically since then on sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other disease risk factors.

156

Tailored fog climatology for Amsterdam Airport Schiphol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Like many airports, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is vulnerable to climate change. The airport is situated in a complex and fragile urban area where fundamental changes take place in design and use of the region. To maintain its competitive position, the airport is beginning to respond to changes in weather and climate by formulating adaptation strategies, based on tailored climate information. The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), Amsterdam Airport Schiphol (AAS) and Air Trafic Control the Netherlands (LVNL) are working together to provide just that type of information. Due to safety regulations, reduced horizontal visibility on airports can have an immediate impact on the availability of runways and hence the airport capacity. Fog is therefore one of the most relevant meteorological phenomena to airport operations. A study has started in which the statistics of fog occurrence and visibility at Amsterdam Airport are assessed. The aim is describing the current climate (from 1970 onward) as well as making projections into the future (up to 2040). For the latter, the identification and attribution of trends is relevant. Another point of interrest is the spatial pattern of fog potential over the airport, in particular the related questions whether some runways are more prone to fog occurrence than others and whether these runways require a separate forecast. To answer these questions it is crucial to distinguish between large-scale and local influences. The preliminary results of this study are presented here.

Leander, R.

2010-07-01

157

The Pelotas Birth Cohort Study, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, 1982-2001  

PubMed Central

Given the growing recognition of the importance of the life course approach for the determination of chronic diseases, birth cohort studies are becoming increasingly important. This paper describes the methods used in the 1982 Pelotas (Brazil) birth cohort study, one of the largest and longest studies of this type in developing countries. All 5,914 hospital births occurring in Pelotas in 1982 (over 99% of all deliveries) were studied prospectively. The main stages of the study took place in 1983, 1984, 1986, 1995, 1997, 2000, and 2001. More than two thousand variables are available for each subject who participated in all stages of the study. Recent phases of the study included the examination of 2,250 males when presenting for the army recruitment exam in 2000, the study of a 27% sample of men and women in 2001 through household visits, and the study of over 400 children born to the cohort women. Follow-up rates in the recent stages of the cohort were 78.9% for the army examination and 69.0% for the household visits. Ethnographic and oral health studies were conducted in sub-samples. Some recent results on blood pressure, adolescent pregnancy, and asthma are presented as examples of utilization of the data. Suggestions on lessons learned for other cohort studies are proposed. PMID:14666206

2010-01-01

158

The Hordaland Women's Cohort: A prospective cohort study of incontinence, other urinary tract symptoms and related health issues in middle-aged women  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a prevalent symptom in middle-aged women, but data on incidence is limited and rarely reported. In order to analyze incidence, remission, or development patterns of severity and types of UI, we have established a 15-year prospective cohort (1997–2012). METHODS: The Cohort is based on the national collection of health data gathered from county studies (CONOR).

David Jahanlu; Samera Azeem Qureshi; Steinar Hunskaar

2008-01-01

159

A Study of Psychological Distress in Two Cohorts of First-Year Medical Students that Underwent Different Admission Selection Processes  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%–50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by comparing 2 cohorts of first-year medical students; 1 group (cohort 1) was selected based purely on academic merit (2008/2009 cohort) and the other group (cohort 2) was selected based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance (2009/2010 cohort). Their distress levels were measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and scores higher than 3 were considered indicative of significant psychological distress. Results: The prevalence (P = 0.003) and levels (P = 0.001) of psychological distress were significantly different between the 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 had 1.2–3.3 times higher risk of developing psychological distress compared to cohort 2 (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Cohort 2 had better psychological health than cohort 1 and was less likely to develop psychological distress. This study provided evidence of a potential benefit of multimodal student selection based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance. This selection process might identify medical students who will maintain better psychological health. PMID:23610547

Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Rahim, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Baba, Abdul Aziz; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Esa, Ab Rahman

2012-01-01

160

The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years) of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM), paired associate learning (PAL), and IQ tests were analyzed. (M)ANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192?bp/192?bp genotype, a heterozygote 192?bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease. PMID:25114679

Licht, Carmilla M. M.; van Turenhout, Lise C.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Koppes, Lando L. J.; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Drent, Madeleine L.

2014-01-01

161

Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand  

PubMed Central

Background Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations. Findings We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent to all 200,000 Thais enrolled as distance learning students at Sukhothai Thammathirat Open University and residing all over Thailand; 87,134 or 44% of the students responded. Subsequently we used University and national media to inform cohort members of study progress. Also, we prepared a health book with study results and health advice which was distributed to all cohort members. After 4 years we repeated the survey and achieved a 71% response rate. In this paper we report the methods used to achieve this response The initial follow-up mail-out generated a response rate of about 48% reflecting the extensive preparatory work between baseline and follow-up. After 4 rounds of telephone contact (more than 100,000 phone calls) and 4 related mail-out rounds progressively over 16 months an overall response rate was achieved of just over 71% (n = 60,774). The total cost was US$4.06/respondent - 19% for printing, 21% for postage, 14% for tape measures (included in mail-out), 18% for data processing 22% for prizes and 6% for telephone. Conclusions Many of the methods reported as effective for mail questionnaire and cohort response rates held true for Thailand. These included being associated with a university, incentivating cooperation, follow-up contact, providing a second copy of questionnaire where necessary, and assurance of confidentiality. Telephone contact with the cohort and the small prizes given to responders were particularly important in the Thai context as was Thai leadership of the research team. PMID:21615963

2011-01-01

162

The Not-So-Merry Widows of Amsterdam, 1740-1782  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research examines the remarriage propensities of a group of poor to middling Amsterdam widows in the second half of the eighteenth century. Using family composition, life cycle, and wealth data drawn from a collection of probate inventories originally recorded by the Amsterdam Municipal Orphanage, this study addresses two questions. First, was the substantial differential in the remarriage rates of

Anne E. C. McCants

1999-01-01

163

The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders is underway and has successfully enrolled over 1,000 workers to date. PMID:22672216

2012-01-01

164

Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.  

PubMed

The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications. PMID:25564333

Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

2015-02-01

165

The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health  

PubMed Central

Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases." PMID:21838884

2011-01-01

166

The Korean urban rural elderly cohort study: study design and protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Korea is one of the fastest aging countries and is expected to become a super-aged society within 12 years. The Korean Urban Rural Elderly (KURE) study was developed to evaluate the epidemiological characteristics and establish the prevention and management of major disorders of the elderly in Korea. Methods/Design The KURE study is a community-based prospective cohort study on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of Korean elderly persons aged at least 65 years. To construct a cohort reflecting both urban and rural areas, we selected 2 representative communities in the country. To establish multidisciplinary approaches to geriatric health, this study was performed by researchers in the divisions of geriatrics, preventive medicine, endocrinology, and sociology. The baseline examinations began in 2012; the study will follow more than 4,000 elderly Koreans over 10 years. The first and second follow-up health examinations will be performed every 4 years. Every 2 years after each health examination, inter-assessment interview will be conducted to improve participant retention. Discussion The KURE study will provide longitudinal epidemiologic data on health, aging, and common geriatric disorders of the elderly in Korea. This is a comprehensive, multidisciplinary study of the elderly with respect to biological, physical, socio-economic, and environmental factors. The results of this study will contribute to improve public health and welfare policies for the aging society in Korea. PMID:24641351

2014-01-01

167

In-hospital versus out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest: A multicenter cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe a large multicenter cohort of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) with return of circulation (ROC) from either the in-hospital (IH) or out-of-hospital (OH) setting in order to determine if significant differences related to pre-event, arrest event, early post-arrest event characteristics and outcomes exist that would be critical in planning a clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Design Retrospective cohort study Setting Fifteen Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) sites. Patients Patients from 24 hours (h) to 18 years with either IH or OH CA who had a history of at least 1 minute of chest compressions and ROC for at least 20 minutes were eligible. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results A total of 491 patients met study entry criteria with 353 IH cases and 138 OH cases. Major differences between the IH and OH cohorts were observed for patient pre-arrest characteristics; arrest event initial rhythm described; and arrest medication use. Several post-arrest interventions were utilized differently, however, the use of TH was similar (<5%) in both cohorts. During the 0–12 h interval following ROC, OH cases had lower minimum temperature and pH, and higher maximum serum glucose recorded. Mortality was greater in the OH cohort (62% vs. 51%, p=0.04) with the cause attributed to a neurological indication much more frequent in the OH than IH cohort (69% vs. 20%; p < 0.01). Conclusions For pediatric CA with ROC, several major differences exist between IH and OH cohorts. The finding that the etiology of death was attributed to neurological indications much more frequently in OH arrests has important implications for future research. Investigators planning to evaluate the efficacy of new interventions such as TH should be aware that the IH and OH populations differ greatly and require independent clinical trials. PMID:19455024

Moler, Frank W.; Meert, Kathleen; Donaldson, Amy E.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Brilli, Richard J.; Dalton, H.J.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Shaffner, D. H.; Schleien, Charles L.; Statler, Kimberly; Tieves, Kelly S.; Hackbarth, Richard; Pretzlaff, Robert; van der Jagt, Elise W.; Levy, Fiona; Hernan, Lynn; Silverstein, Faye S.; Dean, J Michael

2009-01-01

168

Pregnancy outcome after in utero exposure to itraconazole: A prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: This study was undertaken to determine whether itraconazole use during the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with increased risks of major malformations, spontaneous abortions, premature deliveries, and neonatal complications. Study Design: In a prospective cohort study pregnant women exposed to oral itraconazole were matched with control subjects not exposed to any known teratogens. Primary outcome was the rate

Benjamin Bar-Oz; Myla E. Moretti; Raafat Bishai; Guy Mareels; Tony Van Tittelboom; Johan Verspeelt; Gideon Koren

2000-01-01

169

Cancer Prevention Studies (CPS I, CPS II, & CPS II Nutrition Cohort)  

Cancer.gov

In 1952, the Statistical Research Section, forerunner of the present Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, began its first large prospective cohort study, the Hammond-Horn Study, to study the effect of cigarette smoking on death rates from cancer and other diseases.

170

Child Maltreatment in the "Children of the Nineties": A Cohort Study of Risk Factors  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: To analyze the multiple factors affecting the risk of maltreatment in young children within a comprehensive theoretical framework. Methods: The research is based on a large UK cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Out of 14,256 children participating in the study, 293 were investigated by social services for…

Sidebotham, Peter; Heron, Jon

2006-01-01

171

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2010-01-01

172

Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP???5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

2013-01-01

173

Issues of methods and interpretation in the National Cancer Institute formaldehyde cohort study  

PubMed Central

In 2004, the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) reclassified formaldehyde (FA) from a probable (Group 2A) to a known human carcinogen (Group 1) citing results for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) mortality from the follow-up through 1994 of the National Cancer Institute formaldehyde cohort study. To the contrary, in 2012, the Committee for Risk Assessment of the European Chemicals Agency disagreed with the proposal to classify FA as a known human carcinogen (Carc. 1A), proposing a lower but still protective category, namely as a substance which is presumed to have carcinogenic potential for humans (Carc. 1B). Thus, U.S. and European regulatory agencies currently disagree about the potential human carcinogenicity of FA. In 2013, the National Cancer Institute reported results from their follow-up through 2004 of the formaldehyde cohort and concluded that the results continue to suggest a link between FA exposure and NPC. We discuss in this commentary why we believe that this interpretation is neither consistent with the available data from the most recent update of the National Cancer Institute cohort study nor with other research findings from that cohort, other large cohort studies and the series of publications by some of the current authors, including an independent study of one of the National Cancer Institute’s study plants. Another serious concern relates to the incorrectness of the data from the follow-up through 1994 of the National Cancer Institute study stemming from incomplete mortality ascertainment. While these data were corrected by the National Cancer Institute in subsequent supplemental publications, incorrect data from the original publications have been cited extensively in recent causal evaluations of FA, including IARC. We conclude that the NCI publications that contain incorrect data from the incomplete 1994 mortality follow-up should be retracted entirely or corrected via published errata in the corresponding journals, and efforts should be made to re-analyze data from the 2004 follow-up of the NCI cohort study. PMID:24855485

2014-01-01

174

Mediterranean diet and telomere length in Nurses’ Health Study: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomere length, a biomarker of aging. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121?700 nurses enrolled in 1976; in 1989-90 a subset of 32?825 women provided blood samples. Participants 4676 disease-free women from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Study with telomere length measured who also completed food frequency questionnaires. Main outcome measure Association between relative telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Alternate Mediterranean Diet score calculated from self reported dietary data. Results Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders. Least squares mean telomere length z scores were ?0.038 (SE 0.035) for the lowest Mediterranean diet score groups and 0.072 (0.030) for the highest group (P for trend=0.004). Conclusion In this large study, greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres. These results further support the benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet for promoting health and longevity. PMID:25467028

Crous-Bou, Marta; Fung, Teresa T; Prescott, Jennifer; Julin, Bettina; Sun, Qi; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Hu, Frank B

2014-01-01

175

Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and esophageal cancer risk: A UK General Practice Research Database cohort study  

PubMed Central

Context Oral bisphosphonate use has increased dramatically in the USA. Recent case reports have suggested a link between bisphosphonate use and esophageal cancer, but this is yet to be robustly investigated. Objective To investigate the association between bisphosphonate use and esophageal cancer. Design, setting and participants Data were extracted from the UK General Practice Research to compare the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancer in a cohort of patients treated with oral bisphosphonates between January 1996 and December 2006 to a control cohort not treated with these drugs. Cancers were identified from relevant Read\\OXMIS codes in the patient’s clinical files. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancer risk in bisphosphonate users compared to non bisphosphonate users, with adjustment for potential confounders. Main outcome measure The HR for the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the bisphosphonate users compared to the non bisphosphonate users. Results There were 41,826 members in each cohort; 81% female, mean (SD) age, 70.0 (11.4) years, excluding patients with under 6 months follow-up. 116 esophageal or gastric cancers (79 esophageal) occurred in the bisphosphonate cohort and 115 (72 esophageal) in the control cohort. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 and 4.4 years in the bisphosphonate and control cohorts, respectively. There was no difference in combined esophageal and gastric cancer risk between the cohorts for any bisphosphonate use; adjusted HR (95% CI), 0.96 (0.74, 1.25) or esophageal risk alone; adjusted HR (95% CI), 1.07 (0.77, 1.49). There was also no difference in esophageal or gastric cancer risk by level of bisphosphonate intake. Conclusion This large study does not provide evidence for an increased risk of esophageal (or gastric) cancer in persons using oral bisphosphonates. PMID:20699457

Cardwell, Chris C; Abnet, Christian C; Cantwell, Marie M; Murray, Liam J

2012-01-01

176

Cyclophosphamide- metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and survival outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy for node-positive breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study  

E-print Network

chemotherapy for node- positive breast cancer: a retrospective cohort study Breast Cancer ResearchResearch article Open Access Cyclophosphamide- metabolizing enzyme polymorphisms and survival outcomes after adjuvant chemotherapy

2010-01-01

177

Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine Effectiveness: A Swedish National Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Incidence of condyloma, or genital warts (GW), is the earliest possible disease outcome to measure when assessing the effectiveness of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination strategies. Efficacy trials that follow prespecified inclusion and exclusion criteria may not be fully generalizable to real-life HPV vaccination programs, which target a broader segment of the population. We assessed GW incidence after on-demand vaccination with quadrivalent HPV vaccine using individual-level data from the entire Swedish population. Methods An open cohort of girls and women aged 10 to 44 years living in Sweden between 2006 and 2010 (N > 2.2 million) was linked to multiple population registers to identify incident GW in relation to HPV vaccination. For vaccine effectiveness, incidence rate ratios of GW were estimated using time-to-event analyses with adjustment for attained age and parental education level, stratifying on age at first vaccination. Results A total of 124 000 girls and women were vaccinated between 2006 and 2010. Girls and women with at least one university-educated parent were 15 times more likely to be vaccinated before age 20 years than girls and women whose parents did not complete high school (relative risk ratio = 15.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 14.65 to 16.30). Among those aged older than 20 years, GW rates declined among the unvaccinated, suggesting that HPV vaccines were preferentially used by women at high risk of GW. Vaccination effectiveness was 76% (95% CI = 73% to 79%) among those who received three doses of the vaccine with their first dose before age 20 years. Vaccine effectiveness was highest in girls vaccinated before age 14 years (effectiveness = 93%, 95% CI = 73% to 98%). Conclusions Young age at first vaccination is imperative for maximizing quadrivalent HPV vaccine effectiveness. PMID:23486550

2013-01-01

178

Sociodemographic factors and vestibular schwannoma: a Danish nationwide cohort study.  

PubMed

Vestibular schwannoma (VS) (or acoustic neuroma) accounts for about 5%-6% of all intracranial tumors; little is known about the etiology. We investigated the association between various sociodemographic indicators and VS in a cohort of 3.26 million Danish residents, with 1087 cases identified in 35 308 974 person-years under risk, with data accrued from 1993 to 2006. Complete ascertainment of cases was ensured by using population-based and clinical cancer registries. Information on sociodemographic indicators was obtained on an annually updated individual level from Statistics Denmark. Log-linear Poisson regression models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Linear regression models were used to examine the association between sociodemographic indicators and tumor size. We found that IRRs decreased gradually with decreasing level of education, with values of 0.62 (95% CI: 0.49-0.78) for men and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.50-0.77) for women with a basic education compared with a higher education. Similar results were found for disposable income. Marital status was associated with a higher incidence of VS in men but not women; nonmarried men with a basic education had an IRR of 0.34 (95% CI: 0.23-0.50) compared with married men with a higher education. Lower incidence rates were also observed among unemployed or early-retirement pensioners, whereas there were no differences in incidence rates across the broad groups of occupations and across the types of districts. Sociodemographic indicators were not associated with the tumor size. The magnitude of the differences in incidence rates across the groups of different socioeconomic indicators suggests a high potential for earlier diagnosis of VS by improving the awareness of early symptoms. PMID:21068153

Schüz, Joachim; Steding-Jessen, Marianne; Hansen, Søren; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Johansen, Christoffer

2010-12-01

179

The Millennium Cohort Study: A Prospective Study of the Health of Military Service Members  

Cancer.gov

This is the first large, population-based prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term health effects of military service. After the 1991 Gulf War, research on illnesses was hampered by unavailability of objective measurements on exposures at the individual level, a lack of baseline health data, and an inability to adequately control for potential confounding factors. Public health experts recommended that the Department of Defense (DoD) establish a cohort with the capability to prospectively examine health outcomes among U.S. military service members.

180

A cohort study of workers employed in a refractory brick plant.  

PubMed

A mortality study was carried out on a cohort of workers who were exposed to silica dust in a refractory brick plant. The cohort was divided into two groups: workers with and without silicosis, and their mortality was contrasted with the death rate of Genova from 1960 to 1979. Results show an increased risk for laryngeal tumors (3 obs., 0.44 exp., SMR = 682), nonmalignant respiratory disease (16 obs., 3.2 exp., SMR = 500), and cardiovascular diseases (19 obs., 11 exp., SMR = 173) among silicotics. The mortality rate for lung cancer showed an increase for the cohort of workers as a whole (11 obs., 6 exp., SMR = 183). The almost double overall mortality observed in silicotic subjects raises some doubts about the validity of other proportional mortality studies that showed no excesses for workers in these industries. PMID:2832986

Puntoni, R; Goldsmith, D F; Valerio, F; Vercelli, M; Bonassi, S; Di Giorgio, F; Ceppi, M; Stagnaro, E; Filiberti, R; Santi, L

1988-02-29

181

Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. METHODS: This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child

Darci N Santos; Ana Marlúcia O Assis; Ana Bastos; Letícia M Santos; Carlos Antonio ST Santos; Agostino Strina; Matildes S Prado; Naomar M Almeida-Filho; Laura C Rodrigues; Mauricio L Barreto

2008-01-01

182

Burnout in health-care professionals during reorganizations and downsizing. A cohort study in nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a psychological reaction triggered by interaction between personal characteristics and stress factors. Reorganizations and downsizing with increased workload imply stress for health-care professionals. This is a study of burnout in nurses during a period with two comprehensive reorganizations. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study, burnout was assessed in nurses with long work experience in three surveys

Kirsten Nordang; Marie-Louise Hall-Lord; Per G Farup

2010-01-01

183

Intraurban-scale dispersion modelling of particulate matter concentrations: Applications for exposure estimates in cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiological studies relating air pollution to health effects often estimate personal exposure to particulate matter using values from a central ambient monitoring site as a proxy. However, when there is a significant amount of variation in particulate concentrations across an urban area, the use of central sites may result in exposure misclassification that induces error in long-term cohort epidemiological study

J. Gaines Wilson; Peyman Zawar-Reza

2006-01-01

184

A Birth Cohort Study: Conceptual and Design Considerations and Rationale. Working Paper Series.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort 2000 (ECLS-B) is a study that will assess children's health status and their growth and development in domains that are critical for later school readiness and academic achievement. This paper is one of several that have been prepared in support of ECLS-B design efforts. It is anticipated that…

Moore, Kristin; Manlove, Jennifer; Richter, Kerry; Halle, Tamara; Le Menestrel, Suzanne; Zaslow, Martha; Greene, Angela Dungee; Mariner, Carrie; Romano, Angela; Bridges, Lisa

185

Very Early Predictors of Conduct Problems and Crime: Results from a National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born…

Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.

2010-01-01

186

Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

2012-01-01

187

Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort

Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

2014-01-01

188

Characteristics and Motivations That Led to Persistence in Doctoral Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this research was to investigate the characteristics and motivations that led to persistence in a doctoral cohort program of study. A phenomenological case study approach, utilizing a comprehensive interview format, was used to gain a deep understanding of the phenomenon. The case for this research was Robert Morris…

Santicola, Leslie Lynn

2011-01-01

189

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in  

E-print Network

and their determinants. Methods/Design: Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France and prevention in high-risk babies. Keywords: Preterm births, Cohort, Population-based study Background About 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

190

EVALUATION OF A REMOTE EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGY FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...

191

Low Control at Work and the Risk of Suicide in Japanese Men: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Although adverse psychosocial job characteristics are suspected predictors of suicide death, prospective studies based on established stress instruments are limited. Methods: In a multicenter community-based Japanese cohort study, we prospectively investigated the association between psychosocial job characteristics and the risk of death from suicide among male workers. Baseline examination was conducted from 1992 to 1995 to determine the socioeconomic,

Akizumi Tsutsumi; Kazunori Kayaba; Toshiyuki Ojima; Shizukiyo Ishikawa; Norito Kawakami

2007-01-01

192

Mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although previous studies have shown increased mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives, no data are available in relation to different patterns of clinical presentation. We assessed mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their first-degree relatives. Methods We enrolled, in a prospective cohort study, 1072 adult patients with coeliac disease consecutively diagnosed in 11 gastroenterology

Giovanni Corrao; Gino Roberto Corazza; Vincenzo Bagnardi; Giovanna Brusco; Carolina Ciacci; Mario Cottone; Carla Sategna Guidetti; Paolo Usai; Pietro Cesari; Maria Antonietta Pelli; Silvano Loperfido; Umberto Volta; Antonino Calabró; Maria Certo

2001-01-01

193

Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

194

Posttraumatic Syndromes in Children and Adolescents after Road Traffic Accidents – A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of road traffic accidents (RTAs) on the physical health of children is well recognized, but their psychological consequences have only recently become a topic of research. While other traumatic experiences in childhood are well studied, this kind of trauma has been poorly investigated to date. Sampling and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted of 8- to

Ingo Schäfer; Claus Barkmann; Peter Riedesser; Michael Schulte-Markwort

2006-01-01

195

Low Job Control and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Whitehall II (Prospective Cohort) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. Design: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of

Hans Bosma; Michael G. Marmot; Harry Hemingway; Amanda C. Nicholson; Eric Brunner; Stephen A. Stansfeld

1997-01-01

196

Bleeding complications of oral anticoagulant treatment: an inception-cohort, prospective collaborative study (ISCOAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Bleeding is the most serious complication of the use of oral anticoagulation in the prevention and treatment of thromoboembolic complications. We studied the frequency of bleeding complications in outpatients treated routinely in anticoagulation clinics. Methods In a prospective cohort from thirty-four Italian anticoagulation clinics, 2745 consecutive patients were studied from the start of their oral anticoagulation (warfarin in

Gualtiero Palareti; Nicoletta Leali; Sergio Coccheri; Mario Poggi; Cesare Manotti; Armando D'Angelo; Vittorio Pengo; Nicoletta Erba; Marco Moia; Nicola Ciavarella; Gianluigi Devoto; Mauro Berrettini; Serena Musolesi

1996-01-01

197

Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

2013-01-01

198

Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

199

Suicide Attempts and Severe Psychiatric Morbidity among Former Child Welfare Clients--A National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few large sample studies have examined psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare/protection clients. In this study, risks for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity in younger years were assessed for former child welfare clients in ten national birth cohorts, comparing them with general population peers and…

Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders; Lindblad, Frank

2006-01-01

200

Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL Cohort Study  

E-print Network

1 Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL Cohort Study Naja Hulvej;173(3):300-9" DOI : 10.1093/aje/kwq371 #12;2 Abstract Poor sleep is an increasing problem in modern society, but most previous studies on sleep and mortality have addressed only duration, and not quality, of sleep

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

201

Size at Birth and Blood Pressure in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that birth size may influence blood pressure in later life. Most of these reported inverse associations only became evident after weight or body mass index at some later age was included in the regression model. In a prospective birth cohort study in Brazil, the effect of birth size on blood pressure at age 11 years was

Ana M. B. Menezes; Pedro C. Hallal; Bernardo L. Horta; Cora L. P. Araujo; Maria de Fatima Vieira; Marilda Neutzling; Fernando C. Barros; Cesar G. Victora

2007-01-01

202

Falls, Sarcopenia, and Growth in Early Life: Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that people whose early growth is poor have an increased risk of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is an important risk factor for falls, but it is not known whether poor early growth is related to falls. The authors investigated this association in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (1998-2004), where 2,148 participants from the United Kingdom provided their history of

Avan Aihie Sayer; Holly E. Syddall; Helen J. Martin; Elaine M. Dennison; Frazer H. Anderson; Cyrus Cooper

203

Overweight, obesity and gastric cancer risk: Results from a meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between excess body weight and gastric cancer risk has not been well studied to date. We therefore carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of published cohort studies to evaluate the association between excess body weight and gastric cancer risk. An electronic search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Academic Search Premier (EBSCO) databases, which contain articles published

Ping Yang; Yong Zhou; Bo Chen; Hong-Wei Wan; Gui-Qing Jia; Hai-Long Bai; Xiao-Ting Wu

2009-01-01

204

Pharmaco-morbidity linkage: a feasibility study comparing morbidity in two pharmacy based exposure cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aims were (1) to compare discharge diagnoses and concurrent medication in a pharmacy based cohort of users of H2 receptor antagonists to those in a population of users of other drugs in the same period, who did not use H2 receptor antagonists; (2) to compare these results to those of a similar study performed with the Tayside record

R M Herings; A Bakker; B H Stricker; G Nap

1992-01-01

205

Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

2014-07-01

206

Global self-evaluations and perceived instability of self in early adolescence: a cohort longitudinal study.  

PubMed

A cohort longitudinal design with four adjacent cohorts of students (n = 1689) followed over two years was used to study key issues identified in the research literature on the development of self-evaluations in early adolescence. There was no clear relationship between age/grade and self-evaluations. We found no support for a "stressful periods" hypothesis with respect to self: Possible changes were very gradual and quite small. However, there was a consistent "relative age" effect implying that younger students within a grade had more negative self-evaluations. There were small but consistent sex differences in self-evaluations in favor of the boys; more detailed analyses of very negative self-evaluations suggested that the early adolescent years are the period in which a sex difference in depression related symptomatology begins to emerge. Finally, the usefulness of some kind of effect size measure and advantages and problems associated with a cohort longitudinal design were discussed. PMID:8322042

Alsaker, F D; Olweus, D

1993-03-01

207

Overall and cancer related mortality among patients with ocular inflammation treated with immunosuppressive drugs: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Whether immunosuppressive treatment adversely affects survival is unclear.Objective To assess whether immunosuppressive drugs increase mortality.Design Retrospective cohort study evaluating overall and cancer mortality in relation to immunosuppressive drug exposure among patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data derived from medical records, and mortality results from United States National Death Index linkage. The cohort’s mortality risk was

John H Kempen; Ebenezer Daniel; James P Dunn; C Stephen Foster; Sapna Gangaputra; Asaf Hanish; Kathy J Helzlsouer; Douglas A Jabs; R Oktay Kaçmaz; Grace A Levy-Clarke; Teresa L Liesegang; Craig W Newcomb; Robert B Nussenblatt; Siddharth S Pujari; James T Rosenbaum; Eric B Suhler; Jennifer E Thorne

2009-01-01

208

Cellular Telephones and Cancer—a Nationwide Cohort Study in Denmark  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Use of cellular telephones is increasing exponentially and has be- come part of everyday life. Concerns about possible carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency signals have been raised, although they are based on limited sci- entific evidence. Methods: A retrospec- tive cohort study of cancer incidence was conducted in Denmark of all users of cellular telephones during the period from 1982

Christoffer Johansen; John D. Boice; Joseph K. McLaughlin; Jørgen H. Olsen

2001-01-01

209

Whooping cough in school age children with persistent cough: prospective cohort study in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the proportion of school age children with a persistent cough who have evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection. Design Prospective cohort study (October 2001 to March 2005). Setting General practices in Oxfordshire, England. Participants 172 children aged 5-16 years who presented to their general practitioner with a cough lasting 14 days or more who consented to

Anthony Harnden; Cameron Grant; Timothy Harrison; Rafael Perera; Angela B Brueggemann; Richard Mayon-White; David Mant

2006-01-01

210

Impact of Diabetes on Work Cessation Data from the GAZEL cohort study  

E-print Network

Impact of Diabetes on Work Cessation Data from the GAZEL cohort study ELÃ?ONORE HERQUELOT, MSC ALICE of diabetes on work cessation, i.e., on the risks of work disability, early retirement, and death while with diabetes and randomly selected 2,530 nondiabetic employed control subjects matched for major socio

Boyer, Edmond

211

The validity of post-concussion syndrome in children: A controlled historical cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this controlled historical cohort study was to assess the validity of post-concussion syndrome in children. We identified 301 children aged 4–15 years who had sustained an isolated brain concussion, and another group of 301 children who sustained any other mild body injury excluding the head. Parents from both groups filled in standardized questionnaires containing questions about the

Olga Nacajauskaite; Milda Endziniene; Kristina Jureniene; Harald Schrader

2006-01-01

212

Use of complementary alternative medicine for low back pain consulting in general practice: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although back pain is considered one of the most frequent reasons why patients seek complementary and alternative medical (CAM) therapies little is known on the extent patients are actually using CAM for back pain. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of a longitudinal prospective cohort study embedded in a RCT. General practitioners (GPs) recruited consecutively adult patients presenting

Jean-François Chenot; Annette Becker; Corinna Leonhardt; Stefan Keller; Norbert Donner-Banzhoff; Erika Baum; Michael Pfingsten; Jan Hildebrandt; Heinz-Dieter Basler; Michael M Kochen

2007-01-01

213

USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 52,395 private pesticide applicators, 4,916 commercial pesticide applicators and 32,347 spouses of farmer applicators from Iowa and North Carolina w...

214

USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 55,332 male pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina with no prior history of prostate cancer. Data were collected by means...

215

Minimal Changes of Serum Creatinine Predict Prognosis in Patients after Cardiothoracic Surgery: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acute renal failure increases risk of death after car- diac surgery. However, it is not known whether more subtle changes in renal function might have an impact on outcome. Thus, the association between small serum creatinine changes after surgery and mortality, independent of other established perioperative risk indicators, was analyzed. In a prospective cohort study in 4118 patients who underwent

ANDREA LASSNIGG; DANIEL SCHMIDLIN; MOHAMED MOUHIEDDINE; LUCAS M. BACHMANN; WILFRED DRUML; PETER BAUER; MICHAEL HIESMAYR

2004-01-01

216

Breast cancer mortality in Copenhagen after introduction of mammography screening: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To evaluate the effect on breast cancer mortality during the first 10 years of the mammography service screening programme that was introduced in Copenhagen in 1991. Design Cohort study. Setting The mammography service screening programme in Copenhagen, Denmark. Participants All women ever invited to mammography screening in the first 10 years of the programme. Historical, national, and historical national

A. H. Olsen; Valagussa P; Moliterni A; Zambetti M; Daidone MG; Coradini D; Sisse H Njor; Ilse Vejborg; Walter Schwartz; Peter Dalgaard; Maj-Britt Jensen; Ulla Brix Tange; Mogens Blichert-Toft; Fritz Rank; Henning Mouridsen; Elsebeth Lynge

2005-01-01

217

Pregnancy outcome in natural family planning users: cohort and case-control studies evaluating safety  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conceptions involving aging gametes are of relevance to natural family planning (NFP) because women using NFP to avoid pregnancy abstain from intercourse during the fertile time of the cycle. To help verify the safety of pregnancies occurring among NFP practitioners, our group has, since 1986, conducted a large cohort study involving six experienced NFP centers. Timing of conception was determined

J. L. Simpson; R. H. Gray; A. Perez; P. Mena; M. Barbato; E. E. Castilla; R. T. Kambic; F. Pardo; G. Tagliabue; W. S. Stephenson; A. Bitto; C. Li; V. H. Jennings; J. M. Spieler; J. T. Queenan

1997-01-01

218

Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study of modifiable risk  

E-print Network

towards the end of the 20th century, leading to the marketing of treatments for the symptoms of dementiaRESEARCH Designing prevention programmes to reduce incidence of dementia: prospective cohort study,2 ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the percentage reduction in incidence of dementia that would be obtained

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Gut microbiota composition and development of atopic manifestations in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aims: Perturbations in intestinal microbiota composition due to lifestyle changes may be involved in the development of atopic diseases. We examined gut microbiota composition in early infancy and the subsequent development of atopic manifestations and sensitisation. Methods: The faeces of 957 infants aged 1 month and participating in the KOALA Birth Cohort Study were analysed using quantitative real-time

John Penders; Carel Thijs; Piet A van den Brandt; Ischa Kummeling; Bianca Snijders; Foekje Stelma; Hanne Adams; Ronald van Ree; Ellen E Stobberingh

2010-01-01

220

Cancer screenee cohort study of the National Cancer Center in South Korea  

PubMed Central

The Cancer Screenee Cohort Study was first established in 2002 by the National Cancer Center in South Korea to investigate all possible risk factors related to cancers and to expand biological specimen banking for the development of effective methodologies for cancer detection, diagnosis, and prevention. As of July in 2014, total 41,105 participants were enrolled in this cohort. Data were collected via questionnaire, clinical examination, cancer screening, and biological specimen testing including blood, urine, and exfoliated cervical cells. The highest incidence was found to be thyroid cancer, according to a nested case-control study that was linked to the National Cancer Registry information as of December 31, 2011. Case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies have been published using these data since 2009. Diet and nutrition was the most published topic, followed by genetics, hepatitis B virus and liver cancer screening, methodologies, physical activity, obesity, metabolic syndrome, smoking and alcohol consumption, and blood type. Evidence from the Cancer Screenee Cohort Study is highly anticipated to reduce the burden of cancer in the Korean population and aid in the detection, diagnosis, and prevention of cancer. PMID:25119453

Kim, Jeongseon

2014-01-01

221

An Evaluation of Intraoperative Renal Support during Liver Transplantation: A Matched Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Intraoperative continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) has been utilized during liver transplantation (LT). Our objective was to assess intraoperative CRRT for metabolic control, postoperative complications and outcomes. Methods: Retrospective matched cohort study. Cases were LT patients receiving intraoperative CRRT. Controls were matched for demographics and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score. Data were extracted on physiology, course and

Ambica Parmar; David Bigam; Glenda Meeberg; Dominic Cave; Derek R. Townsend; R. T. Noel Gibney; Sean M. Bagshaw

2011-01-01

222

Severe obesity and selected risk factors in a sixth grade multiracial cohort: the HEALTHY study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of this study was to document the prevalence of severe obesity and associated risk in the HEALTHY cohort. A total of 6,365 students were assessed at school-based screenings. Results showed that 6.9% of students were severely obese. Severe obesity was associated with elevated cardiometabo...

223

Development of a method to estimate thyroid dose from fallout radioiodine in a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort of 4831 persons aged 11-18 y in 1965 was identified among students in the schools of Washington County, UT; Lincoln County, NV; and Graham County, AZ. These children who had potentially been exposed to radioiodine from atomic weapons test fallout from the Nevada Test Site during 1951-1962 were selected for participation in a study of thyroid disease. The

S. L. Simon; R. D. Lloyd; J. E. Till; H. A. Hawthorne; D. C. Gren; M. L. Rallison; W. Stevens

1990-01-01

224

Child Care in Infancy and Cognitive Performance until Middle Childhood in the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a British cohort ("n" = [approximately]13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age…

Cote, Sylvana M.; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amelie; Timmins, Lori

2013-01-01

225

Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

2014-01-01

226

A Phenomenological Study of an Indonesian Cohort Group's Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was set to investigate how a cohort of ten Indonesian teachers experienced transformations in their teaching professionalism upon receiving an assignment of instructional leadership training to other school leaders. These ten teachers, who came from three different Indonesian Jesuit high schools and one archdiocese-based educational…

Budiraharjo, Markus

2013-01-01

227

Contrasting predictors of poor antiretroviral therapy outcomes in two South African HIV programmes: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes encourage providers to identify and address baseline factors associated with poor treatment outcomes, including modifiable adherence-related behaviours, before initiating ART. However, evidence on such predictors is scarce, and providers judgement may often be inaccurate. To help address this evidence gap, this observational cohort study examined baseline factors potentially predictive of poor treatment outcomes

Mison Dahab; Salome Charalambous; Alan S Karstaedt; Katherine L Fielding; Robin Hamilton; Lettie La Grange; Gavin J Churchyard; Alison D Grant

2010-01-01

228

Is Epidural Anesthesia in labor Associated with Chronic Low Back Pain? A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between epidural anesthesia during la- bor and subsequent postpartum low back pain remains unclear. The objective of this follow-up cohort study was to determine whether epidural anesthesia was as- sociated with chronic back pain 1 yr after delivery. We contacted 329 women by telephone and asked them to complete a standardized questionnaire 1 yr (+ 1 mo) af-

BETH GLOSTEN

229

A cohort mortality study of forestry workers exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort mortality study was undertaken of forestry workers at a public electrical utility who had worked for six months or more during 1950-82 and who were routinely exposed to herbicides including phenoxy acids. A total of 1222 men with 25 274 years at risk experienced 80 deaths. Ascertainment of vital state at the end of follow up was 95.5%.

L M Green

1991-01-01

230

Kidney growth in 717 healthy children aged 0–18 months: a longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Kidney size is an important parameter in the evaluation of children with renal disease. However, reference materials for kidney size in healthy children have been limited beyond the neonatal period. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 717 healthy children born at term with normal birth weight. Kidney size and shape were determined by ultrasonography and related to gender, age,

Ida M. Schmidt; Katharina M. Main; Ida N. Damgaard; Claudia Mau; Anna-Maarit Haavisto; Marla Chellakooty; Kirsten A. Boisen; Jørgen H. Petersen; Thomas Scheike; Klaus Olgaard

2004-01-01

231

Using Blogging for Higher Order Learning in Large Cohort University Teaching: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The small but developing literature on weblogging underscores its potential as an effective learning resource for use in higher education. This paper contributes to these discussions through an initial case study of the authors' experience with the on going development of an educational blogging resource for use in a large cohort, undergraduate…

Farmer, Brett; Yue, Audrey; Brooks, Claire

2008-01-01

232

Determinants of High Sex Ratio among Newborns: A Cohort Study from Rural Anhui Province, China  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study analysed the relative contributions of three possible determinants to the high sex ratio among newborns in rural China – under-reporting of female births, abortions of female fetuses and excess early female neonatal mortality. A cohort of 3,697 pregnancies collected at village level in 20 rural townships from a county in Anhui province in 1999 was followed from pregnancy

Zhuochun Wu; Kirsi Viisainen; Elina Hemminki

2006-01-01

233

Homeopathic medical practice: Long-term results of a cohort study with 3981 patients  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: On the range of diagnoses, course of treatment, and long-term outcome in patients who chose to receive homeopathic medical treatment very little is known. We investigated homeopathic practice in an industrialized country under everyday conditions. METHODS: In a prospective, multicentre cohort study with 103 primary care practices with additional specialisation in homeopathy in Germany and Switzerland, data from all

Claudia M Witt; Rainer Lüdtke; Roland Baur; Stefan N Willich

2005-01-01

234

Birth weight, childhood socioeconomic environment, and cognitive development in the 1958 British birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the combined effect of social class and weight at birth on cognitive trajectories during school age and the associations between birth weight and educational outcomes through to 33 years. Design Longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study. Participants 10 845 males and females born during 3›9 March 1958 with information on birth weight, social class, and cognitive tests.

Barbara J M H Jefferis; Chris Power; Clyde Hertzman

2002-01-01

235

Infant Weight Gain and Childhood Overweight Status in a Multicenter, Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine whether a rapid rate of weight gain in early infancy is associated with overweight status in childhood. Design. Prospective, cohort study from birth to age 7 years. Setting. Twelve sites across the United States. Participants. Twenty-seven thousand, eight hundred ninety-nine (27 899) eligible participants born at full term between 1959 and 1965. Main Outcome Measure. Overweight status

Nicolas Stettler; Babette S. Zemel; Shiriki Kumanyika; Virginia A. Stallings

2010-01-01

236

Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a

Timothy J Ives; Paul R Chelminski; Catherine A Hammett-Stabler; Robert M Malone; J Stephen Perhac; Nicholas M Potisek; Betsy Bryant Shilliday; Darren A DeWalt; Michael P Pignone

2006-01-01

237

Serum Peak Sulfamethoxazole Concentrations Demonstrate Difficulty in Achieving a Target Range: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Trimethoprim (TMP)/sulfamethoxazole (SMX) has consistently demonstrated great interindividual variability. Therapeutic drug monitoring may be used to optimize dosing. Optimal peak SMX concentration has been proposed as 100 to 150 ?g/mL. The objective of our work was to determine the success rate of a TMP/SMX dosing guideline in achieving a targeted serum peak SMX concentration range. Methods Our retrospective cohort study enrolled 305 adult hospitalized patients who received treatment with TMP/SMX and underwent serum peak SMX concentration monitoring from January 2003 to November 2011. Patients receiving low-dose TMP/SMX therapy (TMP <15 mg/kg/d) were compared with those receiving high-dose therapy (TMP >15 mg/kg/d). Results Patients were classified into peak and modified peak SMX concentration cohorts based on time between TMP/SMX dose and SMX quantification. The association between dosing group and the outcome of the SMX level within the goal range was measured using logistic regression models. The primary outcome measured was serum peak SMX concentration 100 to 150 ?g/mL. Serum peak SMX concentrations were attained within range for the peak and modified peak cohort 29% and 26% of the time, respectively. The median peak SMX concentration was 144 ?g/mL (range 25–471 ?g/mL). The low daily dose cohort demonstrated a trend toward improvement in the odds of target peak concentration range attainment. The results were similar regardless of the method used to adjust for baseline characteristics. The pure peak and modified peak cohorts had 44% and 46% of patients with above-target SMX peak concentrations, respectively. Conclusions Attainment of the intended target concentration range was low with no difference in attainment between the low-dose and high-dose cohorts. Higher proportions of patients had an above-target SMX peak, which may indicate that the dosing algorithm is overly aggressive in obtaining the therapeutic goal. PMID:25408788

Dao, Bao D.; Barreto, Jason N.; Wolf, Robert C.; Dierkhising, Ross A.; Plevak, Matthew F.; Tosh, Pritish K.

2014-01-01

238

Carbon Monoxide Poisoning and Subsequent Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Nationwide Population-based Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is considered one of the most crucial health concerns. Few studies have investigated the correlation between CO poisoning and the risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Therefore, we conducted a population-based, longitudinal cohort study in Taiwan to determine whether patients with CO poisoning are associated with higher risk of developing subsequent CVDs, including arrhythmia, coronary artery disease (CAD) and congestive heart failure (CHF).This retrospective study used the National Health Insurance Research Database. The study cohort comprised all patients aged ?20 years with a diagnosis of CO poisoning and hospitalized during 2000 to 2011 (N?=?8381), and the comparison cohort comprised randomly selected non-CO-poisoned patients (N?=?33,524) frequency-matched with the study cohort by age, sex, and the year of index date. Each patient was individually tracked to identify those who develop CVD events during the follow-up period. Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to calculate the hazard ratios of CVDs after adjusting for possible confounders.The overall incidences of arrhythmia, CAD, and CHF were higher in the patients with CO poisoning than in the controls (2.57 vs 1.25/1000 person-years, 3.28 vs 2.25/1000 person-years, and 1.32 vs 1.05/1000 person-years, respectively). After adjusting for age, sex, and comorbidities, the patients with CO poisoning were associated with a 1.83-fold higher risk of arrhythmia compared with the comparison cohort, and nonsignificantly associated with risk of CAD and CHF. CO-poisoned patients with coexisting comorbidity or in high severity were associated with significantly and substantially increased risk of all 3 CVDs.CO poisoning is associated with increased risk of subsequent development of arrhythmia. Future studies are required to explore the long-term effects of CO poisoning on the cardiovascular system. PMID:25761191

Lee, Feng-You; Chen, Wei-Kung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Kao, Chia-Hung

2015-03-01

239

Risks for central nervous system diseases among mobile phone subscribers: a Danish retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to investigate a possible link between cellular telephone use and risks for various diseases of the central nervous system (CNS). We conducted a large nationwide cohort study of 420 095 persons whose first cellular telephone subscription was between 1982 and 1995, who were followed through 2003 for hospital contacts for a diagnosis of a CNS disorder. Standardized hospitalization ratios (SHRs) were derived by dividing the number of hospital contacts in the cohort by the number expected in the Danish population. The SHRs were increased by 10-20% for migraine and vertigo. No associations were seen for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis or epilepsy in women. SHRs decreased by 30-40% were observed for dementia (Alzheimer disease, vascular and other dementia), Parkinson disease and epilepsy among men. In analyses restricted to subscribers of 10 years or more, the SHRs remained similarly increased for migraine and vertigo and similarly decreased for Alzheimer disease and other dementia and epilepsy (in men); the other SHRs were close to unity. In conclusion, the excesses of migraine and vertigo observed in this first study on cellular telephones and CNS disease deserve further attention. An interplay of a healthy cohort effect and reversed causation bias due to prodromal symptoms impedes detection of a possible association with dementia and Parkinson disease. Identification of the factors that result in a healthy cohort might be of interest for elucidation of the etiology of these diseases. PMID:19194493

Schüz, Joachim; Waldemar, Gunhild; Olsen, Jørgen H; Johansen, Christoffer

2009-01-01

240

Mortality in the UK industrial silica sand industry: 2. A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the mortality experience of a cohort of employees in the UK silica sand industry exposed to respirable crystalline silica (RCS). Methods: A retrospective cohort mortality study followed all workers to 2001 with at least one year's employment at one of seven UK silica sand producing quarries between 1950 and 1986. Each worker was assigned a job category and cumulative exposure to RCS was estimated using a job-exposure matrix. Results: A total of 764 deaths were identified in 2703 cohort members. The overall mortality rate for the cohort was lower than would be expected in the general population. Mortality from circulatory and respiratory disease was also less than expected, but death due to pneumoconiosis was slightly raised (two deaths). Mortality from all cancers was slightly decreased. Mortality was not raised in any job category. Cancer mortality was raised at one quarry due to a significant increase in lung (standardised mortality rate (SMR) 162.0, 95% CI 113.5 to 224.3) and bladder (SMR 366.5, 95% CI 167.6 to 695.7) cancers. Mortality from lung cancer and other causes did not show a trend with cumulative exposure to RCS. Conclusions: This study did not show any consistent relation between RCS exposure (in the absence of other known carcinogens) and the development of lung cancer. This contrasts with a number of studies that have shown positive findings in similar and related industries. PMID:15961620

Brown, T; Rushton, L

2005-01-01

241

Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Cohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America. Methods and Findings We found the literature using Medline (1966-2005), Embase (1980-2001), Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues;

Meghna Ranganathan; Raj Bhopal

2006-01-01

242

Alcohol attributable burden of incidence of cancer in eight European countries based on results from prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compute the burden of cancer attributable to current and former alcohol consumption in eight European countries based on direct relative risk estimates from a cohort study.Design Combination of prospective cohort study with representative population based data on alcohol exposure.Setting Eight countries (France, Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Denmark) participating in the European Prospective Investigation into

Madlen Schütze; Heiner Boeing; Tobias Pischon; Jürgen Rehm; Tara Kehoe; Gerrit Gmel; Anja Olsen; Anne M Tjønneland; Christina C Dahm; Kim Overvad; Françoise Clavel-Chapelon; Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault; Antonia Trichopoulou; Vasiliki Benetou; Dimosthenis Zylis; Rudolf Kaaks; Sabine Rohrmann; Domenico Palli; Franco Berrino; Rosario Tumino; Paolo Vineis; Laudina Rodríguez; Antonio Agudo; María-José Sánchez; Miren Dorronsoro; Maria-Dolores Chirlaque; Aurelio Barricarte; Petra H Peeters; Carla H van Gils; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nick Wareham; Naomi E Allen; Timothy J Key; Paolo Boffetta; Nadia Slimani; Mazda Jenab; Dora Romaguera; Petra A Wark; Elio Riboli; Manuela M Bergmann

2011-01-01

243

Nonapnea sleep disorders and incident chronic kidney disease: a population-based retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Nonapnea sleep disorders (NASDs) are associated with an increased risk of stroke, diabetes, and hypertension. No longitudinal study has yet examined the association between NASD and chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using epidemiologic study methods. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of NASD on the incidence of CKD in a large population-based retrospective cohort study.Based on a retrospective cohort study of a general population sample of 128 to 436 patients in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database from January 1, 1998 to December 31, 2001, 42 to 812 NASD patients were followed up for 10.2?±?3.12 years, and additional 85 to 624 individuals had no NASD at baseline. The International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification was used to identify the diagnosis of disease. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to assess the association between NASD and subsequent CKD risk.The incidence rate of CKD was significantly higher in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (2.68 vs 1.88 per 1000 person-years, respectively). After we adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities, the risk of developing CKD was significant for patients with NASD (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]?=?1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI]?=?1.05-1.22; P?cohort. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis indicated that the CKD-free rate was 1% lower in the NASD cohort than in the comparison cohort (log-rank test, P?study provides evidence that patients with NASD have an increased risk of developing subsequent CKD compared with patients without NASD; men, elderly people, and patients with concomitant comorbidities are at the greatest risk. PMID:25634175

Huang, Shih-Ting; Lin, Cheng-Li; Yu, Tung-Min; Yang, Te-Cheng; Kao, Chia-Hung

2015-01-01

244

Reproducibility in Echocardiographic Assessment of Diastolic Function in a Population Based Study (The STANISLAS Cohort Study)  

PubMed Central

Introduction There is limited evidence regarding intra-observer and inter-observer variations in echocardiographic measurements of diastolic function. This study aimed to assess this reproducibly within a population-based cohort study. Methods Sixty subjects in sinus rhythm were randomly selected among 4th visit participants of the STANISLAS Cohort (Lorraine region, France). This 4th examination systematically included M-mode, 2-dimensional, DTI and pulsed-wave Doppler echocardiograms. Reproducibility of variables was studied by intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Bland Altman plots. Results Our population was on average middle-aged (50 ± 14y), overweight (BMI = 26 ± 6kg/m2) and non-smoking (87%) with a quarter of the participants having self-declared hypertension or treated with anti-hypertensive medication(s). Intra-observer ICC were > 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) which was 0.89 (0.81–0.93). The mean relative intra-observer differences were small and limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow for all considered parameters (<5% and <15% respectively). Inter-observer ICC were > 0.90 for all analyzed parameters except for LVEF (ICC = 0.87) and both mitral and pulmonary A wave duration (0.83 and 0.73 respectively). The mean relative inter-observer differences were <5% for all parameters except for pulmonary A wave duration (mean difference = 6.5%). Limits of agreement of relative differences were narrow (<15%), except for mitral A wave duration and velocity (both <20%) as well as left ventricular mass and pulmonary A wave duration (both <30%). Intra-observer agreements with regard to the presence and severity of diastolic dysfunction were excellent (Kappa = 0.93 (0.83–1.00) and 0.88 (0.75–0.99), respectively). Conclusion In this validation study within the STANISLAS cohort, diastolic function echocardiographic parameters were found to be highly reproducible. Diastolic dysfunction consequently appears as a highly effective clinical and research tool. PMID:25853818

Frikha, Zied; Girerd, Nicolas; Huttin, Olivier; Courand, Pierre Yves; Bozec, Erwan; Olivier, Arnaud; Lamiral, Zohra; Zannad, Faiez; Rossignol, Patrick

2015-01-01

245

The population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Prospective Cohort Study (AMIGO) in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Purpose Occupational and environmental exposures remain important modifiable risk factors of public health. Existing cohort studies are often limited by the level of detail of data collected on these factors and health. It is also often assumed that the more healthy group is over-represented in cohort studies, which is of concern for their external validity. In this cohort profile, we describe how we set up the population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Cohort Study (AMIGO) to longitudinally study occupational and environmental determinants of diseases and well-being from a multidisciplinary and life course point of view. Reviewed by the Medical Ethics Research Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht (protocol 10-268/C). All cohort members participate voluntarily and gave informed consent prior to their inclusion. Participants 14?829 adult cohort members (16% of those invited) consented and filled in the online baseline questionnaire. Determinants include chemical, biological, physical (eg, electromagnetic fields), and psychosocial factors. Priority health outcomes include cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and non-specific symptoms. Owing to the recruitment strategy via general practitioners of an established network, we also collect longitudinal data registered in their electronic medical records including symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. Besides the advantage of health outcomes that cannot be easily captured longitudinally by other means, this created a unique opportunity to assess health-related participation bias by comparing general practitioner-registered prevalence rates in the cohort and its source population. Findings to date We found no indications of such a systematic bias. The major assets of the AMIGO approach are its detailed occupational and environmental determinants in combination with the longitudinal health data registered in general practice besides linkage to cancer and mortality registries and self-reported health. Future plans We are now in the phase of prospective follow-up, with the aim of continuing this for as long as possible (20+ years), pending future funding. Findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences and peer-reviewed journals, and through newsletters and the project website to participants, stakeholders and the wider public. PMID:25428630

Slottje, Pauline; Yzermans, C Joris; Korevaar, Joke C; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Vermeulen, Roel C H

2014-01-01

246

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Cohort Mortality Study With Emphasis on Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Current information points to an association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer and other mortality outcomes, but uncertainties remain. Methods We undertook a cohort mortality study of 12?315 workers exposed to diesel exhaust at eight US non-metal mining facilities. Historical measurements and surrogate exposure data, along with study industrial hygiene measurements, were used to derive retrospective quantitative estimates of respirable elemental carbon (REC) exposure for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios and internally adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate REC exposure–associated risk. Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death. Results Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer (1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.44), esophageal cancer (1.83, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.75), and pneumoconiosis (12.20, 95% CI = 6.82 to 20.12) were elevated in the complete cohort compared with state-based mortality rates, but all-cause, bladder cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality were not. Differences in risk by worker location (ever-underground vs surface only) initially obscured a positive diesel exhaust exposure–response relationship with lung cancer in the complete cohort, although it became apparent after adjustment for worker location. The hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer mortality increased with increasing 15-year lagged cumulative REC exposure for ever-underground workers with 5 or more years of tenure to a maximum in the 640 to less than 1280 ?g/m3-y category compared with the reference category (0 to <20 ?g/m3-y; 30 deaths compared with eight deaths of the total of 93; HR = 5.01, 95% CI = 1.97 to 12.76) but declined at higher exposures. Average REC intensity hazard ratios rose to a plateau around 32 ?g/m3. Elevated hazard ratios and evidence of exposure–response were also seen for surface workers. The association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk remained after inclusion of other work-related potentially confounding exposures in the models and were robust to alternative approaches to exposure derivation. Conclusions The study findings provide further evidence that exposure to diesel exhaust increases risk of mortality from lung cancer and have important public health implications. PMID:22393207

Schleiff, Patricia L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Silverman, Debra T.

2012-01-01

247

Risk Set Sampling in Epidemiologic Cohort Studies Bryan Langholz  

E-print Network

-control study were undertaken. Investigators compiled basic information such as birth dates, sex, race required to de- termine vital status and, if dead, the cause of death. For the mortality study of birth, sex, and race were randomly selected from the risk set composed of those who were alive

Goldstein, Larry

248

Infancy and childhood growth and physical activity in adolescence: prospective birth cohort study from Brazil  

E-print Network

at program- ming later health. However, little is known on the pro- gramming of behavioral variables, because most studies so far focused on chronic disease-related (blood pres- sure, glucose, coronary heart disease) and human capital (schooling, height... activity, Exercise, Epidemiology, Prospective studies, DOHaD life determinants of physical activity [10,11], and foundactivity in adolescence: p cohort study from Brazil Pedro C Hallal1*, Samuel C Dumith1, Ulf Ekelund2, Felipe Cesar G Victora1 and Jonathan...

Hallal, Pedro C; Dumith, Samuel C; Ekelund, Ulf; Reichert, Felipe F; Menezes, Ana M B; Victora, Cesar G; Wells, Jonathan C K

2012-07-02

249

Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To identify predictors of postnatal catch-up growth from birth to two years and its relation to size and obesity at five years.Design: Regional prospective cohort study.Setting: Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood, United Kingdom.Subjects: 848 full term singletons from a 10% random sample of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood.Main outcome measures: Maternal birth weight, prepregnancy

Ken K L Ong; Marion L Ahmed; Pauline M Emmett; Michael A Preece; David B Dunger

2000-01-01

250

Slow walking speed and cardiovascular death in well functioning older adults: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the relation between low walking speed and the risk of death in older people, both overall and with regard to the main causes of death.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Dijon centre (France) of the Three-City study.Participants 3208 men and women aged ?65 living in the community, recruited from 1999 to 2001, and followed for an average of 5.1

Julien Dumurgier; Alexis Elbaz; Pierre Ducimetière; Béatrice Tavernier; Annick Alpérovitch; Christophe Tzourio

2009-01-01

251

Piccolipiù, a multicenter birth cohort in Italy: protocol of the study  

PubMed Central

Background The fetal and infant life are periods of rapid development, characterized by high susceptibility to exposures. Birth cohorts provide unique opportunities to study early-life exposures in association with child development and health, as well as, with longer follow-up, the early life origin of adult diseases. Piccolipiù is an Italian birth cohort recently set up to investigate the effects of environmental exposures, parental conditions and social factors acting during pre-natal and early post-natal life on infant and child health and development. We describe here its main characteristics. Methods/design Piccolipiù is a prospective cohort of expected 3000 newborns, who will be recruiting in six maternity units of five Italian cities (Florence, Rome, Trieste, Turin and Viareggio) since October 2011. Mothers are contacted during pregnancy or at delivery and are offered to participate in the study. Upon acceptance, their newborns are recruited at birth and followed up until at least 18 years of age. At recruitment, the mothers donate a blood sample and complete a baseline questionnaire. Umbilical cord blood, pieces of umbilical cord and heel blood spots are also collected. Postnatal follow-up currently occurs at 6, 12, and 24 months of age using on-line or postal self administered questionnaire; further questionnaires and medical examinations are envisaged. Questionnaires collect information on several factors, including mother’s and/or child’s environmental exposures, anthropometric measures, reproductive factors, diet, supplements, medical history, cognitive development, mental health and socioeconomic factors. Health promotion materials are also offered to parents. Discussion Piccolipiù will broaden our understanding of the contribution of early-life factors to infant and child health and development. Several hypotheses on the developmental origins of health can be tested or piloted using the data collected from the Piccolipiù cohort. By pooling these data with those collected by other existing birth cohorts it will be possible to validate previous findings and to study rare exposures and outcomes. PMID:24506846

2014-01-01

252

A Cohort Study of 1,205 Secondary School Smokers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Important findings of the study indicate that regular cigarette smokers yield less to any smoking behavior changes than do the occasional smokers and well organized and executed anti smoking education programs should start as early as the eighth grade. (Author)

Laoye, Joseph A.; And Others

1972-01-01

253

Consanguinity and Birth Defects in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While parental consanguinity is known to increase the risk of birth defects in offspring, it is hard to quantify this risk in populations where consanguinity is prevalent. Methods: To support ongoing studies of cancer and of psychiatric disease, we studied relationships of consanguinity to 1,053 major birth defects in 29,815 offspring, born in 1964–1976. To adjust for confounding variables

S. Harlap; K. Kleinhaus; M. C. Perrin; R. Calderon-Margalit; O. Paltiel; L. Deutsch; O Manor; E. Tiram; R. Yanetz; Y. Friedlander

2008-01-01

254

IS LUNG FUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH BONE MINERAL DENSITY? RESULTS FROM THE HERTFORDSHIRE COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Purpose There is limited information available regarding the association between lung function and bone mineral density among healthy elderly subjects. We addressed this issue in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study. Methods 985 subjects (496 men and 489 women) aged 60-72 years were recruited from the above cohort. All subjects underwent bone density measurements using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), and lung function tests using standardised spirometry. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined as a Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 second (FEV1)/ Forced Vital Capacity (FVC) ratio < lower limit of normal (LLN), calculated using separate equations for men and women. Results Measures of lung function (FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC) were not associated with bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, femoral neck and total hip in men or women; associations with bone mineral content and bone area were removed by adjustment for body size and lifestyle confounders. In this cohort, there were no associations observed between COPD and any measure of bone mass. Conclusions There was no association between lung function and bone mass in this community dwelling cohort after adjustment for body size and other confounders. PMID:23322029

Dennison, EM; Dhanwal, DK; Shaheen, SO; Azagra, R; Reading, I; Jameson, KA; Sayer, AA; Cooper, C

2013-01-01

255

The Risk of Asthma in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between asthma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is controversial. We examined the risk of asthma among AS patients in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort included 5,974 patients newly diagnosed with AS from 2000 to 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. A 4-fold of general population without AS was randomly selected frequency matched by age, gender and the index year. The occurrence and hazard ratio (HR) of asthma were estimated by the end of 2011. Results The overall incidence of asthma was 1.74 folds greater in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (8.26 versus 4.74 per 1000 person-years) with a multivariable Cox method measured adjusted HR of 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34–1.76). The adjusted HR of asthma associated with AS was higher in women (1.59; 95% CI, 1.33–1.90), those aged 50–64 years (1.66; 95% CI, 1.31–2.09), or those without comorbidities (1.82; 95% CI, 1.54–2.13). Conclusion Patients with AS are at a higher risk of developing asthma than the general population, regardless of gender and age. The pathophysiology needs further investigation. PMID:25658339

Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

2015-01-01

256

Medication adherence in patients with dementia: an Austrian cohort study.  

PubMed

Sustained treatment with effective doses of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine is crucial to transfer treatment effects in dementia. Numerous studies, with often small samples sizes, describe low adherence rates. The purpose of current study was to examine the medical adherence of antidementia therapy in Austria. We analyzed the data of 10 Austrian Health Insurance Funds, including treatment-naive dementia patients. Study outcome measures were discontinuation, switching, number of days on therapy, Medication-Possession-Ratio, and compliance. A total of 15,809 patients (mean age: 79.9 y, female: 67.3%) met the study's inclusion criteria. After stratification by index medication there were 40.3% on donepezil (n=6371); 26.6% on rivastigmine (n=4206); 15.3% on galantamine (n=2424); and 17.8% on memantine (n=2808). After 6 and 12 months on therapy, 5376 (34.0%) and 9243 (58.5%) patients stopped the initially prescribed antidementia therapy; after 12 months the highest discontinuation rate was seen for patients taking rivastigmine (67.3%), whereas patients on memantine (45.0%) had the lowest. After 12 months, a total of 1874 (11.9%) patients switched from their index medication to another cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine. A total of 6163 patients (39.0%) were compliant (Medication-Possession-Ratio >80%) during the first 6 months and 5366 patients (33.9%) during 12 months of the study. Our study shows that memantine-treated patients adhere significantly better to treatment. Specifically, after 12 months, 45.0% discontinued medication, 7.9% switched, and 50.8% of patients on therapy were compliant. PMID:24113561

Haider, Bernhard; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schweiger, Christine; Forstner, Thomas; Labek, Anna; Lampl, Christian

2014-01-01

257

Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

258

Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

2012-01-01

259

Betula: A Prospective Cohort Study on Memory, Health and Aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes the Betula Study with respect to objectives, design, participants, and assessment instruments for health and cognition. Three waves of data collection have been completed in 5-year intervals since 1988–1990. A fourth wave started in 2003 and will be completed in 2005. An overview of Betula research is presented under the headings of memory and cognition and cognitive

Lars-Göran Nilsson; Rolf Adolfsson; Lars Bäckman; Cindy M. de Frias; Bo Molander; Lars Nyberg

2004-01-01

260

Occupation and bladder cancer: a cohort study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a follow-up study of occupational exposures and bladder cancer, an increased risk was observed after an adjustment for smoking, for physicians, administrators and managers, clerical workers and sales agents among men and assistant nurses among women. For physicians, the reason may be early diagnosis; for the other groups a sedentary type of work may have a role in bladder

J Ji; C Granström; K Hemminki

2005-01-01

261

Prospective cohort study of female sex workers and the risk of HIV infection in Alicante, Spain (1986-96)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of HIV infection over a 10 year follow up in a cohort of female commercial sex workers in Alicante (Spain), and to determine factors associated with high risk of infection. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was carried in an AIDS information and prevention centre in Alicante, Spain. Of the 1388 female sex workers who initially

J. Vioque; I. Hernandez-Aguado; E. Fernandez Garcia; M. Garcia de la Hera; C. Alvarez-Dardet

1998-01-01

262

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Its Relationship to Initiation of Localized Aggressive Periodontitis: Longitudinal Cohort Study of Initially Healthy Adolescents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans is frequently associated with localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP); however, longitudinal cohort studies relating A. actinomycetemcomitans to initiation of LAP have not been reported. A periodontal assessment was performed on 1,075 primarily African-American and Hispanic school- children, ages 11 to 17 years. Samples were taken from each child for A. actinomycetemcomitans. A cohort of 96 students was established that

Daniel H. Fine; Kenneth Markowitz; David Furgang; Karen Fairlie; Javier Ferrandiz; Cebile Nasri; Marie McKiernan; John Gunsolley

263

Mortality and incidence of cancer in a cohort of Swedish chimney sweeps: an extended follow up study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite 200 years of efforts to regulate safety in this occupation, chimney sweeps have increased mortality from cancer, ischaemic heart disease, and respiratory disease. Mortality and incidence of cancer were examined in a cohort of 5542 Swedish chimney sweeps employed through their national trade union at any time between 1918 and 1980. Previous studies of this cohort found increased risks

B A Evanoff; P Gustavsson; C Hogstedt

1993-01-01

264

Peritoneal Ultrafiltration in Refractory Heart Failure: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

? Introduction: Acutely decompensated heart failure (HF) in patients with diuretic resistance is often treated with extracorporeal ultrafiltration. Peritoneal ultrafiltration (PUF) has been proposed for the long-term management of severe HF after resolution of the acute episode. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of PUF in the treatment of chronic refractory HF in patients without end-stage renal disease. ? Methods: This multicenter (10 nephrology departments throughout Italy) retrospective observational study included patients with severe HF refractory to maximized drug treatment. The patients were proposed for PUF because they had experienced at least 3 hospital admissions in the preceding year for acutely decompensated HF requiring extracorporeal ultrafiltration. ? Results: Of the 48 study patients (39 men, 9 women; mean age 74 ± 9 years), 30 received 1 nocturnal icodextrin exchange, 5 required 2 daily exchanges, and 13 received 2 - 4 sessions per week of automated peritoneal dialysis. During the first year, renal function remained stable (initial: 20.8 ± 10.0 mL/min/1.73 m2; end: 22.0 ± 13.6 mL/min/1.73 m2), while pulmonary artery systolic pressure declined to 40 ± 6.09 mmHg from 45.5 ± 9.18 mmHg (p = 0.03), with a significant concomitant improvement in New York Heart Association functional status. Hospitalizations decreased to 11 ± 17 days/patient-year from 43 ± 33 days/patient-year before the start of PUF (p < 0.001). The incidence of peritonitis was 1 episode in 45 patient-months. Patient survival was 85% at 1 year and 56% at 2 years. ? Conclusions: This study confirms the satisfactory results of using PUF for chronic HF in elderly patients. PMID:24179103

Bertoli, Silvio V.; Musetti, Claudio; Ciurlino, Daniele; Basile, Carlo; Galli, Emilio; Gambaro, Giovanni; Iadarola, Gianmaria; Guastoni, Carlo; Carlini, Antonio; Fasciolo, Federica; Borzumati, Maurizio; Gallieni, Maurizio; Stefania, Farina

2014-01-01

265

Obstetric Complications in Adults with ADHD: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstetric complications have been associated with a number of mental disorders. In this study, we investigate how obstetric\\u000a complications relate with clinically significant determinants of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such\\u000a as gender, age of diagnosis, psychiatric co morbidity, severity of symptomatology and general functioning. Presence of obstetric\\u000a complications as reported in the psychiatric history of 64 patients in

Marios Adamou; Anna Russell; Parmjt Sanghera

266

Cohort Profile: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

major aspects of women's health and well-being and health service use. The surveys cover major diagnosed diseases, symptoms, health behaviours, use of health services and medications, and a range of factors relating to psychological well-being, social roles, and life events. The study began with the objective of exploring five key themes: health service use; health-related behaviours (e.g. diet and exercise);

Christina Lee; Annette J Dobson; Wendy J Brown; Lois Bryson; Julie Byles; Penny Warner-Smith; Anne F Young

2005-01-01

267

Occupation and bladder cancer: a cohort study in Sweden  

PubMed Central

In a follow-up study of occupational exposures and bladder cancer, an increased risk was observed after an adjustment for smoking, for physicians, administrators and managers, clerical workers and sales agents among men and assistant nurses among women. For physicians, the reason may be early diagnosis; for the other groups a sedentary type of work may have a role in bladder cancer aetiology. PMID:15770207

Ji, J; Granström, C; Hemminki, K

2005-01-01

268

Predictors of critical acute pancreatitis: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Critical acute pancreatitis (CAP) has recently emerged as the most ominous severity category of acute pancreatitis (AP). As such there have been no studies specifically designed to evaluate predictors of CAP. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the accuracy of 4 parameters (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation [APACHE] II score, C-reactive protein [CRP], D-dimer, and intra-abdominal pressure [IAP]) for predicting CAP early after hospital admission. During the study period, data on patients with AP were prospectively collected and D-dimer, CRP, and IAP levels were measured using standard methods at admission whereas the APACHE II score was calculated within 24 hours of hospital admission. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was applied and the likelihood ratios were calculated to evaluate the predictive accuracy. A total of 173 consecutive patients were included in the analysis and 47 (27%) of them developed CAP. The overall hospital mortality was 11% (19 of 173). APACHE II score ?11 and IAP ?13 mm Hg showed significantly better overall predictive accuracy than D-dimer and CRP (area under the ROC curve-0.94 and 0.92 vs. 0.815 and 0.667, correspondingly). The positive likelihood ratio of APACHE II score is excellent (9.9) but of IAP is moderate (4.2). The latter can be improved by adding CRP (5.8). In conclusion, of the parameters studied, APACHE II score and IAP are the best available predictors of CAP within 24 hours of hospital admission. Given that APACHE II score is rather cumbersome, the combination of IAP and CRP appears to be the most practical way to predict critical course of AP early after hospital admission. PMID:25380082

Ke, Lu; Tong, Zhi-hui; Li, Wei-qin; Wu, Congye; Li, Ning; Windsor, John A; Li, Jie-shou; Petrov, Maxim S

2014-11-01

269

Metrics for covariate balance in cohort studies of causal effects.  

PubMed

Inferring causation from non-randomized studies of exposure requires that exposure groups can be balanced with respect to prognostic factors for the outcome. Although there is broad agreement in the literature that balance should be checked, there is confusion regarding the appropriate metric. We present a simulation study that compares several balance metrics with respect to the strength of their association with bias in estimation of the effect of a binary exposure on a binary, count, or continuous outcome. The simulations utilize matching on the propensity score with successively decreasing calipers to produce datasets with varying covariate balance. We propose the post-matching C-statistic as a balance metric and found that it had consistently strong associations with estimation bias, even when the propensity score model was misspecified, as long as the propensity score was estimated with sufficient study size. This metric, along with the average standardized difference and the general weighted difference, outperformed all other metrics considered in association with bias, including the unstandardized absolute difference, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Lévy distances, overlapping coefficient, Mahalanobis balance, and L1 metrics. Of the best-performing metrics, the C-statistic and general weighted difference also have the advantage that they automatically evaluate balance on all covariates simultaneously and can easily incorporate balance on interactions among covariates. Therefore, when combined with the usual practice of comparing individual covariate means and standard deviations across exposure groups, these metrics may provide useful summaries of the observed covariate imbalance. PMID:24323618

Franklin, Jessica M; Rassen, Jeremy A; Ackermann, Diana; Bartels, Dorothee B; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2014-05-10

270

California Teachers Study (CTS): Breast and Other Cancers in the California Teachers' Cohort  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of 133,479 California public school teachers, administrators, and other school professionals was established by a collaborative group of epidemiological investigators at the City of Hope, University of Southern California, University of California at Irvine, and Cancer Prevention Institute of California. The goals of the California Teachers Study (CTS) were, and continue to be, to evaluate unresolved issues related to breast and other cancer risk factors, and study other important issues related to women's health.

271

Do gastrointestinal tract infections in infancy increase blood pressure in childhood? A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt has been hypothesised that dehydration in infancy could permanently increase sodium retention, raising blood pressure in later life. In this study, the association between gastrointestinal tract infection in infancy, a clinically relevant exposure often accompanied by dehydration, and raised blood pressure in childhood was investigated.MethodsData from a cohort study nested within a cluster-randomised trial of breastfeeding promotion in the

R. M. Martin; M. S. Kramer; M. Dahhou; R. W. Platt; R. Patel; N. Bogdanovich; L. Matush; G. Davey Smith

2009-01-01

272

Occupational burnout as a predictor of disability pension: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The aim of this study was to investigate whether burnout predicts new disability pension at population level during a follow-up of approximately 4 years. The diagnosis for which the disability pension was granted was also examined in relation to the level of burnout.Methods:We used a population-based cohort sample (n = 3125) of 30–60-year-old employees from an epidemiological health study, the

K Ahola; R Gould; M Virtanen; T Honkonen; A Aromaa; J Lönnqvist

2009-01-01

273

Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the boyd orr cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the relation between energy intake in childhood and adult mortality from cancer.Study design: Cohort study.Setting: 16 rural and urban centres in England and Scotland.Subjects: 3834 people who took part in Lord Boyd Orr's Carnegie survey of family diet and health in prewar Britain between 1937 and 1939 who were followed up with the NHS central register. Standardised

Stephen Frankel; David J Gunnell; Tim J Peters; Maria Maynard; George Davey Smith

1998-01-01

274

Gallstones in sickle cell disease: Observations from The Jamaican: Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, incidence, risk factors, clinical associations, and morbidity of gallstones were studied in 311 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease and 167 patients with sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease in a cohort study from birth. Gallstones developed in 96 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease and 18 patients with sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease; specific symptoms necessitating cholecystect0my occurred in only

Thomas M Walker; Ian R Hambleton; Graham R Serjeant

2000-01-01

275

Influenza vaccination and mortality: prospective cohort study of the elderly in a large geographical area  

Microsoft Academic Search

The 50% reduced overall mortality previously associated with influenza vaccination among the elderly was based on studies neither fully taking into account systematic differences between individuals who accept or decline vaccination nor encompassing the entire general population. A population-based prospective cohort study was performed in Stockholm County (Sweden), including all persons aged o65 yrs (n5,260,000), over three influenza seasons: 1998\\/1999,

A. Ortqvist; F. Granath; J. Askling; J. Hedlund

2007-01-01

276

Adherence to Chemoprophylaxis and Plasmodium falciparum Anti-Circumsporozoite Seroconversion in a Prospective Cohort Study of Dutch Short-Term Travelers  

PubMed Central

Background We conducted a prospective study in a cohort of short-term travelers assessing the incidence rate of anti-circumsporozoite seroconversion, adherence to chemoprophylaxis, symptoms of malaria during travel, and malaria treatment abroad. Methods Adults were recruited from the travel clinic of the Public Health Service Amsterdam. They kept a structured daily travel diary and donated blood samples before and after travel. Blood samples were serologically tested for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum anti-circumsporozoite antibodies. Results Overall, the incidence rate (IR) of anti-circumsporozoite seroconversion was 0.8 per 100 person-months. Of 945 travelers, 620 (66%) visited high-endemic areas and were advised about both chemoprophylaxis and preventive measures against mosquito bites. Most subjects (520/620?=?84%) took at least 75% of recommended prophylaxis during travel. Travel to Africa, use of mefloquine, travel duration of 14–29 days in endemic areas, and concurrent use of DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) were associated with good adherence practices. Four travelers without fever seroconverted, becoming anti-circumsporozoite antibody-positive. All four had been adherent to chemoprophylaxis; two visited Africa, one Suriname, one India. Ten subjects with fever were tested for malaria while abroad and of these, three received treatment. All three were adherent to chemoprophylaxis and tested negative for anti-circumsporozoite antibodies. Conclusion Travel to Africa, using mefloquine, travel duration of 14–29 days in endemic areas, and use of DEET were associated with good adherence to chemoprophylaxis. The combination of chemoprophylaxis and other preventive measures were sufficient to protect seroconverting travelers from clinical malaria. Travelers who were treated for malaria abroad did not seroconvert. PMID:23451100

Belderok, Sanne-Meike; van den Hoek, Anneke; Roeffen, Will; Sauerwein, Robert; Sonder, Gerard J. B.

2013-01-01

277

The risk of cardiovascular disease in systemic sclerosis: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the risk of incident myocardial infarction (MI), stroke and peripheral vascular disease (PVD) in individuals with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in a general population context. Methods We conducted a cohort study using a UK primary care database containing records from 1986 to 2011. SSc diagnoses, outcomes and cardiovascular risk factors were identified from electronic medical records. We conducted two cohort analyses: (1) MI and stroke, and (2) PVD, excluding individuals with prevalent disease at baseline for each analysis. We estimated HRs comparing SSc with age-, sex- and entry time-matched comparison cohorts, adjusting for potential cardiovascular risk factors. Results Among 865 individuals with SSc (85.8% women, mean age 58.7 years), the incidence rates (IRs) of MI and stroke were 4.4 and 4.8 per 1000 person-years (PY), versus 2.5 and 2.5 per 1000 PY in the comparison cohort. The corresponding adjusted HRs were 1.80 (95% CI 1.07 to 3.05) for MI and 2.61 (95% CI 1.54 to 4.44) for stroke. Among 858 individuals with SSc (85.3% female, mean age 58.9 years), the IR of PVD was 7.6 per 1000 PY versus 1.9 per 1000 PY in the comparison cohort, with an adjusted HR of 4.35 (95% CI 2.74 to 6.93). Conclusions These findings provide the first general population-based evidence that SSc is associated with an increased risk of developing MI, stroke and PVD. Further insight into disease mechanisms, as well as how disease subtype, organ involvement and medication use may alter these increased risks, is needed. PMID:22904260

Man, Ada; Zhu, Yanyan; Zhang, Yuqing; Dubreuil, Maureen; Rho, Young Hee; Peloquin, Christine; Simms, Robert W; Choi, Hyon K

2015-01-01

278

Autonomic Function following Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Autonomic dysfunction after chronic low level exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has been consistently reported in the literature, but not following a single acute overdose. In order to study autonomic function after an acute OP overdose, sixty-six overdose patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Assessment of autonomic function was done by heart rate response to standing, deep breathing (HR-DB) and Valsalva manoeuvre; blood pressure (BP) response to standing and sustained hand grip; amplitude and latency of sympathetic skin response (SSR); pupil size and post-void urine volume. The patients were assessed one and six weeks after the exposure. The number of patients who showed abnormal autonomic function compared to standard cut-off values did not show statistically significantly difference from that of controls by Chi-Square test. When compared to the controls at one week the only significant differences consistent with autonomic dysfunction were change of diastolic BP 3 min after standing, HR-DB, SSR-Amplitude, SSR-Latency, post-void urine volume and size of the pupil. At 6 weeks significant recovery of autonomic function was observed and only HR-DB was decreased to a minor degree, ?5 beats/min [95%CI 2–8]. This study provides good evidence for the lack of long term autonomic dysfunction following acute exposure to OP pesticides. PMID:22655091

Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.

2012-01-01

279

Cohort mortality study of Seattle fire fighters: 1945-1983  

SciTech Connect

Fire fighters are known to be occupationally exposed to many toxic substances. However, the limited number of previous studies has not demonstrated any consistent excess mortality from diseases of a priori concern, such as lung cancer, non-malignant respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. We studied 2,289 Seattle fire fighters from 1945 through 1983, and observed 383 deaths. Excess mortality from leukemia (SMR = 503, n = 3) and multiple myeloma (SMR = 989, n = 2) was observed among fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty. Lung cancer mortality was elevated (SMR = 177, n = 18) among fire fighters 65 years old or older. We also analyzed the data by considering fire fighters at risk only after 30 years from first exposure. In this analysis, a trend of increasing risk with increasing exposure was observed for diseases of the circulatory system. For this cause of death, fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty had a relative risk of 1.84 compared to those with less than 15 years of fire combat duty.

Heyer, N.; Weiss, N.S.; Demers, P.; Rosenstock, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1990-01-01

280

Cohort Profile: the Health and Retirement Study (HRS)  

PubMed Central

The Health and Retirement Study (HRS) is a nationally representative longitudinal survey of more than 37 000 individuals over age 50 in 23 000 households in the USA. The survey, which has been fielded every 2 years since 1992, was established to provide a national resource for data on the changing health and economic circumstances associated with ageing at both individual and population levels. Its multidisciplinary approach is focused on four broad topics—income and wealth; health, cognition and use of healthcare services; work and retirement; and family connections. HRS data are also linked at the individual level to administrative records from Social Security and Medicare, Veteran’s Administration, the National Death Index and employer-provided pension plan information. Since 2006, data collection has expanded to include biomarkers and genetics as well as much greater depth in psychology and social context. This blend of economic, health and psychosocial information provides unprecedented potential to study increasingly complex questions about ageing and retirement. The HRS has been a leading force for rapid release of data while simultaneously protecting the confidentiality of respondents. Three categories of data—public, sensitive and restricted—can be accessed through procedures described on the HRS website (hrsonline.isr.umich.edu). PMID:24671021

Sonnega, Amanda; Faul, Jessica D; Ofstedal, Mary Beth; Langa, Kenneth M; Phillips, John WR; Weir, David R

2014-01-01

281

Residential trajectories of street youth-the Montréal Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Little is known about the course of homelessness among youth between the ages of 18 and 25 despite the many characteristics distinguishing them from adolescents and from older street-involved populations. We examined the residential trajectories of homeless young adults in Montréal over a 21-month period and identified determinants of various trajectory profiles. The 365 study participants (79 % men, mean age 21.9 years) were followed for an average of 515 days (range 81-630 days). We assessed housing status with a questionnaire based on the residential follow-back calendar designed by the New Hampshire Dartmouth Research Center. Using latent growth analysis to examine achievement of residential stability over time, we observed three different trajectories: group 1 presented a low probability of housing throughout the entire study period; group 2 showed a high probability of early and stable housing; group 3 displayed a fluctuating pattern. Protective correlates of residential stability included high school education, birth in Canada, and presence of mental health problems. Drug abuse or dependence was associated with a decreased probability of housing. PMID:24515932

Roy, Élise; Robert, Marie; Fournier, Louise; Vaillancourt, Éric; Vandermeerschen, Jill; Boivin, Jean-François

2014-10-01

282

The MAL-ED cohort study in Mirpur, Bangladesh.  

PubMed

The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study site in Bangladesh is located in the capital city of Dhaka in an urban slum that has one of the highest population densities in the world. The site is in the Bauniabadh area of Mirpur, Dhaka. A typical squatter settlement, the average family size of households in Mirpur Bauniabadh is 4.5, with 48% females. About 20% of households have a monthly income of only US$62. About 30% of mothers never attended school, and only 3% obtained secondary school education. The majority of the people are day laborers, garment workers, and transport workers. About 72% of caregivers always wash their hands after helping the child defecate and 6.6% never wash their hands. The diarrheal attack rate for Mirpur is 4.69 episodes per child per year. The study site is representative of a typical urban slum of Dhaka city in terms of demographics, socioeconomic status, and general health indicators. PMID:25305298

Ahmed, Tahmeed; Mahfuz, Mustafa; Islam, Md Munirul; Mondal, Dinesh; Hossain, Md Iqbal; Ahmed, Am Shamsir; Tofail, Fahmida; Gaffar, Sm Abdul; Haque, Rashidul; Guerrant, Richard L; Petri, William A

2014-11-01

283

Severity markers in severe leptospirosis: a cohort study.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate parameters for their value as severity markers in hospitalized leptospirosis patients. We recruited 47 informed adult consenting patients and assessed a number of clinical, hematological, biochemical, and biological variables. Patients were sorted according to severity based on fatality or the requirement of mechanical ventilation or dialysis; the parameters studied were compared between groups on inclusion and the next day. Beside septic shock presentation or a high severity score (Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SAPS II), increased lactate, total bilirubin, lipase, and AST/ALT ratio or a decreased cytokines IL-10/TNF-? ratio were all significantly associated with severity. The gene expression of the IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1ra, IL-1?, and the long pentraxin PTX-3 were also transcribed at higher levels in most severe cases. Patients could rapidly improve or deteriorate, highlighting the need for a new assessment the next day. Our results add to the limited body of knowledge about severity markers in leptospirosis. They also suggest that patients should be reassessed the next day before being possibly discharged from the hospital. Further studies are needed in order to confirm relevant and reliable prognostic parameters in leptospirosis that would be helpful for the purpose of triage. PMID:25413923

Mikulski, M; Boisier, P; Lacassin, F; Soupé-Gilbert, M-E; Mauron, C; Bruyere-Ostells, L; Bonte, D; Barguil, Y; Gourinat, A-C; Matsui, M; Vernel-Pauillac, F; Goarant, C

2015-04-01

284

Cohort mortality study of capacitor manufacturing workers, 1944-2000.  

PubMed

A mortality study of workers employed between 1944 and 1977 at an electrical capacitor manufacturing plant where polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), chlorinated naphthalenes, and other chemicals were used was undertaken. Age, gender, and calendar year-adjusted standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated for 2885 white workers. Total mortality and all-cancer mortality were similar to expected in both males and females. Females employed 10 or more years had a significantly elevated SMR of 6.2 for liver/biliary cancer. Intestinal cancer was significantly elevated in females employed 5 or more years after PCBs were introduced (SMR = 2.2). In males, stomach cancer (SMR = 2.2) and thyroid cancer (SMR = 15.2) were significantly elevated. Although individual exposure assessment was limited, PCBs alone or in combination with other chemicals could be associated with increased risks for liver/biliary, stomach, intestinal, and thyroid cancer. PMID:15213519

Mallin, Katherine; McCann, Ken; D'Aloisio, Aimee; Freels, Sally; Piorkowski, Julie; Dimos, John; Persky, Victoria

2004-06-01

285

Missed foot fractures in polytrauma patients: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Missed foot fractures are a known problem in the care of the traumatized patient. They do not usually have an influence on the survival, but on the long-term result and the quality of the patient’s life. The aim of this study is to find out how many of these fractures are overlooked in a Level I trauma center and what the consequences for the patients are hypothesing that patients with a delayed diagnosis will have worse clinical results. Methods Forty-seven patients (7.3%) with foot fractures could be identified in 642 polytrauma patients, retrospectively. All patients were divided into two groups: early diagnosed fractures and delayed diagnosed fractures, the latter defined as diagnosed after Secondary Survey. Patients were evaluated according to the Hannover Outcome Score, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, the AOFAS Score and the Hannover Scoring System. The average follow-up was 5 years and 8 months. Reasons for overlooking a foot fracture were analyzed. Results The foot fracture was early diagnosed in 26 (55.3%) patients, but delayed in 21 (44.7%). There were no significant differences in the mean stay in the hospital or in the ICU. The fractures that were most often missed were those of the cuboid or the metarsalia. The highest risk factor for a delayed diagnosis was a fracture already diagnosed on the same foot. In 52.4% of the delayed diagosed fractures, an operative therapy was necessary. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the clinical results. Conclusions In summary, the results of this study show that foot injuries can be a safety problem for the patient and the examination of the feet in the trauma room has to be a compulsory part of the algorithm. Although the majority of delayed diagnosed foot fractures demonstrated comparable results to the immediately diagnosed fractures, approximately 10% might have benefited from an earlier diagnosis. Even if there were no significant differences in the clinical results, we have to be aware that missing a fracture in the foot can lead to worse results in the complete polytrauma care. PMID:24568599

2014-01-01

286

The origins of a research community in the Majengo observational cohort study, Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1980s the Majengo Observational Cohort Study (MOCS) has examined sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDS, in a cohort of sex workers in Majengo, an impoverished urban village in Nairobi, Kenya. The MOCS investigators have faced criticism since the women have remained in the sex trade for the duration of their participation in the study, prompting concerns about exploitation. Yet despite these concerns, the cohort has survived for almost 30 years. Methods In this retrospective qualitative case study, we examine the community engagement practices of the MOCS and explore the factors that account for its durability. Results Women in sex work in Kenya were a highly stigmatized and disfranchised community. As a result, there was no natural 'community' of sex workers either in Nairobi or in the Majengo village. The Majengo clinic aimed to reduce the barriers to health care the women experienced at the STC clinic by bringing the services closer to them and by providing a non-discriminatory environment. The women acknowledged the fact they had hoped their participation in the MOCS would have helped them find a path out of the sex trade. But our findings also add another dimension to this debate, since every cohort member we interviewed expressed her gratitude for the deep impact the MOCS has had on her life, much of it beyond the improved health status made possible by access to quality healthcare services. Participation in the MOCS has improved and enriched their lives. The CE activities have played a central role in creating a community that did not exist independently of the MOCS. Conclusions Our case study identified 3 distinct phases of community engagement in the MOCS: (1) reaching out: mobilization, dialogue and education; (2) foundations of trust through relationships of care; and (3) leveraging existing social capital to form a cohort community. The findings demonstrate the importance of some of the less obvious benefits of participation in research, namely the evolving experience of community and the accompanying gains in personal security and solidarity that have kept the women in the cohort, some for 20 years or more. PMID:20964821

2010-01-01

287

Cardiac outcomes in a cohort of adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer: retrospective analysis of the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To assess the incidence of and risks for congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, pericardial disease, and valvular abnormalities among adult survivors of childhood and adolescent cancers.Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 26 institutions that participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study.Participants 14 358 five year survivors of cancer diagnosed under the age of 21 with leukaemia, brain cancer, Hodgkin’s lymphoma,

Daniel A Mulrooney; Mark W Yeazel; Toana Kawashima; Ann C Mertens; Pauline Mitby; Marilyn Stovall; Sarah S Donaldson; Daniel M Green; Charles A Sklar; Leslie L Robison; Wendy M Leisenring

2009-01-01

288

Valproate overdose: a comparative cohort study of self poisonings  

PubMed Central

Aims Based on individual case reports of massive overdoses, valproate is often regarded as having significant toxicity. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of valproate poisoning and the spectrum of its clinical effects. Methods Consecutive valproate poisonings were identified and compared with other anticonvulsant overdoses and all other poisonings, from a prospective database of poisoning admissions presenting to a regional toxicology service. National prescription data for the same period were obtained. Results There were 79 patients with valproate poisoning from January 1991 to November 2001, 15 cases with valproate alone. Of the 15 cases, drowsiness occurred in two patients (both taking>200 mg kg?1), vomiting occurred in four and tachycardia in five. In patients co-ingesting other medications, moderate to severe effects were consistent with the co-ingestants. There was one death not directly related to valproate. One patient had metabolic acidosis and thrombocytopaenia consistent with severe valproate toxicity. Comparison of valproate, carbamazepine, phenytoin and control groups showed that length of stay for both phenytoin and carbamazepine was significantly longer than for valproate (P < 0.0001), and there was a significantly increased risk of intensive care unit admission for carbamazepine vs valproate (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.22, 6.28; P = 0.015). Although valproate prescriptions increased over the 10 years, there was relatively greater increase in the incidence of valproate poisoning. The odds of a valproate overdose in 1992 compared with carbamazepine were 0.29 (95% CI 0.07, 1.28; P = 0.141), but in 2001 were 2.73 (95% CI 1.38, 5.39; P = 0.004). Conclusions Valproate causes mild toxicity in the majority of cases. Massive overdoses of greater than 400 mg kg?1 can cause severe toxicity, but these are uncommon. The older anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine remain a greater problem than valproate in overdose. PMID:12680889

Isbister, Geoffrey K; Balit, Corrine R; Whyte, Ian M; Dawson, Andrew

2003-01-01

289

Cancer survival in Malawi: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Cancer is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide with the burden in sub-Saharan Africa projected to double by year 2030 from 715,000 new cases and 542,000 deaths in 2008. However, cancer survival data to inform interventions for early detection, diagnosis and treatment are lacking. Methods Cancer survival analysis was conducted on 842 cancer patients registered and followed-up from 2006 to 2013 at NdiMoyo Palliative Care Centre in Salima District, central Malawi. Cancer survival was measured from the time of diagnosis. Results In both sexes, the common types of cancer were; Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) (48.0%), cervical cancer (21.1%), cancer of oesophagus (14.8%), liver cancer (3.1%) and breast cancer (2.5%). In Males; KS, cancer of the oesophagus, cancer of the liver, bone cancer and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma were the commonest accounting for 67.4%, 19.4%, 3.9%, 1.0% and 1.0% respectively. In females; cancer of the cervix, KS, cancer of the oesophagus, cancer of the breast and cancer of the liver were the top five cancers accounting for 41.6%, 29.2%, 10.3%, 4.9% and 2.3% respectively. Of the 830 cancer patients with complete 5-year follow-up data, the overall median survival time was 9 months. Absolute survival rates at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 years or more were 31.8%, 18.0%, 12.5%, 7.8% and 6.0% respectively. The survival rates for top five cancers at 1, 2, 3, and 4 years or more were; KS (n= 397): 47.1%, 30.2%, 21.4% and 13.1%; cancer of the cervix (n = 174): 31.0%, 10.3%, 5.2% and 2.9%; cancer of the oesophagus (n = 124): 4.0%, 2.4%, 1.6% and 1.6%; liver cancer (n = 26): 19.2%, 3.8%, 3.8% and 3.8% and breast cancer (n = 21): 9.5%, 0%, 0%, 0% respectively. The risk of death was high in females than males, in those aged 50 years or more than in those aged less than 50 (p < 0.05). Conclusion This study demonstrated that cancer survival from the time of diagnosis in Malawi was poor with median survival time of about 9 months and only 6% of patients survived for 5 years or more. Improvement of early detection, diagnostic capability, access to treatment and palliative care services could improve cancer survival.

Msyamboza, Kelias Phiri; Manda, Geoffrey; Tembo, Bvumi; Thambo, Chimwemwe; Chitete, Linly; Mindiera, Christopher; Finch, Lucy Kishindo; Hamling, Kathryn

2014-01-01

290

Handling ethical, legal and social issues in birth cohort studies involving genetic research: responses from studies in six countries  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Research involving minors has been the subject of much ethical debate. The growing number of longitudinal, pediatric studies that involve genetic research present even more complex challenges to ensure appropriate protection of children and families as research participants. Long-term studies with a genetic component involve collection, retention and use of biological samples and personal information over many years. Cohort

Nola M. Ries; Jane LeGrandeur; Timothy Caulfield

2010-01-01

291

Developing and refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): five years of experience.  

PubMed

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pilot study underpinning the TBCS, testing of the TBCS developmental instrument and the resolution of methodological challenges. Bayesian analysis fill in missing data, three-step regression analysis for the investigation of mediating and moderating effect, the use of structural equation modeling in a large scale investigation, investigating direct and indirect effects, confounding factors and reciprocal relationships in children's development, and used latent growth model in longitudinal observations are described. The TBCS will provide ongoing longitudinal information regarding the predisposing and maintaining factors affecting the long term outcome of pediatric illnesses. PMID:21724363

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

292

Vitamin D in fetal development: findings from a birth cohort study.  

PubMed

Birth cohort studies provide an invaluable resource for studies of the influence of the fetal environment on health in later life. It is uncertain to what extent maternal vitamin D status influences fetal development. Using an unselected community-based cohort of 901 mother-offspring pairs (the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort [Raine] Study), we examined the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency at 18 weeks' pregnancy and long-term health outcomes of offspring who were born in Perth, Western Australia (32° South), in 1989-1991. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L) was present in 36% (323 of 901) of the pregnant women. After adjusting for relevant covariates, maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy was associated with impaired lung development in 6-year-old offspring, neurocognitive difficulties at age 10, increased risk of eating disorders in adolescence, and lower peak bone mass at 20 years. In summary, vitamin D may have an important, multifaceted role in the development of fetal lungs, brain, and bone. Experimental animal studies support an active contribution of vitamin D to organ development. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women with long-term follow-up of offspring are urgently required to examine whether the correction of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is beneficial for their offspring and to determine the optimal level of maternal serum 25(OH)D for fetal development. PMID:25511121

Hart, Prue H; Lucas, Robyn M; Walsh, John P; Zosky, Graeme R; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zhu, Kun; Allen, Karina L; Kusel, Merci M; Anderson, Denise; Mountain, Jenny A

2015-01-01

293

Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

2011-01-01

294

INTERIM REPORT, DEVELOP A COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT STRATEGY: PREPARE TO IMPLEMENT A COHORT STUDY OF CHILDREN'S ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH  

EPA Science Inventory

Introduction The National Children's Study (NCS) is an ambitious undertaking: a 20-year prospective cohort study that will investigate the relationships between a broad range of environmental factors and the health and well-being of children. Approximately 10...

295

Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years.Design Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data.Setting 40 primary care practices in Scotland.Participants 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease,

Brian S Buckley; Colin R Simpson; David J McLernon; Andrew W Murphy; Philip C Hannaford

2009-01-01

296

A Review of Published Analyses of Case-Cohort Studies and Recommendations for Future Reporting  

E-print Network

of Case-Cohort Studies and Recommendations for Future Reporting. PLoS ONE 9(6): e101176. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101176 Editor: Joel Joseph Gagnier, University of Michigan, United States of America Received April 2, 2014; Accepted June 3, 2014; Published... to select the subcohort. The stratifying variables were age, gender, race, centre or a combination of these. Summarizing baseline characteristics The papers varied in the groups within which baseline characteristics were summarized, and also whether results...

Sharp, Stephen J.; Poulaliou, Manon; Thompson, Simon G.; White, Ian R.; Wood, Angela M.

2014-06-27

297

Cohort study of all-cause mortality among tobacco users in Mumbai, India  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction Overall mortality rates are higher among cigarette smokers than non-smokers. However, very little is known about the health effects of other forms of tobacco use widely prevalent in India, such as bidi smoking and various forms of smokeless tobacco (e.g. chewing betel-quid). We therefore carried out a cohort study in the city of Mumbai, India, to estimate the relative

Prakash C. Gupta; Hemali C. Mehta

298

Childhood Sexual Abuse and Cannabis Use in Early Adulthood: Findings from an Australian Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of health problems later in life. The impact of CSA on young\\u000a adults’ use of cannabis remains under-studied. We examined the extent to which exposure to CSA was associated with increased\\u000a rates of use of cannabis in early adulthood in a birth cohort of 3,285 Australian children followed-up to the

Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Jake M. Najman; Konrad Jamrozik; Abdullah A. Mamun; Michael J. O’Callaghan; Gail M. Williams

2009-01-01

299

Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relation between intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose and the risk of incident gout in men.Design Prospective cohort over 12 years.Setting Health professionals follow-up study.Participants 46 393 men with no history of gout at baseline who provided information on intake of soft drinks and fructose through validated food frequency questionnaires.Main outcome measure Incident cases

Hyon K Choi; Gary Curhan

2008-01-01

300

Determinants of disparities between perceived and physiological risk of falling among elderly people: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To gain an understanding of elderly people’s fear of falling by exploring the prevalence and determinants of perceived and physiological fall risk and to understand the role of disparities in perceived and physiological risk in the cause of falls.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Community sample drawn from eastern Sydney, Australia.Participants 500 men and women aged 70–90 years.Main outcome measures Baseline

Kim Delbaere; Jacqueline C T Close; Henry Brodaty; Perminder Sachdev; Stephen R Lord

2010-01-01

301

Antihypertensive treatment during pregnancy and functional development at primary school age in a historical cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To determine the functional development of children born after treatment of mild-to-moderate gestational hypertension with labetalol versus methyldopa, and no antihypertensive treatment. DESIGN: Historical cohort study. SETTING: Twelve Dutch hospital departments of obstetrics. POPULATION: Live-born children born in these hospitals and prenatally exposed to labetalol, methyldopa, or bed rest because of mild-to-moderate gestational hypertension. METHODS: Central nervous system development

P. C. M. Pasker-de Jong; G. A. Zielhuis; M. M. H. J. van Gelder; A. Pellegrino; F. J. M. Gabreëls; T. K. A. B. Eskes

2010-01-01

302

Iowa Women's Health Study: Epidemiology of Cancer in a Cohort of Older Women  

Cancer.gov

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in postmenopausal women, and detailed epidemiological investigations are warranted to identify etiologic factors, including potentially modifiable risk factors. The Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) recruited a population-based cohort of 41,837 Iowa postmenopausal women, ages 55 to 69 years in 1986, to determine whether diet, body fat distribution, and other risk factors were related to cancer incidence.

303

Low energy diet and intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To observe intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who follow a low energy diet.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Outpatient department and the clinical research facility based at two separate hospitals within the United Kingdom.Participants 25 women with body mass index (BMI) >25, with active (papilloedema and intracranial pressure >25 cm H2O), chronic (over three months) idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Alexandra J Sinclair; Michael A Burdon; Peter G Nightingale; Alexandra K Ball; Peter Good; Timothy D Matthews; Andrew Jacks; Mark Lawden; Carl E Clarke; Paul M Stewart; Elizabeth A Walker; Jeremy W Tomlinson; Saaeha Rauz

2010-01-01

304

Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein þ zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in

Satu Mannisto; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Hans-Olov Adami; Demetrius Albanes; Brandt van den Piet A; Julie E. Buring; James R. Cerhan; Graham A. Colditz; Jo L. Freudenheim; Charles S. Fuchs; Edward Giovannucci; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Lisa Harnack; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan; Arthur Schatzkin; Jarmo Virtamo; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

2007-01-01

305

Early mortality in childhood diabetes in Austria – a population based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

All Austrian patients with insulin dependent diabetes diagnosed between 1979 and 1990 and age at onset below 15 years were\\u000a followed from manifestation until death or until 31 December 1990 by cross linking the diabetes registry data with the National\\u000a Mortality database (death certificates). Out of the cohort consisting of 1185 cases, 6 had died during the study period, resulting

E. Schober; U. Schneider; K. Unsinn

1996-01-01

306

The risk of myocardial infarction in rheumatoid arthritis and diabetes mellitus: a Danish nationwide cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectivesTo examine in a nationwide cohort whether the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is comparable to the risk in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM).MethodsThe study included the entire Danish population followed from 1 January 1997 until 31 December 2006. Through individual level-linkage of nationwide administrative registers, the authors identified subjects who developed RA and

Jesper Lindhardsen; Ole Ahlehoff; Gunnar Hilmar Gislason; Ole Rintek Madsen; Jonas Bjerring Olesen; Christian Torp-Pedersen; Peter Riis Hansen

2011-01-01

307

Association of blood pressure in late adolescence with subsequent mortality: cohort study of Swedish male conscripts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the nature and magnitude of relations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures in late adolescence to mortality.Design Nationwide cohort study.Setting General community in Sweden.Participants Swedish men (n=1 207 141) who had military conscription examinations between 1969 and 1995 at a mean age of 18.4 years, followed up for a median of 24 (range 0-37) years.Main outcome measures

Johan Sundström; Martin Neovius; Per Tynelius; Finn Rasmussen

2011-01-01

308

Urogenital abnormalities in men exposed to diethylstilbestrol in utero: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Diethylstilbestrol (DES), a synthetic estrogen widely prescribed to pregnant women during the 1940s-70s, has been shown to cause reproductive problems in the daughters. Studies of prenatally-exposed males have yielded conflicting results. METHODS: In data from a collaborative follow-up of three U.S. cohorts of DES-exposed sons, we examined the relation of prenatal DES exposure to occurrence of male urogenital abnormalities.

Julie R Palmer; Arthur L Herbst; Kenneth L Noller; Deborah A Boggs; Rebecca Troisi; Linda Titus-Ernstoff; Elizabeth E Hatch; Lauren A Wise; William C Strohsnitter; Robert N Hoover

2009-01-01

309

Do Childhood Sleeping Problems Predict Obesity in Young Adulthood? Evidence from a Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

It has been suggested that sleeping problems are causally associated with obesity in early life, but most studies examining this association have been cross-sectional. The authors used a population-based birth cohort of 2,494 children who were born between 1981 and 1983 in Brisbane, Australia, to examine the prospective association between early-life sleeping problems (at ages 6 months and 2-4 years)

Abdullah Al Mamun; Debbie A. Lawlor; Susanna Cramb; Michael O'Callaghan; Gail Williams; Jake Najman

2007-01-01

310

Childhood Family Correlates of Heterosexual and Homosexual Marriages: A National Cohort Study of Two Million Danes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of first marriages (heterosexual since 1970, homosexual since 1989) in a national cohort of 2 million 18–49 year-old Danes. In multivariate analyses, persons born in the capital area

Morten Frisch; Anders Hviid

2006-01-01

311

Multiple sclerosis risk sharing scheme: two year results of clinical cohort study with historical comparator  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To generate evidence on the longer term cost effectiveness of disease modifying treatments in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.Design Prospective cohort study with historical comparator.Setting Specialist multiple sclerosis clinics in 70 centres in the United Kingdom.Participants Patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis who started treatment from May 2002 to April 2005 under the UK risk sharing scheme.Interventions Treatment with interferon

Mike Boggild; Jackie Palace; Pelham Barton; Yoav Ben-Shlomo; Thomas Bregenzer; Charles Dobson; Richard Gray

2009-01-01

312

Cohort profile: The Malaysian Cohort (TMC) project: a prospective study of non-communicable diseases in a multi-ethnic population.  

PubMed

The Malaysian Cohort study was initiated in 2005 by the Malaysian government. The top-down approach to this population-based cohort study ensured the allocation of sufficient funding for the project which aimed to recruit 100 000 individuals aged 35-70 years. Participants were recruited from rural and urban areas as well as from various socioeconomic groups. The main objectives of the study were to identify risk factors, to study gene-environment interaction and to discover biomarkers for the early detection of cancers and other diseases. At recruitment, a questionnaire-based interview was conducted, biophysical measurements were performed and biospecimens were collected, processed and stored. Baseline investigations included fasting blood sugar, fasting lipid profile, renal profile and full blood count. From April 2006 to the end of September 2012 we recruited a total of 106 527participants. The baseline prevalence data showed 16.6% participants with diabetes, 46.5% with hypertension, 44.9% with hypercholesterolaemia and 17.7% with obesity. The follow-up phase commenced in June 2013. This is the most comprehensive and biggest cohort study in Malaysia, and has become a valuable resource for epidemiological and biological research. For information on collaboration and also data access, investigators can contact the project leader at (rahmanj@ppukm.ukm.edu.my). PMID:24729425

Jamal, Rahman; Syed Zakaria, Syed Zulkifli; Kamaruddin, Mohd Arman; Abd Jalal, Nazihah; Ismail, Norliza; Mohd Kamil, Norkhamiwati; Abdullah, Noraidatulakma; Baharudin, Norhafizah; Hussin, Noor Hamidah; Othman, Hanita; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad

2014-04-11

313

Milk intake and risk of mortality and fractures in women and men: cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether high milk consumption is associated with mortality and fractures in women and men. Design Cohort studies. Setting Three counties in central Sweden. Participants Two large Swedish cohorts, one with 61?433 women (39-74 years at baseline 1987-90) and one with 45?339 men (45-79 years at baseline 1997), were administered food frequency questionnaires. The women responded to a second food frequency questionnaire in 1997. Main outcome measure Multivariable survival models were applied to determine the association between milk consumption and time to mortality or fracture. Results During a mean follow-up of 20.1 years, 15?541 women died and 17?252 had a fracture, of whom 4259 had a hip fracture. In the male cohort with a mean follow-up of 11.2 years, 10?112 men died and 5066 had a fracture, with 1166 hip fracture cases. In women the adjusted mortality hazard ratio for three or more glasses of milk a day compared with less than one glass a day was 1.93 (95% confidence interval 1.80 to 2.06). For every glass of milk, the adjusted hazard ratio of all cause mortality was 1.15 (1.13 to 1.17) in women and 1.03 (1.01 to 1.04) in men. For every glass of milk in women no reduction was observed in fracture risk with higher milk consumption for any fracture (1.02, 1.00 to 1.04) or for hip fracture (1.09, 1.05 to 1.13). The corresponding adjusted hazard ratios in men were 1.01 (0.99 to 1.03) and 1.03 (0.99 to 1.07). In subsamples of two additional cohorts, one in males and one in females, a positive association was seen between milk intake and both urine 8-iso-PGF2? (a biomarker of oxidative stress) and serum interleukin 6 (a main inflammatory biomarker). Conclusions High milk intake was associated with higher mortality in one cohort of women and in another cohort of men, and with higher fracture incidence in women. Given the observational study designs with the inherent possibility of residual confounding and reverse causation phenomena, a cautious interpretation of the results is recommended. PMID:25352269

Wolk, Alicja; Langenskiöld, Sophie; Basu, Samar; Warensjö Lemming, Eva; Melhus, Håkan; Byberg, Liisa

2014-01-01

314

Association Between Longer Therapy With Thiazolidinediones and Risk of Bladder Cancer: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The use of pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione (TZD), may increase the risk of bladder cancer in patients with type 2 diabetes. In this study, we assessed the risk of bladder cancer associated with the use of TZDs and between pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, an alternative TZD. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who initiated treatment with a TZD (n = 18 459 patients) or a sulfonylurea (SU) (n = 41 396 patients) between July 1, 2000, and August 31, 2010, using The Health Improvement Network database in the United Kingdom. Incident cancers were identified for 196 708 person-years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of bladder cancer in the TZD cohort compared with the SU cohort (referent), adjusted for potential confounders. Risk associated with increasing duration of drug exposure was also examined. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results We identified 60 incident bladder cancers in the TZD cohort and 137 cancers in the SU cohort. No difference in bladder cancer risk was found between the two cohorts (TZD vs SU, HR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.68 to 1.29) in analyses that did not account for duration of exposure. However, the risk of bladder cancer was increased among patients with the longest duration of TZD vs SU therapy (?5 years of use, HR = 3.25, 95% CI = 1.08 to 9.71) and among those with the longest time since initiation of therapy (?5 years since first use, HR = 2.53, 95% CI = 1.12 to 5.77). Risk of bladder cancer also increased with increasing time since initiation of pioglitazone (P trend < .001) and rosiglitazone (P trend = .006). Comparison of pioglitazone to rosiglitazone use did not demonstrate difference in cancer risk (P = .49). Conclusion Long-term TZD therapy (?5 years) in patients with type 2 diabetes may be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer, which may be common to all TZDs. PMID:22878886

2012-01-01

315

Cervicovaginal HPV Infection in Female Renal Transplant Recipients: An Observational, Self-Sampling Based, Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Immunosuppressive treatment of organ transplant recipients is associated with an increase in the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) related anogenital (pre)malignancies. This cohort study investigated the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV infections in a large cohort of female renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Participants self-collected a cervicovaginal sample for detection and genotyping of HPV. Besides, they completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, medical data and sexual behavior. Anogenital screening was offered to all HPV-positive participants. A total number of 218 female RTRs was included. The prevalence of mucosal HPV infections was 27.1% and 17.4% for high risk HPV in particular. The studied cohort showed a broad range of HPV genotypes and multiple HPV genotypes were found in 27.1% of HPV-positive patients. Seven participants were identified with occult premalignant anogenital lesions. In conclusion, this study shows a high point-prevalence of HPV in female RTRs (age-matched West-European general population: 9-10%) with a shift in the distribution of genotypes as compared with the general population. Moreover, a substantial number of patients with occult premalignancies was identified. The introduction of self-sampling for HPV positivity can help in early detection of (pre)malignant anogenital lesions in this vulnerable population. PMID:25675976

Meeuwis, K A P; Hilbrands, L B; IntHout, J; Slangen, B F M; Hendriks, I M P; Hinten, F; Christiaans, M H L; Quint, W G V; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Massuger, L F A G; Hoitsma, A J; van Rossum, M M; Melchers, W J G; de Hullu, J A

2015-03-01

316

Bystander initiated actions in out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation: results from the Amsterdam Resuscitation Study (ARRESUST)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this study was to analyze the functioning of the first two links of the chain of survival: ‘access’ and ‘basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)’. In a prospective study, all bystander witnessed circulatory arrests resuscitated by emergency medical service (EMS) personnel, were recorded consecutively. Univariate differences in survival were calculated for various witnesses, the performance of basic CPR, the

Reinier A Waalewijn; Jan G. P Tijssen; Rudolph W Koster

2001-01-01

317

Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100?166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 ?m (PMcoarse), and <10 ?m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 ?g/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 ?g/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values. PMID:24452269

2014-01-01

318

Charting the progression of disability in parkinson disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background People with Parkinson disease (PD), even in the presence of symptomatic relief from medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions, face a persistent worsening of disability. This disability is characterized by diminished quality of life, reduced functional mobility, declining performance in activities of daily living and worsening neurological impairments. While evidence has emerged supporting the clinically meaningful benefits of short-term exercise programs on these underlying factors, assertions regarding the effects of sustained programs of exercise and physical activity on the trajectory of disablement in PD are made in the absence of direct evidence. Indeed, the natural decline in quality of life and functional mobility in people diagnosed with PD is poorly understood. Moreover, outcome measures commonly used in clinical exercise trials typically do not capture the full spectrum of disability as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods/Design The objective of this multicenter prospective study will be to examine the 2-year trajectory of disablement in a cohort of persons with PD. Two hundred sixty participants will be recruited to produce an expected final sample size of 150 individuals. Participants will be included if they are greater than 40 years of age, have a neurologist confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and are at Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 through 4. Data will be collected every 6 months during the study period. Primary outcome measures reflecting a broad spectrum of disablement will include, but will not be limited to, MDS-UPDRS, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, PDQ-39, and directly monitored ambulatory activity. Self-reported exercise and physical activity data also will be recorded. Statistical analyses will be used to characterize the trajectory of disablement and examine the influence of its underlying contributing factors. Discussion Tertiary prevention is an important component of contemporary healthcare for individuals living with degenerative disease. For individuals with PD, there is growing recognition that exercise and/or physical activity efforts to slow the rate of functional mobility decline, in particular, may be critical for optimizing quality of life. By describing the natural trajectory of disablement, exercise habits, and physical activity in a cohort of persons with PD, this investigation will establish an important foundation for future intervention research. Specifically, through the evaluation of the influence of sustained exercise and physical activity on disablement, the study will serve as a preliminary step toward developing a randomized controlled trial of long-term exercise in persons with PD. PMID:21047426

2010-01-01

319

Factors associated with uptake of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and use of single antigen vaccines in a contemporary UK cohort: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To estimate uptake of the combined measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine (MMR) and single antigen vaccines and explore factors associated with uptake and reasons for not using MMR.Design Nationally representative cohort study.Setting Children born in the UK, 2000-2.Participants 14 578 children for whom data on immunisation were available.Main outcome measures Immunisation status at 3 years defined as “immunised with

Anna Pearce; Catherine Law; David Elliman; Tim J Cole; Helen Bedford

2008-01-01

320

Reassessment of HIV-1 Acute Phase Infectivity: Accounting for Heterogeneity and Study Design with Simulated Cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background The infectivity of the HIV-1 acute phase has been directly measured only once, from a retrospectively identified cohort of serodiscordant heterosexual couples in Rakai, Uganda. Analyses of this cohort underlie the widespread view that the acute phase is highly infectious, even more so than would be predicted from its elevated viral load, and that transmission occurring shortly after infection may therefore compromise interventions that rely on diagnosis and treatment, such as antiretroviral treatment as prevention (TasP). Here, we re-estimate the duration and relative infectivity of the acute phase, while accounting for several possible sources of bias in published estimates, including the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and unmeasured heterogeneity in risk. Methods and Findings We estimated acute phase infectivity using two approaches. First, we combined viral load trajectories and viral load-infectivity relationships to estimate infectivity trajectories over the course of infection, under the assumption that elevated acute phase infectivity is caused by elevated viral load alone. Second, we estimated the relative hazard of transmission during the acute phase versus the chronic phase (RHacute) and the acute phase duration (dacute) by fitting a couples transmission model to the Rakai retrospective cohort using approximate Bayesian computation. Our model fit the data well and accounted for characteristics overlooked by previous analyses, including individual heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility and the retrospective cohort's exclusion of couples that were recorded as serodiscordant only once before being censored by loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. Finally, we replicated two highly cited analyses of the Rakai data on simulated data to identify biases underlying the discrepancies between previous estimates and our own. From the Rakai data, we estimated RHacute = 5.3 (95% credibility interval [95% CrI]: 0.79–57) and dacute = 1.7 mo (95% CrI: 0.55–6.8). The wide credibility intervals reflect an inability to distinguish a long, mildly infectious acute phase from a short, highly infectious acute phase, given the 10-mo Rakai observation intervals. The total additional risk, measured as excess hazard-months attributable to the acute phase (EHMacute) can be estimated more precisely: EHMacute = (RHacute - 1) × dacute, and should be interpreted with respect to the 120 hazard-months generated by a constant untreated chronic phase infectivity over 10 y of infection. From the Rakai data, we estimated that EHMacute = 8.4 (95% CrI: -0.27 to 64). This estimate is considerably lower than previously published estimates, and consistent with our independent estimate from viral load trajectories, 5.6 (95% confidence interval: 3.3–9.1). We found that previous overestimates likely stemmed from failure to account for risk heterogeneity and bias resulting from the retrospective cohort study design. Our results reflect the interaction between the retrospective cohort exclusion criteria and high (47%) rates of censorship amongst incident serodiscordant couples in the Rakai study due to loss to follow-up, couple dissolution, or study termination. We estimated excess physiological infectivity during the acute phase from couples data, but not the proportion of transmission attributable to the acute phase, which would require data on the broader population's sexual network structure. Conclusions Previous EHMacute estimates relying on the Rakai retrospective cohort data range from 31 to 141. Our results indicate that these are substantial overestimates of HIV-1 acute phase infectivity, biased by unmodeled heterogeneity in transmission rates between couples and by inconsistent censoring. Elevated acute phase infectivity is therefore less likely to undermine TasP interventions than previously thought. Heterogeneity in infectiousness and susceptibility may still play an important role in intervention success and deserves attention in future analyses PMID:25781323

Bellan, Steve E.; Dushoff, Jonathan; Galvani, Alison P.; Meyers, Lauren Ancel

2015-01-01

321

A prospective cohort study of cutaneous leishmaniasis risk and opium addiction in south eastern Iran.  

PubMed

Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by ?(2) and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

2014-01-01

322

A Prospective Cohort Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Risk and Opium Addiction in South Eastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by ?2 and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

2014-01-01

323

A genome-wide association study for reading and language abilities in two population cohorts  

PubMed Central

Candidate genes have been identified for both reading and language, but most of the heritable variance in these traits remains unexplained. Here, we report a genome-wide association meta-analysis of two large cohorts: population samples of Australian twins and siblings aged 12–25?years (n?=?1177 from 538 families), and a younger cohort of children of the UK Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and their Children (aged 8 and 9?years; maximum n?=?5472). Suggestive association was indicated for reading measures and non-word repetition (NWR), with the greatest support found for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the pseudogene, ABCC13 (P?=?7.34?×?10?8), and the gene, DAZAP1 (P?=?1.32?×?10?6). Gene-based analyses showed significant association (P?study in additional cohorts for reading and language abilities. PMID:23738518

Luciano, M; Evans, D M; Hansell, N K; Medland, S E; Montgomery, G W; Martin, N G; Wright, M J; Bates, T C

2013-01-01

324

IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the relation between IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood. Design Prospective cohort study in which IQ was assessed by tests of mental ability at age 10 years and vegetarianism by self-report at age 30 years. Setting Great Britain. Participants 8170 men and women aged 30 years participating in the 1970 British cohort study, a national birth cohort. Main outcome measures Self-reported vegetarianism and type of diet followed. Results 366 (4.5%) participants said they were vegetarian, although 123 (33.6%) admitted eating fish or chicken. Vegetarians were more likely to be female, to be of higher social class (both in childhood and currently), and to have attained higher academic or vocational qualifications, although these socioeconomic advantages were not reflected in their income. Higher IQ at age 10 years was associated with an increased likelihood of being vegetarian at age 30 (odds ratio for one standard deviation increase in childhood IQ score 1.38, 95% confidence interval 1.24 to 1.53). IQ remained a statistically significant predictor of being vegetarian as an adult after adjustment for social class (both in childhood and currently), academic or vocational qualifications, and sex (1.20, 1.06 to 1.36). Exclusion of those who said they were vegetarian but ate fish or chicken had little effect on the strength of this association. Conclusion Higher scores for IQ in childhood are associated with an increased likelihood of being a vegetarian as an adult. PMID:17175567

Deary, Ian J; Schoon, Ingrid; Batty, G David; Batty, G David

2007-01-01

325

Variance Function Regression in Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort Models: Applications to the Study of Self-Reported Health  

PubMed Central

Two long-standing research problems of interest to sociologists are sources of variations in social inequalities and differential contributions of the temporal dimensions of age, time period, and cohort to variations in social phenomena. Recently, scholars have introduced a model called Variance Function Regression for the study of the former problem, and a model called Hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort regression has been developed for the study of the latter. This article presents an integration of these two models as a means to study the evolution of social inequalities along distinct temporal dimensions. We apply the integrated model to survey data on subjective health status. We find substantial age, period, and cohort effects, as well as gender differences, not only for the conditional mean of self-rated health (i.e., between-group disparities), but also for the variance in this mean (i.e., within-group disparities)—and it is detection of age, period, and cohort variations in the latter disparities that application of the integrated model permits. Net of effects of age and individual-level covariates, in recent decades, cohort differences in conditional means of self-rated health have been less important than period differences that cut across all cohorts. By contrast, cohort differences of variances in these conditional means have dominated period differences. In particular, post-baby boom birth cohorts show significant and increasing levels of within-group disparities. These findings illustrate how the integrated model provides a powerful framework through which to identify and study the evolution of variations in social inequalities across age, period, and cohort temporal dimensions. Accordingly, this model should be broadly applicable to the study of social inequality in many different substantive contexts. PMID:22904570

Zheng, Hui; Yang, Yang; Land, Kenneth C.

2012-01-01

326

Habitual Physical Activity and Peripheral Arterial Compliance in Young Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt remains unclear whether the impact of habitual physical activity (HPA) differs for central vs. peripheral arterial stiffness, both of which are detrimental to cardiovascular health. We investigated the associations of lifetime HPA of different intensities on brachial and femoral stiffness in young adults, and compared these with those previously obtained for the carotid artery in the same study population.MethodsProspectively

Roel J. van de Laar; Isabel Ferreira; Willem van Mechelen; Martin H. Prins; Jos W. Twisk; Coen D. Stehouwer

2011-01-01

327

Notes and Comments the Amsterdam Auction  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Amsterdam auction has been used to sell real estate in the Dutch capital for centuries. By awarding a premium to the highest losing bidder, the Amsterdam auction favors weak bidders without having the implementation difficulties of Myerson's (1981) optimal auction. In a series of experiments, we compare the standard first-price and English auctions, the optimal auction, and two variants

Jacob K. Goeree; Theo Offerman

2004-01-01

328

The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

329

Pathways to a rising caesarean section rate: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether the obstetric pathways leading to caesarean section changed from one decade to another. We also aimed to explore how much of the increase in caesarean rate could be attributed to maternal and pregnancy factors including a shift towards delivery in private hospitals. Design Population-based record linkage cohort study. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Participants For annual rates, all women giving birth in NSW during 1994 to 2009 were included. To examine changes in obstetric pathways two cohorts were compared: all women with a first-birth during either 1994–1997 (82?988 women) or 2001–2004 (85?859 women) and who had a second (sequential) birth within 5?years of their first-birth. Primary outcome measures Caesarean section rates, by parity and onset of labour. Results For first-births, prelabour and intrapartum caesarean rates increased from 1994 to 2009, with intrapartum rates rising from 6.5% to 11.7%. This fed into repeat caesarean rates; from 2003, over 18% of all multiparous births were prelabour repeat caesareans. In the 1994–1997 cohort, 17.7% of women had a caesarean delivery for their first-birth. For their second birth, the vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) rate was 28%. In the 2001–2004 cohort, 26.1% of women had a caesarean delivery for their first-birth and the VBAC rate was 16%. Among women with a first-birth, maternal and pregnancy factors and increasing deliveries in private hospitals, only explained 24% of the rise in caesarean rates from 1994 to 2009. Conclusions Rising first-birth caesarean rates drove the overall increase. Maternal factors and changes in public/private care could explain only a quarter of the increase. Changes in the perceived risks of vaginal birth versus caesarean delivery may be influencing the pregnancy management decisions of clinicians and/or mothers. PMID:22952166

Roberts, Christine L; Algert, Charles S; Ford, Jane B; Todd, Angela L; Morris, Jonathan M

2012-01-01

330

Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

2009-02-15

331

Socioeconomic Indicators and Cardiovascular Disease Incidence Among Japanese Community Residents: The Jichi Medical School Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  There has been little research in inequalities in risk of cardiovascular disease incidence by social class in Asia.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Purpose  The purpose of this study was to examine the association between socioeconomic indicators and risk of stroke and coronary\\u000a heart disease in Japan.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Method  Data from the Jichi Medical School Study, a population-based prospective cohort study of approximately 11,000 Japanese men\\u000a and women,

Kaori Honjo; Akizumi Tsutsumi; Kazunori Kayaba

2010-01-01

332

Obesity and liver cancer mortality in Asia: The Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration.  

PubMed

While obesity is associated with liver cancer in studies from western societies, the paucity of data from Asia limits insights into its aetiological role in this population. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and liver cancer mortality using data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. In 309,203 Asian study members, 4 years of follow-up gave rise to 11,135 deaths from all causes, 420 of which were ascribed to liver cancer. BMI, whether categorised according to current guidelines for Asian groups or World Health Organisation recommendations, was not associated with liver cancer in any of our analyses. PMID:19900847

Batty, G David; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Chang, Charissa Y; Jee, Sun Ha; Jamrozik, Konrad; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Fang, Xianghua; Lam, Tai H; Woodward, Mark

2009-12-01

333

COHORT STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG PEOPLE EXPOSED TO ESTUARINE WATERS: NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND MARYLAND. (R827084)  

EPA Science Inventory

A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome," Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine w...

334

The epidemiology of microscopic colitis: a 10-year pathology-based nationwide Danish cohort study.  

PubMed

Abstract Objective. Microscopic colitis (MC) includes two main types: collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC). Previous studies have indicated an increasing incidence, but these have mainly been based on regional databases. We found it important to study the epidemiology based on a comprehensive nationwide cohort. Material and methods. We studied the epidemiological data of MC in Denmark from 2002 to 2011. The cohort consisted of all patients with a recorded diagnosis of either CC or LC in the Danish Pathology Register during the study period. Data on all patients with a registered colon biopsy were also included. Results. A total of 7777 patients, 4749 (61%) with CC and 3028 (39%) with LC, were identified. Over the study period, the annual incidence of diagnosed cases of CC increased from 2.9/10(5) to 14.9/10(5) and of LC from 1.7/10(5) to 9.8/10(5). In 2011, the incidence of MC was 24.7/10(5) inhabitants. The age-specific incidence showed that the risk of both CC and LC increased with age. The female/male ratio, distribution of the type of colitis and mean age at diagnosis were relatively stable during the study period. The annual number of registered colon biopsies in the pathology register increased from 21.583 in 2002 to 39.733 in 2011, indicating an increased diagnostic activity. Conclusion. In a nationwide cohort study, the incidence of CC and LC continued to increase from 2002 to 2011. An increased diagnostic activity could in part explain the increase in the number of diagnosed cases. PMID:25645623

Bonderup, Ole K; Wigh, Tatjana; Nielsen, Gunnar L; Pedersen, Lars; Fenger-Grøn, Morten

2015-04-01

335

Susceptibility to heat wave-related mortality: a follow-up study of a cohort of elderly in Rome  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Few studies have identified specific factors that increase mortality during heat waves. This study investigated socio-demographic characteristics and pre-existing medical conditions as effect modifiers of the risk of dying during heat waves in a cohort of elderly residents in Rome. METHODS: A cohort of 651,195 residents aged 65 yrs or older was followed from 2005 to 2007. During summer,

Patrizia Schifano; Giovanna Cappai; Manuela De Sario; Paola Michelozzi; Claudia Marino; Anna Maria Bargagli; Carlo A Perucci

2009-01-01

336

Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America.Methods and FindingsWe found the literature using Medline (1966–2005), Embase (1980–2001), Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and

Meghna Ranganathan; Raj Bhopal

2006-01-01

337

Tea and coffee drinking and ovarian cancer risk: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study and a meta-analysis  

PubMed Central

In a cohort study, ovarian cancer (280 cases) showed no significant association with tea or coffee, the multivariable rate ratios being 0.94 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.89, 1.00) and 1.04 (95% CI: 0.97, 1.12) per cup per day, respectively. A meta-analysis also produced no significant findings overall, though the cohort studies showed a significant inverse association for tea. PMID:17923877

Steevens, J; Schouten, L J; Verhage, B A J; Goldbohm, R A; van den Brandt, P A

2007-01-01

338

Influence of variation in birth weight within normal range and within sibships on IQ at age 7 years: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the relation between birth weight and measured intelligence at age 7 years in children within the normal range of birth weight and in siblings.Design: Cohort study of siblings of the same sex.Setting: 12 cities in the United States.Subjects: 3484 children of 1683 mothers in a birth cohort study during the years 1959 through 1966. The sample was

Thomas D Matte; Michaeline Bresnahan; Melissa D Begg; Ezra Susser

2001-01-01

339

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic studies have reported coffee consumption to be associated with various health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer incidence in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Japan. Methods We used data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). Here, we analyzed a total of 58 221 persons (23 607 men, 34 614 women) followed from 1988 to the end of 2009. During 738 669 person-years of follow-up for the analysis of colorectal cancer risk with coffee consumption at baseline, we identified 687 cases of colon cancer (355 males and 332 females) and 314 cases of rectal cancer (202 males and 112 females). We used the Cox proportional-hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratio (HR). Results Compared to those who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day, men who consumed 2–3 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–1.70), and men who consumed more than 4 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.79 (95% CI 1.01–3.18). A statistically significant increase in the risk of colon cancer was associated with increasing coffee consumption among men (P for trend = 0.03). On the other hand, coffee consumption in women was not associated with incident risk of colon cancer. Coffee consumption was also not associated with rectal cancer incidence in men or women. Conclusions This large-scale population-based cohort study showed that coffee consumption increases the risk of colon cancer among Japanese men. PMID:24857957

Yamada, Hiroya; Kawado, Miyuki; Aoyama, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Suzuki, Sadao; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

2014-01-01

340

The Nicaraguan Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study: Study Design, Methods, Use of Information Technology, and Extension to Other Infectious Diseases  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dengue is a mosquito-borne viral disease that is a major public health problem worldwide. In 2004, the Pediatric Dengue Cohort Study was established in Managua, Nicaragua, to study the natural history and transmission of dengue in children. Here, the authors describe the study design, methods, and results from 2004 to 2008. Initially, 3,721 children 2-9 years of age were recruited

Guillermina Kuan; Aubree Gordon; William Aviles; Oscar Ortega; Samantha N. Hammond; Douglas Elizondo; Andrea Nunez; Josefina Coloma; Angel Balmaseda; Eva Harris

2009-01-01

341

Cultural competency in a physician assistant curriculum in the United States: a longitudinal study with two cohorts  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Many physician assistant (PA) programs have recently integrated cultural competency into their curricula. However, there is little evidence of the longitudinal effectiveness of such curricula on culture competency. This study tested whether the amount of exposure to a cultural competency curriculum affected self-assessments of cultural awareness in two cohorts of students. Methods: Cohort 1 and Cohort 2 students completed a cultural awareness survey at the beginning of the program and retook the survey at three intervals during the first year. Results: Regression analyses confirmed a significant linear relationship (two-tailed 0.05) between the responses and the interval number on all questions for each cohort, with the exception of Question 8, on the ability to identify discrimination, for Cohort 2. Conclusion: Results from Cohort 2 replicated those from Cohort 1, suggesting that cultural awareness among PA students benefits from repeated exposure to lessons on cultural competency. Schools attempting to develop or expand cultural awareness among students should consider integrating cultural competency training throughout the PA curriculum. PMID:24699447

2014-01-01

342

Testosterone deficiency and quality of life in Australasian testicular cancer survivors: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

This is the first prospective study in a contemporary Australian/New Zealand population to determine the prevalence of testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors at 12 months from treatment, and any association with poorer quality of life. Hormone assays from 54 evaluable patients in a prospective cohort study revealed biochemical hypogonadism in 18 patients (33%) and low-normal testosterone in 13 patients (24%). We found no association between testosterone levels and quality of life (all P > 0.05). Hypogonadal patients should be considered for testosterone replacement to prevent long-term morbidity. PMID:25081047

O'Carrigan, B; Fournier, M; Olver, I N; Stockler, M R; Whitford, H; Toner, G C; Thomson, D B; Davis, I D; Hanning, F; Singhal, N; Underhill, C; Clingan, P; McDonald, A; Boland, A; Grimison, P

2014-08-01

343

Long-term effectiveness of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy in orofacial granulomatosis: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background It has been suggested that intralesional triamcinolone injections represent a safe and effective therapeutic strategy in controlling the permanent disfiguring swelling of orofacial granulomatosis (OFG). However, robust supporting evidence is lacking, due to the variable and inconsistent design of available studies. Objectives To investigate whether a standardized regimen of intralesional triamcinolone has beneficial long-term effects on orofacial swelling of OFG. We also studied potential associations with a number of prognostic factors. Methods We designed a retrospective observational study of a homogeneous cohort of 22 well-phenotyped patients with OFG. The primary outcome was defined as a statistically significant decrease in post-treatment disease severity. Statistically significant association with prognostic factors was the secondary outcome. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and logistic regression. Results Compared with pretreatment, there were statistically significant decreases in disease severity scores at all time points until 48 months post-treatment (P < 0·01). Logistic regression analysis showed there was no independent prognostic variable of statistical significance (P > 0·05). The majority of patients (14/22, 63·6%) received one course of intralesional triamcinolone and did not experience disease recurrence. The mean disease-free period after the first course of intralesional therapy was 28·9 ± 18 months (95% confidence interval 28·7–29·1). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions This is the first study to have employed robust cohort methodology and sound statistics to demonstrate long-term effectiveness of intralesional triamcinolone in controlling the disfiguring swelling of OFG. Because of limitations inherent in observational studies, further research in the form of randomized case-control trials is needed to confirm the present findings. What's already known about this topic? It has been suggested that intralesional corticosteroid therapy is effective in controlling the permanent disfiguring swelling of orofacial granulomatosis (OFG); however, robust supporting evidence is lacking due to the variable and inconsistent design of available studies. What does this study add? This is the first cohort study on intralesional therapy to employ robust cohort design, consistent methodology and a standardized regimen of triamcinolone injections. It provides reliable evidence of long-term effectiveness in reducing the orofacial swelling of OFG. PMID:24088036

Fedele, S; Fung, PPL; Bamashmous, N; Petrie, A; Porter, S

2014-01-01

344

Coffee consumption and risk of cancers: a meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Coffee consumption has been shown to be associated with cancer of various sites in epidemiological studies. However, there\\u000a is no comprehensive overview of the substantial body of epidemiologic evidence.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded and bibliographies of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort\\u000a studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of

Xiaofeng Yu; Zhijun Bao; Jian Zou; Jie Dong

2011-01-01

345

Breast bud detection: a validation study in the Chilean Growth Obesity Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Early puberty onset has been related to future chronic disease; however breast bud assessment in large scale population studies is difficult because it requires trained personnel. Thus our aim is to assess the validity of self and maternal breast bud detection, considering girl’s body mass index (BMI) and maternal education. Methods In 2010, 481 girls (mean age?=?7.8) from the Growth and Obesity Chilean Cohort Study were evaluated by a nutritionist trained in breast bud detection. In addition, the girl(n?=?481) and her mother(n?=?341) classified the girl’s breast development after viewing photographs of Tanner stages. Concordance between diagnostics was estimated (kappa, Spearman correlation) considering girls’ BMI and mother’s educational level. Results 14% of the girls presented breast buds and 43% had excess weight (BMI z-score?>?1, World Health Organization 2007). Self-assessment showed low concordance with the evaluator (K?studies, particularly developing countries. PMID:25115568

2014-01-01

346

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients’ quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, José; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

347

Diabetes Mellitus and Risk of Bladder Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing evidence suggests that diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we evaluated the relation between DM and incidence and mortality of bladder cancer in an updated meta-analysis of cohort studies. Methods We identified cohort studies by searching the EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, through 31 March 2012. Summary relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated with random-effects models. Results A total of 29 cohort studies (27 articles) were included in this meta-analysis. DM was associated with an increased incidence of bladder cancer (RR 1.29, 95% CI: 1.08–1.54), with significant evidence of heterogeneity among these studies (p<0.001, I2?=?94.9%). In stratified analysis, the RRs of bladder cancer were 1.36 (1.05–1.77) for diabetic men and 1.28 (0.75–2.19) for diabetic women, respectively. DM was also positively associated with bladder cancer mortality (RR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.14–1.55), with evident heterogeneity between studies (p?=?0.002, I2?=?63.3%). The positive association was observed for both men (RR 1.54, 95% CI: 1.30–1.82) and women (RR 1.50, 95% CI: 1.05–2.14). Conclusion These findings suggest that compared to non-diabetic individuals, diabetic individuals have an increased incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. PMID:23437204

Shen, Zhoujun; Zhong, Shan; Wang, Xianjin; Lu, Yingli; Xu, Chen

2013-01-01

348

Childhood Sleep Duration and Quality in Relation to Leptin Concentration in Two Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Poor sleep in childhood is associated with increased obesity risk, possibly by affecting appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin. We examined short- and long-term sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin in two US pediatric cohorts. Design: Analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies. Setting: Population-based. Adolescent polysomnography assessments performed in a clinical research unit. Patients or Participants: Children in Project Viva (n = 655) and adolescents in the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study (n = 502). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In Project Viva, mothers reported average child sleep duration annually from infancy through age 7, and we measured leptin at ages 3 and 7. In the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study, we collected self-reported sleep duration, polysomnography-derived measures of sleep quality, and fasting leptin at ages 16-19. In sex-stratified linear regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and adiposity, chronic curtailed sleep was associated with lower leptin at age 7 in girls; a one-unit decrease in sleep score was associated with a 0.08 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.01,0.15). The association was stronger in girls with greater adiposity (P = 0.01). Among adolescents, shorter sleep was associated with lower leptin in males; each one-hour decrease in sleep duration was associated with a 0.06 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.00, 0.11). Sleep duration was not associated with leptin at other ages. Sleep quality indices were not associated with leptin. Conclusions: Our results suggest possible age-specific sexual dimorphism in the influence of sleep on leptin, which may partly explain inconsistencies in the literature. Citation: Boeke CE; Storfer-Isser A; Redline S; Taveras EM. Childhood sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin concentration in two cohort studies. SLEEP 2014;37(3):613-620. PMID:24587585

Boeke, Caroline E.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

2014-01-01

349

Multimorbidity in a marginalised, street-health Australian population: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Demographic and presentation profile of patients using an innovative mobile outreach clinic compared with mainstream practice. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary care mobile street health clinic and mainstream practice in Western Australia. Participants 2587 street health and 4583 mainstream patients. Main outcome measures Prevalence and patterns of chronic diseases in anatomical domains across the entire age spectrum of patients and disease severity burden using Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Results Multimorbidity (2+ CIRS domains) prevalence was significantly higher in the street health cohort (46.3%, 1199/2587) than age–sex-adjusted mainstream estimate (43.1%, 2000/4583), p=0.011. Multimorbidity prevalence was significantly higher in street health patients <45?years (37.7%, 615/1649) compared with age–sex-adjusted mainstream patients (33%, 977/2961), p=0.003 but significantly lower if 65+ years (62%, 114/184 vs 90.7%, 322/355, p<0.001). Controlling for age and gender, the mean CIRS Severity Index score for street health (M=1.4, SD=0.91) was significantly higher than for mainstream patients (M=1.1, SD=0.80), p<0.001. Furthermore, 44.2% (530/1199) of street health patients had at least one level 3 or 4 score across domains compared with 18.3% (420/2294) for mainstream patients, p<0.001. Street health population comprised 29.6% (766/2587) Aboriginal patients with 50.4% (386/766) having multimorbidity compared with 44.6% (813/1821) for non-Aboriginals, p=0.007. There were no comprehensive data on Indigenous status in the mainstream cohort available for comparison. Musculoskeletal, respiratory and psychiatric domains were most commonly affected with multimorbidity significantly associated with male gender, increasing age and Indigenous status. Conclusions Age–sex-adjusted multimorbidity prevalence and disease severity is higher in the street health cohort. Earlier onset (23–34?years) multimorbidity is found in the street health cohort but prevalence is lower in 65+ years than in mainstream patients. Multimorbidity prevalence is higher for Aboriginal patients of all ages. PMID:25138806

Brett, Tom; Arnold-Reed, Diane E; Troeung, Lakkhina; Bulsara, Max K; Williams, Annalisse; Moorhead, Robert G

2014-01-01

350

Breastfeeding, bottle feeding practices and malocclusion in the primary dentition: a systematic review of cohort studies.  

PubMed

The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breast feeding for at least six months. However, there is no scientific evidence of the benefits of breast feeding for oral health in children under primary dentition. This study aimed to search for scientific evidence regarding the following question: is bottle feeding associated with malocclusion in the primary dentition compared to children that are breastfed? An electronic search was performed in seven databases. The systematic review included 10 cohort studies. It was not possible to conduct meta-analysis; therefore a qualitative analysis was assessed. The majority of studies evaluated feeding habits by means of questionnaires and conducted a single examination. Three studies observed that bottle feeding was significantly associated with overjet and posterior crossbite. Studies reported several cut-off times for breastfeeding (varying from 1 month up to 3 years of age) and several types of malocclusion. Controlling for non-nutritive sucking habits was reported for only half of the studies and this may have led to biased results. The scientific evidence could not confirm a specific type of malocclusion associated with the feeding habits or an adequate time of breastfeeding to benefit the children against malocclusion. Further cohort studies are needed to confirm this evidence. PMID:25785498

Hermont, Ana Paula; Martins, Carolina C; Zina, Lívia G; Auad, Sheyla M; Paiva, Saul M; Pordeus, Isabela A

2015-01-01

351

Background and design of a Danish cohort study of workers in phenoxy herbicide manufacture.  

PubMed

In 1982, a Danish cohort study was initiated of workers in the manufacture of 2,4-dichlorophenol- and 4-chloro-ortho-cresol-based phenoxy herbicides, after a governmental working group had indicated the need for further data on the long-term health consequences of exposure to these phenoxy herbicides. A cohort study of workers in the manufacture of these substances was considered to be a valuable supplement to the Swedish case-control studies of patients exposed mainly in spraying. Manufacture of phenoxy herbicides was commenced in Denmark by Kemisk Vaerk Koege (KVK) in 1947, and this company has produced 2,4-D and MCPA, and later 2,4-DP and MCPP. Very limited amounts of 2,4,5-T have been processed in this plant, mainly in the formation of esters based on a purchased acid. Manufacture of MCPA was commenced by Esbjerg Kemikaliefabrik (EK) in 1951, and this production was later supplemented with 2,4-DP. Furthermore, MCPA was produced by Cheminova and Danske Gasvaerkers Tjaerekompagni for short periods in the late 1950s. All persons employed at KVK and EK from the time when these plants began operation, in 1933 and 1951 respectively, until 1982 were intended to be included in this cohort study. The registration was based on company records and, from 1964 onward, supplemented with data from a public pension scheme (ATP). Linkage of company records from KVK with ATP records for the overlapping period 1964-1980 showed 2,163 persons to be known in both datasets, whereas 614 persons were known only from the ATP records. The data collection has consequently shown that ATP provides a valuable data source for control of company records in Denmark. For the study period before 1964, the number of registered employees could be controlled by comparison with the number of employees reported by the companies on questionnaires for the national industrial statistics 1945-1969. In the analysis of this cohort study, special attention was given to soft tissue sarcomas and malignant lymphomas, which are the diagnostic groups associated with exposure to phenoxy herbicides in the Swedish case-control studies. Soft tissue sarcomas, in both organs and connective tissue, can be identified using the classifications found in the Danish Cancer Registry. PMID:3578295

Lynge, E

1987-01-01

352

Association between Sjogren's Syndrome and Respiratory Failure: Put Airway, Interstitia, and Vessels Close Together: A National Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have evaluated the association between Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and respiratory failure (RF). Thus, we conducted a retrospective national cohort study to investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome (SS) increases the risk of respiratory failure (RF). Methods The cohort consisted of 4954 newly diagnosed patients with SS but without a previous diagnosis of RF, and 19816 patients as the comparison cohort from the catastrophic illnesses registry, obtained from the 2000–2005 period. All of the study participants were followed from the index date to December 31, 2011. We analyzed the association between the risk of RF and SS by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of RF showed a 3.21-fold increase in the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort. The adjusted HR of RF was 3.04 for the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort, after we adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. The HRs of RF for patients with primary SS and secondary SS compared with the comparison cohort were 2.99 and 3.93, respectively (P for trend <.001). The HRs of RF increased as the severity of SS increased, from 2.34 for those with no inpatient care experience to 5.15 for those with inpatient care experience (P for trend <.001). Conclusion This study indicates that clinical physicians should not only consider secondary SS but also primary SS as a critical factor that increases the risk of RF. PMID:25350278

Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wong, Yi-Sin; Tang, Hsien-Chin; Yeh, Ting-Chun; Kao, Chia-Hung

2014-01-01

353

Derivation and validation of QRISK, a new cardiovascular disease risk score for the United Kingdom: prospective open cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To derive a new cardiovascular disease risk score (QRISK) for the United Kingdom and to validate its performance against the established Framingham cardiovascular disease algorithm and a newly developed Scottish score (ASSIGN).Design Prospective open cohort study using routinely collected data from general practice.Setting UK practices contributing to the QRESEARCH database.Participants The derivation cohort consisted of 1.28 million patients, aged

Julia Hippisley-Cox; Carol Coupland; Yana Vinogradova; John Robson; Margaret May; Peter Brindle

2007-01-01

354

Motives for Participating in a Web-Based Nutrition Cohort According to Sociodemographic, Lifestyle, and Health Characteristics: The NutriNet-Santé Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background In traditional epidemiological studies, participants are likely motivated by perceived benefits, feelings of accomplishment, and belonging. No study has explored motives for participation in a Web-based cohort and the associated participant characteristics, although such information is useful for enhancing recruitment and improving cohort retention. Objective We aimed to evaluate the relationships between motives for participation and sociodemographic, health, and lifestyle characteristics of participants in the NutriNet-Santé Web-based cohort, designed to identify nutritional risk or protective factors for chronic diseases. Methods The motives for participation were assessed using a specifically developed questionnaire administered approximately 2 years after baseline. A total of 6352 completed the motives questionnaire (43.34%, 6352/15,000 randomly invited cohort participants). We studied the associations between motives (dependent variables) and individual characteristics with multivariate multinomial logistic regression models providing odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. Results In total, 46.45% (2951/6352) of participants reported that they would not have enrolled if the study had not been conducted on the Internet, whereas 28.75% (1826/6352) were not sure. Men (OR 1.21, 95% CI 1.04-1.42), individuals aged 26-35 years (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.20-1.91), and obese participants (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.02-1.65) were more inclined to be motivated by the Internet aspect. Compared with younger adults and managerial staff, individuals >55 years (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.48-0.45) and employees/manual workers were less likely motivated by the Internet aspect (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.92). Regarding reasons for participation, 61.37% (3898/6352) reported participating to help advance public health research on chronic disease prevention; 22.24% (1413/6352) to help advance nutrition-focused research; 6.89% (438/6352) in response to the call from the media, after being encouraged by a close friend/associate, or a medical provider. Individuals >45 years (vs younger participants) were more likely (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.07-2.47), whereas overweight and obese participants (vs nonobese participants) were less likely to participate in the study for reasons related to helping public health research on chronic disease prevention (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.58-0.89; OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.46-0.84; respectively). Exclusive public funding of the study was important for 67.02% (4257/6352) of the participants. Men (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.17-1.61) and persons >55 years (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.57-2.47) were more likely to consider the exclusive public funding as very important. Conclusions The use of the Internet, the willingness to help advance public health research, and the study being publicly funded were key motives for participating in the Web-based NutriNet-Santé cohort. These motives differed by sociodemographic profile and obesity, yet were not associated with lifestyle or health status. These findings can help improve the retention strategies in Web-based cohorts, particularly during decisive study periods when principal exposure information is collected. PMID:25135800

Szabo de Edelenyi, Fabien; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Andreeva, Valentina A; Hercberg, Serge

2014-01-01

355

Tonsillectomy and the Risk for Deep Neck Infection—A Nationwide Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Although the tonsils contribute to first line immunity against foreign pathogens in the upper aero-digestive tract, the association of tonsillectomy with the risk of deep neck infection remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence rate and risk of deep neck infection among patients who had undergone a tonsillectomy. Methods This retrospective cohort study evaluated all patients who had undergone tonsillectomy between 2001 and 2009 as identified from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. For each post-tonsillectomy patient, 10 age-, sex-, and index date-matched controls without a history of tonsillectomy were randomly selected. Cox Proportional hazard model and propensity score model were performed to evaluate the association between tonsillectomy and deep neck infection after adjusting for demographic and clinical data. Results There were 34 (71.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) and 174 (36.6 cases per 100,000 person-years) patients that developed deep neck infection in the tonsillectomized and comparison cohorts, respectively. After adjusting for covariates, patients who had undergone a tonsillectomy had a 1.71-fold greater risk of deep neck infection by both Cox proportional hazard model (95% confidence interval, 1.13-2.59) and propensity score model (95% confidence interval, 1.10-2.66). This association was not altered regardless of the indication for tonsillectomy (i.e. chronic/recurrent tonsillitis or sleep apnea/hypertrophy of tonsil) (p = 0.9797). Conclusions Based on our review of a nationwide cohort study we identified that the risk of deep neck infection is significantly increased among patients who have undergone a tonsillectomy. Additional research is needed to explore the possible mechanisms behind these findings. PMID:25849535

Wang, Ying-Piao; Wang, Mao-Che; Lin, Hung-Ching; Lee, Kuo-Sheng; Chou, Pesus

2015-01-01

356

Risk Factors of Developmental Defects of Enamel-A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Current studies on the aetiology of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are subject to recall bias because of the retrospective collection of information. Our objective was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of DDE through a prospective cohort study. Methods Using a random community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997, we performed a cohort study in which the subjects’ background information, medical and dental records were prospectively collected. A clinical examination to identify DDE was conducted in 2010 when the subjects were 12 years old. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as the index teeth and were examined ‘wet’ by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. Results With a response rate of 74.9%, the 514 examined subjects had matched data for background information. Diffuse opacites were the most common type of DDE. Of the various possible aetiological factors considered, only experience of severe diseases during the period 0–3 years was associated with the occurrence of ‘any defect’ (p?=?0.017) and diffuse opacities (p?=?0.044). The children with experience of severe diseases before 3 years of age were 7.89 times more likely to be affected by ‘any defect’ compared with those who did not have the experience (OR 7.89; 95% CI 1.07, 58.14; p?=?0.043). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the association no longer existed. Conclusion No variables could be identified as risk factors of DDE in this Hong Kong birth cohort. PMID:25275499

Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; Wen, Yi Feng; King, Nigel M.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

2014-01-01

357

OCCUPATION AND BREAST CANCER RISK AMONG SHANGHAI WOMEN IN A POPULATION-BASED COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

Introduction A total of 74,942 female subjects were recruited in a population-based cohort study in Shanghai, China between 1997 and 2000. We examined the relationship between occupation and breast cancer risk by using baseline data from the cohort study. Methods Cases were 586 women previously diagnosed with breast cancer at baseline and 438 women newly diagnosed with breast cancer by December 2004 during follow-up. Eight controls were randomly selected for each case from cancer-free cohort members and frequency-matched to the cases by year of birth and age at diagnosis, respectively. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of breast cancer risk associated with occupations adjusting for typical breast cancer risk factors. Results In the prevalent breast cancer data analysis, increased risks of breast cancer were associated with technicians in engineering/agriculture/forestry (OR= 1.6, 1.0-2.4), teaching personnel (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.0), tailoring/sewing workers (OR=1.6, 1.0-2.7), examiners/measurers/testers (OR=1.5, 1.1-2.1) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. In the incident cases, the significantly increased risks were associated with medical/health care workers (OR=1.4, 1.0-2.0), administrative clerical workers (OR=1.5, 1.0-2.4), postal/telecommunication workers (OR=2.2, 1.0-5.5), and odd-job workers (OR=1.7, 1.1-2.8) among those who started the jobs at least 20 years ago. The excess risks were found in both prevalent and incident cases for postal/telecommunication workers and purchasing/marketing personnel, although ORs reached only marginal significance. Conclusions This study suggests that white-collar professionals and several production occupations may be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. PMID:18067183

Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Chow, Wong-Ho; Hauptmann, Michael; Dosemeci, Mustafa; Yang, Gong; Lubin, Jay; Gao, Yu-Tang; Rothman, Nat; Zheng, W

2010-01-01

358

HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Beijing: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives (1) To assess the HIV incidence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a large cohort study in Beijing, China and (2) to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors of HIV seroconversion among MSM in Beijing, China. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Baseline and follow-up visits were conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Participants A cohort of 797 HIV-seronegative MSM was recruited from August to December 2009, with follow-up occurring after 6 and 12?months. Primary and secondary outcome measures At baseline and follow-up visits, participants reported sociodemographic and sexual behaviour information, and were tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis with whole blood specimens. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results Most study participants (86.8%) were retained by the 12-month follow-up. The HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis incidence rates were 8.09 (95% CI 6.92 to 9.26), 5.92 (95% CI 5.44 to 6.40) and 8.06 (95% CI 7.56 to 8.56) cases per 100 person-years, respectively. HIV seroconversion was significantly associated with being <25?years old, having <12?years of education, having >1 male sex partner in the past 6?months, and being syphilis positive or HSV-2 positive. Conclusions The HIV incidence among MSM in Beijing is serious. Interventions and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be combined with HIV control and prevention measures among MSM. PMID:23166133

Li, Dongliang; Li, Shuming; Liu, Yingjie; Gao, Yanjie; Yu, Mingrun; Yang, Xueying; Li, Qingchun; Jiang, Shulin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Zhang, Zheng; Yan, Li; Jiang, Guiyan; Xiao, Dong; Pan, Stephen W; Luo, Fengji; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

2012-01-01

359

Candida infective endocarditis: an observational cohort study with a focus on therapy.  

PubMed

Candida infective endocarditis is a rare disease with a high mortality rate. Our understanding of this infection is derived from case series, case reports, and small prospective cohorts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and use of different antifungal treatment regimens for Candida infective endocarditis. This prospective cohort study was based on 70 cases of Candida infective endocarditis from the International Collaboration on Endocarditis (ICE)-Prospective Cohort Study and ICE-Plus databases collected between 2000 and 2010. The majority of infections were acquired nosocomially (67%). Congestive heart failure (24%), prosthetic heart valve (46%), and previous infective endocarditis (26%) were common comorbidities. Overall mortality was high, with 36% mortality in the hospital and 59% at 1 year. On univariate analysis, older age, heart failure at baseline, persistent candidemia, nosocomial acquisition, heart failure as a complication, and intracardiac abscess were associated with higher mortality. Mortality was not affected by use of surgical therapy or choice of antifungal agent. A subgroup analysis was performed on 33 patients for whom specific antifungal therapy information was available. In this subgroup, 11 patients received amphotericin B-based therapy and 14 received echinocandin-based therapy. Despite a higher percentage of older patients and nosocomial infection in the echinocandin group, mortality rates were similar between the two groups. In conclusion, Candida infective endocarditis is associated with a high mortality rate that was not impacted by choice of antifungal therapy or by adjunctive surgical intervention. Additionally, echinocandin therapy was as effective as amphotericin B-based therapy in the small subgroup analysis. PMID:25645855

Arnold, Christopher J; Johnson, Melissa; Bayer, Arnold S; Bradley, Suzanne; Giannitsioti, Efthymia; Miró, José M; Tornos, Pilar; Tattevin, Pierre; Strahilevitz, Jacob; Spelman, Denis; Athan, Eugene; Nacinovich, Francisco; Fortes, Claudio Q; Lamas, Cristiane; Barsic, Bruno; Fernández-Hidalgo, Nuria; Muñoz, Patricia; Chu, Vivian H

2015-04-01

360

Neuropsychological Test Performance Before and After HIV-1 Seroconversion: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare neuropsychological test performance before and after HIV-1 seroconversion in order to identify possible acute changes in psychomotor speed, memory, attention, and concentration secondary to seroconversion. Design Mixed effects models to examine longitudinal neuropsychological test data. Methods We conducted a nested cohort study of 362 male HIV-1 seroconverters enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. We used linear mixed models with random subject effects to compare repeated neuropsychological test outcomes from 5 years before seroconversion to 2 years after seroconversion on the Trail Making Test (Parts A & B), Symbol-Digit Test, Grooved Pegboard (dominant and non-dominant hands), Stroop Color-Interference Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, and the CalCAP Reaction Time Test. Results We found no significant changes in the time-dependent score after seroconversion for the majority of neuropsychological tests used in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. There was a significant change in time trend after seroconversion on part B of the Trail Making Test (p=0.042) but the difference only represented a 2% decrease in performance. We found the following characteristics to be associated with worse neuropsychological test performance: lower education levels, history of depression, older age, and no previous neurocognitive testing (p<.05). Conclusion Our results suggest that despite a 50% decrease in CD4 cell count immediately following infection, HIV-1 does not appear to have a measurable effect on psychomotor or complex cognitive processing for up to 2 years following infection, using this set of neurocognitive measures. PMID:23229349

Vo, Quynh T.; Cox, Christopher; Li, Xiuhong; Jacobson, Lisa P.; McKaig, Rosemary; Sacktor, Ned; Selnes, Ola A.; Martin, Eileen; Becker, James T.; Miller, Eric N.

2012-01-01

361

Cancer incidence and mortality in relation to body mass index in the Million Women Study: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relation between body mass index (kg\\/m 2 ) and cancer incidence and mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants 1.2 million UK women recruited into the Million Women Study, aged 50-64 during 1996-2001, and followed up, on average, for 5.4 years for cancer incidence and 7.0 years for cancer mortality. Main outcome measures Relative risks of incidence

Connors AF Jr; Dawson NV; Thomas C; Harrell FE Jr; Desbiens N

362

Cohort study of a simple 'Step-Up' regimen with the Asthma Control Test.  

PubMed

This prospective cohort study investigates whether simple guideline-based asthma management using a 'Step-Up' regimen with the Asthma Control Test score improves asthma control in patients with inadequately controlled asthma in primary care. Seventy out of ninety-three (75%) participants achieved a score of >19 (good control), and the mean increase in Asthma Control Test score was 6.0 (95% confidence interval: 5.3-6.8), P?

Holt, Shaun; Patel, Mitesh; Montgomery, Barney; Weatherall, Mark; Beasley, Richard

2015-04-01

363

Resting heart rate as a low tech predictor of coronary events in women: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate resting heart rate as an independent predictor of cardiovascular risk in women. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study.\\u000aSETTING: The Women's Health Initiative was undertaken at 40 research clinics in the United States.\\u000aPARTICIPANTS: 129 135 postmenopausal women.\\u000aMAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Clinical cardiovascular events.\\u000aRESULTS: During a mean of 7.8 (SD 1.6) years of follow up, 2281 women were

Judith Hsia; Joseph C. Larson; Judith K. Ockene; Gloria E. Sarto; Matthew A. Allison; Susan L. Hendrix; Jennifer G. Robinson; Andrea Z. LaCroix; JoAnn E. Manson

2009-01-01

364

Cohort study of a campylobacteriosis outbreak associated with chicken liver parfait, United Kingdom, June 2010.  

PubMed

In an outbreak of 24 cases of gastroenteritis among guests at a wedding reception, 13 cases had confirmed Campylobacter infection. In a cohort study, univariate analysis revealed a strong association with consumption of chicken liver parfait: risk ratio (RR): 30.08, 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.34-208.44, p<0.001, which remained after adjustment for potential confounders in a multivariable model: RR=27.8, 95% CI=3.9-199.7, p=0.001. These analyses strongly support the hypothesis that this outbreak was caused by the consumption of chicken liver parfait. PMID:21087588

Inns, T; Foster, K; Gorton, R

2010-01-01

365

Childhood meat eating and inflammatory markers: The Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  We hypothesized that socio-economic development could, via nutritionally driven levels of pubertal sex-steroids, promote a\\u000a pro-inflammatory state among men but not women in developing countries. We tested this hypothesis, using recalled childhood\\u000a meat eating as a proxy for childhood nutrition, in southern China.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  We used multivariable linear regression in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study phase 3 (2006-8) to examine the

CM Schooling; CQ Jiang; TH Lam; WS Zhang; KK Cheng; GM Leung

2011-01-01

366

Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Energy-adjusted magnesium intake was nonsignificantly inversely related to risk of colorectal cancer (n=2328) in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer that started in 1986 (n=58?279 men and 62?573 women). Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects for colon and proximal colon cancer across increasing quintiles of magnesium uptake (P-trend, 0.05 and 0.02, respectively). Although an overall protective effect was not afforded, our results suggest an effect of magnesium in overweight subjects, possibly through decreasing insulin resistance. PMID:17285123

van den Brandt, P A; Smits, K M; Goldbohm, R A; Weijenberg, M P

2007-01-01

367

The Anyang Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study: Study Design, Implementation of Fieldwork, and Use of Computer-Aided Survey System  

PubMed Central

Background Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been observed repeatedly in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) tissues. However, the causal relationship between HPV infection and the onset of ESCC remains unknown. A large cohort study focusing on this topic is being carried out in rural Anyang, China. Methodology/Principal Findings The Anyang Esophageal Cancer Cohort Study (AECCS) is a population-based prospective endoscopic cohort study designed to investigate the association of HPV infection and ESCC. This paper provides information regarding the design and implementation of this study. In particular we describe the recruitment strategies and quality control procedures which have been put into place, and the custom designed computer-aided survey system (CASS) used for this project. This system integrates barcode technology and unique identification numbers, and has been developed to facilitate real-time data management throughout the workflow using a wireless local area network. A total of 8,112 (75.3%) of invited subjects participated in the baseline endoscopic examination; of those invited two years later to take part in the first cycle of follow-up, 91.9% have complied. Conclusions/Significance The AECCS study has high potential for evaluating the causal relationship between HPV infection and the occurrence of ESCC. The experience in setting up the AECCS may be beneficial for others planning to initiate similar epidemiological studies in developing countries. PMID:22328939

Zhou, Yue; He, Zhonghu; Tian, Xiuyun; Guo, Chuanhai; Ning, Tao; Pan, Yaqi; Cai, Hong; Ke, Yang

2012-01-01

368

The risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients treated with hemodialysis: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There are no prior studies that have estimated the risk of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) among the dialysis population relative to the general population. The aim of this study was to examine the risk of UGIB among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients during a 6-year period following their initiation of hemodialysis (HD) therapy in Taiwan- a country with the highest incidence of ESRD in the world, using general population as an external comparison group. Methods Data were obtained from the Taiwan National health Insurance Research Database. In total, 796 patients who were beginning HD between 1999 and 2003 were recruited as the study cohort and 3,184 patients matched for age and sex were included as comparison cohort. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to adjust for confounding and to compare the 6-year UGIB-free survival rate between these two cohorts. Results The incidence rate of UGIB (42.01 per 1000 person-year) was significantly higher in the HD cohort than in the control cohort (27.39 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios for UGIB during the 6-year follow-up periods for HD patients was 1.27 (95% CI=1.03-1.57) compared to patients in the comparison cohort. Conclusions We conclude that HD patients were at an increased risk for UGIB compared with the general population. PMID:23324652

2013-01-01

369

Effect of Birth Cohort on Risk of Hip Fracture: Age-Specific Incidence Rates in the Framingham Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. This study examined the effect of birth cohort on incidence rates of hip fracture among women and men in the Framingham Study. Methods. Age-specific incidence rates of first hip fracture were presented according to tertile of year of birth for 5209 participants of the Framingham Study, a population-based cohort followed since 1948. Sex-specific incidence rate ratios were calculated by Cox regression to assess the relation between birth cohort and hip fracture incidence. Results. An increasing trend in hip fracture incidence rates was observed with year of birth for women (trend, P = .05) and men (trend, P = .03). Relative to those born from 1887 to 1900 (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 1.0), age-specific incidence rates were greatest in the most recent birth cohort, born from 1911 to 1921 (IRR = 1.4 for women, IRR = 2.0 for men), and intermediate in those born from 1901 to 1910 (IRR = 1.2 for women, IRR = 1.5 for men). Conclusions. Results suggest risk of hip fracture is increasing for successive birth cohorts. Projections that fail to account for the increase in rates associated with birth cohort underestimate the future public health impact of hip fracture in the United States. PMID:11988460

Samelson, Elizabeth J.; Zhang, Yuqing; Kiel, Douglas P.; Hannan, Marian T.; Felson, David T.

2002-01-01

370

Adverse effects of isoniazid preventative therapy for latent tuberculosis infection: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Isoniazid preventative therapy (IPT) is a widely used intervention for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), particularly in patients at high risk for reactivation. While treatment-limiting adverse effects have been well studied, few prospective studies have considered the range of adverse effects that patients may experience with IPT. Methods All patients commencing treatment for LTBI were prospectively enrolled in an ongoing database of LTBI treatment outcomes particularly related to adverse effects, treatment adherence, and treatment completion. Results Data on the first 100 patients who were prescribed IPT are presented. Fifty-six patients reported at least one adverse effect at some stage during treatment, with six experiencing at least one World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3–4 adverse effect. Increased age was significantly associated with risk of adverse effects (odds ratio [OR] =1.05 per year; confidence interval [CI] of 1.02–1.08=95%). Eighty-five patients had documented completion of therapy locally, with ten patients ceasing IPT due to adverse effects. Discussion This report highlights a variety of somatic adverse effects that occurred in a real-world cohort of patients receiving IPT. While adverse effects were frequently identified in this study, the considerable majority were low grade and transient. Despite frequent adverse effects of LTBI in our treatment cohort, the study demonstrated high levels of treatment adherence and completion. PMID:25364275

Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S; Eisen, Damon P; Penington, Jocelyn S; Chen, Caroline; Street, Alan C

2014-01-01

371

Historical cohort mortality study of a continuous filament fiberglass manufacturing plant. I. White men.  

PubMed

An historical cohort mortality study of a continuous filament fiberglass manufacturing plant was undertaken to determine whether an elevated lung cancer risk would be observed on a cohort basis. A nested case-control study of white male lung cancer deaths was incorporated into the study design. An interview survey to obtain information on sociodemographic factors, including smoking, and an historical environmental reconstruction to identify elements in the plant environment to which workers might be exposed were included in the study design. Respirable glass (Beta) fibers were produced only from 1963 to 1968. The lung cancer odds ratio (OR) among those workers exposed to respirable glass fibers is below unity, as are ORs for exposure to asbestos, refractory ceramic fibers, respirable silica (except for the lowest exposure level), total chrome and arsenic. There is a suggestion of an increase with exposure among smokers only for exposure to formaldehyde, although the OR for the highest level is based on only one case and is not likely to be meaningful. None of these plant exposures suggests an increase in lung cancer risk for this population. Although the lung cancer standardized mortality ratios are slightly elevated, results of the case-control investigation confirm that neither respirable glass fibers nor any of the substances investigated as part of the plant environment are associated with an increase in lung cancer risk for this population. PMID:9172088

Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Fryar, C

1997-05-01

372

What Are the Health Benefits of Active Travel? A Systematic Review of Trials and Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling) has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. Methods The study design was a systematic review of (i) non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii) prospective observational studies examining either (a) the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b) the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. Results Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. Conclusions Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such interventions should include an assessment of their impacts on obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:23967064

Saunders, Lucinda E.; Green, Judith M.; Petticrew, Mark P.; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen

2013-01-01

373

Health-related lifestyle factors and mammography screening attendance in a Swedish cohort study.  

PubMed

To determine whether health-related lifestyle factors are associated with attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program in southern Sweden, data on health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, BMI, diet, self-rated health, and stress) were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register (Sweden, 1992-2009). Women (n=11 409) who were free from breast cancer at study entry were included in the cohort, and mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to 31 December 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within patients. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Nonattendance occurred in 8% of the 69 746 screening opportunities that were observed. Nonattendance was more common among women who were current or former smokers [OR=1.60 (1.45-1.76) and OR=1.15 (1.05-1.28)], had not used alcohol in the past year [OR=1.55 (1.32-1.83)], were less physically active outside of work [OR=1.10 (1.00-1.20)], had high physical activity at work (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.28), were vegetarians or vegans [OR=1.49 (1.11-1.99)], had not used dietary supplements [OR=1.11 (1.01-1.21)], had poor self-rated health [OR=1.24 (1.14-1.36)], and were experiencing greater stress [OR=1.25 (1.14-1.36)]. In this cohort, nonattendance was associated with smoking, alcohol abstinence, physical activity, poor self-rated health, stress, and following a vegetarian/vegan diet. These findings generally support the notion that women with less healthy lifestyles are less likely to engage in mammography screening. PMID:24787378

Lagerlund, Magdalena; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sontrop, Jessica M; Zackrisson, Sophia

2015-01-01

374

Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background The term “atopic march” has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema to asthma and rhinitis through childhood. We hypothesize that this expression does not adequately describe the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from cross-sectional analyses of longitudinal studies, and may reflect a population pattern that may not predominate at the individual level. Methods and Findings Data from 9,801 children in two population-based birth cohorts were used to determine individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis and whether the manifestations of these symptoms followed an atopic march pattern. Children were assessed at ages 1, 3, 5, 8, and 11 y. We used Bayesian machine learning methods to identify distinct latent classes based on individual profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis. This approach allowed us to identify groups of children with similar patterns of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis over time. Using a latent disease profile model, the data were best described by eight latent classes: no disease (51.3%), atopic march (3.1%), persistent eczema and wheeze (2.7%), persistent eczema with later-onset rhinitis (4.7%), persistent wheeze with later-onset rhinitis (5.7%), transient wheeze (7.7%), eczema only (15.3%), and rhinitis only (9.6%). When latent variable modelling was carried out separately for the two cohorts, similar results were obtained. Highly concordant patterns of sensitisation were associated with different profiles of eczema, rhinitis, and wheeze. The main limitation of this study was the difference in wording of the questions used to ascertain the presence of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis in the two cohorts. Conclusions The developmental profiles of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis are heterogeneous; only a small proportion of children (?7% of those with symptoms) follow trajectory profiles resembling the atopic march. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:25335105

2014-01-01

375

A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico), using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort), in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort). Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type. PMID:22471857

2012-01-01

376

Risk of testicular cancer after vasectomy: cohort study of over 73,000 men.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE--To confirm or refute reports that vasectomy may increase the risk of cancers of the testis and prostate. DESIGN--Computerised record linkage study of cohort of men with vasectomy and comparison of cancer rates with those in the whole Danish population; manual check of all records of patients with testicular and prostate cancer diagnosed within the first year of follow up. SETTING--Denmark 1977-89. SUBJECTS--Cohort of 73,917 men identified in hospital discharge and pathology registers as having had a vasectomy for any reason during 1977-89. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Observed incidences of testicular, prostate, and other cancers up to the end of 1989. RESULTS--The overall pattern of cancer incidence in the study cohort was similar to that expected nationally. No increased incidence in testicular cancer was observed (70 cases; standardised morbidity ratio 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.79 to 1.28)). The incidence during the first year of follow up was also close to that expected (nine cases; standardised morbidity ratio 0.80 (0.36 to 1.51)). The incidence of prostate cancer was not increased (165 cases; standardised morbidity ratio 0.98 (0.84 to 1.14)). CONCLUSIONS--The incidence of testicular cancer in men with vasectomy is no higher than in other men. Vasectomy does not cause testicular cancer and does not accelerate the growth or diagnosis of pre-existing testicular neoplasms. Data concerning a causal relation between vasectomy and prostate cancer were inconclusive. PMID:8086866

Møller, H.; Knudsen, L. B.; Lynge, E.

1994-01-01

377

Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood. PMID:24699459

Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

2014-01-01

378

Smoking cessation in pregnant women with mental disorders: a cohort and nested qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate whether 1) pregnant smokers with mental disorders are less likely to accept referrals to smoking cessation services compared with pregnant smokers without disorders; 2) they experience specific barriers to smoking cessation. Design Cohort study supplemented by cross-sectional survey and nested qualitative study. Setting Three maternity services, London, UK. Population Pregnant smokers with and without mental disorders. Methods Case notes were examined on a cohort of 400 consecutive pregnant smokers; data were triangulated with routinely collected data on 845 pregnant smokers at two other sites; 27 pregnant smokers were interviewed using qualitative methods. Main outcome measures Acceptance of referral to smoking cessation services; perceived barriers to quitting. Results Pregnant smokers with a mental disorder recorded by midwives were one-quarter of the cohort (97, 23%), were more likely to accept referral to smoking cessation services (69% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio 1.70, 95% confidence interval 1.03–2.79), but more likely to still smoke at delivery (69% versus 56%, adjusted odds ratio 2.63, 95% confidence interval 1.41–4.92). Discussion about smoking was documented in 7.7% of subsequent antenatal visits in women with or without mental disorders. Pregnant smokers with diagnosed mental disorders reported that they and health practitioners did not prioritise smoking advice because of concern about adversely impacting mental health. Conclusions Pregnant women with mental disorders appear more motivated, yet find it more difficult, to stop smoking. Prioritisation of mental health over smoking may therefore lead to increasing health inequality for this group. Research into effective smoking cessation interventions is required for those with mental disorders. PMID:23167511

Howard, LM; Bekele, D; Rowe, M; Demilew, J; Bewley, S; Marteau, TM

2013-01-01

379

Incinerator Pollution and Child Development in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD), children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary. PMID:23727903

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

2013-01-01

380

The Impact of the Thai Motorcycle Transition on Road Traffic Injury: Thai Cohort Study Results  

PubMed Central

Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of motorcycle to car transitioning and urbanisation on traffic injury rates in Thailand. Design Analysis of two consecutive surveys of a large national cohort study. Setting Thailand. Participants The data derived from 57,154 Thai Cohort Study (TCS) participants who provided relevant data on both the 2005 and 2009 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures Motorcycle and car traffic crash injury self-reported in 2009, with twelve months’ recall. Results In 2009, 5608(10%) participants reported a traffic crash injury. Most crashes involved a motorcycle (74%). Car access increased and motorcycle use decreased between 2005 and 2009. Among those who used a motorcycle at both time points, traffic injury incidence was 2.8 times greater compared to those who did not use a motorcycle at either time point. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to test longitudinal and cross sectional factors associated with traffic crash injury: in the adjusted model, cars were negatively and motorcycles positively associated with injury. Living in an urban area was not injury protective in the adjusted model of traffic crash injury. Conclusions Ongoing urbanisation in Thailand can be expected to lead to further reductions in road traffic injuries based on transition from motorcycles to cars in urban areas. Cities, however, do not provide an intrinsically safer traffic environment. To accommodate a safe transition to car use in Thailand, traffic infrastructural changes anticipating the growing car density in urban areas is warranted. PMID:25826214

Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Yiengprugsawan, Vasoontara; Kelly, Matthew; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

2015-01-01

381

Incidence and Risk Factors of Striae Distensae Following Breast Augmentation Surgery: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The significant increase in the popularity of breast augmentation surgeries has led to an increase in the number and types of complications; among these is the postoperative occurrence of Striae Distensae (SD). The objective of this study was to investigate the incidence of SD and describing its occurrence in association with age, breast implant volume, history of SD, history of pregnancies and breastfeeding, body mass index (BMI), changes in postoperative weight, smoking habits, and use of oral contraceptives. Methods A cohort study was conducted and the patient data from a specific social group that underwent augmentation mammaplasty with silicone breast implants in a private clinic was analyzed. Results 563 patients entered the cohort, while 538 completed the study. The SD incidence was 7.06%. The risk was almost the double at 22–28 years of age and triple in women of 21 years of age or less. The women who did not use oral contraceptives were 2.59 times more likely of developing SD. A higher incidence of SD was observed among those with normal or low BMI values, smokers, and in those who had implants larger than 300 ml. Conclusions Young age, larger implant volumes, smoking, and normal or low BMI values were the risk factors responsible for the development of SD; while using oral contraceptives was found to be a protective factor. PMID:24844230

Valente, Denis Souto; Zanella, Rafaela Koehler; Doncatto, Leo Francisco; Padoin, Alexandre Vontobel

2014-01-01

382

Retrospective study of biopsied head and neck lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients  

PubMed Central

Introduction A study of the whole spectrum of biopsied head and neck (HN) diseases in Taiwan has not yet been performed. Therefore, the current study aimed to provide updated information about HN lesions in a cohort of referral Taiwanese patients for histopathological examination. Methods HN lesions (2000–2011) in patients with records of age, sex, and histological diagnoses were retrieved from the Oral Pathology Department of the institution. These lesions were classified into four main categories: tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, inflammatory/infective lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Results A total of 37,210 HN lesions were included in the current study. Most of these lesions were distributed in the group of tumor/tumor-like reactive lesions, followed by the groups of inflammatory/infective lesions, cystic/pseudocystic lesions, and others/miscellaneous lesions. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most common HN lesion, and was also the most frequent malignant lesion among the referral patients. Conclusion It was worthy of note that squamous cell carcinoma and oral potentially malignant disorders comprised high percentages of all HN lesions for the present cohort of referral patients. PMID:25047214

2014-01-01

383

Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer: a nationwide cohort study in Denmark.  

PubMed

The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from 1987 to 1995 were followed up through 2007. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for melanoma, basal cell carcinoma, and squamous cell carcinoma by using Poisson regression models adjusted for age, calendar period, educational level, and income. Separate IRRs for head/neck tumors and torso/leg tumors were compared (IRR ratios) to further address potential confounders. We observed no overall increased risk for basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, or melanoma of the head and neck. After a follow-up period of at least 13 years, the IRRs for basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma remained near unity. Among men, the IRR for melanoma of the head and neck was 1.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.65, 2.22) after a minimum 13-year follow-up, whereas the corresponding IRR for the torso and legs was 1.16 (95% confidence interval: 0.91, 1.47), yielding an IRR ratio of 1.04 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users. PMID:23788669

Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Allan; Frei, Patrizia; Kjaear, Susanne Krüger; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Schüz, Joachim

2013-07-15

384

Use and Safety of Anthroposophic Medications for Acute Respiratory and Ear Infections: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are widely used, but safety data on AMED from large prospective studies are sparse. The objective of this analysis was to determine the frequency of adverse drug reactions (ADR) to AMED in outpatients using AMED for acute respiratory and ear infections. Methods A prospective four-week observational cohort study was conducted in 21 primary care practices in Europe and the U.S.A. The cohort comprised 715 consecutive outpatients aged ?1 month, treated by anthroposophic physicians for acute otitis and respiratory infections. Physicians’ prescription data and patient reports of adverse events were analyzed. Main outcome measures were use of AMED and ADR to AMED. Results Two patients had confirmed ADR to AMED: 1) swelling and redness at the injection site after subcutaneous injections of Prunus spinosa 5%, 2) sleeplessness after intake of Pneumodoron® 2 liquid. These ADR lasted one and two days respectively; both subsided after dose reduction; none were unexpected; none were serious. The frequency of confirmed ADR to AMED was 0.61% (2/327) of all different AMED used, 0.28% (2/715) of patients, and 0.004% (3/73,443) of applications. Conclusion In this prospective study, anthroposophic medications used by primary care patients with acute respiratory or ear infections were well tolerated. PMID:21901075

Hamre, Harald J.; Glockmann, Anja; Fischer, Michael; Riley, David S.; Baars, Erik; Kiene, Helmut

2007-01-01

385

The Jerusalem Perinatal Study cohort, 1964–2005: methods and a review of the main results  

PubMed Central

Summary The Jerusalem Perinatal Study recorded information on population-based cohorts of 92 408 live- and stillbirths in 1964–76, and their parents, with active surveillance of infant deaths and birth defects. Data on maternal conditions, obstetric complications and interventions during labour and delivery were recorded for 92% of the births. Subsets were surveyed with antenatal interviews in 1965–68 (n = 11 467), paediatric admissions to hospital (n = 17 782) and postpartum interviews in 1975–76 (n = 16 912). Data from some offspring were linked to records of a health examination at age 17. The offspring, mothers and fathers have been traced recently, their vital status assessed, and the data linked to Israel’s Cancer Registry and Psychiatric Registry. This paper describes the different types of data available, their sources, and some potential biases. Characteristics of this unique population are shown. Findings from the study are reviewed and a list of references is provided. The cohorts provide a unique source of data for a wide variety of studies. PMID:17439536

Harlap, Susan; Davies, A. Michael; Deutsch, Lisa; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Manor, Orly; Paltiel, Ora; Tiram, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Perrin, Mary C.; Terry, Mary B.; Malaspina, Dolores; Friedlander, Yechiel

2010-01-01

386

Childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood: the 1970 British Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Sleeping difficulties in childhood have been associated with an increased risk of depression in adult life, but existing studies have not accounted for comorbid maternal sleeping difficulties and depression. This study aimed to determine the association between childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood after adjusting for the potential confounding influences of maternal depression and sleeping difficulties. Data from the British Cohort Study 1970, a prospective birth cohort with 30 years of follow-up (1975-2005) were used. At 5 years of age, 7437 parents of participants recorded information on whether their child had sleeping difficulties, the frequency of bed-wetting, nightmares, maternal depression and sleep difficulties. At 34 years of age, participants reported whether or not they had received medical treatment for depression in the past year. Parental reports of severe sleeping difficulties at 5 years were associated with an increased risk of depression at age 34 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 3.2] whereas moderate sleeping difficulties were not (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.3). In conclusion, severe sleeping problems in childhood may be associated with increased susceptibility to depression in adult life. PMID:25178397

Greene, Giles; Gregory, Alice M; Fone, David; White, James

2015-02-01

387

Diet and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in the California Teachers Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

Dietary phytochemical compounds, including isoflavones and isothiocyanates, may inhibit cancer development but have not yet been examined in prospective epidemiologic studies of ovarian cancer. The authors have investigated the association between consumption of these and other nutrients and ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Among 97,275 eligible women in the California Teachers Study cohort who completed the baseline dietary assessment in 1995–1996, 280 women developed invasive or borderline ovarian cancer by December 31, 2003. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression, with age as the timescale, was used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals; all statistical tests were two sided. Intake of isoflavones was associated with lower risk of ovarian cancer. Compared with the risk for women who consumed less than 1 mg of total isoflavones per day, the relative risk of ovarian cancer associated with consumption of more than 3 mg/day was 0.56 (95% confidence interval: 0.33, 0.96). Intake of isothiocyanates or foods high in isothiocyanates was not associated with ovarian cancer risk, nor was intake of macronutrients, antioxidant vitamins, or other micronutrients. Although dietary consumption of isoflavones may be associated with decreased ovarian cancer risk, most dietary factors are unlikely to play a major role in ovarian cancer development. PMID:17210953

Chang, Ellen T.; Lee, Valerie S.; Canchola, Alison J.; Clarke, Christina A.; Purdie, David M.; Reynolds, Peggy; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Peel, David; Pinder, Rich; Ross, Ronald K.; Stram, Daniel O.; West, Dee W.; Wright, William; Ziogas, Argyrios; Horn-Ross, Pamela L.

2007-01-01

388

Incinerator pollution and child development in the taiwan birth cohort study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to investigate the direct and indirect effects of environmental pollutants on child development and parental concerns. It focused on the pathway relationships among the following factors: living within three kilometers of an incinerator, breastfeeding, place of residence, parental concerns about development, and parent-perceived child development. The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) dataset includes randomized community data on 21,248 children at six, 18, and 36 months of age. The Parental Concern Checklist and the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study-Developmental Instrument were used to measure parental concern and parent-perceived child development. Living within three kilometers of an incinerator increased the risk of children showing delayed development in the gross motor domain at six and 36 months. Although breastfeeding is a protective factor against uneven/delayed developmental disability (U/DDD), children living near an incinerator who were breastfed had an increased risk of U/DDD compared with those who did not live near incinerators. The presence of a local incinerator affected parent-perceived child development directly and indirectly through the mediating factor of breastfeeding. Further follow-up of these children to investigate the long-term effects of specific toxins on their development and later diagnostic categorization is necessary. PMID:23727903

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

2013-06-01

389

Obstructive sleep apnea and the risk of perinatal outcomes: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.  

PubMed

Inconsistent information exists in the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and perinatal outcomes. This study was intended to investigate whether OSA in pregnant women has a potential to elevate the incidence of the maternal and neonatal outcomes by performing a meta-analysis of all available cohort studies. Five cohort studies including 977 participants were eligible for inclusion. The association between OSA and the risk of perinatal outcomes was expressed as relative risks (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Our results revealed that OSA group was associated with more frequent preeclampsia (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.86), preterm birth (RR 1.90; 95%CI 1.24 to 2.91), cesarean delivery (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.29) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 2.65; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.76). On analyzing data for the prevalence of gestational diabetes and small gestational age (SGA) < 10th percentile (RR 1.40; 95% CI 0.62 to 3.19, and RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.33 to1.24, respectively), there were no significant differences in both group. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that OSA in pregnant women significantly increases the incidence of maternal and neonatal outcomes, which is associated with more frequent preeclampsia, preterm birth, cesarean delivery and NICU admission. PMID:25382105

Xu, Ting; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Hui; Guo, Dongying; Li, Taoping

2014-01-01

390

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Perinatal Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Inconsistent information exists in the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and perinatal outcomes. This study was intended to investigate whether OSA in pregnant women has a potential to elevate the incidence of the maternal and neonatal outcomes by performing a meta-analysis of all available cohort studies. Five cohort studies including 977 participants were eligible for inclusion. The association between OSA and the risk of perinatal outcomes was expressed as relative risks (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Our results revealed that OSA group was associated with more frequent preeclampsia (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.86), preterm birth (RR 1.90; 95%CI 1.24 to 2.91), cesarean delivery (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.29) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 2.65; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.76). On analyzing data for the prevalence of gestational diabetes and small gestational age (SGA) < 10th percentile (RR 1.40; 95% CI 0.62 to 3.19, and RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.33 to1.24, respectively), there were no significant differences in both group. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that OSA in pregnant women significantly increases the incidence of maternal and neonatal outcomes, which is associated with more frequent preeclampsia, preterm birth, cesarean delivery and NICU admission. PMID:25382105

Xu, Ting; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Hui; Guo, Dongying; Li, Taoping

2014-01-01

391

Long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a Danish nationwide cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term mortality and causes of death in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) are poorly documented. In this study, long-term mortality and causes of death in PTB and EPTB patients were compared with the background population and it was investigated whether mortality was associated with family-related risk factors. Methods A nationwide cohort study was conducted including: all adult Danes notified with PTB or EPTB from 1977 to 2008 and alive 1 year after diagnosis; a randomly selected comparison cohort matched on birth date and sex; adult siblings of PTB patients; and population controls. Data were extracted from national registries. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios were calculated for patients and siblings and compared with their respective control cohorts. A total of 8,291 patients (6,402 PTB and 1,889 EPTB), 24,873 population controls, 1,990 siblings of PTB patients and 11,679 siblings of PTB population controls were included. Results Overall, the mortality rate ratio was 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77–1.96) for PTB patients and 1.24 (95% CI 1.12–1.37) for EPTB patients. Both patient cohorts had significantly increased risk of death due to infectious diseases and diabetes. Further, the PTB patients had increased mortality due to cancers (mainly respiratory and gastrointestinal tract), liver and respiratory system diseases, and alcohol and drug abuse. The PTB patients had increased mortality compared with their siblings (mortality rate ratio 3.55; 95% CI 2.57–4.91) as did the siblings of the PTB patients compared with the siblings of population controls (mortality rate ratio 2.16; 95% CI 1.62–2.87). Conclusion We conclude that adult PTB patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality whereas EPTB patients have a slightly increased long-term mortality compared with the background population. The increased long-term mortality in PTB patients stems from diseases associated with alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse as well as immune suppression, and family-related factors. PMID:25419160

Christensen, Anne-Sophie Halkjær; Roed, Casper; Andersen, Peter H; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Obel, Niels

2014-01-01

392

Study of two cohorts of workers exposed to methyl methacrylate in acrylic sheet production  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—To study mortality among 4324 workers at two United Kingdom factories, Darwen, Lancashire and Wilton, Cleveland, producing polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) sheet. The Darwen factory is still active, but the Wilton one was closed in 1970. Also, to investigate patterns of mortality after exposure to methyl methacrylate; in particular, mortality from colon and rectal cancer.?METHODS—All male employees at the Darwen factory with a record of employment in 1949-88 and all men ever employed at the Wilton factory (1949-70) were investigated. The vital status of both cohorts was ascertained on 31 December 1995. The exposure of 1526 subjects at the Darwen plant who were engaged from 1949 onwards could be characterised. The mean duration of exposure was 7.6 years at 13.2 ppm (8 hour time weighted average), although exposures in some work groups were as high as 100 ppm. It was not possible to calculate the cumulative exposure of workers first employed at the Darwen plant before 1949 or workers at the Wilton factory.?RESULTS—In the Darwen cohort, 622 deaths were identified and a further 700 deaths in the Wilton cohort. Mortalities for the cohort were compared with national and local rates and expressed as standardised mortality ratios (SMRs). In the subcohort of Darwen workers with more than minimal exposure to MMA, reduced mortalities compared with national and local rates, were found for all causes (SMR 94), and colorectal cancer (SMR 92), but mortality from all cancers was slightly increased (SMR 104). No relations were found with cumulative exposure to MMA. In the subcohort of Wilton workers, mortality from all causes of death was significantly reduced (SMR 89), but mortality from all cancers (SMR 103) and colorectal cancer (SMR 124) were increased. The excess of colorectal cancer was confined to employees with less than 1 year of employment.?CONCLUSION—The study provided no clear evidence that employment at the factories or exposure to MMA had adversely affected the mortalities of workers.???Keywords: methyl methacrylate; mortality PMID:11077009

Tomenson, J; Bonner, S; Edwards, J; Pemberton, M; Cummings, T; Paddle, G

2000-01-01

393

Cardiovascular risk factor treatment targets and renal complications in high risk vascular patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background To determine if recommended treatment targets, as specified in clinical practice guidelines for the management of cardiovascular disease, reduces the risk of renal complications in high risk patient populations. Methods This was a cohort study. Participants in Utrecht, The Netherlands either at risk of, or had cardiovascular disease were recruited. Cardiovascular treatment targets were achievement of control in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, total and low-density cholesterol, and treatment of albuminuria. Outcome measures were time to development of end stage renal failure or symptomatic renal atherosclerotic disease requiring intervention. Results The cohort consisted of 7,208 participants; 1,759 diabetics and 4,859 with clinically manifest vascular disease. The median age was 57 years and 67% were male. Overall, 29% of the cohort achieved the treatment target for systolic blood pressure, 39% for diastolic blood pressure, 28% for total cholesterol, 31% for LDL cholesterol and 78% for albuminuria. The incidence rate for end stage renal failure and renal atherosclerotic disease reduced linearly with each additional treatment target achieved (p value less than 0.001). Achievement of any two treatment targets reduced the risk of renal complications, hazard ratio 0.46 (95% CI 0.26-0.82). For patients with clinically manifest vascular disease and diabetes, the hazard ratios were 0.56 (95% CI 0.28 - 1.12) and 0.28 (95%CI 0.10 - 0.79) respectively. Conclusion Clinical guidelines for cardiovascular disease management do reduce risk of renal complications in high risk patients. Benefits are seen with attainment of any two treatment targets. PMID:21729268

2011-01-01

394

Total knee arthroplasty following tibial plateau fracture: a matched cohort study.  

PubMed

Radiological evidence of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (PTOA) after fracture of the tibial plateau is common but end-stage arthritis which requires total knee arthroplasty is much rarer. The aim of this study was to examine the indications for, and outcomes of, total knee arthroplasty after fracture of the tibial plateau and to compare this with an age and gender-matched cohort of TKAs carried out for primary osteoarthritis. Between 1997 and 2011, 31 consecutive patients (23 women, eight men) with a mean age of 65 years (40 to 89) underwent TKA at a mean of 24 months (2 to 124) after a fracture of the tibial plateau. Of these, 24 had undergone ORIF and seven had been treated non-operatively. Patients were assessed pre-operatively and at 6, 12 and > 60 months using the Short Form-12, Oxford Knee Score and a patient satisfaction score. Patients with instability or nonunion needed total knee arthroplasty earlier (14 and 13.3 months post-injury) than those with intra-articular malunion (50 months, p < 0.001). Primary cruciate-retaining implants were used in 27 (87%) patients. Complication rates were higher in the PTOA cohort and included wound complications (13% vs 1% p = 0.014) and persistent stiffness (10% vs 0%, p = 0.014). Two (6%) PTOA patients required revision total knee arthroplasty at 57 and 114 months. The mean Oxford knee score was worse pre-operatively in the cohort with primary osteoarthritis (18 vs 30, p < 0.001) but there were no significant differences in post-operative Oxford knee score or patient satisfaction (primary osteoarthritis 86%, PTOA 78%, p = 0.437). Total knee arthroplasty undertaken after fracture of the tibial plateau has a higher rate of complications than that undertaken for primary osteoarthritis, but patient-reported outcomes and satisfaction are comparable. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2015;97-B:532-8. PMID:25820894

Scott, C E H; Davidson, E; MacDonald, D J; White, T O; Keating, J F

2015-04-01

395

Is oxygen required before atropine administration in organophosphorus or carbamate pesticide poisoning? – A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Early and adequate atropine administration in organophosphorus (OP) or carbamate insecticide poisoning improves outcome. However, some authors advise that oxygen must be given before atropine due to the risk of inducing ventricular dysrhythmias in hypoxic patients. Because oxygen is frequently unavailable in district hospitals of rural Asia, where the majority of patients with insecticide poisoning present, this guidance has significant implications for patient care. The published evidence for this advice is weak. We therefore performed a patient cohort analysis to look for early cardiac deaths in patients poisoned by anticholinesterase pesticides. Methods We analysed a prospective Sri Lankan cohort of OP or carbamate-poisoned patients treated with early atropine without the benefit of oxygen for evidence of early deaths. The incidence of fatal primary cardiac arrests within 3 h of admission was used as a sensitive (but non-specific) marker of possible ventricular dysrhythmias. Results The cohort consisted of 1957 patients. The incidence of a primary cardiac death within 3 h of atropine administration was 4 (0.2%) of 1957 patients. The majority of deaths occurred at a later time point from respiratory complications of poisoning. Conclusion We found no evidence of a high number of early deaths in an observational study of 1957 patients routinely given atropine before oxygen that might support guidance that oxygen must be given before atropine. The published literature indicates that early and rapid administration of atropine during resuscitation is life-saving. Therefore, whether oxygen is available or not, early atropinisation of OP- and carbamate-poisoned patients should be performed. PMID:24810796

Konickx, L. A.; Bingham, K.

2014-01-01

396

Mortality study of civilian employees exposed to contaminated drinking water at USMC Base Camp Lejeune: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Two drinking water systems at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina were contaminated with solvents during 1950s-1985. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of 4,647 civilian, full-time workers employed at Camp Lejeune during 1973–1985 and potentially exposed to contaminated drinking water. We selected a comparison cohort of 4,690 Camp Pendleton workers employed during 1973–1985 and unexposed to contaminated drinking water. Mortality follow-up period was 1979-2008. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios utilized U.S. age-, sex-, race-, and calendar period-specific mortality rates as reference. We used survival analysis to compare mortality rates between Camp Lejeune and Camp Pendleton workers and assess the effects of estimated cumulative contaminant exposures within the Camp Lejeune cohort. Ground water contaminant fate/transport and distribution system models provided monthly estimated contaminant levels in drinking water serving workplaces at Camp Lejeune. The confidence interval (CI) indicated precision of effect estimates. Results Compared to Camp Pendleton, Camp Lejeune workers had mortality hazard ratios (HRs) >1.50 for kidney cancer (HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 0.58, 6.34), leukemias (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.66, 3.84), multiple myeloma (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 0.45, 7.58), rectal cancer (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 0.36, 7.44), oral cavity cancers (HR = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.34, 10.81), and Parkinson’s disease (HR = 3.13, 95% CI: 0.76, 12.81). Within the Camp Lejeune cohort, monotonic exposure-response relationships were observed for leukemia and vinyl chloride and PCE, with mortality HRs at the high exposure category of 1.72 (95% CI: 0.33, 8.83) and 1.82 (95% CI: 0.36, 9.32), respectively. Cumulative exposures were above the median for most deaths from cancers of the kidney, esophagus, rectum, prostate, and Parkinson’s disease, but small numbers precluded evaluation of exposure-response relationships. Conclusion The study found elevated HRs in the Camp Lejeune cohort for several causes of death including cancers of the kidney, rectum, oral cavity, leukemias, multiple myeloma, and Parkinson’s disease. Only 14% of the Camp Lejeune cohort died by end of follow-up, producing small numbers of cause-specific deaths and wide CIs. Additional follow-up would be necessary to comprehensively assess drinking water exposure effects at the base. PMID:25115749

2014-01-01

397

In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys: a pregnancy cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. Setting Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. Participants Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. Primary and secondary outcome measures Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. Results We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ?5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3?months (95% CI ?2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9?months (95% CI ?0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. Conclusions We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further. PMID:24916086

Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise; Hounsgaard, Marie Louise; Olsen, Jørn; Ernst, Andreas; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

2014-01-01

398

Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. Design A prospective population-based study. Setting In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. Participants 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. Primary outcome measure The risk of dementia during the 20?years of follow-up. Results Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20?years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (?=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; p<0.03). Conclusions A possible beneficial effect of board game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players. PMID:23988362

Dartigues, Jean François; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Mélanie; Viltard, Mélanie; Amieva, Hélène; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

2013-01-01

399

Establishment of the MAL-ED birth cohort study site in Vellore, Southern India.  

PubMed

The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children. PMID:25305300

John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep

2014-11-01

400

Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area  

SciTech Connect

A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos.

Zadeii, G.R.M.

1987-01-01

401

Grandparental investment and reproductive decisions in the longitudinal 1970 British cohort study  

PubMed Central

There has been a recent increase in interest among evolutionary researchers in the hypothesis that humans evolved as cooperative breeders, using extended family support to help decrease offspring mortality and increase the number of children that can be successfully reared. In this study, data drawn from the 1970 longitudinal British cohort study were analysed to determine whether extended family support encourages fertility in contemporary Britain. The results showed that at age 30, reported frequency that participants saw their own parents (but not in-laws) and the closeness of the bond between the participant and their own parents were associated with an increased likelihood of having a child between ages 30 and 34. Financial help and reported grandparental childcare were not significantly positively associated with births from age 30 to 34. Men's income was positively associated with likelihood of birth, whereas women's income increased likelihood of birth only for working women with at least one child. While it was predicted that grandparental financial and childcare help would increase the likelihood of reproduction by lowering the cost to the parent of having a child, it appears that the mere physical presence of supportive parents rather than their financial or childcare help encouraged reproduction in the 1970 British birth cohort sample. PMID:21920986

Waynforth, David

2012-01-01

402

Historical cohort study of US man-made vitreous fiber production workers: I. 1992 fiberglass cohort follow-up: initial findings.  

PubMed

This 1986 to 1992 update and expansion of an earlier historical cohort study examined the 1946 to 1992 mortality experience of 32,110 workers employed for 1 year or more during 1945 to 1978 at any of 10 US fiberglass (FG) manufacturing plants. Included are (1) a new historical exposure reconstruction for respirable glass fibers and several co-exposures (arsenic, asbestos, asphalt, epoxy, formaldehyde, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, phenolics, silica, styrene, and urea); and (2) a nested, matched case-control study of 631 respiratory system cancer (RSC) deaths in male workers during 1970 to 1992 with interview data on tobacco smoking history. Our findings to date from external comparisons based on standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) in the cohort study provide no evidence of excess mortality risk from all causes combined, all cancers combined, and non-malignant respiratory disease. Also, excluding RSC, we observed no evidence of excess mortality risk from any of the other cause-of-death categories considered. For RSC among the total cohort, we observed a 6% excess (P = 0.05) based on 874 deaths. Among long-term workers (5 or more years of employment) we observed a not statistically significant 3% excess based on 496 deaths. Among the total cohort, we observed increases in RSC SMRs with calendar time and time since first employment, but these were less pronounced among long-term workers. RSC SMRs were not related to duration of employment among the total cohort or long-term workers. In an externally controlled analysis of male workers at risk between 1970 and 1992, we observed no association between RSC SMRs and increasing exposure to respirable FG. Our findings to date from internal comparisons based on rate ratios in the case-control study of RSC were limited to analyses of categorized study variables with and without adjustment for smoking. On the basis of these analyses, the duration of exposure and cumulative exposure to respirable FG at the levels encountered at the study plants did not appear to be associated with an increased risk of RSC. RSC risk also did not seem to increase with time since first employment. There is some evidence of elevated RSC risk associated with non-baseline levels of average intensity of exposure to respirable glass, but when adjusted for smoking this was not statistically significant, and there was no apparent trend with increasing exposure. This same pattern of findings was observed for duration of exposure, cumulative exposure, and average intensity of exposure to formaldehyde. None of the other individual co-exposures encountered in the study plants appeared to be associated with an increased risk of RSC. The primary focus of ongoing analyses is to determine the extent to which our present findings are robust to alternative characterizations of exposure. PMID:11561358

Marsh, G M; Youk, A O; Stone, R A; Buchanich, J M; Gula, M J; Smith, T J; Quinn, M M

2001-09-01

403

Risk of moderate to advanced kidney disease in patients with psoriasis: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine the risk of chronic kidney disease in patients with psoriasis. Design Population based cohort study and nested cross sectional study. Setting Electronic medical records database based in United Kingdom. Participants Cohort study: patients with psoriasis aged 18-90 each matched to up to five patients without psoriasis based on age, practice, and time of visit. Nested study: patients with psoriasis aged 25-64 with confirmed data on psoriasis severity, each matched to up to 10 patients without psoriasis based on age and practice. Main outcome measures Cohort study: incident moderate to advanced (stage 3 through 5) chronic kidney disease. Nested study: baseline prevalence of chronic kidney disease. Results 136?529 patients with mild psoriasis and 7354 patients with severe psoriasis based on treatment patterns were matched to 689?702 unaffected patients. The adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) for incident chronic kidney disease were 1.05 (1.02 to 1.07), 0.99 (0.97 to 1.02), and 1.93 (1.79 to 2.08) in the overall, mild, and severe psoriasis groups, respectively. Age was a significant effect modifier in the severe psoriasis group, with age specific adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 3.82 (3.15 to 4.64) and 2.00 (1.86 to 2.17) for patients aged 30 and 60, respectively. In the nested analysis of 8731 patients with psoriasis with measurements of affected body surface area matched to 87?310 patients without psoriasis, the adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for chronic kidney disease were 0.89 (0.72 to 1.10), 1.36 (1.06 to 1.74), and 1.58 (1.07 to 2.34) in the mild, moderate, and severe psoriasis groups, respectively. Conclusions Moderate to severe psoriasis is associated with an increased risk of chronic kidney disease independent of traditional risk factors. PMID:24129480

2013-01-01

404

VTE Risk assessment - a prognostic Model: BATER Cohort Study of young women.  

PubMed

BACKGROUND: Community-based cohort studies are not available that evaluated the predictive power of both clinical and genetic risk factors for venous thromboembolism (VTE). There is, however, clinical need to forecast the likelihood of future occurrence of VTE, at least qualitatively, to support decisions about intensity of diagnostic or preventive measures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 10-year observation period of the Bavarian Thromboembolic Risk (BATER) study, a cohort study of 4337 women (18-55 years), was used to develop a predictive model of VTE based on clinical and genetic variables at baseline (1993). The objective was to prepare a probabilistic scheme that discriminates women with virtually no VTE risk from those at higher levels of absolute VTE risk in the foreseeable future. A multivariate analysis determined which variables at baseline were the best predictors of a future VTE event, provided a ranking according to the predictive power, and permitted to design a simple graphic scheme to assess the individual VTE risk using five predictor variables. RESULTS: Thirty-four new confirmed VTEs occurred during the observation period of over 32,000 women-years (WYs). A model was developed mainly based on clinical information (personal history of previous VTE and family history of VTE, age, BMI) and one composite genetic risk markers (combining Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation). Four levels of increasing VTE risk were arbitrarily defined to map the prevalence in the study population: No/low risk of VTE (61.3%), moderate risk (21.1%), high risk (6.0%), very high risk of future VTE (0.9%). In 10.6% of the population the risk assessment was not possible due to lacking VTE cases. The average incidence rates for VTE in these four levels were: 4.1, 12.3, 47.2, and 170.5 per 104 WYs for no, moderate, high, and very high risk, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our prognostic tool - containing clinical information (and if available also genetic data) - seems to be worthwhile testing in medical practice in order to confirm or refute the positive findings of this study. Our cohort study will be continued to include more VTE cases and to increase predictive value of the model. PMID:15836797

Heinemann, Lothar Aj; Dominh, Thai; Assmann, Anita; Schramm, Wolfgang; Schürmann, Rolf; Hilpert, Jan; Spannagl, Michael

2005-04-18

405

Four-Year Incidence of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Spanish Cohort: The MADIABETES Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the incidence of diabetic retinopathy in patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, to identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of retinopathy and to develop a risk table to predict four-year retinopathy risk stratification for clinical use, from a four-year cohort study. Design The MADIABETES Study is a prospective cohort study of 3,443 outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, sampled from 56 primary health care centers (131 general practitioners) in Madrid (Spain). Results The cumulative incidence of retinopathy at four-year follow-up was 8.07% (95% CI?=?7.04–9.22) and the incidence density was 2.03 (95% CI?=?1.75–2.33) cases per 1000 patient-months or 2.43 (95% CI?=?2.10–2.80) cases per 100 patient-years. The highest adjusted hazard ratios of associated risk factors for incidence of diabetic retinopathy were LDL-C >190 mg/dl (HR?=?7.91; 95% CI?=?3.39–18.47), duration of diabetes longer than 22 years (HR?=?2.00; 95% CI?=?1.18–3.39), HbA1c>8% (HR?=?1.90; 95% CI?=?1.30–2.77), and aspirin use (HR?=?1.65; 95% CI?=?1.22–2.24). Microalbuminuria (HR?=?1.17; 95% CI?=?0.75–1.82) and being female (HR?=?1.12; 95% CI?=?0.84–1.49) showed a non-significant increase of diabetic retinopathy. The greatest risk is observed in females who had diabetes for more than 22 years, with microalbuminuria, HbA1c>8%, hypertension, LDL-Cholesterol >190 mg/dl and aspirin use. Conclusions After a four-year follow-up, the cumulative incidence of retinopathy was relatively low in comparison with other studies. Higher baseline HbA1c, aspirin use, higher LDL-Cholesterol levels, and longer duration of diabetes were the only statistically significant risk factors found for diabetic retinopathy incidence. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between aspirin use and diabetic retinopathy risk in a well-defined cohort of patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at low risk of cardiovascular events. However, further studies with patients at high cardiovascular and metabolic risk are needed to clarify this issue. PMID:24146865

Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á.; San Andrés-Rebollo, Francisco Javier; de Burgos-Lunar, Carmen; Arrieta-Blanco, Francisco Jesús; Gómez-Campelo, Paloma

2013-01-01

406

Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study  

PubMed Central

Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

2013-01-01