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1

Attribution of physical complaints to the air disaster in Amsterdam by exposed rescue workers: an epidemiological study using historic cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into a residential area of Amsterdam. A troublesome aftermath followed, with rumors on potential toxic exposures and health consequences. Health concerns remained even though no excess morbidity was predicted in retrospective risk evaluations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the rescue workers attribute long-term physical complaints to this disaster, including its

Pauline Slottje; Nynke Smidt; Jos WR Twisk; Anja C Huizink; Anke B Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2006-01-01

2

Optimizing patient care and research: the Amsterdam Dementia Cohort.  

PubMed

Since its opening in 2000, patient care and research go hand in hand at the Alzheimer center of the VU University Medical Center, both organized in such a way that they mutually strengthen each other. Our mission is to give patients a voice by lifting the stigma on dementia, to find new diagnostic and treatment strategies, and, ultimately, to cure diseases that cause dementia. Our healthcare pathway is uniquely designed to accommodate all necessary investigations for the diagnostic work-up of dementia in one day (one-stop shop). A second unique feature is that research has been fully integrated in the healthcare pathway. The resulting Amsterdam Dementia Cohort now includes over 4000 patients, and for the majority of these, we have MRI, EEG, blood (serum, plasma), DNA, and CSF available. The Amsterdam Dementia Cohort forms the basis of much of our research, which focuses on four major research lines: 1) variability in manifestation, 2) early diagnosis, 3) vascular factors, and 4) interventions. By answering research questions closely related to clinical practice, the results of our research can be looped back to improve clinical work-up for our patients. PMID:24614907

van der Flier, Wiesje M; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L; Prins, Niels; Lemstra, Afina W; Bouwman, Femke H; Teunissen, Charlotte E; van Berckel, Bart N M; Stam, Cornelis J; Barkhof, Frederik; Visser, Pieter Jelle; van Egmond, Evan; Scheltens, Philip

2014-01-01

3

Urinary uranium and kidney function parameters in professional assistance workers in the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess long-term health effects in professional assistance workers involved in the 1992 air disaster in Amsterdam. As part of ESADA indications of nephrotoxicity due to exposure to uranium from the balance weights of the crashed aircraft were assessed. Methods. Data of a historically defined cohort of 2499 (exposed and

Joost A. Bijlsma; Pauline Slottje; Anja C. Huizink; Jos W. R. Twisk; Voet van der G. B; Wolff de F. A; F. Vanhaecke; L. Moens

2008-01-01

4

Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term

Pauline Slottje; Anja C Huizink; Jos WR Twisk; Anke B Witteveen; Henk M van der Ploeg; Inge Bramsen; Nynke Smidt; Joost A Bijlsma; Lex M Bouter; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2005-01-01

5

Shanghai Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Cohort Study consists of 18,244 men in Shanghai, China, assembled during 1986-1989 when subjects were between the ages of 45 and 64 years. At recruitment, all cohort members provided detailed dietary and medical histories as well as blood and urine specimens. In the follow-up of 2000-2001, buccal cells were collected from 13,815 original cohort participants (92% of all surviving cohort members).

6

Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study is a longitudinal study established in the 1990s by Cancer Council Victoria to investigate prospectively the role of diet and other lifestyle factors in cancer.

7

Cohort Profile Update: The GAZEL Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The original GAZEL cohort was composed of 20?625 employees of the French national gas and electricity companies (15?011 male employees then aged 40 to 50 years and 5614 women between 35 and 50 years old) at its inception in 1989. A Cohort Profile article was published in 2007. By the end of 2013, participants were aged 60-75, and almost all of them retired during follow-up. Accordingly, the main focus of research in the past decade was devoted to the study of the persistent, long-term effects of occupational exposures after retirement; of the transition between professionally active life and retirement; and on determinants of early ageing. Accordingly, in addition to the health, behavioural and social data collected yearly since the beginning of the follow-up, new data were thus collected on cognitive complaints, cognitive and physical functioning, limitations in daily activities, time use and social relationships of retirees. This update presents the main findings of research within the GAZEL Cohort Study during the past 7 years. Any research group, in France or elsewhere, can submit a research proposal to work on the GAZEL cohort. To do this, interested researchers should contact one of the principal investigators of the GAZEL Cohort Study. PMID:25422284

Goldberg, Marcel; Leclerc, Annette; Zins, Marie

2014-11-23

8

Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers. PMID:15921536

Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

2005-01-01

9

Elevated C-reactive protein is associated with lower increase in knee muscle strength in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a 2-year follow-up study in the Amsterdam Osteoarthritis (AMS-OA) cohort  

PubMed Central

Introduction The aim of this study was to examine the associations of elevated serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) with change in muscle strength in patients with established knee osteoarthritis (OA), at 2 years. Methods Data from 186 patients with knee OA were gathered at baseline and at 2-year follow-up. CRP (in milligrams per liter) and ESR (in millimeters per hour) were measured in serum from patients’ blood. Strength of quadriceps and hamstrings muscles was assessed by using an isokinetic dynamometer. The association of inflammatory markers with change in knee muscle strength was analyzed by using uni- and multi-variate linear regression models. Results Patients with elevated CRP values at both baseline and 2-year follow-up exhibited a lower increase in knee muscle strength for a period of 2 years (??=?-0.22; P?=?0.01) compared with the group with non-elevated levels at both times of assessment. The association persisted after adjustment for relevant confounders. Elevated ESR values at both times of assessment were not significantly associated with change in knee muscle strength (??=?-0.05; P?=?0.49). Conclusions Our results indicate that elevated CRP values are related to a lower gain in muscle strength over time in patients with established knee OA. Although the mechanism to explain this relationship is not fully elucidated, these results suggest inflammation as a relevant factor influencing muscle strength in this group of patients. PMID:24928303

2014-01-01

10

Southern Community Cohort Study  

Cancer.gov

The current body of knowledge regarding the etiology and prevention of cancer draws substantially from prospective epidemiologic studies, among which African Americans have been greatly underrepresented.

11

Cohort Profile: The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study.  

PubMed

The Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort study was established to determine pathways through which socioeconomic position affects morbidity and mortality, in particular common subtypes of cancer. Data from seven well-established cohort studies from Denmark were pooled. Combining these cohorts provided a unique opportunity to generate a large study population with long follow-up and sufficient statistical power to develop and apply new methods for quantification of the two basic mechanisms underlying social inequalities in cancer-mediation and interaction. The SIC cohort included 83 006 participants aged 20-98 years at baseline. A wide range of behavioural and biological risk factors such as smoking, physical inactivity, alcohol intake, hormone replacement therapy, body mass index, blood pressure and serum cholesterol were assessed by self-administered questionnaires, physical examinations and blood samples. All participants were followed up in nationwide demographic and healthcare registries. For those interested in collaboration, further details can be obtained by contacting the Steering Committee at the Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen, at inan@sund.ku.dk. PMID:24550248

Nordahl, Helene; Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur; Diderichsen, Finn; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Osler, Merete; Frederiksen, Birgitte Lidegaard; Prescott, Eva; Tjønneland, Anne; Lange, Theis; Keiding, Niels; Andersen, Per Kragh; Andersen, Ingelise

2014-12-01

12

Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01

13

Cohort studies in health sciences librarianship  

PubMed Central

Question: What are the key characteristics of the cohort study design and its varied applications, and how can this research design be utilized in health sciences librarianship? Data Sources: The health, social, behavioral, biological, library, earth, and management sciences literatures were used as sources. Study Selection: All fields except for health sciences librarianship were scanned topically for either well-known or diverse applications of the cohort design. The health sciences library literature available to the author principally for the years 1990 to 2000, supplemented by papers or posters presented at annual meetings of the Medical Library Association. Data Extraction: A narrative review for the health, social, behavioral, biological, earth, and management sciences literatures and a systematic review for health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000, with three exceptions, were conducted. The author conducted principally a manual search of the health sciences librarianship literature for the years 1990 to 2000 as part of this systematic review. Main Results: The cohort design has been applied to answer a wide array of theoretical or practical research questions in the health, social, behavioral, biological, and management sciences. Health sciences librarianship also offers several major applications of the cohort design. Conclusion: The cohort design has great potential for answering research questions in the field of health sciences librarianship, particularly evidence-based librarianship (EBL), although that potential has not been fully explored. PMID:12398244

Eldredge, Jonathan

2002-01-01

14

Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

Shainline, Michael

15

Brucellosis in Qatar: A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, complications and treatment of brucellosis in the State of Qatar. Methods: The medical records of patients in Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar were reviewed from January 2000 to December 2006. History, various socio-demographic features, clinical and biochemical parameters, therapeutic features, and complications were retrospectively collected from the patient database. Results: Around three quarters of the study population were males. History of raw milk consumption and animal contact were seen in 41.7% and 12.5% respectively. The main presenting features of our cohort were fever, chills and sweating (93.1%, 62.5% and 58.3% respectively). Positive antibody titre (>1:160) was detected in 95.8% and positive blood culture was reported in 63.9% of the cohort. Splenomegaly was observed in 19.4%, hepatomegaly in 15.3% and lymphadenopathy in 9.7% of the cases. Approximately half of our patients were treated with a combination of doxycycline and streptomycine and nearly one quarter received doxycycline and rifampicine combination therapy. Conclusions: Brucellosis is an important public health problem worldwide. It is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. It may affect any organ system and can present with a variety of clinical features. Diagnosis of brucellosis requires serological tests with or without blood culture. Treatment with at least two antibiotics for six weeks or more appears to be effective. PMID:25320689

Rahil, Ali Ibrahim; Othman, Muftah; Ibrahim, Walid; Mohamed, Mohamed Yahya

2014-01-01

16

Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study—a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation  

PubMed Central

The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

2014-01-01

17

Cohort profile: The lidA Cohort Study-a German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation.  

PubMed

The lidA Cohort Study (German Cohort Study on Work, Age, Health and Work Participation) was set up to investigate and follow the effects of work and work context on the physical and psychological health of the ageing workforce in Germany and subsequently on work participation. Cohort participants are initially employed people subject to social security contributions and born in either 1959 (n = 2909) or 1965 (n = 3676). They were personally interviewed in their homes in 2011 and will be visited every 3 years. Data collection comprises socio-demographic data, work and private exposures, work ability, work and work participation attitudes, health, health-related behaviour, personality and attitudinal indicators. Employment biographies are assessed using register data. Subjective health reports and physical strength measures are complemented by health insurance claims data, where permission was given. A conceptual framework has been developed for the lidA Cohort Study within which three confirmatory sub-models assess the interdependencies of work and health considering age, gender and socioeconomic status. The first set of the data will be available to the scientific community by 2015. Access will be given by the Research Data Centre of the German Federal Employment Agency at the Institute for Employment Research (http://fdz.iab.de/en.aspx). PMID:24618186

Hasselhorn, Hans Martin; Peter, Richard; Rauch, Angela; Schröder, Helmut; Swart, Enno; Bender, Stefan; du Prel, Jean-Baptist; Ebener, Melanie; March, Stefanie; Trappmann, Mark; Steinwede, Jacob; Müller, Bernd Hans

2014-12-01

18

Relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among Ghanaians in Amsterdam, the Netherlands – the GHAIA study  

PubMed Central

Background Hypertension is highly prevalent among recent sub-Saharan African (SSA) migrants in western countries and some tend to associate their hypertension to psychosocial stress. However data on the relationship between hypertension and psychosocial stress among SSA migrants are rare. We assessed the relationship between psychosocial stress and hypertension among the largest SSA migrant population (Ghanaians) in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Methods Data were obtained from structured interviews along with medical examination among 212 participants from a cross-sectional study: the GHAIA study in 2010 in Amsterdam. Blood pressure was measured with a validated Oscillometric automated digital blood pressure device. Psychosocial stress was assessed by questionnaires on perceived discrimination, depressive symptoms and financial problems. Binary logistic regression was used to study associations between psychosocial stress and hypertension. Results The overall prevalence of hypertension was 54.7%. About two thirds of the study population experienced a moderate (31%) or high (36%) level of discrimination. 20.0% of the participants had mild depressive symptoms, whilst 9% had moderate depressive symptoms. The prevalence of financial stress was 34.8%. The psychosocial stresses we assessed were not significantly associated with hypertension: adjusted odds ratios comparing those with low levels and those with high levels were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.47–2.08) for perceived discrimination, 0.81 (95% CI, 0.26–2.49) for depressive symptoms and 0.71 (95% CI, 0.37–1.36) for financial stress, respectively. Conclusion We did not find evidence for the association between psychosocial stress and hypertension among recent SSA migrants. More efforts are needed to unravel other potential factors that may underlie the high prevalence of hypertension among these populations. PMID:25001592

2014-01-01

19

Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.  

PubMed

Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

Jaul, Efraim

2014-12-01

20

Mortality in young offenders: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To estimate overall and cause specific standardised mortality ratios in young offenders. Design Comparison of mortality data in cohort of young offenders. Settings State of Victoria, Australia.

Carolyn Coffey; Friederike Veit; Rory Wolfe; Eileen Cini; George C Patton

2003-01-01

21

Cohort profile: golestan hepatitis B cohort study- a prospective long term study in northern iran ?.  

PubMed

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

2014-10-01

22

Cohort Profile: Golestan Hepatitis B Cohort Study- A Prospective Long Term Study in Northern Iran ?  

PubMed Central

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common cause of end stage liver disease in Iran and in Golestan province. Large-scale population-based prospective cohort studies with long term follow-up are the method of choice to accurately understand the natural course of HBV infection. To date, several studies of HBV epidemiology, natural history, progression to cirrhosis and association with HCC have been reported from other countries. However, few of these are prospective and fewer still are population-based. Moreover, the underlying molecular mechanisms and immunogenetic determinants of the outcome of HBV infection especially in low and middle income countries remains largely unknown. Therefore, the hepatitis B cohort study (HBCS), nested as part of the Golestan Cohort Study (GCS), Golestan, Iran was established in 2008 with the objective to prospectively investigate the natural course of chronic hepatitis B with reference to its epidemiology, viral/host genetic interactions, clinical features and outcome in the Middle East where genotype D HBV accounts for >90% of infections. In 2008, a baseline measurement of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) was performed on stored serum samples of all GCS participants. A sub-cohort of 3,505 individuals were found to be HBsAg positive and were enrolled in the Golestan HBCS. In 2011, all first degree relatives of HBsAg positive subjects including their children and spouses were invited for HBV serology screening and those who were positive for HBsAg were also included in the Golestan HBCS. PMID:25349681

Poustchi, Hossein; Katoonizadeh, Aezam; Ostovaneh, Mohammad Reza; Moossavi, Shirin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Esmaili, Saeed; Pourshams, Akram; Mohamadkhani, Ashraf; Besharat, Sima; Merat, Shahin; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; George, Jacob; Malekzadeh, Reza

2014-01-01

23

Application of an Interactive Water Simulation Model in urban water management: a case study in Amsterdam.  

PubMed

Water simulation models are available to support decision-makers in urban water management. To use current water simulation models, special expertise is required. Therefore, model information is prepared prior to work sessions, in which decision-makers weigh different solutions. However, this model information quickly becomes outdated when new suggestions for solutions arise and are therefore limited in use. We suggest that new model techniques, i.e. fast and flexible computation algorithms and realistic visualizations, allow this problem to be solved by using simulation models during work sessions. A new Interactive Water Simulation Model was applied for two case study areas in Amsterdam and was used in two workshops. In these workshops, the Interactive Water Simulation Model was positively received. It included non-specialist participants in the process of suggesting and selecting possible solutions and made them part of the accompanying discussions and negotiations. It also provided the opportunity to evaluate and enhance possible solutions more often within the time horizon of a decision-making process. Several preconditions proved to be important for successfully applying the Interactive Water Simulation Model, such as the willingness of the stakeholders to participate and the preparation of different general main solutions that can be used for further iterations during a work session. PMID:25500461

Leskens, J G; Brugnach, M; Hoekstra, A Y

2014-01-01

24

Genetic, clinical and pharmacological determinants of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: rationale and outline of the AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies (ARREST) registry  

PubMed Central

Introduction Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a major public health problem. Recognising the complexity of the underlying causes of OHCA in the community, we aimed to establish the clinical, pharmacological, environmental and genetic factors and their interactions that may cause OHCA. Methods and analysis We set up a large-scale prospective community-based registry (AmsteRdam Resuscitation Studies, ARREST) in which we prospectively include all resuscitation attempts from OHCA in a large study region in the Netherlands in collaboration with Emergency Medical Services. Of all OHCA victims since June 2005, we prospectively collect medical history (through hospital and general practitioner), and current and previous medication use (through community pharmacy). In addition, we include DNA samples from OHCA victims with documented ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation during the resuscitation attempt since July 2007. Various study designs are employed to analyse the data of the ARREST registry, including case–control, cohort, case only and case-cross over designs. Ethics and dissemination We describe the rationale, outline and potential results of the ARREST registry. The design allows for a stable and reliable collection of multiple determinants of OHCA, while assuring that the patient, lay-caregiver or medical professional is not hindered in any way. Such comprehensive data collection is required to unravel the complex basis of OHCA. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at relevant scientific symposia. PMID:25332818

Blom, M T; van Hoeijen, D A; Bardai, A; Berdowski, J; Souverein, P C; De Bruin, M L; Koster, R W; de Boer, A; Tan, H L

2014-01-01

25

Online Travel Purchase Behavior of Generational Cohorts: A Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little is known about the evolutionary purchase behaviors of generational cohorts when it comes to online travel purchase behavior. In this study, change in online travel purchase behavior between early 2000 and late 2004 was examined to distinguish changes among generational cohorts. While significant increases in travel purchase behavior were found between the two time periods as a whole, baby

Srikanth Beldona; Khaldoon Nusair; Frederick Demicco

2009-01-01

26

Coffee and Fetal Death: A Cohort Study with Prospective Data  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors conducted a cohort study within the Danish National Birth Cohort to determine whether coffee consumption during pregnancy is associated with late fetal death (spontaneous abortion and stillbirth). A total of 88,482 pregnant women recruited from March 1996 to November 2002 participated in a comprehensive interview on coffee consumption and potentially confounding factors in pregnancy. Information on pregnancy outcome

Bodil Hammer Bech; Ellen Aagaard Nohr; Michael Vaeth; Tine Brink Henriksen; Jørn Olsen

2005-01-01

27

Multidisciplinary integrated Parent and Child Centres in Amsterdam: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs) involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres. Study design A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (n=91). Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals [health care professionals (n=67) and PCC managers n=12)] and PCC-experts (n=12) in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts. Results Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals’ needs dominating clients’ needs. Conclusions Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended. PMID:23882163

Busch, Vincent; Van Stel, Henk François; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Melhuish, Edward; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus

2013-01-01

28

Management of recurrent rectal cancer: A population based study in greater Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

AIM: To analyze, retrospectively in a population-based study, the management and survival of patients with recurrent rectal cancer initially treated with a macroscopically radical resection obtained with total mesorectal excision (TME). METHODS: All rectal carcinomas diagnosed during 1998 to 2000 and initially treated with a macroscopically radical resection (632 patients) were selected from the Amsterdam Cancer Registry. For patients with recurrent disease, information on treatment of the recurrence was collected from the medical records. RESULTS: Local recurrence with or without clinically apparent distant dissemination occurred in 62 patients (10%). Thirty-two patients had an isolated local recurrence. Ten of these 32 patients (31%) underwent radical re-resection and experienced the highest survival (three quarters survived for at least 3 years). Eight patients (25%) underwent non-radical surgery (median survival 24 mo), seven patients (22%) were treated with radio- and/or chemotherapy without surgery (median survival 15 mo) and seven patients (22%) only received best supportive care (median survival 5 mo). Distant dissemination occurred in 124 patients (20%) of whom 30 patients also had a local recurrence. The majority (54%) of these patients were treated with radio- and/or chemotherapy without surgery (median survival 15 mo). Twenty-seven percent of these patients only received best supportive care (median survival 6 mo), while 16% underwent surgery for their recurrence. Survival was best in the latter group (median survival 32 mo). CONCLUSION: Although treatment options and survival are limited in case of recurrent rectal cancer after radical local resection obtained with TME, patients can benefit from additional treatment, especially if a radical resection is feasible. PMID:18932280

Bakx, Roel; Visser, Otto; Josso, Judith; Meijer, Sybren; Slors, J Frederik M; van Lanschot, J Jan B

2008-01-01

29

75 FR 9902 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort Study...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), the National Institutes...Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and...

2010-03-04

30

Returning findings within longitudinal cohort studies: the 1958 birth cohort as an exemplar  

PubMed Central

Population-based, prospective longitudinal cohort studies are considering the issues surrounding returning findings to individuals as a result of genomic and other medical research studies. While guidance is being developed for clinical settings, the process is less clear for those conducting longitudinal research. This paper discusses work conducted on behalf of The UK Cohort and Longitudinal Study Enhancement Resource programme (CLOSER) to examine consent requirements, process considerations and specific examples of potential findings in the context of the 1958 British Birth cohort. Beyond deciding which findings to return, there are questions of whether re-consent is needed and the possible impact on the study, how the feedback process will be managed, and what resources are needed to support that process. Recommendations are made for actions a cohort study should consider taking when making vital decisions regarding returning findings. Any decisions need to be context-specific, arrived at transparently, communicated clearly, and in the best interests of both the participants and the study. PMID:25126104

2014-01-01

31

Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.  

PubMed

Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking. PMID:24749879

Starkbaum, Johannes; Gottweis, Herbert; Gottweis, Ursula; Kleiser, Christina; Linseisen, Jakob; Meisinger, Christa; Kamtsiuris, Panagiotis; Moebus, Susanne; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Börm, Sonja; Wichmann, H-Erich

2014-04-01

32

Rijksmuseum Amsterdam  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Rijksmuseum Museum is in Amsterdam and their elegant website has many multimedia features of note. Visitors should definitely start by going to "The Masterpieces of the Rijksmuseum" link. Once there, visitors can view the Masterpieces of the Golden Age in several different ways, such as on a "Timeline", via a 3D interactive panorama of the Philips Wing (QuickTime is required) or through an online presentation. The online presentation offers visitors a "Golden Age Quiz", zoomable artworks in the "Look Closer" tab, and an audio tour of an exquisite 17th century "Dollhouse" commissioned by the wife of a wealthy silk merchant. The "Restoration" link in the "Collection" tab provides those visitors interested in the process of restoring and conserving with a look at six artworks that are to be ready for the 2013 opening of the new Rijksmuseum. The works include a Vermeer, two portraits by MattheusVerheyden, and a silver table ornament from 1549 by Jamnitzer. Visitors who are visually impaired can also listen to any of the webpages read by a digitized voice.

33

Southern community cohort study: establishing a cohort to investigate health disparities.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate the methods of recruitment of a low-income, predominantly African-American study population for the Southern Community Cohort Study (SCCS), a prospective epidemiologic investigation of racial disparities in cancer risk. METHODS: Partnerships with community health centers (CHCs) were formed to reach underserved populations throughout the south. Recruitment of participants (aged 40-79) in CHCs began in March 2002. Participants complete a comprehensive baseline interview and provide a blood or buccal cell sample. Recruitment will expand to the general population of the south to achieve a broad cross-section of socioeconomic status, The final cohort size is expected to be approximately 100,000. RESULTS: A high level of cooperation and recruitment was achieved in the CHCs. From March 2002 to October 2004, 32,632 participants (80% black, 41% male, 62% with total household income < $15,000, 34% with < 12 years schooling) enrolled. Participants reported a high prevalence of medical conditions (21% diabetic, 44% obese) and adverse health behaviors (45% current smokers). CONCLUSIONS: Working in CHCs is successful for recruiting a population that has been difficult to reach in previous studies. The SCCS is a unique cohort that will provide a rich resource for evaluating disparities in cancer and other chronic disease risk as it is followed over time. PMID:16080667

Signorello, Lisa B.; Hargreaves, Margaret K.; Steinwandel, Mark D.; Zheng, Wei; Cai, Qiuyin; Schlundt, David G.; Buchowski, Maciej S.; Arnold, Carolyne W.; McLaughlin, Joseph K.; Blot, William J.

2005-01-01

34

Cohort Profile: Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans (SABPA) prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Adapting to an over-demanding stressful urban environment may exhaust the psychophysiological resources to cope with these demands, and lead to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The evidence that an urban-dwelling lifestyle may be detrimental to the cardiometabolic health of Africans motivated the design of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in African Prospective cohort study. We aimed to determine neural mechanistic pathways involved in emotional distress and vascular remodelling. The baseline sample included 409 teachers representing a bi-ethnic sex cohort from South Africa. The study was conducted in 2008-09 and repeated after 3-year follow-up in 2011-12, with an 87.8% successful follow-up rate. Seasonal changes were avoided and extensive clinical assessments were performed in a well-controlled setting. Data collection included sociodemographics, lifestyle habits, psychosocial battery and genetic analysis, mental stress responses mimicking daily life stress (blood pressure and haemostatic, cardiometabolic, endothelial and stress hormones). Target organ damage was assessed in the brain, heart, kidney, blood vessels and retina. A unique highly phenotyped cohort is presented that can address the role of a hyperactive sympathetic nervous system and neural response pathways contributing to the burden of cardiometabolic diseases in Africans. PMID:25344943

Malan, Leoné; Hamer, Mark; Frasure-Smith, Nancy; Steyn, Hendrik S; Malan, Nicolaas T

2014-10-24

35

Associations between Safety from Crime, Cycling, and Obesity in a Dutch Elderly Population: Results from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

The objective of this cross-sectional study was to investigate differences in associations between crime rates, cycling, and weight status between people living in low and high socioeconomic status (SES) neighbourhoods. In total, 470 participants in the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were included (age: 63–70?y). Body height and weight were measured using a stadiometer and calibrated weight scale, respectively. Cycling behaviour was assessed in a face-to-face interview, and neighbourhood crime rates were assessed using data from police reports. Men residing in high SES neighbourhoods cycled more than males residing in low SES neighbourhoods. Cycling was negatively related to crime rates among both men and women living in low SES neighbourhoods. Among men living in low SES neighbourhoods, more cycling was associated with lower BMI. Interventions aiming to prevent obesity in older people may consider aiming at increasing bicycle use in lower SES neighbourhoods, but neighbourhood safety issues should be considered. PMID:22523503

Kremers, Stef P. J.; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Visscher, Tommy L. S.; Deeg, Dorly J. H.; Thomése, G. C. Fleur; Visser, Marjolein; van Mechelen, Willem; Brug, Johannes

2012-01-01

36

Cohort profile: the international collaboration of incident HIV and hepatitis C in injecting cohorts (InC3) study.  

PubMed

The International Collaboration of Incident HIV and Hepatitis C in Injecting Cohorts (InC(3)) Study is an international multi-cohort project of pooled biological and behavioural data from nine prospective cohorts of people who inject drugs (PWID). InC(3) brings together researchers from Australia, Canada, USA and the Netherlands with expertise in epidemiology, biostatistics, clinical and behavioural sciences, virology and immunology to investigate research questions relevant to hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV outcomes. InC(3) was established to: (i) create a merged multi-cohort study of pooled data from well-characterized cohorts of PWID with prospective data on HIV and HCV infections, with a particular focus on HCV; (ii) facilitate new studies not possible within individual cohorts; and (iii) bring together researchers across disciplines to answer a broad range of research questions. Study cohorts identify acute HCV cases through follow-up of high-risk HCV antibody-negative PWID or through clinical referral networks. To date, data from 1986 to 2010 have been received from all contributing cohorts, with 821 HCV-infected and 1216 HCV-uninfected participants (overall, n = 2037). Data collected include demographics, host genetics, HCV ribonucleic acid testing, alanine aminotransferase testing, HIV/hepatitis B virus testing, HCV therapy, loss to follow-up and mortality. Potential collaborators should contact the InC(3) PI Dr Kimberley Page (kPage@psg.ucsf.edu) for further information. PMID:23203695

Grebely, Jason; Morris, Meghan D; Rice, Thomas M; Bruneau, Julie; Cox, Andrea L; Kim, Arthur Y; McGovern, Barbara H; Shoukry, Naglaa H; Lauer, Georg; Maher, Lisa; Lloyd, Andrew R; Hellard, Margaret; Prins, Maria; Dore, Gregory J; Page, Kimberly

2013-12-01

37

The betula prospective cohort study: Memory, health, and aging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this article is to present an overview of a prospective cohort study involving a total of 3,000 subjects whose ages were 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, and 80 years when first tested. the design of the study includes three waves of data collection. the first of these waves was conducted in 1988-1990, the

Lars-GÖRan Nilsson; Lars BÄCkman; Karin Erngrund; Lars Nyberg; Rolf Adolfsson; GÖSta Bucht; Stig Karlsson; Maud Widing; Bengt Winblad

1997-01-01

38

Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

At entry to the cohort study, each participant completed a 26-page mail questionnaire that included an extensive quantitative diet history, as well as other demographic, medical, and lifestyle information. Multiple 24-hour diet recalls were collected on more than 2,000 of the participants in a calibration study designed to permit correction of nutrient intake estimates for measurement error.

39

Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether cannabis use in adolescence predisposes to higher rates of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. Design Seven wave cohort study over six years. Setting 44 schools in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants A statewide secondary school sample of 1601 students aged 14›15 followed for seven years. Main outcome measure Interview measure of depression and anxiety

George C Patton; Carolyn Coffey; John B Carlin; Louisa Degenhardt; Michael Lynskey; Wayne Hall

2002-01-01

40

Onset of obesity in a 36 year birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large national cohort of children studied from birth to 36 years was used to test the predictive value of childhood obesity for obesity in adult life. Only 21% (39) of obese 36 year olds had been obese at age 11 years, and even when associated social factors were taken into account the correctly predicted percentage was much lower than

F E Braddon; B Rodgers; M E Wadsworth; J M Davies

1986-01-01

41

78 FR 23942 - Proposed Collection; 60-Day Comment Request: The Agricultural Health Study: A Prospective Cohort...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and Women...data collection projects, the National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes...Study: A Prospective Cohort Study of Cancer and Other Disease Among Men and...

2013-04-23

42

Interactive visual analysis of heterogeneous cohort-study data.  

PubMed

Medical cohort studies enable the study of medical hypotheses with many samples. Often, these studies acquire a large amount of heterogeneous data from many subjects. Usually, researchers study a specific data subset to confirm or reject specific hypotheses. A new approach enables the interactive visual exploration and analysis of such data, helping to generate and validate hypotheses. A data-cube-based model handles partially overlapping data subsets during the interactive visualization. This model enables seamless integration of the heterogeneous data and the linking of spatial and nonspatial views of the data. Researchers implemented this model in a prototype application and used it to analyze data acquired in a cohort study on cognitive aging. Case studies employed the prototype to study aspects of brain connectivity, demonstrating the model's potential and flexibility. PMID:25248201

Angelelli, Paolo; Oeltze, Steffen; Haász, Judit; Turkay, Cagatay; Hodneland, Erlend; Lundervold, Arvid; Lundervold, Astri J; Preim, Bernhard; Hauser, Helwig

2014-01-01

43

The Antecedents of Schizophrenia: A Review of Birth Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background: Birth cohort (BC) studies demonstrate that individuals who develop schizophrenia differ from the general population on a range of developmental indices. The aims of this article were to summarize key findings from BC studies in order to identify areas of convergence and to outline areas requiring further research. Method: We define BC studies as studies based on general population BCs where data are collected prospectively from birth or childhood and which identify schizophrenia or related disorders as an outcome. To identify such studies, we searched various electronic databases using the search parameters (schizo* OR psych*) AND (birth cohort). We also checked the references of relevant articles and previous reviews. Results: We identified 11 BCs from 7 countries that have examined schizophrenia as an outcome in adulthood. There is relatively consistent evidence that, as a group, children who later develop schizophrenia have behavioral disturbances and psychopathology, intellectual and language deficits, and early motor delays. Evidence with respect to alterations in language, educational performance, and physical growth has also been identified in some studies. BC studies have also contributed evidence about a wide range of putative risk factors for schizophrenia. Conclusions: BC studies have provided important, convergent insights into how the developmental trajectory of individuals who develop schizophrenia differs from their peers. The combination of new paradigms and larger cohorts, with the tools of modern epidemiology and biomedical science, is advancing our understanding of the developmental pathways to schizophrenia. PMID:18658128

Welham, Joy; Isohanni, Matti; Jones, Peter; McGrath, John

2009-01-01

44

Suicide after Leaving the UK Armed Forces —A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundFew studies have examined suicide risk in individuals once they have left the military. We aimed to investigate the rate, timing, and risk factors for suicide in all those who had left the UK Armed Forces (1996–2005).Methods and FindingsWe carried out a cohort study of ex-Armed Forces personnel by linking national databases of discharged personnel and suicide deaths (which included

Navneet Kapur; David While; Nick Blatchley; Isabelle Bray; Kate Harrison

2009-01-01

45

Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS): protocol for a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Meniscus surgery is a high-volume surgery carried out on 1 million patients annually in the USA. The procedure is conducted on an outpatient basis and the patients leave the hospital a few hours after surgery. A critical oversight of previous studies is their failure to account for the type of meniscal tears. Meniscus tears can be categorised as traumatic or non-traumatic. Traumatic tears (TT) are usually observed in younger, more active individuals in an otherwise ‘healthy’ meniscus and joint. Non-traumatic tears (NTT) (ie, degenerative tears) are typically observed in the middle-aged (35–55?years) and older population but the aetiology is largely unclear. Knowledge about the potential difference of the effect of arthroscopic meniscus surgery on patient symptoms between patients with traumatic and NTT is sparse. Furthermore, little is known about the natural time course of patient perceived pain, function and quality of life after meniscus surgery and factors affecting these outcomes. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the natural time course of patient-reported outcomes in patients undergoing meniscus surgery, with particular emphasis on the role of type of symptom onset. Methods/design This prospective cohort study enrol patients assigned for meniscus surgery. At the baseline (PRE surgery), patient characteristics are assessed using an email-based questionnaire also comprising several validated questionnaires assessing general health, knee-specific characteristics and patient's expectations of the surgery. Follow-up will be conducted at 12 and 52?weeks after meniscus surgery. The major outcomes will be differences in changes, from before to 52?weeks after surgery, in each of the five domains on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) between patients undergoing surgery for traumatic compared with non-traumatic meniscus tears. Dissemination The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01871272. PMID:24127057

Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Christensen, Robin; Nissen, Nis; Jørgensen, Uffe; Schjerning, Jeppe; Pørneki, Jens Christian; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan

2013-01-01

46

Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa  

PubMed Central

Aim In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted to identify birth cohort studies in sub-Saharan Africa across the following databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, AFRO and OpenSIGLE. A total of 8110 papers were retrieved. Application of inclusion/exclusion criteria retained only 189 papers, of which 71 met minimum quality criteria and were retained for full text analysis. Results The search revealed 28 birth cohorts: 14 of which collected biological data, 10 collected blood samples and only one study collected DNA for storage. These studies face many methodological challenges: notably, high rates of attrition and lack of funding for several rounds of study follow up. Population-based ‘biobanks’ have emerged as a major approach to harness genomic technologies in health research and yet the sub-Saharan African region still awaits large scale birth cohort biobanks collecting DNA and associated health and lifestyle data. Conclusion Investment in this field, together with related endeavours to foster and develop research capacity for these studies, may lead to an improved understanding of the determinants of intrauterine growth and development, birth outcomes such as prematurity and low birth weight, the links between maternal and infant health, survival of infectious diseases in the first years of life, and response to vaccines and antibiotic treatment. PMID:23198102

Campbell, Alasdair; Rudan, Igor

2011-01-01

47

Mysid Population Responses to Resource Limitation Differ from those Predicted by Cohort Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...

48

Antioxidant vitamin intake and mortality: the leisure world cohort study.  

PubMed

To assess the relationship between antioxidant vitamin intake and all-cause mortality in older adults, we examined these associations using data from the Leisure World Cohort Study, a prospective study of residents of the Leisure World retirement community in Laguna Hills, California. In the early 1980s, participants (who were aged 44-101 years) completed a postal survey, which included details on use of vitamin supplements and dietary intake of foods containing vitamins A and C. Age-adjusted and multivariate-adjusted (for factors related to mortality in this cohort-smoking, alcohol intake, caffeine consumption, exercise, body mass index, and histories of hypertension, angina, heart attack, stroke, diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer) hazard ratios for death were calculated using Cox regression for 8,640 women and 4,983 men (median age at entry, 74 years). During follow-up (1981-2013), 13,104 participants died (median age at death, 88 years). Neither dietary nor supplemental intake of vitamin A or vitamin C nor supplemental intake of vitamin E was significantly associated with mortality after multivariate adjustment. A compendium that summarizes previous findings of cohort studies evaluating vitamin intake and mortality is provided. Attenuation in the observed associations between mortality and antioxidant vitamin use after adjustment for confounders in our study and in previous studies suggests that such consumption identifies persons with other mortality-associated lifestyle and health risk factors. PMID:25550360

Paganini-Hill, Annlia; Kawas, Claudia H; Corrada, María M

2015-01-15

49

Endometrial cancer and meat consumption: a case-cohort study.  

PubMed

Diet plays an important role in the etiology of certain cancers, but there is limited evidence with regard to the association between diet and risk of endometrial cancer. Few prospective studies have investigated meat intake as a potential determinant of endometrial cancer risk. The objective of this study was to examine the association between endometrial cancer risk and total meat, red meat, processed meat, fish, and poultry intake. We conducted a case-cohort analysis within the Canadian Study of Diet, Lifestyle, and Health, a prospective cohort of 73 909 adults (39 614 women). Participants were recruited from 1992 to 1999, predominantly from three Canadian universities. We conducted a linkage with the Ontario Cancer Registry for the years 1992-2007 for the female cohort members, who resided in Ontario at the time of enrollment (n=26 024), to yield data on cancer incidence. The analytic sample was comprised of 107 incident cases and 1830 subcohort members, the latter being an age-stratified sample of the full cohort. A nonsignificant increase in the risk of endometrial cancer was associated with increased consumption of red meat [hazard ratio (HR)=1.62, 95% confidence intervals (CI)=0.86-3.08, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.13)], processed meat (HR=1.45, 95% CI=0.80-2.61, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.058), and all meat combined (HR=1.50, 95% CI=0.78-2.89, for high vs. low intake; P trend=0.14). No clear patterns were noted for poultry or fish. The results of this study, although based on a limited number of cases, suggest that relatively high meat intake may be associated with increased risk of endometrial cancer. PMID:21422932

van Lonkhuijzen, Luc; Kirsh, Victoria A; Kreiger, Nancy; Rohan, Thomas E

2011-07-01

50

Cohort Profile: The Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition.  

PubMed

Intergenerational longitudinal studies over the lifespan provide valuable information for understanding the contexts and dynamic relations among cognition, family and health in adults and the elderly. The Hawai'i Family Study of Cognition (HFSC), initiated in the early 1970s, included a cohort of over 6500 individuals representing over 1800 families of parents and their offspring. The HFSC gathered data on cognitive, personality, biological and other psychosocial variables, and provided novel information on the nature of cognitive abilities, especially on family issues. Some families were reassessed with short-term retesting in the 1970s. A select sample of offspring and their siblings and spouses were re-measured in the 1980s. Decades later, a 40-year follow-up of the original HFSC cohort was facilitated by the availability of contemporary tracking and tracing methods and internet-based testing. A subgroup of the original HFSC participants was re-contacted and retested on contemporary cognitive as well as socio-demographic and health measures. In this paper, we describe the original HFSC cohort and the design and methodology of the re-contact and retest studies of the HFSC, plans for expanding the re-contact and retesting, as well as directions for future research and collaborations. The Principal Investigator may be contacted for more information regarding the application, review and approval process for data access requests from qualified individuals outside the project. PMID:24639439

Onoye, Jane Mm; Hishinuma, Earl S; McArdle, John J; Zonderman, Alan B; Bumanglag, R Janine; Takeshita, Junji

2014-12-01

51

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters.  

PubMed Central

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess mortality from cancer was seen for persons aged 30 to 74 (standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 173, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 104-270). A significant increase in lung cancer was seen in the group aged 60 to 74 (SMR 317, 95% CI 117-691), whereas non-pulmonary cancer was significantly increased in the group aged 30 to 49 (SMR 575, 95% CI 187-1341). It is concluded that inhalation of carcinogenic and toxic compounds during firefighting may constitute an occupational cancer risk. An extended use of respiratory protective equipment is advocated. PMID:2271386

Hansen, E S

1990-01-01

52

A mortality cohort study in a north Italian aircraft factory.  

PubMed

Mortality in a cohort of 8626 workers employed between 1954 and 1981 in an aircraft manufacturing factory in northern Italy was studied. Total follow up was 132,042 person-years, with 76% accumulated in the age range 15 to 54. Median duration of follow up from the date of first employment was 16 years. Vital status was ascertained for 98.5% of the cohort. Standardised mortality ratios were calculated based on Italian national mortality rates. Altogether 685 deaths occurred (SMR = 85). There was a significant excess of mortality for melanoma (6 cases, SMR = 561). Six deaths certified as due to pleural tumours occurred. No significant excess of mortality was found in specific jobs or work areas. PMID:2818961

Costa, G; Merletti, F; Segnan, N

1989-10-01

53

Analysis of partial and complete protection in malaria cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Malaria transmission is highly heterogeneous and analysis of incidence data must account for this for correct statistical inference. Less widely appreciated is the occurrence of a large number of zero counts (children without a malaria episode) in malaria cohort studies. Zero-inflated regression methods provide one means of addressing this issue, and also allow risk factors providing complete and partial protection to be disentangled. Methods Poisson, negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP) and zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression models were fitted to data from two cohort studies of malaria in children in Ghana. Multivariate models were used to understand risk factors for elevated incidence of malaria and for remaining malaria-free, and to estimate the fraction of the population not at risk of malaria. Results ZINB models, which account for both heterogeneity in individual risk and an unexposed sub-group within the population, provided the best fit to data in both cohorts. These approaches gave additional insight into the mechanism of factors influencing the incidence of malaria compared to simpler approaches, such as NB regression. For example, compared to urban areas, rural residence was found to both increase the incidence rate of malaria among exposed children, and increase the probability of being exposed. In Navrongo, 34% of urban residents were estimated to be at no risk, compared to 3% of rural residents. In Kintampo, 47% of urban residents and 13% of rural residents were estimated to be at no risk. Conclusion These results illustrate the utility of zero-inflated regression methods for analysis of malaria cohort data that include a large number of zero counts. Specifically, these results suggest that interventions that reach mainly urban residents will have limited overall impact, since some urban residents are essentially at no risk, even in areas of high endemicity, such as in Ghana. PMID:24093726

2013-01-01

54

Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study  

E-print Network

Several anthropometric measurements and breast cancer risk: results of the E3N cohort study between various anthropometric characteristics and breast cancer. Design: Longitudinal prospective cohort.87) might possibly be confined to obese women. Among postmenopausal women, all anthropometric measurements

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

55

Cohort Profile: The Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis (JPOS) Cohort Study was launched in 1996 to produce a reference database of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and bone turnover markers in the Japanese female population and to determine risk factors for osteoporotic fractures. At baseline, 3984 women aged 15 to 79 years were randomly selected to provide representative bone status data and aBMD values for the diagnosis of osteoporosis. Follow-up surveys were conducted in 1999, 2002, 2006 and 2011/12 to determine changes in aBMD and identify incident morphometry-confirmed vertebral fractures and clinical fractures. These outcomes were obtained from 2174 women who participated in at least one follow-up survey. JPOS is a unique resource of individual-level bone health information with radiological and biological archives that include DXA images, and serum, plasma and DNA for future analyses with emerging radiological and biological techniques. The JPOS dataset is not freely available, but new collaborations are encouraged. Potential collaborators are invited to contact the Secretary General (M.I.) at the administrative office of the JPOS Study Group. PMID:24872224

Iki, Masayuki; Tamaki, Junko; Sato, Yuho; Morita, Akemi; Ikeda, Yukihiro; Kajita, Etsuko; Nishino, Harumi; Akiba, Takashi; Matsumoto, Toshio; Kagamimori, Sadanobu; Kagawa, Yoshiko; Yoneshima, Hideo; Matsukura, Tomoharu; Yamagami, Takashi; Kitagawa, Jun

2014-05-28

56

Nested Cohort  

Cancer.gov

NestedCohort is an R software package for fitting Kaplan-Meier and Cox Models to estimate standardized survival and attributable risks for studies where covariates of interest are observed on only a sample of the cohort.

57

Cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the cost-effectiveness of infertility treatments.Design: Retrospective cohort study.Setting: Academic medical center infertility practice.Patient(s): All patients treated for infertility in a 1-year time span.Intervention(s): Intrauterine inseminations, clomiphene citrate and IUI (CC-IUI), hMG and IUI (hMG-IUI), assisted reproductive techniques (ART), and neosalpingostomy by laparotomy.Main Outcome Measure(s): All medical charges and pregnancy outcomes associated with the treatments were obtained. Cost-effectiveness

Bradley J. Van Voorhis; Amy E. T. Sparks; Brian D. Allen; Dale W. Stovall; Craig H. Syrop; F. K. Chapler

1997-01-01

58

Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS): Cohort Study of Cancer- Inhibitory Factors in Men  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.

59

A cohort study on mortality and exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls  

SciTech Connect

In 1979, an outbreak of food poisoning ({open_quotes}Yu-Cheng{close_quotes}) occurred in Central Taiwan, ROC, involving more than 2000 people. The event was caused by ingestion of rice oil contaminated with polychlorinated derivatives of biphenyls, dibenzofurans, and quaterphenyls. A retrospective cohort study on mortality was undertaken, and possible long-term health effects in the affected individuals were studied. The mortality experience of 1940 victims (929 males, 1011 females) between 1980 and 1991 was compared with the expected numbers, which were calculated from national and local mortality rates. By the end of 1991, 102 deaths were identified, thus producing a standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of overall mortality of 0.99 for males and 1.34 for females. Total cancer mortality was lower than in each comparison group. Mortality from liver diseases was elevated significantly (SMR = 3.22), especially during the first 3 y after the food-poisoning event (SMR = 10.76). Increased clinical severity of polychlorinated biphenyl intoxication was associated with increased mortality from all causes and from liver diseases. In summary, there was a positive association between mortality and intoxication dose, and severe polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning acutely affected mainly the liver. A continued follow-up of this cohort would be valuable in the study of long-term health effects of polychlorinated biphenyl poisoning. 32 refs., 7 tabs.

Hsieh, Shu-Feng; Yen, Yea-Yin; Lan, Shou-Jen [Kaohsiung Medical College, Kaohsiung City (Taiwan, Province of China)] [and others

1996-11-01

60

Shanghai Women's Health Study (SWHS): Cancer Risk Reduction and Diet - A Cohort Study of Women  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) is a population-based cohort study of approximately 75,000 Chinese women who were recruited between 1997 and 2000 and have been followed through multiple in-person follow-up surveys and record linkages. Over the years, data and biological samples collected in the SWHS have been used to evaluate many important etiologic hypotheses and support multiple studies, including several NCI-sponsored cohort consortium projects.

61

Pregnancy outcomes in marfan syndrome: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Objective?Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a rare connective tissue disease with significant risk for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Our objective was to evaluate pregnancy and cardiovascular outcomes in pregnant women with MFS. Study Design?We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Nationwide Inpatient Sample (HCUP NIS) database from 2003 to 2010. We used unconditional regression analyses to compare maternal and fetal outcomes among pregnancies in women with and without MFS. Results?Out of the 7,094,400 births in our cohort, 339 deliveries were to women with MFS. There was one maternal death and six aortic dissections among women with MFS. Births to women with MFS were more likely to be premature, odds ratio (OR) 2.15 (1.60-2.89), have intrauterine growth restricted and small for gestational age infants, OR 2.06 (1.24-3.43). Women with MFS were more likely to deliver by cesarean section, OR 1.91 (1.53-2.38) and were at higher risk of major morbidities including cardiac arrhythmias, OR 10.64 (5.49-20.61) and pneumothorax, OR 51.95 (6.18, 437.10). Conclusion?Pregnant women with MFS are at a particularly high risk of adverse pregnancy and cardiovascular events. Preconception counseling should take these risks into consideration and appropriate pregnancy care in tertiary centers should be considered. PMID:24896139

Hassan, Noura; Patenaude, Valerie; Oddy, Lisa; Abenhaim, Haim A

2015-02-01

62

Personality and cancer survival: the Miyagi cohort study  

PubMed Central

We tested the hypothesis that personality plays a role in cancer outcome in a population-based prospective cohort study in Japan. In July 1990, 41?442 residents of Japan completed a short form of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-Revised and a questionnaire on various health habits, and between January 1993 and December 1997, 890 incident cases of cancer were identified among them. These 890 cases were followed up until March 2001, and a total of 356 deaths from all causes was identified among them. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of death according to four score levels on each of four personality subscales (extraversion, neuroticism, psychoticism, and lie), with adjustment for potential confounding factors. Multivariable HRs of deaths from all causes for individuals in the highest score level on each personality subscale compared with those at the lowest level were 1.0 for extraversion (95% CI=0.8–1.4; Trend P=0.73), 1.1 for neuroticism (0.8–1.6; Trend P=0.24), 1.2 for psychoticism (0.9–1.6; Trend P=0.29), and 1.0 for lie (0.7–1.5; Trend P=0.90). The data obtained in this population-based prospective cohort study in Japan do not support the hypothesis that personality is associated with cancer survival. PMID:15900301

Nakaya, N; Tsubono, Y; Nishino, Y; Hosokawa, T; Fukudo, S; Shibuya, D; Akizuki, N; Yoshikawa, E; Kobayakawa, M; Fujimori, M; Saito-Nakaya, K; Uchitomi, Y; Tsuji, I

2005-01-01

63

Low prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus among men who have sex with men attending an STI clinic in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Objective Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) is common among men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA. It is unknown whether this is also the case in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Sexually transmitted infection outpatient low-threshold clinic, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Participants Between October 2008 and April 2010, a total of 211 men were included, in two groups: (1) 74 MSM with clinical signs of a skin or soft tissue infection (symptomatic group) and (2) 137 MSM without clinical signs of such infections (asymptomatic group). Primary outcome measures S aureus and MRSA infection and/or colonisation. Swabs were collected from the anterior nasal cavity, throat, perineum, penile glans and, if present, from infected skin lesions. Culture for S aureus was carried out on blood agar plates and for MRSA on selective chromagar plates after enrichment in broth. If MRSA was found, the spa-gene was sequenced. Secondary outcome measures Associated demographic characteristics, medical history, risk factors for colonisation with S aureus and high-risk sexual behaviour were collected through a self-completed questionnaire. Results The prevalence of S aureus colonisation in the nares was 37%, the pharynx 11%, the perianal region 12%, the glans penis 10% and in skin lesions 40%. In multivariable analysis adjusting for age, anogenital S aureus colonisation was significantly associated with the symptomatic group (p=0.01) and marginally with HIV (p=0.06). MRSA was diagnosed in two cases: prevalence 0.9% (95% CI 0.1% to 3.4%)). Neither had CA-MRSA strains. Conclusions CA-MRSA among MSM in Amsterdam is rare. Genital colonisation of S aureus is not associated with high-risk sexual behaviour. PMID:23468471

Joore, I K C W; van Rooijen, Martijn Sebastiaan; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten Franciscus; de Neeling, A J; van Dam, Alje; de Vries, Henry J C

2013-01-01

64

Spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities: a cohort study in hungary.  

PubMed

The spectrum of neurodevelopmental disabilities was studied in a cohort of patients in Hungary. A search for etiologies and assessment of the degree of intellectual disability were carried out. The study included 241 (131 boys) patients. Disability occurred without any prenatal, perinatal, and/or neonatal adverse events in 167 patients. They were classified into the following subgroups: genetic syndromes with recognized etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability in association with dysmorphic features but unknown etiology, global developmental delay/intellectual disability without dysmorphic features and recognized etiology, brain malformations, inborn errors of metabolism, leukoencephalopathies, epileptic syndromes, developmental language impairment, and neuromuscular disorders. Adverse events occurred in 74 children classified into subgroups such as cerebral palsy after delivery preterm or at term, and disabilities without cerebral palsy. The etiology was identified in 66.4%, and genetic diagnosis was found in 19.5%. Classification of neurodevelopmental disorders contribute to etiological diagnosis, proper rehabilitation, and genetic counseling. PMID:24868008

Gergev, Gyurgyinka; Máté, Adrienn; Zimmermann, Alíz; Rárosi, Ferenc; Sztriha, László

2015-03-01

65

Weight at Birth and Subsequent Fecundability: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the association between a woman's birth weight and her subsequent fecundability. Method In this prospective cohort study, we included 2,773 Danish pregnancy planners enrolled in the internet-based cohort study “Snart-Gravid”, conducted during 2007–2012. Participants were 18–40 years old at study entry, attempting to conceive, and were not receiving fertility treatment. Data on weight at birth were obtained from the Danish Medical Birth Registry and categorized as <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, 3,000–3,999 grams, and ?4,000 grams. In additional analyses, birth weight was categorized according to z-scores for each gestational week at birth. Time-to-pregnancy measured in cycles was used to compute fecundability ratios (FR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI), using a proportional probabilities regression model. Results Relative to women with a birth weight of 3,000–3,999 grams, FRs adjusted for gestational age, year of birth, and maternal socio-demographic and medical factors were 0.99 (95% CI: 0.73;1.34), 0.99 (95% CI: 0.87;1.12), and 1.08 (95% CI: 0.94;1.24) for birth weight <2,500 grams, 2,500–2,999 grams, and ?4,000 grams, respectively. Estimates remained unchanged after further adjustment for markers of the participant's mother's fecundability. We obtained similar results when we restricted to women who were born at term, and to women who had attempted to conceive for a maximum of 6 cycles before study entry. Results remained similar when we estimated FRs according to z-scores of birth weight. Conclusion Our results indicate that birth weight appears not to be an important determinant of fecundability. PMID:24736472

Wildenschild, Cathrine; Riis, Anders H.; Ehrenstein, Vera; Heitmann, Berit L.; Hatch, Elizabeth E.; Wise, Lauren A.; Rothman, Kenneth J.; Sørensen, Henrik T.; Mikkelsen, Ellen M.

2014-01-01

66

The Amsterdam Water Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

The drinking water supply and treatment system in Amsterdam, dating from the mid-1850s, takes advantage of the new and the old. Supplies are drawn from natural catchment areas in sand dunes, from the Rhine River, and from surface lakes as well as from groundwater. The dune-water source is recharged with pretreated surface water before it is treated to potable quality

Cornelis van der Veen

1985-01-01

67

Investigating the psychological impact of bank robbery: a cohort study.  

PubMed

Despite numerous annual bank robberies worldwide, research in the psychological sequelae of bank robberies is sparse and characterized by several limitations. To overcome these limitations we investigated the psychological impact of bank robbery in a cohort study by comparing general levels of traumatization and somatization in employees never exposed to robbery and employees exposed to robbery at different degrees and time-points, while controlling for selected risk factors of posttraumatic distress. Multivariate regression analyses showed that only the acute directly exposed robbery group which had a significantly higher score on general traumatization and somatization compared to the control group whilst controlling for other factors. In conclusion, bank robbery exposure appears to be especially associated with psychological distress in the acute phase and in victims present during the robbery. After the acute phase, other factors appear more important in predicting general traumatization and somatization in bank employees compared to exposure to robbery. PMID:24846493

Hansen, Maj; Armour, Cherie; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask

2014-06-01

68

Historical cohort study of mortality among chemical researchers  

SciTech Connect

This historical cohort study examined mortality among 1,510 white male researchers employed from 1950-1959 who handled chemicals. During 1950-1979, 95 deaths were observed, significantly less than the 173.2 predicted by general population rates (SMR = 55). This was due to deficits in overall cancer deaths (SMR = 66), particularly respiratory cancer (SMR = 28), and reduced mortality from circulatory diseases and accidents. Those who had worked directly with chemicals for more than 5 yr and those who had the most hazardous exposures experienced similar low mortality for all causes, all cancers, and respiratory cancer. Although deaths due to digestive cancer were elevated among those with 1-5 yr of work experience, there was no excess among those working more than 5 yr as would be expected from occupational exposure.

Maher, K.V.; Defonso, L.R.

1986-03-01

69

A prospective cohort study of chromium plating workers in Japan.  

PubMed

A prospective cohort study was conducted in 415 small-scale chromeplating plants in Japan to examine the mortality of platers employed between 1970 and 1976. A group of 1,193 male metal platers was identified in 1976 and divided into a chromium plater subgroup (n = 626) and a nonchromium plater subgroup (n = 567). Both subgroups were followed from 1976 through December 1987. Among specific causes of death, only lung cancer was found to be significantly higher than expected for all platers (16 observed, 8.9 expected; SMR 179; 95% CI 102-290). This elevated SMR, however, was not statistically significant in either of the two plater subgroups. The SMR for lung cancer of the chromium plater subgroup was highest among those exposed for the shortest period and among those exposed in the most remote calendar years. PMID:2334232

Takahashi, K; Okubo, T

1990-01-01

70

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort members: Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, bi...

71

2004 Update of Dosimetry for the Utah Thyroid Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the 1980s, individual thyroid doses and uncertainties were estimated for members of a cohort of children identified in 1965 in Utah and Nevada who had potentially been exposed to fallout from the Nevada Test Site. That reconstruction rep- resented the first comprehensive assessment of doses received by the cohort and was the first large effort to assess the un-

Steven L. Simon; Lynn R. Anspaugh; F. Owen Hoffman; Alan E. Scholl; Mary B. Stone; Brian A. Thomas; Joseph L. Lyon

2006-01-01

72

Multicenter Cohort Study of In-Hospital Pediatric Cardiac Arrest  

PubMed Central

Objectives (1) Describe the clinical characteristics, hospital courses and outcomes of a cohort of children cared for within the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) who experienced in-hospital cardiac arrest with sustained return of circulation between July 1, 2003 and December 31, 2004, and (2) identify factors associated with hospital mortality in this population. These data are required to prepare a randomized trial of therapeutic hypothermia on neurobehavioral outcomes in children after in-hospital cardiac arrest. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Fifteen children’s hospitals associated with PECARN. Patients Patients between one day and 18 years of age who had cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and received chest compressions for >1 minute, and had a return of circulation for >20 minutes. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results A total of 353 patients met entry criteria; 172 (48.7%) survived to hospital discharge. Among survivors, 132 (76.7%) had good neurological outcome documented by Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category scores. After adjustment for age, gender and first documented cardiac arrest rhythm, variables available prior to and during the arrest that were independently associated with increased mortality included pre-existing hematologic, oncologic, or immunologic disorders, genetic or metabolic disorders, presence of an endotracheal tube prior to the arrest, and the use of sodium bicarbonate during the arrest. Variables associated with decreased mortality included post-operative CPR. Extending the time frame to include variables available prior to, during, and within 12 hours following arrest, variables independently associated with increased mortality included the use of calcium during the arrest. Variables associated with decreased mortality included higher minimum blood pH and pupillary responsiveness. Conclusions Many factors are associated with hospital mortality among children after in-hospital cardiac arrest and return of circulation. Such factors must be considered when designing a trial of therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest in pediatric patients. PMID:19451846

Meert, Kathleen L.; Donaldson, Amy; Nadkarni, Vinay; Tieves, Kelly S.; Schleien, Charles L.; Brilli, Richard J.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Shaffner, D. H.; Levy, Fiona; Statler, Kimberly; Dalton, H.J.; van der Jagt, Elise W.; Hackbarth, Richard; Pretzlaff, Robert; Hernan, Lynn; Dean, J. Michael; Moler, Frank W.

2009-01-01

73

New Lymphogranuloma Venereum Chlamydia trachomatis Variant, Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

We retrospectively conducted a study of men who have sex with men who visited the Amsterdam, the Netherlands, sexually transmitted diseases clinic from January 2002 to December 2003 and had rectal Chlamydia trachomatis infections. We found that symptomatic (73%) as well as asymptomatic (43%) patients were infected with a new C. trachomatis LGV variant. PMID:16022786

Fennema, Han S.A.; Morré, Servaas A.; de Vries, Henry J.C.; Coutinho, Roel A.

2005-01-01

74

Institute of Phonetic Sciences, University of Amsterdam,  

E-print Network

Institute of Phonetic Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Proceedings 26 (2005), 7-23. SAMENSPRAAK. ACQUIRING AND IMPLEMENTING PHONETIC KNOWLEDGE Louis C.W. Pols Abstract This is the slightly adapted English is on acquiring phonetic knowledge via phonetics research, via speech databases, as well as in studying phonetics

Geest, Harm G. van der

75

Cohort profile: the English longitudinal study of ageing.  

PubMed

The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) is a panel study of a representative cohort of men and women living in England aged ?50 years. It was designed as a sister study to the Health and Retirement Study in the USA and is multidisciplinary in orientation, involving the collection of economic, social, psychological, cognitive, health, biological and genetic data. The study commenced in 2002, and the sample has been followed up every 2 years. Data are collected using computer-assisted personal interviews and self-completion questionnaires, with additional nurse visits for the assessment of biomarkers every 4 years. The original sample consisted of 11 391 members ranging in age from 50 to 100 years. ELSA is harmonized with ageing studies in other countries to facilitate international comparisons, and is linked to financial and health registry data. The data set is openly available to researchers and analysts soon after collection (http://www.esds.ac.uk/longitudinal/access/elsa/l5050.asp). PMID:23143611

Steptoe, Andrew; Breeze, Elizabeth; Banks, James; Nazroo, James

2013-12-01

76

The Generation R Study: design and cohort update 2010  

PubMed Central

The Generation R Study is a population-based prospective cohort study from fetal life until young adulthood. The study is designed to identify early environmental and genetic causes of normal and abnormal growth, development and health during fetal life, childhood and adulthood. The study focuses on four primary areas of research: (1) growth and physical development; (2) behavioural and cognitive development; (3) diseases in childhood; and (4) health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. In total, 9,778 mothers with a delivery date from April 2002 until January 2006 were enrolled in the study. General follow-up rates until the age of 4 years exceed 75%. Data collection in mothers, fathers and preschool children included questionnaires, detailed physical and ultrasound examinations, behavioural observations, and biological samples. A genome wide association screen is available in the participating children. Regular detailed hands on assessment are performed from the age of 5 years onwards. Eventually, results forthcoming from the Generation R Study have to contribute to the development of strategies for optimizing health and healthcare for pregnant women and children. PMID:20967563

van Duijn, Cock M.; van der Heijden, Albert J.; Mackenbach, Johan P.; Moll, Henriëtte A.; Steegers, Eric A. P.; Tiemeier, Henning; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Verhulst, Frank C.; Hofman, Albert

2010-01-01

77

Aragon workers’ health study – design and cohort description  

PubMed Central

Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10?years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N?=?5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N?=?351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in the carotid or femoral arteries. Discussion Baseline data from the AWHS show a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of sublinical atherosclerosis. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis progression and the link of disease progression to traditional and emergent risk factors. PMID:22712826

2012-01-01

78

Warfarin and fibrinolysis - a challenging combination: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Patients presenting with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) frequently use warfarin. Fibrinolytic agents and warfarin both increase bleeding risk, but only a few studies have been published concerning the bleeding risk of warfarin-prescribed patients receiving fibrinolysis. The objective of this study was to define the prevalence for intracranial haemorrhage (ICH) or major bleeding in patients on warfarin treatment receiving pre-hospital fibrinolysis. Methods This was an observational cohort study. Data for this retrospective case series were collected in Helsinki Emergency Medical Service catchment area from 1.1.1997 to 30.6.2010. All warfarin patients with suspected ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), who received pre-hospital fibrinolysis, were included. Bleeding complications were detected from Medical Records and classified as ICH, major or minor bleeding. Results Thirty-six warfarin patients received fibrinolysis during the study period. Fourteen patients had bleeding complications. One (3%, 95% CI 0-15%) patient had ICH, six (17%, 95% CI 7-32%) had major and seven (19%, 95% CI 9-35%) had minor bleeding. The only fatal bleeding occurred in a patient with ICH. Patients' age, fibrinolytic agent used or aspirin use did not predispose to bleeding complications. High International Normalized Ratio (INR) seemed to predispose to bleedings with values over 3, but no statistically significant difference was found. Conclusions Bleedings occur frequently in warfarin patients treated with fibrinolysis in the real world setting, but they are rarely fatal. PMID:21466702

2011-01-01

79

Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the predictors of new eating disorders in an adolescent cohort. Design Cohort study over 3 years with six waves. Subjects Students, initially aged 14›15 years, from 44 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Outcome measures Weight (kg), height (cm), dieting (adolescent dieting scale), psychiatric morbidity (revised clinical interview schedule), and eating disorder (branched eating disorders

G C Patton; R Selzer; C Coffey; J B Carlin; R Wolfe; Parkville Victoria

80

MDS in China Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study 2.5m  

E-print Network

9/24/2012 1 MDS in China Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study £2.5m Born in Guangzhou Cohort Study £1.3m links to four of the top five medical schools in China o Medical student exchange o Joint PGT and PGR

Birmingham, University of

81

Seventh-day Adventist Cohort Study: Cancer Epidemiology in Adventists-A Low Risk Group  

Cancer.gov

The investigators have formed a cohort study of 71,000 white and 25,000 black adult Seventh-day Adventists who were enrolled from across the United States. This cohort will enable questions about diet and cancer to be addressed that are not easily answered with other study populations.

82

Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

83

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

1997-01-01

84

Awareness of driving while sleepy and road traffic accidents: prospective study in GAZEL cohort.  

E-print Network

Awareness of driving while sleepy and road traffic accidents: prospective study in GAZEL cohort and the risk of serious Road Traffic Accidents (RTA). Design: Prospective cohort study Setting: France is a powerful predictor of serious road traffic accidents, suggesting that drivers' are able to accurately

Boyer, Edmond

85

Genome-wide association study of survival from sepsis due to pneumonia: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Sepsis continues to be a major cause of death, disability, and health-care expenditure worldwide. Despite evidence suggesting that host genetics can influence sepsis outcomes, no specific loci have yet been convincingly replicated. The aim of this study was to identify genetic variants that influence sepsis survival. Methods We did a genome-wide association study in three independent cohorts of white adult patients admitted to intensive care units with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock (as defined by the International Consensus Criteria) due to pneumonia or intra-abdominal infection (cohorts 1–3, n=2534 patients). The primary outcome was 28 day survival. Results for the cohort of patients with sepsis due to pneumonia were combined in a meta-analysis of 1553 patients from all three cohorts, of whom 359 died within 28 days of admission to the intensive-care unit. The most significantly associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped in a further 538 white patients with sepsis due to pneumonia (cohort 4), of whom 106 died. Findings In the genome-wide meta-analysis of three independent pneumonia cohorts (cohorts 1–3), common variants in the FER gene were strongly associated with survival (p=9·7?×?10?8). Further genotyping of the top associated SNP (rs4957796) in the additional cohort (cohort 4) resulted in a combined p value of 5·6?×?10?8 (odds ratio 0·56, 95% CI 0·45–0·69). In a time-to-event analysis, each allele reduced the mortality over 28 days by 44% (hazard ratio for death 0·56, 95% CI 0·45–0·69; likelihood ratio test p=3·4 × 10?9, after adjustment for age and stratification by cohort). Mortality was 9·5% in patients carrying the CC genotype, 15·2% in those carrying the TC genotype, and 25·3% in those carrying the TT genotype. No significant genetic associations were identified when patients with sepsis due to pneumonia and intra-abdominal infection were combined. Interpretation We have identified common variants in the FER gene that associate with a reduced risk of death from sepsis due to pneumonia. The FER gene and associated molecular pathways are potential novel targets for therapy or prevention and candidates for the development of biomarkers for risk stratification. Funding European Commission and the Wellcome Trust. PMID:25533491

Rautanen, Anna; Mills, Tara C; Gordon, Anthony C; Hutton, Paula; Steffens, Michael; Nuamah, Rosamond; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Parks, Tom; Chapman, Stephen J; Davenport, Emma E; Elliott, Katherine S; Bion, Julian; Lichtner, Peter; Meitinger, Thomas; Wienker, Thomas F; Caulfield, Mark J; Mein, Charles; Bloos, Frank; Bobek, Ilona; Cotogni, Paolo; Sramek, Vladimir; Sarapuu, Silver; Kobilay, Makbule; Ranieri, V Marco; Rello, Jordi; Sirgo, Gonzalo; Weiss, Yoram G; Russwurm, Stefan; Schneider, E Marion; Reinhart, Konrad; Holloway, Paul A H; Knight, Julian C; Garrard, Chris S; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R; Stüber, Frank; Hill, Adrian V S; Hinds, Charles J

2015-01-01

86

Complex regional pain syndrome 1 – the Swiss cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a) to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b) to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c) to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model), standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months). Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable PMID:18573212

Brunner, Florian; Bachmann, Lucas M; Weber, Ulrich; Kessels, Alfons GH; Perez, Roberto SGM; Marinus, Johan; Kissling, Rudolf

2008-01-01

87

Cholelithiasis in Childhood: A Cohort Study in North of Iran  

PubMed Central

Objective Cholelithiasis rarely occurs in children but the increased use of ultrasonography has led to increased detection of gallstones in patients. The epidemiology and predisposing factors of cholelithiasis vary in different populations. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, predisposing factors and to evaluate management and outcome of patients referred to Amirkola Children's Hospital jn Babol. Methods This cohort study was performed on children with cholelithiasis referred during 2000 to 2011. Cholelithiasis was diagnosed with ultrasonography. The data was obtained based on history, physical exam, clinical and paraclinical investigations and analyzed by SPSS version 18. P-value <0.05 was considered being significant. Findings From the 66 patients with cholelithiasis, 39 (59.1%) were males. The mean age at diagnosis was 6.6±4.5 years. The most common predisposing factor included ceftriaxone therapy (27.3%), hemolytic diseases (13.6%), hepatobiliary diseases (7.5%) and cystic fibrosis (7.5%). In 30.3% of patients, no predisposing factor was detected. The most common complaint was abdominal pain (67%). Among the patients in whom abdominal X-Ray was performed, only 20% had radiopaque gallstones; 6 (9%) patients underwent cholecystectomy. Conclusion According to this study, ceftriaxone therapy and hemolytic diseases were the most common predisposing factors in children with cholelithiasis in our area and cholecystectomy had not been needed in most patients. PMID:24800022

Dooki, Mohammad-Reza Esmaeili; Norouzi, Alireza

2013-01-01

88

Subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes among prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

The association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes has been recently clarified with the publication of three individual participant data (IPD) analyses from the Thyroid Studies Collaboration. We identified original cohort studies with a systematic review and pooled individual data from over 70'000 participants to obtain a more precise estimate of the risks of cardiovascular outcomes associated with subclinical thyroid dysfunction. Subclinical hypothyroidism and subclinical hyperthyroidism, defined as normal thyroxine (FT4) levels with increased or decreased Thyroid-Stimulating Hormones (TSH or thyrotropin) respectively, are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular outcomes compared to euthyroid state, particularly in those with a more pronounced thyroid dysfunction. Specifically, subclinical hypothyroidism is associated with an increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events, CHD mortality and heart failure (HF) events in individuals with higher TSH levels, particularly in those with TSH levels ?10.0 mIU/L. Conversely, subclinical hyperthyroidism is associated with an increased risk of total mortality, CHD mortality, HF and atrial fibrillation, particularly in those with suppressed TSH levels <0.10 mIU/L. Pending ongoing randomized controlled trials, these observational findings allow identifying potential TSH thresholds for thyroid medication initiation based on risk of clinical outcomes, although clinical decision based solely on observational data need caution. The impact of thyroid replacement among the elderly with subclinical hypothyroidism is currently studied in a multicenter international randomized controlled trial (Thyroid Hormone Replacement for Subclinical Hypothyroidism Trial, TRUST trial). PMID:23369133

Gencer, Baris; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Virgini, Vanessa; Auer, Reto; Rodondi, Nicolas

2013-03-01

89

Cohort Profile: Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS)  

PubMed Central

The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) was originally established to study the long-term effects of early-life undernutrition on risk of cardiovascular disease. Its aims were subsequently expanded to include trans-generational influences of other environmental and genetic factors on chronic diseases in rural India. It builds on the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (HNT) conducted in 1987–90 to compare the effects on birthweight of a protein-calorie supplement for pregnant women and children. The index children of HNT and their mothers were retraced and examined in 2003–05, and the children re-examined as young adults aged 18–21 years in 2009–10. The cohort was expanded to include both parents and siblings of the index children in a recently completed follow-up conducted in 2010–12 (N = ?6225 out of 10 213 participants). Recruitment of the remaining residents of these 29 villages (N = ?55 000) in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh is now under way. Extensive data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, medical, anthropometric, physiological, vascular and body composition measures, DNA, stored plasma, and assays of lipids and inflammatory markers on APCAPS participants are available. Details of how to access these data are available from the corresponding author. PMID:24019421

Kinra, Sanjay; Radha Krishna, KV; Kuper, Hannah; Rameshwar Sarma, KV; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Gupta, Vipin; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Bhogadi, Santhi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kumar, Aniket; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Davey Smith, George; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-01-01

90

Depression and unwanted first pregnancy: longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the outcomes of an unwanted first pregnancy (abortion v live delivery) and risk of depression and to explain discrepancies with previous research that used the same dataset. Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting Nationally representative sample of US men and women aged 14-24 in 1979. Participants 1247 women in the US national longitudinal survey of youth who aborted or delivered an unwanted first pregnancy. Main outcome measures Clinical cut-off and continuous scores on a 1992 measure of the Center for Epidemiological Studies depression scale. Results Terminating compared with delivering an unwanted first pregnancy was not directly related to risk of clinically significant depression (odds ratio 1.19, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 1.66). No evidence was found of a relation between pregnancy outcome and depression in analyses of subgroups known to vary in under-reporting of abortion. In analyses of the characteristics of non-respondents, refusal to provide information on abortion did not explain the lack of detecting a relation between abortion and mental health. The abortion group had a significantly higher mean education and income and lower total family size, all of which were associated with a lower risk of depression. Conclusions Evidence that choosing to terminate rather than deliver an unwanted first pregnancy puts women at higher risk of depression is inconclusive. Discrepancies between current findings and those of previous research using the same dataset primarily reflect differences in coding of a first pregnancy. PMID:16257993

Schmiege, Sarah; Russo, Nancy Felipe

2005-01-01

91

Childhood social hardships and fertility: A prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Purpose To examine the effect of lifetime social hardships on fertility. Methods Using the British National Child Development Study, a longitudinal cohort study, the impact of exposure to childhood hardships on becoming pregnant, reported infertility, and time to pregnancy was investigated. 6477 women reported on whether they had become pregnant by age 41, and 5198 women had data on at least one pregnancy. Factor analysis was used to identify six types of childhood hardships (as reported by parent, child, social worker, or teacher); retrospective report of child abuse was also examined. Logistic regression and discrete failure-time analysis was used to adjust for potential confounders. Results Never-married women were more likely to have become pregnant at some point if they had experienced more childhood hardships. Retrospectively reported child abuse was associated with an increased likelihood of having been told one was unable to have children. Among ever-married women, childhood hardships were associated with reduced fecundability, but the association was weakened by adjustment for adult social class. Conclusions The relationship between childhood adversity and adult fertility is complex. Future research should investigate pathways between characteristics of adversities and fertility. PMID:24404568

Harville, Emily W.; Boynton-Jarrett, Renée

2013-01-01

92

Pharmacogenomics study in a Taiwan methadone maintenance cohort.  

PubMed

Pharmacogenomics is research to study the drug treatment responses in subgroups of patients according to their genetic variants or genetic expression information. Methadone maintenance treatment, which is usually prescribed for patients with heroin dependence, was launched in Taiwan by the government in 2006. In this study, 366 patients who had taken methadone continually in the previous 7 days were examined. Data from administration of the Treatment Outcomes Profile (TOP), Severity of Dependence Scale (SDS), Clinical Opioid Withdrawal Scale (COWS), and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale (TESS) were obtained from patients' report records. Genes encoding the liver cytochrome P-450 (CYP) enzymes that are involved with the metabolism of methadone (CYP2B6, 3A4 and 2C19) were selected and genotyped in this cohort. We found that the SNPs on CYP2B6 were associated with plasma S-methadone concentration; SNPs on CYP3A4 were associated with withdrawal symptoms and side effects; and SNPs on CYP2C19 were associated with methadone dose. SNPs in the genes encoding the morphine phase II metabolic enzyme, UGT2B7, were associated with withdrawal symptom scores. In pharmacodynamic genes, the SNPs on OPRM1 were associated with insomnia and change in libido side effects. We conclude that SNP markers may be useful for future methadone dosage adjustment and to reduce adverse reactions. PMID:25278738

Wang, Sheng-Chang; Tsou, Hsiao-Hui; Ho, Ing-Kang; Lin, Keh-Ming; Liu, Yu-Li

2013-12-01

93

The Nakuru eye disease cohort study: methodology & rationale  

PubMed Central

Background No longitudinal data from population-based studies of eye disease in sub-Saharan-Africa are available. A population-based survey was undertaken in 2007/08 to estimate the prevalence and determinants of blindness and low vision in Nakuru district, Kenya. This survey formed the baseline to a six-year prospective cohort study to estimate the incidence and progression of eye disease in this population. Methods/Design A nationally representative sample of persons aged 50 years and above were selected between January 2007 and November 2008 through probability proportionate to size sampling of clusters, with sampling of individuals within clusters through compact segment sampling. Selected participants underwent detailed ophthalmic examinations which included: visual acuity, autorefraction, visual fields, slit lamp assessment of the anterior and posterior segments, lens grading and fundus photography. In addition, anthropometric measures were taken and risk factors were assessed through structured interviews. Six years later (2013/2014) all subjects were invited for follow-up assessment, repeating the baseline examination methodology. Discussion The methodology will provide estimates of the progression of eye diseases and incidence of blindness, visual impairment, and eye diseases in an adult Kenyan population. PMID:24886366

2014-01-01

94

Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs. PMID:19029175

2008-01-01

95

Golestan cohort study of oesophageal cancer: feasibility and first results  

PubMed Central

To investigate the incidence of oesophageal cancer (EC) in the Golestan province of North-East Iran, we invited 1349 rural and urban inhabitants of Golestan province aged 35–80 to undergo extensive lifestyle interviews and to provide biological samples. The interview was repeated on a subset of 130 participants to assess reliability of questionnaire and medical information. Temperature at which tea was consumed was measured on two occasions by 110 subjects. Samples of rice, wheat and sorghum were tested for fumonisin contamination. An active follow-up was carried out after 6 and 12 months. A total of 1057 subjects (610 women and 447 men) participated in this feasibility study (78.4% participation rate). Cigarette smoking, opium and alcohol use were reported by 163 (13.8%), 93 (8.8%) and 39 (3.7%) subjects, respectively. Tobacco smoking was correlated with urinary cotinine (?=0.74). Most questionnaire data had ? >0.7 in repeat measurements; tea temperature measurement was reliable (?=0.71). No fumonisins were detected in the samples analysed. During the follow-up six subjects were lost (0.6%), two subjects developed EC (one dead, one alive); in all, 13 subjects died (with cause of death known for 11, 84.6%). Conducting a cohort study in Golestan is feasible with reliable information obtained for suspected risk factors; participants can be followed up for EC incidence and mortality. PMID:15597107

Pourshams, A; Saadatian-Elahi, M; Nouraie, M; Malekshah, A F; Rakhshani, N; Salahi, R; Yoonessi, A; Semnani, S; Islami, F; Sotoudeh, M; Fahimi, S; Sadjadi, A R; Nasrollahzadeh, D; Aghcheli, K; Kamangar, F; Abnet, C C; Saidi, F; Sewram, V; Strickland, P T; Dawsey, S M; Brennan, P; Boffetta, P; Malekzadeh, R

2004-01-01

96

Cohort profile: Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS).  

PubMed

The Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) was originally established to study the long-term effects of early-life undernutrition on risk of cardiovascular disease. Its aims were subsequently expanded to include trans-generational influences of other environmental and genetic factors on chronic diseases in rural India. It builds on the Hyderabad Nutrition Trial (HNT) conducted in 1987-90 to compare the effects on birthweight of a protein-calorie supplement for pregnant women and children. The index children of HNT and their mothers were retraced and examined in 2003-05, and the children re-examined as young adults aged 18-21 years in 2009-10. The cohort was expanded to include both parents and siblings of the index children in a recently completed follow-up conducted in 2010-12 (N=?6225 out of 10,213 participants). Recruitment of the remaining residents of these 29 villages (N=?55,000) in Ranga Reddy district of Andhra Pradesh is now under way. Extensive data on socio-demographic, lifestyle, medical, anthropometric, physiological, vascular and body composition measures, DNA, stored plasma, and assays of lipids and inflammatory markers on APCAPS participants are available. Details of how to access these data are available from the corresponding author. PMID:24019421

Kinra, Sanjay; Radha Krishna, K V; Kuper, Hannah; Rameshwar Sarma, K V; Prabhakaran, Poornima; Gupta, Vipin; Walia, Gagandeep Kaur; Bhogadi, Santhi; Kulkarni, Bharati; Kumar, Aniket; Aggarwal, Aastha; Gupta, Ruby; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Reddy, K Srinath; Smith, George Davey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Ebrahim, Shah

2014-10-01

97

Psychiatric outcome following paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission is associated with greater psychiatric morbidity in children and parents as compared with general paediatric ward admissions. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Paediatric intensive care unit and two general paediatric wards of a London teaching hospital. Participants Children aged 5–18 years discharged from PICU (exposed cohort) and general paediatric wards (unexposed

Gwyneth Rees; Julia Gledhill; M. Elena Garralda; Simon Nadel

2004-01-01

98

Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

99

Neighborhood socioeconomic position and tuberculosis transmission: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Current understanding of tuberculosis (TB) genotype clustering in the US is based on individual risk factors. This study sought to identify whether area-based socioeconomic status (SES) was associated with genotypic clustering among culture-confirmed TB cases. Methods A retrospective cohort analysis was performed on data collected on persons with incident TB in King County, Washington, 2004–2008. Multilevel models were used to identify the relationship between area-level SES at the block group level and clustering utilizing a socioeconomic position index (SEP). Results Of 519 patients with a known genotyping result and block group, 212 (41%) of isolates clustered genotypically. Analyses suggested an association between lower area-based SES and increased recent TB transmission, particularly among US-born populations. Models in which community characteristics were measured at the block group level demonstrated that lower area-based SEP was positively associated with genotypic clustering after controlling for individual covariates. However, the trend in higher clustering odds with lower SEP index quartile diminished when additional block-group covariates. Conclusions Results stress the need for TB control interventions that take area-based measures into account, with particular focus on poor neighborhoods. Interventions based on area-based characteristics, such as improving case finding strategies, utilizing location-based screening and addressing social inequalities, could reduce recent rates of transmission. PMID:24767197

2014-01-01

100

Perceived superintendents' leadership and student performance in Region V Education Service Center: a cohort study  

E-print Network

PERCEIVED SUPERINTENDENTS’ LEADERSHIP AND STUDENT PERFORMANCE IN REGION V EDUCATION SERVICE CENTER: A COHORT STUDY A Record of Study by FRED MARTIN BRENT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... EDUCATION SERVICE CENTER: A COHORT STUDY A Record of Study by FRED MARTIN BRENT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR...

Brent, Fred Martin

2007-09-17

101

Physics Research Universiteit van Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Physics Research 1996-2002 Universiteit van Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam October 2005 #12;QANU / Physics UvA and VU2 Quality Assurance Netherlands Universities (QANU) Catharijnesingel 56 with the permission of QANU if the source is men- tioned. #12;QANU / Physics UvA and VU 3 Table of contents Preface 5

van Rooij, Robert

102

Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS). Methods Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Results Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6%) patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. Conclusion CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration. PMID:17850647

Verdon, François; Burnand, Bernard; Herzig, Lilli; Junod, Michel; Pécoud, Alain; Favrat, Bernard

2007-01-01

103

Survival after postoperative morbidity: a longitudinal observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Previous studies have suggested that there may be long-term harm associated with postoperative complications. Uncertainty exists however, because of the need for risk adjustment and inconsistent definitions of postoperative morbidity. Methods We did a longitudinal observational cohort study of patients undergoing major surgery. Case-mix adjustment was applied and morbidity was recorded using a validated outcome measure. Cox proportional hazards modelling using time-dependent covariates was used to measure the independent relationship between prolonged postoperative morbidity and longer term survival. Results Data were analysed for 1362 patients. The median length of stay was 9 days and the median follow-up time was 6.5 yr. Independent of perioperative risk, postoperative neurological morbidity (prevalence 2.9%) was associated with a relative hazard for long-term mortality of 2.00 [P=0.001; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32–3.04]. Prolonged postoperative morbidity (prevalence 15.6%) conferred a relative hazard for death in the first 12 months after surgery of 3.51 (P<0.001; 95% CI 2.28–5.42) and for the next 2 yr of 2.44 (P<0.001; 95% CI 1.62–3.65), returning to baseline thereafter. Conclusions Prolonged morbidity after surgery is associated with a risk of premature death for a longer duration than perhaps is commonly thought; however, this risk falls with time. We suggest that prolonged postoperative morbidity measured in this way may be a valid indicator of the quality of surgical healthcare. Our findings reinforce the importance of research and quality improvement initiatives aimed at reducing the duration and severity of postoperative complications. PMID:25012586

Moonesinghe, S. R.; Harris, S.; Mythen, M. G.; Rowan, K. M.; Haddad, F. S.; Emberton, M.; Grocott, M. P. W.

2014-01-01

104

Stillbirths at a hospital in Nablus, 2010: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Stillbirths are insufficiently reported in many countries. In Nablus, reporting has recently started; little is published in Palestine on the stillbirth rate and its risk factors. Objective To study the rate of stillbirths at Rafidia Hospital in 2010 and some of its risk factors. Design A retrospective cohort design. Methods Data were collected from the delivery registry for all births and we analysed those with a gestation of 28 weeks or more at Rafidia Hospital. Stillbirth rates were estimated for available determinants. Results In 2010, a total of 5,644 women gave birth to 5,782 babies, of whom 41 were stillbirths, that is, a stillbirth rate of 7.1/1,000 births (95% confidence interval 5.2–9.5). Premature babies had a higher risk of being a stillbirth. For small babies, the lower the birth weight the higher was the probability of being a stillbirth, and for babies weighing 4,500 g or more there was a higher risk of being stillborn. The risk of stillbirth was also higher among babies from mothers with high haemoglobin concentration, but low maternal haemoglobin was not associated with stillbirths. Conclusions The stillbirth rates at Rafidia hospital assessed in this study compares favourably with the reported national numbers, indicating a good reliability of the on-going registration. The rates were highest among premature births. Stillbirth was linked to low birth weight, foetal macrosomia, and maternal haemoconcentration. We believe the findings identify areas to address when designing antenatal care with the aim of improving perinatal mortality in the country. PMID:25196827

Cung, Tam Giao; Paus, Anne Sofie; Aghbar, Ammar; Kiserud, Torvid; Hinderaker, Sven Gudmund

2014-01-01

105

Studies on the life cycle of Asymphylodora tincae (Modeer, 1790) (Trematoda: Monorchiidae) in a small lake near Amsterdam. Part 1. The morphology of various stages.  

PubMed

Aspects of the life cycle of Asymphylodora tincae have been studied in a small lake near Amsterdam. Bithynia tentaculata, being the only snail species that was very numerous in the lake, was the first as well as the main second intermediate host; adult trematodes were found exclusively in the tench, Tinca tinca. A small part of the cercariae that penetrate into B. tentaculata was able to develop into progenetic specimens. A morphological description is given of the following stages of A. tincae: adult, egg, redia, cercariaeum, metacercaria and progenetic stage. The cercariaeum is identified as Cercariaeum paludinae impurae De Filippi, 1854. It is concluded that A. tincae is a species, capable of large variation regarding both morphological structure (e.g. body spination, size) and life cycle. PMID:572385

van den Broek, E; de Jong, N

1979-03-01

106

An exploratory analysis of large health cohort study using Bayesian networks  

E-print Network

Large health cohort studies are among the most effective ways in studying the causes, treatments and outcomes of diseases by systematically collecting a wide range of data over long periods. The wealth of data in such ...

Shen, Delin

2006-01-01

107

Participation Following Knee Replacement: The MOST Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Participation is an important, yet seldom studied, outcome after total knee replacement (TKR). Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent and predictors of participation and participation restriction among people after TKR. Materials and Methods This study investigated the changes in pain, function, and participation scores (measured using a subscale of the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument) from pre-TKR to ?1 year post-TKR among a subsample of participants from the Multicenter Osteoarthritis Study (MOST) longitudinal cohort (MOST is funded by the National Institutes of Health). The proportions of individuals with participation restriction pre-TKR and ?1 and ?2 years post-TKR were calculated for all participants and for important demographic subgroups. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation was estimated using linear regression. The association between demographic and clinical factors and participation restriction was estimated using logistic regression. Results There were 292 individuals with outcome data ?1 year post-TKR. Of these, 218 (75%) had data pre-TKR and ?1 year post-TKR and 160 (55%) had data ?2 years post-TKR. There were mean improvements in pain, function, and participation at ?1 and 2 years. However, approximately 30% of the study sample had participation restriction pre-TKR and post-TKR, and the proportion decreased significantly only for those <65 years old. Non-whites had a higher proportion of participation restriction than any other subgroup (41% ?1 year, 48% ?2 years). Female sex and non-white race were associated with a worse participation score, and several demographic and modifiable factors were associated with participation restriction following TKR. Limitations The time between pre-TKR and post-TKR assessment varied across study participants, and data were not available on their rehabilitation utilization. Conclusions Although there was a mean increase in participation ?1 year following TKR, participation restriction was common. The likelihood of low participation was increased among women, non-whites, and those with depressive symptoms, severe pain in either knee, or worse pre-TKR function. PMID:23813082

Keysor, Julie J.; Niu, Jingbo; Singh, Jasvinder A.; Wise, Barton L.; Frey-Law, Laura; Nevitt, Michael C.; Felson, David T.

2013-01-01

108

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH, DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah, which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, birth date, town ...

109

Doctors' age at domestic partnership and parenthood: cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To report on doctors’ family formation. Design Cohort studies using structured questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants Doctors who qualified in 1988, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002 were followed up. Main Outcome Measures Living with spouse or partner; and doctors’ age when first child was born. Results The response to surveys including questions about domestic circumstances was 89.8% (20,717/23,077 doctors). The main outcomes – living with spouse or partner, and parenthood – varied according to age at qualification. Using the modal ages of 23–24 years at qualification, by the age of 24–25 (i.e. in their first year of medical work) a much smaller percentage of doctors than the general population was living with spouse or partner. By the age of 33, 75% of both women and men doctors were living with spouse or partner, compared with 68% of women and 61% of men aged 33 in the general population. By the age of 24–25, 2% of women doctors and 41% of women in the general population had a child; but women doctors caught up with the general population, in this respect, in their 30s. The specialty with the highest percentage of women doctors who, aged 35, had children was general practice (74%); the lowest was surgery (41%). Conclusions Doctors are more likely than other people to live with a spouse or partner, and to have children, albeit typically at later ages. Differences between specialties in rates of motherhood may indicate sacrifice by some women of family in favour of career. PMID:22977049

Goldacre, Michael J; Davidson, Jean M; Lambert, Trevor W

2012-01-01

110

Is the clinical course of HIV-1 changing? Cohort study.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether the clinical course of HIV infection has changed from 1985 to 1995. DESIGN: Cohort Study. SETTING: Infectious disease clinic. SUBJECTS: 285 patients recruited from September 1985 to January 1995 with < or = 12 months between the dates of their last seronegative and first seropositive test result and with first follow up visit in the six months after seroconversion and at least 12 months' follow up. Patients were grouped according to the date of seroconversion. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to CD4 cell count of < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l, and clinical outcome defining AIDS; variation in cell count per day between consecutive visits, and ratio between this variation and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit. RESULTS: The groups were similar in age, number with acute primary HIV infection, CD4 cell count at intake, and cell count at the beginning of antiretroviral treatment; they differed in sex ratio, risk factors for HIV, probability of CD4 cell decline to < 500, 400, and 200 x 10(6) cells/l. and risk of developing AIDS. Acute infection, seroconversion after December 1989, and serum beta 2 microglobulin > 296 nmol/l were independent predictors of poor clinical course. The speed of CD4 cell decline, expressed as cell variation divided by the number of days between consecutive visits, increased with more recent seroconversion (P = 0.02). Ratio between the speed of CD4 cell decline and time from estimated date of seroconversion at each visit was also higher in the patients who seroconverted after December 1989. CONCLUSIONS: The faster disease progression and the higher speed of CD4 cell decline at early stages in the patients with recently acquired HIV infection suggest changes in the clinical course of HIV infection. PMID:9154026

Sinicco, A.; Fora, R.; Raiteri, R.; Sciandra, M.; Bechis, G.; Calvo, M. M.; Gioannini, P.

1997-01-01

111

Laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy: appraisal of a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To assess the safety and effectiveness of individualized laparoscopic herniorrhaphy and to compare its intraoperative cost to that of the standard Bassini operation. Design An analytic cohort study. Setting A university teaching hospital. Patients One group of 158 patients underwent 167 laparoscopic herniorrhaphies for symptomatic groin hernias. The approach was transabdominal preperitoneal for the first 124 patients and totally preperitoneal for the last 34 patients. A second group of 50 patients underwent a conventional Bassini operation. Intervention Individualized laparoscopic inguinal herniorrhaphy or Bassini herniorrhaphy. Main Outcome Measures Complications and recurrences encountered in the laparoscopic group. Total operative time and intraoperative cost involved in both procedures. Analgesia required in each group during the first 2 postoperative days. Results Intra- and postoperative complications of the laparoscopic approach were not life threatening. The recurrence rate at a mean follow-up of 16.8 months was 1.2%. Total operative time was significantly (p < 0.001) longer in the laparoscopy group than in the Bassini group. Patients in the Bassini group took more parenteral analgesics than those in the laparoscopy group (p = 0.02), but there was no difference with respect to the number of times enteral analgesics were required (p = 0.32). Use of mesh and staples was more expensive than sutures alone inserted laparoscopically. The Bassini procedure was a less expensive procedure than laparoscopic herniorrhaphy. Conclusions The laparoscopic treatment of groin hernias is safe. The recurrence rate is low. Primary unilateral inguinal hernias could be adequately treated at a lesser cost by a standard approach. Bilateral, recurrent and femoral hernias could benefit from a laparoscopic approach. PMID:8640623

Dion, Yves-Marie

1996-01-01

112

Implementation evaluation of the Dutch national heat plan among long-term care institutions in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007, a national heat plan was introduced in the Netherlands to effectively protect vulnerable populations (such as institutionalised elderly people) against heatwaves. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which the measures recommended in this heat plan had been implemented, and could be implemented, in long-term care institutions in Amsterdam three years on. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the care managers of all 54 eligible long-term care institutions in Amsterdam. This included questions on the presence of a heat protocol and cooling facilities in the building. Furthermore, the care managers were asked to judge the importance of 23 of the cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan in the event of a heatwave, and to report on practical problems that may affect the implementation of these cooling measures. Results Of the 54 questionnaires sent, 27 were returned. Most institutions had a heat protocol, virtually all of which had been developed in the three years preceding the survey. Outdoor sunshades were used most often to protect residents against heat (93% of all institutions). Prevalence of cooling facilities such as air conditioning and rooftop cooling had increased, but remained low (41%). Care managers confirmed the importance of most of the 23 cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan, with some exceptions. Only 41% regarded consulting physicians on medication use to be ‘very important’. Most care managers did not foresee large problems with the implementation of the recommended cooling measures. Barriers mentioned related to shortage of and expertise among personnel, and residents’ independence. Conclusion The results suggest that a national heat plan could be implemented in long-term care institutions with few problems. Possible areas of improvement include cooling of buildings and staff training. PMID:23578306

2013-01-01

113

Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international study designed to assess outcomes after non-cardiac surgery in Europe. Methods We did this 7 day cohort study between April 4 and April 11, 2011. We collected data describing consecutive patients aged 16 years and older undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery in 498 hospitals across 28 European nations. Patients were followed up for a maximum of 60 days. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures were duration of hospital stay and admission to critical care. We used ?2 and Fisher's exact tests to compare categorical variables and the t test or the Mann-Whitney U test to compare continuous variables. Significance was set at p<0·05. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models to adjust for the differences in mortality rates between countries. Findings We included 46?539 patients, of whom 1855 (4%) died before hospital discharge. 3599 (8%) patients were admitted to critical care after surgery with a median length of stay of 1·2 days (IQR 0·9–3·6). 1358 (73%) patients who died were not admitted to critical care at any stage after surgery. Crude mortality rates varied widely between countries (from 1·2% [95% CI 0·0–3·0] for Iceland to 21·5% [16·9–26·2] for Latvia). After adjustment for confounding variables, important differences remained between countries when compared with the UK, the country with the largest dataset (OR range from 0·44 [95% CI 0·19–1·05; p=0·06] for Finland to 6·92 [2·37–20·27; p=0·0004] for Poland). Interpretation The mortality rate for patients undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery was higher than anticipated. Variations in mortality between countries suggest the need for national and international strategies to improve care for this group of patients. Funding European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, European Society of Anaesthesiology. PMID:22998715

Pearse, Rupert M; Moreno, Rui P; Bauer, Peter; Pelosi, Paolo; Metnitz, Philipp; Spies, Claudia; Vallet, Benoit; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Hoeft, Andreas; Rhodes, Andrew

2012-01-01

114

Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis\\u000a of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed\\u000a database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported\\u000a relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for

Jia-Yi DongLijun; Lijun Zhang; Ka He; Li-Qiang Qin

2011-01-01

115

Alcohol and ovarian cancer risk: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study alcohol consumption in relation to ovarian cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. Methods: The Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer was initiated in 1986. A self-administered questionnaire on dietary habits and other risk factors for cancer was completed by 62,573 postmenopausal women. Follow-up for cancer was established by annual record linkages with the Netherlands Cancer

Leo J. Schouten; Maurice P. A. Zeegers; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Piet A. van den Brandt

2004-01-01

116

Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThere is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment.MethodsWe conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality

Evelyn Mohler; Patrizia Frei; Jürg Fröhlich; Charlotte Braun-Fahrländer; Martin Röösli

2012-01-01

117

Obesity, Physical Inactivity, and Colonic Diverticular Disease Requiring Hospitalization in Women: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:Lifestyle factors other than dietary fiber intake and risk for colonic diverticular disease have only been examined in few studies. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and physical inactivity and diverticular disease in a population-based cohort of women.METHODS:This was a prospective population-based cohort study. In all, 36,592 women, born 1914–1948, in the Swedish Mammography

Fredrik Hjern; Alicja Wolk; Niclas Håkansson

2012-01-01

118

Body Mass Index, Change in Body Silhouette, and Risk of Asthma in the E3N Cohort Study  

E-print Network

Body Mass Index, Change in Body Silhouette, and Risk of Asthma in the E3N Cohort Study I. Romieu1 in body silhouette on asthma risk, the authors investigated a cohort of women participating in the E3N Cohort Study in France from 1990 to 1993. The authors identified 372 incident cases of asthma among 67

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

119

DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

120

Prescribing of antipsychotics in UK primary care: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the recorded indication for antipsychotic prescriptions in UK primary care. Design Cohort study. Setting Primary care. Participants Individuals prescribed antipsychotics between 2007 and 2011. Measures The proportion of individuals prescribed antipsychotics with a diagnosis of (1) psychosis and bipolar disorder, (2) other diagnoses including depression, anxiety and dementia and (3) none of these diagnoses. Results We identified 47?724 individuals prescribed antipsychotic agents. 13?941 received first-generation agents and 27?966 received second-generation agents. The rates of prescribing were higher in females (incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.092 (95% CI 1.088 to 1.095), older people (80+ vs 40–49; IRR 2.234 (2.222 to 2.246)) and in those from the most deprived areas (most deprived vs least deprived IRR 3.487 (3.567 to 3.606). Of those receiving first-generation antipsychotics, less than 50% had a diagnosis of psychosis/bipolar disorder. For the second-generation agents, the numbers ranged from 4824 (36%) for quetiapine to 7094 (62%) for olanzapine. In patients without psychosis/bipolar disorder, common diagnoses included anxiety, depression, dementia, sleep and personality disorders. For example, in risperidone users, 14% had an anxiety code, 22% depression, 12% dementia, 11% sleep disorder and 4% personality disorder. The median daily doses and duration of treatment were greater in those with schizophrenia (eg, risperidone median daily dose 4?mg; IQR 2–6: median duration 1.2?years) than in those with non-psychotic/bipolar disorders such as depression or anxiety (eg, risperidone 1?mg; IQR 1–2: 0.6?years). A relatively large proportion (between 6% and 17%) of people receiving individual antipsychotics had none of the diagnoses stated above. Conclusions In UK primary care, a large proportion of people prescribed antipsychotics have no record of psychotic or bipolar disorder. They are often older people with conditions including dementia, non-psychotic depression, anxiety and sleep disorders. PMID:25524544

Marston, Louise; Nazareth, Irwin; Petersen, Irene; Walters, Kate; Osborn, David P J

2014-01-01

121

Cohort profile: The Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study: Babies after SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact on Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints.  

PubMed

The Cork BASELINE Birth Cohort Study (Babies After SCOPE: Evaluating the Longitudinal Impact on Neurological and Nutritional Endpoints) was established with three main objectives: to investigate the effects of intrauterine growth restriction and early nutrition on metabolic health and neurodevelopment; to ascertain the incidence and determinants of food allergy and eczema in early childhood; and to describe early infant feeding, supplementation and nutritional status and their effects on physical and neurological growth and health outcomes. The SCOPE Ireland pregnancy cohort formed the basis of recruitment of infants to BASELINE [n 1537] and an additional 600 infants were recruited after delivery providing a total sample of 2137 between 2008 and 2011. Assessments were at day 2 and at 2, 6, 12 and 24 months, with 5-year assessments ongoing. Blood and DNA samples were biobanked at 15 and 20 weeks' gestation, birth, 24 months and 5 years. Body composition data were collected at 2 days and 2 months (air-displacement plethysmography) and at 5 years (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry). Trans-epidermal water loss was measured at 2 days, 2, 6 and 24 months. Detailed dietary and validated developmental assessments were conducted at 24 months. Researchers interested in collaboration can contact [baseline@ucc.ie] and further information be found at [http://www.baselinestudy.net/ or http://www.birthcohorts.net/]. PMID:25102856

O'Donovan, Sinéad M; Murray, Deirdre M; Hourihane, Jonathan O'B; Kenny, Louise C; Irvine, Alan D; Kiely, Mairead

2014-08-01

122

Safe total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

This study directly compares total intrafascial laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy with vaginal (VH) and abdominal (AH) hysterectomy with regard to safety, operating time and time of convalescence. The study is a prospective cohort study (Canadian Task Force classification II-2), including data from patients of a single university-affiliated teaching institution, admitted between 1997 and 2008 for hysterectomy due to benign uterus pathology. Patient data were collected pre-, intra- and postoperatively and complications documented using a standardised data sheet of a Swiss obstetric and gynaecological study group (Arbeitsgemeinschaft Schweizerische Frauenkliniken, Amlikon/Switzerland). Classification of complications (major complications and minor complications) for all three operation techniques, evaluation of surgeons and comparison of operation times and days of hospitalisation were analysed. 3066 patients were included in this study. 993 patients underwent AH, 642 VH and 1,431 total intrafascial hysterectomy. No statistically significant difference for the operation times comparing the three groups can be demonstrated. The mean hospital stay in the TAIL hysterectomy, VH and AH groups is 5.8 +/- 2.4, 8.8 +/- 4.0 and 10.4 +/- 3.9 days, respectively. The postoperative minor complications including infection rates are low in the TAIL hysterectomy group (3.8%) when compared with either the AH group (15.3%) or the VH group (11.2%), respectively. The total of minor complications is statistically significant lower for TAIL hysterectomy as for AH (O.R. 4.52, CI 3.25-6.31) or VH (O.R. 3.16, CI 2.16-4.62). Major haemorrhage with consecutive reoperation is observed statistically significantly more frequent in the AH group when compared to the TAIL hysterectomy group, with an O.R. of 6.13 (CI 3.05-12.62). Overall, major intra- and postoperative complications occur significant more frequently in the AH group (8.6%) when compared to the VH group (3%) and the TAIL hysterectomy group (1.8%). The incidence of major complications applying the standardised TAIL hysterectomy technique is not related to the experience of the surgeons. We conclude that a standardised intrafascial technique of total laparoscopic (TAIL) hysterectomy using an anatomically developed special uterine device is associated with a very low incidence of minor and major intra- and postoperative complications. The direct comparison of complication rates with either vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy favours the total laparoscopic technique, and therefore, this technique can be recommended as a relatively atraumatic procedure. The operation times are comparable for all three techniques without any statistically significant differences. This technique for laparoscopic hysterectomy is shown to be equally safe when applied by experienced gynaecologic surgeons or by residents in training. ELECTRONIC SUPPLEMENTARY MATERIAL: The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10397-010-0569-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20700518

Hohl, Michael K; Hauser, Nik

2010-09-01

123

Canine perinatal mortality: a cohort study of 224 breeds.  

PubMed

Canine perinatal mortality is known to be relatively high. However, the literature on perinatal mortality in dogs is still sparse and often refers to a single or only a few breeds. The aim of this large-scale observational study was to describe the perinatal mortality in purebred dogs of various breeds at both puppy and litter level. In addition, the influence of breed, breed size, litter size, age of the bitch, litter number and season for whelping on the risk of perinatal mortality at litter level was studied and the mean litter size at eight days and eight wks after birth was calculated. A retrospective cohort study was performed by studying 10,810 litters of 224 breeds registered in the Norwegian Kennel Club in 2006 and 2007. Perinatal mortality was defined as the sum of stillborn puppies and puppies that died during the first wk after birth (early neonatal mortality) and was present in 24.6% of the litters. Eight percent of the puppies died before eight days after birth, with 4.3% as stillbirth and 3.7% as early neonatal mortality. For most breeds the perinatal mortality was low, but for some breeds a higher perinatal mortality was found. The mean litter size at eight days and eight wks after birth was 4.97 (±0.02) and 4.92 (±0.02) puppies, respectively. Of all puppies born, only 1% died during the period from eight days to eight wks after birth. Random effects logistic regression analysis indicated that increasing litter size and age of the bitch were associated with an increased risk of stillbirth, early neonatal mortality and total perinatal mortality at the litter level (P < 0.001). The random breed effect was significant for all outcomes. Litter number also had a significant effect on stillbirth, early neonatal mortality and total perinatal mortality at the litter level, with the highest risk of perinatal mortality found in the first litter (P < 0.001). Further, the risk of early neonatal mortality was doubled in litters with stillborn puppies. No significant effect of whelping season on perinatal mortality at litter level was found. An interaction existed between the age of the bitch and litter number and the risk of stillbirth was three times as high (odds ratio = 3.00) in litters from bitches having their first litter after the age of six y. Breed was a more important determinant of perinatal mortality in litters than breed size. However, more than 90% of the variation in perinatal mortality was found at the individual litter level and efforts to minimize puppy mortality should be targeted at the management of the individual litter rather than at the breed level. PMID:22365700

Tønnessen, R; Borge, K Sverdrup; Nødtvedt, A; Indrebø, A

2012-06-01

124

Study Protocol, Sample Characteristics, and Loss to Follow-Up: The OPPERA Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

When studying incidence of pain conditions such as temporomandibular disorders (TMDs), repeated monitoring is needed in prospective cohort studies. However, monitoring methods usually have limitations and, over a period of years, some loss to follow-up is inevitable. The OPPERA prospective cohort study of first-onset TMD screened for symptoms using quarterly questionnaires and examined symptomatic participants to definitively ascertain TMD incidence. During the median 2.8-year observation period, 16% of the 3,263 enrollees completed no follow-up questionnaires, others provided incomplete follow-up, and examinations were not conducted for one third of symptomatic episodes. Although screening methods and examinations were found to have excellent reliability and validity, they were not perfect. Loss to follow-up varied according to some putative TMD risk factors, although multiple imputation to correct the problem suggested that bias was minimal. A second method of multiple imputation that evaluated bias associated with omitted and dubious examinations revealed a slight underestimate of incidence and some small biases in hazard ratios used to quantify effects of risk factors. Although “bottom line” statistical conclusions were not affected, multiply-imputed estimates should be considered when evaluating the large number of risk factors under investigation in the OPPERA study. Perspective These findings support the validity of the OPPERA prospective cohort study for the purpose of investigating the etiology of first-onset TMD, providing the foundation for other papers investigating risk factors hypothesized in the OPPERA project. PMID:24275220

Bair, Eric; Brownstein, Naomi C.; Ohrbach, Richard; Greenspan, Joel D.; Dubner, Ron; Fillingim, Roger B.; Maixner, William; Smith, Shad; Diatchenko, Luda; Gonzalez, Yoly; Gordon, Sharon; Lim, Pei-Feng; Ribeiro-Dasilva, Margarete; Dampier, Dawn; Knott, Charles; Slade, Gary D.

2013-01-01

125

Study Design and Outcomes of Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The Korean Obstructive Lung Disease (KOLD) Cohort Study is a prospective longitudinal study of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, or other unclassified obstructive lung diseases. It was designed to develop new classification models and biomarkers that predict clinically relevant outcomes for patients with obstructive lung diseases. Methods Patients over 18 years old who have chronic respiratory symptoms and airflow limitations or bronchial hyper-responsiveness were enrolled at 17 centers in South Korea. After a baseline visit, the subjects were followed up every 3 months for various assessments. Results From June 2005 to October 2013, a total of 477 subjects (433 [91%] males; 381 [80%] diagnosed with COPD) were enrolled. Analyses of the KOLD Cohort Study identified distinct phenotypes in patients with COPD, and predictors of therapeutic responses and exacerbations as well as the factors related to pulmonary hypertension in COPD. In addition, several genotypes were associated with radiological phenotypes and therapeutic responses among Korean COPD patients. Conclusion The KOLD Cohort Study is one of the leading long-term prospective longitudinal studies investigating heterogeneity of the COPD and is expected to provide new insights for pathogenesis and the long-term progression of COPD. PMID:24851130

Park, Tai Sun; Lee, Jae Seung; Seo, Joon Beom; Hong, Yoonki; Yoo, Jung-Wan; Kang, Byung Ju; Lee, Sei Won; Oh, Yeon-Mok

2014-01-01

126

Retention in the British National Health Service of medical graduates trained in Britain: cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To report the percentage of graduates from British medical schools who eventually practise medicine in the British NHS.Design Cohort studies using postal questionnaires, employment data, and capture-recapture analysis.Setting Great Britain.Subjects 32 430 graduates from all British medical schools in nine graduation cohorts from 1974 to 2002, subdivided into home based medical students (those whose homes were in Great Britain

Michael J Goldacre; Jean M Davidson; Trevor W Lambert

2009-01-01

127

Awareness of driving while sleepy and road traffic accidents: prospective study in GAZEL cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjectives To examine the association between self assessed driving while sleepy and the risk of serious road traffic accidents (RTAs).Design Prospective cohort study.Setting France.Participants 13 299 of the 19 894 living members of the GAZEL cohort, workers and recent retirees of a French national utility company followed up since 1989.Main outcome measures Frequency of driving while sleepy in the previous

Hermann Nabi; Alice Guéguen; Mireille Chiron; Sylviane Lafont; Marie Zins; Emmanuel Lagarde

2006-01-01

128

Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors’ early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Methods Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974–2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors’ ‘domestic circumstances’ were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while ‘enthusiasm/commitment’, ‘financial prospects’, ‘experiences of the job so far’ and ‘a particular teacher/department’ were important. Conclusions Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early choice and later destination was not particularly strong for cardiology, and was less strong than that for several other specialties. PMID:23351301

2013-01-01

129

Health-related quality of life of firefighters and police officers 8.5 years after the air disaster in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam. In the troublesome aftermath rumours emerged on potential\\u000a toxic exposures and health consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term impact of this disaster on the health-related\\u000a quality of life (HRQoL) of professional assistance workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Historic cohort study, using questionnaires to assess occupational disaster exposure, HRQoL

Pau line Slottje; Jos W. R. Twisk; Nynke Smidt; Anja C. Huizink; Anke B. Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2007-01-01

130

Prospective Study of Attitudinal and Relationship Predictors of Sexual Risk in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the influence of attitudes concerning HIV transmission, safe sex, and sexual sensation seeking, as well as negotiated\\u000a risk reduction with primary partners, on the proportion of unprotected sexual partners (%UASP) among men who have sex with\\u000a men (MSM). Participants were 263 HIV-seropositive and 238 HIV-seronegative MSM in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study between\\u000a 1999 and 2003 who completed

David G. Ostrow; Michael J. Silverberg; Robert L. Cook; Joan S. Chmiel; Lisette Johnson; Xiuhong Li; Lisa P. Jacobson

2008-01-01

131

RERF Life Span Study, Adult Health Study, and F1 Cohorts (Hiroshima and Nagasaki)  

Cancer.gov

The main cohort, called the Life Span Study (LSS), consisted of about 120,000 persons of all ages and both genders in 1950 of whom more than 90,000 were exposed to atomic bomb radiation, with a wide range of exposure doses. About 45,000 LSS participants completed questionnaires in the late 1960s and periodically since then on sociodemographic, lifestyle, and other disease risk factors.

132

Diagnosis-specific readmission risk prediction using electronic health data: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Readmissions after hospital discharge are a common occurrence and are costly for both hospitals and patients. Previous attempts to create universal risk prediction models for readmission have not met with success. In this study we leveraged a comprehensive electronic health record to create readmission-risk models that were institution- and patient- specific in an attempt to improve our ability to predict readmission. Methods This is a retrospective cohort study performed at a large midwestern tertiary care medical center. All patients with a primary discharge diagnosis of congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction or pneumonia over a two-year time period were included in the analysis. The main outcome was 30-day readmission. Demographic, comorbidity, laboratory, and medication data were collected on all patients from a comprehensive information warehouse. Using multivariable analysis with stepwise removal we created three risk disease-specific risk prediction models and a combined model. These models were then validated on separate cohorts. Results 3572 patients were included in the derivation cohort. Overall there was a 16.2% readmission rate. The acute myocardial infarction and pneumonia readmission-risk models performed well on a random sample validation cohort (AUC range 0.73 to 0.76) but less well on a historical validation cohort (AUC 0.66 for both). The congestive heart failure model performed poorly on both validation cohorts (AUC 0.63 and 0.64). Conclusions The readmission-risk models for acute myocardial infarction and pneumonia validated well on a contemporary cohort, but not as well on a historical cohort, suggesting that models such as these need to be continuously trained and adjusted to respond to local trends. The poor performance of the congestive heart failure model may suggest that for chronic disease conditions social and behavioral variables are of greater importance and improved documentation of these variables within the electronic health record should be encouraged. PMID:25091637

2014-01-01

133

The effect of gender medicine education in GP training: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study is to compare the change in general practitioner (GP) trainees' gender awareness following a modular gender medicine programme or a mainstream gender medicine programme. In 2007, a prospective study was conducted in three cohorts of in total 207 GP trainees who entered GP training in the Netherlands. The outcome measure was the Nijmegen Gender Awareness in Medicine Scale and a 16-item gender knowledge questionnaire. Two gender medicine teaching methods were compared: a modular approach (n = 75) versus a mainstream approach (n = 72). Both strategies were compared with a control cohort (n = 60). Statistical analysis included analysis of variance and t-tests. The overall response rates for the modular, mainstream and control cohort were 78, 72 and 82 %, respectively. There was a significant difference in change in gender knowledge scores between the modular cohort compared with the mainstream and control cohort (p = 0.049). There were no statistical differences between the cohorts on gender sensitivity and gender role ideology. At entry and end, female GP trainees demonstrated significantly higher gender awareness than male GP trainees. A modular teaching method is not a more favourable educational method to teach gender medicine in GP training. Female GP trainees are more gender aware, but male GP trainees are not unaware of gender-related issues. PMID:24895104

Dielissen, Patrick; Verdonk, Petra; Waard, Magreet Wieringa-de; Bottema, Ben; Lagro-Janssen, Toine

2014-11-01

134

Overview of the Japan Children’s Study 2004–2009; Cohort Study of Early Childhood Development  

PubMed Central

Background There are still a lot of unknown aspects about the childhood development of sociability which are based on neuroscientific basis. Purpose of the Japan Children’s Study (JCS) was to verify the normal process of child development of sociability; the trajectory and factors related development of sociability, and to collect findings and integrate the knowledge to make the plan of long-term and large scale cohort study. Methods A child cohort study underway in Japan since 2005. There are the cohort study including a infant cohort study at age of 4 months to 30 months and a preschool cohort study at age of 5 years old to 8 years old. Questionnaires, direct observation of children and cognitive testing were performed. Results In infant cohort study, 465 infants were recruited at 4 months and 367 children were followed up to 30 months, follow up rate was 78.9% and in the preschool cohort study, total 192 children (112 at 2005 and 80 at 2007) at age of 5 years old and 169 followed up to 6 years (follow up rate was 88.0%), and 79 children were followed up to 8 years old (follow up rate was 70.5%) old. Several new measurements to evaluate child sociability were developed. Some factors related to development of child sociability were found for example the ‘praise’ was related to child sociability in cohort study based on neuroscience findings. Conclusions Though the trajectory of child sociability development were not clarified, some significant factors related to development of sociability, and the basic findings to conduct a long-term and large scale cohort study were provided. PMID:20179361

Yamagata, Zentaro; Maeda, Tadahiko; Anme, Tokie; Sadato, Norihiro

2010-01-01

135

A Study of Psychological Distress in Two Cohorts of First-Year Medical Students that Underwent Different Admission Selection Processes  

PubMed Central

Background: Medical training is often regarded as a stressful period. Studies have previously found that 21.6%–50% of medical students experience significant psychological distress. The present study compared the prevalence and levels of psychological distress between 2 cohorts of first-year medical students that underwent different admission selection processes. Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted by comparing 2 cohorts of first-year medical students; 1 group (cohort 1) was selected based purely on academic merit (2008/2009 cohort) and the other group (cohort 2) was selected based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance (2009/2010 cohort). Their distress levels were measured by the General Health Questionnaire, and scores higher than 3 were considered indicative of significant psychological distress. Results: The prevalence (P = 0.003) and levels (P = 0.001) of psychological distress were significantly different between the 2 cohorts. Cohort 1 had 1.2–3.3 times higher risk of developing psychological distress compared to cohort 2 (P = 0.007). Conclusion: Cohort 2 had better psychological health than cohort 1 and was less likely to develop psychological distress. This study provided evidence of a potential benefit of multimodal student selection based on academic merit, psychometric assessment, and interview performance. This selection process might identify medical students who will maintain better psychological health. PMID:23610547

Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri; Rahim, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Baba, Abdul Aziz; Ismail, Shaiful Bahari; Esa, Ab Rahman

2012-01-01

136

Risk of epilepsy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus – a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affects central and peripheral nervous systems, manifesting neuropsychiatric disorders that vary from subtle signs to life-threatening complications. This study compared the risk of epilepsy between a general population and patients with SLE. Methods From the national insurance claims data of the Taiwan National Health Research Institutes, we identified 32,301 patients with newly diagnosed SLE from 1997–2010 and, for comparison, 129,204 randomly selected people without SLE; the frequencies of both groups were matched by sex, age, and diagnosis date. The incidence of epilepsy was estimated for both cohorts by the end of 2010. Results The incidence of epilepsy was 2.86-fold higher in the SLE cohort than in the non-SLE cohort (9.10 per 10,000 person-years versus 3.18 per 10,000 person-years), with a Cox method estimated adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 2.33 (95% confidence interval [CI] =1.89–2.88) for the SLE cohort. The incidence increased with age in the non-SLE cohort, while it decreased with the increase of age in the SLE cohort. Compared with the non-SLE cohort, the age-specific aHR of epilepsy for the SLE cohort decreased from 8.05 (95% CI =4.30–15.0) for those aged ?20 years to 0.90 (95% CI =0.57–1.42) for those aged 60 years and above (P=0.01). Comorbidities that had a significant association with epilepsy included infarction (aHR =7.62), intracerebral hemorrhage (aHR =5.75), aseptic meningoencephalitis (aHR =5.35), and psychiatric disorder (aHR =3.31). Conclusion Patients with SLE are at higher risk of epilepsy than the general population, especially younger SLE patients. Neurologic comorbidities and psychiatric disorders increase the epilepsy risk further. PMID:25214788

Tsai, Jeng-Dau; Lin, Cheng-Li; Lin, Cheng-Chieh; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lue, Ko-Huang

2014-01-01

137

The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years) of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM), paired associate learning (PAL), and IQ tests were analyzed. (M)ANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192?bp/192?bp genotype, a heterozygote 192?bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease. PMID:25114679

Licht, Carmilla M. M.; van Turenhout, Lise C.; Deijen, Jan Berend; Koppes, Lando L. J.; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W. R.; Drent, Madeleine L.

2014-01-01

138

The Association between IGF-1 Polymorphisms, IGF-1 Serum Levels, and Cognitive Functions in Healthy Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

Several studies have demonstrated an association between polymorphisms in the insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) gene and IGF-1 serum levels. IGF-1 levels have been associated with cognitive functioning in older persons and growth hormone deficient patients. The present study investigates whether IGF-1 polymorphisms, IGF-1 levels, and cognition are interconnected in healthy adults. Data of 277 participants (mean age: 42.4 years) of the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study on IGF-1 promoter polymorphisms, IGF-1 serum level, spatial working memory (SWM), paired associate learning (PAL), and IQ tests were analyzed. (M)ANOVAs were applied to confirm the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels and between IGF-1 levels and cognition. Three groups were distinguished based on specific IGF-1 polymorphism alleles: a homozygote 192?bp/192?bp genotype, a heterozygote 192?bp/x genotype, and a noncarrier x/x genotype. Although different IGF-1 levels were found for the three genotypes, performance on all cognitive tasks and IQ measures was similar. Despite the associations between IGF-1 polymorphisms and IGF-1 levels, no association was found between cognition and IGF-1 levels. It seems that IGF-1 does not play a role in the cognitive performance of healthy middle-aged adults. Possible, IGF-1 fulfills a more developmental and protective role in cognition which becomes apparent during childhood, old-age, or disease. PMID:25114679

Licht, Carmilla M M; van Turenhout, Lise C; Deijen, Jan Berend; Koppes, Lando L J; van Mechelen, Willem; Twisk, Jos W R; Drent, Madeleine L

2014-01-01

139

Review of higher education institutions in regional and city development: self-evaluation report of Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Instellingen voor hoger onderwijs in de metropoolregio Amsterdam moeten beter samenwerken met het bedrijfsleven. Want alleen dan kan de regio optimaal de vruchten plukken van innovatie uit het hoger onderwijs. Dat blijkt uit een analyse van SEO Economisch Onderzoek in het kader van een internationale studie van de OECD. De regio – die zich grofweg uitstrekt van Amsterdam tot aan

B. Tieben; T. Smid

2009-01-01

140

The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders is underway and has successfully enrolled over 1,000 workers to date. PMID:22672216

2012-01-01

141

Taskforce Duurzaamheid Spui 21 1012 WX Amsterdam  

E-print Network

Taskforce Duurzaamheid Spui 21 1012 WX Amsterdam Postbus 19268 1000 GG Amsterdam www.uva Duurzaamheid UvA Auteur Maarten van Schie Datum december 2011 #12;Titel Duurzaamheid in onderwijs en onderzoek Amsterdam (UvA) en te maken heeft met duurzaamheid. Het is geschreven in opdracht van het Platform

van Rooij, Robert

142

The fetal safety of cetirizine: an observational cohort study and meta-analysis.  

PubMed

Cetirizine, a second-generation antihistamine, is an active metabolite of hydroxyzine used in the treatment of allergies, but the data on fetal safety are inconclusive. Pregnant women who were counselled by the 'Motherisk Program' regarding cetirizine exposure were enrolled in a cohort study and compared with pregnant women counselled for non-teratogenic exposures. The objective was to measure the rate of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Subsequently, we also conducted a meta-analysis of cohort studies that examined the pregnancy outcomes of women exposed to hydroxyzine or cetirizine during pregnancy. In the cohort study, there were no significant differences in the rates of major malformations between the cetirizine exposed and comparison group. In the meta-analysis, cetirizine was not associated with increased teratogenic risk. In contrast, a meta-analysis of cetirizine and hydroxyzine studies showed a marginal association with major malformations. Cetirizine is not associated with a clinically important increase in risk of adverse fetal outcomes. PMID:24678814

Etwel, F; Djokanovic, N; Moretti, M E; Boskovic, R; Martinovic, J; Koren, G

2014-07-01

143

Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier. PMID:20739029

Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

2010-01-01

144

Specialist cohort event monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.  

PubMed

The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications. PMID:25564333

Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

2015-02-01

145

In-hospital versus out-of-hospital pediatric cardiac arrest: A multicenter cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To describe a large multicenter cohort of pediatric cardiac arrest (CA) with return of circulation (ROC) from either the in-hospital (IH) or out-of-hospital (OH) setting in order to determine if significant differences related to pre-event, arrest event, early post-arrest event characteristics and outcomes exist that would be critical in planning a clinical trial of therapeutic hypothermia (TH). Design Retrospective cohort study Setting Fifteen Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) sites. Patients Patients from 24 hours (h) to 18 years with either IH or OH CA who had a history of at least 1 minute of chest compressions and ROC for at least 20 minutes were eligible. Interventions None Measurements and Main Results A total of 491 patients met study entry criteria with 353 IH cases and 138 OH cases. Major differences between the IH and OH cohorts were observed for patient pre-arrest characteristics; arrest event initial rhythm described; and arrest medication use. Several post-arrest interventions were utilized differently, however, the use of TH was similar (<5%) in both cohorts. During the 0–12 h interval following ROC, OH cases had lower minimum temperature and pH, and higher maximum serum glucose recorded. Mortality was greater in the OH cohort (62% vs. 51%, p=0.04) with the cause attributed to a neurological indication much more frequent in the OH than IH cohort (69% vs. 20%; p < 0.01). Conclusions For pediatric CA with ROC, several major differences exist between IH and OH cohorts. The finding that the etiology of death was attributed to neurological indications much more frequently in OH arrests has important implications for future research. Investigators planning to evaluate the efficacy of new interventions such as TH should be aware that the IH and OH populations differ greatly and require independent clinical trials. PMID:19455024

Moler, Frank W.; Meert, Kathleen; Donaldson, Amy E.; Nadkarni, Vinay; Brilli, Richard J.; Dalton, H.J.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Shaffner, D. H.; Schleien, Charles L.; Statler, Kimberly; Tieves, Kelly S.; Hackbarth, Richard; Pretzlaff, Robert; van der Jagt, Elise W.; Levy, Fiona; Hernan, Lynn; Silverstein, Faye S.; Dean, J Michael

2009-01-01

146

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2010-01-01

147

Cancer Prevention Studies (CPS I, CPS II, & CPS II Nutrition Cohort)  

Cancer.gov

In 1952, the Statistical Research Section, forerunner of the present Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, began its first large prospective cohort study, the Hammond-Horn Study, to study the effect of cigarette smoking on death rates from cancer and other diseases.

148

Respiratory cancer in Danish bakers: a 10 year cohort study.  

PubMed Central

A national cohort based on the census at 9 November 1970 and the death registration files from 1970 to 1980 was analysed to see if skilled Danish bakers had an excess of respiratory cancer. The group of skilled bakers was divided into occupational subgroups to try to narrow down the possible causes of cancer. Significant excess mortality was found among skilled bakers in retail bakeries, skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants, and independent bakers. To adjust for confounding factors, the SMR was calculated with control groups of equal social status and smoking habits. With all skilled workers as the reference group, skilled bakers in retail bakeries still had an excess, but now insignificant, risk but skilled bakers in hotels and restaurants had a significant excess risk. Compared with all self employed people in urban occupations in which an average of six or fewer workers were employed as a referent group, independent bakers had an insignificant excess risk. Suspected carcinogens in bakeries include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), reaction products of PAH, free radicals, n-nitrosodimethylamine, aflatoxin, sterigmatocystin, and zeralenone. PMID:3730301

Tüchsen, F; Nordholm, L

1986-01-01

149

Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP???5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date. PMID:23497211

2013-01-01

150

A prospective cohort study of surgical treatment for back pain with degenerated discs; study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of discogenic back pain often leads to spinal fusion surgery and may partly explain the recent rapid increase in lumbar fusion operations in the United States. Little is known about how patients undergoing lumbar fusion compare in preoperative physical and psychological function to patients who have degenerative discs, but receive only non-surgical care. Methods Our group is implementing a multi-center prospective cohort study to compare patients with presumed discogenic pain who undergo lumbar fusion with those who have non-surgical care. We identify patients with predominant low back pain lasting at least six months, one or two-level disc degeneration confirmed by imaging, and a normal neurological exam. Patients are classified as surgical or non-surgical based on the treatment they receive during the six months following study enrollment. Results Three hundred patients discogenic low back pain will be followed in a prospective cohort study for two years. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire at 24-months. We also evaluate several other dimensions of outcome, including pain, functional status, psychological distress, general well-being, and role disability. Conclusion The primary aim of this prospective cohort study is to better define the outcomes of lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain as it is practiced in the United States. We additionally aim to identify characteristics that result in better patient selection for surgery. Potential predictors include demographics, work and disability compensation status, initial symptom severity and duration, imaging results, functional status, and psychological distress. PMID:15913458

Deyo, Richard A; Mirza, Sohail K; Heagerty, Patrick J; Turner, Judith A; Martin, Brook I

2005-01-01

151

Mediterranean diet and telomere length in Nurses’ Health Study: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine whether adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomere length, a biomarker of aging. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Nurses’ Health Study, an ongoing prospective cohort study of 121?700 nurses enrolled in 1976; in 1989-90 a subset of 32?825 women provided blood samples. Participants 4676 disease-free women from nested case-control studies within the Nurses’ Health Study with telomere length measured who also completed food frequency questionnaires. Main outcome measure Association between relative telomere lengths in peripheral blood leukocytes measured by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction and Alternate Mediterranean Diet score calculated from self reported dietary data. Results Greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres after adjustment for potential confounders. Least squares mean telomere length z scores were ?0.038 (SE 0.035) for the lowest Mediterranean diet score groups and 0.072 (0.030) for the highest group (P for trend=0.004). Conclusion In this large study, greater adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with longer telomeres. These results further support the benefits of adherence to the Mediterranean diet for promoting health and longevity. PMID:25467028

Crous-Bou, Marta; Fung, Teresa T; Prescott, Jennifer; Julin, Bettina; Sun, Qi; Rexrode, Kathryn M; Hu, Frank B

2014-01-01

152

The Millennium Cohort Study: A Prospective Study of the Health of Military Service Members  

Cancer.gov

This is the first large, population-based prospective study to investigate the short- and long-term health effects of military service. After the 1991 Gulf War, research on illnesses was hampered by unavailability of objective measurements on exposures at the individual level, a lack of baseline health data, and an inability to adequately control for potential confounding factors. Public health experts recommended that the Department of Defense (DoD) establish a cohort with the capability to prospectively examine health outcomes among U.S. military service members.

153

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2011-01-01

154

Mortality from suicide and other external cause injuries in China: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Premature death from suicide is a leading cause of death worldwide. However, the pattern and risk factors for suicide and other external cause injuries are not well understood. This study investigates mortality from suicide and other injuries and associated risk factors in China. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 169,871 Chinese adults aged 40 years and older was conducted.

Casey M Rebholz; Dongfeng Gu; Wenjie Yang; Jing Chen; Xigui Wu; Jian-feng Huang; Ji-chun Chen; Chung-Shiuan Chen; Tanika N Kelly; Xiufang Duan; Lydia A Bazzano; Jiang He

2011-01-01

155

EVALUATION OF A REMOTE EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGY FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...

156

Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. METHODS: This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child

Darci N Santos; Ana Marlúcia O Assis; Ana Bastos; Letícia M Santos; Carlos Antonio ST Santos; Agostino Strina; Matildes S Prado; Naomar M Almeida-Filho; Laura C Rodrigues; Mauricio L Barreto

2008-01-01

157

Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

158

Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

159

Asthma and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Nationwide Population-Based Prospective Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Previous cross-sectional studies have suggested an association between asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), but the temporal relationship was not determined. Using a nationwide population-based prospective case-control cohort study (1:4, age-/gender-matched), we hypothesized that asthma in infanthood or early…

Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Chen, Ying-Sheue; Hsu, Ju-Wei; Huang, Kai-Lin; Chang, Wen-Han; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Bai, Ya-Mei

2013-01-01

160

Pre- and Postnatal Influences on Preschool Mental Health: A Large-Scale Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Methodological challenges such as confounding have made the study of the early determinants of mental health morbidity problematic. This study aims to address these challenges in investigating antenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for the development of mental health problems in pre-school children in a cohort of Western…

Robinson, Monique; Oddy, Wendy H.; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth E.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Silburn, Sven R.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Newnham, John P.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Mattes, Eugen

2008-01-01

161

New Wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Looks at Aging "Happy Days" Cohort  

E-print Network

New Wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study Looks at Aging "Happy Days" Cohort Bob and Tess Hauser and a team of researchers are gearing up for a new wave of the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, funded current faculty and past graduates of the Department of Sociology. Several continuing and new graduate

Sheridan, Jennifer

162

Cannabis use and educational achievement: Findings from three Australasian cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe associations between age of onset of cannabis use and educational achievement were examined using data from three Australasian cohort studies involving over 6000 participants. The research aims were to compare findings across studies and obtain pooled estimates of association using meta-analytic methods.

L. John Horwood; David M. Fergusson; Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh; Jake M. Najman; Carolyn Coffey; George C. Patton; Edmund Silins; Delyse M. Hutchinson

2010-01-01

163

Cancer risk following organ transplantation: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who

J Adami; H Gäbel; B Lindelöf; K Ekström; B Rydh; B Glimelius; A Ekbom; H-O Adami; F Granath

2003-01-01

164

Low Job Control and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Whitehall II (Prospective Cohort) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. Design: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of

Hans Bosma; Michael G. Marmot; Harry Hemingway; Amanda C. Nicholson; Eric Brunner; Stephen A. Stansfeld

1997-01-01

165

Prenatal, Perinatal, and Neonatal Risk Factors for Specific Language Impairment: A Prospective Pregnancy Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: Although genetic factors are known to play a causal role in specific language impairment (SLI), environmental factors may also be important. This study examined whether there are prenatal, perinatal, and neonatal factors that are associated with childhood SLI. Method: Participants were members of the Raine Study, a prospective cohort

Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Shelton, W. M. R.; Ing, Caleb; Newnham, John P.

2014-01-01

166

Bleeding complications of oral anticoagulant treatment: an inception-cohort, prospective collaborative study (ISCOAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Bleeding is the most serious complication of the use of oral anticoagulation in the prevention and treatment of thromoboembolic complications. We studied the frequency of bleeding complications in outpatients treated routinely in anticoagulation clinics. Methods In a prospective cohort from thirty-four Italian anticoagulation clinics, 2745 consecutive patients were studied from the start of their oral anticoagulation (warfarin in

Gualtiero Palareti; Nicoletta Leali; Sergio Coccheri; Mario Poggi; Cesare Manotti; Armando D'Angelo; Vittorio Pengo; Nicoletta Erba; Marco Moia; Nicola Ciavarella; Gianluigi Devoto; Mauro Berrettini; Serena Musolesi

1996-01-01

167

Posttraumatic Syndromes in Children and Adolescents after Road Traffic Accidents – A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of road traffic accidents (RTAs) on the physical health of children is well recognized, but their psychological consequences have only recently become a topic of research. While other traumatic experiences in childhood are well studied, this kind of trauma has been poorly investigated to date. Sampling and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted of 8- to

Ingo Schäfer; Claus Barkmann; Peter Riedesser; Michael Schulte-Markwort

2006-01-01

168

STUDY PROTOCOL Open Access EPIPAGE 2: a preterm birth cohort in France in  

E-print Network

and their determinants. Methods/Design: Eligible participants for this prospective population-based study include all babies (stillbirths and live births) and terminations of pregnancy out of 8400 eligible births in France and prevention in high-risk babies. Keywords: Preterm births, Cohort, Population-based study Background About 10

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although previous studies have shown increased mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives, no data are available in relation to different patterns of clinical presentation. We assessed mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their first-degree relatives. Methods We enrolled, in a prospective cohort study, 1072 adult patients with coeliac disease consecutively diagnosed in 11 gastroenterology

Giovanni Corrao; Gino Roberto Corazza; Vincenzo Bagnardi; Giovanna Brusco; Carolina Ciacci; Mario Cottone; Carla Sategna Guidetti; Paolo Usai; Pietro Cesari; Maria Antonietta Pelli; Silvano Loperfido; Umberto Volta; Antonino Calabró; Maria Certo

2001-01-01

170

Very Early Predictors of Conduct Problems and Crime: Results from a National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born…

Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.

2010-01-01

171

Asymptotic results for fitting marginal hazards models from stratified case-cohort studies with multiple disease outcomes  

PubMed Central

In stratified case-cohort designs, samplings of case-cohort samples are conducted via a stratified random sampling based on covariate information available on the entire cohort members. In this paper, we extended the work of Kang & Cai (2009) to a generalized stratified case-cohort study design for failure time data with multiple disease outcomes. Under this study design, we developed weighted estimating procedures for model parameters in marginal multiplicative intensity models and for the cumulative baseline hazard function. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are studied using martingales, modern empirical process theory, and results for finite population sampling. PMID:22442642

Kang, Sangwook; Cai, Jianwen

2010-01-01

172

Pharmaco-morbidity linkage: a feasibility study comparing morbidity in two pharmacy based exposure cohorts.  

PubMed Central

STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aims were (1) to compare discharge diagnoses and concurrent medication in a pharmacy based cohort of users of H2 receptor antagonists to those in a population of users of other drugs in the same period, who did not use H2 receptor antagonists; (2) to compare these results to those of a similar study performed with the Tayside record linkage scheme. DESIGN AND SETTING--The study was a retrospective cohort study. The morbidity data from the only hospital in one medium sized city (62,000 inhabitants) were linked to the dispensing data of all five community pharmacies on an individual basis (April 1, 1986-December 31, 1989). In the absence of a unique patient identification number, data from pharmacies and hospital were linked by the combination of date of birth, gender, and general practitioner code. For every user of H2 receptor antagonists two controls were obtained from all patients who had not used these drugs, and matched for age (within 5 years), gender, and general practitioner. All discharge diagnoses which followed this first prescription up to December 31, 1989, in a patient in the index cohort, and during the same period in his or her matched controls, were included in the study. MAIN RESULTS--In the index cohort (n = 2174) 341 persons were admitted (526 admissions) as against 398 persons (527 admissions) in the control cohort (n = 4348). There was increased morbidity in the index cohort, especially concerning the gastrointestinal system (peptic ulcers and malignancies, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal haemorrhage), but also concerning the musculoskeletal, respiratory, and circulatory systems. The morbidity in the last three groups corresponded with drugs used concomitantly by patients in the index cohort, so it was probably not causally related to the intake of H2 receptor antagonists but was rather an indicator of higher levels of morbidity in the index cohort. CONCLUSIONS--The figures were grossly comparable to those of the Tayside record linkage scheme. Probabilistic linking with the patient characteristics of gender, date of birth, and general practitioner code can facilitate the undertaking of postmarketing surveillance studies. PMID:1349911

Herings, R M; Bakker, A; Stricker, B H; Nap, G

1992-01-01

173

Dairy consumption and overweight and obesity: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

A comprehensive literature search was undertaken to examine the relationship between dairy consumption and overweight/obesity in prospective cohort studies. A literature search from 1980 through to April 2010 was conducted. Nineteen cohort studies met all the inclusion criteria and were included in the systematic review. Of the 19 cohort studies, 10 were among children and adolescents (aged 2 to 14 years, n = 53 to 12,829, follow-up 8 months to 10 years) and nine among adults (aged 18 to 75 years, n = 248 to 42,696, follow-up 2 years to 12 years). A range of dairy food exposure measures were used. Eight studies (three out of 10 studies involving children and five out of nine studies involving adults) showed a protective association against increasing weight gain (measured in various ways); one reported a significant protective association only among men who were initially overweight; seven reported no effect; one reported an increased risk (among children), and two reported both a decreased and increased risk, depending on the dairy food type. The evidence from prospective cohort studies for a protective effect of dairy consumption on risk of overweight and obesity is suggestive but not consistent, making firm conclusions difficult. PMID:21521450

Louie, J C Y; Flood, V M; Hector, D J; Rangan, A M; Gill, T P

2011-07-01

174

A prospective population-based cohort study of lactation and cardiovascular disease mortality: the HUNT study  

PubMed Central

Background Recent studies suggest that lactation has long-term effects on risk for cardiovascular disease in women, but the effects on cardiovascular mortality are less well known. Method In a Norwegian population-based prospective cohort study, we studied the association of lifetime duration of lactation with cardiovascular mortality in 21,889 women aged 30 to 85 years who attended the second Nord-Trøndelag Health Survey (HUNT2) in 1995–1997. The cohort was followed for mortality through 2010 by a linkage with the Cause of Death Registry. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for death from all causes and cardiovascular disease were calculated using Cox regression. Results During follow-up, 1,246 women died from cardiovascular disease. Parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated had a higher cardiovascular mortality than the reference group of women who had lactated 24 months or more (HR 2.77, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.28, 5.99). There was some evidence of a U-shaped association, where women who reported lactating 7–12 months had a HR of 0.55 (95% CI: 0.27, 1.09). No clear associations were observed among women 65 years or older. Conclusions Excess cardiovascular mortality rates were observed among parous women younger than 65 years who had never lactated. These findings support the hypothesis that lactation may have long-term influences on maternal cardiovascular health. PMID:24219620

2013-01-01

175

Prospective observational cohort studies for studying rare diseases: the European PedNet Haemophilia Registry.  

PubMed

Haemophilia is a rare disease. To improve knowledge, prospective studies of large numbers of subjects are needed. To establish a large well-documented birth cohort of patients with haemophilia enabling studies on early presentation, side effects and outcome of treatment. Twenty-one haemophilia treatment centres have been collecting data on all children with haemophilia with FVIII/IX levels up to 25% born from 2000 onwards. Another eight centres collected data on severe haemophilia A only. At baseline, details on delivery and diagnosis, gene mutation, family history of haemophilia and inhibitors are collected. For the first 75 exposure days, date, reason, dose and product are recorded for each infusion. Clinically relevant inhibitors are defined as follows: at least two positive inhibitor titres and a FVIII/IX recovery <66% of expected. For inhibitor patients, results of all inhibitor- and recovery tests are collected. For continued treatment, data on bleeding, surgery, prophylaxis and clotting factor consumption are collected annually. Data are downloaded for analysis annually. In May 2013, a total of 1094 patients were included: 701 with severe, 146 with moderate and 247 with mild haemophilia. Gene defect data were available for 87.6% of patients with severe haemophilia A. The first analysis, performed in May 2011, lead to two landmark publications. The outcome of this large collaborative research confirms its value for the improvement of haemophilia care. High-quality prospective observational cohorts form an ideal source to study natural history and treatment in rare diseases such as haemophilia. PMID:24784937

Fischer, K; Ljung, R; Platokouki, H; Liesner, R; Claeyssens, S; Smink, E; van den Berg, H M

2014-07-01

176

A general semiparametric Z-estimation approach for case-cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Case-cohort design, an outcome-dependent sampling design for censored survival data, is increasingly used in biomedical research. The development of asymptotic theory for a case-cohort design in the current literature primarily relies on counting process stochastic integrals. Such an approach, however, is rather limited and lacks theoretical justification for outcome-dependent weighted methods due to non-predictability. Instead of stochastic integrals, we derive asymptotic properties for case-cohort studies based on a general Z-estimation theory for semi-parametric models with bundled parameters using empirical process theory. Both the Cox model and the additive hazards model with time-dependent covariates are considered. PMID:24489449

Nan, Bin; Wellner, Jon A.

2013-01-01

177

Overall and cancer related mortality among patients with ocular inflammation treated with immunosuppressive drugs: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Whether immunosuppressive treatment adversely affects survival is unclear.Objective To assess whether immunosuppressive drugs increase mortality.Design Retrospective cohort study evaluating overall and cancer mortality in relation to immunosuppressive drug exposure among patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data derived from medical records, and mortality results from United States National Death Index linkage. The cohort’s mortality risk was

John H Kempen; Ebenezer Daniel; James P Dunn; C Stephen Foster; Sapna Gangaputra; Asaf Hanish; Kathy J Helzlsouer; Douglas A Jabs; R Oktay Kaçmaz; Grace A Levy-Clarke; Teresa L Liesegang; Craig W Newcomb; Robert B Nussenblatt; Siddharth S Pujari; James T Rosenbaum; Eric B Suhler; Jennifer E Thorne

2009-01-01

178

Xylitol Chewing Gums and Caries Rates: A 40-month Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries is a pandemic infectious disease which can affect the quality of life and consumes considerable health care resources. The chewing of xylitol, sorbitol, and even sugar gum has been suggested to reduce caries rates. No clinical study has simultaneously investigated the effectiveness of these gums when compared with a group receiving no chewing gum. A 40-month double-blind cohort

K. K. Makinen; C. A. Bennett; P. P. Hujoel; P. J. Isokangas; K. P. Isotupa; H. R. Pape; PL Makinen

1995-01-01

179

Safety of pleurodesis with talc poudrage in malignant pleural effusion: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods We did a multicentre, open-label, prospective cohort study of 558 patients with malignant pleural eff usion who underwent thoracoscopy and talc poudrage with 4 g of calibrated French large-particle talc in 13 European hospitals, and one in South Africa. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of acute respiratory distress syndrome after talc pleurodesis. Findings No patients developed acute respiratory

Julius P Janssen; Gareth Collier; Phillippe Astoul; Gian Franco Tassi; Marc Noppen; Francisco Rodriguez-Panadero; Robert Loddenkemper; Felix JF Herth; Stefano Gasparini; Charles H Marquette; Birgit Becke; Marios E Froudarakis; Peter Driesen; Chris T Bolliger; Jean-Marie Tschopp

2007-01-01

180

Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL Cohort Study  

E-print Network

a role in disease etiology. Human sleep is composed of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep and stages 1 to 4 of non-REM sleep. The deeper stages of non-REM sleep, i.e. stages 3 and 4, are collectively called slow1 Sleep disturbances and cause-specific mortality: Results from the GAZEL Cohort Study Naja Hulvej

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

181

Impact of Diabetes on Work Cessation Data from the GAZEL cohort study  

E-print Network

Impact of Diabetes on Work Cessation Data from the GAZEL cohort study ELÃ?ONORE HERQUELOT, MSC ALICE of diabetes on work cessation, i.e., on the risks of work disability, early retirement, and death while with diabetes and randomly selected 2,530 nondiabetic employed control subjects matched for major socio

Boyer, Edmond

182

How useful are home safety behaviours for predicting childhood injury? A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Little work has examined the utility of home safety behaviours in predicting childhood in- jury. This study examines the relationship be- tween safety behaviours and child injury using a cohort of 1717 families, with 2357 children aged 0-7 years. Safety behaviours, and socio- demographic and family characteristics were measured using a validated questionnaire, and medically attended injuries were ascertained from

Denise Kendrick; Michael Watson; Caroline Mulvaney; Paul Burton

2005-01-01

183

Child Care in Infancy and Cognitive Performance until Middle Childhood in the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used a British cohort ("n" = [approximately]13,000) to investigate the association between child care during infancy and later cognition while controlling for social selection and missing data. It was found that attending child care (informal or center based) at 9 months was positively associated with cognitive outcomes at age…

Cote, Sylvana M.; Doyle, Orla; Petitclerc, Amelie; Timmins, Lori

2013-01-01

184

Mortality in Patients with Klinefelter Syndrome in Britain: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context: Klinefelter syndrome is characterized by hypogonadism and infertility, consequent on the presence of extra X chromosome(s). There is limited information about long-term mortality in this syn- drome because there have been no large cohort studies. Objective: Our objective was to investigate mortality in men with Klinefelter syndrome. Design and Setting: We obtained data about patients diagnosed with Klinefelter syndrome

Anthony J. Swerdlow; Craig D. Higgins; Minouk J. Schoemaker; Alan F. Wright; Patricia A. Jacobs

2010-01-01

185

Atypical antipsychotic drugs and risk of ischaemic stroke: population based retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To compare the incidence of admissions to hospital for stroke among older adults with dementia receiving atypical or typical antipsychotics. DESIGN: Population based retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Ontario, Canada. Patients 32,710 older adults (< or = 65 years) with dementia (17,845 dispensed an atypical antipsychotic and 14,865 dispensed a typical antipsychotic). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Admission to hospital with the

Sudeep S. Gill; Paula A. Rochon; Nathan Herrmann; Philip E. Lee; Kathy Sykora; Nadia Gunraj; Sharon-Lise T. Normand; Jerry H. Gurwitz; Connie Marras; Walter P. Wodchis; Muhammad M. Mamdani

2005-01-01

186

Infant Weight Gain and Childhood Overweight Status in a Multicenter, Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To determine whether a rapid rate of weight gain in early infancy is associated with overweight status in childhood. Design. Prospective, cohort study from birth to age 7 years. Setting. Twelve sites across the United States. Participants. Twenty-seven thousand, eight hundred ninety-nine (27 899) eligible participants born at full term between 1959 and 1965. Main Outcome Measure. Overweight status

Nicolas Stettler; Babette S. Zemel; Shiriki Kumanyika; Virginia A. Stallings

2010-01-01

187

The Impact of Streaming on Attainment at Age Seven: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper investigates the relationship between stream placement and the academic progress made by children in England in Year 2 of primary school, drawing on data from the longitudinal Millennium Cohort Study (MCS). The MCS is a sample of 19,000 children born across the UK around the turn of the century and their families. Academic progress was…

Parsons, Samantha; Hallam, Sue

2014-01-01

188

Birth weight, childhood socioeconomic environment, and cognitive development in the 1958 British birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the combined effect of social class and weight at birth on cognitive trajectories during school age and the associations between birth weight and educational outcomes through to 33 years. Design Longitudinal, population based, birth cohort study. Participants 10 845 males and females born during 3›9 March 1958 with information on birth weight, social class, and cognitive tests.

Barbara J M H Jefferis; Chris Power; Clyde Hertzman

2002-01-01

189

Advanced paternal age and risk of fetal death: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A possible detrimental paternal age effect on offspring health due to mutations of paternal origin should be reflected in an association between paternal age and fetal loss. The authors used data from a prospective study of 23,821 pregnant women recruited consecutively to the Danish National Birth Cohort from 1997 to 1999 to assess the association between paternal age and fetal

Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen; textbfKasper D textbfHansen; Per Kragh Andersen; George Davey Smith; Kasper Daniel Hansen

2004-01-01

190

Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies  

E-print Network

Developmental Profiles of Eczema, Wheeze, and Rhinitis: Two Population-Based Birth Cohort Studies: The term ``atopic march'' has been used to imply a natural progression of a cascade of symptoms from eczema the natural history of eczema, wheeze, and rhinitis during childhood. We propose that this paradigm arose from

Bishop, Christopher M.

191

HIV infection and risk factors among Bangkok prisoners, Thailand: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Incarceration has been associated with HIV infection among injection drug users. However, data on HIV risk factors of the inmates during incarceration are rarely reported from Thailand. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 689 male inmates in a Bangkok central prison was studied during 2001–2002. Follow up visits were conducted for 5 months, with testing for HIV and other infections

Hansa Thaisri; John Lerwitworapong; Suthon Vongsheree; Pathom Sawanpanyalert; Chanchai Chadbanchachai; Archawin Rojanawiwat; Wichuda Kongpromsook; Wiroj Paungtubtim; Pongnuwat Sri-ngam; Rachaneekorn Jaisue

2003-01-01

192

Whooping cough in school age children with persistent cough: prospective cohort study in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the proportion of school age children with a persistent cough who have evidence of a recent Bordetella pertussis infection. Design Prospective cohort study (October 2001 to March 2005). Setting General practices in Oxfordshire, England. Participants 172 children aged 5-16 years who presented to their general practitioner with a cough lasting 14 days or more who consented to

Anthony Harnden; Cameron Grant; Timothy Harrison; Rafael Perera; Angela B Brueggemann; Richard Mayon-White; David Mant

2006-01-01

193

Head Start Participation and School Readiness: Evidence from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (n ˜ 6,950), a nationally representative sample of children born in 2001, we examined school readiness (academic skills and socioemotional well-being) at kindergarten entry for children who attended Head Start compared with those who experienced other types of child care…

Lee, RaeHyuck; Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Han, Wen-Jui; Waldfogel, Jane

2014-01-01

194

USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND PROSTATE CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT  

EPA Science Inventory

The authors examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and prostate cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 55,332 male pesticide applicators from Iowa and North Carolina with no prior history of prostate cancer. Data were collected by means...

195

Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Combat-intense, lengthy, and multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan have characterized the new millennium. The US military's all-volunteer force has never been better trained and technologically equipped to engage enemy combatants in multiple theaters of operations. Nonetheless, concerns over potential lasting effects of deployment on long-term health continue to mount and are yet to be elucidated. This report outlines how findings from the first 7 years of the Millennium Cohort Study have helped to address health concerns related to military service including deployments. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study was designed in the late 1990s to address veteran and public concerns for the first time using prospectively collected health and behavioral data. Results Over 150 000 active-duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from all service branches have enrolled, and more than 70% of the first 2 enrollment panels submitted at least 1 follow-up survey. Approximately half of the Cohort has deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusion The Millennium Cohort Study is providing prospective data that will guide public health policymakers for years to come by exploring associations between military exposures and important health outcomes. Strategic studies aim to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes that may be associated with military service, including those related to deployment. PMID:21281496

2011-01-01

196

Large prospective birth cohort studies on environmental contaminants and child health – Goals, challenges, limitations and needs  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY The adverse health effects of environmental contaminants (ECs) are a rising public health concern, and a major threat to sustainable socioeconomic development. The developing fetuses and growing children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of ECs. However, assessing the health impact of ECs presents a major challenge, given that multiple outcomes may arise from one exposure, multiple exposures may result in one outcome, and the complex interactions between ECs, and between ECs, nutrients and genetic factors, and the dynamic temporal changes in EC exposures during the life course. Large-scale prospective birth cohort studies collecting extensive data and specimen starting from the prenatal or pre-conception period, although costly, hold promise as a means to more clearly quantify the health effects of ECs, and to unravel the complex interactions between ECs, nutrients and genotypes. A number of such large-scale studies have been launched in some developed counties. We present an overview of “why”, “what” and “how” behind these efforts with an objective to uncover major unidentified limitations and needs. Three major limitations were identified: (1) limited data and bio-specimens regarding early life EC exposure assessments in some birth cohort studies; (2) heavy participant burdens in some birth cohort studies may bias participant recruitment, and risk substantial loss to follow-up, protocol deviations limiting the quality of data and specimens collection, with an overall potential bias towards the null effect; (3) lack of concerted efforts in building comparable birth cohorts across countries to take advantage of natural “experiments” (large EC exposure level differences between countries) for more in-depth assessments of dose–response relationships, threshold exposure levels, and positive and negative effect modifiers. Addressing these concerns in current or future large-scale birth cohort studies may help to produce better evidence on the health effects of ECs. PMID:19765909

Luo, Zhong-Cheng; Liu, Jian-Meng; Fraser, William D.

2011-01-01

197

The population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Prospective Cohort Study (AMIGO) in the Netherlands  

PubMed Central

Purpose Occupational and environmental exposures remain important modifiable risk factors of public health. Existing cohort studies are often limited by the level of detail of data collected on these factors and health. It is also often assumed that the more healthy group is over-represented in cohort studies, which is of concern for their external validity. In this cohort profile, we describe how we set up the population-based Occupational and Environmental Health Cohort Study (AMIGO) to longitudinally study occupational and environmental determinants of diseases and well-being from a multidisciplinary and life course point of view. Reviewed by the Medical Ethics Research Committee of the University Medical Center Utrecht (protocol 10-268/C). All cohort members participate voluntarily and gave informed consent prior to their inclusion. Participants 14?829 adult cohort members (16% of those invited) consented and filled in the online baseline questionnaire. Determinants include chemical, biological, physical (eg, electromagnetic fields), and psychosocial factors. Priority health outcomes include cancer, neurological, cardiovascular and respiratory diseases and non-specific symptoms. Owing to the recruitment strategy via general practitioners of an established network, we also collect longitudinal data registered in their electronic medical records including symptoms, diagnosis and treatments. Besides the advantage of health outcomes that cannot be easily captured longitudinally by other means, this created a unique opportunity to assess health-related participation bias by comparing general practitioner-registered prevalence rates in the cohort and its source population. Findings to date We found no indications of such a systematic bias. The major assets of the AMIGO approach are its detailed occupational and environmental determinants in combination with the longitudinal health data registered in general practice besides linkage to cancer and mortality registries and self-reported health. Future plans We are now in the phase of prospective follow-up, with the aim of continuing this for as long as possible (20+ years), pending future funding. Findings will be disseminated through scientific conferences and peer-reviewed journals, and through newsletters and the project website to participants, stakeholders and the wider public. PMID:25428630

Slottje, Pauline; Yzermans, C Joris; Korevaar, Joke C; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Vermeulen, Roel C H

2014-01-01

198

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Cohort Mortality Study With Emphasis on Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Current information points to an association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer and other mortality outcomes, but uncertainties remain. Methods We undertook a cohort mortality study of 12?315 workers exposed to diesel exhaust at eight US non-metal mining facilities. Historical measurements and surrogate exposure data, along with study industrial hygiene measurements, were used to derive retrospective quantitative estimates of respirable elemental carbon (REC) exposure for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios and internally adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate REC exposure–associated risk. Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death. Results Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer (1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.44), esophageal cancer (1.83, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.75), and pneumoconiosis (12.20, 95% CI = 6.82 to 20.12) were elevated in the complete cohort compared with state-based mortality rates, but all-cause, bladder cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality were not. Differences in risk by worker location (ever-underground vs surface only) initially obscured a positive diesel exhaust exposure–response relationship with lung cancer in the complete cohort, although it became apparent after adjustment for worker location. The hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer mortality increased with increasing 15-year lagged cumulative REC exposure for ever-underground workers with 5 or more years of tenure to a maximum in the 640 to less than 1280 ?g/m3-y category compared with the reference category (0 to <20 ?g/m3-y; 30 deaths compared with eight deaths of the total of 93; HR = 5.01, 95% CI = 1.97 to 12.76) but declined at higher exposures. Average REC intensity hazard ratios rose to a plateau around 32 ?g/m3. Elevated hazard ratios and evidence of exposure–response were also seen for surface workers. The association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk remained after inclusion of other work-related potentially confounding exposures in the models and were robust to alternative approaches to exposure derivation. Conclusions The study findings provide further evidence that exposure to diesel exhaust increases risk of mortality from lung cancer and have important public health implications. PMID:22393207

Schleiff, Patricia L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Silverman, Debra T.

2012-01-01

199

Piccolipiù, a multicenter birth cohort in Italy: protocol of the study  

PubMed Central

Background The fetal and infant life are periods of rapid development, characterized by high susceptibility to exposures. Birth cohorts provide unique opportunities to study early-life exposures in association with child development and health, as well as, with longer follow-up, the early life origin of adult diseases. Piccolipiù is an Italian birth cohort recently set up to investigate the effects of environmental exposures, parental conditions and social factors acting during pre-natal and early post-natal life on infant and child health and development. We describe here its main characteristics. Methods/design Piccolipiù is a prospective cohort of expected 3000 newborns, who will be recruiting in six maternity units of five Italian cities (Florence, Rome, Trieste, Turin and Viareggio) since October 2011. Mothers are contacted during pregnancy or at delivery and are offered to participate in the study. Upon acceptance, their newborns are recruited at birth and followed up until at least 18 years of age. At recruitment, the mothers donate a blood sample and complete a baseline questionnaire. Umbilical cord blood, pieces of umbilical cord and heel blood spots are also collected. Postnatal follow-up currently occurs at 6, 12, and 24 months of age using on-line or postal self administered questionnaire; further questionnaires and medical examinations are envisaged. Questionnaires collect information on several factors, including mother’s and/or child’s environmental exposures, anthropometric measures, reproductive factors, diet, supplements, medical history, cognitive development, mental health and socioeconomic factors. Health promotion materials are also offered to parents. Discussion Piccolipiù will broaden our understanding of the contribution of early-life factors to infant and child health and development. Several hypotheses on the developmental origins of health can be tested or piloted using the data collected from the Piccolipiù cohort. By pooling these data with those collected by other existing birth cohorts it will be possible to validate previous findings and to study rare exposures and outcomes. PMID:24506846

2014-01-01

200

Alcohol and Breast Cancer Mortality in a Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Available epidemiological evidence indicates that alcohol intake is associated with a higher risk of developing breast cancer. Plausible biological pathways include its effect on levels of estrogens, cell membrane integrity and cell-to-cell communication, inhibition of DNA repair, and congener effect. The present study evaluated the impact of alcohol on mortality from breast cancer, an area with relatively few studies in

M. G. Jain; R. G. Ferrence; J. T. Rehm; S. J. Bondy; T. E. Rohan; M. J. Ashley; J. E. Cohen; A. B. Miller

2000-01-01

201

The Risk of Asthma in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The relationship between asthma and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is controversial. We examined the risk of asthma among AS patients in a nationwide population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the National Health Insurance (NHI) system of Taiwan. The cohort included 5,974 patients newly diagnosed with AS from 2000 to 2010. The date of diagnosis was defined as the index date. A 4-fold of general population without AS was randomly selected frequency matched by age, gender and the index year. The occurrence and hazard ratio (HR) of asthma were estimated by the end of 2011. Results The overall incidence of asthma was 1.74 folds greater in the AS cohort than in the non-AS cohort (8.26 versus 4.74 per 1000 person-years) with a multivariable Cox method measured adjusted HR of 1.54 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.34–1.76). The adjusted HR of asthma associated with AS was higher in women (1.59; 95% CI, 1.33–1.90), those aged 50–64 years (1.66; 95% CI, 1.31–2.09), or those without comorbidities (1.82; 95% CI, 1.54–2.13). Conclusion Patients with AS are at a higher risk of developing asthma than the general population, regardless of gender and age. The pathophysiology needs further investigation. PMID:25658339

Shen, Te-Chun; Lin, Cheng-Li; Wei, Chang-Ching; Chen, Chia-Hung; Tu, Chih-Yen; Hsia, Te-Chun; Shih, Chuen-Ming; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Sung, Fung-Chang

2015-01-01

202

KNOW-KT (KoreaN cohort study for outcome in patients with kidney transplantation: a 9-year longitudinal cohort study): study rationale and methodology  

PubMed Central

Background Asian patients undergoing kidney transplantation (KT) generally have better renal allograft survival and a lower burden of cardiovascular disease than those of other racial groups. The KNOW-KT aims to explore allograft survival rate, cardiovascular events, and metabolic profiles and to elucidate the risk factors in Korean KT patients. Methods KNOW-KT is a multicenter, observational cohort study encompassing 8 transplant centers in the Republic of Korea. KNOW-KT will enroll 1,000 KT recipients between 2012 and 2015 and follow them up to 9 years. At the time of KT and at pre-specified intervals, clinical information, laboratory test results, and functional and imaging studies on cardiovascular disease and metabolic complications will be recorded. Comorbid status will be assessed by the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index. Medication adherence and information on quality of life (QoL) will be monitored periodically. The QoL will be assessed by the Kidney Disease Quality of Life Short Form. Donors will include both living donors and deceased donors whose status will be assessed by the Kidney Donor Risk Index. Primary endpoints include graft loss and patient mortality. Secondary endpoints include renal functional deterioration (a decrease in eGFR to <30 mL/min/1.73 m2), acute rejection, cardiovascular event, albuminuria, new-onset diabetes after transplant, and QoL. Data on other adverse outcomes including episodes of infection, malignancy, recurrence of original renal disease, fracture, and hospitalization will also be collected. A bio-bank has been established for the acquisition of DNA, RNA, and protein from serum and urine samples of recipients at regular intervals. Bio-samples from donors will also be collected at the time of KT. KNOW-KT was registered in an international clinical trial registry (NCT02042963 at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov) on January 20th, 2014. Conclusion The KNOW-KT, the first large-scale cohort study in Asian KT patients, is expected to represent the Asian KT population and provide information on their natural course, complications, and risk factors for complications. PMID:24884405

2014-01-01

203

Medication adherence in patients with dementia: an Austrian cohort study.  

PubMed

Sustained treatment with effective doses of cholinesterase inhibitors or memantine is crucial to transfer treatment effects in dementia. Numerous studies, with often small samples sizes, describe low adherence rates. The purpose of current study was to examine the medical adherence of antidementia therapy in Austria. We analyzed the data of 10 Austrian Health Insurance Funds, including treatment-naive dementia patients. Study outcome measures were discontinuation, switching, number of days on therapy, Medication-Possession-Ratio, and compliance. A total of 15,809 patients (mean age: 79.9 y, female: 67.3%) met the study's inclusion criteria. After stratification by index medication there were 40.3% on donepezil (n=6371); 26.6% on rivastigmine (n=4206); 15.3% on galantamine (n=2424); and 17.8% on memantine (n=2808). After 6 and 12 months on therapy, 5376 (34.0%) and 9243 (58.5%) patients stopped the initially prescribed antidementia therapy; after 12 months the highest discontinuation rate was seen for patients taking rivastigmine (67.3%), whereas patients on memantine (45.0%) had the lowest. After 12 months, a total of 1874 (11.9%) patients switched from their index medication to another cholinesterase inhibitor or memantine. A total of 6163 patients (39.0%) were compliant (Medication-Possession-Ratio >80%) during the first 6 months and 5366 patients (33.9%) during 12 months of the study. Our study shows that memantine-treated patients adhere significantly better to treatment. Specifically, after 12 months, 45.0% discontinued medication, 7.9% switched, and 50.8% of patients on therapy were compliant. PMID:24113561

Haider, Bernhard; Schmidt, Reinhold; Schweiger, Christine; Forstner, Thomas; Labek, Anna; Lampl, Christian

2014-01-01

204

Nocturnal hypoxaemia in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of the study was to find the prevalence of sleep-related disturbances in patients of Eisenmenger syndrome. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Tertiary care referral centre in North India. Participants The study included 25 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (mean age 25.2±9.6?years, 18 men) and 12 patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease with pulmonary stenosis physiology (mean age 20.5±8.5?years, 8 men) as controls. Interventions All the patients underwent an overnight comprehensive polysomnogram study and pulmonary function testing. Main outcome measure Oxygen desaturation index, which is the number of oxygen drops per hour. Results The patients and controls had significant nocturnal hypoxaemia in the absence of apnoea and hypopnoea. The mean oxygen drop index in Eisenmenger syndrome group was 9.0±6.2 and in the control group was 8.0±5.9 (p=0.63). The apnoea–hypopnoea index was 3.37±5.0 in the Eisenmenger syndrome group and was 2.1±3.6 in the control group. Patients with >10 oxygen drops per hour had significantly higher haemoglobin (17.2±1.3% vs 14.4±1.5%, p<0.001) than those with oxygen drops less than 10. Conclusions Eisenmenger syndrome patients have significant nocturnal hypoxaemia unrelated to hypopnoea and apnoea. Nocturnal desaturation occurred more frequently in patients with greater haemoglobin values. PMID:23482988

Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish; Bardolei, Neil; Sharma, Ajay; Shukla, Garima; Bhatia, Manvir; Kalaivani, Mani; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Bahl, Vinay K; Guleria, Randeep

2013-01-01

205

Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

206

Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

2012-01-01

207

Undertreatment of Osteoporosis Following Hip Fractures in Jeju Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Osteoporosis treatment following hip fracture is well known to not enough. We previously performed intervention study for orthopaedic surgeon's education and reported twofold increase in osteoporosis detection and treatment rate observed between 2005 and 2007. This follow-up observational study was conducted to find out the rate in which a diagnostic workup and treatment for osteoporosis were done in patients with hip fracture. Methods Medical records and radiographs in patients who were older than 50 years and diagnosed as having femoral neck or intertrochanteric fractures at 8 hospitals in Jeju island, South Korea from 2008 to 2011 were reviewed. The numbers of patients who were studied with bone densitometry and who were treated for osteoporosis after the diagnosis of hip fracture were analyzed. Results Nine hundred forty five hip fractures (201 in 2008, 257 in 2009, 265 in 2010, and 304 in 2011) occurred in 191 men and 754 women during the study periods. The mean age of the patients was 79.7 years. The mean rate of osteoporosis detection using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was 36.4% (344/945 hips) (ranged from 24.2% in 2009 to 40.5% in 2011). The mean initiation rate of osteoporosis treatment was 23.1% (218/945 hips) (ranged from 20% in 2009 to 29% in 2008). Conclusions Detection and treatment rate of osteoporosis following hip fracture during follow-up periods was still not enough. Additional intervention studies are required to further improvement of osteoporosis treatment rates after hip fracture. PMID:25489575

Kim, Sang-Rim; Park, Yong-Geun; Kang, Soo Yong; Nam, Kwang Woo; Ha, Yong-Chan

2014-01-01

208

The Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Amsterdam light-scattering apparatus was closed in 2007. A modernized and improved descendant has been constructed, called the IAA Cosmic Dust Laboratory(CoDuLab), at the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, CSIC in Granada, Spain. A new light scattering database, the Amsterdam-Granada Light Scattering Database is available at the website www.iaa.es/scattering.This contains all data obtained so far in Amsterdam and Granada and will be continuously replenished with new data.

Munoz, O.; Moreno, R.; Guirado, D.; Dabowska, D. D.; Volten, H.; Hovenier, J. W.

2012-09-01

209

Somatic morbidity and criminality: the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the association between adverse physical disorders and violent\\/non-violent criminal behaviour. Design: The study material consisted of the large, prospectively followed, unselected and genetically homogenous Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort, the Finnish Hospital Discharge Registers and the National Crime Register (n=10,934). Main results: The results of the logistic regression analyses showed that

Markku Timonen; Taru Mäkikyrö; Jouko Miettunen; Helinä Hakko; Paavo Zitting; Juha Kinnunen; Pirkko Räsänen

2003-01-01

210

California Teachers Study (CTS): Breast and Other Cancers in the California Teachers' Cohort  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of 133,479 California public school teachers, administrators, and other school professionals was established by a collaborative group of epidemiological investigators at the City of Hope, University of Southern California, University of California at Irvine, and Cancer Prevention Institute of California. The goals of the California Teachers Study (CTS) were, and continue to be, to evaluate unresolved issues related to breast and other cancer risk factors, and study other important issues related to women's health.

211

Risk factors for childhood obesity at age 5: Analysis of the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Weight at age 5 is a predictor for future health of the individual. This study examines risk factors for childhood obesity with a focus on ethnicity. METHODS: Data from the Millennium Cohort study were used. 17,561 singleton children of White\\/European (n = 15,062), Asian (n = 1,845) or African (n = 654) background were selected. Logistic regression and likelihood

Sinead Brophy; Roxanne Cooksey; Michael B Gravenor; Rupal Mistry; Non Thomas; Ronan A Lyons; Rhys Williams

2009-01-01

212

Gallstones in sickle cell disease: Observations from The Jamaican: Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, incidence, risk factors, clinical associations, and morbidity of gallstones were studied in 311 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease and 167 patients with sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease in a cohort study from birth. Gallstones developed in 96 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease and 18 patients with sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease; specific symptoms necessitating cholecystect0my occurred in only

Thomas M Walker; Ian R Hambleton; Graham R Serjeant

2000-01-01

213

Contribution of problem drug users’ deaths to excess mortality in Scotland: secondary analysis of cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the “Scottish effect”—namely, the growing divergence between mortality in Scotland and England that is not explained by national differences in levels of deprivation—and, more specifically, to examine the extent to which the Scottish effect is explained by cross national differences in the prevalence of problem drug use.Design Secondary analysis of cohort study (the DORIS study).Participants 1033 Scottish

Michael Bloor; Maria Gannon; Gordon Hay; Graham Jackson; Alastair H Leyland; Neil McKeganey

2008-01-01

214

Anthroposophic Therapy for Anxiety Disorders: A Two-year prospective cohort study in Routine Outpatient settings  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Methods: Anthroposophic treatment for anxiety disorders includes special artistic and physical therapies and special medications. We conducted a prospective cohort study of 64 consecutive adult outpatients starting anthroposophic treatment for anxiety disorders under routine conditions. Main outcomes were Anxiety Severity (physician and patient ratings 0-10), Self-rating Anxiety Scale (0-100), Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, German version (CES-D,

Claudia M. Witt

2009-01-01

215

Dietary Patterns and Diabetes Incidence in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigated the association of dietary patterns and type 2 diabetes in a 4-year prospective study of 36,787 adults in the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study (1990-1994). A total of 31,641 (86%) participants completed follow-up, and 365 cases were identified. Four factors with eigenvalues of greater than 2 were identified using the principal factor method with 124 foods\\/beverages, followed by

Allison M. Hodge; Dallas R. English; Kerin O'Dea; Graham G. Giles

2007-01-01

216

Obesity and colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the association between obesity and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to January 1, 2007. Cohort studies permitting the assessment of causal association between obesity and colorectal cancer, with clear definition of obesity and well-defined outcome of colorectal cancer were eligible. Study design, sample size at baseline, mean follow-up time,

Zhe Dai; Yan-Cheng Xu

217

California Men's Health Study (CMHS): a multiethnic cohort in a managed care setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We established a male, multiethnic cohort primarily to study prostate cancer etiology and secondarily to study the etiologies of other cancer and non-cancer conditions. METHODS\\/DESIGN: Eligible participants were 45-to-69 year old males who were members of a large, prepaid health plan in California. Participants completed two surveys on-line or on paper in 2002 – 2003. Survey content included demographics;

Shelley M Enger; Stephen K Van Den Eeden; Barbara Sternfeld; Ronald K Loo; Charles P Quesenberry Jr; Sarah Rowell; Marianne C Sadler; Donna M Schaffer; Laurel A Habel; Bette J Caan

2006-01-01

218

Cohort Profile: The Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health  

Microsoft Academic Search

major aspects of women's health and well-being and health service use. The surveys cover major diagnosed diseases, symptoms, health behaviours, use of health services and medications, and a range of factors relating to psychological well-being, social roles, and life events. The study began with the objective of exploring five key themes: health service use; health-related behaviours (e.g. diet and exercise);

Christina Lee; Annette J Dobson; Wendy J Brown; Lois Bryson; Julie Byles; Penny Warner-Smith; Anne F Young

2005-01-01

219

Metrics for covariate balance in cohort studies of causal effects.  

PubMed

Inferring causation from non-randomized studies of exposure requires that exposure groups can be balanced with respect to prognostic factors for the outcome. Although there is broad agreement in the literature that balance should be checked, there is confusion regarding the appropriate metric. We present a simulation study that compares several balance metrics with respect to the strength of their association with bias in estimation of the effect of a binary exposure on a binary, count, or continuous outcome. The simulations utilize matching on the propensity score with successively decreasing calipers to produce datasets with varying covariate balance. We propose the post-matching C-statistic as a balance metric and found that it had consistently strong associations with estimation bias, even when the propensity score model was misspecified, as long as the propensity score was estimated with sufficient study size. This metric, along with the average standardized difference and the general weighted difference, outperformed all other metrics considered in association with bias, including the unstandardized absolute difference, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Lévy distances, overlapping coefficient, Mahalanobis balance, and L1 metrics. Of the best-performing metrics, the C-statistic and general weighted difference also have the advantage that they automatically evaluate balance on all covariates simultaneously and can easily incorporate balance on interactions among covariates. Therefore, when combined with the usual practice of comparing individual covariate means and standard deviations across exposure groups, these metrics may provide useful summaries of the observed covariate imbalance. PMID:24323618

Franklin, Jessica M; Rassen, Jeremy A; Ackermann, Diana; Bartels, Dorothee B; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

2014-05-10

220

Evaluation of Cerec endocrowns: a preliminary cohort study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to evaluate clinical qualities and evolution on ceramic endocrowns produced with the Cerec 3D (Sirona). Endocrowns were produced in a hospital environment and evaluated according to the FDI criteria on the day of placement and 6 months afterwards. Each item was graded from 1 (good) to 5 (bad). A global score, as well as a score for aesthetics, functioning and biological integration was assessed for each evaluation. During the 6-month evaluation period, the scores were always related to good clinical quality, except for single crown restoration. The scores did not change between the two periods of evaluation. PMID:25134368

Decerle, N; Bessadet, M; Munoz-Sanchez, M L; Eschevins, C; Veyrune, J; Nicolas, E

2014-06-01

221

Microbiologic methods utilized in the MAL-ED cohort study.  

PubMed

A central hypothesis of The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) study is that enteropathogens contribute to growth faltering. To examine this question, the MAL-ED network of investigators set out to achieve 3 goals: (1) develop harmonized protocols to test for a diverse range of enteropathogens, (2) provide quality-assured and comparable results from 8 global sites, and (3) achieve maximum laboratory throughput and minimum cost. This paper describes the rationale for the microbiologic assays chosen and methodologies used to accomplish the 3 goals. PMID:25305291

Houpt, Eric; Gratz, Jean; Kosek, Margaret; Zaidi, Anita K M; Qureshi, Shahida; Kang, Gagandeep; Babji, Sudhir; Mason, Carl; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Samie, Amidou; Bessong, Pascal; Barrett, Leah; Lima, Aldo; Havt, Alexandre; Haque, Rashidul; Mondal, Dinesh; Taniuchi, Mami; Stroup, Suzanne; McGrath, Monica; Lang, Dennis

2014-11-01

222

Pre-morbid alexithymia in panic disorder: a cohort study.  

PubMed

Whether alexithymia is a personality trait which increases the risk of Panic Disorder (PD) is still debated. In this prospective study, alexithymic levels were evaluated before, during and after an anxious episode. Therefore, the alexithymic levels, the presence of PD and the severity of anxious-depressive symptoms were evaluated, at intervals of about 1 month, in pregnant women, attending the Centers for Prenatal Care, using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Twenty-one women affected by PD and 256 healthy women (controls) were included in the study. Women who developed PD, compared to controls, showed similar TAS-20 and HADS scores during the pre-morbid phase, a significant increase of them during PD and a significant decrease after symptoms improvement, whereas no change was observed in controls. Our data suggest that in pregnant women alexithymia does not represent a personality trait that increases the risk of developing PD, and they support the hypothesis that alexithymia is a state dependent phenomenon in PD pregnant women. PMID:24230995

Marchesi, Carlo; Giaracuni, Giovanna; Paraggio, Cecilia; Ossola, Paolo; Tonna, Matteo; De Panfilis, Chiara

2014-01-30

223

Severity markers in severe leptospirosis: a cohort study.  

PubMed

We aimed to evaluate parameters for their value as severity markers in hospitalized leptospirosis patients. We recruited 47 informed adult consenting patients and assessed a number of clinical, hematological, biochemical, and biological variables. Patients were sorted according to severity based on fatality or the requirement of mechanical ventilation or dialysis; the parameters studied were compared between groups on inclusion and the next day. Beside septic shock presentation or a high severity score (Simplified Acute Physiology Score; SAPS II), increased lactate, total bilirubin, lipase, and AST/ALT ratio or a decreased cytokines IL-10/TNF-? ratio were all significantly associated with severity. The gene expression of the IL-1 receptor antagonist IL-1ra, IL-1?, and the long pentraxin PTX-3 were also transcribed at higher levels in most severe cases. Patients could rapidly improve or deteriorate, highlighting the need for a new assessment the next day. Our results add to the limited body of knowledge about severity markers in leptospirosis. They also suggest that patients should be reassessed the next day before being possibly discharged from the hospital. Further studies are needed in order to confirm relevant and reliable prognostic parameters in leptospirosis that would be helpful for the purpose of triage. PMID:25413923

Mikulski, M; Boisier, P; Lacassin, F; Soupé-Gilbert, M-E; Mauron, C; Bruyere-Ostells, L; Bonte, D; Barguil, Y; Gourinat, A-C; Matsui, M; Vernel-Pauillac, F; Goarant, C

2014-11-21

224

Autonomic Function following Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Autonomic dysfunction after chronic low level exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has been consistently reported in the literature, but not following a single acute overdose. In order to study autonomic function after an acute OP overdose, sixty-six overdose patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Assessment of autonomic function was done by heart rate response to standing, deep breathing (HR-DB) and Valsalva manoeuvre; blood pressure (BP) response to standing and sustained hand grip; amplitude and latency of sympathetic skin response (SSR); pupil size and post-void urine volume. The patients were assessed one and six weeks after the exposure. The number of patients who showed abnormal autonomic function compared to standard cut-off values did not show statistically significantly difference from that of controls by Chi-Square test. When compared to the controls at one week the only significant differences consistent with autonomic dysfunction were change of diastolic BP 3 min after standing, HR-DB, SSR-Amplitude, SSR-Latency, post-void urine volume and size of the pupil. At 6 weeks significant recovery of autonomic function was observed and only HR-DB was decreased to a minor degree, ?5 beats/min [95%CI 2–8]. This study provides good evidence for the lack of long term autonomic dysfunction following acute exposure to OP pesticides. PMID:22655091

Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.

2012-01-01

225

Cohort mortality study of Seattle fire fighters: 1945-1983  

SciTech Connect

Fire fighters are known to be occupationally exposed to many toxic substances. However, the limited number of previous studies has not demonstrated any consistent excess mortality from diseases of a priori concern, such as lung cancer, non-malignant respiratory disease, and cardiovascular disease. We studied 2,289 Seattle fire fighters from 1945 through 1983, and observed 383 deaths. Excess mortality from leukemia (SMR = 503, n = 3) and multiple myeloma (SMR = 989, n = 2) was observed among fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty. Lung cancer mortality was elevated (SMR = 177, n = 18) among fire fighters 65 years old or older. We also analyzed the data by considering fire fighters at risk only after 30 years from first exposure. In this analysis, a trend of increasing risk with increasing exposure was observed for diseases of the circulatory system. For this cause of death, fire fighters with 30 years or more fire combat duty had a relative risk of 1.84 compared to those with less than 15 years of fire combat duty.

Heyer, N.; Weiss, N.S.; Demers, P.; Rosenstock, L. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

1990-01-01

226

Nickel-exposed workers in China: a cohort study.  

PubMed

There are more than 50 000 workers in Jinchuan Group Co, Ltd (JNMC). Since all staff in JNMC are eligible for a medical examination every two years, only 23 484 nickel-exposed subjects who participated in medical examination were included in this study. Their data, collected from June 22, 2011 to September 28, 2012, in a comprehensive epidemiological survey and during medical examinations, permitted an extensive evaluation of the relation between metal exposure, gene, epigenetics and risk of human diseases. Their lifestyle investigation showed that the overall prevalence of current smokers, alcohol drinkers, and tea drinkers was 39.1%, 19.7%, and 55.2%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, allergic rhinitis and cholecystitis , the top 3 prevalent diseases, was 11.7%, 11.0%, and 8.9%, respectively. PMID:24709102

Bai, Ya Na; Yang, Ai Min; Yagn, Ai Min; Pu, Hong Quan; He, Jie; Cheng, Ning; Zheng, Tong Zhang; Dai, Min; Zhang, Ya Wei; Bassing, Bryan A; Wang, Qiu Ying

2014-03-01

227

Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

2009-01-01

228

Missed foot fractures in polytrauma patients: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Missed foot fractures are a known problem in the care of the traumatized patient. They do not usually have an influence on the survival, but on the long-term result and the quality of the patient’s life. The aim of this study is to find out how many of these fractures are overlooked in a Level I trauma center and what the consequences for the patients are hypothesing that patients with a delayed diagnosis will have worse clinical results. Methods Forty-seven patients (7.3%) with foot fractures could be identified in 642 polytrauma patients, retrospectively. All patients were divided into two groups: early diagnosed fractures and delayed diagnosed fractures, the latter defined as diagnosed after Secondary Survey. Patients were evaluated according to the Hannover Outcome Score, the Short Form-36 Health Survey, the AOFAS Score and the Hannover Scoring System. The average follow-up was 5 years and 8 months. Reasons for overlooking a foot fracture were analyzed. Results The foot fracture was early diagnosed in 26 (55.3%) patients, but delayed in 21 (44.7%). There were no significant differences in the mean stay in the hospital or in the ICU. The fractures that were most often missed were those of the cuboid or the metarsalia. The highest risk factor for a delayed diagnosis was a fracture already diagnosed on the same foot. In 52.4% of the delayed diagosed fractures, an operative therapy was necessary. There were no significant differences between the two groups in the clinical results. Conclusions In summary, the results of this study show that foot injuries can be a safety problem for the patient and the examination of the feet in the trauma room has to be a compulsory part of the algorithm. Although the majority of delayed diagnosed foot fractures demonstrated comparable results to the immediately diagnosed fractures, approximately 10% might have benefited from an earlier diagnosis. Even if there were no significant differences in the clinical results, we have to be aware that missing a fracture in the foot can lead to worse results in the complete polytrauma care. PMID:24568599

2014-01-01

229

Yoga therapy for breast cancer patients: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

We sought to study the impact of yoga therapy on anxiety, depression and physical health in breast cancer patients. Stage I-III post-operative breast cancer patients were recruited with twelve 1-h weekly yoga sessions completed with an experienced yoga instructor. Before and after each module completion, assessments were obtained with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS), the Dallas pain scale and shoulder flexibility measurements. Fourteen patients completed the entire yoga session with 42.8% having a total mastectomy and 15.4% having breast reconstruction. Both right and left shoulder abduction flexibility significantly improved (p = 0.004; p = 0.015 respectively) as well as left shoulder flexion (p = 0.046). An improvement trend in scores for the HADS and Dallas questionnaires pre- and post-intervention was found, although it was not statistically significant. Our data indicates an improvement in physical function in addition to a consistent amelioration in anxiety, depression and pain symptoms after a yoga intervention. PMID:24199978

Sudarshan, Monisha; Petrucci, Andrea; Dumitra, Sinziana; Duplisea, Jodie; Wexler, Sharon; Meterissian, Sarkis

2013-11-01

230

Cross-sectional neurotoxicology study of lead-exposed cohort  

SciTech Connect

Although the toxic effects of lead have been known for centuries, lead intoxication is still widespread in the United States. Without baseline tests of neuropsychological, neurobehavioral and neurophysiological testing it may be difficult to detect subtle changes in neurological function after lead exposure. This may be further confounded by partial chelation treatment and exposure to neurotoxic mixtures or inability to quantitate alcohol consumption. We undertook a cross-sectional study to address these problems in 24 exposed and 29 control subjects in a plant that manufactured electrical components using fritted leaded glass to coat capacitors and transistors. Potentially exposed workers had blood lead levels ranging between 3 micrograms/dL to 135 micrograms/dL. Industrial hygiene monitoring revealed the plant's air lead levels ranged from 61 micrograms/m3 to 1,700 micrograms/m3 in excess of OSHA permissible exposure limits of 40 micrograms/m3/10 hr day. Using a specially designed battery of neurophysiological, neurobehavioral and neuropsychological screening tests, we demonstrated a significant difference from controls in measures of psychomotor speed, motor strength and verbal memory. Although limited by the cross-sectional design, these findings support the hypothesis that the battery of neurophysiological, neuropsychological and neurobehavioral tests can detect a significant inter-group differences between lead-exposed and control subjects.

Pasternak, G.; Becker, C.E.; Lash, A.; Bowler, R.; Estrin, W.J.; Law, D. (San Francisco General Hospital, CA (USA))

1989-01-01

231

The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study, a longitudinal cohort study on health disparities in Puerto Rican adults: challenges and opportunities  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The Boston Puerto Rican Health Study is an ongoing longitudinal cohort study designed to examine the role of psychosocial stress on presence and development of allostatic load and health outcomes in Puerto Ricans, and potential modification by nutritional status, genetic variation, and social support. METHODS: Self-identified Puerto Ricans, aged 45-75 years and residing in the Boston, MA metro area,

Katherine L Tucker; Josiemer Mattei; Sabrina E Noel; Bridgette M Collado; Jackie Mendez; Jason Nelson; John Griffith; Jose M Ordovas; Luis M Falcon

2010-01-01

232

Mortality among shipyard Coast Guard workers: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The mortality experience of 4702 (4413 men and 289 women) civilian workers in a US Coast Guard shipyard was evaluated. Methods All workers employed at the shipyard between 1 January 1950 and 31 December 1964 were included in the study and were followed through 31 December 2001 for vital status. Detailed shipyard and lifetime work histories found in the shipyard personnel records and job descriptions were evaluated. Workers were classified as likely exposed to any potential hazardous substances. In addition, 20 job groups were created on likely similar exposures. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on the general population of the state and adjusted for age, calendar period, sex and race. Results The follow?up was successful for 93.3% of the workers. Among all men employed in the shipyard, there was an excess of mortality from all causes of death (SMR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12), respiratory cancers (SMR 1.29; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.43), lung cancer (SMR 1.26; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.41), mesothelioma (SMR 5.07; 95% CI 1.85 to 11.03) and emphysema (SMR 1.44; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.99) and a decrease for cardiovascular diseases (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00), vascular lesions of the central nervous system (SMR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 0.38; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57) and external causes of death (SMR 0.55; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.68). A similar pattern was observed for the men classified as exposed. No increasing trend of mortality was found with duration of employment in the shipyard, with the exception of mesothelioma (SMRs of 4.23 and 6.27 for <10 years and ?10 years, respectively). In occupations with at least three cases and with an SMR of ?1.3, the authors observed a significantly elevated mortality for lung cancer among machinists (SMR 1.60; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.29) and shipfitters, welders and cutters (SMR 1.34; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.65) and for oral and nasopharyngeal cancers among wood workers (SMR 6.20; 95% CI 2.27 to 13.50). Conclusion Employment in this Coast Guard shipyard revealed a small but significant excess mortality from all causes, lung cancer and mesothelioma, most of which is probably related to asbestos exposure. PMID:17881470

Krstev, S; Stewart, P; Rusiecki, J; Blair, A

2007-01-01

233

Social mobility over the lifecourse and self reported mental health at age 50: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To investigate the effect of socioeconomic status throughout the lifecourse on self reported mental health at age 50 years. Design: Prospective cohort study Setting: Community setting in Newcastle upon Tyne, north east England. Participants: 503 subjects from a birth cohort assembled in 1947 who completed the 28 item version of the general health questionnaire (GHQ-28). Main results: There was an association between socioeconomic group at birth and reporting a clinically significant GHQ-28 score at age 50 (OR 5.5 95% CI 1.2 to 25.4 comparing the least with the most advantaged socioeconomic group). A downward socioeconomic trajectory over the whole lifecourse was associated with poorer self reported mental health in men (p<0.001) but not women (p = 0.8). Conclusions: Socioeconomic position throughout the lifecourse may act differently on mental health at middle age depending on a person's sex. PMID:16166361

Tiffin, P.; Pearce, M.; Parker, L.

2005-01-01

234

Assessment and indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking in cohort studies using relative hazards models.  

PubMed

Workers' smoking histories are not measured in many occupational cohort studies. Here we discuss the use of negative control outcomes to detect and adjust for confounding in analyses that lack information on smoking. We clarify the assumptions necessary to detect confounding by smoking and the additional assumptions necessary to indirectly adjust for such bias. We illustrate these methods using data from 2 studies of radiation and lung cancer: the Colorado Plateau cohort study (1950-2005) of underground uranium miners (in which smoking was measured) and a French cohort study (1950-2004) of nuclear industry workers (in which smoking was unmeasured). A cause-specific relative hazards model is proposed for estimation of indirectly adjusted associations. Among the miners, the proposed method suggests no confounding by smoking of the association between radon and lung cancer--a conclusion supported by adjustment for measured smoking. Among the nuclear workers, the proposed method suggests substantial confounding by smoking of the association between radiation and lung cancer. Indirect adjustment for confounding by smoking resulted in an 18% decrease in the adjusted estimated hazard ratio, yet this cannot be verified because smoking was unmeasured. Assumptions underlying this method are described, and a cause-specific proportional hazards model that allows easy implementation using standard software is presented. PMID:25245043

Richardson, David B; Laurier, Dominique; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric; Cole, Stephen R

2014-11-01

235

A cautionary note about estimating effects of secondary exposures in cohort studies.  

PubMed

Cohort studies are often enriched for a primary exposure of interest to improve cost-effectiveness, which presents analytical challenges not commonly discussed in epidemiology. In this paper, we use causal diagrams to represent exposure-enriched cohort studies, illustrate a scenario wherein the risk ratio for the effect of a secondary exposure on an outcome is biased, and propose an analytical method for correcting for such bias. In our motivating example, maternal smoking (Z) is a cause of fetal growth restriction (X), which subsequently affects preterm birth (Y) (i.e., Z ? X ? Y); strong positive associations exist between both Z, X and X, Y; and enrichment for X increases its prevalence from 10% to 50%. In the X-enriched cohort, unadjusted and X-adjusted analyses lead to bias in the risk ratio for the total effect of Z on Y. After application of inverse probability weights, the bias is corrected, with a small loss of efficiency in comparison with a same-sized study without X-enrichment. With increasing interest in conducting secondary analyses to reduce research costs, caution should be employed when analyzing studies that have already been enriched, intentionally or unintentionally, for a primary exposure of interest. Causal diagrams can help identify scenarios in which secondary analyses may be biased. Inverse probability weights can be used to remove the bias. PMID:25589243

Ahrens, K A; Cole, S R; Westreich, D; Platt, R W; Schisterman, E F

2015-02-01

236

Vitamin d in fetal development: findings from a birth cohort study.  

PubMed

Birth cohort studies provide an invaluable resource for studies of the influence of the fetal environment on health in later life. It is uncertain to what extent maternal vitamin D status influences fetal development. Using an unselected community-based cohort of 901 mother-offspring pairs (the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort [Raine] Study), we examined the relationship between maternal vitamin D deficiency at 18 weeks' pregnancy and long-term health outcomes of offspring who were born in Perth, Western Australia (32° South), in 1989-1991. Vitamin D deficiency (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] <50 nmol/L) was present in 36% (323 of 901) of the pregnant women. After adjusting for relevant covariates, maternal vitamin D deficiency during pregnancy was associated with impaired lung development in 6-year-old offspring, neurocognitive difficulties at age 10, increased risk of eating disorders in adolescence, and lower peak bone mass at 20 years. In summary, vitamin D may have an important, multifaceted role in the development of fetal lungs, brain, and bone. Experimental animal studies support an active contribution of vitamin D to organ development. Randomized controlled trials of vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women with long-term follow-up of offspring are urgently required to examine whether the correction of vitamin D deficiency in pregnant women is beneficial for their offspring and to determine the optimal level of maternal serum 25(OH)D for fetal development. PMID:25511121

Hart, Prue H; Lucas, Robyn M; Walsh, John P; Zosky, Graeme R; Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Zhu, Kun; Allen, Karina L; Kusel, Merci M; Anderson, Denise; Mountain, Jenny A

2015-01-01

237

Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

2011-01-01

238

A Separate Language, a Separate Identity? Organisations of Frisian Migrants in Amsterdam in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we look at people who migrated from the Dutch province of Friesland to the Dutch capital, Amsterdam. We examine developments within Friesland itself at the time of migration. This case-study offers a unique opportunity to relate developments in the sending society (Friesland) to the nature of organisations in the receiving society (Amsterdam). Many similarities have been noted

Frank Suurenbroek; Marlou Schrover

2005-01-01

239

Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: The Miyagi Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption is known to be a risk factor for breast cancer in Western countries, but few epidemiologic data have been\\u000a available in Japan. This population-based prospective cohort study evaluated the associations of alcohol consumption with\\u000a breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. A total of 19,227 women aged 40–64 years were followed from 1990 to 2003. During\\u000a 246,703 person-years of

Yuko Minami; Masako Kakizaki; Yoichiro Kakugawa; Yoshikazu Nishino; Akira Fukao; Ichiro Tsuji; Noriaki Ohuchi

2011-01-01

240

Factors Affecting the Severity of Injuries Among Young Motorcyclists—A Swedish Nationwide Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine factors affecting the severity of motorcycle injuries, considering variables related to the individual, the environment, the vehicle, and the crash.Methods. This is a register-based retrospective cohort study. All individuals born in 1970–1972 (n = 334,070) were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 and followed up from 1988 to 2000, when aged 16–30. All

Francesco Zambon; Marie Hasselberg

2006-01-01

241

Olive oil consumption and weight change: The SUN prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this dynamic prospective follow-up study was to assess the association between olive oil consumption and the likelihood\\u000a of weight gain or the incidence of overweight or obesity in a large Mediterranean cohort of 7,368 male and female Spanish\\u000a university graduates (the SUN Project) who were followed for a median period of 28.5 mon. A validated Food Frequency

M. Bes-Rastrollo; A. Sánchez-Villegas; C. de la Fuente; J. de Irala; J. A. Martínez; M. A. Martínez-González

2006-01-01

242

Five year prognosis in patients with angina identified in primary care: incident cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To ascertain the risk of acute myocardial infarction, invasive cardiac procedures, and mortality among patients with newly diagnosed angina over five years.Design Incident cohort study of patients with primary care data linked to secondary care and mortality data.Setting 40 primary care practices in Scotland.Participants 1785 patients with a diagnosis of angina as their first manifestation of ischaemic heart disease,

Brian S Buckley; Colin R Simpson; David J McLernon; Andrew W Murphy; Philip C Hannaford

2009-01-01

243

Inconsistent reporting of surrogate outcomes in randomised clinical trials: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess if authors of randomised clinical trials convey the fact that they have used surrogate outcomes and discussed their validity.Design Cohort study.Setting Six major general medical journals.Participants Randomised clinical trials published in 2005 and 2006 that used a surrogate as a primary outcome.Results Of 626 published randomised clinical trials, 109 (17%) used a surrogate as a primary outcome.

Jeppe Lerche la Cour; Jesper Brok; Peter C Gøtzsche

2010-01-01

244

Fate of biomedical research protocols and publication bias in France: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To describe the fate of protocols approved by the French research ethics committees, a national system created by the French 1988 Huriet-Sérusclat Act; to assess publication bias at a national level. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Representative sample of 25\\/48 French research ethics committees in 1994. Protocols 649 research protocols approved by committees, with follow-up information. Main outcome measures

Evelyne Decullier; Véronique Lhéritier; François Chapuis

2005-01-01

245

Incidence of disease after vasectomy: a record linkage retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine whether vasectomy is associated with an increased risk of several diseases, and in particular testicular cancer, after operation. DESIGN--Retrospective cohort study using linked medical record abstracts. SETTING--Six health districts in Oxford region. SUBJECTS--13,246 men aged 25-49 years who had undergone vasectomy between 1970 and 1986, and 22,196 comparison subjects who had been admitted during the same period for

H. Nienhuis; M. Goldacre; V. Seagroatt; L. Gill; M. Vessey

1992-01-01

246

Soft drinks, fructose consumption, and the risk of gout in men: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the relation between intake of sugar sweetened soft drinks and fructose and the risk of incident gout in men.Design Prospective cohort over 12 years.Setting Health professionals follow-up study.Participants 46 393 men with no history of gout at baseline who provided information on intake of soft drinks and fructose through validated food frequency questionnaires.Main outcome measure Incident cases

Hyon K Choi; Gary Curhan

2008-01-01

247

Iowa Women's Health Study: Epidemiology of Cancer in a Cohort of Older Women  

Cancer.gov

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in postmenopausal women, and detailed epidemiological investigations are warranted to identify etiologic factors, including potentially modifiable risk factors. The Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) recruited a population-based cohort of 41,837 Iowa postmenopausal women, ages 55 to 69 years in 1986, to determine whether diet, body fat distribution, and other risk factors were related to cancer incidence.

248

Low energy diet and intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To observe intracranial pressure in women with idiopathic intracranial hypertension who follow a low energy diet.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Outpatient department and the clinical research facility based at two separate hospitals within the United Kingdom.Participants 25 women with body mass index (BMI) >25, with active (papilloedema and intracranial pressure >25 cm H2O), chronic (over three months) idiopathic intracranial hypertension.

Alexandra J Sinclair; Michael A Burdon; Peter G Nightingale; Alexandra K Ball; Peter Good; Timothy D Matthews; Andrew Jacks; Mark Lawden; Carl E Clarke; Paul M Stewart; Elizabeth A Walker; Jeremy W Tomlinson; Saaeha Rauz

2010-01-01

249

Antidepressant use and risk of adverse outcomes in older people: population based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate the association between antidepressant treatment and risk of several potential adverse outcomes in older people with depression and to examine risks by class of antidepressant, duration of use, and dose.Design Cohort study of people aged 65 and over diagnosed as having depression.Setting 570 general practices in the United Kingdom supplying data to the QResearch primary care database.Participants

Carol Coupland; Paula Dhiman; Richard Morriss; Antony Arthur; Garry Barton; Julia Hippisley-Cox

2011-01-01

250

Dietary carotenoids and risk of colorectal cancer in a pooled analysis of 11 cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dietary carotenoids have been hypothesized to protect against epithelial cancers. The authors analyzed the associations between intakes of specific carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein þ zeaxanthin, and lycopene) and risk of colorectal cancer using the primary data from 11 cohort studies carried out in North America and Europe. Carotenoid intakes were estimated from food frequency questionnaires administered at baseline in

Satu Mannisto; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Hans-Olov Adami; Demetrius Albanes; Brandt van den Piet A; Julie E. Buring; James R. Cerhan; Graham A. Colditz; Jo L. Freudenheim; Charles S. Fuchs; Edward Giovannucci; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Lisa Harnack; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan; Arthur Schatzkin; Jarmo Virtamo; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

2007-01-01

251

Calcium and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of intakes of calcium and vitamin D with colorectal cancer risk were examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (Hawaii and Los Angeles, California). In 1993-1996, 85,903 men and 105,108 women aged ? 45 years completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 2,110 incident cases of colorectal cancer (1,138 in men and 972 in women) were identified

Song-Yi Park; Suzanne P. Murphy; Lynne R. Wilkens; Abraham M. Y. Nomura; Brian E. Henderson; Laurence N. Kolonel

2007-01-01

252

Long term exposure to ambient air pollution and incidence of acute coronary events: prospective cohort study and meta-analysis in 11 European cohorts from the ESCAPE Project  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the effect of long term exposure to airborne pollutants on the incidence of acute coronary events in 11 cohorts participating in the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Design Prospective cohort studies and meta-analysis of the results. Setting Cohorts in Finland, Sweden, Denmark, Germany, and Italy. Participants 100?166 people were enrolled from 1997 to 2007 and followed for an average of 11.5 years. Participants were free from previous coronary events at baseline. Main outcome measures Modelled concentrations of particulate matter <2.5 ?m (PM2.5), 2.5-10 ?m (PMcoarse), and <10 ?m (PM10) in aerodynamic diameter, soot (PM2.5 absorbance), nitrogen oxides, and traffic exposure at the home address based on measurements of air pollution conducted in 2008-12. Cohort specific hazard ratios for incidence of acute coronary events (myocardial infarction and unstable angina) per fixed increments of the pollutants with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle risk factors, and pooled random effects meta-analytic hazard ratios. Results 5157 participants experienced incident events. A 5 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM2.5 was associated with a 13% increased risk of coronary events (hazard ratio 1.13, 95% confidence interval 0.98 to 1.30), and a 10 ?g/m3 increase in estimated annual mean PM10 was associated with a 12% increased risk of coronary events (1.12, 1.01 to 1.25) with no evidence of heterogeneity between cohorts. Positive associations were detected below the current annual European limit value of 25 ?g/m3 for PM2.5 (1.18, 1.01 to 1.39, for 5 ?g/m3 increase in PM2.5) and below 40 ?g/m3 for PM10 (1.12, 1.00 to 1.27, for 10 ?g/m3 increase in PM10). Positive but non-significant associations were found with other pollutants. Conclusions Long term exposure to particulate matter is associated with incidence of coronary events, and this association persists at levels of exposure below the current European limit values. PMID:24452269

2014-01-01

253

Cervicovaginal HPV Infection in Female Renal Transplant Recipients: An Observational, Self-Sampling Based, Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Immunosuppressive treatment of organ transplant recipients is associated with an increase in the occurrence of human papillomavirus (HPV) related anogenital (pre)malignancies. This cohort study investigated the genotype-specific prevalence of HPV infections in a large cohort of female renal transplant recipients (RTRs). Participants self-collected a cervicovaginal sample for detection and genotyping of HPV. Besides, they completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic variables, medical data and sexual behavior. Anogenital screening was offered to all HPV-positive participants. A total number of 218 female RTRs was included. The prevalence of mucosal HPV infections was 27.1% and 17.4% for high risk HPV in particular. The studied cohort showed a broad range of HPV genotypes and multiple HPV genotypes were found in 27.1% of HPV-positive patients. Seven participants were identified with occult premalignant anogenital lesions. In conclusion, this study shows a high point-prevalence of HPV in female RTRs (age-matched West-European general population: 9-10%) with a shift in the distribution of genotypes as compared with the general population. Moreover, a substantial number of patients with occult premalignancies was identified. The introduction of self-sampling for HPV positivity can help in early detection of (pre)malignant anogenital lesions in this vulnerable population. PMID:25675976

Meeuwis, K A P; Hilbrands, L B; IntHout, J; Slangen, B F M; Hendriks, I M P; Hinten, F; Christiaans, M H L; Quint, W G V; van de Kerkhof, P C M; Massuger, L F A G; Hoitsma, A J; van Rossum, M M; Melchers, W J G; de Hullu, J A

2015-03-01

254

Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study: Objectives, Methods, and Cohort Description  

PubMed Central

Background South Asians (individuals from India, Pakistani, Bangladesh, Nepal, and Sri Lanka) have high rates of cardiovascular disease which cannot be explained by traditional risk factors. There are no prospective cohort studies investigating antecedents of cardiovascular disease in South Asians. Methods The Mediators of Atherosclerosis in South Asians Living in America (MASALA) study is investigating the prevalence, correlates and outcomes associated with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a population-based sample of South Asian men and women between ages 40 – 79 years from two U.S. clinical field centers. This cohort is similar in methods and measures to the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis to allow for efficient cross-ethnic comparisons. Measurements obtained at the baseline examination include sociodemographic information, lifestyle and psychosocial factors, standard CVD risk factors, oral glucose tolerance testing, electrocardiogram, assessment of microalbuminuria, ankle and brachial blood pressures, carotid intima media wall thickness using ultrasonagraphy, coronary artery calcium measurement and abdominal visceral fat using computed tomography. Blood samples will be assayed for biochemical risk factors. Results Between October 2010 and March 2013 we enrolled 906 South Asians with mean age of 55±9 years, 46% women, 98% immigrants who have lived 27±11 years in the US. Conclusions The sociodemographic characteristics of this cohort are representative of US South Asians. Participants are being followed with annual telephone calls for identification of CVD events including acute myocardial infarction and other coronary heart disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, congestive heart failure, therapeutic interventions for CVD, and mortality. PMID:24194499

2013-01-01

255

The effect of neighbourhood income and deprivation on pregnancy outcomes in Amsterdam, The Netherlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Studies suggest that the neighbourhoods in which people live influence their health. The main objective of this study was to investigate the associations of neighbourhood-level income and unemployment\\/social security benefit on pregnancy outcomes: preterm delivery, small for gestational age (SGA), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) and miscarriage\\/perinatal death in Amsterdam.Methods:A random sample of 7883 from 82 neighbourhoods in Amsterdam. Individual-level data from

C. Agyemang; T. G. M. Vrijkotte; M. Droomers; M F van der Wal; G. J. Bonsel; K. Stronks

2009-01-01

256

Cancer Risk in Children and Adolescents with Birth Defects: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Birth defects are an increasing health priority worldwide, and the subject of a major 2010 World Health Assembly Resolution. Excess cancer risk may be an added burden in this vulnerable group of children, but studies to date have provided inconsistent findings. This study assessed the risk for cancer in children and young adolescents with major birth defects. Methods and Findings This retrospective, statewide, population-based, cohort study was conducted in three US states (Utah, Arizona, Iowa). A cohort of 44,151 children and young adolescents (0 through 14 years of age) with selected major, non-chromosomal birth defects or chromosomal anomalies was compared to a reference cohort of 147,940 children without birth defects randomly sampled from each state’s births and frequency matched by year of birth. The primary outcome was rate of cancer prior to age 15 years, by type of cancer and type of birth defect. The incidence of cancer was increased 2.9-fold (95% CI, 2.3 to 3.7) in children with birth defects (123 cases of cancer) compared to the reference cohort; the incidence rates were 33.8 and 11.7 per 100,000 person-years, respectively. However, the excess risk varied markedly by type of birth defect. Increased risks were seen in children with microcephaly, cleft palate, and selected eye, cardiac, and renal defects. Cancer risk was not increased with many common birth defects, including hypospadias, cleft lip with or without cleft palate, or hydrocephalus. Conclusion Children with some structural, non-chromosomal birth defects, but not others, have a moderately increased risk for childhood cancer. Information on such selective risk can promote more effective clinical evaluation, counseling, and research. PMID:23874873

Botto, Lorenzo D.; Flood, Timothy; Little, Julian; Fluchel, Mark N.; Krikov, Sergey; Feldkamp, Marcia L.; Wu, Yuan; Goedken, Rhinda; Puzhankara, Soman; Romitti, Paul A.

2013-01-01

257

Toenail selenium status and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus: the Netherlands Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the association between selenium and the risk of Barrett’s esophagus (BE), the precursor lesion of esophageal adenocarcinoma. Methods Data from the prospective Netherlands Cohort Study were used. This cohort study was initiated in 1986, when 120,852 subjects aged 55–69 years completed a questionnaire on dietary habits and lifestyle, and provided toenail clippings for the determination of baseline selenium status. After 16.3 years of follow-up, 253 BE cases (identified through linkage with the nationwide Dutch pathology registry) and 2,039 subcohort members were available for case–cohort analysis. Cox proportional hazards models were used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR). Results The multivariable-adjusted RR for the highest versus the lowest quartile of toenail selenium was 1.06 (95% CI 0.71–1.57). No dose–response trend was seen (p trend = 0.99). No association was found in subgroups defined by sex, smoking status, body mass index (BMI), or intake of antioxidants. For BE cases that later progressed to high-grade dysplasia or adenocarcinoma, the RR for a selenium level above the median vs. below the median was 0.64 (95% CI 0.24–1.76). Conclusions In this large prospective cohort study, we found no evidence of an association between selenium and risk of BE. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10552-010-9651-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:20936529

Steevens, Jessie; Schouten, Leo J.; Driessen, Ann L. C.; Huysentruyt, Clément J. R.; Keulemans, Yolande C. A.; Goldbohm, R. Alexandra

2010-01-01

258

Testicular cancer risk and maternal parity: a population-based cohort study.  

PubMed Central

The aim was to study, in a population-based cohort design, whether first-born sons run a higher risk of testicular cancer than later born sons; to investigate whether this difference in risk was affected by birth cohort, age of the son, maternal age, interval to previous delivery and other reproductive factors; and, finally, to evaluate to what extent changes in women's parity over time might explain the increasing incidence of testicular cancer. By using data from the Civil Registration System, a database was established of all women born in Denmark since 1935 and all their children alive in 1968 or born later. Sons with testicular cancer were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. Among 1015994 sons followed for 15981 967 person-years, 626 developed testicular cancer (443 non-seminomas, 183 seminomas). Later born sons had a decreased risk of testicular cancer (RR = 0.80, 95% CI = 0.67-0.95) compared with first-born sons. The RR was 0.79 (95% CI = 0.64-0.98) for non-seminomas and 0.81 (95% CI = 0.58-1.13) for seminomas. There was no association between testicular cancer risk and overall parity of the mother, maternal or paternal age at the birth of the son, or maternal age at first birth. The decreased risk of testicular cancer among later born sons was not modified by age, birth cohort, interval to the previous birth, sex of the first-born child, or maternal age at birth of the son or at first birth. The increased proportion of first-borns from birth cohort 1946 to birth cohort 1969 only explained around 3% of an approximated two-fold increase in incidence between the cohorts. Our data document a distinctly higher risk of testicular cancer in first-born compared with later born sons and suggest that the most likely explanation should be sought among exposures in utero. The increase in the proportion of first-borns in the population has only contributed marginally to the increase in testicular cancer incidence. PMID:9569059

Westergaard, T.; Andersen, P. K.; Pedersen, J. B.; Frisch, M.; Olsen, J. H.; Melbye, M.

1998-01-01

259

A-bomb data: detection of bias in the Life Span Study cohort.  

PubMed

By drawing a distinction between A-bomb survivors with and without bomb-related injuries, it was possible to see that instead of the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort being a normal, homogenous population, there were significant differences between survivors with and without multiple injuries, and that these differences occurred largely among survivors who were under 10 or over 50 years of age when exposed. There also was a concentration of A-bomb-related injuries among survivors who eventually developed leukemia. So it is possible that deaths before 1950 had left the LSS cohort permanently biased in favor of persons who had high levels of resistance to all (early and late) effects of radiation. It is also possible that the high proportion of leukemia cases among the deaths of A-bomb survivors from 1950 to 1970 were because the radiation caused an initial leukocytosis followed by loss of immunologic competence. PMID:9467075

Stewart, A

1997-12-01

260

Hormone use for menopausal symptoms and risk of breast cancer. A Danish cohort study  

PubMed Central

Numerous studies and meta-analyses have shown that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for menopausal symptoms increases the risk of developing breast cancer, estimated to be 2.3% for each year of use. The influence of different oestrogen–progestin regimens has still not been fully evaluated. Using longitudinal data from the population-based prescription database of the county of North Jutland, Denmark, and the Danish Cancer Registry, we examined the risk of developing breast cancer in relation to HRT in a cohort of 78?380 women aged 40–67 years from 1989 to 2002. A total of 1462 cases of breast cancer were identified during a mean follow-up of 10 years. Use of HRT did not increase the risk of breast cancer in women aged 40–49 years. Restricting the cohort to 48?812 women aged 50 years or more at entry, of whom 15?631 were HRT users, we found an increased risk associated with current use of HRT (relative risk 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.38–1.88). The risk increased with increasing duration of use and decreased with time since last HRT prescription, reaching unity after 5 years. No material risk difference was observed among the various HRT-regimens. This population-based cohort study provides further confirmation that HRT increases the risk of developing breast cancer in women aged 50 years or more. PMID:15785751

Ewertz, M; Mellemkjaer, L; Poulsen, A H; Friis, S; Sørensen, H T; Pedersen, L; McLaughlin, J K; Olsen, J H

2005-01-01

261

A Prospective Cohort Study of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Risk and Opium Addiction in South Eastern Iran  

PubMed Central

Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by ?2 and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

2014-01-01

262

A prospective cohort study of cutaneous leishmaniasis risk and opium addiction in south eastern Iran.  

PubMed

Opium addiction and cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) are endemic in different parts of Iran, particularly in Bam, where a massive earthquake occurred. This study was designed to compare the incidence rate and severity of CL cases among opium addicted and non-addicted individuals in south-eastern Iran. This study was carried out as a prospective cohort by active house-to-house visits of 1,481 habitants in Bam. CL cases were confirmed by smear and identification of Leishmania species was performed using nested-PCR. The data was analyzed by ?(2) and t-tests, using SPSS software and also Kaplan-Meier survival curve and long-rank test in Stata 11.2 and P<0.05 was considered as significant. A total of 904 individuals consisting of 226 opium addicted and 678 non-addicted individuals were followed-up for a period of seven years. The two cohorts were similar in terms of age, sex and place of residency. A similar pattern of incidence was observed among the two cohort groups. In contrast, the severity of CL in terms of the number, duration and the size of the lesions in opium addicted individuals was significantly (P<0.001) higher than non-opium addicted individuals. In conclusion, the present findings indicate that there is no relationship between the incidence of CL and opium addiction. PMID:24586494

Aflatoonian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifi, Iraj; Hakimi Parizi, Maryam; Fekri, Ali Reza; Aflatoonian, Behnaz; Sharifi, Maryam; Khosravi, Ahmad; Khamesipour, Ali; Sharifi, Hamid

2014-01-01

263

A longitudinal study on the incidence and transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV infection among drug users in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study data on the incidence of HBV and HCV were used to indicate the prevalence of and trends in risk behavior, assuming that drug users (DUs) who become infected with HBV or HCV are also at risk for infection with HIV. In addition, we determined to that extent the transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV differed.

E. J. C. Ameijden; J. A. R. Hoek; G. H. C. Mientjes; R. A. Coutinho

1993-01-01

264

A Pooled Analysis of 12 Cohort Studies of Dietary Fat, Cholesterol and Egg Intake and Ovarian Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fat and cholesterol are theorized to promote ovarian carcinogenesis by increasing circulating estrogen levels. Although case–control\\u000a studies have reported positive associations between total and saturated fat intake and ovarian cancer risk, two cohort studies\\u000a have observed null associations. Dietary cholesterol and eggs have been positively associated with ovarian cancer risk. A\\u000a pooled analysis was conducted on 12 cohort studies. Among

Jeanine M. Genkinger; David J. Hunter; Donna Spiegelman; Kristin E. Anderson; W. Lawrence Beeson; Julie E. Buring; Graham A. Colditz; Gary E. Fraser; Jo L. Freudenheim; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; Susan E. Hankinson; Karen L. Koenig; Susanna C. Larsson; Michael Leitzmann; Marjorie L. McCullough; Anthony B. Miller; Carmen Rodriguez; Thomas E. Rohan; Julie A. Ross; Arthur Schatzkin; Leo J. Schouten; Ellen Smit; Walter C. Willett; Alicja Wolk; Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte; Shumin M. Zhang; Stephanie A. Smith-Warner

2006-01-01

265

The Amsterdam declaration on fungal nomenclature  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The Amsterdam Declaration on Fungal Nomenclature was developed at a international symposium convened in Amsterdam on 19-20 April 2011 under the auspices of the International Commission on the Taxonomy of Fungi (ICTF). The purpose of the symposium was to address the issue of whether or how the curren...

266

University of Amsterdam Programming Research Group  

E-print Network

University of Amsterdam Programming Research Group UvA Budget Allocatie Model J.A. Bergstra S.7591 e-mail: janb@science.uva.nl S. Nolst Trenite Faculty of Science University of Amsterdam e-mail: sanne@science.uva.nl M.B. van der Zwaag Programming Research Group Faculty of Science University

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

267

University of Amsterdam Programming Research Group  

E-print Network

University of Amsterdam Programming Research Group UvA Budget Allocatie Model J.A. Bergstra S.7591 e­mail: janb@science.uva.nl S. Nolst Trenite Faculty of Science University of Amsterdam e­mail: sanne@science.uva.nl M.B. van der Zwaag Programming Research Group Faculty of Science University

Amsterdam, Universiteit van

268

Phthalate metabolites and bisphenol A in urines from German school-aged children: results of the Duisburg birth cohort and Bochum cohort studies.  

PubMed

Some phthalates and also bisphenol A (BPA) interfere with the human endocrine system and are labelled as reproductive toxicants. Children's exposure to these contaminants is suspected to be associated with developmental disorders and other health impairments. We provide biomonitoring data on 21 urinary phthalate metabolite and BPA levels in first morning urine of 8-10 year old children. Participants were children born between 1999 and 2002 of the Duisburg birth cohort (8-9 years, N=113) and of the Bochum cohort study (8-10 years, N=352). Additionally, for the Duisburg birth cohort we compare current data of children from Duisburg (8-9 years) with data from 2 years earlier when the children were 6-7 years old. We analyzed influences of important covariates on exposure levels by multiple regression analysis and those from two sampling time points by generalized equation estimation models adjusted for important covariates. Compared to recently published studies the phthalate metabolite and BPA concentrations were within the range of background levels. There were no significant differences between children from Bochum and Duisburg. Comparison between the two Duisburg birth cohort data sets (2007-2008 and 2009-2010) showed significant correlations for most of the phthalate metabolites (r Spearman between 0.25 and 0.51; p ? 0.05) but not for BPA (r Spearman=0.162; p=0.143). Most of the phthalate metabolites in the groups of the 6-7 and 8-9 years old Duisburg children were negatively associated with higher age, except for BPA concentrations with nearly constant levels. Exposure levels may be influenced by changes in child specific exposure patterns with age but also by the rapidly changing phthalate market. PMID:24986699

Kasper-Sonnenberg, Monika; Koch, Holger M; Wittsiepe, Jürgen; Brüning, Thomas; Wilhelm, Michael

2014-11-01

269

Geographical movement of doctors from education to training and eventual career post: UK cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To investigate the geographical mobility of UK-trained doctors. Design Cohort studies conducted by postal questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants A total 31,353 UK-trained doctors in 11 cohorts defined by year of qualification, from 1974 to 2008. Main outcome measures Location of family home prior to medical school, location of medical school, region of first training post, region of first career post. Analysis for the UK divided into 17 standard geographical regions. Results The response rate was 81.2% (31,353/45,061; denominators, below, depended on how far the doctors’ careers had progressed). Of all respondents, 36% (11,381/31,353) attended a medical school in their home region and 48% (10,370/21,740) undertook specialty training in the same region as their medical school. Of respondents who had reached the grade of consultant or principal in general practice in the UK, 34% (4169/12,119) settled in the same region as their home before entering medical school. Of those in the UK, 70% (7643/10,887) held their first career post in the same region as either their home before medical school, or their medical school or their location of training. For 18% (1938/10,887), all four locations – family home, medical school, place of training, place of first career post – were within the same region. A higher percentage of doctors from the more recent than from the older cohorts settled in the region of their family home. Conclusion Many doctors do not change geographical region in their successive career moves, and recent cohorts appear less inclined to do so. PMID:23481431

Goldacre, Michael; Davidson, Jean; Maisonneuve, Jenny; Lambert, Trevor

2013-01-01

270

Should age-period-cohort studies return to the methodologies of the 1970s?  

PubMed

Social scientists have recognized the importance of age-period-cohort (APC) models for half a century, but have spent much of this time mired in debates about the feasibility of APC methods. Recently, a new class of APC methods based on modern statistical knowledge has emerged, offering potential solutions. In 2009, Reither, Hauser and Yang used one of these new methods - hierarchical APC (HAPC) modeling - to study how birth cohorts may have contributed to the U.S. obesity epidemic. They found that recent birth cohorts experience higher odds of obesity than their predecessors, but that ubiquitous period-based changes are primarily responsible for the rising prevalence of obesity. Although these findings have been replicated elsewhere, recent commentaries by Bell and Jones call them into question - along with the new class of APC methods. Specifically, Bell and Jones claim that new APC methods do not adequately address model identification and suggest that "solid theory" is often sufficient to remove one of the three temporal dimensions from empirical consideration. They also present a series of simulation models that purportedly show how the HAPC models estimated by Reither et al. (2009) could have produced misleading results. However, these simulation models rest on assumptions that there were no period effects, and associations between period and cohort variables and the outcome were perfectly linear. Those are conditions under which APC models should never be used. Under more tenable assumptions, our own simulations show that HAPC methods perform well, both in recovering the main findings presented by Reither et al. (2009) and the results reported by Bell and Jones. We also respond to critiques about model identification and theoretically-imposed constraints, finding little pragmatic support for such arguments. We conclude by encouraging social scientists to move beyond the debates of the 1970s and toward a deeper appreciation for modern APC methodologies. PMID:25617033

Reither, Eric N; Masters, Ryan K; Yang, Yang Claire; Powers, Daniel A; Zheng, Hui; Land, Kenneth C

2015-03-01

271

Pathways to a rising caesarean section rate: a population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether the obstetric pathways leading to caesarean section changed from one decade to another. We also aimed to explore how much of the increase in caesarean rate could be attributed to maternal and pregnancy factors including a shift towards delivery in private hospitals. Design Population-based record linkage cohort study. Setting New South Wales, Australia. Participants For annual rates, all women giving birth in NSW during 1994 to 2009 were included. To examine changes in obstetric pathways two cohorts were compared: all women with a first-birth during either 1994–1997 (82?988 women) or 2001–2004 (85?859 women) and who had a second (sequential) birth within 5?years of their first-birth. Primary outcome measures Caesarean section rates, by parity and onset of labour. Results For first-births, prelabour and intrapartum caesarean rates increased from 1994 to 2009, with intrapartum rates rising from 6.5% to 11.7%. This fed into repeat caesarean rates; from 2003, over 18% of all multiparous births were prelabour repeat caesareans. In the 1994–1997 cohort, 17.7% of women had a caesarean delivery for their first-birth. For their second birth, the vaginal birth after caesarean (VBAC) rate was 28%. In the 2001–2004 cohort, 26.1% of women had a caesarean delivery for their first-birth and the VBAC rate was 16%. Among women with a first-birth, maternal and pregnancy factors and increasing deliveries in private hospitals, only explained 24% of the rise in caesarean rates from 1994 to 2009. Conclusions Rising first-birth caesarean rates drove the overall increase. Maternal factors and changes in public/private care could explain only a quarter of the increase. Changes in the perceived risks of vaginal birth versus caesarean delivery may be influencing the pregnancy management decisions of clinicians and/or mothers. PMID:22952166

Roberts, Christine L; Algert, Charles S; Ford, Jane B; Todd, Angela L; Morris, Jonathan M

2012-01-01

272

Coal use, stove improvement, and adult pneumonia mortality in Xuanwei, China: a retrospective cohort study  

SciTech Connect

In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80 years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.

Shen, M.; Chapman, R.S.; Vermeulen, R.; Tian, L.W.; Zheng, T.Z.; Chen, B.E.; Engels, E.A.; He, X.Z.; Blair, A.; Lan, Q. [NCI, Bethesda, MD (USA)

2009-02-15

273

COHORT STUDIES OF HEALTH EFFECTS AMONG PEOPLE EXPOSED TO ESTUARINE WATERS: NORTH CAROLINA, VIRGINIA, AND MARYLAND. (R827084)  

EPA Science Inventory

A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome," Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine w...

274

Obesity and liver cancer mortality in Asia: the Asia Pacific Cohort Study Collaboration  

PubMed Central

While obesity is associated with liver cancer in studies from western societies, the paucity of data from Asia limits insights into its aetiological role in this population. We examined the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and liver cancer using data from the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration. In 309,203 Asian study members, four years of follow-up gave rise to 11,135 deaths from all causes, 420 of which were ascribed to liver cancer. BMI, whether categorised according to current guidelines for Asian groups or World Health Organisation recommendations, was not associated with liver cancer in any of our analyses. PMID:19900847

Batty, G. David; Barzi, Federica; Huxley, Rachel; Chang, Charissa Y.; Jee, Sun Ha; Jamrozik, Konrad; Whitlock, Gary; Kim, Hyeon Chang; Fang, Xianghua; Lam, Tai H.; Woodward, Mark

2014-01-01

275

Publication rate for funded studies from a major UK health research funder: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives This study aimed to investigate what percentage of National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment (HTA) Programme-funded projects have published their final reports in the programme's journal HTA and to explore reasons for non-publication. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Failure to publish findings from research is a significant area of research waste. It has previously been suggested that potentially over 50% of studies funded are never published. Participants All NIHR HTA projects with a planned submission date for their final report for publication in the journal series on or before 9 December 2011 were included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The projects were classified according to the type of research, whether they had been published or not; if not yet published, whether they would be published in the future or not. The reasons for non-publication were investigated. Results 628 projects were included: 582 (92.7%) had published a monograph; 19 (3%) were expected to publish a monograph; 13 (2.1%) were discontinued studies and would not publish; 12 (1.9%) submitted a report which did not lead to a publication as a monograph; and two (0.3%) did not submit a report. Overall, 95.7% of HTA studies either have published or will publish a monograph: 94% for those commissioned in 2002 or before and 98% for those commissioned after 2002. Of the 27 projects for which there will be no report, the majority (21) were commissioned in 2002 or before. Reasons why projects failed to complete included failure to recruit; issues concerning the organisation where the research was taking place; drug licensing issues; staffing issues; and access to data. Conclusions The percentage of HTA projects for which a monograph is published is high. The advantages of funding organisations requiring publication in their own journal include avoidance of publication bias and research waste. PMID:23645914

Turner, S; Wright, D; Maeso, R; Cook, A; Milne, R

2013-01-01

276

Exclusion and Inclusion of Nonwhite Ethnic Minority Groups in 72 North American and European Cardiovascular Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundCohort studies are recommended for understanding ethnic disparities in cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to review the process for identifying, including, and excluding ethnic minority populations in published cardiovascular cohort studies in Europe and North America.Methods and FindingsWe found the literature using Medline (1966–2005), Embase (1980–2001), Cinahl, Web of Science, and citations from references; consultations with colleagues; Internet searches; and

Meghna Ranganathan; Raj Bhopal

2006-01-01

277

An ecological systems approach to examining risk factors for early childhood overweight: findings from the UK Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT Objective: To use an ecological systems approach to examine individual-, family-, community-, and area-level risk factors for overweight (including obesity) in 3-year-old children. Design: Prospective nationally representative cohort study Setting: England, Wales, Scotland, Northern Ireland Participants: 13 188 singleton children age three in the Millennium Cohort Study, born between 2000 and 2002, who had complete height\\/weight data Main outcome

Summer Sherburne Hawkins

278

Temporal Predictors of Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly People with Diabetes: Results of a German Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundThe aim of the study was to determine predictors that influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a large cohort of elderly diabetes patients from primary care over a follow-up period of five years.Methods and ResultsAt the baseline measurement of the ESTHER cohort study (2000–2002), 1375 out of 9953 participants suffered from diabetes (13.8%). 1057 of these diabetes patients responded

Imad Maatouk; Beate Wild; Daniela Wesche; Wolfgang Herzog; Elke Raum; Heiko Müller; Dietrich Rothenbacher; Christa Stegmaier; Dieter Schellberg; Hermann Brenner

2012-01-01

279

The Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) birth cohort study: design, methods, and study population  

PubMed Central

Background The incidence and morbidity of wheezing illnesses and childhood asthma is especially high in poor urban areas. This paper describes the study design, methods, and population of the Urban Environment and Childhood Asthma (URECA) study, which was established to investigate the immunologic causes of asthma among inner-city children. Methods and Results URECA is an observational prospective study that enrolled pregnant women in central urban areas of Baltimore, Boston, New York City, and St. Louis and is following their offspring from birth through age 7 years. The birth cohort consists of 560 inner-city children who have at least one parent with an allergic disease or asthma, and all families live in areas in which at least 20% of the population has incomes below the poverty line. In addition, 49 inner-city children with no parental history of allergies or asthma were enrolled. The primary hypothesis is that specific urban exposures in early life promote a unique pattern of immune development (impaired antiviral and increased Th2 responses) that increases the risk of recurrent wheezing and allergic sensitization in early childhood, and of asthma by age 7 years. To track immune development, cytokine responses of blood mononuclear cells stimulated ex vivo are measured at birth and then annually. Environmental assessments include allergen and endotoxin levels in house dust, pre- and postnatal maternal stress, and indoor air nicotine and nitrogen dioxide. Nasal mucous samples are collected from the children during respiratory illnesses and analyzed for respiratory viruses. The complex interactions between environmental exposures and immune development will be assessed with respect to recurrent wheeze at age 3 years and asthma at age 7 years. Conclusion The overall goal of the URECA study is to develop a better understanding of how specific urban exposures affect immune development to promote wheezing illnesses and asthma. PMID:19426496

Gern, James E; Visness, Cynthia M; Gergen, Peter J; Wood, Robert A; Bloomberg, Gordon R; O'Connor, George T; Kattan, Meyer; Sampson, Hugh A; Witter, Frank R; Sandel, Megan T; Shreffler, Wayne G; Wright, Rosalind J; Arbes, Samuel J; Busse, William W

2009-01-01

280

Coffee Consumption and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Epidemiologic studies have reported coffee consumption to be associated with various health conditions. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of coffee consumption with colorectal cancer incidence in a large-scale prospective cohort study in Japan. Methods We used data from the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study). Here, we analyzed a total of 58 221 persons (23 607 men, 34 614 women) followed from 1988 to the end of 2009. During 738 669 person-years of follow-up for the analysis of colorectal cancer risk with coffee consumption at baseline, we identified 687 cases of colon cancer (355 males and 332 females) and 314 cases of rectal cancer (202 males and 112 females). We used the Cox proportional-hazard regression model to estimate hazard ratio (HR). Results Compared to those who consumed less than 1 cup of coffee per day, men who consumed 2–3 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.93–1.70), and men who consumed more than 4 cups of coffee per day had an HR of 1.79 (95% CI 1.01–3.18). A statistically significant increase in the risk of colon cancer was associated with increasing coffee consumption among men (P for trend = 0.03). On the other hand, coffee consumption in women was not associated with incident risk of colon cancer. Coffee consumption was also not associated with rectal cancer incidence in men or women. Conclusions This large-scale population-based cohort study showed that coffee consumption increases the risk of colon cancer among Japanese men. PMID:24857957

Yamada, Hiroya; Kawado, Miyuki; Aoyama, Norihiro; Hashimoto, Shuji; Suzuki, Koji; Wakai, Kenji; Suzuki, Sadao; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Tamakoshi, Akiko

2014-01-01

281

Cultural competency in a physician assistant curriculum in the United States: a longitudinal study with two cohorts  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Many physician assistant (PA) programs have recently integrated cultural competency into their curricula. However, there is little evidence of the longitudinal effectiveness of such curricula on culture competency. This study tested whether the amount of exposure to a cultural competency curriculum affected self-assessments of cultural awareness in two cohorts of students. Methods: Cohort 1 and Cohort 2 students completed a cultural awareness survey at the beginning of the program and retook the survey at three intervals during the first year. Results: Regression analyses confirmed a significant linear relationship (two-tailed 0.05) between the responses and the interval number on all questions for each cohort, with the exception of Question 8, on the ability to identify discrimination, for Cohort 2. Conclusion: Results from Cohort 2 replicated those from Cohort 1, suggesting that cultural awareness among PA students benefits from repeated exposure to lessons on cultural competency. Schools attempting to develop or expand cultural awareness among students should consider integrating cultural competency training throughout the PA curriculum. PMID:24699447

2014-01-01

282

A Review of Published Analyses of Case-Cohort Studies and Recommendations for Future Reporting  

E-print Network

of Case-Cohort Studies and Recommendations for Future Reporting. PLoS ONE 9(6): e101176. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0101176 Editor: Joel Joseph Gagnier, University of Michigan, United States of America Received April 2, 2014; Accepted June 3, 2014; Published... . (2010) Statistical methods for the time-to-event analysis of individual participant data from multiple epidemiological studies. Int J Epidemiol 39: 1345–1359. 11. Borgan O, Langholz B, Samuelsen SO, Goldstein L, Pogoda J (2009) Exposure stratified case...

Sharp, Stephen J.; Poulaliou, Manon; Thompson, Simon G.; White, Ian R.; Wood, Angela M.

2014-06-27

283

Long-term effectiveness of intralesional triamcinolone acetonide therapy in orofacial granulomatosis: an observational cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background It has been suggested that intralesional triamcinolone injections represent a safe and effective therapeutic strategy in controlling the permanent disfiguring swelling of orofacial granulomatosis (OFG). However, robust supporting evidence is lacking, due to the variable and inconsistent design of available studies. Objectives To investigate whether a standardized regimen of intralesional triamcinolone has beneficial long-term effects on orofacial swelling of OFG. We also studied potential associations with a number of prognostic factors. Methods We designed a retrospective observational study of a homogeneous cohort of 22 well-phenotyped patients with OFG. The primary outcome was defined as a statistically significant decrease in post-treatment disease severity. Statistically significant association with prognostic factors was the secondary outcome. Statistical analysis included Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and logistic regression. Results Compared with pretreatment, there were statistically significant decreases in disease severity scores at all time points until 48 months post-treatment (P < 0·01). Logistic regression analysis showed there was no independent prognostic variable of statistical significance (P > 0·05). The majority of patients (14/22, 63·6%) received one course of intralesional triamcinolone and did not experience disease recurrence. The mean disease-free period after the first course of intralesional therapy was 28·9 ± 18 months (95% confidence interval 28·7–29·1). No adverse effects were reported. Conclusions This is the first study to have employed robust cohort methodology and sound statistics to demonstrate long-term effectiveness of intralesional triamcinolone in controlling the disfiguring swelling of OFG. Because of limitations inherent in observational studies, further research in the form of randomized case-control trials is needed to confirm the present findings. What's already known about this topic? It has been suggested that intralesional corticosteroid therapy is effective in controlling the permanent disfiguring swelling of orofacial granulomatosis (OFG); however, robust supporting evidence is lacking due to the variable and inconsistent design of available studies. What does this study add? This is the first cohort study on intralesional therapy to employ robust cohort design, consistent methodology and a standardized regimen of triamcinolone injections. It provides reliable evidence of long-term effectiveness in reducing the orofacial swelling of OFG. PMID:24088036

Fedele, S; Fung, PPL; Bamashmous, N; Petrie, A; Porter, S

2014-01-01

284

Childhood Sleep Duration and Quality in Relation to Leptin Concentration in Two Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Study Objectives: Poor sleep in childhood is associated with increased obesity risk, possibly by affecting appetite-regulating hormones such as leptin. We examined short- and long-term sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin in two US pediatric cohorts. Design: Analysis of data from two prospective cohort studies. Setting: Population-based. Adolescent polysomnography assessments performed in a clinical research unit. Patients or Participants: Children in Project Viva (n = 655) and adolescents in the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study (n = 502). Interventions: N/A. Measurements and Results: In Project Viva, mothers reported average child sleep duration annually from infancy through age 7, and we measured leptin at ages 3 and 7. In the Cleveland Children's Sleep & Health Study, we collected self-reported sleep duration, polysomnography-derived measures of sleep quality, and fasting leptin at ages 16-19. In sex-stratified linear regression analyses adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and adiposity, chronic curtailed sleep was associated with lower leptin at age 7 in girls; a one-unit decrease in sleep score was associated with a 0.08 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.01,0.15). The association was stronger in girls with greater adiposity (P = 0.01). Among adolescents, shorter sleep was associated with lower leptin in males; each one-hour decrease in sleep duration was associated with a 0.06 decrease in log leptin (95%CI: 0.00, 0.11). Sleep duration was not associated with leptin at other ages. Sleep quality indices were not associated with leptin. Conclusions: Our results suggest possible age-specific sexual dimorphism in the influence of sleep on leptin, which may partly explain inconsistencies in the literature. Citation: Boeke CE; Storfer-Isser A; Redline S; Taveras EM. Childhood sleep duration and quality in relation to leptin concentration in two cohort studies. SLEEP 2014;37(3):613-620. PMID:24587585

Boeke, Caroline E.; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Redline, Susan; Taveras, Elsie M.

2014-01-01

285

Multimorbidity in a marginalised, street-health Australian population: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Demographic and presentation profile of patients using an innovative mobile outreach clinic compared with mainstream practice. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Primary care mobile street health clinic and mainstream practice in Western Australia. Participants 2587 street health and 4583 mainstream patients. Main outcome measures Prevalence and patterns of chronic diseases in anatomical domains across the entire age spectrum of patients and disease severity burden using Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Results Multimorbidity (2+ CIRS domains) prevalence was significantly higher in the street health cohort (46.3%, 1199/2587) than age–sex-adjusted mainstream estimate (43.1%, 2000/4583), p=0.011. Multimorbidity prevalence was significantly higher in street health patients <45?years (37.7%, 615/1649) compared with age–sex-adjusted mainstream patients (33%, 977/2961), p=0.003 but significantly lower if 65+ years (62%, 114/184 vs 90.7%, 322/355, p<0.001). Controlling for age and gender, the mean CIRS Severity Index score for street health (M=1.4, SD=0.91) was significantly higher than for mainstream patients (M=1.1, SD=0.80), p<0.001. Furthermore, 44.2% (530/1199) of street health patients had at least one level 3 or 4 score across domains compared with 18.3% (420/2294) for mainstream patients, p<0.001. Street health population comprised 29.6% (766/2587) Aboriginal patients with 50.4% (386/766) having multimorbidity compared with 44.6% (813/1821) for non-Aboriginals, p=0.007. There were no comprehensive data on Indigenous status in the mainstream cohort available for comparison. Musculoskeletal, respiratory and psychiatric domains were most commonly affected with multimorbidity significantly associated with male gender, increasing age and Indigenous status. Conclusions Age–sex-adjusted multimorbidity prevalence and disease severity is higher in the street health cohort. Earlier onset (23–34?years) multimorbidity is found in the street health cohort but prevalence is lower in 65+ years than in mainstream patients. Multimorbidity prevalence is higher for Aboriginal patients of all ages. PMID:25138806

Brett, Tom; Arnold-Reed, Diane E; Troeung, Lakkhina; Bulsara, Max K; Williams, Annalisse; Moorhead, Robert G

2014-01-01

286

Neurological complications of breast cancer: study protocol of a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction The improvement in breast cancer survival rates, along with the expected overdiagnosis and overtreatment associated with breast cancer screening, requires a comprehensive assessment of its burden. Neurological complications can have a devastating impact on these patients; neuropathic pain and chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy are among the most frequently reported. This project aims to understand the burden of neurological complications of breast cancer treatment in Northern Portugal, and their role as mediator of the impact of the treatment in different dimensions of the patients’ quality of life. Methods and analysis A prospective cohort study was designed to include 500 patients with breast cancer, to be followed for 3?years. The patients were recruited at the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and evaluations were planned at different stages: pretreatment, after surgery, after chemotherapy (whenever applicable) and at 1 and 3?years after enrolment. Patients diagnosed with neuropathic pain or chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (subcohorts), were also evaluated at the moment of confirmation of clinical diagnosis of the neurological complication and 6?months later. In each of the follow-up periods, a neurological examination has been performed by a neurologist. Data were collected on sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, quality of life, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression. Between January and December 2012, we recruited and conducted the baseline evaluation of 506 participants. The end of the follow-up period is scheduled for December 2015. Ethics and dissemination The study protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Portuguese Oncology Institute of Porto and all patients provided written informed consent. All study procedures were developed in order to assure data protection and confidentiality. Results from this project will be disseminated in international peer-reviewed journals and presented in relevant conferences. PMID:25351600

Pereira, Susana; Fontes, Filipa; Sonin, Teresa; Dias, Teresa; Fragoso, Maria; Castro-Lopes, José; Lunet, Nuno

2014-01-01

287

Age, education and dementia related deaths. The Norwegian Counties Study and The Cohort of Norway.  

PubMed

An inverse relationship between educational level and dementia has been reported in several studies. In this study we investigated the relationship between educational level and dementia related deaths for cohorts of people all born during 1915-39. The cohorts were followed up from adulthood or old age, taking into account possible confounders and mediating paths. Our study population comprised participants in Norwegian health examination studies in the period 1974-2002; The Counties Study and Cohort of Norway (CONOR). Dementia related deaths were defined as deaths with a dementia diagnosis on the death certificate and linked using the Cause of Death Registry to year 2012. The study included 90,843 participants, 2.06 million person years and 2440 dementia related deaths. Cox regression was used to assess the association between education and dementia related deaths. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with lower dementia related death risk compared to those with low education when follow-up started in adulthood (35-49 years, high versus low education: HR=0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.93; 50-69 years, high versus low education: HR=0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.80). However, when follow-up started at old age (70-80 years) there was no significant association between education and dementia related death. Restricting the study population to those born during a five-year period 1925-29 (the birth cohort overlapping all three age groups), gave similar main findings. The protective effects found for both high and middle educational level compared to low education were robust to adjustment for cardiovascular health and life style factors, suggesting education to be a protective factor for dementia related death. Both high and middle educational levels were associated with decreased dementia related death risk compared with low educational level when follow-up started in adulthood, but no association was observed when follow-up started at old age. PMID:25034053

Strand, Bjørn Heine; Langballe, Ellen Melbye; Rosness, Tor A; Bergem, Astrid Liv Mina; Engedal, Knut; Nafstad, Per; Tell, Grethe S; Ormstad, Heidi; Tambs, Kristian; Bjertness, Espen

2014-10-15

288

Childhood psychological distress and youth unemployment: Evidence from two British cohort studies.  

PubMed

The effect of childhood mental health on later unemployment has not yet been established. In this article we assess whether childhood psychological distress places young people at high risk of subsequent unemployment and whether the presence of economic recession strengthens this relationship. This study was based on 19,217 individuals drawn from two nationally-representative British prospective cohort studies; the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) and the National Child Development Study (NCDS). Both cohorts contain rich contemporaneous information detailing the participants' early life socioeconomic background, household characteristics, and physical health. In adjusted analyses in the LSYPE sample (N = 10,232) those who reported high levels of distress at age 14 were 2 percentage points more likely than those with low distress to be unemployed between ages 16 and 21. In adjusted analyses of the NCDS sample (N = 8985) children rated as having high distress levels by their teachers at age 7 and 11 were 3 percentage points more likely than those with low distress to be unemployed between ages 16 and 23. Our examination of the 1980 UK recession in the NCDS cohort found the difference in average unemployment level between those with high versus low distress rose from 2.6 pct points in the pre-recession period to 3.9 points in the post-recession period. These findings point to a previously neglected contribution of childhood mental health to youth unemployment, which may be particularly pronounced during times of economic recession. Our findings also suggest a further economic benefit to enhancing the provision of mental health services early in life. PMID:25461857

Egan, Mark; Daly, Michael; Delaney, Liam

2015-01-01

289

Graduation Rate Study: Four and Five Year Graduation Rates for the Cohort Class of 2001, Arizona Public High Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the proportion of students in the cohort class of 2001 who completed Arizona high school graduation requirements within 4 years. The cohort class of 2001 comprises students who entered 9th grade in fall of the 1997-1998 school year, and were expected to graduate from 12th grade by the end of the 2000-2001…

Owin, Brian R.

290

Association between Sjogren's Syndrome and Respiratory Failure: Put Airway, Interstitia, and Vessels Close Together: A National Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Few studies have evaluated the association between Sjogren's syndrome (SS) and respiratory failure (RF). Thus, we conducted a retrospective national cohort study to investigate whether Sjogren's syndrome (SS) increases the risk of respiratory failure (RF). Methods The cohort consisted of 4954 newly diagnosed patients with SS but without a previous diagnosis of RF, and 19816 patients as the comparison cohort from the catastrophic illnesses registry, obtained from the 2000–2005 period. All of the study participants were followed from the index date to December 31, 2011. We analyzed the association between the risk of RF and SS by using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, controlling for sex, age, and comorbidities. Results The overall incidence rate of RF showed a 3.21-fold increase in the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort. The adjusted HR of RF was 3.04 for the SS cohort compared with the comparison cohort, after we adjusted for sex, age, and comorbidities. The HRs of RF for patients with primary SS and secondary SS compared with the comparison cohort were 2.99 and 3.93, respectively (P for trend <.001). The HRs of RF increased as the severity of SS increased, from 2.34 for those with no inpatient care experience to 5.15 for those with inpatient care experience (P for trend <.001). Conclusion This study indicates that clinical physicians should not only consider secondary SS but also primary SS as a critical factor that increases the risk of RF. PMID:25350278

Yeh, Jun-Jun; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Li, Tsai-Chung; Wong, Yi-Sin; Tang, Hsien-Chin; Yeh, Ting-Chun; Kao, Chia-Hung

2014-01-01

291

Risk of cancer after low doses of ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study in 15 countries  

PubMed Central

Objectives To provide direct estimates of risk of cancer after protracted low doses of ionising radiation and to strengthen the scientific basis of radiation protection standards for environmental, occupational, and medical diagnostic exposures. Design Multinational retrospective cohort study of cancer mortality. Setting Cohorts of workers in the nuclear industry in 15 countries. Participants 407 391 workers individually monitored for external radiation with a total follow-up of 5.2 million person years. Main outcome measurements Estimates of excess relative risks per sievert (Sv) of radiation dose for mortality from cancers other than leukaemia and from leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, the main causes of death considered by radiation protection authorities. Results The excess relative risk for cancers other than leukaemia was 0.97 per Sv, 95% confidence interval 0.14 to 1.97. Analyses of causes of death related or unrelated to smoking indicate that, although confounding by smoking may be present, it is unlikely to explain all of this increased risk. The excess relative risk for leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia was 1.93 per Sv (< 0 to 8.47). On the basis of these estimates, 1-2% of deaths from cancer among workers in this cohort may be attributable to radiation. Conclusions These estimates, from the largest study of nuclear workers ever conducted, are higher than, but statistically compatible with, the risk estimates used for current radiation protection standards. The results suggest that there is a small excess risk of cancer, even at the low doses and dose rates typically received by nuclear workers in this study. PMID:15987704

Cardis, E; Vrijheid, M; Blettner, M; Gilbert, E; Hakama, M; Hill, C; Howe, G; Kaldor, J; Muirhead, C R; Schubauer-Berigan, M; Yoshimura, T; Bermann, F; Cowper, G; Fix, J; Hacker, C; Heinmiller, B; Marshall, M; Thierry-Chef, I; Utterback, D; Ahn, Y-O; Amoros, E; Ashmore, P; Auvinen, A; Bae, J-M; Solano, J Bernar; Biau, A; Combalot, E; Deboodt, P; Sacristan, A Diez; Eklof, M; Engels, H; Engholm, G; Gulis, G; Habib, R; Holan, K; Hyvonen, H; Kerekes, A; Kurtinaitis, J; Malker, H; Martuzzi, M; Mastauskas, A; Monnet, A; Moser, M; Pearce, M S; Richardson, D B; Rodriguez-Artalejo, F; Rogel, A; Tardy, H; Telle-Lamberton, M; Turai, I; Usel, M; Veress, K

2005-01-01

292

HIV incidence among men who have sex with men in Beijing: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives (1) To assess the HIV incidence rate among men who have sex with men (MSM) in a large cohort study in Beijing, China and (2) to identify sociodemographic and behavioural risk factors of HIV seroconversion among MSM in Beijing, China. Design A prospective cohort study. Setting Baseline and follow-up visits were conducted among MSM in Beijing, China. Participants A cohort of 797 HIV-seronegative MSM was recruited from August to December 2009, with follow-up occurring after 6 and 12?months. Primary and secondary outcome measures At baseline and follow-up visits, participants reported sociodemographic and sexual behaviour information, and were tested for HIV, herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) and syphilis with whole blood specimens. Cox regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with HIV seroconversion. Results Most study participants (86.8%) were retained by the 12-month follow-up. The HIV, HSV-2 and syphilis incidence rates were 8.09 (95% CI 6.92 to 9.26), 5.92 (95% CI 5.44 to 6.40) and 8.06 (95% CI 7.56 to 8.56) cases per 100 person-years, respectively. HIV seroconversion was significantly associated with being <25?years old, having <12?years of education, having >1 male sex partner in the past 6?months, and being syphilis positive or HSV-2 positive. Conclusions The HIV incidence among MSM in Beijing is serious. Interventions and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases (STD) should be combined with HIV control and prevention measures among MSM. PMID:23166133

Li, Dongliang; Li, Shuming; Liu, Yingjie; Gao, Yanjie; Yu, Mingrun; Yang, Xueying; Li, Qingchun; Jiang, Shulin; Zhou, Zhenhai; Zhang, Zheng; Yan, Li; Jiang, Guiyan; Xiao, Dong; Pan, Stephen W; Luo, Fengji; Ruan, Yuhua; Shao, Yiming

2012-01-01

293

Statins are Associated with Reduced Use of Steroids in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: a Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Statin medications have anti-inflammatory effects. We sought to determine whether statin use in persons with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) was associated with reduced rates of steroid use or other markers of disease activity. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using administrative data. Statin users with IBD were compared to statin-unexposed IBD subjects. The primary outcome was an oral steroid prescription; secondary outcomes included anti-TNF initiation, hospitalization, or abdominal surgery. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) adjusted for potential confounders. Results The study cohort included 1,986 statin-exposed and 9,871 unexposed subjects. Statin use was associated with an 18% reduction in the rate of steroid initiation [HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71, 0.94)]. A statistically significant result was seen with atorvastatin only [HR 0.76 (95% CI 0.60, 0.96)]. Statins were associated with a reduced rate of steroids in ulcerative colitis [HRs 0.75 (95% CI 0.62, 0.91)], but not in Crohn’s disease [HR 0.91 (95% CI 0.74, 1.12)]. Statin use was associated with reduced hazard of anti-TNF use [HR 0.72 (95% CI 0.46, 1.11)], abdominal surgery [HR 0.80 (95% CI 0.63, 1.02)], and hospitalization [HR 0.88 (95% CI 0.74, 1.05)], but these results did not reach statistical significance. Conclusion In this large retrospective cohort study, statin use amongst persons with IBD was associated with reduced use of oral steroids, particularly for UC. Prospective clinical trials are needed to confirm whether adjuvant treatment of IBD with statin drugs may spare immunosuppressant therapy or ameliorate flares. PMID:21826766

Crockett, Seth D.; Hansen, Richard A.; Stürmer, Til; Schectman, Robin; Darter, Jane; Sandler, Robert S.; Kappelman, Michael D.

2011-01-01

294

Comparative Persistence of the TNF Antagonists in Rheumatoid Arthritis – A Population-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To compare persistence with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) antagonists among rheumatoid arthritis patients in British Columbia. Treatment persistence has been suggested as a proxy for real-world therapeutic benefit and harm of treatments for chronic non-curable diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis. We hypothesized that the different pharmacological characteristics of infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept cause statistically and clinically significant differences in persistence. Methods We conducted a population-based cohort study using administrative health data from the Canadian province of British Columbia. The study cohort included rheumatoid arthritis patients who initiated the first course of a TNF antagonist between 2001 and 2008. Persistence was measured as the time between first dispensing to discontinuation. Drug discontinuation was defined as a drug-free interval of 180 days or switching to another TNF antagonist, anakinra, rituximab or abatacept. Persistence was estimated and compared using survival analysis. Results The study cohort included 2,923 patients, 63% treated with etanercept. Median persistence in years (95% confidence interval) with infliximab was 3.7 (2.9–4.9), with adalimumab 3.3 (2.6–4.1) and with etanercept 3.8 (3.3–4.3). Similar risk of discontinuation was observed for the three drugs: the hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 0.98 (0.85–1.13) comparing infliximab with etanercept, 0.95 (0.78–1.15) comparing infliximab with adalimumab and 1.04 (0.88–1.22) comparing adalimumab with etanercept. Conclusions Similar persistence was observed with infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept in rheumatoid arthritis patients during the first 9 years of use. If treatment persistence is a good proxy for the therapeutic benefit and harm of these drugs, then this finding suggests that the three drugs share an overall similar benefit-harm profile in rheumatoid arthritis patients. PMID:25141123

Fisher, Anat; Bassett, Ken; Wright, James M.; Brookhart, M. Alan; Freeman, Hugh; Dormuth, Colin R.

2014-01-01

295

Risk Factors of Developmental Defects of Enamel-A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background and objective Current studies on the aetiology of developmental defects of enamel (DDE) are subject to recall bias because of the retrospective collection of information. Our objective was to investigate potential risk factors associated with the occurrence of DDE through a prospective cohort study. Methods Using a random community sample of Hong Kong children born in 1997, we performed a cohort study in which the subjects’ background information, medical and dental records were prospectively collected. A clinical examination to identify DDE was conducted in 2010 when the subjects were 12 years old. The central incisor, lateral incisor and first molar in each quadrant were chosen as the index teeth and were examined ‘wet’ by two trained and calibrated examiners using the modified FDI (DDE) Index. Results With a response rate of 74.9%, the 514 examined subjects had matched data for background information. Diffuse opacites were the most common type of DDE. Of the various possible aetiological factors considered, only experience of severe diseases during the period 0–3 years was associated with the occurrence of ‘any defect’ (p?=?0.017) and diffuse opacities (p?=?0.044). The children with experience of severe diseases before 3 years of age were 7.89 times more likely to be affected by ‘any defect’ compared with those who did not have the experience (OR 7.89; 95% CI 1.07, 58.14; p?=?0.043). However, after adjusting for confounding factors, the association no longer existed. Conclusion No variables could be identified as risk factors of DDE in this Hong Kong birth cohort. PMID:25275499

Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; Wen, Yi Feng; King, Nigel M.; McGrath, Colman P. J.

2014-01-01

296

The confounding effect of cryptic relatedness for environmental risks of systolic blood pressure on cohort studies  

PubMed Central

The impact of cryptic relatedness (CR) on genomic association studies is well studied and known to inflate false-positive rates as reported by several groups. In contrast, conventional epidemiological studies for environmental risks, the confounding effect of CR is still uninvestigated. In this study, we investigated the confounding effect of unadjusted CR among a rural cohort in the relationship between environmental risk factors (body mass index, smoking status, alcohol consumption) and systolic blood pressure. We applied the methods of population-based whole-genome association studies for the analysis of the genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data in 1622 subjects, and detected 20.2% CR in this cohort population. In the case of the sample size, approximately 1000, the ratio of CR to the population was 20.2%, the population prevalence 25%, the prevalence in the CR 26%, heritability for liability 14.3% and prevalence in the subpopulation without CR 26%, the difference of estimated regression coefficient between samples with and without CR was not significant (P-value = 0.55). On the other hand, in another case with approximately >20% heritability for liability, we showed that confounding due to CR biased the estimation of exposure effects. PMID:24498600

Shibata, Kyoko; Hozawa, Atsushi; Tamiya, Gen; Ueki, Masao; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Narimatsu, Hiroto; Kubota, Isao; Ueno, Yoshiyuki; Kato, Takeo; Yamashita, Hidetoshi; Fukao, Akira; Kayama, Takamasa

2013-01-01

297

Adult Consequences of Late Adolescent Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Although important to public policy, there have been no rigorous evidence syntheses of the long-term consequences of late adolescent drinking. Methods and Findings This systematic review summarises evidence from general population cohort studies of drinking between 15–19 years old and any subsequent outcomes aged 20 or greater, with at least 3 years of follow-up study. Fifty-four studies were included, of which 35 were assessed to be vulnerable to bias and/or confounding. The principal findings are: (1) There is consistent evidence that higher alcohol consumption in late adolescence continues into adulthood and is also associated with alcohol problems including dependence; (2) Although a number of studies suggest links to adult physical and mental health and social consequences, existing evidence is of insufficient quality to warrant causal inferences at this stage. Conclusions There is an urgent need for high quality long-term prospective cohort studies in order to better understand the public health burden that is consequent on late adolescent drinking, both in relation to adult drinking and more broadly. Reducing drinking during late adolescence is likely to be important for preventing long-term adverse consequences as well as protecting against more immediate harms. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:21346802

McCambridge, Jim; McAlaney, John; Rowe, Richard

2011-01-01

298

Changes in bone mineral density and body composition during pregnancy and postpartum. A controlled cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  In a controlled cohort study, bone mineral density (BMD) was measured in 153 women pre-pregnancy; during pregnancy; and 0.5,\\u000a 4, 9, and 19 months postpartum. Seventy-five age-matched controls, without pregnancy plans, were followed in parallel. Pregnancy\\u000a and breastfeeding cause a reversible bone loss, which, initially, is most pronounced at trabecular sites but also involves\\u000a cortical sites during prolonged breastfeeding.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Introduction  Conflicting results

U. K. Møller; S. við Streym; L. Mosekilde; L. Rejnmark

299

An epidemiological study determining blood pressure in a Portuguese cohort: the Guimarães/Vizela study.  

PubMed

Surveying the evolution of blood pressure (BP) levels and hypertension (HTN) prevalence is important. A stringent strategy was utilized in a population cohort study. The BP was measured at two visits at least 3 months apart, and the results were analyzed using the following two methods: the Surveillance method (three BP measurements were performed in one visit, and the results were compared with those published previously for the identical method) and the Clinical method (three measurements per visit for two visits, and the concordant results in both visits were used to determine the BP classification). A total of 2542 subjects completed the evaluation. Using the Clinical method, an average systolic/diastolic BP value of 129.8/76.8?mm?Hg was obtained, and the prevalence of HTN was 31.6%. Of the hypertensive patients, 74.3% were aware of his/her condition; 69.1% were treated and 40.8% of those treated had adequate BP control. A total of 24.7% of subjects changed his/her BP classification between visits, and 13.7% misreported HTN. Using the Surveillance method, we determined that the average global SBP has been maintained, with HTN prevalence increasing in this region, drifting from reported trends nationally and worldwide. There has been improvement in the proportion of treated and controlled subjects; however, the Surveillance method overestimated the HTN prevalence and underestimated the proportion of treated and controlled subjects. The BP levels were higher than observed worldwide in high-cardiovascular (CV) risk countries as well as higher than the minimum risk exposure level for developing CV disease. PMID:25078486

Cunha, P G; Cotter, J; Oliveira, P; Vila, I; Sousa, N

2015-03-01

300

Renal Failure in Lithium-Treated Bipolar Disorder: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective Lithium users are offered routine renal monitoring but few studies have quantified the risk to renal health. The aim of this study was to assess the association between use of lithium carbonate and incidence of renal failure in patients with bipolar disorder. Methods This was a retrospective cohort study using the General Practice Research Database (GPRD) and a nested validation study of lithium exposure and renal failure. A cohort of 6360 participants aged over 18 years had a first recorded diagnosis of bipolar disorder between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 2007. Data were examined from electronic primary care records from 418 general practices across the UK. The primary outcome was the hazard ratio for renal failure in participants exposed to lithium carbonate as compared with non-users of lithium, adjusting for age, gender, co-morbidities, and poly-pharmacy. Results Ever use of lithium was associated with a hazard ratio for renal failure of 2.5 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 4.0) adjusted for known renal risk factors. Absolute risk was age dependent, with patients of 50 years or older at particular risk of renal failure: Number Needed to Harm (NNH) was 44 (21 to 150). Conclusions Lithium is associated with an increased risk of renal failure, particularly among the older age group. The absolute risk of renal failure associated with lithium use remains small. PMID:24670976

Close, Helen; Reilly, Joe; Mason, James M.; Kripalani, Mukesh; Wilson, Douglas; Main, John; Hungin, A. Pali S.

2014-01-01

301

Adverse effects of isoniazid preventative therapy for latent tuberculosis infection: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Introduction Isoniazid preventative therapy (IPT) is a widely used intervention for treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), particularly in patients at high risk for reactivation. While treatment-limiting adverse effects have been well studied, few prospective studies have considered the range of adverse effects that patients may experience with IPT. Methods All patients commencing treatment for LTBI were prospectively enrolled in an ongoing database of LTBI treatment outcomes particularly related to adverse effects, treatment adherence, and treatment completion. Results Data on the first 100 patients who were prescribed IPT are presented. Fifty-six patients reported at least one adverse effect at some stage during treatment, with six experiencing at least one World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 3–4 adverse effect. Increased age was significantly associated with risk of adverse effects (odds ratio [OR] =1.05 per year; confidence interval [CI] of 1.02–1.08=95%). Eighty-five patients had documented completion of therapy locally, with ten patients ceasing IPT due to adverse effects. Discussion This report highlights a variety of somatic adverse effects that occurred in a real-world cohort of patients receiving IPT. While adverse effects were frequently identified in this study, the considerable majority were low grade and transient. Despite frequent adverse effects of LTBI in our treatment cohort, the study demonstrated high levels of treatment adherence and completion. PMID:25364275

Denholm, Justin T; McBryde, Emma S; Eisen, Damon P; Penington, Jocelyn S; Chen, Caroline; Street, Alan C

2014-01-01

302

Methods of analysis of enteropathogen infection in the MAL-ED Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Studies of diarrheal etiology in low- and middle-income countries have typically focused on children presenting with severe symptoms to health centers and thus are best equipped to describe the pathogens capable of leading to severe diarrheal disease. The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study was designed to evaluate, via intensive community surveillance, the hypothesis that repeated exposure to enteropathogens has a detrimental effect on growth, vaccine response, and cognitive development, which are the primary outcome measures for this study. In the setting of multiple outcomes of interest, a longitudinal cohort design was chosen. Because many or even the majority of enteric infections are asymptomatic, the collection of asymptomatic surveillance stools was a critical element. However, capturing diarrheal stools additionally allowed for the determination of the principle causes of diarrhea at the community level as well as for a comparison between those enteropathogens associated with diarrhea and those that are associated with poor growth, diminished vaccine response, and impaired cognitive development. Here, we discuss the analytical methods proposed for the MAL-ED study to determine the principal causes of diarrhea at the community level and describe the complex interplay between recurrent exposure to enteropathogens and these critical long-term outcomes. PMID:25305292

Platts-Mills, James A; McCormick, Benjamin J J; Kosek, Margaret; Pan, William K; Checkley, William; Houpt, Eric R

2014-11-01

303

What Are the Health Benefits of Active Travel? A Systematic Review of Trials and Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Increasing active travel (primarily walking and cycling) has been widely advocated for reducing obesity levels and achieving other population health benefits. However, the strength of evidence underpinning this strategy is unclear. This study aimed to assess the evidence that active travel has significant health benefits. Methods The study design was a systematic review of (i) non-randomised and randomised controlled trials, and (ii) prospective observational studies examining either (a) the effects of interventions to promote active travel or (b) the association between active travel and health outcomes. Reports of studies were identified by searching 11 electronic databases, websites, reference lists and papers identified by experts in the field. Prospective observational and intervention studies measuring any health outcome of active travel in the general population were included. Studies of patient groups were excluded. Results Twenty-four studies from 12 countries were included, of which six were studies conducted with children. Five studies evaluated active travel interventions. Nineteen were prospective cohort studies which did not evaluate the impact of a specific intervention. No studies were identified with obesity as an outcome in adults; one of five prospective cohort studies in children found an association between obesity and active travel. Small positive effects on other health outcomes were found in five intervention studies, but these were all at risk of selection bias. Modest benefits for other health outcomes were identified in five prospective studies. There is suggestive evidence that active travel may have a positive effect on diabetes prevention, which may be an important area for future research. Conclusions Active travel may have positive effects on health outcomes, but there is little robust evidence to date of the effectiveness of active transport interventions for reducing obesity. Future evaluations of such interventions should include an assessment of their impacts on obesity and other health outcomes. PMID:23967064

Saunders, Lucinda E.; Green, Judith M.; Petticrew, Mark P.; Steinbach, Rebecca; Roberts, Helen

2013-01-01

304

Self-perceived health status following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective The objective of the study was to assess the long-term self-reported health status and quality of life (QoL) of patients following an aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (ASAH) using a self-completed questionnaire booklet. Design A two-cohort study. Setting A regional tertiary neurosurgical centre. Participants 2 cohorts of patients with ASAH treated between 1998 and 2008 and followed up at approximately 1?year. Interventions Routine care. Primary and secondary outcomes A range of standardised scales included: AKC Short Sentences Test, the Barthel Index, the Self-Report Dysexecutive Questionnaire, the Everyday Memory Questionnaire, Stroke Symptom Checklist, Wimbledon Self-Report Scale, Modified Rankin Score (MRS) and a new Stroke-QoL. The data from summated scales were fit to the Rasch measurement model to validate the summed score. Results 214 patients (48%) returned the questionnaires; the majority (76%) had a World Federation of Neurosurgeons grade of 1 or 2. The most frequent aneurysm type was that of the anterior communicating artery (28%) with approximately 90% of aneurysms of the anterior circulation. Of those previously in full or part-time employment, 48.9% were unemployed at follow-up. All summated scales satisfied the Rasch measurement model requirements, such that their summed scores were a sufficient statistic. Given this, one-third of patients were noted to have a significant mood disorder and 25% had significant dysexecutive function. Patients with an MRS of 3, 4 or 5 had significantly worse scores on most outcome measures, but a significant minority of those with a score of zero had failed to return to work and displayed significant mood disorder. Conclusions A range of self-reported cognitive and physical deficits have been highlighted in a cohort of patients with ASAH. While the MRS has been shown to provide a reasonable indication of outcome, in routine clinical follow-up it requires supplementation by instruments assessing dysexecutive function, memory and mood. PMID:24699459

Quinn, Audrey C; Bhargava, Deepti; Al-Tamimi, Yahia Z; Clark, Matthew J; Ross, Stuart A; Tennant, Alan

2014-01-01

305

A prospective cohort study to evaluate peridomestic infection as a determinant of dengue transmission: Protocol  

PubMed Central

Background Vector control programs, which have focused mainly on the patient house and peridomestic areas around dengue cases, have not produced the expected impact on transmission. This project will evaluate the assumption that the endemic/epidemic transmission of dengue begins around peridomestic vicinities of the primary cases. Its objective is to assess the relationship between symptomatic dengue case exposure and peridomestic infection incidence. Methods/Design A prospective cohort study will be conducted (in Tepalcingo and Axochiapan, in the state of Morelos, Mexico), using the state surveillance system for the detection of incident cases. Paired blood specimens will be collected from both the individuals who live with the incident cases and a sample of subjects residing within a 25-meter radius of such cases (exposed cohort), in order to measure dengue-specific antibodies. Other subjects will be selected from areas which have not presented any incident cases within 200 meters, during the two months preceding the sampling (non-exposed cohort). Symptomatic/asymptomatic incident infection will be considered as the dependent variable, exposure to confirmed dengue cases, as the principal variable, and the socio-demographic, environmental and socio-cultural conditions of the subjects, as additional explanatory variables. Discussion Results indicating a high infection rate among the exposed subjects would justify the application of peridomestic control measures and call for an evaluation of alternate causes for insufficient program impact. On the other hand, a low incidence of peridomestic-infected subjects would support the hypothesis that infection occurs outside the domicile, and would thus explain why the vector control measures applied in the past have exerted such a limited impact on cases incidence rates. The results of the present study may therefore serve to reassess site selection for interventions of this type. PMID:22471857

2012-01-01

306

Health-related lifestyle factors and mammography screening attendance in a Swedish cohort study.  

PubMed

To determine whether health-related lifestyle factors are associated with attendance at a population-based invitational mammography screening program in southern Sweden, data on health-related lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, BMI, diet, self-rated health, and stress) were obtained from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study and linked to the Malmö mammography register (Sweden, 1992-2009). Women (n=11 409) who were free from breast cancer at study entry were included in the cohort, and mammography attendance was followed from cohort entry to 31 December 2009. Generalized estimating equations were used to account for repeated measures within patients. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) are reported. Nonattendance occurred in 8% of the 69 746 screening opportunities that were observed. Nonattendance was more common among women who were current or former smokers [OR=1.60 (1.45-1.76) and OR=1.15 (1.05-1.28)], had not used alcohol in the past year [OR=1.55 (1.32-1.83)], were less physically active outside of work [OR=1.10 (1.00-1.20)], had high physical activity at work (OR=1.13, 95% CI: 1.00-1.28), were vegetarians or vegans [OR=1.49 (1.11-1.99)], had not used dietary supplements [OR=1.11 (1.01-1.21)], had poor self-rated health [OR=1.24 (1.14-1.36)], and were experiencing greater stress [OR=1.25 (1.14-1.36)]. In this cohort, nonattendance was associated with smoking, alcohol abstinence, physical activity, poor self-rated health, stress, and following a vegetarian/vegan diet. These findings generally support the notion that women with less healthy lifestyles are less likely to engage in mammography screening. PMID:24787378

Lagerlund, Magdalena; Drake, Isabel; Wirfält, Elisabet; Sontrop, Jessica M; Zackrisson, Sophia

2015-01-01

307

Multimorbidity in primary care: a systematic review of prospective cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Primary care increasingly deals with patients with multimorbidity, but relevant evidence-based interventions are scarce. Knowledge about multimorbidity over time is required to inform the development of effective interventions. Aim This review identifies prospective cohort studies of multimorbidity in primary care to determine: their nature, scope and key findings; the methodologies used; and gaps in knowledge. Design Systematic review. Method Studies were identified by searching electronic databases, reviewing citations, and writing to authors. Searches were limited to adult populations with no restrictions on publication date or language. In total, 996 articles were identified and screened. Results Of the 996 articles, six detailing five completed prospective cohort studies were selected as appropriate. Three of the studies were undertaken in the US and two in The Netherlands; none was nationally representative. The main focus of the studies was: healthcare utilisation and/or costs (n = 3); patients' physical functioning (n = 1); and risk factors for developing multimorbidity (n = 1). The conditions that were included varied widely. The findings of these studies showed that multimorbidity increased healthcare costs (n = 2), inpatient admission (n = 1), death rates (n = 1), and service use (n = 3), and reduced physical functioning (n = 1). One study identified psychosocial risk factors for multimorbidity. No study used random sampling, sample sizes were relatively small (414–3745 patients at baseline), and study duration was relatively short (1–4 years). No study focused on prevalence, treatment use, patient safety, service models, cultural or socioeconomic factors, and patient experience, and no study collected qualitative data. Conclusion Few longitudinal studies based in primary care have investigated multimorbidity. Further large, long-term prospective studies are required to inform healthcare commissioning, planning, and delivery. PMID:22520918

France, Emma F; Wyke, Sally; Gunn, Jane M; Mair, Frances S; McLean, Gary; Mercer, Stewart W

2012-01-01

308

A 15-year population-based cohort study of the incidence of Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies in an elderly French cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo provide global and age-related incidence over 65 years of Parkinsonian syndromes (PS), Parkinson's disease (PD) and suspected dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB).MethodsA 15-year prospective population-based elderly cohort study in South-Western France (PAQUID).ResultsIncidences found were: 557.7\\/100 000 person-years for PS, 263 per 100 000 person-years for PD and 112 per 100 000 person-years for suspected DLB. The incidence of all

F. Perez; C. Helmer; J. F. Dartigues; S. Auriacombe; F. Tison

2010-01-01

309

Identification of a site for a cohort study on natural history of HIV infection in Ethiopia.  

PubMed

A cross-sectional survey was carried out in a sugar estate in central Ethiopia to identify a subgroup for a cohort study on the natural history of HIV infection. HIV prevalence was 2.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7%-3.9%) in 957 adults aged 15 to 54 years randomly selected for the initial survey. A follow-up survey including only factory workers of the estate aged 18 to 45 years (n = 280) showed a higher HIV prevalence in male factory workers (n = 262) compared with the male estate workers of the same age of the initial survey (n = 484; 8.8% versus 3.1 %; p < .05). Factors independently associated with HIV infection in male factory workers were number of lifetime sexual partners, positive syphilis serology, higher income, and absence of travel outside the residential area. Among male estate workers, only older age was associated with HIV infection. Both factory workers and male estate workers were stable residents and were willing to participate in a long-term study on HIV/ AIDS. However, because of the higher HIV prevalence in factory workers and the higher prevalence of behaviors associated with an increased risk for HIV infection, factory workers were selected for the long-term cohort study on the natural history of HIV infection. PMID:9473016

Sahlu, T; Fontanet, A; Rinke de Wit, T; Messele, T; Doorly, R; Yeneneh, H; Bindels, P; Coutinho, R

1998-02-01

310

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and the Risk of Perinatal Outcomes: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Inconsistent information exists in the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and perinatal outcomes. This study was intended to investigate whether OSA in pregnant women has a potential to elevate the incidence of the maternal and neonatal outcomes by performing a meta-analysis of all available cohort studies. Five cohort studies including 977 participants were eligible for inclusion. The association between OSA and the risk of perinatal outcomes was expressed as relative risks (RR), with 95% confidence interval (CI). Our results revealed that OSA group was associated with more frequent preeclampsia (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.34 to 2.86), preterm birth (RR 1.90; 95%CI 1.24 to 2.91), cesarean delivery (RR 1.87; 95% CI 1.52 to 2.29) and neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) (RR 2.65; 95% CI 1.86 to 3.76). On analyzing data for the prevalence of gestational diabetes and small gestational age (SGA) < 10th percentile (RR 1.40; 95% CI 0.62 to 3.19, and RR 0.64; 95%CI 0.33 to1.24, respectively), there were no significant differences in both group. Findings from this meta-analysis indicate that OSA in pregnant women significantly increases the incidence of maternal and neonatal outcomes, which is associated with more frequent preeclampsia, preterm birth, cesarean delivery and NICU admission. PMID:25382105

Xu, Ting; Feng, Yuan; Peng, Hui; Guo, Dongying; Li, Taoping

2014-01-01

311

A prospective cohort study of neck and shoulder pain in professional drivers.  

PubMed

In a three-year follow-up study, the occurrence of neck and shoulder pain (NSP) in terms of frequency, duration and intensity was investigated in a population of 537 male professional drivers. Over the follow-up period, the cumulative incidences for neck and shoulder pain were 31.9% and 21.4%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, a measure of cumulative whole-body vibration exposure was significantly associated with all NSP outcomes. Lifting loads and work with hands above shoulder level were significantly related to shoulder outcomes, while driving with trunk bent or twisted was associated with neck pain. Limited job decision, low social support and job dissatisfaction were significant predictors of neck outcomes. Psychological distress was associated with all NSP outcomes. The findings of this cohort study suggest that NSP outcomes are of multifactorial origin in driving occupations. Practitioner Summary: This prospective cohort study highlighted the multifactorial nature of neck and shoulder pain (NSP) outcomes in a population of professional drivers. Cumulative whole-body vibration exposure, physical load factors and adverse psychosocial environment at the workplace, as well as individual-related psychological distress, were significant predictors of the occurrence of NSP in the professional drivers. PMID:24998325

Bovenzi, Massimo

2014-07-01

312

The Jerusalem Perinatal Study cohort, 1964–2005: methods and a review of the main results  

PubMed Central

Summary The Jerusalem Perinatal Study recorded information on population-based cohorts of 92 408 live- and stillbirths in 1964–76, and their parents, with active surveillance of infant deaths and birth defects. Data on maternal conditions, obstetric complications and interventions during labour and delivery were recorded for 92% of the births. Subsets were surveyed with antenatal interviews in 1965–68 (n = 11 467), paediatric admissions to hospital (n = 17 782) and postpartum interviews in 1975–76 (n = 16 912). Data from some offspring were linked to records of a health examination at age 17. The offspring, mothers and fathers have been traced recently, their vital status assessed, and the data linked to Israel’s Cancer Registry and Psychiatric Registry. This paper describes the different types of data available, their sources, and some potential biases. Characteristics of this unique population are shown. Findings from the study are reviewed and a list of references is provided. The cohorts provide a unique source of data for a wide variety of studies. PMID:17439536

Harlap, Susan; Davies, A. Michael; Deutsch, Lisa; Calderon-Margalit, Ronit; Manor, Orly; Paltiel, Ora; Tiram, Efrat; Yanetz, Rivka; Perrin, Mary C.; Terry, Mary B.; Malaspina, Dolores; Friedlander, Yechiel

2010-01-01

313

Childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood: the 1970 British Cohort Study.  

PubMed

Sleeping difficulties in childhood have been associated with an increased risk of depression in adult life, but existing studies have not accounted for comorbid maternal sleeping difficulties and depression. This study aimed to determine the association between childhood sleeping difficulties and depression in adulthood after adjusting for the potential confounding influences of maternal depression and sleeping difficulties. Data from the British Cohort Study 1970, a prospective birth cohort with 30 years of follow-up (1975-2005) were used. At 5 years of age, 7437 parents of participants recorded information on whether their child had sleeping difficulties, the frequency of bed-wetting, nightmares, maternal depression and sleep difficulties. At 34 years of age, participants reported whether or not they had received medical treatment for depression in the past year. Parental reports of severe sleeping difficulties at 5 years were associated with an increased risk of depression at age 34 years [odds ratio (OR) = 1.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.2, 3.2] whereas moderate sleeping difficulties were not (OR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.9, 1.3). In conclusion, severe sleeping problems in childhood may be associated with increased susceptibility to depression in adult life. PMID:25178397

Greene, Giles; Gregory, Alice M; Fone, David; White, James

2015-02-01

314

Impact of type 2 diabetes on lower urinary tract symptoms in men: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Studies of the impact of type 2 diabetes on the prevalence and incidence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) among men have provided divergent results. We sought to examine this issue using two large and diverse cohorts. Methods This study used questionnaire and clinical data from two large multiethnic cohorts, the California Men’s Health Study (CMHS) and Research Program in Genes, Environment and Health (RPGEH). Diabetes characteristics data were derived from questionnaire and Diabetes Registry data. LUTS were measured using a standardized scale. Socioeconomic and comorbidity data were obtained by self-report. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to examine the association between baseline DM status and prevalence and incidence of LUTS, with adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results We found type 2 diabetes to be associated with prevalent LUTS (odds ratio (OR)?=?1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26, 1.38). The association was stronger among men with type 2 diabetes who were on active pharmaceutical treatment and had it for a longer duration. No association was observed between type 2 diabetes and new onset LUTS. Conclusions Type 2 diabetes increases the risk of LUTS. PMID:23421436

2013-01-01

315

Moderate hypothermia for intradural spinal tumor resection: a cohort comparison and feasibility study.  

PubMed

To evaluate the safety and feasibility of modest hypothermia as a potential strategy for intraoperative neuroprotection during the removal of intradural spinal tumors. A retrospective review was performed for two groups of patients of a single surgeon who underwent intradural extrameduallary and intramedullary spinal tumor resection of tumors located between cervical level 1 and lumbar 2 over a 10-year period between 2001 and 2010. One cohort received intraoperative moderate hypothermia (33°C) via intravascular catheter cooling during tumor surgery and the second cohort, a historical control group of the same surgeon, underwent surgery at normothermia (?36°C). The main outcome measured was safety as determined by surgical, medical, and neurological complications. The hypothermia (n=38) and nonhypothermia (n=34) groups were homogenous for patient demographics and baseline comorbidities. There were no differences between the groups regarding tumor level (p=0.51), tumor pathology, or intramedullary versus intradural extramedullary location (p=0.11). The hypothermia group had a lower mean body temperature (33.7°C±0.72 vs. 36.6°C±0.7, p?0.001) longer postoperative hospital stays (10.8±14.0 vs. 7.3±4.72, p<0.001), but there were no significant differences in operative and perioperative variables such as, total anesthetic time (8.2±2.4 vs. 7.8±2.7 hours, p=0.45), total surgical time (5.9±2.1 vs. 5.7±2.5 hours, p=0.58), or estimated blood loss (483±420 vs. 420±314?mL, p=0.65). There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with respect to the rate of surgical (3 vs. 2, p=1.0), medical (4 vs. 3, p=1.0), neurological (3 vs. 4, p=0.7), or overall complications (10 vs. 9, p=1.0). In this study, moderate hypothermia via intravascular cooling catheters was successfully performed during 38 intradural spinal tumor surgeries. Compared to the historical control group, the hypothermia patients had longer hospital stays, but did not have higher complication rates. Intraoperative moderate hypothermia during spinal tumor resection is feasible and appeared safe in this limited cohort; however, further studies with larger cohorts will be needed to determine whether peri-operative hypothermia is an effective neuroprotectant strategy in spinal tumor surgery. PMID:25184750

Johnson, Jeremiah N; Cummock, Matthew D; Levi, Allan D; Green, Barth A; Wang, Michael Y

2014-09-01

316

Long-term mortality in patients with pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis: a Danish nationwide cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Long-term mortality and causes of death in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) and extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) are poorly documented. In this study, long-term mortality and causes of death in PTB and EPTB patients were compared with the background population and it was investigated whether mortality was associated with family-related risk factors. Methods A nationwide cohort study was conducted including: all adult Danes notified with PTB or EPTB from 1977 to 2008 and alive 1 year after diagnosis; a randomly selected comparison cohort matched on birth date and sex; adult siblings of PTB patients; and population controls. Data were extracted from national registries. All-cause and cause-specific mortality rate ratios were calculated for patients and siblings and compared with their respective control cohorts. A total of 8,291 patients (6,402 PTB and 1,889 EPTB), 24,873 population controls, 1,990 siblings of PTB patients and 11,679 siblings of PTB population controls were included. Results Overall, the mortality rate ratio was 1.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.77–1.96) for PTB patients and 1.24 (95% CI 1.12–1.37) for EPTB patients. Both patient cohorts had significantly increased risk of death due to infectious diseases and diabetes. Further, the PTB patients had increased mortality due to cancers (mainly respiratory and gastrointestinal tract), liver and respiratory system diseases, and alcohol and drug abuse. The PTB patients had increased mortality compared with their siblings (mortality rate ratio 3.55; 95% CI 2.57–4.91) as did the siblings of the PTB patients compared with the siblings of population controls (mortality rate ratio 2.16; 95% CI 1.62–2.87). Conclusion We conclude that adult PTB patients have an almost two-fold increased long-term mortality whereas EPTB patients have a slightly increased long-term mortality compared with the background population. The increased long-term mortality in PTB patients stems from diseases associated with alcohol, tobacco, and drug abuse as well as immune suppression, and family-related factors. PMID:25419160

Christensen, Anne-Sophie Halkjær; Roed, Casper; Andersen, Peter H; Andersen, Åse Bengård; Obel, Niels

2014-01-01

317

Mortality study of civilian employees exposed to contaminated drinking water at USMC Base Camp Lejeune: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Two drinking water systems at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina were contaminated with solvents during 1950s-1985. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of 4,647 civilian, full-time workers employed at Camp Lejeune during 1973–1985 and potentially exposed to contaminated drinking water. We selected a comparison cohort of 4,690 Camp Pendleton workers employed during 1973–1985 and unexposed to contaminated drinking water. Mortality follow-up period was 1979-2008. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios utilized U.S. age-, sex-, race-, and calendar period-specific mortality rates as reference. We used survival analysis to compare mortality rates between Camp Lejeune and Camp Pendleton workers and assess the effects of estimated cumulative contaminant exposures within the Camp Lejeune cohort. Ground water contaminant fate/transport and distribution system models provided monthly estimated contaminant levels in drinking water serving workplaces at Camp Lejeune. The confidence interval (CI) indicated precision of effect estimates. Results Compared to Camp Pendleton, Camp Lejeune workers had mortality hazard ratios (HRs) >1.50 for kidney cancer (HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 0.58, 6.34), leukemias (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.66, 3.84), multiple myeloma (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 0.45, 7.58), rectal cancer (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 0.36, 7.44), oral cavity cancers (HR = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.34, 10.81), and Parkinson’s disease (HR = 3.13, 95% CI: 0.76, 12.81). Within the Camp Lejeune cohort, monotonic exposure-response relationships were observed for leukemia and vinyl chloride and PCE, with mortality HRs at the high exposure category of 1.72 (95% CI: 0.33, 8.83) and 1.82 (95% CI: 0.36, 9.32), respectively. Cumulative exposures were above the median for most deaths from cancers of the kidney, esophagus, rectum, prostate, and Parkinson’s disease, but small numbers precluded evaluation of exposure-response relationships. Conclusion The study found elevated HRs in the Camp Lejeune cohort for several causes of death including cancers of the kidney, rectum, oral cavity, leukemias, multiple myeloma, and Parkinson’s disease. Only 14% of the Camp Lejeune cohort died by end of follow-up, producing small numbers of cause-specific deaths and wide CIs. Additional follow-up would be necessary to comprehensively assess drinking water exposure effects at the base. PMID:25115749

2014-01-01

318

Body Mass Index and Attempted Suicide: Cohort Study of 1,133,019 Swedish Men  

PubMed Central

Associations between body mass index (BMI) and attempted (nonfatal) suicide have recently been reported. However, the few existing studies are relatively small in scale, the majority cross-sectional, and results contradictory. The authors have explored BMI–attempted suicide associations in a large cohort of 1,133,019 Swedish men born between 1950 and 1976, with BMI measured in early adulthood. During a mean follow-up of 23.9 years, a total of 18,277 (1.6%) men had at least 1 hospital admission for attempted suicide. After adjustment for confounding factors, there was a stepwise, linear decrease in attempted suicide with increasing BMI across the full BMI range (per standard deviation increase in BMI, hazard ratio = 0.93, 95% confidence interval: 0.91, 0.94). Analyses excluding men with depression at baseline were essentially identical to those based on the complete cohort. In men free from depression at baseline, controlling for subsequent depression slightly attenuated the raised risk of attempted suicide, particularly in lower weight men. This study suggests that lower weight men have an increased risk of attempted suicide and that associations may extend into the “normal” BMI range. PMID:20829269

Batty, G. David; Whitley, Elise; Kivimäki, Mika; Tynelius, Per; Rasmussen, Finn

2010-01-01

319

An Investigation of the Glucose Monitoring Practices of Nurses in Stroke Care: A Descriptive Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Glucose derangement is commonly observed among adults admitted to hospital with acute stroke. This paper presents the findings from a descriptive cohort study that investigated the glucose monitoring practices of nurses caring for adults admitted to hospital with stroke or transient ischaemic attack. We found that a history of diabetes mellitus was strongly associated with initiation of glucose monitoring and higher frequency of that monitoring. Glucose monitoring was continued for a significantly longer duration of days for adults with a history of diabetes mellitus, when compared to the remainder of the cohort. As glucose monitoring was not routine practice for adults with no history of diabetes mellitus, the detection and treatment of hyperglycaemia and hypoglycaemia events could be delayed. There was a significant positive association between the admission hospital that is most likely to offer stroke unit care and the opportunity for glucose monitoring. We concluded that adults with acute stroke, irrespective of their diabetes mellitus status prior to admission to hospital, are vulnerable to both hyperglycaemic and hypoglycaemic events. This study suggests that the full potential of nurses in the monitoring of glucose among hospitalised adults with stroke has yet to be realised. PMID:24062947

Laird, Elizabeth Ann; Coates, Vivien E.; Ryan, Assumpta A.; McCarron, Mark O.; Lyttle, Diane

2013-01-01

320

In utero exposure to alcohol and puberty in boys: a pregnancy cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Epidemiological studies have raised concerns about the reproductive consequences of in utero exposure to alcohol. Maternal lifestyle factors have been associated with altered pubertal development, but the impact of prenatal alcohol exposure on male puberty is unknown. Thus, the objective was to explore whether prenatal alcohol exposure alters pubertal development in boys. Setting Follow-up of a Danish pregnancy cohort. Participants Sons (N=2522) of women who were enrolled in a Danish pregnancy cohort between 1984 and 1987. Primary and secondary outcome measures Indicators of pubertal development, assessed by age at first nocturnal emission, voice break, acne and regular shaving. Results We found a tendency towards a later age at first nocturnal emission and voice break following in utero exposure to binge drinking. Boys exposed to ?5 binge drinking episodes during pregnancy experienced their first nocturnal emission 7.3?months (95% CI ?2.8 to 17.4) later and voice break 4.9?months (95% CI ?0.6 to 10.4) later than the unexposed boys. Results for average weekly alcohol consumption were in the same direction, but differences were smaller and not statistically significant. Conclusions We found no strong support for the hypothesis that in utero exposure to weekly alcohol consumption is a risk factor for altered pubertal development, but a tendency towards delayed pubertal development among boys exposed to binge drinking during fetal life was observed. Longitudinal studies, with data collected as children go through puberty, are needed to explore this further. PMID:24916086

Håkonsen, Linn Berger; Brath-Lund, Mette Louise; Hounsgaard, Marie Louise; Olsen, Jørn; Ernst, Andreas; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst

2014-01-01

321

Establishment of the MAL-ED birth cohort study site in Vellore, Southern India.  

PubMed

The Indian Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) site is in Vellore, Tamil Nadu, in south India and is coordinated by the Christian Medical College, Vellore, which has many years of experience in establishing and following cohorts. India is a diverse country, and no single area can be representative with regard to many health and socioeconomic indicators. The site in Vellore is an urban semiorganized settlement or slum. In the study site, the average family size is 5.7, adults who are gainfully employed are mostly unskilled laborers, and 51% of the population uses the field as their toilet facility. Previous studies from Vellore slums have reported stunting in well over a third of children, comparable to national estimates. The infant mortality rate is 38 per 1000 live births, with deaths due mainly to perinatal and infectious causes. Rigorous staff training, monitoring, supervision and refinement of tools have been essential to maintaining the quality of the significantly large quantity of data collected. Establishing a field clinic within the site has minimized inconvenience to participants and researchers and enabled better rapport with the community and better follow-up. These factors contribute to the wealth of information that will be generated from the MAL-ED multisite cohort, which will improve our understanding of enteric infections and its interactions with malnutrition and development of young children. PMID:25305300

John, Sushil M; Thomas, Rahul J; Kaki, Shiny; Sharma, Srujan L; Ramanujam, Karthikeyan; Raghava, Mohan V; Koshy, Beena; Bose, Anuradha; Rose, Anuradha; Rose, Winsley; Ramachandran, Anup; Joseph, A J; Babji, Sudhir; Kang, Gagandeep

2014-11-01

322

Playing board games, cognitive decline and dementia: a French population-based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To study the relationship between board game playing and risk of subsequent dementia in the Paquid cohort. Design A prospective population-based study. Setting In the Bordeaux area in South Western France. Participants 3675 non-demented participants at baseline. Primary outcome measure The risk of dementia during the 20?years of follow-up. Results Among 3675 non-demented participants at baseline, 32.2% reported regular board game playing. Eight-hundred and forty participants developed dementia during the 20?years of follow-up. The risk of dementia was 15% lower in board game players than in non-players (HR=0.85, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.99; p=0.04) after adjustment on age, gender, education and other confounders. The statistical significance disappeared after supplementary adjustment on baseline mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and depression (HR=0.96, 95% CI 0.82 to 1.12; p=0.61). However, board game players had less decline in their MMSE score during the follow-up of the cohort (?=0.011, p=0.03) and less incident depression than non-players (HR=0.84; 95% CI 0.72 to 0.98; p<0.03). Conclusions A possible beneficial effect of board game playing on the risk of dementia could be mediated by less cognitive decline and less depression in elderly board game players. PMID:23988362

Dartigues, Jean François; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Le Goff, Mélanie; Viltard, Mélanie; Amieva, Hélène; Orgogozo, Jean Marc; Barberger-Gateau, Pascale; Helmer, Catherine

2013-01-01

323

The cohort of young Danish farmers – A longitudinal study of the health effects of farming exposure  

PubMed Central

Working in agriculture poses a serious risk for development of respiratory diseases, especially when working in animal housing. Animal workers are exposed to a mixture of organic and inorganic dust together with fumes and gases, including allergens and microbial-associated molecular patterns with a potentially major impact on respiratory health and the immune system. Exposure to microbial agents in animal housing is associated with an increased prevalence of respiratory symptoms, including bronchial hyperresponsiveness, accelerated lung function decline, and neutrophil-mediated inflammation. These clinical findings are often seen without IgE-mediated sensitization. In fact it has been found in recent studies that the prevalence of atopic sensitization and atopic asthma is low among farmers compared with other populations. The SUS study was designed to identify the type and occurrence of respiratory symptoms and disease, and to investigate risk factors for respiratory disorders and changes in lung function among young farming students. The cohort of young Danish farmers was established in 1992/1994 and followed up in 2007/2008 with a participation rate of 51.7%. The cohort consists of 1734 male farming students, 230 female farming students, and 407 army recruits as controls. PMID:20865102

Elholm, Grethe; Omland, Øyvind; Schlünssen, Vivi; Hjort, Charlotte; Basinas, Ioannis; Sigsgaard, Torben

2010-01-01

324

Prediction of general hospital admission in people with dementia: cohort study.  

PubMed

Background People with dementia are extremely vulnerable in hospital and unscheduled admissions should be avoided if possible. Aims To identify any predictors of general hospital admission in people with dementia in a well-characterised national prospective cohort study. Method A cohort of 730 persons with dementia was drawn from the Scottish Dementia Research Interest Register (47.8% female; mean age 76.3 years, s.d. = 8.2, range 50-94), with a mean follow-up period of 1.2 years. Results In the age- and gender-adjusted multivariable model (n = 681; 251 admitted), Neuropsychiatric Inventory score (hazard ratio per s.d. disadvantage 1.21, 95% CI 1.08-1.36) was identified as an independent predictor of admission to hospital. Conclusions Neuropsychiatric symptoms in dementia, measured using the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, predict non-psychiatric hospital admission of people with dementia. Further studies are merited to test whether interventions to reduce such symptoms might reduce unscheduled admissions to acute hospitals. PMID:25395686

Russ, Tom C; Parra, Mario A; Lim, Alison E; Law, Emma; Connelly, Peter J; Starr, John M

2015-02-01

325

Cohort study of occupational asbestos-exposure related neoplasms in Texas Gulf Coast area  

SciTech Connect

A cohort study was conducted in Texas and Louisiana Gulf Coast area on individual workers who have been exposed to asbestos for 15 years or more. Most of these workers were employed in petrochemical industries. Of the 15,742 subjects initially selected for the cohort study, 3258 had positive chest x-ray findings believed to be related to prolonged asbestos exposure. These subjects were further investigated. Their work out included detailed medical and occupational history, laboratory tests and spirometry. One thousand eight-hundred and three cases with positive chest x-ray findings whose data files were considered complete at the end of May 1986 were analyzed and their findings included in this report. The prevalence of lung cancer and cancer of the following sights: skin, stomach, oropharyngeal, pancreas and kidneys were significantly increased when compared to data from Connecticut Tumor Registry. The prevalence of other chronic conditions such as hypertension, emphysema, heart disease and peptic ulcer was also significantly high when compared to data for the US and general population furnished by the National Center for Health Statistics. In most instances the occurrence of cancer and the chronic ailment previously mentioned appeared to follow 15-25 years of exposure to asbestos.

Zadeii, G.R.M.

1987-01-01

326

International Childhood Cancer Cohort Consortium  

Cancer.gov

An alliance of several large-scale prospective cohort studies of children to pool data and biospecimens from individual cohorts to study various modifiable and genetic factors in relation to cancer risk

327

Exposure to Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields and Sleep Quality: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background There is persistent public concern about sleep disturbances due to radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) exposure. The aim of this prospective cohort study was to investigate whether sleep quality is affected by mobile phone use or by other RF-EMF sources in the everyday environment. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study with 955 study participants aged between 30 and 60 years. Sleep quality and daytime sleepiness was assessed by means of standardized questionnaires in May 2008 (baseline) and May 2009 (follow-up). We also asked about mobile and cordless phone use and asked study participants for consent to obtain their mobile phone connection data from the mobile phone operators. Exposure to environmental RF-EMF was computed for each study participant using a previously developed and validated prediction model. In a nested sample of 119 study participants, RF-EMF exposure was measured in the bedroom and data on sleep behavior was collected by means of actigraphy during two weeks. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant confounders. Results In the longitudinal analyses neither operator-recorded nor self-reported mobile phone use was associated with sleep disturbances or daytime sleepiness. Also, exposure to environmental RF-EMF did not affect self-reported sleep quality. The results from the longitudinal analyses were confirmed in the nested sleep study with objectively recorded exposure and measured sleep behavior data. Conclusions We did not find evidence for adverse effects on sleep quality from RF-EMF exposure in our everyday environment. PMID:22624036

Mohler, Evelyn; Frei, Patrizia; Fröhlich, Jürg; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Röösli, Martin

2012-01-01

328

Raynaud phenomenon and mortality: 20+ years of follow-up of the Charleston Heart Study cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Raynaud phenomenon (RP) is a temporary vasoconstrictive condition that often manifests itself in the fingers in response to cold or stress. It often co-occurs with certain chronic diseases that impact mortality. Our objective was to determine whether RP has any independent association with survival. Methods From 1987–1989, a total of 830 participants of the Charleston Heart Study cohort completed an in-person RP screening questionnaire. Two definitions of RP were used: a broad definition that included both blanching (pallor) and cyanotic color changes and a narrow definition that included only blanching. All-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality were compared between subjects with and without RP using race-specific survival models that adjusted for age, sex, baseline CVD, and 10-year risk of coronary heart disease. Results Using the narrow RP definition, we identified a significant interaction between older age and the presence of RP on all-cause mortality. In the broad RP definition model, the presence of RP was not associated with CVD mortality among blacks; however, among whites, the presence of RP was associated with a 1.6-fold increase in the hazard associated with CVD-related death (hazard ratio: 1.55, 95% confidence interval: 1.10–2.20, P=0.013). Conclusion RP was independently associated with mortality among older adults in our cohort. Among whites, RP was associated with increased CVD-related death. It is possible that RP may be a sign of undiagnosed vascular disease.

Nietert, Paul J; Shaftman, Stephanie R; Silver, Richard M; Wolf, Bethany J; Egan, Brent M; Hunt, Kelly J; Smith, Edwin A

2015-01-01

329

Predictors of having a potential live donor: a prospective cohort study of kidney transplant candidates.  

PubMed

The barriers to live donor transplantation are poorly understood. We performed a prospective cohort study of individuals undergoing renal transplant evaluation. Participants completed a questionnaire that assessed clinical characteristics as well as knowledge and beliefs about transplantation. A participant satisfied the primary outcome if anyone contacted the transplant center to be considered as a live donor for that participant. The final cohort comprised 203 transplant candidates, among whom 80 (39.4%) had a potential donor contact the center and 19 (9.4%) underwent live donor transplantation. In multivariable logistic regression, younger candidates (OR 1.65 per 10 fewer years, p < 0.01) and those with annual income >or=US$ 15 000 (OR 4.22, p = 0.03) were more likely to attract a potential live donor. Greater self-efficacy, a measure of the participant's belief in his or her ability to attract a donor, was a predictor of having a potential live donor contact the center (OR 2.73 per point, p < 0.01), while knowledge was not (p = 0.56). The lack of association between knowledge and having a potential donor suggests that more intensive education of transplant candidates will not increase live donor transplantation. On the other hand, self-efficacy may be an important target in designing interventions to help candidates find live donors. PMID:19845584

Reese, P P; Shea, J A; Bloom, R D; Berns, J S; Grossman, R; Joffe, M; Huverserian, A; Feldman, H I

2009-12-01

330

Road Traffic Noise and Incident Myocardial Infarction: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Both road traffic noise and ambient air pollution have been associated with risk for ischemic heart disease, but only few inconsistent studies include both exposures. Methods In a population-based cohort of 57 053 people aged 50 to 64 years at enrolment in 1993–1997, we identified 1600 cases of first-ever MI between enrolment and 2006. The mean follow-up time was 9.8 years. Exposure to road traffic noise and air pollution from 1988 to 2006 was estimated for all cohort members from residential address history. Associations between exposure to road traffic noise and incident MI were analysed in a Cox regression model with adjustment for air pollution (NOx) and other potential confounders: age, sex, education, lifestyle confounders, railway and airport noise. Results We found that residential exposure to road traffic noise (Lden) was significantly associated with MI, with an incidence rate ratio IRR of 1.12 per 10 dB for both of the two exposure windows: yearly exposure at the time of diagnosis (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–1.22) and 5-years time-weighted mean (95% CI: 1.02–1.23) preceding the diagnosis. Visualizing of the results using restricted cubic splines showed a linear dose-response relationship. Conclusions Exposure to long-term residential road traffic noise was associated with a higher risk for MI, in a dose-dependent manner. PMID:22745727

Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana J.; Nordsborg, Rikke B.; Jensen, Steen S.; Lillelund, Kenneth G.; Beelen, Rob; Schmidt, Erik B.; Tjønneland, Anne

2012-01-01

331

Assessment of environmental enteropathy in the MAL-ED cohort study: theoretical and analytic framework.  

PubMed

Individuals in the developing world live in conditions of intense exposure to enteric pathogens due to suboptimal water and sanitation. These environmental conditions lead to alterations in intestinal structure, function, and local and systemic immune activation that are collectively referred to as environmental enteropathy (EE). This condition, although poorly defined, is likely to be exacerbated by undernutrition as well as being responsible for permanent growth deficits acquired in early childhood, vaccine failure, and loss of human potential. This article addresses the underlying theoretical and analytical frameworks informing the methodology proposed by the Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study to define and quantify the burden of disease caused by EE within a multisite cohort. Additionally, we will discuss efforts to improve, standardize, and harmonize laboratory practices within the MAL-ED Network. These efforts will address current limitations in the understanding of EE and its burden on children in the developing world. PMID:25305293

Kosek, Margaret; Guerrant, Richard L; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhutta, Zulfiqar; Yori, Pablo Peñataro; Gratz, Jean; Gottlieb, Michael; Lang, Dennis; Lee, Gwenyth; Haque, Rashidul; Mason, Carl J; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Lima, Aldo; Petri, William A; Houpt, Eric; Olortegui, Maribel Paredes; Seidman, Jessica C; Mduma, Estomih; Samie, Amidou; Babji, Sudhir

2014-11-01

332

Rationale and design of South Asian Birth Cohort (START): a Canada-India collaborative study  

PubMed Central

Background People who originate from the Indian subcontinent (South Asians) suffer among the highest rates of type 2 diabetes in the world. Prior evidence suggests that metabolic risk factors develop early in life and are influenced by maternal and paternal behaviors, the intrauterine environment, and genetic factors. The South Asian Birth Cohort Study (START) will investigate the environmental and genetic basis of adiposity among 750 South Asian offspring recruited from highly divergent environments, namely, rural and urban India and urban Canada. Methods Detailed information on health behaviors including diet and physical activity, and blood samples for metabolic parameters and DNA are collected from pregnant women of South Asian ancestry who are free of significant chronic disease. They also undergo a provocative test to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance and gestational diabetes. At delivery, cord blood and newborn anthropometric indices (i.e. birth weight, length, head circumference and skin fold thickness) are collected. The mother and growing offspring are followed prospectively and information on the growth trajectory, adiposity and health behaviors will be collected annually up to age 3 years. Our aim is to recruit a minimum of 750 mother-infant pairs equally divided between three divergent environments: rural India, urban India, and Canada. Summary The START cohort will increase our understanding of the environmental and genetic determinants of adiposity and related metabolic abnormalities among South Asians living in India and Canada. PMID:23356884

2013-01-01

333

Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts  

Cancer.gov

Cohort studies are one of the fundamental designs for epidemiological research. Throughout the last two decades, cohort-based studies have helped researchers to better understand the complex etiology of cancer, and have provided fundamental insights into key environmental, lifestyle, clinical, and genetic determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

334

Aboriginal birth cohort (ABC): a prospective cohort study of early life determinants of adiposity and associated risk factors among Aboriginal people in Canada  

PubMed Central

Background Aboriginal people living in Canada have a high prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). To better understand the pre and postnatal influences on the development of adiposity and related cardio-metabolic factors in adult Aboriginal people, we will recruit and follow prospectively Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their children – the Aboriginal Birth Cohort (ABC) study. Methods/design We aim to recruit 300 Aboriginal pregnant mothers and their newborns from the Six Nations Reserve, and follow them prospectively to age 3 years. Key details of environment and health including maternal nutrition, glucose tolerance, physical activity, and weight gain will be collected. At birth, cord blood and placenta samples will be collected, as well as newborn anthropometric measurements. Mothers and offspring will be followed annually with serial measurements of diet and physical activity, growth trajectory, and adiposity. Discussion There is an urgent need to understand maternal and child factors that underlie the early development of adiposity and type 2 diabetes in Aboriginal people. The information generated from this cohort will assist the Six Nations community in developing interventions to prevent early adiposity in Aboriginal children. PMID:23800270

2013-01-01

335

The Framingham Heart Study Clock Drawing Performance: Normative Data from the Offspring Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background/Study Context While the Clock Drawing Test (CDT) is a popular tool used to assess cognitive function, limited normative data on CDT performance exists. The objective of the current study was to provide normative data on an expanded version of previous CDT scoring protocols from a large community-based sample of middle to older adults (aged 43 to 91) from the Framingham Heart Study. Methods The CDT was administered to 1476 Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort participants using a scoring protocol that assigned error scores to drawn features. Total error scores were computed, as well as for subscales pertaining to outline, numeral placement, time-setting, center, and “other.” Results Higher levels of education were significantly associated with fewer errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numerals (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Older age was significantly associated with more errors for time-setting (Command: p<.001; Copy: p=.003), numeral (Command: p<.001) and “other” (Command: p<.001) subscales. Significant differences were also found between education groups on the Command condition for all but the oldest age group (75+). Conclusion Results provide normative data on CDT performance within a community-based cohort. Errors appear to be more prevalent in older compared with younger individuals, and may be less prevalent in individuals who completed at least some college compared with those who did not. Future studies are needed to determine whether this expanded scoring system allows detection of preclinical symptoms of future risk for dementia. PMID:23316738

Nyborn, Justin A.; Himali, Jayandra J.; Beiser, Alexa S.; Devine, Sherral A.; Du, Yangchun; Kaplan, Edith; O’Connor, Maureen K.; Rinn, William E.; Denison, Helen S.; Seshadri, Sudha; Wolf, Philip A.; Au, Rhoda

2013-01-01

336

Dietary fiber intake and mortality among survivors of myocardial infarction: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the associations of dietary fiber after myocardial infarction (MI) and changes in dietary fiber intake from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Two large prospective cohort studies of US women and men with repeated dietary measurements: the Nurses’ Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study. Participants 2258 women and 1840 men who were free of cardiovascular disease, stroke, or cancer at enrollment, survived a first MI during follow-up, were free of stroke at the time of initial onset of MI, and provided food frequency questionnaires pre-MI and at least one post-MI. Main outcome measures Associations of dietary fiber post-MI and changes from before to after MI with all cause and cardiovascular mortality using Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for drug use, medical history, and lifestyle factors. Results Higher post-MI fiber intake was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (comparing extreme fifths, pooled hazard ratio 0.75, 95% confidence interval 0.58 to 0.97). Greater intake of cereal fiber was more strongly associated with all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.73, 0.58 to 0.91) than were other sources of dietary fiber. Increased fiber intake from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause mortality (pooled hazard ratio 0.69, 0.55 to 0.87). Conclusions In this prospective study of patients who survived MI, a greater intake of dietary fiber after MI, especially cereal fiber, was inversely associated with all cause mortality. In addition, increasing consumption of fiber from before to after MI was significantly associated with lower all cause and cardiovascular mortality. PMID:24782515

2014-01-01

337

The Yabu Cohort Study: Design and Profile of Participants at Baseline  

PubMed Central

Background Further evidence into the effects of social relationships on health (including those at both the individual and community levels) is needed in Japan. The Yabu Cohort Study was launched in 2012 to identify the associations between social relationships and health among community-dwelling older Japanese people and to evaluate population approaches for preventive long-term care in the community. This report describes the study design and the profile of the participants at baseline. Methods The Yabu Cohort Study is a prospective study of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 years and older in Yabu, Hyogo Prefecture, Japan. The baseline survey, using a mailed self-administered questionnaire, was conducted from July through August 2012. It included information on socioeconomic status, general and psychological health, and social relationships (social network, social support, and social capital). Survival time, long-term care insurance certification, and medical and long-term care costs after the baseline survey will be followed. Results Of 7271 questionnaires distributed, a total of 6652 were returned (91.5% response rate), and 6241 were included in the analysis. Mean age was 71.9 ± 5.2 years, 43.2% were men, and 83.8% had lived in their neighborhood for more than 40 years. Approximately 45.2% expressed general trust. About 82.4%, 49.9%, and 55.5% have participated in neighborhood association activities, municipal seminars for preventive long-term care, and salon activities in the community, respectively. Conclusions The study is expected to provide valuable evidence on the effects of social relationships on health and to suggest the usefulness of population approaches for preventive long-term care in Japanese communities. PMID:25196168

Murayama, Hiroshi; Nofuji, Yu; Matsuo, Eri; Nishi, Mariko; Taniguchi, Yu; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Shinkai, Shoji

2014-01-01

338

Effect of anxiolytic and hypnotic drug prescriptions on mortality hazards: retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To test the hypothesis that people taking anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs are at increased risk of premature mortality, using primary care prescription records and after adjusting for a wide range of potential confounders. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting 273 UK primary care practices contributing data to the General Practice Research Database. Participants 34?727 patients aged 16 years and older first prescribed anxiolytic or hypnotic drugs, or both, between 1998 and 2001, and 69?418 patients with no prescriptions for such drugs (controls) matched by age, sex, and practice. Patients were followed-up for a mean of 7.6 years (range 0.1-13.4 years). Main outcome All cause mortality ascertained from practice records. Results Physical and psychiatric comorbidities and prescribing of non-study drugs were significantly more prevalent among those prescribed study drugs than among controls. The age adjusted hazard ratio for mortality during the whole follow-up period for use of any study drug in the first year after recruitment was 3.46 (95% confidence interval 3.34 to 3.59) and 3.32 (3.19 to 3.45) after adjusting for other potential confounders. Dose-response associations were found for all three classes of study drugs (benzodiazepines, Z drugs (zaleplon, zolpidem, and zopiclone), and other drugs). After excluding deaths in the first year, there were approximately four excess deaths linked to drug use per 100 people followed for an average of 7.6 years after their first prescription. Conclusions In this large cohort of patients attending UK primary care, anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs were associated with significantly increased risk of mortality over a seven year period, after adjusting for a range of potential confounders. As with all observational findings, however, these results are prone to bias arising from unmeasured and residual confounding. PMID:24647164

2014-01-01

339

Retention of female volunteer community health workers in Dhaka urban slums: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Volunteer community health workers (CHWs) are a key approach to improving community-based maternal and child health services in developing countries. BRAC, a large Bangladeshi non-governmental organization (NGO), has employed female volunteer CHWs in its community-based health programs since 1977, recently including its Manoshi project, a community-based maternal and child health intervention in the urban slums of Bangladesh. A case–control study conducted in response to high dropout rates in the first year of the project showed that financial incentives, social prestige, community approval and household responsibilities were related to early retention in the project. In our present prospective cohort study, we aimed to better understand the factors associated with retention of volunteer CHWs once the project was more mature. Methods We used a prospective cohort study design to examine the factors affecting retention of volunteer CHWs who remained in the project after the initial start-up period. We surveyed a random sample of 542 CHWs who were working for BRAC Manoshi in December 2008. In December 2009, we revisited this cohort of CHWs and interviewed those who had dropped out about the main reasons for their dropping out. We used a multivariable generalized linear model regression analysis with a log link to estimate the relative risk (RR) of independent factors on retention. Results Of the 542 CHWs originally enrolled, 120 had dropped out by the end of one year, mainly because they left the slums. CHWs who received positive community appraisal (adjusted RR?=?1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI)?=?1.10 to 1.91) or were associated with other NGOs (adjusted RR?=?1.13, 95% CI?=?1.04 to 1.23) were more likely to have been retained in the project. Although refresher training was also associated with increased retention (adjusted RR?=?2.25, 95% CI?=?1.08 to 4.71) in this study, too few CHWs had not attended refresher training regularly to make it a meaningful predictor of retention that could be applied in the project setting. Conclusion Factors that affect retention of CHWs may change over time, with some factors that are important in the early years of a project losing importance as the project matures. Community health programs operating in fragile urban slums should consider changing factors over program duration for better retention of volunteer CHWs. PMID:24886046

2014-01-01

340

Trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption from 1991 to 2008 in the Framingham Heart Study Offspring Cohort.  

PubMed

The intake of carbohydrates has been evaluated cross-sectionally, but not longitudinally in an ageing American adult population. The aim of the present study was to examine trends in the intake of dietary carbohydrates and their major food sources among the Framingham Heart Study Offspring (FOS) cohort, which had been uniquely tracked for 17 years in the study. The FOS cohort was recruited in 1971-1975. Follow-up examinations were conducted, on average, every 4 years. Dietary data collection began in 1991 (examination 5) using a validated semi-quantitative FFQ. The study included 2894 adults aged ? 25 years with complete dietary data in at least three examinations from 1991 to 2008. Descriptive statistics were generated using SAS version 9.3, and a repeated-measures model was used to examine trends in the intake of carbohydrates and their food sources in the whole sample, and by sex and BMI category. Over 17 years of follow-up, the percentage of energy from total carbohydrates (51·0-46·8 %; P for trend < 0·001) and total sugars (18·2-16·6 %; P for trend < 0·001) decreased. There was a decrease in the percentage of energy from fructose (5·4-4·7 %; P for trend < 0·001) and sucrose (9·8-8·8 %; P for trend < 0·001). Dietary fibre intake increased (18·0-19·2 g/d; P for trend < 0·001). The number of weekly servings of yeast bread, soft drinks/soda, cakes/cookies/quick breads/doughnuts, potatoes, milk, pasta, rice and cooked grains, fruit juice/drinks, potato chips/maize chips/popcorn, and lunch foods (e.g. pizzas and burgers) decreased significantly (P for trend < 0·001), while the intake of ready-to-eat cereals, legumes, fruits, dairy products, candy and ice cream/sherbet/frozen yogurt increased significantly (P for trend<0·04). Similar trends were observed when the analyses were stratified by sex and BMI. The present results suggest favourable trends in dietary carbohydrate consumption, but dietary guidelines for fruits, vegetables and fibre were not met in this cohort. PMID:24661608

Makarem, Nour; Scott, Marc; Quatromoni, Paula; Jacques, Paul; Parekh, Niyati

2014-03-24

341

Does Taper Angle Clearance Influence Fretting and Corrosion Damage at the Head-Stem Interface? A Matched Cohort Retrieval Study  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have speculated that modular taper design may have an effect on the corrosion and material loss at the taper surfaces. We present a novel method to measure taper angle for retrieved head taper and stem trunnions using a roundness machine (Talyrond 585, Taylor Hobson, UK). We also investigated the relationship between taper angle clearance and visual fretting-corrosion score at the taper-trunnion junction using a matched cohort study of 50 ceramic and 50 metal head-stem pairs. In this study, no correlation was observed between the taper angle clearance and the visual fretting-corrosion scores in either the ceramic or the metal cohorts. PMID:24610994

Kocagöz, Sevi B.; Underwood, Richard J.; Sivan, Shiril; Gilbert, Jeremy L.; MacDonald, Daniel W.; Day, Judd S.; Kurtz, Steven M.

2014-01-01

342

[Frailty: learnings from the SAFEs cohort study and future perspectives for the research].  

PubMed

Even though the efforts in research have detailed further the physiopathology and the dynamics of the frailty process an operational definition of frailty is still far from being unequivocal. Studies carried out from the SAFEs cohort study allowed a pragmatic approach in the identification of the at-risk groups for the lost of independency during the hospital stay and factors influencing their future at short-, mid- and long-term. Based upon these results, we propose to discuss the relevance of the current operational indicators of frailty in order to show that clinical markers or indicators are insufficient to differentiate the frailty process from normal ageing. Finally we give rise to the imperative necessity to detect frailty at a preclinical stage with the help of biological and more particularly inflammatory markers. PMID:21690021

Lang, Pierre-Olivier; Dramé, Moustapha; Mahmoudi, Rachid; Jolly, Damien; Lanièce, Isabelle; Saint-Jean, Olivier; Somme, Dominique; Heitz, Damien; Gauvain, Jean-Bernard; Voisin, Thierry; de Wazières, Benoît; Gonthier, Régis; Jeandel, Claude; Couturier, Pascal; Ankri, Joël; Blanchard, François; Novella, Jean-Luc

2011-06-01

343

Stability after maxillary segmentation for correction of anterior open bite: a cohort study of 33 cases.  

PubMed

The aim of this cohort study was to evaluate the stability after multi-segmentation of the maxilla for correction of anterior open bite deformities. A total of 33 patients who underwent segmented maxillary osteotomy between 1994 and 2006 were included in the study. Rigid fixation with plates and postsurgical intermaxillary fixation for 6 weeks was applied to each patient. All patients were then followed in a standardized examination procedure at months 6, 12, 18 and up to 30 months postoperatively. Vertical and horizontal relation of the incisors was measured both clinically and on cast models. The main finding was that statistically significant relapse was found vertically, whereas the horizontal relationship to the mandible was unchanged. The vertical relapses were predominantly seen in patients with severe open bite evident preoperatively. PMID:23321050

Silva, Ingrid; Suska, Felicia; Cardemil, Carina; Rasmusson, Lars

2013-10-01

344

Cohort mortality study of chemical workers with potential exposure to the higher chlorinated dioxins  

SciTech Connect

This cohort study evaluated mortality patterns, 1940 through 1982, of 2,192 chemical workers who, having engaged in the manufacture of higher chlorinated phenols and derivative products, had potential occupational exposures to chlorinated dioxins. Relative to United States white male mortality experience, there were no statistically significant deviations from expected for the following categories: all causes, total malignant neoplasms, or specific malignancies of particular interest: stomach cancer, liver cancer, connective and other soft-tissue cancer, the lymphomas, or nasal and nasopharyngeal cancer. For the cirrhosis of the liver category, internal comparisons demonstrated increasing trends associated with duration of employment in the Chlorophenol Production and Finishing areas; but available evidence suggests this finding was related to alcohol abuse. The study does not support a causal association between chronic human disease as measured by mortality and exposures to the higher chlorinated phenols, derivative products, or their unwanted contaminants, the chlorinated dioxins.

Ott, M.G.; Olson, R.A.; Cook, R.R.; Bond, G.G.

1987-05-01

345

Incidence of pregnancy among women accessing antiretroviral therapy in urban Malawi: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Although previous studies investigated pregnancy rates among women on antiretroviral therapy (ART), incidence of, and factors associated with pregnancy among these women remain poorly understood. We, therefore, conducted a retrospective cohort study at a large public HIV clinic in Lilongwe, Malawi, between July 2007 and December 2010. At each clinic visit, pregnancy status was assessed. Time to event analysis was conducted using Poisson regression. Among 4,738 women, 589 pregnancies were observed. Pregnancy incidence was 9.3/100 person-years. After 6 months on ART, women on ART had similar total fertility rates to women in the urban population. In multivariable analysis, increasing age and advanced WHO clinical stage were associated with decreased probability of becoming pregnant while higher body mass index and longer time on ART were associated with increased probability of becoming pregnant. We recommend that ART clinics integrate comprehensive family planning services to address reproductive health needs among women on ART. PMID:22354359

Tweya, Hannock; Feldacker, Caryl; Breeze, Elizabeth; Jahn, Andreas; Haddad, Lisa Blake; Ben-Smith, Anne; Chaweza, Thom; Phiri, Sam

2013-02-01

346

Widow Inheritance and HIV Prevalence in Bondo District, Kenya: Baseline Results from a Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Widow Inheritance is a widespread cultural practice in sub-Saharan Africa that has been postulated as contributing to risk of HIV transmission. We present baseline results from a study designed to investigate the association between widow inheritance and HIV acquisition. Methods and Findings We performed a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study to investigate if widow inheritance is a risk practice for HIV infection. Study participants were 1,987 widows who were interviewed regarding their inheritance status and sexual behavior profile and tested for HIV. Of these widows, 56.3% were inherited. HIV prevalence, at 63%, was similar among non-inherited and inherited widows. We stratified exposure status by the relationship of the widow to the inheritor and the reason for inheritance, and reexamined the HIV status of four subgroups of inherited women relative to the HIV status of non-inherited women. When adjusting for age and level of formal education, widows who were inherited by non-relatives for sexual ritual were significantly more likely to be infected than widows who were not inherited (OR?=?2.07; 95%CI 1.49–2.86); widows who were inherited by relatives for sexual ritual also had elevated odds of HIV infection (OR?=?1.34; 95%CI?=?1.07–1.70). Widows who were inherited by relatives for companionship were less likely than women who were not inherited to be infected with HIV (OR?=?0.85; 95%CI 0.63–1.14). Conclusions HIV prevalence among inherited widows varied depending upon why and by whom they were inherited. The cohort study will determine the risk for HIV acquisition among the HIV seronegative widows in this sample. PMID:21103347

Agot, Kawango E.; Vander Stoep, Ann; Tracy, Melissa; Obare, Billy A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth A.; Ndinya-Achola, Jeckoniah O.; Moses, Stephen; Weiss, Noel S.

2010-01-01

347

A 3-year cohort study of the natural history of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 in Japan  

PubMed Central

Background Only a few prospective studies have determined which clinical symptoms and factors are associated with the disease severity of spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6). A multicenter longitudinal cohort study was conducted to clarify both the natural history of SCA6 in Japan and the factors influencing disease progression. Methods Patients were consecutively recruited between 2007 and 2008. Scores from the Scale for the Assessment and Rating of Ataxia (SARA) and Barthel Index (BI) were collected prospectively each year. Additionally, data from the Japan intractable diseases research (IDR) registry were collected both retrospectively, from 2003 to 2006, and prospectively, from 2007 to 2010. As a result, we were able to collect 3 years of retrospective data and 4 years of prospective data during the course of 3 yearly visits. Results Forty-six patients were registered. The follow-up rate of the third year was 93%. The SARA scores worsened significantly each year. Over 3 years, the decline of the SARA scores was 1.33?±?1.40 points/year. The results of multivariate analysis of the decline of the SARA score were not significant. The IDR scores correlated well with the SARA and BI scores. Kaplan-Meier curves of 7 years of data from the IDR registry illustrated the correlation between the ability to walk and the time course of the disease. Conclusions Information regarding the progression of ataxia and the decline in the activities of daily living (ADL) in patients with SCA6 was obtained by a 3-year cohort study and a 7-year IDR study. The decline of the SARA score of patients with SCA6 was 1.33?±?1.40 points/year. The results elucidate the natural history of SCA6, factors influencing disease severity, and utility of data from the IDR registry of Japan. PMID:25053188

2014-01-01

348

Change in Body Size and Mortality: Results from the Melbourne Collaborative Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background The association between change in weight or body mass index, and mortality is widely reported, however, both measures fail to account for fat distribution. Change in waist circumference, a measure of central adiposity, in relation to mortality has not been studied extensively. Methods We investigated the association between mortality and changes in directly measured waist circumference, hips circumference and weight from baseline (1990–1994) to wave 2 (2003–2007) in a prospective cohort study of people aged 40–69 years at baseline. Cox regression, with age as the time metric and follow-up starting at wave 2, adjusted for confounding variables, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for change in body size in relation to mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Results There were 1465 deaths (109 cancer, 242 cardiovascular disease) identified during an average 7.7 years of follow-up from 21 298 participants. Compared to minimal increase in body size, loss of waist circumference (HR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.09–1.47), weight (1.80; 1.54–2.11), or hips circumference (1.35; 1.15–1.57) were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality, particularly for older adults. Weight loss was associated with cardiovascular disease mortality (2.40; 1.57–3.65) but change in body size was not associated with obesity-related cancer mortality. Conclusion This study confirms the association between weight loss and increased mortality from all-causes for older adults. Based on evidence from observational cohort studies, weight stability may be the recommended option for most adults, especially older adults. PMID:24988430

Karahalios, Amalia; Simpson, Julie A.; Baglietto, Laura; MacInnis, Robert J.; Hodge, Allison M.; Giles, Graham G.; English, Dallas R.

2014-01-01

349

Predictors of pulmonary tuberculosis treatment outcomes in South Korea: a prospective cohort study, 2005-2012  

PubMed Central

Background Tuberculosis remains an important health concern in many countries. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of unfavorable outcomes at the end of treatment (EOT) and at the end of study (EOS; 40 months after EOT) in South Korea. Methods New or previously treated tuberculosis patients were recruited into a prospective observational cohort study at two hospitals in South Korea. To identify predictors of unfavorable outcomes at EOT and EOS, logistic regression analysis was performed. Results The proportion of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) was 8.2% in new cases and 57.9% in previously treated cases. Of new cases, 68.6% were cured, as were 40.7% of previously treated cases. At EOT, diabetes, ?3 previous TB episodes, ?1 significant regimen change, and MDR-TB were significantly associated with treatment failure or death. At EOS, age ?35, body-mass index (BMI) <18.5, diabetes, and MDR-TB were significantly associated with treatment failure, death, or relapse. Among cases that were cured at EOT, age ?50 and a BMI <18.5 were associated with subsequent death or relapse during follow-up to EOS. Treatment interruption was associated with service sector employees or laborers, bilateral lesions on chest X-ray, and previous treatment failure or treatment interruption history. Conclusions Risk factors for poor treatment outcomes at EOT and EOS include both patient factors (diabetes status, age, BMI) and disease factors (history of multiple previous treatment episodes, MDR-TB). In this longitudinal, observational cohort study, diabetes mellitus and MDR-TB were risk factors for poor treatment outcomes and relapse. Measures to help ensure that the first tuberculosis treatment episode is also the last one may improve treatment outcomes. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00341601 PMID:24990578

2014-01-01

350

Estimating GFR Among Participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study  

PubMed Central

Background Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is considered the best measure of kidney function, but repeated assessment is not feasible in most research studies. Study Design Cross-sectional study of 1,433 participants from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study (i.e., the GFR subcohort) to derive an internal GFR estimating equation using a split sample approach. Setting & Participants Adults from 7 US metropolitan areas with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease; 48% had diabetes and 37% were black. Index Test CRIC GFR estimating equation Reference Test or Outcome Urinary 125I-iothalamate clearance testing (measured GFR) Other Measurements Laboratory measures including serum creatinine and cystatin C, and anthropometrics Results In the validation dataset, the model that included serum creatinine, serum cystatin C, age, gender, and race was the most parsimonious and similarly predictive of mGFR compared to a model additionally including bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle, CRIC clinical center, and 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. Specifically, the root mean square errors for the separate model were 0.207 vs. 0.202, respectively. The performance of the CRIC GFR estimating equation was most accurate among the subgroups of younger participants, men, non-blacks, non-Hispanics, those without diabetes, those with body mass index <30 kg/m2, those with higher 24-hour urine creatinine excretion, those with lower levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and those with higher mGFR. Limitations Urinary clearance of 125I-iothalamate is an imperfect measure of true GFR; cystatin C is not standardized to certified reference material; lack of external validation; small sample sizes limit analyses of subgroup-specific predictors. Conclusions The CRIC GFR estimating equation predicts measured GFR accurately in the CRIC cohort using serum creatinine and cystatin C, age, gender, and race. Its performance was best among younger and healthier participants. PMID:22658574

Anderson, Amanda Hyre; Yang, Wei; Hsu, Chi-yuan; Joffe, Marshall M.; Leonard, Mary B.; Xie, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Greene, Tom; Jaar, Bernard G.; Kao, Patricia; Kusek, John W.; Landis, J. Richard; Lash, James P.; Townsend, Raymond R.; Weir, Matthew R.; Feldman, Harold I.

2012-01-01

351

Social Participation and the Prevention of Functional Disability in Older Japanese: The JAGES Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background We examined the relationship between incident functional disability and social participation from the perspective of number of types of organizations participated in and type of social participation in a prospective cohort study. Method The study was based on the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES) Cohort Study data. We followed 13,310 individuals aged 65 years or older for 4 years. Analysis was carried out on 12,951 subjects, excluding 359 people whose information on age or sex was missing. Social participation was categorized into 8 types. Results Compared to those that did not participate in any organizations, the hazard ratio (HR) was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.73–0.95) for participation in one, 0.72 (0.61–0.85) for participation in two, and 0.57 (0.46–0.70) for participation in three or more different types of organizations. In multivariable adjusted models, participation in the following types of organization was protective for incident disability: local community organizations (HR?=?0.85, 95% CI: 0.76–0.96), hobby organizations (HR?=?0.75, 95% CI: 0.64–0.87), and sports organizations (HR?=?0.64, 95% CI: 0.54–0.81). Conclusion Social participation may decrease the risk of incident functional disability in older people in Japan. This effect may be strengthened by participation in a variety of different types of organizations. Participating in a local community, hobby, or sports group or organization may be especially effective for decreasing the risk of disability. PMID:24923270

Kanamori, Satoru; Kai, Yuko; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Hirai, Hiroshi; Shirai, Kokoro; Ishikawa, Yoshiki; Suzuki, Kayo

2014-01-01

352

Mortality in the British printing industry: a historical cohort study of trade union members in Manchester.  

PubMed Central

A historical cohort study of the printing industry was established after an anecdotal report of a cluster of cases of bladder cancer in a newspaper factory in Manchester. The cohort comprised some 9500 men who were members of one or other of two trade unions (the NGA and NATSOPA) in the Manchester area between 1949 and 1963. During the follow up period (1949-83) 3482 deaths occurred among men born in 1890 or later; follow up was 97% complete. The results of the study do not support the hypothesis of an occupational risk of bladder cancer in the printing industry. The NGA have a standardised mortality ratio (SMR) of 63 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 31-113) and NATSOPA an SMR of 113 (95% CI 67-178) based on 11 and 18 deaths from bladder cancer, respectively. Men involved in newspaper letterpress printing have a high mortality from lung cancer (SMR = 179, 95% CI 144-218) that is consistent with the findings of previous studies. Increased mortality from cancer of the buccal cavity and pharynx was found for NATSOPA workers in the newspaper industry; editorial workers had an SMR of 1053 (95% CI 128-3803) and clerical workers had an SMR of 638 (95% CI 132-1864). This is consistent with a review of published studies, which strongly suggest that workers in the printing industry have an increased risk of mortality from cancers of the buccal cavity and pharynx. Socioeconomic differences in union composition, rather than occupational factors, may account for the lower mortality in the NGA compared with NATSOPA. The NGA, a craft union, had an all causes SMR of 92 (95% CI 88-97), whereas NATSOPA covered a broader span of occupations and skill levels, and had an all causes SMR of 112 (95% CI 106-117); the NATSOPA and NGA all causes rate ratio was 1.21 (95% CI 1.13-1,29). PMID:8111468

Leon, D A

1994-01-01

353

Population Based Cohort Study for Pediatric Infectious Diseases Research in Vietnam  

PubMed Central

A population-based cohort study on pediatric infectious diseases was established at Khanh Hoa Province, central Vietnam in 2006, to determine the etiology and risk factors for severe pediatric infectious diseases (SPID) such as acute respiratory infection (ARI), diarrhea and dengue which are the major causes of under 5 mortality. A population census survey was conducted in Nha-Trang and Ninh-Hoa to collect demographic, social-behavioral data and disease burden on SPID. The study site covered a population of 353,525 residing in 75,826 households with 24,781 children less than 5 years. Hospital databases from two hospitals covering the region were obtained. Linking the census and hospital databases, we were able to investigate on a variety of SPID such as environmental tobacco smoking exposure and increased risked of pediatric pneumonia hospitalization, population density, water supply and risk of dengue fever and animal livestock and risk of hospitalized diarrhea. To determine incidence, viral etiology and risk factors for pediatric ARI/pneumonia, we setup a population based prospective hospitalized Pediatric ARI surveillance at Khanh Hoa General Hospital, Nha-Trang in February 2007. The study has revealed RSV, rhinovirus and influenza A as major viral pathogens, role of multiple viral infection and its interaction with bacteria in the development of pneumonia. In addition, we are also conducting a birth cohort study to investigate the incidence of congenital infection and its impact on physical-neurological development, and role of host genetic polymorphism on SPID hospitalization in Vietnam. Population mobility, high cost of regular census update and low mortality are the challenges. PMID:25425951

Yoshida, Lay-Myint; Suzuki, Motoi; Thiem, Vu Dinh; Smith, Wolf Peter; Tsuzuki, Ataru; Huong, Vu Thi Thu; Takahashi, Kensuke; Miyakawa, Masami; Anh, Nguyen Thi Hien; Watanabe, Kiwao; Ai, Nguyen Thu Thuy; Tho, Le Huu; Kilgore, Paul; Yoshino, Hiroshi; Toizumi, Michiko; Yasunami, Michio; Moriuchi, Hiroyuki; Anh, Dang Duc; Ariyoshi, Koya

2014-01-01

354

Alcohol use among older adults: SABE cohort study, São Paulo, Brazil.  

PubMed

In recent years, Brazil has demonstrated a new demographic pattern characterized by a reduction in both birth and mortality rates and a significant increase in the number of older adults. The purpose of the present study was to describe the frequency of alcohol intake in a representative sample community of older adults in the city of São Paulo, Brazil, followed over a six-year period. A prospective Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE [Health, Wellbeing and Aging]) cohort study conducted in 2000 and 2006 in City of São Paulo, Brazil. 2,143 individuals aged 60 years or older selected through multi-stage sampling in the year 2000 (41.4% male and 58.6% women) and 1,115 individuals belonging to the follow-up cohort evaluated in 2006. The frequency of alcohol intake in the previous three months was obtained through self-reports of interviewees. The results demonstrate that in 2000, alcohol consumption was less than one day a week among 79.7% of the sample, one to three days a week among 13.0% and four or more days a week among 7.3%. In agreement with findings on other populations, consumption four or more days a week was more frequent among the male gender as well as those with greater schooling and income and good self-rated health (p<0.05). The longitudinal analysis demonstrated an increase in the frequency of alcohol consumption one to three times a week among the individuals in the 2006 follow-up study. In the present population-based sample, alcohol intake was low and the frequency of moderate alcohol consumption increased over the years. The present study can assist understanding the changes in alcohol intake among older adults throughout time and the ageing process. PMID:24416424

Wagner, Gabriela Arantes; Lebrão, Maria Lucia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida de Oliveira; Zanetta, Dirce Maria Trevisan

2014-01-01

355

Patient characteristics associated with venous thromboembolic events: a cohort study using pooled electronic health record data  

PubMed Central

Objective To demonstrate the potential of de-identified clinical data from multiple healthcare systems using different electronic health records (EHR) to be efficiently used for very large retrospective cohort studies. Materials and methods Data of 959?030 patients, pooled from multiple different healthcare systems with distinct EHR, were obtained. Data were standardized and normalized using common ontologies, searchable through a HIPAA-compliant, patient de-identified web application (Explore; Explorys Inc). Patients were 26?years or older seen in multiple healthcare systems from 1999 to 2011 with data from EHR. Results Comparing obese, tall subjects with normal body mass index, short subjects, the venous thromboembolic events (VTE) OR was 1.83 (95% CI 1.76 to 1.91) for women and 1.21 (1.10 to 1.32) for men. Weight had more effect then height on VTE. Compared with Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino subjects had a much lower risk of VTE (female OR 0.47, 0.41 to 0.55; male OR 0.24, 0.20 to 0.28) and African-Americans a substantially higher risk (female OR 1.83, 1.76 to 1.91; male OR 1.58, 1.50 to 1.66). This 13-year retrospective study of almost one million patients was performed over approximately 125?h in 11?weeks, part time by the five authors. Discussion As research informatics tools develop and more clinical data become available in EHR, it is important to study and understand unique opportunities for clinical research informatics to transform the scale and resources needed to perform certain types of clinical research. Conclusions With the right clinical research informatics tools and EHR data, some types of very large cohort studies can be completed with minimal resources. PMID:22759621

Foster, Wendy; Gilder, Jason; Love, Thomas E; Jain, Anil K

2012-01-01

356

The UK clinical aptitude test and clinical course performance at Nottingham: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The UK Clinical Aptitude Test (UKCAT) was introduced in 2006 as an additional tool for the selection of medical students. It tests mental ability in four distinct domains (Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Abstract Reasoning, and Decision Analysis), and the results are available to students and admission panels in advance of the selection process. Our first study showed little evidence of any predictive validity for performance in the first two years of the Nottingham undergraduate course. The study objective was to determine whether the UKCAT scores had any predictive value for the later parts of the course, largely delivered via clinical placements. Methods Students entering the course in 2007 and who had taken the UKCAT were asked for permission to use their anonymised data in research. The UKCAT scores were incorporated into a database with routine pre-admission socio-demographics and subsequent course performance data. Correlation analysis was followed by hierarchical multivariate linear regression. Results The original study group comprised 204/254 (80%) of the full entry cohort. With attrition over the five years of the course this fell to 185 (73%) by Year 5. The Verbal Reasoning score and the UKCAT Total score both demonstrated some univariate correlations with clinical knowledge marks, and slightly less with clinical skills. No parts of the UKCAT proved to be an independent predictor of clinical course marks, whereas prior attainment was a highly significant predictor (p <0.001). Conclusions This study of one cohort of Nottingham medical students showed that UKCAT scores at admission did not independently predict subsequent performance on the course. Whilst the test adds another dimension to the selection process, its fairness and validity in selecting promising students remains unproven, and requires wider investigation and debate by other schools. PMID:23442227

2013-01-01

357

The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study: Design, Methods and Participant Characteristics  

PubMed Central

Background The HIV-Brazil Cohort Study was established to analyze the effectiveness of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the impact of this treatment on morbidity, quality of life (QOL) and mortality. The study design, patients’ profiles and characteristics of cART initiation between 2003 and 2010 were described. Methodology/Principal Findings Since 2003, the HIV-Brazil Cohort has been following HIV-infected adults receiving cART at 26 public health care facilities, using routine clinical care data and self-reported QOL questionnaires. When not otherwise available, data are obtained from national information systems. The main outcomes of interest are diseases related or unrelated to HIV; suppression of viral replication; adverse events; virological, clinical and immunological failures; changes in the cART; and mortality. For the 5,061 patients who started cART between 2003 and 2010, the median follow-up time was 4.1 years (IQR 2.2–5.9 years) with an 83.4% retention rate. Patient profiles were characterized by a predominance of men (male/female ratio 1.7?1), with a mean age of 36.9 years (SD 9.9 years); 55.2% had been infected with HIV via heterosexual contact. The majority of patients (53.4%) initiated cART with a CD4+ T-cell count ?200 cells/mm3. The medications most often used in the various treatment regimens were efavirenz (59.7%) and lopinavir/ritonavir (18.2%). The proportion of individuals achieving viral suppression within the first 12 months of cART use was 77.4% (95% CI 76.1–78.6). Nearly half (45.4%) of the patients presented HIV-related clinical manifestations after starting cART, and the AIDS mortality rate was 13.9 per 1,000 person-years. Conclusions/Significance Results from cART use in the daily practice of health services remain relatively unknown in low- and middle-income countries, and studies with the characteristics of the HIV-Brazil Cohort contribute to minimizing these shortcomings, given its scope and patient profile, which is similar to that of the AIDS epidemic in the country. PMID:24789106

Grangeiro, Alexandre; Escuder, Maria Mercedes; Cassanote, Alex Jones Flores; Souza, Rosa Alencar; Kalichman, Artur O.; Veloso, Valdiléa; Ikeda, Maria Letícia Rodrigues; Barcellos, Nêmora Tregnago; Brites, Carlos; Tupinanbás, Unai; Lucena, Noaldo O.; da Silva, Carlos Lima; Lacerda, Heloisa Ramos; Grinsztejn, Beatriz; Castilho, Euclides Ayres

2014-01-01

358

Hospitalization rates and cost in severe or complicated obesity: an Italian cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The economic and social costs of obesity are estimated to be considerable, particularly for inpatient care. The aim of this study was to compare the hospitalization rates of individuals with severe (body mass index [BMI] ?40 kg/m2) or complicated (BMI ?30 kg/m2) obesity with those of the general population in two regions of Northwest Italy, and to describe absolute costs of hospitalization and their determinants. Methods Between 1996 and 2002, 6,516 patients who were admitted for the first time to a hospital offering a nutritional rehabilitation programme for obesity were enrolled and followed-up (mean follow-up time: 7.3 years). Standardized hospitalization rates (SHRs) were computed by sex for all-cause and cause-specific hospitalization. The general population of the two regions was used as the reference population. The annual cost of hospitalization was estimated for the study cohort only at the individual level, and its association with different determinants was assessed using a multivariable linear model for longitudinal data. Results SHRs of the study cohort versus the general population increased for all-cause hospitalization (males: 3.53, 95% CI 3.45-3.61; females: 3.22, 95% CI 3.18-3.26) as well as for most obesity-related conditions. The absolute median annual cost of hospitalization was 2,436 euros for males and 2,293 euros for females. Older age at cohort enrolment, BMI ?40 kg/m2, waist circumference above the median (males: 1.26 metres; females: 1.13 metres), and the presence of co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular diseases, respiratory diseases, cancer, diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue, and mental disorders, significantly increased the absolute median annual costs of hospitalization. Conclusions The economic consequences of high hospitalization rates in obese individuals are relevant. Reducing the occurrence of co-morbidities among obese persons may be one important goal, not only for clinical reasons, but also from a public health point of view. PMID:23738687

2013-01-01

359

Domestic Radon Exposure and Risk of Childhood Cancer: A Prospective Census-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background: In contrast with established evidence linking high doses of ionizing radiation with childhood cancer, research on low-dose ionizing radiation and childhood cancer has produced inconsistent results. Objective: We investigated the association between domestic radon exposure and childhood cancers, particularly leukemia and central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Methods: We conducted a nationwide census-based cohort study including all children < 16 years of age living in Switzerland on 5 December 2000, the date of the 2000 census. Follow-up lasted until the date of diagnosis, death, emigration, a child’s 16th birthday, or 31 December 2008. Domestic radon levels were estimated for each individual home address using a model developed and validated based on approximately 45,000 measurements taken throughout Switzerland. Data were analyzed with Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for child age, child sex, birth order, parents’ socioeconomic status, environmental gamma radiation, and period effects. Results: In total, 997 childhood cancer cases were included in the study. Compared with children exposed to a radon concentration below the median (< 77.7 Bq/m3), adjusted hazard ratios for children with exposure ? the 90th percentile (? 139.9 Bq/m3) were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.74, 1.16) for all cancers, 0.95 (95% CI: 0.63, 1.43) for all leukemias, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.56, 1.43) for acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and 1.05 (95% CI: 0.68, 1.61) for CNS tumors. Conclusions: We did not find evidence that domestic radon exposure is associated with childhood cancer, despite relatively high radon levels in Switzerland. Citation: Hauri D, Spycher B, Huss A, Zimmermann F, Grotzer M, von der Weid N, Weber D, Spoerri A, Kuehni C, Röösli M, for the Swiss National Cohort and the Swiss Paediatric Oncology Group (SPOG). 2013. Domestic radon exposure and risk of childhood cancer: a prospective census-based cohort study. Environ Health Perspect 121:1239–1244;?http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306500 PMID:23942326

Hauri, Dimitri; Spycher, Ben; Huss, Anke; Zimmermann, Frank; Grotzer, Michael; von der Weid, Nicolas; Weber, Damien; Spoerri, Adrian; Kuehni, Claudia E.

2013-01-01

360

The French Chronic Kidney Disease-Renal Epidemiology and Information Network (CKD-REIN) cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background While much has been learned about the epidemiology and treatment of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in the last 30 years, chronic kidney disease (CKD) before the end-stage has been less investigated. Not enough is known about factors associated with CKD progression and complications, as well as its transition to ESRD. We designed the CKD-renal epidemiology and information network (REIN) cohort to provide a research platform to address these key questions and to assess clinical practices and costs in patients with moderate or advanced CKD. Methods A total of 46 clinic sites and 4 renal care networks participate in the cohort. A stratified selection of clinic sites yields a sample that represents a diversity of settings, e.g. geographic region, and public versus for-profit and non-for-profit private clinics. In each site, 60–90 patients with CKD are enrolled at a routine clinic visit during a 12-month enrolment phase: 3600 total, including 1800 with Stage 3 and 1800 with Stage 4 CKD. Follow-up will continue for 5 years, including after initiation of renal replacement therapy. Data will be collected from medical records at inclusion and at yearly intervals, as well as from self-administered patient questionnaires and provider-level questionnaires. Patients will also be interviewed at baseline, and at 1, 3 and 5 years. Healthcare costs will also be determined. Blood and urine samples will be collected and stored for future studies on all patients at enrolment and at study end, and at 1 and 3 years in a subsample of 1200. Conclusions The CKD-REIN cohort will serve to improve our understanding of the biological, clinical and healthcare system determinants associated with CKD progression and adverse outcomes as well as of international variations in collaboration with the CKD Outcome and Practice Pattern Study (CKDopps). It will foster CKD epidemiology and outcomes research and provide evidence to improve the health and quality of life of patients with CKD and the performances of the healthcare system in this field. PMID:24064325

Stengel, Bénédicte; Combe, Christian; Jacquelinet, Christian; Briançon, Serge; Fouque, Denis; Laville, Maurice; Frimat, Luc; Pascal, Christophe; Herpe, Yves-Edouard; Deleuze, Jean-François; Schanstra, Joost; Pisoni, Ron L.; Robinson, Bruce M.; Massy, Ziad A.

2014-01-01

361

A cohort study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the British chemical industry: an update.  

PubMed Central

A cohort study of workers exposed to formaldehyde in the British chemical industry in any one of six factories has been extended after the earlier published report in 1984. A further eight years of follow up to the end of 1989 have been included for the originally reported 7660 workers first employed before 1965, and a first follow up to the same date has been carried out for 6357 workers first employed since 1964. Extensive checking of the database has taken place including records at the factories, the MRC Environmental Epidemiology Unit, and the National Health Service Central Register. The updated findings include one death from nasal cancer compared with 1.7 expected in this number of men during the follow up period--which gives no support to the original hypothesis based on animal experimental data that formaldehyde may be a nasal carcinogen in humans. There have been no cases of nasopharyngeal cancer in the cohort compared with an estimated 1.3 expected--which gives no support to the findings in a similarly designed study in the United States of an excess of cancers of the nasopharynx associated with exposure to formaldehyde. There has been a slight excess of about 12% for lung cancer with 402 deaths compared with about 359 expected. This is similar to that found in the United States study, but higher than we reported earlier before the checking procedures and extended follow up. Further analysis gives no definitive indication of this excess of lung cancer being clearly related to formaldehyde exposure, and the increase is within that generally thought consistent with possible confounding effects of cigarette smoking (although no data are available on this point). PMID:8398877

Gardner, M J; Pannett, B; Winter, P D; Cruddas, A M

1993-01-01

362

Observational Cohort Study of Pregnancy Outcome after First-Trimester Exposure to Fluoroquinolones  

PubMed Central

Fluoroquinolones are avoided during pregnancy due to developmental toxicity in animals. The aim of this study was to assess the fetal risk after intrauterine fluoroquinolone exposure. We performed an observational study of a prospectively ascertained cohort of pregnant women exposed to a fluoroquinolone during the first trimester. Pregnancy outcomes were compared to those of a cohort exposed to neither fluoroquinolones nor teratogenic or fetotoxic drugs. The outcomes evaluated were major birth defects (structural abnormalities of medical, surgical, or cosmetic relevance), spontaneous abortion, and elective termination of pregnancy. Pregnancy outcomes of 949 women with fluoroquinolone treatment were compared with those of 3,796 nonexposed controls. Neither the rate of major birth defects (2.4%; adjusted odds ratio [ORadj], 0.91; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.6 to 1.5) nor the risk of spontaneous abortion (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj], 1.01; 95% CI, 0.8 to 1.3) was increased. However, there was a nonsignificant increase in major birth defects after exposure to moxifloxacin (6/93, 6.5%; crude odds ratio [ORcrude], 2.40; 95% CI, 0.8 to 5.6). Neither a critical exposure time window within the first trimester nor a specific pattern of birth defects was demonstrated for any of the fluoroquinolones. The rate of electively terminated pregnancies was increased among the fluoroquinolone-exposed women (HRadj, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.03 to 1.7). The gestational ages at delivery and birth weights did not differ between groups. Our study did not detect an increased risk of spontaneous abortion or major birth defects. These reassuring findings support the recommendation to allow fluoroquinolone use in early pregnancy in selected cases. After the use of moxifloxacin, a detailed fetal ultrasound examination should be considered. PMID:24841264

Wacker, Evelin; Meister, Reinhard; Panse, Mary; Weber-Schoendorfer, Corinna; Oppermann, Marc; Schaefer, Christof

2014-01-01

363

Optimal timing of delivery in small for gestational age fetuses near term: a national cohort study.  

PubMed

Objective?Our aim was to study the competing risks of antepartum versus intrapartum/neonatal death in small for gestational age (SGA) and non-SGA fetuses. Study Design?We performed a national cohort study using all singletons delivered between 36 and 42(6/7) weeks without hypertension, preeclampsia, diabetes, congenital anomalies, or noncephalic presentation from the Netherlands Perinatal Registry (1999-2007). The resultant cohort was divided in three groups based on birth weight by gestational age (SGA?

Kazemier, B M; Voskamp, B J; Ravelli, A C J; Pajkrt, E; Groot, C J M de; Mol, B W J

2015-02-01

364

Fracture as an independent risk factor of dementia: a nationwide population-based cohort study.  

PubMed

Dementia is among various diseases affecting the elderly, who is also at a high risk for fractures. This study aimed to evaluate the association between fracture history and sequential risk of dementia in Taiwan.A retrospective cohort study was designed using the claims data of the entire insured residents covered by Taiwan's universal health insurance from 1998 to 2010. A total of 66,797 patients with fractures and 133,594 control subjects without fractures were matched in terms of age (±5 years), sex, and index year and then recruited. Fractures and dementia were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, Clinical Modification. The influence of fractures on the risk of dementia was analyzed using a Cox proportional hazards model.After a 12-year follow-up period, 2775 and 3991 incident cases of dementia were reported in exposed and unexposed cohorts, respectively. The overall incidence rate of dementia in individuals with fractures was 41% higher than that in individuals without fractures (6.05 vs 4.30 per 1000 person-years) at an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.38 (95% confidence interval 1.32-1.45) after age, sex, urbanization, and individual disorders or comorbidities were adjusted. Considering fracture location, we found that patients with hip fractures were at a slightly high risk for dementia. The occurrence of multiple fractures at a single visit was also significantly associated with an increased risk of dementia.Fracture history is regarded as an independent risk factor of dementia in individuals aged ?65 years, particularly those who suffered from multiple fractures and/or fractures located in the hip. Further studies are needed to support an independent role of fracture in dementia considering the clinical information and other comorbidities. PMID:25474435

Tsai, Chun-Hao; Chuang, Chieh-Sen; Hung, Chih-Hung; Lin, Cheng-Li; Sung, Fung-Chang; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Hsu, Horng-Chang; Chung, Chi-Jung

2014-11-01

365

Dietary patterns and breast cancer risk in the California Teachers Study cohort12345  

PubMed Central

Background: Evidence that diet is associated with breast cancer risk is inconsistent. Most studies have examined risks associated with specific foods and nutrients, rather than measures of overall diet. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate dietary patterns and their relation to breast cancer risk in a large cohort of women. Design: Data from 91,779 women in the California Teachers Study cohort were analyzed, including data from 4140 women with a diagnosis of invasive breast cancer made between 1995 and 2009. Five predominant dietary patterns were identified by using principal components factor analysis: a plant-based diet, high in fruit and vegetables; a high-protein, high-fat diet, high in meats, eggs, fried foods, and high-fat condiments; a high-carbohydrate diet, high in convenience foods, pasta, and bread products; an ethnic diet, high in legumes, soy-based foods, rice, and dark-green leafy vegetables; and a salad and wine diet, high in lettuce, fish, wine, low-fat salad dressing, and coffee and tea. Results: The plant-based pattern was associated with a reduction in breast cancer risk (RR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.95 for the highest compared with the lowest consumption quintile; P-trend = 0.003); risk reduction was greater for estrogen receptor–negative progesterone receptor–negative (ER–PR–) tumors (RR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.48, 0.91; P-trend = 0.03). The salad and wine pattern was associated with an increased risk of estrogen receptor–positive progesterone receptor–positive tumors (RR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.12, 1.49); this effect was only slightly attenuated after adjustment for alcohol consumption. Conclusion: The finding that greater consumption of a plant-based dietary pattern is associated with a reduced breast cancer risk, particularly for ER?PR? tumors, offers a potential avenue for prevention. PMID:24108781

Link, Lilli B; Canchola, Alison J; Bernstein, Leslie; Clarke, Christina A; Stram, Daniel O; Ursin, Giske

2013-01-01

366

Early pregnancy waist-to-hip ratio and risk of preeclampsia: a prospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal death and morbidity. Body mass index (BMI) predicts an increased risk of developing hypertensive disorders and preeclampsia. However, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), as a central obesity index, has not been assessed in predicting this disorder in pregnancy. We assumed that WHR might be more sensitive in predicting the risk of preeclampsia, compared with BMI. The aim of this cohort study was to investigate the relationships of BMI and WHR with preeclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study of 1200 pregnant women with singleton pregnancies. Anthropometric indices included WHR and BMI, which were measured at the first antenatal visit (?12 weeks of gestational age). The incidence of preeclampsia was assessed after 20 weeks of gestation. Maternal demographic data and obstetric outcomes were also recorded for each subject. All of the statistical tests were performed using SPSS software, version 16. The overall incidence of preeclampsia in the study population was 4.2%. The maternal WHR and BMI at the beginning of pregnancy were significantly associated with the occurrence of preeclampsia (P=0.006 and P=0.001, respectively). WHR?0.85 and BMI?25?kg?m(-2) in the first 12 weeks of pregnancy had relative risks of 2.317 (confidence interval (CI): 1.26-4.27) and 3.317 (CI: 1.6-6.86) for preeclampsia. BMI and WHR were anthropometric indicators that presented correlations with preeclampsia. Of these anthropometric indices, BMI had greater predictive value in preeclampsia. PMID:25185830

Taebi, Mahboubeh; Sadat, Zohreh; Saberi, Farzaneh; Kalahroudi, Masoumeh Abedzadeh

2015-01-01

367

Incidence of End Stage Renal Disease among Type 1 Diabetes: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.  

PubMed

The aim of our study was to estimate the risk of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Taiwanese people; in addition, our goal was to determine how the age, year, and sex at registration of T1DM affects the risk.Population-based cohort study.A nationwide cohort study of 7203 Taiwanese patients with T1DM registered in 1999 to 2010 was followed up until ESRD, death, or the end of follow-up on December 31, 2010.Annual age-, sex-, and calendar year-specific incidence rates of ESRD of the general population were used to calculate the standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of ESRD in relation to T1DM.The SIR of ESRD for male and female patients with T1DM was significantly increased at 25.85 (95% CI 23.40-28.29) and 28.08 (95% 25.45-30.71), respectively; the peak was at age 15 to 29 years for both genders. The cumulative incidence of ESRD was similar in male and female patients but was significantly higher in patients ??30 years old than in patients <30 years old (10.25% vs. 3.57%, P?

Lin, Wei-Hung; Li, Chung-Yi; Wang, Wei-Ming; Yang, Deng-Chi; Kuo, Te-Hui; Wang, Ming-Cheng

2014-12-01

368

The Association between Nonylphenols and Sexual Hormones Levels among Pregnant Women: A Cohort Study in Taiwan  

PubMed Central

Background Nonylphenol (NP) has been proven as an endocrine disrupter and had the ability to interfere with the endocrine system. Though the health effects of NP on pregnant women and their fetuses are sustained, these negative associations related to the mechanisms of regulation for estrogen during pregnancy need to be further clarified. The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal NP and hormonal levels, such as estradiol, testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and progesterone. Methods A pregnant women cohort was established in North Taiwan between March and December 2010. Maternal urine and blood samples from the first, second, and third trimesters of gestation were collected. Urinary NP concentration was measured by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescent detection. A mixed-effects model using a generalised estimating equation (GEE) was applied to assess the associations between maternal NP concentration and plasma hormones throughout the three trimesters. Results In total, 162 singleton pregnant women completed this study through delivery. The geometric mean of creatinine-adjusted urinary NP concentrations were 4.27, 4.21, and 4.10 µg/g cre. in the first, second, and third trimesters respectively. A natural log-transformation of urinary NP concentrations were significantly associated with LH in the GEE model (??=??0.23 mIU/ml, p<0.01). Conclusion This perspective cohort study demonstrates that negative association occurs between maternal NP exposure and plasma LH levels. The estrogen-mimic effect of NP might influence the negative feedback on LH during pregnancy. PMID:25148048

Chang, Chia-Huang; Tsai, Ming-Song; Lin, Ching-Ling; Hou, Jia-Woei; Wang, Tzu-Hao; Tsai, Yen-An; Liao, Kai-Wei; Mao, I-Fang; Chen, Mei-Lien

2014-01-01

369

Contaminated Heparin and Outcomes after Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Propensity-Matched Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background During 2007 and 2008 it is likely that millions of patients in the US received heparin contaminated (CH) with oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, which was associated with anaphylactoid reactions. We tested the hypothesis that CH was associated with serious morbidity, mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia following adult cardiac surgery. Methods and Findings We conducted a single center, retrospective, propensity-matched cohort study during the period of CH and the equivalent time frame in the three preceding or the two following years. Perioperative data were obtained from the institutional record of the Society of Thoracic Surgeons National Database, for which the data collection is prospective, standardized and performed by independent investigators. After matching, logistic regression was performed to evaluate the independent effect of CH on the composite adverse outcome (myocardial infarction, stroke, pneumonia, dialysis, cardiac arrest) and on mortality. Cox regression was used to determine the association between CH and ICU length of stay. The 1?5 matched groups included 220 patients potentially exposed to CH and 918 controls. There were more adverse outcomes in the exposed cohort (20.9% versus 12.0%; difference?=?8.9%; 95% CI 3.6% to 15.1%, P<0.001) with an odds ratio for CH of 2.0 (95% CI, 1.4 to 3.0, P<0.001). In the exposed group there was a non-significant increase in mortality (5.9% versus 3.5%, difference?=?2.4%; 95% CI, ?0.4 to 3.5%, P?=?0.1), the median ICU stay was longer by 14.1 hours (interquartile range ?26.6 to 79.8, S?=?3299, P?=?0.0004) with an estimated hazard ratio for CH of 1.2 (95% CI, 1.0 to 1.4, P?=?0.04). There was no difference in nadir platelet counts between cohorts. Conclusions The results from this single center study suggest the possibility that contaminated heparin might have contributed to serious morbidity following cardiac surgery. PMID:25162640

Kaiser, Heiko A.; Ben Abdallah, Arbi; Lin, Nan; Tellor, Bethany R.; Helwani, Mohammad; Smith, Jennifer R.; Moon, Marc R.; Avidan, Michael S.

2014-01-01

370

Representativeness of an HIV cohort of the sites from which it is recruiting: results from the Ontario HIV Treatment Network (OHTN) cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Participation bias is a well-known phenomenon in epidemiologic research, where individuals consenting to research studies differ from individuals who are not able or willing to participate. These dissimilarities may limit the generalizability of results of research studies. Quantification of the participation bias is essential for the interpretation of research findings. Methods The Ontario HIV Treatment Network Cohort Study (OCS) is an ongoing open cohort study of HIV positive individuals receiving care at one of 11 sites in Ontario. OCS participants from 4 sites were compared to non-participants (those who declined or were not approached) at those sites with regard to gender, age, HIV risk factor, CD4 count and viral load (VL). Generalized logit regression models were used to identify predictors of declining to participate or not being approached to participate. Results Compared to participants (P) in the OCS, individuals who declined to participate (D) and those who were not approached (NA) were slightly younger (D:45, NA:44 vs P:46), less likely to be male (D: 71%, NA:75% vs P:88%), less likely to be Caucasian (D:41%, NA:57% vs P:72%) and less likely to be Canadian-born (D: 39%, NA: 52% vs P: 69%). Patients who were not approached to participate were less likely to have VL < 50 copies/mL than other patients (D: 75%, NA: 62%, P: 74%) and had lower CD4 counts than OCS participants (D: 450 cells/mm3, NA: 420 cells/mm3, P: 480 cells/mm3). Conclusions Significant demographic and clinical differences were found between OCS participants and non-participants. Extrapolation of research findings to other populations should be undertaken cautiously. PMID:23496868

2013-01-01

371

Infant Sleeping Environment and Asthma at 7 Years: A Prospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We investigated the role of infant bedding items, as part of a composite bedding environment, in the development of childhood wheezing. Methods. This prospective cohort investigation involved 863 children who participated in an infant survey in 1988 and an asthma study in Tasmania, Australia, in 1995. The derived 3 composite infant bedding categories corresponded to increasing numbers of house dust mite (HDM)–rich bedding items used. Outcomes measured included recent and frequent wheezing. Results. Composite infant bedding used was associated with recent wheezing. Effects increased at increasing levels of HDM–rich bedding items used. Effects were further enhanced by home environmental factors of bedroom heating, recent bedroom painting, and absence of bedroom carpeting. When any 2 or more of these environmental factors were present, a strong dose–response relationship was evident. Conclusions. Our results show that bedding exposures in infancy are prospectively associated with childhood wheezing and that home environmental conditions may modify this association. PMID:16304135

Trevillian, Leigh F.; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Dwyer, Terence; Kemp, Andrew; Cochrane, Jennifer; Lim, Lynette L.-Y.; Carmichael, Allan

2005-01-01

372

RAPID HOME-BASED HIV TESTING TO REDUCE COSTS IN A LARGE TUBERCULOSIS COHORT STUDY  

PubMed Central

SUMMARY To reduce costs in a large tuberculosis household contact cohort study in Lima, Peru, we replaced laboratory-based HIV testing with home-based rapid testing. We developed a protocol and training course to prepare staff for the new strategy; these included role playing for home-based deployment of the Determine® HIV 1/2 Ag/Ac Combo HIV test. Though the rapid HIV test produced more false-positives, the overall cost per participant tested, refusal rate and time to confirmatory HIV testing were lower with the home-based rapid testing strategy compared to the original approach. Rapid testing could be used in similar research or routine care settings.

Galea, Jerome T.; Contreras, Carmen; Lecca, Leonid; Shin, Sonya; Lobatón, Raúl; Zhang, Zibiao; Calderón, Roger; Murray, Megan; Becerra, Mercedes C.

2014-01-01

373

Adolescent Self-Organization Predicts Midlife Memory in a Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Childhood and adolescent mental health have a lasting impact on adult life chances, with strong implications for subsequent health, including cognitive aging. Using the British 1946 birth cohort, the authors tested associations between adolescent conduct problems, emotional problems and aspects of self-organization, and verbal memory at 43 years and rate of decline in verbal memory from 43 to 60–64 years. After controlling for childhood intelligence, adolescent self-organization was positively associated with verbal memory at 43 years, mainly through educational attainment, although not with rate of memory decline. Associations between adolescent conduct and emotional problems and future memory were of negligible magnitude. It has been suggested that interventions to improve self-organization may save a wide range of societal costs; this study also suggests that this might also benefit cognitive function in later life. PMID:24364401

2013-01-01

374

The epidemiology of septic shock in French intensive care units: the prospective multicenter cohort EPISS study  

PubMed Central

Introduction To provide up-to-date information on the prognostic factors associated with 28-day mortality in a cohort of septic shock patients in intensive care units (ICUs). Methods Prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in ICUs from 14 French general (non-academic) and university teaching hospitals. All consecutive patients with septic shock admitted between November 2009 and March 2011 were eligible for inclusion. We prospectively recorded data regarding patient characteristics, infection, severity of illness, life support therapy, and discharge. Results Among 10,941 patients admitted to participating ICUs between October 2009 and September 2011, 1,495 (13.7%) patients presented inclusion criteria for septic shock and were included. Invasive mechanical ventilation was needed in 83.9% (n = 1248), inotropes in 27.7% (n = 412), continuous renal replacement therapy in 32.5% (n = 484), and hemodialysis in 19.6% (n = 291). Mortality at 28 days was 42% (n = 625). Variables associated with time to mortality, right-censored at day 28: age (for each additional 10 years) (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.29; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.38), immunosuppression (HR = 1.63; 95%CI: 1.37-1.96), Knaus class C/D score versus class A/B score (HR = 1.36; 95%CI:1.14-1.62) and Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (HR = 1.24 for each additional point; 95%CI: 1.21-1.27). Patients with septic shock and renal/urinary tract infection had a significantly longer time to mortality (HR = 0.56; 95%CI: 0.42-0.75). Conclusion Our observational data of consecutive patients from real-life practice confirm that septic shock is common and carries high mortality in general ICU populations. Our results are in contrast with the clinical trial setting, and could be useful for healthcare planning and clinical study design. PMID:23561510

2013-01-01

375

Social status and cardiovascular disease: a Mediterranean case. Results from the Italian Progetto CUORE cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Social factors could offer useful information for planning prevention strategy for cardiovascular diseases. This analysis aims to explore the relationship between education, marital status and major cardiovascular risk factors and to evaluate the role of social status indicators in predicting cardiovascular events and deaths in several Italian cohorts. Methods The population is representative of Italy, where the incidence of the disease is low. Data from the Progetto CUORE, a prospective study of cohorts enrolled between 1983-1997, were used; 7520 men and 13127 women aged 35-69 years free of previous cardiovascular events and followed for an average of 11 years. Educational level and marital status were used as the main indicators of social status. Results About 70% of the studied population had a low or medium level of education (less than high school) and more than 80% was married or cohabitating. There was an inverse relationship between educational level and major cardiovascular risk factors in both genders. Significantly higher major cardiovascular risk factors were detected in married or cohabitating women, with the exception of smoking. Cardiovascular risk score was lower in married or cohabitating men. No relationship between incidence of cardiac events and the two social status indicators was observed. Cardiovascular case-fatality was significantly higher in men who were not married and not cohabitating (HR 3.20, 95%CI: 2.21-4.64). The higher cardiovascular risk observed in those with a low level of education deserves careful attention even if during the follow-up it did not seem to determine an increase of cardiac events. Conclusions Preventive interventions on cardiovascular risk should be addressed mostly to people with less education. Cardiovascular risk score and case-fatality resulted higher in men living alone while cardiovascular factors were higher in women married or cohabitating. Such gender differences seem peculiar of our population and require further research on unexpected cultural and behavioural influences. PMID:20868471

2010-01-01

376

Work Time Control and Sleep Disturbances: Prospective Cohort Study of Finnish Public Sector Employees  

PubMed Central

Objectives: Employee control over work times has been associated with favorable psychosocial and health-related outcomes, but the evidence regarding sleep quality remains inconclusive. We examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between work time control and sleep disturbances in a large working population, taking into account total hours worked. Methods: The data were from a full-panel longitudinal cohort study of Finnish public sector employees who responded to questions on work time control and sleep disturbances in years 2000-2001, 2004-2005, 2008-2009, and 2012. The analysis of cross-sectional associations was based on 129,286 person measurements from 68,089 participants (77% women) aged 17-73 years (mean 43.1). Data from 16,503 participants were used in the longitudinal analysis. Log-binomial regression analysis with the generalized estimating equations method was used. Results: Consistently in both cross-sectional and longitudinal models, less control over work time was associated with greater sleep disturbances in the total population and among those working normal 40-hour weeks. Among participants working more than 40 hours a week, work time that was both very high (cross-sectional prevalence ratio compared to intermediate work time control [PR] 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.65) and very low (PR 1.23, 95% CI 1.08-1.39) was associated with sleep disturbances, after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Conclusions: These data suggest that having few opportunities to influence the duration and positioning of work time may increase the risk of sleep disturbances among employees. For persons working long hours, very high levels of control over working times were also associated with increased risk of sleep disturbances. Citation: Salo P, Ala-Mursula L, Rod NH, Tucker P, Pentti J, Kivimäki M, Vahtera J. Work time control and sleep disturbances: prospective cohort study of Finnish public sector employees. SLEEP 2014;37(7):1217-1225. PMID:25061250

Salo, Paula; Ala-Mursula, Leena; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Tucker, Philip; Pentti, Jaana; Kivimäki, Mika; Vahtera, Jussi

2014-01-01

377

Predictors of outcome in childhood intracerebral hemorrhage: a prospective consecutive cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To describe features of children with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and to determine predictors of short-term outcome in a single-center prospective cohort study. Methods Single-center prospective consecutive cohort study of spontaneous ICH in children age 1-18 years from January 2006 to June 2008. Exclusion criteria were inciting trauma; intracranial tumor; isolated epidural, subdural, intraventricular, or subarachnoid hemorrhage; hemorrhagic transformation of ischemic stroke; and cerebral sinovenous thrombosis. Hospitalization records were abstracted. Follow-up assessments included outcome scores using the Pediatric Stroke Outcome Measure (PSOM) and King's Outcome Scale for Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). ICH volumes and total brain volumes (TBV) were measured by manual tracing. Results Twenty-two patients, median age of 10.3 years (range 4.2-16.6 years), had presenting symptoms of headache in 77%, focal deficits 50%, altered mental status 50%, and seizures 41%. Vascular malformations caused hemorrhage in 91%. Surgical treatment (hematoma evacuation, lesion embolization or excision) was performed during acute hospitalization in 50%. One patient died acutely. At median follow-up of 3.5 months (range 0.3-7.5 months), 71% of survivors had neurological deficits; 55% had clinically significant disability. Outcome based on PSOM and KOSCHI scores was worse in patients with ICH volume >2% of TBV (p=0.023) and altered mental status at presentation (p = 0.005). Conclusions Spontaneous childhood ICH was due mostly to vascular malformations. Acute surgical intervention was commonly performed. Although death was rare, 71% of survivors had persisting neurological deficits. Larger ICH volume and altered mental status predicted clinically significant disability. PMID:20019325

Beslow, Lauren A; Licht, Daniel J; Smith, Sabrina E; Storm, Phillip B; Heuer, Gregory G; Zimmerman, Robert A; Feiler, Alana M; Kasner, Scott E; Ichord, Rebecca N; Jordan, Lori C

2010-01-01

378

Disease-specific perception of fracture risk and incident fracture rates: GLOW cohort study  

PubMed Central

Purpose Accurate patient risk perception of adverse health events promotes greater autonomy over, and motivation towards, health-related lifestyles. We compared self-perceived fracture risk and 3-year incident fracture rates in postmenopausal women with a range of morbidities in the Global Longitudinal study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Methods GLOW is an international cohort study involving 723 physician practices across 10 countries (Europe, North America, Australasia). 60,393 women aged ?55 years completed baseline questionnaires detailing medical history and self-perceived fracture risk. Annual follow-up determined self-reported incident fractures. Results In total 2,945/43,832 (6.8%) sustained an incident fracture over 3 years. All morbidities were associated with increased fracture rates, particularly Parkinson’s disease (hazard ratio [HR]; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.89; 2.78–5.44), multiple sclerosis (2.70; 1.90–3.83), cerebrovascular events (2.02; 1.67–2.46), and rheumatoid arthritis (2.15; 1.53–3.04) (all p<0.001). Most individuals perceived their fracture risk as similar to (46%) or lower than (36%) women of the same age. While increased self-perceived fracture risk was strongly associated with incident fracture rates, only 29% experiencing a fracture perceived their risk as increased. Under-appreciation of fracture risk occurred for all morbidities, including neurological disease, where women with low self-perceived fracture risk had a fracture HR 2.39 (CI 1.74–3.29) compared with women without morbidities. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with morbidities tend to under-appreciate their risk, including in the context of neurological diseases, where fracture rates were highest in this cohort. This has important implications for health education, particularly among women with Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, or cerebrovascular disease. PMID:23884437

Gregson, C. L.; Dennison, E. M.; Compston, J. E.; Adami, S.; Adachi, J. D.; Anderson, F. A.; Boonen, S.; Chapurlat, R.; Díez-Pérez, A.; Greenspan, S. L.; Hooven, F. H.; LaCroix, A. Z.; Nieves, J. W.; Netelenbos, J. C.; Pfeilschifter, J.; Rossini, M.; Roux, C.; Saag, K. G.; Silverman, S.; Siris, E. S.; Watts, N. B.; Wyman, A.; Cooper, C.

2013-01-01

379

Using Information Communication Technologies to Develop Dynamic Curriculum Frameworks for Diverse Cohorts: A Case Study from Event Management  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article investigates the role of information communication technologies (ICTs) in establishing a well-aligned, authentic learning environment for a diverse cohort of non-cognate and cognate students studying event management in a higher education context. Based on a case study which examined the way ICTs assisted in accommodating diverse…

Hadley, Bree Jamila

2012-01-01

380

Self-reported predictors of depressive symptomatology in an elderly population with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression increases among the elderly with chronic medical conditions like diabetes. Hence, the purpose of this study was to determine predictors of depressive symptomatology in Medicare enrolled elderly population with type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted by administrating health risk assessment questionnaire to elderly (?65 years) with type 2 diabetes. Responses

Manjiri D Pawaskar; Roger T Anderson; Rajesh Balkrishnan

2007-01-01

381

Application of Survival Analysis to Study Timing and Probability of Outcome Attainment by a Community College Student Cohort  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applies competing risks survival analysis to describe outcome attainment for an entire cohort of students who first attended a Midwestern community college in the Fall Semester 2001. Outcome attainment included transfer to a four-year institution, degree/ certificate attainment from the community college under study, and transfer to a…

Mourad, Roger; Hong, Ji-Hee

2008-01-01

382

Gender Differences of Children's Developmental Trajectory from 6 to 60 Months in the Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The parental report instrument is the most efficient developmental detection method and has shown high validity with professional assessment instruments. The reliability and validity of the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) 6-, 18- and 36-month scales have already been established. In this study, the reliability and validity of the 60-month scale…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Feng, Jui-Ying; Chen, Po-Fei; Shu, Bih-Ching

2011-01-01

383

What's the Relative Risk? A Method of Correcting the Odds Ratio in Cohort Studies of Common Outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Logistic regression is used frequently in cohort studies and clinical trials. When the incidence of an outcome of interest is common in the study population (.10%), the adjusted odds ratio derived from the logistic regression can no longer approximate the risk ratio. The more frequent the outcome, the more the odds ratio overestimates the risk ratio when it is more

Jun Zhang; Kai F. Yu

384

Autism-Risk Screening in the First 3 Years of Life in Taiwan Birth Cohort Pilot Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

To increase public awareness and sensitivity, a two-stage screening with a community-based approach is proposed, with the use of the broadband Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) developmental instrument in the first stage and the narrowband Modified Checklist of Autism in Toddlers (M-CHAT) in the second stage. Thus, the purpose of this study was to…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching

2011-01-01

385

Dietary Vitamin K intake and anticoagulation control during the initiation phase of warfarin therapy: A prospective cohort study  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The effect of varying levels of dietary vitamin K intake on therapeutic International Normalized Ratio (INR) values among patients starting warfarin therapy has not been well studied. We performed a prospective cohort study among 282 patients to explore the independent associations between usual in...

386

Students' Peer Interactions within a Cohort and in Host Countries during a Short-Term Study Abroad  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this qualitative case study, we explored students' peer interactions within their cohort and in the host countries during a short-term study abroad. Framed by Bronfenbrenner's (1993) ecological systems theory, findings revealed that students spent considerable energy reflecting on interactions with peers. The students considered…

Jessup-Anger, Jody E.; Aragones, Aileen

2013-01-01

387

Compliance to fingolimod and other disease modifying treatments in multiple sclerosis patients, a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) results in the reduction of the number and severity of relapses and delays the progression of multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients with lower adherence rates experience more inpatient visits and higher MS-related medical costs. Fingolimod, the first oral DMT approved by the US Food and Drug Administration, may improve the access and compliance to MS treatment when compared to injectable DMTs. Methods This retrospective cohort study used pharmacy claims from Medco Health Solutions, Inc., of patients who initiated DMTs between October 2010 and February 2011. Initiation was defined as no prescription fills for the same DMT in the prior 12 months. Patients without a DMT prescription fill 12 months before the index date were considered naïve users. Compliance was measured via proportion of days covered (PDC) and medication possession ratio (MPR) for 12 months post-index. Discontinuation was defined as a ?60-day gap of index DMT supply. Cox proportional hazard models compared time to discontinuation between cohorts. Results Of 1,891 MS patients (mean age: 45.7; female: 76.4%), 13.1% initiated fingolimod, 10.7% interferon beta-1b, 20.0% intramuscular interferon beta-1a, 18.8% subcutaneous interferon beta-1a, and 37.4% glatiramer acetate. Patients initiating fingolimod had highest average PDC and MPR in both experienced (fingolimod: mean PDC=0.83, 73.7% with PDC?0.8; mean MPR=0.92, 90.5% with MPR?0.8) and naïve DMT users (fingolimod: mean PDC=0.80, 66.7% with PDC?0.8; mean MPR=0.90, 87.4% with MPR?0.8). The proportion of patients discontinuing index DMT within 12 months was significantly lower for the fingolimod cohort (naïve: 31.3%; experienced: 25.7%). Adjusted results found that patients receiving self-injected DMTs discontinued significantly sooner than fingolimod users. This association was generally stronger in experienced DMT users. Conclusions Fingolimod initiators were more compliant, less likely to discontinue treatment, and discontinued later than patients who initiated self-injected DMT. PMID:24093542

2013-01-01

388

Association among work exposure, alcohol intake, smoking and Dupuytren's disease in a large cohort study (GAZEL)  

PubMed Central

Objectives In view of the debate of factors in Dupuytren’s disease, we aimed to describe its relationship with certain occupational factors, alcohol intake and smoking. Setting The French GAZEL cohort (employees of Electricité de France and Gaz de France). Participants Participants of the cohort who answered a questionnaire in 2012, that is, 13?587 participants (73.7% of the questionnaire sent). In 2007, self-assessed lifetime occupational biomechanical exposure was recorded (carrying loads, manipulating a vibrating tool and climbing stairs), as well as alcohol intake, smoking and diabetes mellitus. Analyses were performed on high alcohol intake, smoking and duration of relevant work exposure, stratified by gender. Primary and secondary outcome measures From a specific question on Dupuytren’s disease assessed in 2012, the outcome measures were self-reported Dupuytren’s disease (yes/no) and disabling Dupuytren’s disease (including surgery). Results A total of 10?017 men and 3570 women, aged 64–73?years, were included; the mean age for men was 68?years and for women was 65?years. Among men, the following were significantly associated with Dupuytren’s disease: age (OR 1.03 (1.00; 1.06)), diabetes (OR 1.31 (1.07; 1.60)), heavy drinking (OR 1.36 (1.10; 1.69)) and over 15?years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work (OR 1.52 (1.15; 2.02)); except for diabetes, the association with these factors was stronger for disabling Dupuytren’s disease (or surgery), with OR 1.07 (1.03; 1.11), 1.71 (1.25; 2.33) and 1.98(1.34; 2.91), respectively, for age, heavy drinking and over 15?years of manipulating a vibrating tool at work. Among the 3570 women included, 160 reported Dupuytren’s disease (4.5%). The number of cases in the group of women was too low to reach conclusions, although the findings seemed similar for age, diabetes and vibration exposure. Conclusions In this large French cohort study, Dupuytren’s disease in men was associated with high levels of alcohol consumption and exposure to hand-transmitted vibration. It is likely that the same applied to women. PMID:24477316

Descatha, Alexis; Carton, Matthieu; Mediouni, Zakia; Dumontier, Christian; Roquelaure, Yves; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie; Leclerc, Annette

2014-01-01

389

Health and disease in 85 year olds: baseline findings from the Newcastle 85+ cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The Newcastle 85+ Study aims to systematically study the clinical, biological, and psychosocial attributes of an unselected cohort of 85 year olds and to examine subsequent health trajectories as the cohort ages; health at baseline is reported. Design Cross sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study. Setting Newcastle upon Tyne and North Tyneside primary care trusts, United Kingdom. Participants 1042 people born in 1921 and registered with the participating general practices. Main outcome measures Detailed health assessment and review of general practice records (disease, medication, and use of general practice services); participants could decline elements of the protocol. Results Of the 1453 eligible people, 851 (58.6%) were recruited to health assessment plus record review, 188 (12.9%) to record review only, and 3 (0.2%) to health assessment only. Data from record review are reported on a maximum of 1030 and from health assessment on a maximum of 853; individual denominators differ owing to withdrawal and missing values. Of the health assessment sample (n=853), 62.1% (n=530) were women and 10.4% (n=89) were in institutional care. The most prevalent diseases were hypertension (57.5%, 592/1030) and osteoarthritis (51.8%, 534/1030). Moderate or severe cognitive impairment was present in 11.7% (96/824) of participants, severe or profound urinary incontinence in 21.3% (173/813), hearing impairment in 59.6% (505/848), and visual impairment in 37.2% (309/831). Health assessment identified participants with possible disease but without a previous diagnosis in their medical record for hypertension (25.1%, 206/821), ischaemic heart disease (12.6%, 99/788), depression (6.9%, 53/772), dementia (6.7%, 56/840), and atrial fibrillation (3.8%, 30/788). Undiagnosed diabetes mellitus and thyroid disease were rare (1%, 7/717 and 6/762, respectively). A median of 3 (interquartile range 1-8) activities of daily living were undertaken with difficulty. Overall, 77.6% (646/832) of participants rated their health compared with others of the same age as good, very good, or excellent. High contact rates in the previous year with general practitioners (93.8%, 960/1024) were recorded. Women had significantly higher disease counts (medians: women 5, men 4; P=0.033) and disability scores (medians: women 4, men 2; P=0.0006) than men, but were less likely to have attended outpatient clinics in the previous three months (women 29% (150/524), men 37% (118/320), odds ratio 0.7, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 0.9). Conclusions This large cohort of 85 year olds showed good levels of both self rated health and functional ability despite significant levels of disease and impairment. Hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, atrial fibrillation, depression, and dementia may be underdiagnosed. Notable differences were found between the sexes: women outnumbered men and had more disease and disability. PMID:20028777

2009-01-01

390

Age of first drinking and adult alcohol problems: systematic review of prospective cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Background Alcohol policies around the world seek to delay the initiation of drinking. This is partly based on the influential idea that earlier initiation is likely to cause adult alcohol problems. This study synthesises robust evidence for this proposition. Methods Systematic review of prospective cohort studies in which adolescent measurement of age of first drink in general population studies was separated by at least 3?years from adult alcohol outcomes. EMBASE, Medline, PsychINFO and Social Policy and Practice were searched for eligible studies, alongside standard non-database data collection activities. Data were extracted on included study methods and findings. Risk of bias and confounding was assessed for individual studies and a narrative synthesis of findings was performed. Results The main finding was the meagre evidence base available. Only five studies were eligible for inclusion in this review. The existence of effects of age of first drink on adult drinking and related problems were supported, but not at all strongly, in some included studies, and not in others. Rigorous control for confounding markedly attenuates or eliminates any observed effects. Conclusions There is no strong evidence that starting drinking earlier leads to adult alcohol problems and more research is needed to address this important question. Policy makers should, therefore, reconsider the justification for delaying initiation as a strategy to address levels of adult alcohol problems in the general population, while also addressing the serious acute harms produced by early drinking. PMID:24249000

Maimaris, Will; McCambridge, Jim

2014-01-01

391

Title: Aggressive/hostile personality traits and injury accidents: An eight-year prospective study of a large cohort of French employees: The GAZEL cohort.  

E-print Network

;3 The phenomenon of "road rage" has in recent years emerged as a new traffic safety issue in some English & Mann, 2002; Joint, 1995; Wells-Parker et al. 2002). Despite a lack of consensus, "road rage of a large cohort of French employees: The GAZEL cohort. Abbreviated running title: Aggressiveness and road

Boyer, Edmond

392

Parkinson’s Disease and Risk of Fracture: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Backgrounds/Objective Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease among the elderly population. However, epidemiological evidence on the relationship of PD with risk of fracture has not been systematically assessed. Therefore, we performed this meta-analysis of prospective studies to explore the association between PD and risk of fracture. Methods PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Cochrane Library up to February 26, 2014 were searched to identify eligible studies. Random-effects model was used to pool the results. Results Six studies that totally involved 69,387 participants were included for analysis. Overall, PD patients had an increased risk of fracture compared with control subjects (pooled hazard ratio?=?2.66, 95% confidence interval: 2.10–3.36). No publication bias was observed across studies and the subgroup as well as sensitivity analysis suggested that the general results were robust. Conclusion The present study suggested that PD is associated with an increased risk of fracture. However, given the limited number and moderate quality of included studies, well-designed prospective cohort studies are required to confirm the findings from this meta-analysis. PMID:24714656

Zhou, Lingling; Shi, Yun; Zhang, Fan; Liu, Li; Nie, Shaofa

2014-01-01

393

A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing  

SciTech Connect

OBJECTIVE--To estimate individual radiation doses and current thyroid disease status for a previously identified cohort of 4818 schoolchildren potentially exposed to fallout from detonations of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1958. DESIGN--Cohort analytic study. SETTING--Communities in southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and southeastern Arizona. PARTICIPANTS--Individuals who were still residing in the three-state area (n = 3122) were reexamined in 1985 and 1986, and information on the subjects' and their mothers' milk and vegetable consumption during the fallout period was obtained by telephone interview (n = 3545). After exclusions to eliminate missing data and confounding factors, 2473 subjects were available for analysis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Individual radiation doses to the thyroid were estimated by combining consumption data with radionuclide deposition rates provided by the US Department of Energy and a survey of milk producers. Relative risk models adjusted for age, sex, and state were fitted using maximum likelihood to period prevalence data for thyroid carcinomas, neoplasms, and nodules. RESULTS--Doses ranged from 0 mGy to 4600 mGy, and averaged 170 mGy in Utah. There was a statistically significant excess of thyroid neoplasms (benign and malignant; n = 19), with an increase in excess relative risk of 0.7% per milligray. A relative risk for thyroid neoplasms of 3.4 was observed among 169 subjects exposed to doses greater than 400 mGy. Positive but nonsignificant dose-response slopes were found for carcinomas and nodules. CONCLUSIONS--Exposure to Nevada Test Site-generated radioiodines was associated with an excess of thyroid neoplasms. The conclusions are limited by the small number of exposed individuals and the low incidence of thyroid neoplasms.

Kerber, R.A.; Till, J.E.; Simon, S.L.; Lyon, J.L.; Thomas, D.C.; Preston-Martin, S.; Rallison, M.L.; Lloyd, R.D.; Stevens, W. (Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City (United States))

1993-11-03

394

Lung cancer risk among German male uranium miners: a cohort study, 1946–1998  

PubMed Central

From 1946 to 1990 extensive uranium mining was conducted in the southern parts of the former German Democratic Republic. The overall workforce included several 100?000 individuals. A cohort of 59?001 former male employees of the Wismut Company was established, forming a large retrospective uranium miners' cohort for the time period 1946–1998. Mean duration of follow-up was 30.5 years with a total of 1?801?630 person-years. Loss to follow-up was low at 5.3%. Of the workers, 16?598 (28.1%) died during the study period. Based on 2388 lung cancer deaths, the radon-related lung cancer risk is evaluated. The excess relative risk (ERR) per working level month (WLM) was estimated as 0.21% (95% CI: 0.18–0.24). It was dependent on time since exposure and on attained age. The highest ERR/WLM was observed 15–24 years after exposure and in the youngest age group (<55 years of age). While a strong inverse exposure-rate effect was detected for high exposures, no significant association was detected at exposures below 100 WLM. Excess relative risk /WLM was not modified by duration of exposure. The results would indicate the need to re-estimate the effects of risk modifying factors in current risk models as duration of exposure did not modify the ERR/WLM and there was only a modest decline of ERR/WLM with increasing time since exposure. PMID:17043686

Grosche, B; Kreuzer, M; Kreisheimer, M; Schnelzer, M; Tschense, A

2006-01-01

395

A prospective cohort study of stroke mortality and arsenic in drinking water in Bangladeshi adults  

PubMed Central

Background Arsenic in drinking water causes increased coronary artery disease (CAD) and death from CAD, but its association with stroke is not known. Methods Prospective cohort study with arsenic exposure measured in well water at baseline. 61074 men and women aged 18 years or older on January 2003 were enrolled in 2003. The cohort was actively followed for an average of 7 years (421,754 person-years) through December 2010. Based on arsenic concentration the population was categorized in three groups and stroke mortality HR was compared to the referent. The risk of stroke mortality Hazard Ratio (HR) and 95% Confidence Interval was calculated in relation to arsenic exposure was estimated by Cox proportional hazard models with adjustment for potential confounders. Results A total of 1033 people died from stroke during the follow-up period, accounting for 23% of the total deaths. Multivariable adjusted HRs (95% confidence interval) for stroke for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ?50 ?g/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.20 (0.92 to 1.57), and 1.35 (1.04 to 1.75) respectively (Ptrend=0.00058). For men, multivariable adjusted HRs (95%) for well water arsenic concentrations <10, 10-49, and ?50 ?g/L were 1.0 (reference), 1.12 (0.78 to 1.60), and 1.07 (0.75 to 1.51) respectively (Ptrend=0.45) and for women 1.0 (reference),1.31 (0.87 to 1.98), and 1.72 (1.15 to 2.57) respectively (Ptrend=0.00004). Conclusion The result suggests that arsenic exposure was associated with increased stroke mortality risk in this population, and was more significant in women compared to men. PMID:24548416

2014-01-01

396

Incidence of Incisional Hernia after Cesarean Delivery: A Register-Based Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the incidence of incisional hernias requiring surgical repair after cesarean delivery over a 10-year period. Methods This population- and register-based cohort study identified all women in Denmark with no history of previous abdominal surgery who had a cesarean delivery between 1991 and 2000. The cohort was followed from their first until 10 years after their last cesarean delivery within the inclusion period or until the first of the following events: hernia repair, death, emigration, abdominal surgery, or cesarean delivery after the inclusion period. For women who had a hernia repair, hospital records regarding the surgery and previous cesarean deliveries were tracked and manually analyzed to validate the relationship between hernia repair and cesarean delivery. Data were analyzed with a competing risk analysis that included each cesarean delivery. Results We identified 57,564 women who had had 68,271 cesarean deliveries during the inclusion period. During follow-up, 134 of these women had a hernia requiring repair. Of these 68 (51% [95% CI 42–60%]) were in a midline incision although the transverse incision was the primary approach at cesarean delivery during the inclusion period. The cumulated incidence of a hernia repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 0.197% (95% CI 0.164–0.234%). The risk of a hernia repair was higher during the first 3 years after a cesarean delivery, with an incidence after 3 years of 0.157% (95% CI 0.127–0.187%). Conclusions The overall risk of an incisional hernia requiring surgical repair within 10 years after a cesarean delivery was 2 per 1000 deliveries in a population in which the transverse incision was the primary approach at cesarean delivery. PMID:25268746

Aabakke, Anna J. M.; Krebs, Lone; Ladelund, Steen; Secher, Niels J.

2014-01-01

397

Mortality Risk amongst Nursing Home Residents Evacuated after the Fukushima Nuclear Accident: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Safety of evacuation is of paramount importance in disaster planning for elderly people; however, little effort has been made to investigate evacuation-related mortality risks. After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Plant accident we conducted a retrospective cohort survival survey of elderly evacuees. Methods A total of 715 residents admitted to five nursing homes in Minamisoma city, Fukushima Prefecture in the five years before 11th March 2011 joined this retrospective cohort study. Demographic and clinical characteristics were drawn from facility medical records. Evacuation histories were tracked until the end of 2011. The evacuation's impact on mortality was assessed using mortality incidence density and hazard ratios in Cox proportional hazards regression. Results Overall relative mortality risk before and after the earthquake was 2.68 (95% CI: 2.04–3.49). There was a substantial variation in mortality risks across the facilities ranging from 0.77 (95% CI: 0.34–1.76) to 2.88 (95% CI: 1.74–4.76). No meaningful influence of evacuation distance on mortality was observed although the first evacuation from the original facility caused significantly higher mortality than subsequent evacuations, with a hazard ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.07–3.49). Conclusion High mortality, due to initial evacuation, suggests that evacuation of the elderly was not the best life-saving strategy for the Fukushima nuclear disaster. Careful consideration of the relative risks of radiation exposure and the risks and benefits of evacuation is essential. Facility-specific disaster response strategies, including in-site relief and care, may have a strong influence on survival. Where evacuation is necessary, careful planning and coordination with other nursing homes, evacuation sites and government disaster agencies is essential to reduce the risk of mortality. PMID:23555921

Nomura, Shuhei; Gilmour, Stuart; Tsubokura, Masaharu; Yoneoka, Daisuke; Sugimoto, Amina; Oikawa, Tomoyoshi; Kami, Masahiro; Shibuya, Kenji

2013-01-01

398

Transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities: retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To estimate the transmissibility of the Ice Bucket Challenge among globally influential celebrities and to identify associated risk factors. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Social media (YouTube, Facebook, Twitter, Instagram). Participants David Beckham, Cristiano Ronaldo, Benedict Cumberbatch, Stephen Hawking, Mark Zuckerberg, Oprah Winfrey, Homer Simpson, and Kermit the Frog were defined as index cases. We included contacts up to the fifth generation seeded from each index case and enrolled a total of 99 participants into the cohort. Main outcome measures Basic reproduction number R0, serial interval of accepting the challenge, and odds ratios of associated risk factors based on fully observed nomination chains; R0 is a measure of transmissibility and is defined as the number of secondary cases generated by a single index in a fully susceptible population. Serial interval is the duration between onset of a primary case and onset of its secondary cases. Results Based on the empirical data and assuming a branching process we estimated a mean R0 of 1.43 (95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.65) and a mean serial interval for accepting the challenge of 2.1 days (median 1 day). Higher log (base 10) net worth of the participants was positively associated with transmission (odds ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 2.50), adjusting for age and sex. Conclusions The Ice Bucket Challenge was moderately transmissible among a group of globally influential celebrities, in the range of the pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza. The challenge was more likely to be spread by richer celebrities, perhaps in part reflecting greater social influence. PMID:25514905

Chan, Brandford H Y; Leung, Gabriel M; Lau, Eric H Y; Pang, Herbert

2014-01-01

399

Determinants of facility delivery after implementation of safer mother programme in Nepal: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background There are several barriers for pregnant women to deliver in a health care facility. This prospective cohort study investigated factors affecting facility delivery and reasons for unplanned place of delivery after implementation of the safer mother programme in Nepal. Methods Baseline interviews using a validated questionnaire were conducted on a sample of 700 pregnant women representative of the Kaski district in central Nepal. Follow-up interviews of the cohort were then conducted within 45 days postpartum. Stepwise logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors associated with the facility delivery outcome. Results Of the 644 pregnant women whose delivery location had been identified, 547 (85%) gave birth in a health care facility. Women were more likely to deliver in a health facility if they were educated especially with higher secondary or above qualification (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 12.39, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.09 to 30.17), attended 4 or more antenatal care visits (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.25 to 3.69), and lived within 30 minutes to the facility (OR 11.61, 95% CI 5.77 to 24.04). For the 97 women who delivered at home, 72 (74.2%) were unplanned, mainly due to quick precipitation of labour making it impossible to reach a health facility. Conclusions It appeared that facility delivery occurs more frequent among educated women and those who live nearby, even though maternity services are now freely available in Nepal. Because of the difficult terrain and transportation problem in rural areas, interventions that make maternity service physically accessible during antenatal period are needed to increase the utilisation of health facility for child birth. PMID:24139382

2013-01-01