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1

Prediction of relapse to frequent heroin use and the role of methadone prescription: An analysis of the Amsterdam Cohort Study among drug users  

Microsoft Academic Search

The risk of relapse into frequent heroin use was studied among 732 participants of the Amsterdam Cohort Study (ACS) on HIV\\/AIDS among drug users, who experienced an episode of abstinence from or occasional use of heroin. Participants of the ACS were recruited primarily from easy access (“low-threshold”) methadone programs. The duration of abstinence\\/occasional use and relative risks (RR) of relapse

Fabian Termorshuizen; Anneke Krol; Maria Prins; Ronald Geskus; Wim van den Brink; Erik J. C. van Ameijden

2005-01-01

2

Attribution of physical complaints to the air disaster in Amsterdam by exposed rescue workers: an epidemiological study using historic cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into a residential area of Amsterdam. A troublesome aftermath followed, with rumors on potential toxic exposures and health consequences. Health concerns remained even though no excess morbidity was predicted in retrospective risk evaluations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the rescue workers attribute long-term physical complaints to this disaster, including its

Pauline Slottje; Nynke Smidt; Jos WR Twisk; Anja C Huizink; Anke B Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2006-01-01

3

Attribution of physical complaints to the air disaster in Amsterdam by exposed rescue workers: an epidemiological study using historic cohorts  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into a residential area of Amsterdam. A troublesome aftermath followed, with rumors on potential toxic exposures and health consequences. Health concerns remained even though no excess morbidity was predicted in retrospective risk evaluations. This study aimed to assess to what extent the rescue workers attribute long-term physical complaints to this disaster, including its aftermath, and to examine associations between such attribution and types of exposure and background variables. Methods Historic cohort study that collected questionnaire data on occupational disaster exposure, attribution of physical complaints, and background variables on average 8.5 years post-disaster. For the present study the workers who were exposed to the disaster were selected from the historic cohort, i.e. the professional firefighters (n = 334), police officers (n = 834), and accident and wreckage investigators (n = 241) who performed disaster-related tasks. Results Across the three occupational groups, a consistent percentage (ranging from 43% to 49%) of exposed workers with long-term physical complaints attributed these to the disaster, including its aftermath. Those with more physical complaints attributed these to a stronger degree. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that attribution was significantly more often reported by firefighters who rescued people, and by police officers who reported the identification and recovery of or search for victims and human remains, clean-up, or security and surveillance of the disaster area; who witnessed the immediate disaster scene; who had a close one affected by the disaster; and who perceived the disaster as the worst thing that ever happened to them. Age, sex and educational level were not significantly associated with attribution. Conclusion This study provides further cross-sectional evidence for the role of causal attribution in post-disaster subjective physical health problems. After on average 8.5 years, almost a third (32%) of all the exposed workers, and almost half (45%) of the exposed workers with physical complaints, attributed these complaints to the disaster, including its aftermath. The similarity of the results across the occupational groups suggests a general rather than an occupation-specific attribution process. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether causal disaster attribution leads to persistence of post-disaster complaints and health care utilization.

Slottje, Pauline; Smidt, Nynke; Twisk, Jos WR; Huizink, Anja C; Witteveen, Anke B; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

2006-01-01

4

Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term

Pauline Slottje; Anja C Huizink; Jos WR Twisk; Anke B Witteveen; Henk M van der Ploeg; Inge Bramsen; Nynke Smidt; Joost A Bijlsma; Lex M Bouter; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2005-01-01

5

Epidemiological study air disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA): study design  

PubMed Central

Background In 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, killing 43 victims and destroying 266 apartments. In the aftermath there were speculations about the cause of the crash, potential exposures to hazardous materials due to the disaster and the health consequences. Starting in 2000, the Epidemiological Study Air Disaster in Amsterdam (ESADA) aimed to assess the long-term health effects of occupational exposure to this disaster on professional assistance workers. Methods/Design Epidemiological study among all the exposed professional fire-fighters and police officers who performed disaster-related task(s), and hangar workers who sorted the wreckage of the aircraft, as well as reference groups of their non-exposed colleagues who did not perform any disaster-related tasks. The study took place, on average, 8.5 years after the disaster. Questionnaires were used to assess details on occupational exposure to the disaster. Health measures comprised laboratory assessments in urine, blood and saliva, as well as self-reported current health measures, including health-related quality of life, and various physical and psychological symptoms. Discussion In this paper we describe and discuss the design of the ESADA. The ESADA will provide additional scientific knowledge on the long-term health effects of technological disasters on professional workers.

Slottje, Pauline; Huizink, Anja C; Twisk, Jos WR; Witteveen, Anke B; van der Ploeg, Henk M; Bramsen, Inge; Smidt, Nynke; Bijlsma, Joost A; Bouter, Lex M; van Mechelen, Willem; Smid, Tjabe

2005-01-01

6

Longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study was to analyse longitudinal relationships between resting heart rate and biological risk factors for cardiovascular disease using data from the longitudinal Amsterdam Growth and Health Study (AGHS). In the AGHS, 98 females and 81 males were measured six times between 1977 and 1991. In 1977, the age of the subjects was 13 years. The variables

Willem Van Mechelen; Jos W. R. Twisk; Frank J. Van Lenthe; G. Bertheke Post; Jan Snel; Han C. G. Kemper

1998-01-01

7

Contested conceptions of identity, community and multiculturalism in the staging of alternative sport events: a case study of the Amsterdam World Cup football tournament  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides a case study of the Amsterdam World Cup (WK Amsterdam), an annual amateur football competition and multicultural festival. Placing the event within the context of Dutch integration policy, it examines the differing and contested conceptions of identity, community and multiculturalism articulated by participants and organisers and, more broadly, the role that ‘alternative’ events play in resisting or

Daniel Burdsey

2008-01-01

8

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988–2003: a population-based ecological study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. METHODS: In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer

Otto Visser; Joop H van Wijnen; Flora E van Leeuwen

2005-01-01

9

Lifestyle and obesity in adolescence and young adulthood: results from the Amsterdam Growth And Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To investigate if there is a longitudinal relationship between the development of fat mass in males and females (aged between 12–28 y) and their lifestyle, with respect to diet and physical activity.DESIGN: In the Amsterdam Growth And Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS), a group of 500 boys and girls are being followed from the age of 13 y (mean age

H. C. G. Kemper; G. B. Post; J. W. R. Twisk; W van Mechelen

1999-01-01

10

Multidisciplinary integrated Parent and Child Centres in Amsterdam: a qualitative study  

PubMed Central

Background In several countries centres for the integrated delivery of services to the parent and child have been established. In the Netherlands family health care service centres, called Parent and Child Centres (PCCs) involve multidisciplinary teams. Here doctors, nurses, midwives, maternity help professionals and educationists are integrated into multidisciplinary teams in neighbourhood-based centres. To date there has been little research on the implementation of service delivery in these centres. Study design A SWOT analysis was performed by use of triangulation data; this took place by integrating all relevant published documents on the origin and organization of the PCCs and the results from interviews with PCC experts and with PCC professionals (n=91). Structured interviews were performed with PCC-professionals [health care professionals (n=67) and PCC managers n=12)] and PCC-experts (n=12) in Amsterdam and qualitatively analysed thematically. The interview themes were based on a pre-set list of codes, derived from a prior documentation study and a focus group with PCC experts. Results Perceived advantages of PCCs were more continuity of care, shorter communication lines, low-threshold contact between professionals and promising future perspectives. Perceived challenges included the absence of uniform multidisciplinary guidelines, delays in communication with hospitals and midwives, inappropriate accommodation for effective professional integration, differing expectations regarding the PCC-manager role among PCC-partners and the danger of professionals’ needs dominating clients’ needs. Conclusions Professionals perceive PCCs as a promising development in the integration of services. Remaining challenges involved improvements at the managerial and organizational level. Quantitative research into the improvements in quality of care and child health is recommended.

Busch, Vincent; Van Stel, Henk Francois; De Leeuw, Johannes Rob Josephus; Melhuish, Edward; Schrijvers, Augustinus Jacobus Petrus

2013-01-01

11

Amsterdam-Paramaribo: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Liberalisering van luchtvaartmarkten resulteert over het algemeen in welvaartswinst voor consumenten, in de vorm van lagere ticketprijzen, ruimere keuze uit type aanbieders en serviceniveaus, meer bestemmingen en hogere frequenties. Naar aanleiding van Kamervragen over de marktsituatie op de route Amsterdam-Paramaribo en in het bijzonder de hoogte van de ticketprijzen tussen Amsterdam en Paramaribo heeft de minister van Verkeer en Waterstaat

G. Burghouwt; R. Lieshout; J. G. Veldhuis; Wit de J. G

2009-01-01

12

A new approach to tracking of subjects at risk for hypercholesteremia over a period of 15 years: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because ‘traditional’ tracking analyses have some drawbacks, this paper presents a new method, which is based on generalized estimating equations (GEE). The new method is illustrated with data from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Study. In this observational longitudinal study six repeated measurements were carried out on 181 subjects (initial age 13 years) over a period of 15 years. Tracking

J. W. R. Twisk; H. C. G. Kemper; G. J. Mellenbergh; W. van Mechelen

1997-01-01

13

Relationship between long-term coffee consumption and components of the metabolic syndrome: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study.  

PubMed

Cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus type II (DM II) are both major health problems. A large risk factor for these diseases is the presence of the metabolic syndrome. It is known that the risk of DM II can be decreased by coffee consumption. Therefore, we examined the association between coffee consumption and the components of the metabolic syndrome. Prospective data from the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) is used to analyse the associations between coffee consumption (averaged over a period from 27 till 42 years) and the components of the metabolic syndrome (at the age of 42 years). This was done by linear regression analyses and associations were adjusted for physical activity, energy intake, alcohol consumption and smoking behaviour. The results showed that moderate and high (>2 cups/day) coffee consumption was significantly associated with lower HDL in women. For men, coffee consumption was not associated with any of the components of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:19274481

Balk, Lisanne; Hoekstra, Trynke; Twisk, Jos

2009-03-10

14

LONGITUDINAL COHORT METHODS STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Accurate exposure classification tools are required to link exposure with health effects in epidemiological studies. Exposure classification for occupational studies is relatively easy compared to predicting residential childhood exposures. Recent NHEXAS (Maryland) study articl...

15

Cohort studies: history of the method. I. Prospective cohort studies.  

PubMed

The term "cohort study" was introduced by Frost in 1935 to describe a study that compared the disease experience of people born at different periods, in particular the sex and age specific incidence of tuberculosis and the method was extended to the study of non-communicable disease by Korteweg who used it 20 years later to analyse the epidemic of lung cancer in the Netherlands. Such studies are now best described as generation studies or generation cohort studies to distinguish them from the common type of study that is now carried out that consists in defining groups of individuals distinguished by some variable (such as place of residence, occupation, behaviour, or environmental exposure) and following them up to see if the incidence or mortality rates vary with the selected variable. This type of study is now one of the most important tools for epidemiological investigation. Initially called prospective studies, because the information characterising the individuals in the cohorts was recorded before the onset of disease, they are now preferably called cohort studies and distinguished as prospective cohort studies, If the information obtained relates to the subjects at the time the study is started and they are then followed, or retrospective cohort studies, if the information characterising the individuals was recorded sometime in the past (for example, the receipt of radiotherapy, or entry to a specific occupation). Studies of either type have the great advantage that they avoid all the most important sources of bias that may affect case-control-studies, but the disadvantage that because incidence rates and more specifically mortality rates are commonly low, large numbers of subjects have to be followed for several (if not many) years to obtain statistically significant results. Several early prospective studies are described: Namely, those of 34,000 male British doctors, 190,000 male and female American citizens with different smoking habits, some 5,000 middle aged residents of Framingham with different blood pressures, blood cholesterol levels, etc, and 13,000 children born in the UK in one week in 1946 with different family backgrounds. PMID:11446312

Doll, R

2001-01-01

16

Incidence of cancer in the area around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol in 1988-2003: a population-based ecological study  

PubMed Central

Background Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is a major source of complaints about aircraft noise, safety risks and concerns about long term adverse health effects, including cancer. We investigated whether residents of the area around Schiphol are at higher risk of developing cancer than the general Dutch population. Methods In a population-based study using the regional cancer registry, we estimated the cancer incidence during 1988–2003 in residents of the area surrounding Schiphol. We defined a study area based on aircraft noise contours and 4-digit postal code areas, since historical data on ambient air pollution were not available and recent emission data did not differ from the background urban air quality. Results In residents of the study area 13 207 cancer cases were diagnosed, which was close to the expected number, using national incidence rates as a reference (standardized incidence ratio [SIR] 1.02). We found a statistically significantly increased incidence of hematological malignancies (SIR 1.12, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05, 1.19), mainly due to high rates for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (SIR 1.22, 95% CI: 1.12, 1.33) and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (SIR 1.34, 95% CI: 0.95, 1.83). The incidence of cancer of the respiratory system was statistically significantly decreased (SIR 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90, 0.99), due to the low rate in males (SIR 0.89). In the core zone of the study area, cancer incidence was slightly higher than in the remaining ring zone (rate ratio of the core zone compared to the ring zone 1.05, 95% CI 1.01, 1.10). This was caused by the higher incidence of cancer of the respiratory system, prostate and the female genital organs in the core zone in comparison to the ring zone. Conclusion The overall cancer incidence in the Schiphol area was similar to the national incidence. The moderately increased risk of hematological malignancies could not be explained by higher levels of ambient air pollution in the Schiphol area. This observation warrants further research, for example in a study with focus on substances in urban ambient air pollution, as similar findings were observed in Greater Amsterdam.

Visser, Otto; van Wijnen, Joop H; van Leeuwen, Flora E

2005-01-01

17

Rome-Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the seventeenth century, Catholic-aristocratic Rome and Protestant-bourgeois Amsterdam were expanding rapidly, both in a political and in a cultural way. In a multifaceted comparison of these two contrasting cultural and political trend-setters, this book describes how each of them dealt with this growth and change on the basis of their diametrically opposed viewpoints. Its concentration on socio-cultural aspects complements

Kessel van P. J; E. M. R. Schulte

1997-01-01

18

Ethnicity and thrombolysis in ischemic stroke: a hospital based study in Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

Background Ethnic differences have been reported with regard to several medical therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the relation between ethnicity and thrombolysis in stroke patients. Methods Retrospective single-centre study. Patients admitted with an ischemic stroke between 2003 and 2008 were included. Ethnicity was determined by self-identification and stratified into white and non-white (all other ethnicities). The main outcome measure was the difference in thrombolysis rate between white and non-white patients. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential confounders of the relation between ethnicity and thrombolysis. Results 510 patients were included, 392 (77%) white and 118 (23%) non-white. Non-white patients were younger (median 69 vs. 60 years, p < 0.001), had a higher blood pressure at admission (median systolic 150 vs. 160 mmHg, p = 0.02) and a lower stroke severity (median NIHSS 5 vs. 4, p = 0.04). Non-white patients were significantly less often treated with thrombolysis compared to white patients (odds ratio 0.34, 95% CI 0.17-0.71), which was partly explained by a later arrival at the hospital. After adjustment for potential confounders (late arrival, age, blood pressure above upper limit for thrombolysis, and oral anticoagulation use), a trend towards a lower thrombolysis rate in non-whites remained (adjusted odds ratio 0.38, 95% CI 0.13 to 1.16). Conclusions Non-white stroke patients less often received thrombolysis than white patients, partly as a result of a delay in presentation. In this single centre study, potential bias due to hospital differences or insurance status could be ruled out as a cause. The magnitude of the difference is worrisome and requires further investigation. Modifiable causes, such as patient delay, awareness of stroke symptoms, language barriers and treatment of cardiovascular risk factors, should be addressed specifically in these ethnic groups in future stroke campaigns.

2011-01-01

19

Reducing the Ecological Footprint of Inbound Tourism and Transport to Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The environmental pressure of inbound tourism of both day-visitors and tourists to Amsterdam was analysed using the ecological footprint (EF) concept. The impacts of accommodation, activities, local transport and transport from the normal place of residence to Amsterdam were all included in the study. The total EF of inbound tourism to Amsterdam was 1.42 million hectares. Approximately 70% of the

Paul Peeters; Frans Schouten

2006-01-01

20

Epidemiological disaster research: the necessity to include representative samples of the involved disaster workers. Experience from the epidemiological study air disaster Amsterdam-ESADA  

PubMed Central

Objective To study whether the methods used to select participants in research on prevalence rates of the health effects of exposure to a disaster may cause bias. This study compared background characteristics, disaster exposure, and complaints reported by (1) police officers who participated in an epidemiological study and underwent a medical examination, and (2) police officers who only participated in an epidemiological study. Design and Setting In 2000, an epidemiological study was started to investigate the health status among police officers who were involved in assistance work related to the air disaster in Amsterdam: the epidemiological study air disaster Amsterdam (ESADA). These police officers were personally invited to participate in the epidemiological study and were additionally offered a medical examination, providing them with the opportunity to have their health checked by a medical doctor. Participants Of the total group of involved police officers who were invited, 834 (70%) participated in the ESADA: 224 (26.9%) only participated in the study, but 610 (73.1%) also underwent the medical examination. Main results Police officers who underwent a medical examination significantly more often reported one or more musculoskeletal complaints, skin complaints, general or non?specific complaints, had more often experienced an event with potentially traumatic impact, or had performed one or more potentially traumatic tasks. Conclusions The methods of selection of participants are important in research on health effects after disasters and can result in an overestimation of some of the effects, on average, by a factor of 1.5 to 2.

Huizink, Anja C; Smidt, Nynke; Twisk, Jos W R; Slottje, Pauline; Smid, Tjabe

2006-01-01

21

Millennium Cohort Study: A 21-Year Prospective Cohort Study of 140, 000 Military Personnel.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Does military service, in particular operational deployment, result in a higher risk of chronic illness among military personnel and veterans. The Millennium Cohort Study, the largest Department of Defense prospective cohort study ever conducted, will att...

K. B. Chesbrough M. A. Ryan P. Amoroso E. J. Boyko G. D. Gackstetter

2001-01-01

22

Large Child Cohort Studies across the World  

Microsoft Academic Search

:It was in 1946 that Great Britain embarked on the world's first ever large-scale child cohort study, designed to track participants from birth to adulthood. Half a century on, this study is still going strong and has been extended to include the second generation, namely children born to the members of the original cohort. The past fifty years have witnessed

Elizabeth Wiles-Portier; Henri Leridon; Claudine Pirus

2010-01-01

23

A fifteen-year longitudinal study in young adults on the relation of physical activity and fitness with the development of the bone mass: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although positive effects of physical activity are often reported, there are still uncertainties about the type, intensity, duration, and frequency of these activities that are most effective for (re)modeling bone mass during youth. In the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study, daily physical activity and fitness were monitored from age 13 to 29 years in a group of 182 males

H. C. G. Kemper; J. W. R. Twisk; W van Mechelen; G. B. Post; J. C. Roos; P. T. A. M. Lips

2000-01-01

24

Maternal early pregnancy vitamin D status in relation to fetal and neonatal growth: results of the multi-ethnic Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low vitamin D levels during pregnancy may account for reduced fetal growth and for altered neonatal development. The present study explored the association between maternal vitamin D status measured early in pregnancy and birth weight, prevalence of small-for-gestational-age (SGA) infants and postnatal growth (weight and length), as well as the potential role of vitamin D status in explaining ethnic disparities

Evelien R. Leffelaar; Tanja G. M. Vrijkotte; Manon van Eijsden

2010-01-01

25

REGRESSION MODELS FOR COHORT MORTALITY STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort studies evaluate suspect health hazards from occupational or environmental exposures by recording tile facts and causes of deaths in the exposed group as they occur over an extended time period. his article reviews several methods for analyzing cohort: mortality data and s...

26

A Study of Group Dynamics in Educational Leadership Cohort and Non-Cohort Groups  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose of this study was to examine group dynamics of educational leadership students in cohorts and make comparisons with the group dynamics characteristics of non-cohort students. Cohorts have emerged as dynamic and adaptive entities with attendant group dynamic processes that shape collective learning and action. Cohort (n=42) and…

Greenlee, Bobbie J.; Karanxha, Zorka

2010-01-01

27

Implementation evaluation of the Dutch national heat plan among long-term care institutions in Amsterdam: a cross-sectional study  

PubMed Central

Background In 2007, a national heat plan was introduced in the Netherlands to effectively protect vulnerable populations (such as institutionalised elderly people) against heatwaves. The aim of this study was to assess the extent to which the measures recommended in this heat plan had been implemented, and could be implemented, in long-term care institutions in Amsterdam three years on. Methods Questionnaires were sent to the care managers of all 54 eligible long-term care institutions in Amsterdam. This included questions on the presence of a heat protocol and cooling facilities in the building. Furthermore, the care managers were asked to judge the importance of 23 of the cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan in the event of a heatwave, and to report on practical problems that may affect the implementation of these cooling measures. Results Of the 54 questionnaires sent, 27 were returned. Most institutions had a heat protocol, virtually all of which had been developed in the three years preceding the survey. Outdoor sunshades were used most often to protect residents against heat (93% of all institutions). Prevalence of cooling facilities such as air conditioning and rooftop cooling had increased, but remained low (41%). Care managers confirmed the importance of most of the 23 cooling measures recommended by the National Heat Plan, with some exceptions. Only 41% regarded consulting physicians on medication use to be ‘very important’. Most care managers did not foresee large problems with the implementation of the recommended cooling measures. Barriers mentioned related to shortage of and expertise among personnel, and residents’ independence. Conclusion The results suggest that a national heat plan could be implemented in long-term care institutions with few problems. Possible areas of improvement include cooling of buildings and staff training.

2013-01-01

28

Cohort profile: the isle of man birth cohort study.  

PubMed

The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency situated equidistantly from England, Scotland and Ireland. In 1991, its population of ?75 000 comprised ?50% indigenous Manx and 50% immigrants, mainly from the surrounding countries. It was invited to join the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood. The aim of the study was to enrol all pregnant women resident on the Island with an expected date of delivery in the 18-month period of January 1991-June 1992. A total of 1314 livebirths formed the eligible cohort. Questionnaires were completed by mothers and their partners during pregnancy and subsequently at 6 weeks, 6 months, 18 months, 3, 5, 7 and 15/16 years. Hands-on examination of the children occurred at age 7 years, when biological samples were collected. Teachers completed questionnaires at 7 and 15 years; medical records were extracted for the obstetric and childhood periods. Response rates varied from >80% from teachers and children at 15 years to only 23% from partners when their children were aged 7 years. Selected data sets are available to collaborators, although many of the data need funds for further collaboration. PMID:23095165

Goodfellow, Stephanie A; Rolfe, Edna M; Golding, Jean

2012-10-24

29

Brain-Science Based Cohort Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a number of human cohort studies based on the concept of brain-science and education. These studies assess the potential effects of new technologies on babies, children and adolescents, and test hypotheses drawn from animal and genetic case studies to see if they apply to people. A flood of information, virtual media,…

Koizumi, Hideaki

2011-01-01

30

Folic acid knowledge and use in a multi-ethnic pregnancy cohort: the role of language proficiency  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate the role of language proficiency as determinant of folic acid knowledge and use in a multi-ethnic pregnancy cohort. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting and population Pregnant women from Amsterdam attending obstetric care for their first antenatal visit. Number approached: 12 373 women, response rate: 67% (8266 women aged 14-49 years). Ethnicity was based on the country of

Eijsden van M; Wal van der M. F; G. J. Bonsel

2006-01-01

31

Cohort Survival and Withdrawal Study District Report.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|At the completion of the 1986-87 school year, the Albuquerque (New Mexico) Public Schools (APS) conducted a cohort survival and withdrawal study to follow-up 5,976 students who had begun the ninth grade within the district in 1983-84. Current records were matched with those from the 1983-84 school year to determine whether members of the…

Shainline, Michael

32

USING COHORT STUDIES IN LIFECOURSE EPIDEMIOLOGY  

PubMed Central

Summary The UK Medical Research Council (MRC) Population Health Sciences Research Network is a network of MRC research units and centres that aims to bring together and add value to existing MRC investment in public health, health services and epidemiological research. This symposium held in August 2011 at the World Congress of Epidemiology, Edinburgh, discussed a range of topics including methodology and analytical issues based on a number of examples of cohort studies within the context of lifecourse epidemiology.

Cooper, C; Frank, J; Leyland, A; Hardy, R; Lawlor, D; Wareham, N J; Dezateux, C; Inskip, H.

2013-01-01

33

Cohort study of atypical pressure ulcers development.  

PubMed

Atypical pressure ulcers (APU) are distinguished from common pressure ulcers (PU) with both unusual location and different aetiology. The occurrence and attempts to characterise APU remain unrecognised. The purpose of this cohort study was to analyse the occurrence of atypical location and the circumstances of the causation, and draw attention to the prevention and treatment by a multidisciplinary team. The cohort study spanned three and a half years totalling 174 patients. The unit incorporates two weekly combined staff meetings. One concentrates on wound assessment with treatment decisions made by the physician and nurse, and the other, a multidisciplinary team reviewing all patients and coordinating treatment. The main finding of this study identified APU occurrence rate of 21% within acquired PU over a three and a half year period. Severe spasticity constituted the largest group in this study and the most difficult to cure wounds, located in medial aspects of knees, elbows and palms. Medical devices caused the second largest occurrence of atypical wounds, located in the nape of the neck, penis and nostrils. Bony deformities were the third recognisable atypical wound group located in shoulder blades and upper spine. These three categories are definable and time observable. APU are important to be recognisable, and can be healed as well as being prevented. The prominent role of the multidisciplinary team is primary in identification, prevention and treatment. PMID:23374746

Jaul, Efraim

2013-02-01

34

The natural history of late-life depression: results from the Amsterdam Study of the Elderly (AMSTEL)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: This study examines whether risk factors related to incidence of depression are also related to prognosis, and whether a vulnerability–stress model can be established for prognosis. Methods: A prospective model for prognosis of depression (chronic or remitted course) in later life was studied in 236 depressed community-living elderly. Subjects were interviewed at baseline, and at follow-up 3 years later.

R. A Schoevers; A. T. F Beekman; D. J. H Deeg; C Hooijer; C Jonker; W van Tilburg

2003-01-01

35

A longitudinal study on the incidence and transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV infection among drug users in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the present study data on the incidence of HBV and HCV were used to indicate the prevalence of and trends in risk behavior, assuming that drug users (DUs) who become infected with HBV or HCV are also at risk for infection with HIV. In addition, we determined to that extent the transmission patterns of HIV, HBV and HCV differed.

E. J. C. Ameijden; J. A. R. Hoek; G. H. C. Mientjes; R. A. Coutinho

1993-01-01

36

Habitual Physical Activity and Peripheral Arterial Compliance in Young Adults: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIt remains unclear whether the impact of habitual physical activity (HPA) differs for central vs. peripheral arterial stiffness, both of which are detrimental to cardiovascular health. We investigated the associations of lifetime HPA of different intensities on brachial and femoral stiffness in young adults, and compared these with those previously obtained for the carotid artery in the same study population.MethodsProspectively

Roel J. van de Laar; Isabel Ferreira; Willem van Mechelen; Martin H. Prins; Jos W. Twisk; Coen D. Stehouwer

2011-01-01

37

The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to assess patients' anxiety level and information requirement in the pre- operative phase. During routine preoperative screen- ing, 320 patients were asked to assess their anxiety and information requirement on a six-item questionnaire, the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS). Two hundred patients also completed Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI- State). Patients

Nelly Moerman; Martin J. Muller; Hans Oosting

1996-01-01

38

Oral presentation bias: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

The aim of this paper was to assess oral presentation bias at a national level. This was a retrospective cohort study with initial characteristics of the approved protocols extracted from the committee's archives, and follow?up characteristics obtained from a questionnaire mailed to the principal investigators. A representative sample of French research ethics committees (25/48), the only committees legally endorsed for ethical authorisation in biomedical research, were studied. All completed research protocols, which had been approved in 1994 by these committees, were included. Initial characteristics (design, study size, investigator) of completed studies and follow?up information (direction of results, rates of publication and rates of oral presentation) were collected. Complete information on results and their dissemination was available for 248 completed non?confidential protocols. Half of these (49%) were declared as orally presented. The observed ranking for strategies to disseminate results was the following: orally presented and published, published only, neither orally presented nor published and orally presented only. Confirmatory results were more often orally presented, with an adjusted OR of 6.4 (95% CI 2.69 to 15.22). Other associated variables are the following: national/international scope of the study, protocol writer's university status, adverse events and interim analysis. There is a trend to submit or accept confirmatory results for oral presentations: meetings are a biased representation of research, and oral presentation bias could even be higher than publication bias.

Decullier, Evelyne; Chapuis, Francois

2007-01-01

39

Cohort Profile: The HUNT Study, Norway.  

PubMed

The HUNT Study includes large total population-based cohorts from the 1980ies, covering 125 000 Norwegian participants; HUNT1 (1984-86), HUNT2 (1995-97) and HUNT3 (2006-08). The study was primarily set up to address arterial hypertension, diabetes, screening of tuberculosis, and quality of life. However, the scope has expanded over time. In the latest survey a state of the art biobank was established, with availability of biomaterial for decades ahead. The three population based surveys now contribute to important knowledge regarding health related lifestyle, prevalence and incidence of somatic and mental illness and disease, health determinants, and associations between disease phenotypes and genotypes. Every citizen of Nord-Trøndelag County in Norway being 20 years or older, have been invited to all the surveys for adults. Participants may be linked in families and followed up longitudinally between the surveys and in several national health- and other registers covering the total population. The HUNT Study includes data from questionnaires, interviews, clinical measurements and biological samples (blood and urine). The questionnaires included questions on socioeconomic conditions, health related behaviours, symptoms, illnesses and diseases. Data from the HUNT Study are available for researchers who satisfy some basic requirements (www.ntnu.edu/hunt), whether affiliated in Norway or abroad. PMID:22879362

Krokstad, S; Langhammer, A; Hveem, K; Holmen, Tl; Midthjell, K; Stene, Tr; Bratberg, G; Heggland, J; Holmen, J

2012-08-09

40

Fall 1980 Cohort Study. Technical Report, 85-06.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The 1980 Cohort Study was initiated at Mercer County Community College (MCCC) as a follow-up of full-time students who began their studies in fall 1980. The goal of the study was to distinguish the educational and career outcomes of graduates from those of students who have achieved various other levels of academic progress. The fall 1980 cohort

Edwards, Frances L.; Staatse, Holly

41

The mummy's curse: historical cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine survival of individuals exposed to the “mummy's curse” reputedly associated with the opening of the tomb of Tutankhamen in Luxor, Egypt, between February 1923 and November 1926. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants 44 Westerners identified by Howard Carter as present in Egypt at the specified dates, 25 of whom were potentially exposed to the curse. Main outcome measures Length of survival after date of potential exposure. Results In the 25 people exposed to the curse the mean age at death was 70 years (SD 12) compared with 75 (13) in those not exposed (P=0.87 for difference). Survival after the date of exposure was 20.8 (15.2) v 28.9 (13.6) years respectively (P=0.95 for difference). Female sex was a predictor for survival (P=0.02). Conclusions There was no significant association between exposure to the mummy's curse and survival and thus no evidence to support the existence of a mummy's curse. What is already known on this topicThe methods of evidence based medicine have not been used to investigate the reality of the “mummy's curse”The arguments against the curse have been as anecdotal as the contemporary newspapers that reported itWhat this study addsThere was no association between potential exposure to the mummy's curse during the excavation of Tutankamen's tomb and death within 10 yearsNo evidence was found for the existence of a mummy's curse

Nelson, Mark R

2002-01-01

42

Global teaching and training initiatives for emerging cohort studies.  

PubMed

A striking disparity exists across the globe, with essentially no large-scale longitudinal studies ongoing in regions that will be significantly affected by the oncoming non-communicable disease epidemic. The successful implementation of cohort studies in most low-resource research environments presents unique challenges that may be aided by coordinated training programs. Leaders of emerging cohort studies attending the First World Cohort Integration Workshop were surveyed about training priorities, unmet needs and potential cross-cohort solutions to these barriers through an electronic pre-workshop questionnaire and focus groups. Cohort studies representing India, Mexico, Nigeria, South Africa, Sweden, Tanzania and Uganda described similar training needs, including on-the-job training, data analysis software instruction, and database and bio-bank management. A lack of funding and protected time for training activities were commonly identified constraints. Proposed solutions include a collaborative cross-cohort teaching platform with web-based content and interactive teaching methods for a range of research personnel. An international network for research mentorship and idea exchange, and modifying the graduate thesis structure were also identified as key initiatives. Cross-cohort integrated educational initiatives will efficiently meet shared needs, catalyze the development of emerging cohorts, speed closure of the global disparity in cohort research, and may fortify scientific capacity development in low-resource settings. PMID:23856451

Paulus, Jessica K; Santoyo-Vistrain, Rocío; Havelick, David; Cohen, Amy; Kalyesubula, Robert; Ajayi, Ikeoluwapo O; Mattsson, Jens G; Adami, Hans-Olov; Dalal, Shona

2012-09-15

43

Wilhelm Weinberg's 1913 Large Retrospective Cohort Study: A Rediscovery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wilhelm Weinberg, German physician, founder, and president of the Stuttgart Society for Racial Hygiene, published in 1913 the results of a large, retrospective cohort study entitled Die Kinder der Tuberkuloesen (Children of the Tuberculous). The exposed cohort comprised 18,212 children whose 3,246 fathers and 2,022 mothers died of tuberculosis between 1873 and 1902. The unexposed cohort comprised 7,574 children whose

Alfredo Morabia; Regina Guthold

44

Cohort studies: what is old, what is new?  

Microsoft Academic Search

vary with regard to the selected variable (prospective cohort study) (1) . Prospective indicates that the measurement or ascertainment of exposure status is completed before the outcome status is known. Other considerations that determine the class of a prospective, longitudinal follow up study are: ? Are members of the cohort are presumed healthy or diseased at the outset? ? Are

John Henderson

45

Homelessness and CKD: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background and objectives This study examined the associations between homelessness and clinical outcomes of CKD among adults from the urban healthcare safety net. Design, setting, participants, & measurements This retrospective cohort study examined 15,343 adults with CKD stages 3–5 who received ambulatory care during 1996–2005 from the Community Health Network of San Francisco. Main outcome measures were time to ESRD or death and frequency of emergency department visits and hospitalizations. Results Overall, 858 persons (6%) with CKD stages 3–5 were homeless. Homeless adults were younger, were disproportionately male and uninsured, and suffered from far higher rates of depression and substance abuse compared with adults with stable housing (P<0.001 for all comparisons). Over a median follow-up of 2.8 years (interquartile range=1.4–6.1), homeless adults experienced significantly higher crude risk of ESRD or death (hazard ratio=1.82, 95% confidence interval=1.49–2.22) compared with housed adults. This elevated risk was attenuated but remained significantly higher (adjusted hazard ratio=1.28, 95% confidence interval=1.04–1.58) after controlling for differences in sociodemographics, comorbid conditions, and laboratory variables. Homeless adults were also far more likely to use acute care services (median [interquartile range] number of emergency department visits was 9 [4–20] versus 1 [0–4], P<0.001) than housed counterparts. Conclusions Homeless adults with CKD suffer from increased morbidity and mortality and use costly acute care services far more frequently than peers who are stably housed. These findings warrant additional inquiry into the unmet health needs of the homeless with CKD to provide appropriate and effective care to this disadvantaged group.

Choi, Andy I.; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Chertow, Glenn M.; Bindman, Andrew B.

2012-01-01

46

A cohort study on the mortality of firefighters  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study was set up to investigate the effect of exposure to combustion effluents on the chronic health of firefighters. A cohort of firefighters was followed up through 10 years with regard to cause specific mortality. Comparisons were made with another cohort of civil servants and salaried employees in physically demanding jobs. After a latency of five years, an excess

E S Hansen

1990-01-01

47

Health-related quality of life of firefighters and police officers 8.5 years after the air disaster in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  In 1992 a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam. In the troublesome aftermath rumours emerged on potential\\u000a toxic exposures and health consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the long-term impact of this disaster on the health-related\\u000a quality of life (HRQoL) of professional assistance workers.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Historic cohort study, using questionnaires to assess occupational disaster exposure, HRQoL

Pau line Slottje; Jos W. R. Twisk; Nynke Smidt; Anja C. Huizink; Anke B. Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; Tjabe Smid

2007-01-01

48

Endogenous hormones and breast cancer: A prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  A cohort study is under way in New York City to evaluate how levels of endogenous reproductive hormones influence the risk\\u000a of breast cancer. The study, in which approximately 15,000 women are being recruited, utilizes a prospective design in which\\u000a volunteers are asked to provide repeated specimens of serum during the period 1985–1992. A case-control study nested within\\u000a the cohort

Paolo G. Toniolo; Bernard S. Pasternack; Roy E. Shore; Elizabeth Sonnenschein; Karen L. Koenig; Carl Rosenberg; Philip Strax; Selig Strax

1991-01-01

49

Incidence of cancer among UK Gulf war veterans: cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives To determine whether incidence rates of cancer are higher in UK service personnel who were deployed in the Gulf war than in those not deployed and whether any increased risk of cancer is related to self reported exposures to potentially hazardous material during the period of deployment. Design A cohort study with follow up from 1 April 1991 (the end of the Gulf war) to 31 July 2002. Participants 51 721 Gulf war veterans and 50 755 service personnel matched for age, sex, rank, service, and level of fitness who were not deployed in the Gulf (the Era cohort). Main outcome measures Incident cancers, identified on the NHS central register. Results There were 270 incident cancers among the Gulf cohort and 269 among the Era cohort (incidence rate ratio 0.99, 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.17). There was no excess in site specific cancers among the Gulf cohort. Adjustment for lifestyle factors (smoking and alcohol consumption) did not alter these results. In the Gulf cohort, risk of cancer was not related to multiple vaccinations or exposure to pesticides or depleted uranium during deployment. Conclusion There is no current excess risk of cancer overall nor of site specific cancers in Gulf war veterans. Specific exposures during deployment have not resulted in a subsequent increased risk of cancer. The long latent period for cancer, however, necessitates the continued follow up of these cohorts.

Macfarlane, Gary J; Biggs, Anne-Marie; Maconochie, Noreen; Hotopf, Matthew; Doyle, Patricia; Lunt, Mark

2003-01-01

50

Amsterdam: planning and policy for the ideal city?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Is Amsterdam the “ideal city?” Many of the social, economic, and environmental problems facing Amsterdam are considerably less than those in cities in the USA, and in most cases, Western Europe. Amsterdam, at this moment in history, might be the world's greatest city because of its ability to ensure basic necessities, freedom, and creativity. Tolerance of drugs, sexual freedom, along

John I. Gilderbloom; Matthew J. Hanka; Carrie Beth Lasley

2009-01-01

51

The International Community-Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Collaboration Cohort (ICCC) study: rationale, design and description of study cohorts and patients  

PubMed Central

Objective To improve the understanding of the determinants of prognosis and accurate risk stratification in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Design Multicentre collaboration of prospective cohorts. Setting 6 cohorts from the USA, Canada, Hong Kong and Spain. Participants From a published meta-analysis of risk stratification studies in CAP, the authors identified and pooled individual patient-level data from six prospective cohort studies of CAP (three from the USA, one each from Canada, Hong Kong and Spain) to create the International CAP Collaboration Cohort. Initial essential inclusion criteria of meta-analysis were (1) prospective design, (2) in English language, (3) reported 30-day mortality and transfer to an intensive or high dependency care and (4) minimum 1000 participants. Common baseline patient characteristics included demographics, history and physical examination findings, comorbidities and laboratory and radiographic findings. Primary and secondary outcome measures This paper reports the rationale, hypotheses and analytical framework and also describes study cohorts and patients. The authors aim to (1) compare the prognostic accuracy of existing CAP risk stratification tools, (2) assess patient-level determinants of prognosis, (3) improve risk stratification by combined use of scoring systems and (4) understand prognostic factors for specific patient groups. Results The six cohorts assembled from 1991 to 2007 included 13?784 patients (median age 71?years, 54% men). Aside from one randomised controlled study, the remaining five were cohort studies, but all had similar inclusion criteria. Overall, there was 0%–6% missing data. A total of 6159 (44%) had severe pneumonia by Pneumonia Severity Index class IV/V. Mortality at 30 days was 8% (1036). Admission to intensive care or high dependency unit was also 8% (1059). Conclusions International CAP Collaboration Cohort provides a pooled multicentre data set of patients with CAP, which will help us to better understand the prognosis of CAP.

Kwok, Chun Shing; Majumdar, Sumit R; Eurich, Dean T; Clark, Allan B; Espana, Pedro P; Man, Shin Yan; Huang, David T; Yealy, Donald M; Angus, Derek C; Capelastegui, Alberto; Rainer, Timothy H; Marrie, Thomas J; Fine, Michael J; Loke, Yoon K

2012-01-01

52

Energy balance and breast cancer risk: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary  While there is evidence that breast cancer risk is positively associated with body mass index (in postmenopausal women) and energy intake and inversely associated with physical activity, few studies have examined breast cancer risk in association with energy balance, the balance between energy intake and expenditure. Therefore, in the cohort study reported here, we studied the independent and combined associations

Stephanie A. Navarro Silvera; Meera Jain; Geoffrey R. Howe; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan

2006-01-01

53

Interactive computer program for optimal designs of longitudinal cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many large scale longitudinal cohort studies have been carried out or are ongoing in different fields of science. Such studies need a careful planning to obtain the desired quality of results with the available resources. In the past, a number of researches have been performed on optimal designs for longitudinal studies. However, there was no computer program yet available to

Fetene B. Tekle; Frans E. S. Tan; Martijn P. F. Berger

2009-01-01

54

Cohort Profile of the Japan Collaborative Cohort Study at Final Follow-up  

PubMed Central

The Japan Collaborative Cohort Study for Evaluation of Cancer Risk (JACC Study) was established in the late 1980s to evaluate the risk impact of lifestyle factors and levels of serum components on human health. During the 20-year follow-up period, the results of the study have been published in almost 200 original articles in peer-reviewed English-language journals. However, continued follow-up of the study subjects became difficult because of the retirements of principal researchers, city mergers throughout Japan in the year 2000, and reduced funding. Thus, we decided to terminate the JACC Study follow-up at the end of 2009. As a final point of interest, we reviewed the population registry information of survivors. A total of 207 (0.19%) subjects were ineligible, leaving 110 585 eligible participants (46 395 men and 64 190 women). Moreover, errors in coding date of birth and sex were found in 356 (0.32%) and 59 (0.05%) cases, respectively, during routine follow-up and final review. Although such errors were unexpected, their impact is believed to be negligible because of the small numbers relative to the large total study population. Here, we describe the final cohort profile at the end of the JACC Study along with selected characteristics of the participants and their status at the final follow-up. Although follow-up of the JACC Study participants is finished, we will continue to analyze and publish study results.

Tamakoshi, Akiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Fujino, Yoshihisa; Suzuki, Koji; Sakata, Kiyomi; Mori, Mitsuru; Kikuchi, Shogo; Iso, Hiroyasu

2013-01-01

55

Studies on the extended Techa river cohort: cancer risk estimation  

SciTech Connect

Initial population-based studies of riverside residents were begun in the late 1950s and in 1967 a systematic effort was undertaken to develop a well-defined fixed cohort of Techa river residents, to carry out ongoing mortality and (limited) clinical follow-up of this cohort, and to provide individualized dose estimates for cohort members. Over the past decade, extensive efforts have been made to refine the cohort definition and improve both the follow-up and dosimetry data. Analyses of the Techa river cohort can provide useful quantitative estimates of the effects of low dose rate, chronic external and internal exposures on cancer mortality and incidence and non-cancer mortality rates. These risk estimates complement quantitative risk estimates for acute exposures based on the atomic bomb survivors and chronic exposure risk estimates from worker studies, including Mayak workers and other groups with occupational radiation exposures. As the dosimetry and follow-up are refined it may also be possible to gain useful insights into risks associated with 90Sr exposures.

Kossenko, M M. (Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine); Preston, D L. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 5-2 Hijiyama Park,); Krestinina, L Y. (Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine); Degteva, M O. (N/A); Startsev, N V. (Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine); Thomas, T (Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute,); Vyushkova, O V. (Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine); Anspaugh, L R. (Unknown); Napier, Bruce A. (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kozheurov, V P. (N/A); Ron, E (Division of Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute,); Akleyev, A V. (Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine)

2001-12-01

56

The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident study investigating psychological distress: design, methods and cohort profiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The Tachikawa cohort of motor vehicle accident (TCOM) Study has been carried out in Tokyo since 2004. This study examined\\u000a the association of medical and psychosocial variables evaluated shortly after admission to the acute critical care center\\u000a with long-term psychiatric morbidity risk in patients with accidental injuries.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between May 2004 and January 2008, patients with accidental injury consecutively admitted were

Yutaka Matsuoka; Daisuke Nishi; Satomi Nakajima; Naohiro Yonemoto; Kenji Hashimoto; Hiroko Noguchi; Masato Homma; Yasuhiro Otomo; Yoshiharu Kim

2009-01-01

57

Design of Cohort Studies for Air Pollution Health Effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article provides an overview of recent U.S. cohort studies on air pollution and health and discusses design issues related to the study hypothesis, exposure assessment, confounder assessment, and effect modification. The article argues that, given the potential long-term effects of air pollution on survival and the enormous costs of achieving further air pollution reductions, it would be shortsighted not

Bert Brunekreef

2003-01-01

58

Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer  

Cancer.gov

At entry to the cohort study, each participant completed a 26-page mail questionnaire that included an extensive quantitative diet history, as well as other demographic, medical, and lifestyle information. Multiple 24-hour diet recalls were collected on more than 2,000 of the participants in a calibration study designed to permit correction of nutrient intake estimates for measurement error.

59

IUD Survival and Its Determinants; a Historical Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: IUD is one of the safest and most widely used reversible methods of contraception. The purpose of this study was to determine IUD survival and reasons for early discontinuation in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran. Methods: Probability of IUD continuation rate and factors associated with discontinuation were as- sessed in a historical cohort study of 400 women records from

Abedini S; Poudat A

60

Early Predictors of Adult Drinking: A Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Few studies have explored early predictors of problem drinking in youth, and fewer still have simultaneously considered the role of biologic, familial, and intrapersonal factors. The present study explored early life course and later life course predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence in young adulthood. Data were taken from a cohort of 2,551 mothers and their children recruited as part

Rosa Alati; Jake M. Najman; Stuart A. Kinner; Abdullah A. Mamun; Gail M. Williams; Michael O'Callaghan; William Bor

2005-01-01

61

A Prospective Cohort Study of Smoking in Acute Pancreatitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: Little is known about risk factors for acute pancreatitis other than gallstones and alcohol consumption. The aim of this study was to investigate if smoking or body mass index (BMI) are associated with acute pancreatitis and to determine relative risks (RR) for acute pancreatitis related to smoking, BMI, and alcohol consumption. Methods: From 1974 to 1992, selected birth-year cohorts

Björn Lindkvist; Stefan Appelros; Jonas Manjer; Göran Berglund; Anders Borgström

2008-01-01

62

Intrapartum epidural analgesia and breastfeeding: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Anecdotal reports suggest that the addition of fentanyl (an opioid) to epidural analgesia for women during childbirth results in difficulty establishing breastfeeding. The aim of this paper is to determine any association between epidural analgesia and 1) breastfeeding in the first week postpartum and 2) breastfeeding cessation during the first 24 weeks postpartum. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of

Siranda Torvaldsen; Christine L Roberts; Judy M Simpson; Jane F Thompson; David A Ellwood

2006-01-01

63

Cannabis use and mental health in young people: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether cannabis use in adolescence predisposes to higher rates of depression and anxiety in young adulthood. Design Seven wave cohort study over six years. Setting 44 schools in the Australian state of Victoria. Participants A statewide secondary school sample of 1601 students aged 14›15 followed for seven years. Main outcome measure Interview measure of depression and anxiety

George C Patton; Carolyn Coffey; John B Carlin; Louisa Degenhardt; Michael Lynskey; Wayne Hall

2002-01-01

64

ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention\\/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees,\\u000a though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication\\u000a in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at\\u000a adoption and region of origin as predictors of

Frank Lindblad; Gunilla Ringbäck Weitoft; Anders Hjern

2010-01-01

65

Long term health complaints following the Amsterdam Air Disaster in police officers and fire-fighters  

PubMed Central

Background On 4 October 1992, a cargo aircraft crashed into apartment buildings in Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Fire?fighters and police officers assisted with the rescue work. Objectives To examine the long term health complaints in rescue workers exposed to a disaster. Methods A historical cohort study was performed among police officers (n?=?834) and fire?fighters (n?=?334) who performed at least one disaster related task and reference groups of their non?exposed colleagues (n?=?634 and n?=?194, respectively). The main outcome measures included digestive, cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, nervous system, airway, skin, post?traumatic stress, fatigue, and general mental health complaints; haematological and biochemical laboratory values; and urinalysis outcomes. Results Police officers and fire?fighters who were professionally exposed to a disaster reported more physical and mental health complaints, compared to the reference groups. No clinically relevant statistically significant differences in laboratory outcomes were found. Conclusions This study is the first to examine long term health complaints in a large sample of rescue workers exposed to a disaster in comparison to reference groups of non?exposed colleagues. Findings show that even in the long term, and in the absence of laboratory abnormalities, rescue workers report more health complaints.

Huizink, A C; Slottje, P; Witteveen, A B; Bijlsma, J A; Twisk, J W R; Smidt, N; Bramsen, I; van Mechelen, W; van der Ploeg, H M; Bouter, L M; Smid, T

2006-01-01

66

Knee Arthroscopy Cohort Southern Denmark (KACS): protocol for a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Meniscus surgery is a high-volume surgery carried out on 1 million patients annually in the USA. The procedure is conducted on an outpatient basis and the patients leave the hospital a few hours after surgery. A critical oversight of previous studies is their failure to account for the type of meniscal tears. Meniscus tears can be categorised as traumatic or non-traumatic. Traumatic tears (TT) are usually observed in younger, more active individuals in an otherwise ‘healthy’ meniscus and joint. Non-traumatic tears (NTT) (ie, degenerative tears) are typically observed in the middle-aged (35–55?years) and older population but the aetiology is largely unclear. Knowledge about the potential difference of the effect of arthroscopic meniscus surgery on patient symptoms between patients with traumatic and NTT is sparse. Furthermore, little is known about the natural time course of patient perceived pain, function and quality of life after meniscus surgery and factors affecting these outcomes. The aim of this prospective cohort study is to investigate the natural time course of patient-reported outcomes in patients undergoing meniscus surgery, with particular emphasis on the role of type of symptom onset. Methods/design This prospective cohort study enrol patients assigned for meniscus surgery. At the baseline (PRE surgery), patient characteristics are assessed using an email-based questionnaire also comprising several validated questionnaires assessing general health, knee-specific characteristics and patient's expectations of the surgery. Follow-up will be conducted at 12 and 52?weeks after meniscus surgery. The major outcomes will be differences in changes, from before to 52?weeks after surgery, in each of the five domains on the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) between patients undergoing surgery for traumatic compared with non-traumatic meniscus tears. Dissemination The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01871272.

Thorlund, Jonas Bloch; Christensen, Robin; Nissen, Nis; J?rgensen, Uffe; Schjerning, Jeppe; P?rneki, Jens Christian; Englund, Martin; Lohmander, L Stefan

2013-01-01

67

Statins in Candidemia: clinical outcomes from a matched cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: HMG CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) in patients with bacteremic sepsis have shown significant survival benefits in several studies. There is no data on the effect of statins in candidemic patients, however in-vitro models suggest that statins interfere with ergesterol formation in the wall of yeasts. METHODS: This retrospective matched- cohort study from 1\\/2003 to 12\\/2006 evaluated the effects of

Graeme N Forrest; Angela M Kopack; Eli N Perencevich

2010-01-01

68

Pain after whiplash: a prospective controlled inception cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESIn Lithuania, there is little awareness of the notion that chronic symptoms may result from rear end collisions via the so-called whiplash injury. After most such collisions no contact with the health service is established. An opportunity therefore exists to study post-traumatic pain without the confounding factors present in western societies.METHODSIn a prospective, controlled inception cohort study, 210 victims of

Diana Obelieniene; Harald Schrader; Gunnar Bovim; Irena Misevic?iene; Trond Sand

1999-01-01

69

Rhabdomyolysis in Community Acquired Bacterial Sepsis - A Retrospective Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background and Objectives Rhabdomyolysis is often associated with sepsis and gram positive bacterial pathogens are reported to be the most frequent cause of sepsis induced rhabdomyolysis. We report the pattern of infecting bacterial pathogens and associated causal factors in a South-Indian cohort. Design, Setting, Participants & Measurements Retrospective cohort study of adult patients with community acquired bacterial sepsis complicated by rhabdomyolysis from March 2003 - August 2008. Rhabdomyolysis was defined as serum creatine kinase >2000 IU/L. The study population was divided into group-I (sepsis with gram positive pathogens), group–II (sepsis with gram negative pathogens) and group-III (culture negative sepsis). Results 103 patients (group I -15, group II- 34 and group III- 54) formed the study cohort. Mean age was 55 years and two-third had diabetes. Mean creatine kinase was 7114 IU/L and mean serum creatinine on admission was 2.4 mg/dl. Causative pathogen of sepsis was identified in 47.5%. Gram negative pathogens were more frequently (33%) associated with rhabdomyolysis than gram positive pathogens (14.5%). Lung was the commonest foci of sepsis (38.8%). 78.6% of the study population had one or more additional causal factor for rhabdomyolysis like statin intake, chronic alcoholism, hypokalemia, hypernatremia and hypophosphatemia. Mortality was 59%. Conclusions Gram negative bacterial pathogens were more frequently associated with rhabdomyolysis than gram positive pathogens. Rhabdomyolysis in patients with sepsis is multifactorial and is associated with high mortality.

Kumar, Anita A.; Bhaskar, Emmanuel; Palamaner Subash Shantha, Ghanshyam; Swaminathan, Porchelvan; Abraham, Georgi

2009-01-01

70

Septic shock in older people: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Septic shock is the first cause of death in Intensive Care Units. Despite experimental data showing increased inflammatory response of aged animals following infection, the current accepted hypothesis claims that aged patients are immunocompromised, when compared to young individuals. Results Here, we describe a prospective cohort study designed to analyze the immune profile of this population. Conclusion Older people are as immunocompetent as the young individual, regarding the cytokines, chemokines and growth factors response to devastating infection.

2013-01-01

71

Smoking cessation treatment in primary care: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To compare the characteristics of smokers who do and do not receive smoking cessation treatment in primary care.Design: Prospective cohort study using practices registered with the pilot QRESEARCH database.Setting: 156 550 patients aged 18 years and over from 39 general practices located within four strategic health authorities, representing the former Trent Region, UK.Subjects: Patients registered with practices between 1

A Wilson; J Hippisley-Cox; C Coupland; T Coleman; J Britton; S Barrett

2005-01-01

72

Areca Nut Chewing and Mortality in an Elderly Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compared with the well-documented association with betel-related cancer, little is known about the long-term effect of areca nut chewing on other fatal diseases. The authors' analyses were based on a population-based cohort study in Taiwan, including 4,049 participants aged 60 years or older enrolled in 1989 and 2,462 participants aged 50? 66 years enrolled in 1996. Information regarding betel quid

Tzuo-Yun Lan; Wen-Chiung Chang; Yih-Jian Tsai; Yi-Li Chuang; Hui-Sheng Lin; Tong-Yuan Tai

2007-01-01

73

Mysid Population Responses to Resource Limitation Differ from those Predicted by Cohort Studies  

EPA Science Inventory

Effects of anthropogenic stressors on animal populations are often evaluated by assembling vital rate responses from isolated cohort studies into a single demographic model. However, models constructed from cohort studies are difficult to translate into ecological predictions be...

74

Witkar: Amsterdam's self-drive hire city car  

Microsoft Academic Search

A small electrically powered city car has been developed for self-drive hire in the centre of Amsterdam; 35 of these cars are now available to hire from 5 stations in the city centre. The. system has been designed for fully automatic control, including direct debit of hirers' accounts at the Amsterdam Savings Bank. The system, which was conceived in 1969

Terence Bendixson; Martin G. Richards

1976-01-01

75

Supporting Intra-Organizational Distributed Coordination at the Amsterdam Police Force  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information- and communication technologies (ICT) raise opportunities for computer supported communication, dispersed co-ordination and collaboration and make co- ordination intense organisational structures less expensive. However, an explorative case study at the Amsterdam Police Force confirm insights from prior research that deeply rooted organisational practices can 'make or break' distributed co-ordination and ICT utilisation. Adaptive Structuration Theory (AST) provided for a

Joeri Van Laere; Gert-jan De Vreede; Henk G. Sol

2000-01-01

76

Epidemiological disaster research: the necessity to include representative samples of the involved disaster workers. Experience from the epidemiological study air disaster Amsterdam-ESADA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study whether the methods used to select participants in research on prevalence rates of the health effects of exposure to a disaster may cause bias. This study compared background characteristics, disaster exposure, and complaints reported by (1) police officers who participated in an epidemiological study and underwent a medical examination, and (2) police officers who only participated in

Anja C Huizink; Nynke Smidt; Jos W R Twisk; Pauline Slottje; Tjabe Smid

2006-01-01

77

South Yorkshire Cohort: a 'cohort trials facility' study of health and weight - Protocol for the recruitment phase  

PubMed Central

Background Growing levels of both obesity and chronic disease in the general population pose a major public health problem. In the UK, an innovative 'health and weight' cohort trials facility, the 'South Yorkshire Cohort', is being built in order to provide robust evidence to inform policy, commissioning and clinical decisions in this field. This protocol reports the design of the facility and outlines the recruitment phase methods. Method/Design The South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight study uses the cohort multiple randomised controlled trial design. This design recruits a large observational cohort of patients with the condition(s) of interest which then provides a facility for multiple randomised controlled trials (with large representative samples of participants, long term outcomes as standard, increased comparability between each trial conducted within the cohort and increased efficiency particularly for trials of expensive interventions) as well as ongoing information as to the natural history of the condition and treatment as usual. This study aims to recruit 20,000 participants to the population based South Yorkshire Cohort health and weight research trials facility. Participants are recruited by invitation letters from their General Practitioners. Data is collected using postal and/or online patient self completed Health Questionnaires. NHS numbers will be used to facilitate record linkage and access to routine data. Participants are eligible if they are: aged 16 - 85 years, registered with one of 40 practices in South Yorkshire, provide consent for further contact from the researchers and to have their information used to look at the benefit of health treatments. The first wave of data is being collected during 2010/12 and further waves are planned at 2 - 5 year intervals for the planned 20 year duration of the facility. Discussion The South Yorkshire Cohort combines the strengths of the standard observational, longitudinal cohort study design with a population based cohort facility for multiple randomised controlled trials in a range of long term health and weight related conditions (including obesity). This infrastructure will allow the rapid and cheap identification and recruitment of patients, and facilitate the provision of robust evidence to inform the management and self-management of health and weight.

2011-01-01

78

Cohort Profile: The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort  

PubMed Central

Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13?761 women (contributing 13?867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19–22 years and have completed up to 20 questionnaires, have had detailed data abstracted from their medical records and have information on any cancer diagnoses and deaths through record linkage. A follow-up assessment was completed 17–18 years postnatal at which anthropometry, blood pressure, fat, lean and bone mass and carotid intima media thickness were assessed, and a fasting blood sample taken. The second follow-up clinic, which additionally measures cognitive function, physical capability, physical activity (with accelerometer) and wrist bone architecture, is underway and two further assessments with similar measurements will take place over the next 5 years. There is a detailed biobank that includes DNA, with genome-wide data available on >10?000, stored serum and plasma taken repeatedly since pregnancy and other samples; a wide range of data on completed biospecimen assays are available. Details of how to access these data are provided in this cohort profile.

Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John; Macleod, John; Molloy, Lynn; Ness, Andy; Ring, Susan; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

2013-01-01

79

Cohort Profile: the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children: ALSPAC mothers cohort.  

PubMed

Summary The Avon Longitudinal Study of Children and Parents (ALSPAC) was established to understand how genetic and environmental characteristics influence health and development in parents and children. All pregnant women resident in a defined area in the South West of England, with an expected date of delivery between 1st April 1991 and 31st December 1992, were eligible and 13761 women (contributing 13867 pregnancies) were recruited. These women have been followed over the last 19-22 years and have completed up to 20 questionnaires, have had detailed data abstracted from their medical records and have information on any cancer diagnoses and deaths through record linkage. A follow-up assessment was completed 17-18 years postnatal at which anthropometry, blood pressure, fat, lean and bone mass and carotid intima media thickness were assessed, and a fasting blood sample taken. The second follow-up clinic, which additionally measures cognitive function, physical capability, physical activity (with accelerometer) and wrist bone architecture, is underway and two further assessments with similar measurements will take place over the next 5 years. There is a detailed biobank that includes DNA, with genome-wide data available on >10000, stored serum and plasma taken repeatedly since pregnancy and other samples; a wide range of data on completed biospecimen assays are available. Details of how to access these data are provided in this cohort profile. PMID:22507742

Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Boyd, Andy; Golding, Jean; Davey Smith, George; Henderson, John; Macleod, John; Molloy, Lynn; Ness, Andy; Ring, Susan; Nelson, Scott M; Lawlor, Debbie A

2012-04-16

80

Cohort Profile: a population-based cohort to study non-motor symptoms in parkinsonism (EPIPARK).  

PubMed

Parkinson's disease is increasingly viewed as a complex disorder including a range of typical non-motor symptoms in addition to the cardinal motor signs. This cohort was set up in 2010 to investigate the specificity of non-motor symptoms for Parkinson's disease. For this, we included several control groups with decreasing contrast from Parkinson's disease patients. Group definitions ranged from healthy control subjects to those with suspected early motor signs of parkinsonism. Using a mailed questionnaire, we screened 5838 inhabitants of Lübeck, Germany, out of a target population of 10 000 citizens, enquiring about motor impairment, pain, quality of life, comorbidities, somatization and demographics. Based on this information, participants were assigned to screening groups, and selected participants were invited for in-person examination (n = 623). The examination included cognitive examinations, transcranial ultrasound, a brief psychiatric interview and a standardized motor examination that was used to assign examination groups. In addition, all participants answered questionnaires addressing depression, anxiety, sleep and quality of life. The first-year follow-up examination was performed either in person using the same protocol or via mailed questionnaires. This study is ongoing and publications are in preparation, but you may contact the first author (meike.kasten@neuro.uni-luebeck.de) with suggestions for collaboration or data requests. PMID:23257687

Kasten, Meike; Hagenah, Johann; Graf, Julia; Lorwin, Anne; Vollstedt, Eva-Juliane; Peters, Elke; Katalinic, Alexander; Raspe, Heiner; Klein, Christine

2012-12-19

81

Classical homeopathy in the treatment of cancer patients - a prospective observational study of two independent cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many cancer patients seek homeopathy as a complementary therapy. It has rarely been studied systematically, whether homeopathic care is of benefit for cancer patients. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study with cancer patients in two differently treated cohorts: one cohort with patients under complementary homeopathic treatment (HG; n = 259), and one cohort with conventionally treated cancer patients

Matthias Rostock; Johannes Naumann; Corina Guethlin; Lars Guenther; Hans H Bartsch; Harald Walach

2011-01-01

82

A cohort study on myasthenia gravis patients in China.  

PubMed

Clinical classification and age distribution in myasthenia gravis (MG) cases seem different between Oriental and Caucasian populations, but there have rarely been any clinical studies on MG patients from mainland China. The goal of the current study was to perform a comprehensive survey of myasthenia gravis in a hospital in China, establishing contemporary cohort data and clinical features. 1,108 unselected patients with MG attending the 309th Hospital of PLA, Beijing, China were studied during a 36-month period from July 2008 to June 2011. The sex ratio was 1:1 (F:M). 62.5 % of patients presented as adolescents and adults. Ocular MG cases accounted for 65.6 % childhood MG patients. A positive response was observed in 96.8 % of the patients for neostigmine tests, whereas a positive decremental response to low frequency repetitive nerve stimulation (RNS) was observed in 77.4 % of the patients. The highest stimulating positive rate was 65.3 % in stimulated facial nerve. Thymoma was significantly increased in those patients with severe MG, especially in the cohort involving the respiratory muscles (p < 0.001). The study revealed higher frequency of ocular and childhood MG compared to other studies in USA and European countries, which can be a result of optimum case ascertainment, increased disease duration, or application of complex diagnostic tests. The relative increase in the prevalence of ocular myasthenia can be attributed to the impact of an aging population. PMID:23423465

Wang, Wei; Chen, Yu-Ping; Wang, Zhong-Kui; Wei, Dong-Ning; Yin, Ling

2013-02-20

83

Coping, personality and the development of a central pattern of body fat from youth into young adulthood: The Amsterdam Growth and Health Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that coping behaviour, in particular a defeat reaction to stress, is a determinant of the central pattern of body fat. To verify this hypothesis, this study investigated if coping behaviour, and associated personality traits, are associated with a central pattern of body fat or total body fatness in a healthy population of males (n=83) and

FJ van Lenthe; J Snel; JWR Twisk; W van Mechelen; HCG Kemper; Han CG Kemper

1998-01-01

84

Incense use and respiratory tract carcinomas: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Incense use is an integral part of daily life in large parts of Asia. The burning of incense is a powerful producer of particulate matter and the smoke contains a multitude of well-characterized carcinogens. However, no convincing association has been reported between the exposure to incense smoke and cancer development. We therefore analyzed the relationship between incense use and the risk of respiratory tract carcinomas in a prospective cohort study. Methods In 1993-1998 a population-based cohort of 61,320 Singapore Chinese who were free of cancer and aged 45-74 years, completed a comprehensive interview on living conditions, dietary and lifestyle factors. By linkage to population-based registries, the cohort was followed through 2005 and cancer occurrence determined. The relative risk for these cancers associated with incense use was estimated using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results A total of 325 upper respiratory tract carcinomas (UPT) and 821 lung carcinomas were observed during follow-up. Incense use was associated with a significantly increased risk of UPT carcinomas other than nasopharyngeal, whereas no overall effect was observed on lung cancer. Duration and intensity of incense use were associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinomas in the entire respiratory tract (p for trend=0.004), while there was no significant association between incense use and non-squamous cell carcinomas. The relative risk of squamous cell carcinomas among long-term incense users was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.2-2.6; p=0.004) in the entire respiratory tract. Conclusion The study indicates that long term use of incense is associated with an increased risk of squamous cell carcinoma of the respiratory tract.

Friborg, Jeppe T.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wang, Renwei; Koh, Woon-Puay; Lee, Hin-Peng; Yu, Mimi C.

2008-01-01

85

[Legionella outbreak in Amsterdam: a cooling tower as the source].  

PubMed

During the period 6-28 July 2006, 30 confirmed cases of Legionella infection were identified in Amsterdam, 2 of which were fatal. All had a positive urinary antigen test, by which Legionella pneumophila serogroup I could be demonstrated. Consultations between the parties involved in the control of infectious diseases started on July 7th, as soon as it became clear that there was an outbreak. On July 10th it was established that relatively many of these patients lived in the eastern part of the city centre. After a study of the prevailing winds during the past 3 weeks, the search for installations containing water was started. A cooling tower in the town centre was closed on July 11th by way of precaution. During the following week, this tower was proven to be the source of the outbreak. PMID:16967589

van den Hoek, J A R; IJzerman, E P F; Coutinho, R A

2006-08-19

86

Dietary calcium intake and risk of fracture and osteoporosis: prospective longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate associations between long term dietary intake of calcium and risk of fracture of any type, hip fractures, and osteoporosis.Design A longitudinal and prospective cohort study, based on the Swedish Mammography Cohort, including a subcohort, the Swedish Mammography Cohort Clinical.Setting A population based cohort in Sweden established in 1987.Participants 61 433 women (born between 1914 and 1948) were

Eva Warensjö; Liisa Byberg; Håkan Melhus; Rolf Gedeborg; Hans Mallmin; Alicja Wolk; Karl Michaëlsson

2011-01-01

87

Economic crisis and smoking behaviour: prospective cohort study in Iceland  

PubMed Central

Objective To examine the associations between the 2008 economic collapse in Iceland and smoking behaviour at the national and individual levels. Design A population-based, prospective cohort study based on a mail survey (Health and Wellbeing in Iceland) assessed in 2007 and 2009. Setting National mail survey. Participants Representative cohort (n=3755) of Icelandic adults. Main outcome measure Smoking status. Results A significant reduction in the prevalence of smoking was observed from 2007 (pre-economic collapse) to 2009 (postcollapse) in both males (17.4–14.8%; p 0.01) and females (20.0–17.5%; p 0.01) in the cohort (n=3755). At the individual level of analysis, male former smokers experiencing a reduction in income during the same period were less likely to relapse (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.16 to 0.85). Female smokers were less likely to quit over time compared to males (OR 0.65; 95% CI 0.45 to 0.93). Among male former smokers who experienced an increase in income between 2007 and 2009, we observed an elevated risk of smoking relapse (OR 4.02; 95% CI 1.15 to 14.00). Conclusions The national prevalence of smoking in Iceland declined following the 2008 economic crisis. This could be due to the procyclical relationship between macro-economic conditions and smoking behaviour (ie, hard times lead to less smoking because of lower affordability), or it may simply reflect a continuation of trends already in place prior to the crisis. In individual-level analysis, we find that former smokers who experienced a decline in income were less likely to relapse; and conversely, an increase in income raises the risk. However, caution is warranted since these findings are based on small numbers.

McClure, Christopher Bruce; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A; Hauksdottir, Arna; Kawachi, Ichiro

2012-01-01

88

The relationship between 30-year developmental patterns of body fat and body fat distribution and its vascular properties: the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Introduction: Although body fat and body fat distribution are known to be related to cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), it is unknown whether specific 30-year developmental patterns of body fat are associated with CVDs. This study examines the existence of distinct developmental patterns of total fat measured by the sum of four skinfolds (S4SFs) and body fat distribution measured by the skinfold thickness ratio (SFratio), and relates these patterns to micro- and macrovascular functions. Methods: In 2006, 259 apparently healthy subjects were examined on micro- and macrovascular functions, using video microscopy and carotid ultrasound sonography. Body fat, using both S4SFs and SFratio, was measured for 10 times over 30 years, from 13 years onwards. Latent class growth analyses (LCGA) were used to obtain distinct developmental patterns of S4SFs and SFratio. This is a data-drive hypothesis-generating approach and could possibly give a new perspective on body fatness over time. In addition, a mixed-method approach is used to obtain individual growth parameters. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship of these patterns and individual growth parameters with micro- and macrovascular functions. Results: LCGA identified normal and unfavourable developmental patterns in S4SFs and SFratio. Both men and women with an unfavourable developmental pattern of S4SFs showed impaired carotid compliance (?=?0.216, P=0.004 and ?=?0.109, P=0.039, respectively), carotid distensibility (?=?5.078, P=0.001 and ?=?5.118, P<0.001, respectively) and Young's elastic modulus (?=0.066, P=0.065 and ?=0.107, P<0.001, respectively). In contrast, no relationship for microvascular function with developmental patterns of S4SFs was found. Developmental patterns of the SFratio were associated with neither measures of micro- nor macrovascular functions. No associations were using the individual growth parameters. Conclusions: For macrovascular function, there is a relationship of 30-year developmental patterns of S4SFs, whereas no such relationship was found for the 30-year developmental patterns of S4SFs or SFratio with microvascular function.

Wijnstok, N J; Serne, E H; Hoekstra, T; Schouten, F; Smulders, Y M; Twisk, J W R

2013-01-01

89

Shanghai Men's Health Study (SMHS): Cohort Study of Cancer- Inhibitory Factors in Men  

Cancer.gov

The Shanghai Men’s Health Study (SMHS) is a population-based cohort study that is being conducted in parallel with the Shanghai Women’s Health Study (SWHS) at Vanderbilt University in collaboration with the Shanghai Cancer Institute. This research is to establish a cohort of adult men in Shanghai for a long-term epidemiological study of cancer and other chronic diseases, with a focus on identifying modifiable protective dietary factors for cancers.

90

Determinants of workplace injury among Thai Cohort Study participants  

PubMed Central

Objectives To explore individual determinants of workplace injury among Thai workers. Design Cross-sectional analysis of a large national cohort. Setting Thailand. Participants Thai Cohort Study participants who responded to the 2009 follow-up survey were included if they reported doing paid work or being self-employed (n=51?751). Outcome measures Self-reported injury incidence over the past 12?months was calculated. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to test associations between individual determinants and self-reported workplace injury. Results Workplace injuries were reported by 1317 study participants (2.5%); the incidence was 34 (95% CI 32 to 36)/1000 worker-years for men, and 18 (17–20) for women. Among men working ?41?h and earning <10?000 Baht, the injury rate was four times higher compared with men working <11?h and earning ?20?001 Baht; differences in injury rates were less pronounced in women. Multivariate modelling showed that working ?49?h/week (23%) and working for ?10?000 Bath/month (37%) were associated with workplace injury. The increase in injury risk with increased working hours did not exceed the risk expected from increased exposure. Conclusions Reductions in occupational injury rates could be achieved by limiting working hours to 48/week. Particularly for Thai low wage earners and those with longer workdays, there is a need for effective injury preventive programmes.

Berecki-Gisolf, Janneke; Tawatsupa, Benjawan; McClure, Roderick; Seubsman, Sam-ang; Sleigh, Adrian

2013-01-01

91

The Utah Thyroid Cohort Study: analysis of the dosimetry results.  

PubMed

Above ground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the 1950s created radioactive fallout that was dispersed into the atmosphere and deposited over a large geographical area of the U.S. One area believed to have received a considerable amount of exposure to radioiodines (131I and 133I) in the fallout was southwest Utah and southeast Nevada. This paper describes the estimates of doses to the thyroid for a cohort of 3,545 subjects who were children during the atmospheric testing period. This group of children was examined for thyroid disease during 1965-1970 and again in 1985-1986. The cohort was made up of children who lived in three counties in 1965: Washington County, Utah; Lincoln County, Nevada; and Graham County, Arizona (originally thought to be an unexposed group). Pathway analysis was used in the dosimetry, considering exposures through the ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation of iodine during the passage of the fallout cloud, and external exposure. Specific data were obtained on diet (including sources and levels of milk and vegetables consumed, residence history, and lifestyle) by interviewing the parents or nearest living relative of subjects. The final dosimetry file for each member of the cohort contained specific doses to the thyroid glands and uncertainties (reported as geometric standard deviations, GSD) related to each dose estimate. The mean absorbed dose to the thyroid for subjects living in Washington County, Utah, was 170 mGy; for Lincoln County, Nevada, 50 mGy; and for those living in Graham County, Arizona, 13 mGy. The maximum dose to any subject was 4,610 mGy. There were 10 subjects who had doses greater than 1 Gy. The majority of uncertainty values calculated in this study were GSD values between 2.0 and 4.0. The results of the dosimetry were combined with the results of clinical examinations of the cohort to determine if a causal relationship exists between dose to thyroid from NTS generated radioactive iodines and the incidence of thyroid disease. PMID:7883559

Till, J E; Simon, S L; Kerber, R; Lloyd, R D; Stevens, W; Thomas, D C; Lyon, J L; Preston-Martin, S

1995-04-01

92

The Utah thyroid cohort study: Analysis of the dosimetry results  

SciTech Connect

Above ground testing of nuclear weapons at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) during the 1950s created radioactive fallout that was dispersed into the atmosphere and deposited over a large geographical area of the U.S. One area believed to have received a considerable amount of exposure to radio-iodines ({sup 131}I and {sup 133}I) in the fallout was southwest Utah and southeast Nevada. This paper describes the estimates of doses to the thyroid for a cohort of 3,545 subjects who were children during the atmospheric testing period. This group was examined for thyroid disease during 1965-1970 and again in 1985-1986. The cohort was made up of children who lived in three counties in 1965: Washington County, Utah; Lincoln County, Nevada; and Graham County, Arizona. Pathway analysis was used in the dosimetry, considering exposures through the ingestion of milk and vegetables, inhalation of iodine during the passage of the fallout cloud, and external exposure. Specific data were obtained on diet (including sources and levels of milk and vegetables consumed, residence history, and lifestyle) by interviewing the parents or nearest living relative of subjects. The final dosimetry file for each member of the cohort contained specific doses to the thyroid glands and uncertainties (reported as geometric standard deviations, GSD) related to each dose estimate. The mean absorbed dose to the thyroid for subjects living in Washington County, Utah, was 170 mGy; for Lincoln County, Nevada, 50 mGy; and for those living in Graham County, Arizona, 13 mGy. The maximum dose to any subject was 4,610 mGy. There were 10 subjects who had doses greater than 1 Gy. The majority of uncertainty values calculated in this study were GSD values between 2.0 and 4.0. The results of the dosimetry were combined with the results of clinical examinations of the cohort to determine if a causal relationship exists between dose to thyroid from NTS generated radioactive iodines and the incidence of thyroid disease.

Till, J.E. [Radiological Assessments Corp., Nesses, SC (United States); Simon, S.L. [Nationwide Radiological Study, Majuro (Marshall Islands); Kerber, R. [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-04-01

93

Women with symptoms of uncomplicated urinary tract infection are often willing to delay antibiotic treatment: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Women presenting with symptoms of acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) are often prescribed antibiotics. However, in 25 to 50% of symptomatic women not taking antibiotics, symptoms recover spontaneously within one week. It is not known how many women are prepared to delay antibiotic treatment. We investigated how many women presenting with UTI symptoms were willing to delay antibiotic treatment when asked by their general practitioner (GP). Methods From 18 April 2006 until 8 October 2008, in a prospective cohort study, patients were recruited in 20 GP practices in and around Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Healthy, non-pregnant women who contacted their GP with painful and/or frequent micturition for no longer than seven days registered their symptoms and collected urine for urinalysis and culture. GPs were requested to ask all patients if they were willing to delay antibiotic treatment, without knowing the result of the culture at that moment. After seven days, patients reported whether their symptoms had improved and whether they had used any antibiotics. Results Of 176 women, 137 were asked by their GP to delay antibiotic treatment, of whom 37% (51/137) were willing to delay. After one week, 55% (28/51) of delaying women had not used antibiotics, of whom 71% (20/28) reported clinical improvement or cure. None of the participating women developed pyelonephritis. Conclusions More than a third of women with UTI symptoms are willing to delay antibiotic treatment when asked by their GP. The majority of delaying women report spontaneous symptom improvement after one week.

2013-01-01

94

Factors associated with childhood cancer in a national cohort study.  

PubMed Central

Information on 16,193 infants delivered in Great Britain in one week of April, 1970 was collected by midwives at the birth and during the first 7 days of life. Using multiple sources, 33 children developing cancer by 1980 were identified from this cohort, giving an incidence of 2.04 per 1,000 total births by the age of 10. Comparisons of these 33 children were made with 99 controls, three for each index case, matched on maternal age, parity and social class. Statistically significant associations were initially found with maternal X-rays and smoking during pregnancy, and the use of analgesics such as pethidine during labour, confirming the findings of retrospective case-control studies. Unexpected statistically significant associations were found with delivery of the child outside term, and drug administration in the first week of life. The latter was found in the absence of an association with neonatal abnormalities in the child and relates mostly to the administration of prophylactic drugs such as vitamin K. Logistic regression involving the whole cohort showed independent statistical associations with maternal smoking (OR 2.5), and drugs to the infant (OR 2.6). After adjusting for these factors no other statistically significant associations were found.

Golding, J.; Paterson, M.; Kinlen, L. J.

1990-01-01

95

Physical Performance Limitations in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

Physical performance limitations are one of the potential long-term consequences following diagnosis and treatment for childhood cancer. The purpose of this review is to describe the risk factors for and the participation restrictions that result from physical performance limitations among childhood cancer survivors who participated in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS). Articles previously published from the CCSS cohort related to physical performance limitations were reviewed and the results summarized. Our review showed that physical performance limitations are prevalent among childhood cancer survivors and may increase as they age. Host-based risk factors for physical disability include an original diagnosis of bone tumor, brain tumor, or Hodgkin's disease; female sex; and an income less than $20,000 per year. Treatment-based risk factors include radiation and treatment with a combination of alkylating agents and anthracyclines. Musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiac, pulmonary, sensory, and endocrine organ system dysfunction also increase the risk of developing a physical performance limitation. In summary, monitoring of physical performance limitations in an aging cohort of childhood cancer survivors is important and will help determine the impact of physical performance limitations on morbidity, mortality, and caregiver burden. In addition, in developing restorative and preventive interventions for childhood cancer survivors, we must take into account the special needs of survivors with physical disability to optimize their health and enhance participation in daily living activities.

Ness, Kirsten K.; Hudson, Melissa M.; Ginsberg, Jill P.; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Kaste, Sue C.; Marina, Neyssa; Whitton, John; Robison, Leslie L.; Gurney, James G.

2009-01-01

96

ProCOC: The prostate cancer outcomes cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Despite intensive research over the last several decades on prostate cancer, many questions particularly those concerning early diagnosis and the choice of optimal treatment for each individual patient, still remain unanswered. The goal of treating patients with localized prostate cancer is a curative one and includes minimizing adverse effects to preserve an adequate quality of life. Better understanding on how the quality of life is affected depending on the treatment modality would assist patients in deciding which treatment to choose; furthermore, the development of prognostic biomarkers that indicate the future course of the illness is a promising approach with potential and the focus of much attention. These questions can be addressed in the context of a cohort study. Methods/Design This is a prospective, multi-center cohort study within the canton of Zurich, Switzerland. We will include patients with newly diagnosed localized prostate cancer independently of treatment finally chosen. We will acquire clinical data including quality of life and lifestyle, prostate tissue specimen as well as further biological samples (blood and urine) before, during and after treatment for setup of a bio-bank. Assessment of these data and samples in the follow up will be done during routine controls. Study duration will be at least ten years. Influence of treatment on morbidity and mortality, including changes in quality of life, will be identified and an evaluation of biomarkers will be performed. Further we intend to set up a bio-bank containing blood and urine samples providing research of various natures around prostate cancer in the future. Discussion We presume that this study will provide answers to pertinent questions concerning prognosis and outcomes of men with localised prostate cancer.

Umbehr, Martin; Kessler, Thomas M; Sulser, Tullio; Kristiansen, Glen; Probst, Nicole; Steurer, Johann; Bachmann, Lucas M

2008-01-01

97

Childhood adversities and adult-onset asthma: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Childhood adversities may be important determinants of later illnesses and poor health behaviour. However, large-scale prospective studies on the associations between childhood adversities and the onset of asthma in adulthood are lacking. Design Prospective cohort study with 7-year follow-up. Setting Nationally representative study. Data were collected from the Health and Social Support (HeSSup) survey and national registers. Participants The participants represent the Finnish population from the following age groups: 20–24, 30–34, 40–44, and 50–54?years at baseline in 1998 (24?057 survey participants formed the final cohort of this study). The occurrence of childhood adversities was assessed at baseline with a six-item survey scale. The analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, behavioural health risks and common mental disorders. Primary and secondary outcomes The survey data were linked to data from national health registers on incident asthma during a 7-year follow-up to define new-onset asthma cases with verified diagnoses. Results A total of 12?126 (59%) participants reported that they encountered a childhood adversity. Of them 3677 (18% of all) endured three to six adversities. During a follow-up of 7?years, 593 (2.9%) participants were diagnosed with incident asthma. Those who reported three or more childhood adversities had a 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.31 to 2.01) greater risk of asthma compared to those without childhood adversities. This hazard attenuated but remained statistically significant after adjustment for conventional risk factors (HR 1.33; 95% CI 1.06 to 1.67). Conclusions Adults who report having encountered adversities in childhood may have an increased risk of developing asthma.

Korkeila, Jyrki; Lietzen, Raija; Sillanmaki, Lauri H; Rautava, Paivi; Korkeila, Katariina; Kivimaki, Mika; Koskenvuo, Markku; Vahtera, Jussi

2012-01-01

98

Descriptive Epidemiology of the Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background Revision anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has worse outcomes than primary reconstructions. Predictors for these worse outcomes are not known. The Multicenter ACL Revision Study (MARS) Group was developed to perform a multisurgeon, multicenter prospective longitudinal study to obtain sufficient subjects to allow multivariable analysis to determine predictors of clinical outcome. Purpose To describe the formation of MARS and provide descriptive analysis of patient demographics and clinical features for the initial 460 enrolled patients to date in this prospective cohort. Study Design Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 2. Methods After training and institutional review board approval, surgeons began enrolling patients undergoing revision ACL reconstruction, recording patient demographics, previous ACL reconstruction methods, intra-articular injuries, and current revision techniques. Enrolled subjects completed a questionnaire consisting of validated patient-based outcome measures. Results As of April 1, 2009, 87 surgeons have enrolled a total of 460 patients (57% men; median age, 26 years). For 89%, the reconstruction was the first revision. Mode of failure as deemed by the revising surgeon was traumatic (32%), technical (24%), biologic (7%), combination (37%), infection (<1%), and no response (<1%). Previous graft present at the time of injury was 70% autograft, 27% allograft, 2% combination, and 1% unknown. Sixty-two percent were more than 2 years removed from their last reconstruction. Graft choice for revision ACL reconstruction was 45% autograft, 54% allograft, and more than 1% both allograft and autograft. Meniscus and/or chondral damage was found in 90% of patients. Conclusion The MARS Group has been able to quickly accumulate the largest revision ACL reconstruction cohort reported to date. Traumatic reinjury is deemed by surgeons to be the most common single mode of failure, but a combination of factors represents the most common mode of failure. Allograft graft choice is more common in the revision setting than autograft. Concomitant knee injury is extremely common in this population.

2013-01-01

99

A Canadian Cohort Study of Cognitive Impairment and Related Dementias (ACCORD): Study Methods and Baseline Results  

Microsoft Academic Search

The overall objective of the Canadian Collaborative Cohort of Related Dementias (ACCORD) study is to describe the diagnostic distribution, natural history and treatment outcomes of individuals referred from the community to dementia clinics in Canada. Between 1997 and 1999, an inception cohort of 1,136 subjects entered into this longitudinal study. At the baseline assessment, 10.9% of the subjects were classified

H. Feldman; A. R. Levy; G.-Y. Hsiung; K. R. Peters; A. Donald; S. E. Black; R. W. Bouchard; S. G. Gauthier; D. A. Guzman; D. B. Hogan; A. Kertesz; K. Rockwood

2003-01-01

100

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Cohort members: Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, bi...

101

Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study  

PubMed Central

Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort differences in the rate of cognitive aging and if, at the very end of life, pervasive mortality-related processes overshadow and minimize cohort differences. We used data on 5 primary mental abilities from the Seattle Longitudinal Study (Schaie, 2005) to compare both age-related and mortality-related changes between earlier born cohorts (1886–1913) and later born cohorts (1914–1948). Our models covary for several individual and cohort differences in central indicators of life expectancy, education, health, and gender. Age-related growth models corroborate and extend earlier findings by documenting level differences at age 70 of up to 0.50 SD and less steep rates of cognitive aging on all abilities between 50 and 80 years of age favoring the later born cohort. In contrast, mortality-related models provide limited support for positive cohort differences. The later born cohort showed steeper mortality-related declines. We discuss possible reasons why often reported positive secular trends in age-related processes may not generalize to the vulnerable segment of the population that is close to death and suggest routes for further inquiry.

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

2011-01-01

102

Undernutrition in British Haredi infants within the Gateshead Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveDuring a study of weight faltering it was observed that infants from a minority Haredi (ultra-Orthodox Jewish) religious group showed very different growth patterns from the rest of the cohort. The authors thus set out to explore the characteristics of the community that may explain these differences.Setting and subjectsGateshead Millennium Study cohort, UK.DesignProspective population-based cohort study of 961 term infants

Charlotte M Wright; David H Stone; Kathryn N Parkinson

2010-01-01

103

Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description  

PubMed Central

Background Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers’ Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated with metabolic abnormalities and subclinical atherosclerosis in a middle aged population in Spain free of clinical cardiovascular disease. The objective of this paper is to describe the study design, aims and baseline characteristics of participants in the AWHS. Methods/Design Longitudinal cohort study based on the annual health exams of 5,400 workers of a car assembly plant in Figueruelas (Zaragoza, Spain). Study participants were recruited during a standardized clinical exam in 2009–2010 (participation rate 95.6%). Study participants will undergo annual clinical exams and laboratory assays, and baseline and triennial collection of biological materials for biobanking and cardiovascular imaging exams (carotid, femoral and abdominal ultrasonography, coronary calcium score, and ankle-arm blood pressure index). Participants will be followed-up for 10?years. Results The average (SD) age, body mass index, and waist circumference were 49.3 (8.7) years, 27.7 (3.6) kg/m2 and 97.2 (9.9) cm, respectively, among males (N?=?5,048), and 40.8 (11.6) years, 24.4 (3.8) kg/m2, and 81.9 (9.9) cm, among females (N?=?351). The prevalence of overweight, obesity, current smoking, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes were 55.0, 23.1, 37.1, 40.3, 75.0, and 7.4%, respectively, among males, and 23.7, 8.3, 45.0, 12.1, 59.5, and 0.6%, respectively, among females. In the initial 587 study participants who completed all imaging exams (94.5% male), the prevalence of carotid plaque, femoral plaque, coronary calcium score >1 to 100, and coronary calcium score >100 was 30.3, 56.9, 27.0, and 8.8%, respectively. 67.7% of study participants had at least one plaque in the carotid or femoral arteries. Discussion Baseline data from the AWHS show a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and of sublinical atherosclerosis. Follow-up of this cohort will allow the assessment of subclinical atherosclerosis progression and the link of disease progression to traditional and emergent risk factors.

2012-01-01

104

Improved low visibility forecasts at Amsterdam Airport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Accurate, reliable and unambiguous information concerning the actual and expected (low) visibility conditions at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is very important for the available operational flow capacity. Therefore visibility forecast errors can have a negative impact on safety and operational expenses. KNMI has performed an update of the visibility forecast system in close collaboration with the main users of the forecasts (Air Traffic Control, the airport authorities and KLM airlines). This automatic forecasting system consists of a Numerical Weather Prediction Model (Hirlam) with a statistical post processing module on top of it. Output of both components is supplied to a human forecaster who issues a special probabilistic forecast bulletin. This bulletin is tailored to the specific requirements of the airport community. The improvements made to the forecast system are twofold: 1) In addition to the Meteorological Optical Range (MOR) values, RVR (Runway Visual Range) is forecasted. Since RVR depends on both MOR and the local Background Luminance, a (deterministic) statistical forecast for the latter has been developed. 2) Another improvement was achieved by calculating joint probabilities for specific combinations of visibility and cloud base height for thresholds which have direct impact on the flow capacity at the airport. The development of this new visibility forecast will be presented briefly. Also a few verification results will be shown to demonstrate the improvements made. Finally, the importance of explaining the user the use of the forecast information, in relation to their decision making process, will be discussed. For that reason, a simple guideline model to make a cost-optimal choice will be introduced.

Wijngaard, J.; Vogelezang, D.; Maat, N.; van Bruggen, H.

2009-09-01

105

Etiology of atopy in infancy: the KOALA Birth Cohort Study.  

PubMed

The aim of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study in the Netherlands is to identify factors that influence the clinical expression of atopic disease with a main focus on lifestyle (e.g., anthroposophy, vaccinations, antibiotics, dietary habits, breastfeeding and breast milk composition, intestinal microflora composition, infections during the first year of life, and gene-environment interaction). The recruitment of pregnant women started in October 2000. First, participants with 'conventional lifestyles' (n = 2343) were retrieved from an ongoing prospective cohort study (n = 7020) on pregnancy-related pelvic girdle pain. In addition, pregnant women (n = 491) with 'alternative lifestyles' with regard to child rearing practices, dietary habits (organic, vegetarian), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics, were recruited through organic food shops, anthroposophic doctors and midwives, Steiner schools, and dedicated magazines. All participants were enrolled between 14 and 18 wk of gestation and completed an intake questionnaire on family history of atopy and infant care intentions. Documentation of other relevant variables started in the pregnant mother and covered the first and third trimester as well as early childhood by repeated questionnaires at 14-18, 30, and 34 wk of gestation and 3, 7, 12, and 24 months post-partum. A subgroup of participants, including both conventional and alternative lifestyles, was asked to consent to maternal blood sampling, breast milk and a faecal sample of the infant at 1 month post-partum, capillary blood at age 1 yr, venous blood and observation of manifestation of atopic dermatitis during home visits at the age of 2 yr (using the UK working party criteria and the severity scoring of atopic dermatitis index), and buccal swabs for DNA isolation from child-parent trios. From the start, ethical approval and informed consent procedures included gene-environment interaction studies. Follow-up at 3 and 7 months post-partum was completed with high response rates (respectively 90% and 88% in the conventional group, and 97% and 97% in the alternative group). The home visits at 2 yr of age will be completed in 2005. Preliminary results show that we have succeeded in recruiting a large population with various lifestyle choices with a fairly large contrast with regard to dietary habits (including organic foods, vegetarian diet), vaccination schemes and/or use of antibiotics. We have also been able to collect a large number of faecal samples (n = 1176) and capillary blood samples at age 1 yr (n = 956). Furthermore, a large proportion of the participants have consented with genetic studies. Mid 2006 we expect to report our first results on the relationship between the various exposures in early life and childhood atopy. An outline of the focus and design of the KOALA Birth Cohort Study is presented. PMID:16343090

Kummeling, Ischa; Thijs, Carel; Penders, John; Snijders, Bianca E P; Stelma, Foekje; Reimerink, Johan; Koopmans, Marion; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Huber, Machteld; Jansen, Margje C J F; de Bie, Rob; van den Brandt, Piet A

2005-12-01

106

Impact of funding on biomedical research: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Public funding is aimed at facilitating the initiation, completion and publication of research study protocols. However, no evaluation is made to investigate the impact of grant success on the conduct of biomedical research. It is therefore of great interest to compare the fate of funded protocols versus not funded: Are they initiated? Are they completed? Did the results confirm the hypothesis? Were they published? The objective was to investigate the fate of protocols submitted for funding, whether they were funded or not. Methods Retrospective cohort study of protocols submitted for funding to the Greater Lyon regional scientific committee in 1997. Initial characteristics of protocols (design, study size, investigator status) were abstracted from archives, and follow-up characteristics (initiation, completion and publication) from a mailed questionnaire to the principal investigators. Results Among the 142 submitted protocols, follow-up information was available for 114 (80%). As a whole, 38% of studies were funded by the Greater Lyon research committee. The rate of initiation varied from 62% for studies with no acknowledged funding to 100% for studies with both committee and other simultaneous funding. When initiated, the rate of completion was 62% for studies with at least one funding and 40% for studies without acknowledged funding. When completed, publication was reached for 77% of studies with either committee or external funding, for 58% of studies without acknowledged funding and for 37% of studies with both committee and external funding. Conclusion Some protocols submitted for funding were initiated and completed without any funding declared. To our understanding this mean that not all protocols submitted really needed funding and also that health care facilities are unaware that they implicitly financially support and pay for biomedical research.

Decullier, Evelyne; Chapuis, Francois

2006-01-01

107

Maternal smoking during pregnancy and offspring growth in childhood: 1993 and 2004 Pelotas cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveTo explore the effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy on offspring growth using three approaches: (1) multiple adjustments for socioeconomic and parental factors, (2) maternal–paternal comparisons as a test of putative intrauterine effects and (3) comparisons between two birth cohort studies.MethodsPopulation-based birth cohort studies were carried out in Pelotas, Brazil, in 1993 and 2004. Cohort members were followed up at

Alicia Matijasevich; Marie-Jo Brion; Ana M Menezes; Aluísio J D Barros; Iná S Santos; Fernando C Barros

2011-01-01

108

Migraine and cognitive decline among women: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the association between migraine and cognitive decline among women. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting Women’s Health Study, United States. Participants 6349 women aged 65 or older enrolled in the Women’s Health Study who provided information about migraine status at baseline and participated in cognitive testing during follow-up. Participants were classified into four groups: no history of migraine, migraine with aura, migraine without aura, and past history of migraine (reports of migraine history but no migraine in the year prior to baseline). Main outcome measures Cognitive testing was carried out at two year intervals up to three times using the telephone interview for cognitive status, immediate and delayed recall trials of the east Boston memory test, delayed recall trial of the telephone interview for cognitive status 10 word list, and a category fluency test. All tests were combined into a global cognitive score, and tests assessing verbal memory were combined to create a verbal memory score. Results Of the 6349 women, 853 (13.4%) reported any migraine; of these, 195 (22.9%) reported migraine with aura, 248 (29.1%) migraine without aura, and 410 (48.1%) a past history of migraine. Compared with women with no history of migraine, those who experienced migraine with or without aura or had a past history of migraine did not have significantly different rates of cognitive decline in any of the cognitive scores: values for the rate of change of the global cognitive score between baseline and the last observation ranged from ?0.01 (SE 0.04) for past history of migraine to 0.08 (SE 0.04) for migraine with aura when compared with women without any history of migraine. Women who experienced migraine were also not at increased risk of substantial cognitive decline (worst 10% of the distribution of decline). When compared with women without a history of migraine, the relative risks for the global score ranged from 0.77 (95% confidence interval 0.46 to 1.28) for women with migraine without aura to 1.17 (0.84 to 1.63) for women with a past history of migraine. Conclusion In this prospective cohort of women, migraine status was not associated with faster rates of cognitive decline.

2012-01-01

109

Complex regional pain syndrome 1 - the Swiss cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Little is known about the course of Complex Regional Pain Syndrome 1 and potential factors influencing the course of this disorder over time. The goal of this study is a) to set up a database with patients suffering from suspected CRPS 1 in an initial stadium, b) to perform investigations on epidemiology, diagnosis, prognosis, and socioeconomics within the database and c) to develop a prognostic risk assessment tool for patients with CRPS 1 taking into account symptomatology and specific therapies. Methods/design Prospective cohort study. Patients suffering from a painful swelling of the hand or foot which appeared within 8 weeks after a trauma or a surgery and which cannot be explained by conditions that would otherwise account for the degree of pain and dysfunction will be included. In accordance with the recommendations of International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF model), standardised and validated questionnaires will be used. Patients will be monitored over a period of 2 years at 6 scheduled visits (0 and 6 weeks, 3, 6, 12, and 24 months). Each visit involves a physical examination, registration of therapeutic interventions, and completion of the various study questionnaires. Outcomes involve changes in health status, quality of life and costs/utility. Discussion This paper describes the rationale and design of patients with CRPS 1. Ideally, potential risk factors may be identified at an early stage in order to initiate an early and adequate treatment in patients with increased risk for delayed recovery. Trial registration Not applicable

Brunner, Florian; Bachmann, Lucas M; Weber, Ulrich; Kessels, Alfons GH; Perez, Roberto SGM; Marinus, Johan; Kissling, Rudolf

2008-01-01

110

Gulf war illness--better, worse, or just the same? A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives Firstly, to describe changes in the health of Gulf war veterans studied in a previous occupational cohort study and to compare outcome with comparable non-deployed military personnel. Secondly, to determine whether differences in prevalence between Gulf veterans and controls at follow up can be explained by greater persistence or greater incidence of disorders. Design Occupational cohort study in the

M. Hotopf; Anthony S David; Lisa Hull; Vasilis Nikalaou; Catherine Unwin; Simon Wessely

2003-01-01

111

Overweight, obesity and risk of liver cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cohort studies of excess body weight and risk of liver cancer were identified for a meta-analysis by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases from 1966 to June 2007 and the reference lists of retrieved articles. Results from individual studies were combined using a random-effects model. We identified 11 cohort studies, of which seven on overweight (with a total of 5037 cases)

S C Larsson; A Wolk

2007-01-01

112

Relation Between Headache In Childhood And Physical And Psychiatric Symptoms In Adulthood: National Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To elucidate the associations between frequent headache and psychosocial factors in childhood and to determine whether such children are at an increased risk of headache, multiple physical symptoms, and psychiatric symptoms in adulthood. Design Population based birth cohort study. Setting General population. Participants People participating in the national child development study, a population based birth cohort study established in

Paul Fearon; Matthew Hotopf

2001-01-01

113

Drug use in children: cohort study in three European countries  

PubMed Central

Objective To provide an overview of drug use in children in three European countries. Design Retrospective cohort study, 2000-5. Setting Primary care research databases in the Netherlands (IPCI), United Kingdom (IMS-DA), and Italy (Pedianet). Participants 675 868 children aged up to 14 (Italy) or 18 (UK and Netherlands). Main outcome measure Prevalence of use per year calculated by drug class (anatomical and therapeutic). Prevalence of “recurrent/chronic” use (three or more prescriptions a year) and “non-recurrent” or “acute” use (less than three prescriptions a year) within each therapeutic class. Descriptions of the top five most commonly used drugs evaluated for off label status within each anatomical class. Results Three levels of drug use could be distinguished in the study population: high (>10/100 children per year), moderate (1-10/100 children per year), and low (<1/100 children per year). For all age categories, anti-infective, dermatological, and respiratory drugs were in the high use group, whereas cardiovascular and antineoplastic drugs were always in the low use group. Emollients, topical steroids, and asthma drugs had the highest prevalence of recurrent use, but relative use of low prevalence drugs was more often recurrent than acute. In the top five highest prevalence drugs topical inhaled and systemic steroids, oral contraceptives, and topical or systemic antifungal drugs were most commonly used off label. Conclusion This overview of outpatient paediatric prescription patterns in a large European population could provide information to prioritise paediatric therapeutic research needs.

2008-01-01

114

Cohort Profile: The Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II).  

PubMed

Similar to other industrialized countries, Germany's population is ageing. Whereas some people enjoy good physical and cognitive health into old age, others suffer from a multitude of age-related disorders and impairments which reduce life expectancy and affect quality of life. To identify and characterize the factors associated with 'healthy' vs. 'unhealthy' ageing, we have launched the Berlin Aging Study II (BASE-II), a multidisciplinary and multi-institutional project that ascertains a large number of ageing-related variables from a wide range of different functional domains. Phenotypic assessments include factors related to geriatrics and internal medicine, immunology, genetics, psychology, sociology and economics. Baseline recruitment of the BASE-II cohort was recently completed and has led to the sampling of 1600 older adults (age range 60-80 years), as well as 600 younger adults (20-35 years) serving as the basic population for in-depth analyses. BASE-II data are linked to the German Socio-Economic Panel Study (SOEP), a long-running panel survey representative of the German population, to estimate sample selectivity. A major goal of BASE-II is to facilitate collaboration with other research groups by freely sharing relevant phenotypic and genotypic data with qualified outside investigators. PMID:23505255

Bertram, Lars; Böckenhoff, Anke; Demuth, Ilja; Düzel, Sandra; Eckardt, Rahel; Li, Shu-Chen; Lindenberger, Ulman; Pawelec, Graham; Siedler, Thomas; Wagner, Gert G; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth

2013-03-14

115

Painful leg ulceration: a prospective, longitudinal cohort study.  

PubMed

This study aimed to explore the relationship between pain mechanism, pain intensity, and leg ulcer characteristics using a 6-month longitudinal cohort study in a community setting in the north of England. Patients with leg ulceration referred consecutively to district nurses were invited to participate (n=96). The main outcome measures were pain intensity using daily visual analogue scores, leg ulcer characteristics (etiology, size, location, duration), and LANSS (Leeds Assessment of Neuropathic Symptoms and Signs). Results suggested that type, duration, position, and size of the leg ulcer had no effect on average daily pain scores. Using the LANSS questionnaire, 43.5% of respondents reported symptoms suggestive of a neuropathic mechanism to their pain. Patients with neuropathic symptoms had higher average daily pain scores (p<0.001). Fewer people had healed ulcers at 6 months with neuropathic symptoms compared with those with no neuropathic symptoms (30.8 vs. 52.1%). It would seem that the severity of pain can not be predicted by the type, size, position, or duration of ulceration. Patients who scored positively for neuropathic symptoms had higher average daily pain scores and fewer had healed leg ulcers at 6 months compared with those who did not experience neuropathic signs and symptoms. PMID:17352749

Briggs, Michelle; Bennett, Michael I; Closs, S José; Cocks, Kim

116

Breast cancer risk and hysterectomy status: the Multiethnic Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objective The main objective was to examine the association between simple hysterectomy (without bilateral oophorectomy) and breast cancer risk. Because hysterectomy prevalence varies by ethnicity, the secondary objective was to examine whether inclusion of women with hysterectomies affects the estimates of breast cancer risk by ethnicity. Methods The Multiethnic Cohort Study was assembled in 1993-6 and included 68,065 women from Hawaii and Los Angeles aged 45-75 years without missing information or bilateral oophorectomy. Hysterectomy status was self-reported. After 7.7 years median follow-up, 1,862 cases of invasive breast cancer were identified. Proportional hazards models were used to estimate relative risks (RR) while controlling for known risk factors. Results Prevalence of simple hysterectomy varied from 12 to 29% among the ethnic groups (White, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, and Latina). Overall, hysterectomy was not associated with breast cancer risk (RR=0.98). Although the RRs were nonsignificantly elevated by 15% in White women and nonsignificantly reduced by 15% in Latinas of non-US origin, the variation by ethnicity was not significant (pinteraction=0.48). The breast cancer risk associated with ethnicity was very similar when estimated with and without women with hysterectomies. Conclusions This study suggests that simple hysterectomy status does not alter breast cancer risk. Therefore, inclusion of women with simple hysterectomies does not substantially change estimated risk of breast cancer by ethnicity.

Woolcott, Christy G.; Maskarinec, Gertraud; Pike, Malcolm C.; Henderson, Brian E.; Wilkens, Lynne R.; Kolonel, Laurence N.

2009-01-01

117

Local economy and sickness absence: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Study objective: To investigate the effect of the local economy, as measured by municipal revenue and local unemployment rate, on sickness absence among the employed. Design: A prospective cohort study of 60 160 public sector employees (46 081 women, 14 079 men) with ecological measures of municipal revenue and local unemployment rate 1999–2000 and individual measures of sickness absence at baseline 1999 and at follow up 2000–2001. Results: Among men and women, constantly poor local economy, as shown by low municipal revenue and high unemployment rate, was related to decreased self certified sickness absence rates. Local unemployment rate was a stronger predictor of self certified sickness absence than municipal revenue and the effect was stronger among men than among women. High unemployment rate predicted increased medically certified sickness absence among women. Conclusions: Working in areas of poor local economy is associated with increased long term sickness absence but decreased probability to take a short term sick leave. Unemployment rate may have an effect on the threshold to take a sick leave in relation to minor illnesses even when area deprivation poses health risk to its residents. To prevent adverse health effects of presenteeism, working while ill, and to reduce medically certified sickness absence, potential benefits may be attained by improving economic conditions and re-employment in deprived areas.

Virtanen, M.; Kivimaki, M.; Elovainio, M.; Virtanen, P.; Vahtera, J.

2005-01-01

118

[Ophthalmological aspects of the Gutenberg Health Study (GHS): an interdisciplinary prospective population-based cohort study].  

PubMed

The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a prospective, single center, population-based cohort study. It is an interdisciplinary project for investigation of ocular, cardiovascular, psychosomatic and immune diseases in the population of the City of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen in central Germany. The main goals of the ophthalmological branch of GHS are determination of the prevalence and incidence of major ocular risk factors and diseases, exploring the genetic determinants and assessing complex interdisciplinary associations. The study cohort includes 15,010 participants aged between 35 and 74 years at the time of inclusion. After completing the baseline investigations the 5-year follow-up of the whole study cohort started in April 2012. The GHS is the most extensive data set of major ophthalmological conditions and risk factors in Germany and will help researchers in understanding complex medical associations. PMID:23504093

Mirshahi, A; Ponto, K A; Höhn, R; Wild, P S; Pfeiffer, N

2013-03-01

119

Exposure to vinyl chloride monomer: report on a cohort study.  

PubMed Central

In 1980 a prospective exposed/non-exposed cohort study was initiated in France by the Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM U 287) to evaluate the association between mortality and cancer morbidity and occupational exposure to vinyl chloride monomer (VCM). Eleven hundred VCM exposed subjects and 1100 VCM non-exposed controls matched for age (+/- 2 years), plant, and physician were included and followed up over a five year period for vital, health, and occupational status. The percentages of deaths observed among the exposed (1.8%) and non-exposed subjects (1.6%) did not differ. Eighteen (1.6%) and 15 (1.4%) cases of cancer were reported among exposed and non-exposed subjects, respectively (NS). One case of angiosarcoma of the liver occurred among the exposed group; six cases of lung cancer occurred among exposed subjects and two among non-exposed subjects (NS). The percentage of diseases of the circulatory system was higher (p less than 0.02) in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group: this difference was explained mainly by the high incidence of Raynaud's disease (p less than 0.006). The percentages of diseases of the respiratory system did not differ between the two groups.

Laplanche, A; Clavel, F; Contassot, J C; Lanouziere, C

1987-01-01

120

Screening and cervical cancer cure: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether detection of invasive cervical cancer by screening results in better prognosis or merely increases the lead time until death. Design Nationwide population based cohort study. Setting Sweden. Participants All 1230 women with cervical cancer diagnosed during 1999-2001 in Sweden prospectively followed up for an average of 8.5 years. Main outcome measures Cure proportions and five year relative survival ratios, stratified by screening history, mode of detection, age, histopathological type, and FIGO (International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics) stage. Results In the screening ages, the cure proportion for women with screen detected invasive cancer was 92% (95% confidence interval 75% to 98%) and for symptomatic women was 66% (62% to 70%), a statistically significant difference in cure of 26% (16% to 36%). Among symptomatic women, the cure proportion was significantly higher for those who had been screened according to recommendations (interval cancers) than among those overdue for screening: difference in cure 14% (95% confidence interval 6% to 23%). Cure proportions were similar for all histopathological types except small cell carcinomas and were closely related to FIGO stage. A significantly higher cure proportion for screen detected cancers remained after adjustment for stage at diagnosis (difference 15%, 7% to 22%). Conclusions Screening is associated with improved cure of cervical cancer. Confounding cannot be ruled out, but the effect was not attributable to lead time bias and was larger than what is reflected by down-staging. Evaluations of screening programmes should consider the assessment of cure proportions.

2012-01-01

121

Reproductive factors and pancreatic cancer risk: a Norwegian cohort study.  

PubMed

A cohort of 63,090 Norwegian women born 1886-1928 was followed more than 38 years, and relations between reproductive factors and risk of pancreatic cancer were explored; 449 cases were recorded at ages 50-89 years. Age at menopause showed a moderately positive association with risk (rate ratio (RR)=1.08 per 2 years delay in menopause; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.00-1.17). Neither parity nor duration of breastfeeding showed significant associations with risk after adjusting only for demographic factors. With mutual adjustment, however, parity became positively associated (RR=1.13 per delivery; 95% CI=1.05-1.22) while duration of breastfeeding was inversely associated (RR=0.87 per 12 months; 95% CI=0.78-0.97). These associations lessened in magnitude with increasing age, and were essentially absent above age 80 years. Risk was raised among women reporting at least one abortion, but no trend was seen with number of abortions. Together with previous studies, the findings raise questions about the role of chance, but do not exclude hormonal factors related to breastfeeding and pregnancy from affecting pancreatic cancer risk. PMID:18000501

Heuch, I; Jacobsen, B K; Albrektsen, G; Kvåle, G

2007-11-13

122

Life-course pathways to psychological distress: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives Early life factors, like intelligence and socioeconomic status (SES), are associated with health outcomes in adulthood. Fitting comprehensive life-course models, we tested (1) the effect of childhood intelligence and SES, education and adulthood SES on psychological distress at midlife, and (2) compared alternative measurement specifications (reflective and formative) of SES. Design Prospective cohort study (the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s). Setting Aberdeen, Scotland. Participants 12?500 live-births (6282 boys) between 1950 and 1956, who were followed up in the years 2001–2003 at age 46–51 with a postal questionnaire achieving a response rate of 64% (7183). Outcome measures Psychological distress at age 46–51 (questionnaire). Results Childhood intelligence and SES and education had indirect effects on psychological distress at midlife, mediated by adult SES. Adult SES was the only variable to have a significant direct effect on psychological distress at midlife; the effect was stronger in men than in women. Alternative measurement specifications of SES (reflective and formative) resulted in greatly different model parameters and fits. Conclusions Even though formative operationalisations of SES are theoretically appropriate, SES is better specified as reflective than as a formative latent variable in the context of life-course modelling.

von Stumm, Sophie; Deary, Ian J; Hagger-Johnson, Gareth

2013-01-01

123

Vegetable and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study - The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relation between vegetable and fruit consumption and colorectal cancer risk was comprehensively assessed in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer using a validated 150-item food frequency questionnaire. After 6.3 years of follow-up (1986-1992), over 1,000 incident cases of colorectal cancer were registered. Using case-cohort analysis, the authors calculated rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age,

L. E. Voorrips; R. A. Goldbohm; G. van Poppel; F. Sturmans; P. A. van den Brandt

2000-01-01

124

ADHD in international adoptees: a national cohort study.  

PubMed

Several investigators have reported an increased frequency of attention/hyperactivity symptoms in international adoptees, though population-based studies are lacking. In this national cohort study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD medication in international adoptees in Sweden, in comparison to the general population. A further purpose was to study gender, age at adoption and region of origin as predictors of ADHD medication in international adoptees. The study population consisted of all Swedish residents born in 1985-2000 with Swedish-born parents, divided into 16,134 adoptees, and a comparison population of 1,326,090. ADHD medications were identified in the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register during 2006. Logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratios. The rates of ADHD medication were higher in international adoptees than in the comparison population for both boys (5.3 vs. 1.5% for 10-15-year olds) and girls (2.1 vs. 0.3% for 10-15-year olds). International adoptees from all regions of birth more often consumed ADHD medication compared with the majority population, but the age and sex adjusted odds ratios were particularly high for adoptees from Eastern Europe, Middle East/Africa and Latin America. Adjusting for maternal education and single parenthood increased the odds ratios even further. The risk also increased with higher age at adoption. Adoptees from Eastern Europe have a very high risk for ADHD medication. A structured identification and support programme should be tailored for this group. Adoptees from other regions have a more moderately increased risk, which should be communicated to adoptive parents and to professionals who care for adoptees in their clinical practice. PMID:19543791

Lindblad, Frank; Weitoft, Gunilla Ringbäck; Hjern, Anders

2009-06-19

125

Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

126

Predictors of Cerebral Palsy in Very Preterm Infants: The EPIPAGE Prospective Population-Based Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the independent role of cerebral lesions on ultrasound scan, and several other neonatal and obstetric factors, as potential predictors of cerebral palsy (CP) in a large population-based cohort of very preterm infants. Method: As part of EPIPAGE, a population-based prospective cohort study, perinatal data…

Beaino, Ghada; Khoshnood, Babak; Kaminski, Monique; Pierrat, Veronique; Marret, Stephane; Matis, Jacqueline; Ledesert, Bernard; Thiriez, Gerard; Fresson, Jeanne; Roze, Jean-Christophe; Zupan-Simunek, Veronique; Arnaud, Catherine; Burguet, Antoine; Larroque, Beatrice; Breart, Gerard; Ancel, Pierre-Yves

2010-01-01

127

A PROSPECTIVE COHORT STUDY ON THE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCE OF UNDER FIVE CHILDREN IN RURAL WESTERN INDIA  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To study the role of birth weight, nutrition, immunization and other medical as well as social factors in determining child survival. Design: A prospective cohort study. Setting: 45 villages in Shirur Development Block in Pune District in Maharashtra. Methods: A cohort of 4129 children were followed from birth till 5 years of age. Weight and length\\/height of the child

INDIAN PEDIATRICS; Siddhi Hirve; Bela Ganatra

128

Reliability of sport fish consumption in the New York State Angler Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the reliability of sport fish consumption data from the New York State Angler Cohort Study (NYSACS). NYSACS is a prospective cohort study conducted among New York State registered sportsmen and fishermen. Sport fish consumption information for New York State waters including the Great Lakes between June 1990 and June 1991 were collected through self-administered questionnaires, Spouses of

Qiang Li; John E. Vena; Mya K. Swanson

2005-01-01

129

Occupational exposure to carcinogens and risk of lung cancer: results from The Netherlands cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To investigate risk of lung cancers associated with common established carcinogenic occupational exposures (asbestos, paint dust, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and welding fumes) in a prospective cohort study among the general population, and to estimate the proportion of lung cancer cases attributable to these occupational exposures. METHODS: A prospective cohort study on diet, other lifestyle factors, job history, and cancer

A J van Loon; I. J. Kant; G. M. H. Swaen; R. A. Goldbohm; A M Kremer; P A van den Brandt

1997-01-01

130

Risk factors for cardiovascular diseases among Swedish Sami - a controlled cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To investigate the occurrence of clinical, psychosocial and behavioural risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among reindeer herding (RS) and non-reindeer herding Sami (NRS). Study Design. A retrospective cohort study, comparing risk factors behind CVD between Sami and non-Sami, RS and NRS, and Sami men and women. Methods. A cohort of 611 Swedish Sami (276 men and 335 women)

Hassler S; Sjölander P; Daerga L

131

Onset of adolescent eating disorders: population based cohort study over 3 years  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the predictors of new eating disorders in an adolescent cohort. Design Cohort study over 3 years with six waves. Subjects Students, initially aged 14›15 years, from 44 secondary schools in the state of Victoria, Australia. Outcome measures Weight (kg), height (cm), dieting (adolescent dieting scale), psychiatric morbidity (revised clinical interview schedule), and eating disorder (branched eating disorders

G C Patton; R Selzer; C Coffey; J B Carlin; R Wolfe; Parkville Victoria

132

Suicide after Leaving the UK Armed Forces --A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Background Few studies have examined suicide risk in individuals once they have left the military. We aimed to investigate the rate, timing, and risk factors for suicide in all those who had left the UK Armed Forces (1996–2005). Methods and Findings We carried out a cohort study of ex-Armed Forces personnel by linking national databases of discharged personnel and suicide deaths (which included deaths receiving either a suicide or undetermined verdict). Comparisons were made with both general and serving populations. During the study period 233,803 individuals left the Armed Forces and 224 died by suicide. Although the overall rate of suicide was not greater than that in the general population, the risk of suicide in men aged 24 y and younger who had left the Armed Forces was approximately two to three times higher than the risk for the same age groups in the general and serving populations (age-specific rate ratios ranging from 170 to 290). The risk of suicide for men aged 30–49 y was lower than that in the general population. The risk was persistent but may have been at its highest in the first 2 y following discharge. The risk of suicide was greatest in males, those who had served in the Army, those with a short length of service, and those of lower rank. The rate of contact with specialist mental health was lowest in the age groups at greatest risk of suicide (14% for those aged under 20 y, 20% for those aged 20–24 y). Conclusions Young men who leave the UK Armed Forces were at increased risk of suicide. This may reflect preservice vulnerabilities rather than factors related to service experiences or discharge. Preventive strategies might include practical and psychological preparation for discharge and encouraging appropriate help-seeking behaviour once individuals have left the services.

Kapur, Navneet; While, David; Blatchley, Nick; Bray, Isabelle; Harrison, Kate

2009-01-01

133

Study protocol. A prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women: the pregnancy outcome prediction study  

PubMed Central

Background There have been dramatic changes in the approach to screening for aneuploidy over the last 20 years. However, the approach to screening for other complications of pregnancy such as intra-uterine growth restriction, pre-eclampsia and stillbirth remains largely unchanged. Randomised controlled trials of routine application of high tech screening methods to the general population have generally failed to show improvement in outcome. We have previously reviewed this and concluded it was due, in large part, to poor performance of screening tests. Here, we report a study design where the primary aim is to generate clinically useful methods to screen women to assess their risk of adverse pregnancy outcome. Methods/design We report the design of a prospective cohort study of unselected primiparous women recruited at the time of their first ultrasound scan. Participation involves serial phlebotomy and obstetric ultrasound at the dating ultrasound scan (typically 10–14 weeks), 20 weeks, 28 weeks and 36 weeks gestation. In addition, maternal demographic details are obtained; maternal and paternal height are measured and maternal weight is serially measured during the pregnancy; maternal, paternal and offspring DNA are collected; and, samples of placenta and membranes are collected at birth. Data will be analysed as a prospective cohort study, a case-cohort study, and a nested case-control study. Discussion The study is expected to provide a resource for the identification of novel biomarkers for adverse pregnancy outcome and to evaluate the performance of biomarkers and serial ultrasonography in providing clinically useful prediction of risk.

Pasupathy, Dharmintra; Dacey, Alison; Cook, Emma; Charnock-Jones, D Stephen; White, Ian R; Smith, Gordon CS

2008-01-01

134

Restraint use among nursing home residents: cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

for interventions to achieve a restraint-free care. Design. Cross-sectional study and prospective cohort study. Setting and subjects. Thirty nursing homes with 2367 residents in Hamburg, Germany. Methods. External investigators obtained prevalence of physical restraints by direct observation on three occasions on one day, psychoactive drugs were extracted from residents' records and prospective data were documented by nurses. Results. Residents' mean

Gabriele Meyer; Sascha Köpke; Burkhard Haastert; Ingrid Mühlhauser

2009-01-01

135

Multisite Time-Series Studies Versus Cohort Studies: Methods, Findings, and Policy Implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Time-series and cohort studies of air pollution on human health have advanced greatly our understanding of the effects of air pollution on health since the earliest studies. Availability of large national databases and progress in computational tools and statistical methods have made possible the estimation of national average pollution effects and the exploration of potential sources of heterogeneity in the

Sorina Eftim; Francesca Dominici

2005-01-01

136

Prospective cohort study of impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Impulse control disorders (ICDs) are potentially serious side effects of dopamine agonist therapy in Parkinson's disease (PD), but prospective data are lacking about their incidence, time course, and risk factors. This work was a 4-year, prospective cohort study of outpatients with PD and no previous ICDs (N = 164). All subjects treated with a dopamine agonist during the study were followed longitudinally for new-onset ICDs. Baseline characteristics were compared in groups with (ICD+) and without (ICD-) subsequent ICDs. Forty-six subjects were treated with a dopamine agonist, including 25 who were newly treated and 21 who received ongoing dopamine agonist therapy. Of these 46 subjects, 18 (39.1%) developed new-onset ICDs. The timing of ICD onset varied from 3.0 to 114.0 months (median, 23.0) after initiation of dopamine agonist therapy. Baseline demographic characteristics were similar in ICD+ and ICD- groups. At baseline, ICD+ subjects had a greater prevalence of motor complications (61.1% versus 25.0%; P = 0.01) than ICD- subjects, despite comparable total dopaminergic medication usage in both groups (median, 150.0 versus 150.0 levodopa equivalents; P = 0.61). Compared with ICD- subjects, ICD+ subjects had a greater baseline prevalence of caffeine use (100% versus 66.7%; P = 0.007) and higher lifetime prevalence of cigarette smoking (44.4% versus 14.3%; P = 0.04). Peak dopamine agonist doses were higher in ICD+ than ICD- subjects (median 300.0 versus 165.0 L-dopa equivalents; P = 0.03), but cumulative dopamine agonist exposure was similar in both groups. In summary, the timing of new-onset ICDs in PD is highly variable. Risk factors include cigarette smoking, caffeine use, motor complications, and higher peak dopamine agonist dosage. PMID:23283708

Bastiaens, Jesse; Dorfman, Benjamin J; Christos, Paul J; Nirenberg, Melissa J

2013-01-02

137

Work schedules and fatigue: a prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: (1) To describe the prevalence of fatigue among employees in different work schedules (day work, three-shift, five-shift, and irregular shift work); (2) to investigate whether different work schedules are related to increasing fatigue over time, while taking into account job title and job characteristics; and (3) to study fatigue among shift workers changing to day work. Methods: Data from nine consecutive four-monthly self administered questionnaires from the Maastricht Cohort Study on Fatigue at work (n = 12 095) were used with 32 months of follow up. Day and shift workers were matched on job title. Results: The prevalence of fatigue was 18.1% in day workers, 28.6% in three-shift, 23.7% in five-shift, and 19.1% in irregular shift workers. For three-shift and five-shift workers substantial higher fatigue levels were observed compared to day workers at baseline measurement. In the course of fatigue over the 32 months of follow up there were only small and insignificant differences between employees in different work schedules. However, among employees fatigued at baseline, fatigue levels decreased faster over time among five-shift workers compared to fatigued day workers. Shift workers changing to day work reported substantially higher fatigue levels prior to change, compared to those remaining in shift work. Conclusions: Substantial differences in fatigue existed between day and shift workers. However, as no considerable differences in the course of fatigue were found, these differences have probably developed within a limited time span after starting in a shift work job. Further, evidence was found that fatigue could be an important reason for quitting shift work and moving to day work. Finally, in the relation between work schedules and fatigue, perceived job characteristics might play an important role.

Jansen, N; van Amelsvoort, L G P M; Kristensen, T; van den Brandt, P A; Kant, I.

2003-01-01

138

Chest wall syndrome among primary care patients: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The epidemiology of chest pain differs strongly between outpatient and emergency settings. In general practice, the most frequent cause is the chest wall pain. However, there is a lack of information about the characteristics of this syndrome. The aims of the study are to describe the clinical aspects of chest wall syndrome (CWS). Methods Prospective, observational, cohort study of patients attending 58 private practices over a five-week period from March to May 2001 with undifferentiated chest pain. During a one-year follow-up, questionnaires including detailed history and physical exam, were filled out at initial consultation, 3 and 12 months. The outcomes were: clinical characteristics associated with the CWS diagnosis and clinical evolution of the syndrome. Results Among 24 620 consultations, we observed 672 cases of chest pain and 300 (44.6%) patients had a diagnosis of chest wall syndrome. It affected all ages with a sex ratio of 1:1. History and sensibility to palpation were the keys for diagnosis. Pain was generally moderate, well localised, continuous or intermittent over a number of hours to days or weeks, and amplified by position or movement. The pain however, may be acute. Eighty-eight patients were affected at several painful sites, and 210 patients at a single site, most frequently in the midline or a left-sided site. Pain was a cause of anxiety and cardiac concern, especially when acute. CWS coexisted with coronary disease in 19 and neoplasm in 6. Outcome at one year was favourable even though CWS recurred in half of patients. Conclusion CWS is common and benign, but leads to anxiety and recurred frequently. Because the majority of chest wall pain is left-sided, the possibility of coexistence with coronary disease needs careful consideration.

Verdon, Francois; Burnand, Bernard; Herzig, Lilli; Junod, Michel; Pecoud, Alain; Favrat, Bernard

2007-01-01

139

Recurrence of hyperemesis gravidarum across generations: population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To estimate the risk of hyperemesis gravidarum (hyperemesis) according to whether the daughters and sons under study were born after pregnancies complicated by hyperemesis. Design Population based cohort study. Setting Registry data from Norway. Participants Linked generational data from the medical birth registry of Norway (1967-2006): 544?087 units of mother and childbearing daughter and 399?777 units of mother and child producing son. Main outcome measure Hyperemesis in daughters in mother and childbearing daughter units and hyperemesis in female partners of sons in mother and child producing son units. Results Daughters who were born after a pregnancy complicated by hyperemesis had a 3% risk of having hyperemesis in their own pregnancy, while women who were born after an unaffected pregnancy had a risk of 1.1% (unadjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval 2.4 to 3.6). Female partners of sons who were born after pregnancies complicated by hyperemesis had a risk of 1.2% (1.0, 0.7 to 1.6). Daughters born after a pregnancy not complicated by hyperemesis had an increased risk of the condition if the mother had hyperemesis in a previous or subsequent pregnancy (3.2 (1.6 to 6.4) if hyperemesis had occurred in one of the mother’s previous pregnancies and 3.7 (1.5 to 9.1) if it had occurred in a later pregnancy). Adjustment for maternal age at childbirth, period of birth, and parity did not change the estimates. Restrictions to firstborns did not influence the results. Conclusions Hyperemesis gravidarum is more strongly influenced by the maternal genotype than the fetal genotype, though environmental influences along the maternal line cannot be excluded as contributing factors.

2010-01-01

140

Cohort study of mortality of vermiculite miners exposed to tremolite.  

PubMed Central

A cohort of 406 men employed before 1963 for at least one year in a vermiculite mine in Montana was followed up until July 1983. The vermiculite ore as fed to the mill contained 4-6% of amphibole fibre in the tremolite series. Vital status was established in all but one of the 406 and death certificates were obtained and coded for 163 of the 165 men who died. Compared with white men in the United States, the cohort experienced excess mortality from all causes (SMR 1.17), respiratory cancer (SMR 2.45), non-malignant respiratory disease (SMR 2.55), and accidents (SMR 2.14). Four deaths were from malignant mesothelioma (proportional mortality 2.4%). Compared with Montana death rates, the SMR for respiratory cancer was somewhat higher (3.03). Man-year analyses of respiratory cancer and estimated cumulative exposure gave a relation that did not depart significantly from linearity. The results of this and case-referent analyses indicate an increased risk of mortality from respiratory cancer in this cohort of about 1% for each fibre year of exposure. In relation to estimated exposure the mortality experienced by the cohort from both lung cancer and mesothelial tumours was higher than in chrysotile mining. Images

McDonald, J C; McDonald, A D; Armstrong, B; Sebastien, P

1986-01-01

141

Beauty, Stature and the Labour Market: A British Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The influence of physical appearance in the labour market is examined using longitudinal cohort data covering 11,407 individual born in Britain in 1958. Results show that physical appearance has a substantial effect on earnings and employment patterns for both men and women. Irrespective of gender, those who are assessed as unattractive or short, experience a significant earnings penalty. Tall men

Barry Harper

2000-01-01

142

MILLARD COUNTY, UTAH, DRINKING WATER ARSENIC COHORT STUDY  

EPA Science Inventory

Assembly of the cohort is based on historic membership records of members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints (LDS) in an area of Millard County, Utah, which is located in the central western part of the state. Personal information including name, birth date, town ...

143

A retrospective cohort study of post mastectomy pain syndrome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Post mastectomy pain syndrome is a condition which can occur following breast surgery and has until recently been regarded as uncommon. Recent reports have suggested that it may affect 20% or more of women following mastectomy. The symptoms are distressing and may be difficult to treat however treatment for neuropathic pain can be successful. This paper reports a retrospective cohort

W. Cairns S Smith; Di Bourne; Janet Squair; Dean O. Phillips; W Alastair Chambers

1999-01-01

144

Cohort study of occupational risk factors of low back pain in construction workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESTo identify work related risk factors of future low back pain (LBP) in a cohort of construction workers free of LBP at the start of follow up.METHODSThe Hamburg construction worker study comprises 571 male construction workers who have undergone two comprehensive interview and physical examination surveys. A cohort of 285 subjects without LBP at baseline was identified. After a follow

Ute Latza; Wilfried Karmaus; Til Stürmer; Markus Steiner; Axel Neth; Uwe Rehder

2000-01-01

145

Implications Of Childhood Obesity For Adult Health: Findings From Thousand Families Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether being overweight in childhood increases adult obesity and risk of disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting City of Newcastle upon Tyne. Participants 932 members of thousand families 1947 birth cohort, of whom 412 attended for clinical examination age 50. Main outcome measures Blood pressure; carotid artery intima-media thickness; fibrinogen concentration; total, low density lipoprotein, and high

Charlotte M. Wright; Louise Parker; Douglas Lamont; Alan W. Craft

2001-01-01

146

Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

147

Psychiatric outcome following paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine whether paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission is associated with greater psychiatric morbidity in children and parents as compared with general paediatric ward admissions. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting Paediatric intensive care unit and two general paediatric wards of a London teaching hospital. Participants Children aged 5–18 years discharged from PICU (exposed cohort) and general paediatric wards (unexposed

Gwyneth Rees; Julia Gledhill; M. Elena Garralda; Simon Nadel

2004-01-01

148

Risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a Brazilian population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our aim was to investigate risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in a population-based Brazilian cohort. Design and methods: A cohort study was conducted with 1091 individuals identified through multi-stage probability sampling in Porto Alegre, Brazil. Risk factors were investigated among demographic and anthropometric characteristics, including education, smoking habits, income, alcoholic beverage consumption, and blood pressure. A fatal or

Renan Stoll Moraes; Flávio Danni Fuchs; Leila Beltrami Moreira; Mário Wiehe; Gerson Martins Pereira; Sandra Costa Fuchs

2003-01-01

149

Developing and Refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): Five Years of Experience  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The…

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-01-01

150

A retrospective cohort pilot study to evaluate a triage tool for use in a pandemic  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this pilot study was to assess the usability of the draft Ontario triage protocol, to estimate its potential impact on patient outcomes, and ability to increase resource availability based on a retrospective cohort of critically ill patients cared for during a non-pandemic period. METHODS: Triage officers applied the protocol prospectively to 2 retrospective cohorts of patients

Michael D Christian; Cindy Hamielec; Neil M Lazar; Randy S Wax; Lauren Griffith; Margaret S Herridge; David Lee; Deborah J Cook

2009-01-01

151

Increased risk of peripheral arterial disease in polymyalgia rheumatica: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The present study was conducted to determine whether patients with polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are at an increased risk of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). METHODS: An inception cohort of all Olmsted County, Minnesota residents diagnosed with PMR between 1 January 1970 and 31 December 1999 was compared with non-PMR subjects (two for each PMR subject) from among residents. Both cohorts

Kenneth J Warrington; Elena P Jarpa; Cynthia S Crowson; Leslie T Cooper; Gene G Hunder; Eric L Matteson; Sherine E Gabriel

2009-01-01

152

Doctors' age at domestic partnership and parenthood: cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objective To report on doctors’ family formation. Design Cohort studies using structured questionnaires. Setting UK. Participants Doctors who qualified in 1988, 1993, 1996, 1999, 2000 and 2002 were followed up. Main Outcome Measures Living with spouse or partner; and doctors’ age when first child was born. Results The response to surveys including questions about domestic circumstances was 89.8% (20,717/23,077 doctors). The main outcomes – living with spouse or partner, and parenthood – varied according to age at qualification. Using the modal ages of 23–24 years at qualification, by the age of 24–25 (i.e. in their first year of medical work) a much smaller percentage of doctors than the general population was living with spouse or partner. By the age of 33, 75% of both women and men doctors were living with spouse or partner, compared with 68% of women and 61% of men aged 33 in the general population. By the age of 24–25, 2% of women doctors and 41% of women in the general population had a child; but women doctors caught up with the general population, in this respect, in their 30s. The specialty with the highest percentage of women doctors who, aged 35, had children was general practice (74%); the lowest was surgery (41%). Conclusions Doctors are more likely than other people to live with a spouse or partner, and to have children, albeit typically at later ages. Differences between specialties in rates of motherhood may indicate sacrifice by some women of family in favour of career.

Goldacre, Michael J; Davidson, Jean M; Lambert, Trevor W

2012-01-01

153

Organisational justice and health of employees: prospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To examine the association between components of organisational justice (that is, justice of decision making procedures and interpersonal treatment) and health of employees. Methods: The Poisson regression analyses of recorded all-cause sickness absences with medical certificate and the logistic regression analyses of minor psychiatric morbidity, as assessed by the General Health Questionnaire, and poor self rated health status were based on a cohort of 416 male and 3357 female employees working during 1998–2000 in 10 hospitals in Finland. Results: Low versus high justice of decision making procedures was associated with a 41% higher risk of sickness absence in men (rate ratio (RR) 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1 to 1.8), and a 12% higher risk in women (RR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) after adjustment for baseline characteristics. The corresponding odds ratios (OR) for minor psychiatric morbidity were 1.6 (95% CI 1.0 to 2.6) in men and 1.4 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.7) in women, and for self rated health 1.4 in both sexes. In interpersonal treatment, low justice increased the risk of sickness absence (RR 1.3 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.6) and RR 1.2 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.3) in men and women respectively), and minor psychiatric morbidity (OR 1.2 in both sexes). These figures largely persisted after control for other risk factors (for example, job control, workload, social support, and hostility) and they were replicated in initially healthy subcohorts. No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that organisational justice would represent a consequence of health (reversed causality). Conclusions: This is the first longitudinal study to show that the extent to which people are treated with justice in workplaces independently predicts their health.

Kivimaki, M; Elovainio, M; Vahtera, J; Ferrie, J; Theorell, T

2003-01-01

154

Seroprevalence of varicella-zoster virus and predictors for seronegativity in the Amsterdam adult population  

PubMed Central

Background In the Netherlands, infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is considered a benign common childhood illness and routine vaccination against VZV is not done. In 1995 it was estimated that 98-100% of the adult Dutch general population is immune, yet the estimate is based on a database in which a relative small number of people of non-Dutch ethnic origin were represented. As the city of Amsterdam has large immigrant communities originating from various subtropical and tropical countries, such as Morocco, Surinam, and Turkey with probably lower VZV transmission, this study aimed to estimate the seroprevalence of VZV IgG antibodies (anti-VZV) among various ethnic groups in Amsterdam, and identify factors associated with seronegative VZV status. Methods The study was a cross-sectional survey of the Amsterdam population (2004), and the study sample was stratified by age and ethnicity, with deliberate oversampling of minority ethnic groups. Serum samples obtained from 1,341 residents in 2004 were tested for antibodies to VZV. Basic demographic data (gender, age, country of birth, age at immigration and number of children) were also available. Results The anti-VZV seroprevalence in the overall Amsterdam population was estimated to be 94% (95% confidence intervals; 92–96%). Regarding ethnic origin, first generation immigrants (Moroccan immigrants 90%, Surinamese or Antillean immigrants 91%, and Turkish 92%), especially those that migrated after the age of 11?years, were more likely to be anti-VZV seronegative compared to those arriving at an earlier age or those born in the Netherlands (97–98%). Both ethnic origin and generation of immigration were positive predictors for IgG seronegativity to VZV (p<0.015). No other predictors for seronegativity were found. Conclusion The results of this study imply that about 4–8% of the general adult Amsterdam population is still susceptible to infection with VZV, and that susceptibility is even higher in some immigrant groups. When assessing the risk of infection after VZV exposure alertness is needed for vulnerable persons like pregnant women, patients with hematological malignancies or organ transplants in particular among first-generation immigrants.

2012-01-01

155

Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). Psychometric Report for the 2-Year Data Collection. Methodology Report.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is a multisource, multimethod study that focuses on the early home and educational experiences of young children. The study is following a nationally representative cohort of children born in 2...

C. Andreassen J. Park P. Fletcher

2007-01-01

156

Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Diabetic Nephropathy: A cohort study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a leading cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is common in type 2 diabetes and increases oxidative stress. Hence, OSA could promote the development and progression of DN. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cohort study in adults with type 2 diabetes. Patients with known OSA or ESRD were excluded. DN was defined as the presence of albuminuria or an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 mL/min/1.73 m(2). DN progression was based on eGFR measurements. OSA was defined as apnea hypopnea index (AHI) ?5 events/h. Serum nitrotyrosine abundance (a marker of nitrosative stress) was measured by ELISA. RESULTS A total of 224 patients were included. OSA and DN prevalence was 64.3 and 40.2, respectively. DN prevalence was higher in patients with OSA (OSA(+)) compared with those without OSA (OSA(-)) (49.3% vs. 23.8%, P < 0.001). After adjustment, OSA (odds ratio 2.64 [95% CI 1.13-6.16], P = 0.02) remained independently associated with DN. After an average follow-up of 2.5 (0.7) years, eGFR decline was greater in OSA(+) compared with OSA(-) patients (median -6.8% [interquartile range -16.1 to 2.2] vs. -1.6% [-7.7 to 5.3%], P = 0.002). After adjusting, both baseline OSA (B = -3.8, P = 0.044) and AHI (B = -4.6, P = 0.02) remained independent predictors of study-end eGFR. Baseline serum nitrotyrosine abundance (B = -0.24, P = 0.015) was an independent predictor of study-end eGFR after adjustment. CONCLUSIONS OSA is independently associated with DN in type 2 diabetes. eGFR declined faster in patients with OSA. Nitrosative stress may provide a pathogenetic link between OSA and DN. Interventional studies assessing the impact of OSA treatment on DN are needed. PMID:24062320

Tahrani, Abd A; Ali, Asad; Raymond, Neil T; Begum, Safia; Dubb, Kiran; Altaf, Quratul-Ain; Piya, Milan K; Barnett, Anthony H; Stevens, Martin J

2013-09-23

157

Mortality after surgery in Europe: a 7 day cohort study  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Clinical outcomes after major surgery are poorly described at the national level. Evidence of heterogeneity between hospitals and health-care systems suggests potential to improve care for patients but this potential remains unconfirmed. The European Surgical Outcomes Study was an international study designed to assess outcomes after non-cardiac surgery in Europe. Methods We did this 7 day cohort study between April 4 and April 11, 2011. We collected data describing consecutive patients aged 16 years and older undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery in 498 hospitals across 28 European nations. Patients were followed up for a maximum of 60 days. The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcome measures were duration of hospital stay and admission to critical care. We used ?2 and Fisher's exact tests to compare categorical variables and the t test or the Mann-Whitney U test to compare continuous variables. Significance was set at p<0·05. We constructed multilevel logistic regression models to adjust for the differences in mortality rates between countries. Findings We included 46?539 patients, of whom 1855 (4%) died before hospital discharge. 3599 (8%) patients were admitted to critical care after surgery with a median length of stay of 1·2 days (IQR 0·9–3·6). 1358 (73%) patients who died were not admitted to critical care at any stage after surgery. Crude mortality rates varied widely between countries (from 1·2% [95% CI 0·0–3·0] for Iceland to 21·5% [16·9–26·2] for Latvia). After adjustment for confounding variables, important differences remained between countries when compared with the UK, the country with the largest dataset (OR range from 0·44 [95% CI 0·19–1·05; p=0·06] for Finland to 6·92 [2·37–20·27; p=0·0004] for Poland). Interpretation The mortality rate for patients undergoing inpatient non-cardiac surgery was higher than anticipated. Variations in mortality between countries suggest the need for national and international strategies to improve care for this group of patients. Funding European Society of Intensive Care Medicine, European Society of Anaesthesiology.

Pearse, Rupert M; Moreno, Rui P; Bauer, Peter; Pelosi, Paolo; Metnitz, Philipp; Spies, Claudia; Vallet, Benoit; Vincent, Jean-Louis; Hoeft, Andreas; Rhodes, Andrew

2012-01-01

158

COPD and occupation: a retrospective cohort study of industrial workers.  

PubMed

The aim of this paper was to ascertain chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) prevalence among industrial workers in the Russian Federation and determine relative contribution of smoking and occupational factors to COPD. We recruited 1,375 workers aged 30 or over. Six hundred and twenty-four of them were occupationally exposed to vapours, gases, dust, and fumes (VGDF). Physical examination and baseline spirometry were performed for all the participants of the study. Those with airfl ow limitation of FEV1/FVC<0.70 were considered having COPD and those with presence of cough and sputum production for at least three months in each of two consecutive years were considered having chronic bronchitis (CB), with no overlapping between these 2 groups. Data on occupational history and VGDF levels in the working area were collected from all participants. In total, 105 cases of COPD and 170 cases of CB were diagnosed in the cohort of examined workers. Occupational exposure to VGDF was twice as often present among COPD patients than among both patients with CB and the control group of healthy workers (p<0.05). More than 40 % of COPD patients were occupationally exposed to VGDF above the value of 3.0 of the occupational exposure limit (OEL) and more than 20 % to 6.0 OEL and higher. Overall odds ratio for COPD development due to occupational VGDF exposure was 5.9 (95 % CI=3.6 to 9.8, p=0.0001). Both smoking and VGDF seem to be important for the development of COPD. Analysis of the combined effect of tobacco smoking and occupational noxious particles and gases on COPD development has shown the following order of risk factors based on the strength of their infl uence: VGDF levels, smoking index, age, and heating microclimate. There is a statistically signifi cant level of relationship and "dose-effect" dependence between occupational exposures to VGDF and the development of COPD. The effect of VGDF composition on the probability of COPD development was not found in the study. Results of this study were used to substantiate the inclusion of COPD into the National List of Occupational Diseases of the Russian Federation. PMID:23152384

Mazitova, Nailya N; Saveliev, Anatoly A; Berheeva, Zuhra M; Amirov, Nail Kh

2012-09-01

159

Cardiovascular disease in kidney donors: matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective To determine whether people who donate a kidney have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Design Retrospective population based matched cohort study. Participants All people who were carefully selected to become a living kidney donor in the province of Ontario, Canada, between 1992 and 2009. The information in donor charts was manually reviewed and linked to provincial healthcare databases. Matched non-donors were selected from the healthiest segment of the general population. A total of 2028 donors and 20?280 matched non-donors were followed for a median of 6.5 years (maximum 17.7 years). Median age was 43 at the time of donation (interquartile range 34-50) and 50 at the time of follow-up (42-58). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was a composite of time to death or first major cardiovascular event. The secondary outcome was time to first major cardiovascular event censored for death. Results The risk of the primary outcome of death and major cardiovascular events was lower in donors than in non-donors (2.8 v 4.1 events per 1000 person years; hazard ratio 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.48 to 0.90). The risk of major cardiovascular events censored for death was no different in donors than in non-donors (1.7 v 2.0 events per 1000 person years; 0.85, 0.57 to 1.27). Results were similar in all sensitivity analyses. Older age and lower income were associated with a higher risk of death and major cardiovascular events in both donors and non-donors when each group was analysed separately. Conclusions The risk of major cardiovascular events in donors is no higher in the first decade after kidney donation compared with a similarly healthy segment of the general population. While we will continue to follow people in this study, these interim results add to the evidence base supporting the safety of the practice among carefully selected donors.

2012-01-01

160

Cancer incidence among Danish seafarers: a population based cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: Seafarers aboard oil and chemical tankers may be exposed to many chemicals, including substances like benzene that are known to be carcinogenic. Other seafarers are exposed to engine exhaust, different oil products, and chemicals used aboard and some years ago asbestos was also used extensively in ships. The aim of this study was to study cancer morbidity among Danish seafarers in relation to type of ship and job title. Methods: A cohort of all Danish seafarers during 1986–1999 (33 340 men; 11 291 women) registered by the Danish Maritime Authority with an employment history was linked with the nationwide Danish Cancer Registry and followed up for cancer until the end of 2002. The number of person years at risk was 517 518. Standardised incidence ratios (SIR) were estimated by use of the corresponding national rates. Results: The SIR of all cancers combined was higher than expected: 1.26 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.32) for men and 1.07 (95% CI 0.95 to 1.20) for women. This was mainly due to an excess of cancer of the larynx, lung, tongue, mouth, pharynx, oesophagus, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, colon, and bone as well as skin melanomas among men (the three latter borderline significantly increased), and an excess of cancer of the lung, rectum, and cervix uteri among women. The differences in risk pattern for lung cancer between the different job categories among men ranged in terms of SIR from 1.2 (95% CI 0.9 to 1.7) (engine officers) to 2.3 (1.6 to 3.3) (engine room crew), and 4.1 (2.1 to 7.4) among maintenance crew. Non-officers had a 1.5 times higher lung cancer risk than officers. No increased occurrence of all lymphatic and haematopoietic malignancies combined was found for employees on tankers, but the number of cases was limited to a total of 7. Conclusions: Danish seafarers, especially men, face an increased overall cancer risk, in particular a risk for lung cancer and other tobacco associated cancers.

Kaerlev, L; Hansen, J; Hansen, H; Nielsen, P

2005-01-01

161

Jewish–Gentile intermarriage in pre-war Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

Intermarriage is generally regarded as the litmus test in the process of assimilation of ethnic-minority groups. The Jewish community in Amsterdam was a religious minority. When a Jew married a Gentile it was assumed that Judaism lost a family. Odds ratio calculations based on marriage tables for 1911–1941 show that the rate of intermarriage among Jews was much lower than

Peter Tammes

2010-01-01

162

Soil Investigation Aspects of a Complex Metro Project in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The municipality of Amsterdam wishes to reduce the level of car traffic within the City Centre. As a consequence the public transport is to be extended by a new (bored) North\\/South Metro line. The excavation depths for the stations will exceed 30 m and will be constructed in difficult soft soil conditions. A further significant aspect is that the building

Jurgen Herbschleb

2004-01-01

163

Soil Investigation Aspects of a Complex Metro Project in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

The municipality of Amsterdam wishes to reduce the level of car traffic within the City Centre. As a consequence the public transport is to be extended by a new (bored) North\\/South Metro line. The excavation depths for the stations will exceed 30 m and will be constructed in difficult soft soil conditions. A further significant aspect is that the building

Jurgen Herbschleb

164

When Epidemiology Meets the Internet: Web-Based Surveys in the Millennium Cohort Study.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Almost 60% of American households were connected to the Internet in 2001, when the Millennium Cohort Study, the largest longitudinal study ever undertaken by the Department of Defense, was launched. To facilitate survey completion, increase data integrity...

B. Smith G. C. Gray M. A. Ryan T. C. Smith

2007-01-01

165

[Mortality study of a cohort of insulation workers].  

PubMed

Cause specific mortality was investigated in a cohort of insulators employed by a company which operated in various parts of Italy. Follow-up covered the years 1960-1996. The cohort, which included 893 subjects, was derived from company files of relatively poor quality, which resulted in a high rate of lost to follow-up (10.1%) and of deaths with unknown cause (12.4%). The mortality experience of the cohort was contrasted with that of the Italian population. Overall mortality (SMR 141, 90% CI 118-167, 97 observed), and cancer mortality (SMR 165, 90% CI 123-216, 38 observed) were significantly increased. Among neoplasms, significant increases were observed for lung cancer (SMR 202, 90% CI 124-311, 15 observed), pleural neoplasms (SMR 2667, CI 90% 911-6103, 4 observed), and peritoneal neoplasms (SMR 1853, 90% CI 329-5832, 2 observed). The excess mortality for lung cancer was especially pronounced in subjects with latency time longer than ten years (SMR 237.1, 90% CI 140-377, 13 observed). PMID:12125388

Menegozzo, Massimo; Belli, Stefano; Borriero, Susanna; Bruno, Caterina; Carboni, Marcello; Grignoli, Mario; Menegozzo, Simona; Olivieri, Nicola; Comba, Pietro

166

Methods used for successful follow-up in a large scale national cohort study in Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  Ensuring successful follow-up is essential when conducting a prospective cohort study. Most existing literature reviewing\\u000a methods to ensure a high response rate is based on experience in developed nations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Findings  We report our 4-year follow-up success for a national cohort study examining the health transition underway in Thailand. We\\u000a began the cohort study in 2005 with a baseline postal questionnaire sent

Sam-ang Seubsman; Matthew Kelly; Adrian Sleigh; Janya Peungson; Jaruwan Chokkanapitak; Duangkae Vilainerun

2011-01-01

167

Physical Activity and Alzheimer's Disease: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between physical activity and Alzheimer’s disease is of major interest. We performed a Medline search for cohort studies. Studies on cognitive decline, case-controls, or studies without clear descriptions and duplicate publications were excluded. Overall, we included 6 cohorts of high quality (most studies were performed in elderly patients) in the overall analysis, which investigated 10,380 participants in total

Markus Weih; Ümüt Degirmenci; Sebastian Kreil; Johannes Kornhuber

2010-01-01

168

Health effects of air pollution observed in cohort studies in Europe  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, several studies in Europe have associated within-city contrasts in air pollution with various health end points including mortality in cohort studies of adults, and respiratory morbidity in cross-sectional and cohort studies of children. Many of these studies have used NO2 contrasts as the primary exposure variable, which raises the issue of whether such associations are uniquely found

Bert Brunekreef

2007-01-01

169

Functional decline after incident wrist fractures—Study of Osteoporotic Fractures: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To study the effect of an incident wrist fracture on functional status in women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Baltimore, Minneapolis, Portland, and the Monongahela valley in Pennsylvania, USAParticipants 6107 women aged 65 years and older without previous wrist or hip fracture recruited from the community between September 1986 and October 1988.Main outcome measure

Beatrice J Edwards; Jing Song; Dorothy D Dunlop; Howard A Fink; Jane A Cauley

2010-01-01

170

Genome-Wide Association Study Heterogeneous Cohort Homogenization via Subject Weight Knock-Down  

PubMed Central

Population structure can be a source of both false-positive and false-negative findings in a genome-wide association study. This article proposes an approach that helps to reduce the false-positives. It consists of homogenizing the diseased/healthy phenotype ratio across the cohort, by decreasing the statistical weight of selected individuals. After homogenization, the cohort is statistically handled as if originating from a single well-mixed population. The method was applied to homogenize a Parkinson's disease genome-wide association study cohort.

Valente, Andre X. C. N.; Zischkau, Joseph; Shin, Joo Heon; Gao, Yuan; Sarkar, Abhijit

2012-01-01

171

Use of matched cohort studies to estimate the effectiveness of child restraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMany researchers believe that only child occupants should be used in matched cohort studies of child restraint effectiveness. The objective of this study was to explore the performance of the matched cohort study design in estimating associations between child restraints and other occupant characteristics with death risk.MethodsWe conducted Monte Carlo data simulations to represent 10 000 collision-involved vehicles carrying a

T M Rice; C Anderson

2010-01-01

172

Dairy consumption and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epidemiologic findings are inconsistent regarding risk for breast cancer related to dairy consumption. We performed a meta-analysis\\u000a of prospective cohort studies to examine the association between diary product consumption and risk of breast cancer. A PubMed\\u000a database search through January 2011 was performed for relevant studies. We included prospective cohort studies that reported\\u000a relative risks with 95% confidence intervals for

Jia-Yi DongLijun; Lijun Zhang; Ka He; Li-Qiang Qin

2011-01-01

173

Alcohol drinking and colorectal cancer: A population-based prospective cohort study in China  

Microsoft Academic Search

Study objective: To asses the association between alcohol consumption and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the Chinese population. Design: A population-based prospective cohort study was initiated from the colorectal cancer screening population in Jiashan County in 1989–1990. The drinking habits of individuals were investigated with demographic information. Setting: A cohort study was followed-up from 1st May 1990 to

Kun Chen; Qinting Jiang; Xinyuan Ma; Qilong Li; Kaiyan Yao; Weiping Yu; Shu Zheng

2005-01-01

174

Sensor, a population-based cohort study on gastroenteritis in the Netherlands: incidence and etiology  

Microsoft Academic Search

A prospective population-based cohort study with a nested case- control study was conducted to estimate the incidence of gastroenteritis and the associated pathogens in the general Dutch population. Follow-up of two consecutive cohorts was performed by weekly reporting cards from december 1998 to december 1999. Cases and controls in the case-control study supplied a questionnaire and stool samples. The standardized

M. A. S. de Wit; M. P. G. Koopmans; L. M. Kortbeek; W. J. B. Wannet; J. Vinjé; F. van Leusden; A. I. M. Bartelds

2001-01-01

175

Kawasaki disease and subsequent risk of allergic diseases: a population-based matched cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The risk of allergic diseases among Kawasaki disease (KD) patients relative to the general population is not known. The aim of this study was to perform a population-based cohort study to investigate the risk of allergic diseases among children after KD in Taiwan- a country with the third highest incidence of KD in the world. Methods Data were obtained from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. In total, 253 patients who were 5 years of age or younger and had a first-time hospitalization with a diagnosis of KD between 1997 and 2005 were included as the study cohort and 1,012 non-KD patients matched for age and sex were included as comparison cohort. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model was used to adjust for confounding and to compare the 6-year allergic-free survival rate between these two cohorts. Results The incidence rate of allergic diseases (184.66 per 1000 person-year) was significantly higher in the KD cohort than in the control cohort (124.99 per 1000 person-years). After adjusting for potential confounders, the adjusted hazard ratios of asthma and allergic rhinitis were 1.51 (95% confidence interval?=?1.17-1.95) and 1.30 (95% confidence interval?=?1.04-1.62), respectively. Conclusion We conclude that KD patients were at an increased risk for allergic diseases compared with the comparison cohort.

2013-01-01

176

Criteria for the Evaluation of Large Cohort Studies: An Application to the Nurses' Health Study  

PubMed Central

Evaluating the success of major funding programs from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) remains a vexing challenge. We propose a set of criteria to evaluate epidemiological studies that fit within the discovery, development, and delivery paradigm introduced by the NIH. We apply these criteria to the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS), a large epidemiological cohort study initiated in the 1970s to evaluate the associations between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer and between diet and other lifestyle factors and risk of cancer overall. Our evaluation suggests that the NHS has led to important changes in health practice, and it underscores the need to develop metrics that are suitable to the evaluation of large epidemiological cohort studies.

Winn, Deborah M.

2008-01-01

177

Criteria for the evaluation of large cohort studies: an application to the nurses' health study.  

PubMed

Evaluating the success of major funding programs from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) remains a vexing challenge. We propose a set of criteria to evaluate epidemiological studies that fit within the discovery, development, and delivery paradigm introduced by the NIH. We apply these criteria to the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), a large epidemiological cohort study initiated in the 1970s to evaluate the associations between oral contraceptives and risk of breast cancer and between diet and other lifestyle factors and risk of cancer overall. Our evaluation suggests that the NHS has led to important changes in health practice, and it underscores the need to develop metrics that are suitable to the evaluation of large epidemiological cohort studies. PMID:18577745

Colditz, Graham A; Winn, Deborah M

2008-06-24

178

Career choices for cardiology: cohort studies of UK medical graduates  

PubMed Central

Background Cardiology is one of the most popular of the hospital medical specialties in the UK. It is also a highly competitive specialty in respect of the availability of higher specialty training posts. Our aims are to describe doctors’ early intentions about seeking careers in cardiology, to report on when decisions about seeking a career in cardiology are made, to compare differences between men and women doctors in the choice of cardiology, and to compare early career choices with later specialty destinations. Methods Questionnaire surveys were sent to all UK medical graduates in selected qualification years from 1974–2009, at 1, 3, 5, 7 and 10 years after graduation. Results One year after graduation, the percentage of doctors specifying cardiology as their first choice of long-term career rose from the mid-1990s from 2.4% (1993 cohort) to 4.2% (2005 cohort) but then fell back to 2.7% (2009 cohort). Men were more likely to give cardiology as their first choice than women (eg 4.1% of men and 1.9% of women in the 2009 cohort). The percentage of doctors who gave cardiology as their first choice of career declined between years one and five after qualification: the fall was more marked for women. 34% of respondents who specified cardiology as their sole first choice of career one year post-graduation were later working in cardiology. 24% of doctors practising as cardiologists several years after qualification had given cardiology as their sole first choice in year one. The doctors’ ‘domestic circumstances’ were a relatively unimportant influence on specialty choice for aspiring cardiologists, while ‘enthusiasm/commitment’, ‘financial prospects’, ‘experiences of the job so far’ and ‘a particular teacher/department’ were important. Conclusions Cardiology grew as a first preference one year after graduation to 2005 but is now falling. It consistently attracts a higher percentage of men than women doctors. The correspondence between early choice and later destination was not particularly strong for cardiology, and was less strong than that for several other specialties.

2013-01-01

179

Vaccination and Allergic Disease: A Birth Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Objectives. We examined the effect of vaccination for diphtheria; polio; pertussis and tetanus; or measles, mumps, and rubella on the incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma and eczema. Methods. We used a previously established birth cohort in the West Midlands General Practice research database. Results. We found an association between vaccination and the development of allergic disease; however, this association was present only among children with the fewest physician visits and can be explained by this factor. Conclusions. Our data suggest that currently recommended routine vaccinations are not a risk factor for asthma or eczema.

McKeever, Tricia M.; Lewis, Sarah A.; Smith, Chris; Hubbard, Richard

2004-01-01

180

The Zurich Study: XXIII. Epidemiology of headache syndromes in the Zurich cohort study of young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examines the 1 year prevalence rates of headache syndromes in an epidemiologic cohort study of young adults ages 29–30 in Zurich, Switzerland. The 1 year prevalence rates of headache subtypes were 3.3% for migraine with aura and 21.3% of migraine without aura as defined by the International Headache Society (IHS) criteria. The demographic distribution, clinical features, sequelae, and

Kathleen Ries Merikangas; Amy E. Whitaker; Hansruedi Isler; Jules Angst

1994-01-01

181

The role of longitudinal cohort studies in epigenetic epidemiology: challenges and opportunities  

PubMed Central

Longitudinal cohort studies are ideal for investigating how epigenetic patterns change over time and relate to changing exposure patterns and the development of disease. We highlight the challenges and opportunities in this approach.

2012-01-01

182

DEMONSTRATION OF LOW COST, LOW BURDEN EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGIES FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

A large longitudinal cohort study designed to evaluate the association between children's exposures to environmental agents and health outcomes presents many challenges for exposure monitoring. Exposure of the child must be measured for multiple chemicals through multiple path...

183

Paracetamol use in early life and asthma: prospective birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine if use of paracetamol in early life is an independent risk factor for childhood asthma.Design Prospective birth cohort study.Setting Melbourne Atopy Cohort Study.Participants 620 children with a family history of allergic disease, with paracetamol use prospectively documented on 18 occasions from birth to 2 years of age, followed until age 7 years.Main outcome measures The primary outcome

Adrian J Lowe; John B Carlin; Catherine M Bennett; Clifford S Hosking; Katrina J Allen; Colin F Robertson; Christine Axelrad; Michael J Abramson; David J Hill; Shyamali C Dharmage

2010-01-01

184

Smoking cessation in pregnancy and the risk of child behavioural problems: A longitudinal prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The aim of this study was to examine the influence of smoking in pregnancy on child and adolescent behavioural development, in comparison with mothers who ceased smoking in the first 18 weeks of pregnancy and with those who never smoked, in a large prospective pregnancy cohort.\\u000aMethods: The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study provided comprehensive data from 2,900

Monique Robinson; Neil J McLean; Wendy H Oddy; Eugen Mattes; Max K Bulsara; Jianghong Li; Stephen R Zubrick; Fiona J Stanley; John P Newnham

2010-01-01

185

Childhood psychological function and obesity risk across the lifecourse: findings from the 1970 British Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background:Psychological comorbidities of obesity are well recognised. However, the role of childhood psychological problems in the aetiology of later obesity has been little studied.Design:Secondary analyses of a national birth cohort (1970 British Cohort Study). Analysis: Logistic regression models to predict obesity risk at 26, 30 and 34 years related to hypothesised predictors: maternal and teacher reported child psychological function at

B White; D Nicholls; D Christie; T J Cole; R M Viner

2012-01-01

186

Sample Design and Cohort Selection in the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos  

PubMed Central

PURPOSE The Hispanic Community Health Study (HCHS)/Study of Latinos (SOL) is a multi-center, community based cohort study of Hispanic/Latino adults in the United States. A diverse participant sample is required that is both representative of the target population and likely to remain engaged throughout follow-up. The choice of sample design, its rationale, and benefits and challenges of design decisions are described in this paper. METHODS The study design calls for recruitment and follow-up of a cohort of 16,000 Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years, with 62.5% (10,000) over 44 years of age and adequate subgroup sample sizes to support inference by Hispanic/Latino background. Participants are recruited in community areas surrounding four field centers in the Bronx, Chicago, Miami, and San Diego. A two-stage area probability sample of households is selected with stratification and over-sampling incorporated at each stage to provide a broadly diverse sample, offer efficiencies in field operations, and ensure that the target age distribution is obtained. CONCLUSIONS Embedding probability sampling within this traditional, multi-site cohort study design enables competing research objectives to be met. However, the use of probability sampling requires developing solutions to some unique challenges in both sample selection and recruitment, as described here.

LaVange, Lisa M.; Kalsbeek, William; Sorlie, Paul D.; Aviles-Santa, Larissa M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; Barnhart, Janice; Liu, Kiang; Giachello, Aida; Lee, David J.; Ryan, John; Criqui, Michael H.; Elder, John P.

2010-01-01

187

The Healthy Young Men's Study: Sampling Methods to Recruit a Random Cohort of Young Men Who Have Sex With Men  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recruiting a scientifically sound cohort of young men who have sex with men (YMSM) is an enduring research challenge. The few cohort studies that have been conducted to date on YMSM have relied on nonprobability sampling methods to construct their cohorts. While these studies have provided valuable information about HIV risk behaviors among YMSM, their generalizability to broader YMSM populations

Wesley L. Ford; George Weiss; Michele D. Kipke; Anamara Ritt-Olson; Ellen Iverson; Donna Lopez

2009-01-01

188

Intake of nitrate and nitrite and the risk of gastric cancer: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between the intake of nitrate or nitrite and gastric cancer risk was investigated in a prospective cohort study started in 1986 in the Netherlands, of 120,852 men and women aged 55-69 years. At baseline, data on dietary intake, smoking habits and other covariates were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire. For data analysis, a case-cohort approach was

AJM van Loon; A. A. M. Botterweck; R. A. Goldbohm; HAM Brants; JD van Klaveren; PA van den Brandt

1998-01-01

189

Awareness of driving while sleepy and road traffic accidents: prospective study in GAZEL cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjectives To examine the association between self assessed driving while sleepy and the risk of serious road traffic accidents (RTAs).Design Prospective cohort study.Setting France.Participants 13 299 of the 19 894 living members of the GAZEL cohort, workers and recent retirees of a French national utility company followed up since 1989.Main outcome measures Frequency of driving while sleepy in the previous

Hermann Nabi; Alice Guéguen; Mireille Chiron; Sylviane Lafont; Marie Zins; Emmanuel Lagarde

2006-01-01

190

Academic achievement of twins and singletons in early adulthood: Taiwanese cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the long term effects of low birth weight on academic achievements in twins and singletons and to determine whether the academic achievement of twins in early adulthood is inferior to that of singletons.Design Cohort study.Setting Taiwanese nationwide register of academic outcome.Participants A cohort of 218 972 singletons and 1687 twins born in Taiwan, 1983-5.Main outcome measure College

Meng-Ting Tsou; Meng-Wen Tsou; Ming-Ping Wu; Jin-Tan Liu

2008-01-01

191

Risk of Arterial Cardiovascular Diseases in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) may have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) than the general population, but data are limited. Methods: We conducted a population-based cohort study involving Danish citizens diagnosed with MS (n = 13,963) from 1977 to 2006 and an age- and sex-matched population cohort (n = 66,407) using data on MS, arterial CVD and

Christian Fynbo Christiansen; Steffen Christensen; Dóra Körmendiné Farkas; Montserrat Miret; Henrik Toft Sørensen; Lars Pedersen

2010-01-01

192

A cohort study of thyroid disease in relation to fallout from nuclear weapons testing  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To estimate individual radiation doses and current thyroid disease status for a previously identified cohort of 4818 schoolchildren potentially exposed to fallout from detonations of nuclear devices at the Nevada Test Site between 1951 and 1958. DESIGN--Cohort analytic study. SETTING--Communities in southwestern Utah, southeastern Nevada, and southeastern Arizona. PARTICIPANTS--Individuals who were still residing in the three-state area (n = 3122)

R. A. Kerber; J. E. Till; S. L. Simon; J. L. Lyon; D. C. Thomas; S. Preston-Martin; M. L. Rallison; R. D. Lloyd; W. Stevens

1993-01-01

193

Cigarette smoking and KRAS oncogene mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer: Results from the Netherlands Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Since a KRAS oncogene mutation is an early event in colorectal cancer development and cigarette smoking is thought to have an effect on early stages of colorectal tumorigenesis, smoking, especially long-term smoking, may be associated with the risk for colorectal cancer with KRAS oncogene mutations.In the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (n=120,852 men and women), using a case–cohort

M. P. Weijenberg; P. W. M. Aardening; T. M. de Kok; A. F. P. M. de Goeij; P. A. van den Brandt

2008-01-01

194

Biological effects on human health due to radiofrequency\\/microwave exposure: a synopsis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We evaluated the methods and results of nine cohort studies dealing with the biological effects on human health from exposure to radiofrequencies\\/microwaves, published between 1980 and 2002. The size of the cohorts varied between 304 (3,362 person years) and nearly 200,000 persons (2.7 million person years). As exposures were defined: dielectric heaters in a plastic manufacturing plant, working with radio

Jürgen Breckenkamp; Gabriele Berg; Maria Blettner

2003-01-01

195

Amsterdam's Airport Library Serves Passengers in 30 Languages  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In the summer of 2010, Schiphol Airport in Amsterdam started offering the world's first library in an airport. This article describes Airport Library which is no ordinary library. It holds more than 1,200 items, but it lends nothing. It operates 24/7, yet it's only staffed by volunteers for 2 or 3 hours a day. It offers just nine public-access…

Dempsey, Kathy

2011-01-01

196

The University of Amsterdam at VideoCLEF 2008  

Microsoft Academic Search

The University of Amsterdam (UAms) team carried out the Vid2RSS classification task, the primary sub-task of the VideoCLEF track at CLEF 2008. This task involves the assignment of thematic category labels to dual language (Dutch\\/English) television episode videos. UAms chose to focus on exploiting archival metadata and speech transcripts generated by both the Dutch and English speech recognizers. Exploratory experimentation

J. He; X. Zhang; W. Weerkamp; M. Larson

2008-01-01

197

Reduction of zinc emissions from buildings; the policy of Amsterdam.  

PubMed

In Amsterdam zinc coming from the roofs and gutters of the buildings accounts for about 50% of the zinc emissions into the surface water (i.e. canals and rivers). This causes water and sediment pollution. Dumping strongly polluted sediment costs ten times more then dumping less polluted mud. Therefore the City of Amsterdam has developed a policy for reducing the zinc emissions from buildings based on the current environmental legislation and the current national targets for surface water quality. Zinc roofs on new and renovated buildings are not permitted. Run off water from zinc roofs of existing buildings is allowed to contain a maximum of 200 microg/l zinc. For the zinc gutters of houses, Amsterdam will promote measures to reduce zinc emissions. To investigate the feasibility of measures, research has been carried out on the zinc emissions of gutters and the effect of covering gutters with an impermeable foil. This research shows clearly that covering zinc gutters with EPDM foil reduces the zinc emissions by 90% from 8.5 to 0.88 gram per square metre per year including the atmospheric deposition. PMID:15053115

Gouman, E

2004-01-01

198

The WISTAH hand study: A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders have been performed. Past studies have provided somewhat conflicting evidence for occupational risk factors and have largely reported data without adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study was incepted to quantify risk factors for distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders and potentially develop improved methods for analyzing jobs. Disorders to analyze included carpal tunnel syndrome, lateral epicondylalgia, medial epicondylalgia, trigger digit, deQuervain’s stenosing tenosynovitis and other tendinoses. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 17 different employment settings in 3 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop administered questionnaires, structured interviews, two standardized physical examinations and nerve conduction studies to ascertain demographic, medical history, psychosocial factors and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Repeat nerve conduction studies are performed for those with symptoms of tingling and numbness in the prior six months. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. Case definitions have been established. Point prevalence of carpal tunnel syndrome is a combination of paraesthesias in at least two median nerve-served digits plus an abnormal nerve conduction study at baseline. The lifetime cumulative incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome will also include those with a past history of carpal tunnel syndrome. Incident cases will exclude those with either a past history or prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion A prospective cohort study of distal upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders is underway and has successfully enrolled over 1,000 workers to date.

2012-01-01

199

The Taiwan Birth Panel Study: a prospective cohort study for environmentally- related child health  

PubMed Central

Background The Taiwan Birth Panel Study (TBPS) is a prospective follow-up study to investigate the development of child health and disease in relation to in-utero and/or early childhood environmental exposures. The rationale behind the establishment of such a cohort includes the magnitude of potential environmental exposures, the timing of exposure window, fatal and children's susceptibility to toxicants, early exposure delayed effects, and low-level or unknown neurodevelopmental toxicants. Methods A total of 486 mother-infant paired was enrolled from April 2004 to January 2005 in this study. Maternal blood before delivery, placenta and umbilical cord blood at birth, and mothers' urine after delivery were collected. The follow-up was scheduled at birth, 4, 6 months, and 1, 2, 3 and 5 years. The children's blood, urine, hair, and saliva were collected at 2 years of age and children's urine was collected at 5 years of age as well. The study has been approved by the ethical committee of National Taiwan University Hospital. All the subjects signed the inform consent on entering the study and each of the follow up. Results Through this prospective birth cohort, the main health outcomes were focused on child growth, neurodevelopment, behaviour problem and atopic diseases. We investigated the main prenatal and postnatal factors including smoking, heavy metals, perfluorinated chemicals, and non-persistent pesticides under the consideration of interaction of the environment and genes. Conclusions This cohort study bridges knowledge gaps and answers unsolved issues in the low-level, prenatal or postnatal, and multiple exposures, genetic effect modification, and the initiation and progression of "environmentally-related childhood diseases."

2011-01-01

200

Imputations of Missing Values in Practice: Results from Imputations of Serum Cholesterol in 28 Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Missing values, common in epidemiologic studies, are a major issue in obtaining valid estimates. Simulation studies have suggested that multiple imputation is an attractive method for imputing missing values, but it is relatively complex and requires specialized software. For each of 28 studies in the Asia Pacific Cohort Studies Collaboration, a comparison of eight imputation procedures (unconditional and conditional mean,

Federica Barzi; Mark Woodward

201

Diet in the Aetiology of Ulcerative Colitis: A European Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aims: The causes of ulcerative colitis are unknown, although it is plausible that dietary factors are involved. Case-control studies of diet and ulcerative colitis are subject to recall biases. The aim of this study was to examine the prospective relationship between the intake of nutrients and the development of ulcerative colitis in a cohort study. Methods: The study population was

Andrew R. Hart; Robert Luben; Anja Olsen; Anne Tjonneland; Jakob Linseisen; Gabriele Nagel; Göran Berglund; Stefan Lindgren; Olof Grip; Timothy Key; Paul Appleby; Manuela M. Bergmann; Heiner Boeing; Göran Hallmans; Åke Danielsson; Richard Palmqvist; Hubert Sjodin; Gun Hägglund; Kim Overvad; Domenico Palli; Giovanna Masala; Elio Riboli; Hugh Kennedy; Ailsa Welch; Kay-Tee Khaw; Nicholas Day; Sheila Bingham

2008-01-01

202

Diabetic control and risk of tuberculosis: a cohort study.  

PubMed

Diabetes mellitus is associated with tuberculosis. A cohort of 42,116 clients aged 65 years or more, enrolled at 18 Elderly Health Service centers in Hong Kong in 2000, were followed up prospectively through the territory-wide tuberculosis registry for development of tuberculosis from 3 months after enrollment to December 31, 2005, by use of their identity card numbers as unique identifier. The effects of diabetes mellitus and diabetic control on tuberculosis risk were assessed with adjustment for sociodemographic and other background variables. Diabetes mellitus was associated with a modest increase in the risk of active, culture-confirmed, and pulmonary (with or without extrapulmonary involvement) but not extrapulmonary (with or without pulmonary involvement) tuberculosis, with adjusted hazard ratios of 1.77 (95% confidence interval: 1.41, 2.24), 1.91 (95% confidence interval: 1.45, 2.52), 1.89 (95% confidence interval: 1.48, 2.42), and 1.00 (95% confidence interval: 0.54, 1.86), respectively. Diabetic subjects with hemoglobin A1c <7% at enrollment were not at increased risk. Among diabetic subjects, higher risks of active, culture-confirmed, and pulmonary but not extrapulmonary tuberculosis were observed with baseline hemoglobin A1c > or =7% (vs. <7%), with adjusted hazard ratios of 3.11 (95% confidence interval: 1.63, 5.92), 3.08 (95% confidence interval: 1.44, 6.57), 3.63 (95% confidence interval: 1.79, 7.33), and 0.77 (95% confidence interval: 0.18, 3.35), respectively. PMID:18400769

Leung, Chi C; Lam, Tai H; Chan, Wai M; Yew, Wing W; Ho, Kin S; Leung, Gabriel M; Law, Wing S; Tam, Cheuk M; Chan, Chi K; Chang, Kwok C

2008-04-08

203

A prospective cohort study of surgical treatment for back pain with degenerated discs; study protocol  

PubMed Central

Background The diagnosis of discogenic back pain often leads to spinal fusion surgery and may partly explain the recent rapid increase in lumbar fusion operations in the United States. Little is known about how patients undergoing lumbar fusion compare in preoperative physical and psychological function to patients who have degenerative discs, but receive only non-surgical care. Methods Our group is implementing a multi-center prospective cohort study to compare patients with presumed discogenic pain who undergo lumbar fusion with those who have non-surgical care. We identify patients with predominant low back pain lasting at least six months, one or two-level disc degeneration confirmed by imaging, and a normal neurological exam. Patients are classified as surgical or non-surgical based on the treatment they receive during the six months following study enrollment. Results Three hundred patients discogenic low back pain will be followed in a prospective cohort study for two years. The primary outcome measure is the Modified Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire at 24-months. We also evaluate several other dimensions of outcome, including pain, functional status, psychological distress, general well-being, and role disability. Conclusion The primary aim of this prospective cohort study is to better define the outcomes of lumbar fusion for discogenic back pain as it is practiced in the United States. We additionally aim to identify characteristics that result in better patient selection for surgery. Potential predictors include demographics, work and disability compensation status, initial symptom severity and duration, imaging results, functional status, and psychological distress.

Deyo, Richard A; Mirza, Sohail K; Heagerty, Patrick J; Turner, Judith A; Martin, Brook I

2005-01-01

204

Study protocol title: a prospective cohort study of low back pain  

PubMed Central

Background Few prospective cohort studies of workplace low back pain (LBP) with quantified job physical exposure have been performed. There are few prospective epidemiological studies for LBP occupational risk factors and reported data generally have few adjustments for many personal and psychosocial factors. Methods/design A multi-center prospective cohort study has been incepted to quantify risk factors for LBP and potentially develop improved methods for designing and analyzing jobs. Due to the subjectivity of LBP, six measures of LBP are captured: 1) any LBP, 2) LBP???5/10 pain rating, 3) LBP with medication use, 4) LBP with healthcare provider visits, 5) LBP necessitating modified work duties and 6) LBP with lost work time. Workers have thus far been enrolled from 30 different employment settings in 4 diverse US states and performed widely varying work. At baseline, workers undergo laptop-administered questionnaires, structured interviews, and two standardized physical examinations to ascertain demographics, medical history, psychosocial factors, hobbies and physical activities, and current musculoskeletal disorders. All workers’ jobs are individually measured for physical factors and are videotaped. Workers are followed monthly for the development of low back pain. Changes in jobs necessitate re-measure and re-videotaping of job physical factors. The lifetime cumulative incidence of low back pain will also include those with a past history of low back pain. Incident cases will exclude prevalent cases at baseline. Statistical methods planned include survival analyses and logistic regression. Discussion Data analysis of a prospective cohort study of low back pain is underway and has successfully enrolled over 800 workers to date.

2013-01-01

205

An historical prospective study of mortality within a cohort of gas distribution workers.  

PubMed

An historical prospective study of mortality within a cohort of 1,410 gas distribution workers was conducted. This cohort was followed for ten years (1971-1980) and data on 118 deaths were obtained. Five-year (1973-1977) averages of both St. Louis and United States age-specific mortality figures were used to create "expected" mortality rates for comparison with the observed deaths in the cohort. Analyses of the cohort were done according to: 1) person-years contributed during the study period (the "age-attained" method) and 2) the number of years from commencement of work in the company until the end of the study period (1980) or death (the "latency" methods of analysis, Standardized Mortality Ratios (SMRs) were calculated for all causes of death, all malignant neoplasms, and for cardiovascular disease and malignant neoplasms of the respiratory and digestive systems. In no case was the SMR found to be beyond the range of what would be expected in the "standard" populations. While the present study does not contradict the negative findings of the one previous investigation of mortality of gas distribution workers, the limitations of small cohort size, reliance on death certificates and non-industrial comparison populations make any conclusions at best provisional. PMID:6353912

Liveright, T; Stanbury, M

1983-01-01

206

Eczema in early life: Genetics, the skin barrier, and lessons learned from birth cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Eczema is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the skin that affects up to 30% of children. It often afflicts infants in the first few months of life and can be the first indicator of the atopic march. Recent results from birth cohort studies have uncovered novel information regarding genetic and environmental factors that promote the development of eczema. Birth cohort studies provide an optimal study design to elucidate these associations and prospectively track longitudinal data including exposure assessment and health outcomes from birth into early life and childhood. This is especially relevant for eczema given the age specific emergence of this disease. In this review, we will provide a general overview of pediatric eczema and discuss the important findings in the literature with respect to genetics and environmental exposures, highlighting those derived from birth cohort studies. Additionally, we will review how these relate to the atopic march, the hygiene hypothesis and the integrity of the skin barrier.

Biagini Myers, Jocelyn M.; Khurana Hershey, Gurjit K.

2010-01-01

207

Early Life Determinants of Physical Activity in 11 to 12 Year Olds: Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To examine factors in early life (up to age 5 years) that are associated with objectively measured physical activity in 11-12 year olds. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: Avon longitudinal study of parents and children, United Kingdom. Participants: Children aged 11-12 years from the Avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Main outcome measure: Physical activity levels in counts

Calum Mattocks; Kevin Deere; Sam Leary; Andy Ness; Kate Tilling; Steven N. Blair; Chris Riddoch

2008-01-01

208

Socioeconomic status and stomach cancer incidence in men: results from The Netherlands Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To study the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and stomach cancer incidence (cardia and non-cardia) and the role of lifestyle factors in explaining this association. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study on diet and cancer that started in 1986. Data were collected by means of a self administered questionnaire. SETTING: Population originating from 204 municipalities in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS: 58,279

A. J. van Loon; R. A. Goldbohm; P. A. van den Brandt

1998-01-01

209

Attributable mortality of candidemia: a systematic review of matched cohort and case-control studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic review of matched cohort and case-control studies was performed to examine the mortality attributable to candidemia. The review included studies that compared mortality of patients with candidemia (cases) to that of matched patients without candidemia (controls). Secondary variables examined were the length and cost of hospital stay. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed database and by examining

M. E. Falagas; K. E. Apostolou; V. D. Pappas

2006-01-01

210

Diet in adolescence and the risk of breast cancer: results of the Netherlands Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: In The Netherlands, part of the population experienced food restriction and severe famine during World War II. The purpose of this study was to study the eÄects of severe undernutrition during adolescence on the risk of breast cancer later in life. Methods: We examined the hypothesis in the Netherlands Cohort Study on diet and cancer (NLCS), among 62,573 women

Miranda J. M. Dirx; Piet A. van den Brandt; R. Alexandra Goldbohm; L. H. Lumey

1999-01-01

211

Milk drinking, ischaemic heart disease and ischaemic stroke II. Evidence from cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Milk consumption is considered a risk factor for vascular disease on the basis of relevant biological mechanisms and data from ecological studies. The aim was to identify published prospective studies of milk drinking and vascular disease, and conduct an overview.Design: The literature was searched for cohort studies, in which an estimate of the consumption of milk, or the intake

P C Elwood; J E Pickering; J Hughes; A M Fehily; A R Ness

2004-01-01

212

Intake of Coffee and Tea and Risk of Ovarian Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

There is some evidence from case-control studies that coffee consumption might be positively associated with ovarian cancer risk, whereas the epidemiologic evidence regarding tea consumption and ovarian cancer is inconsistent. To date, there have been few prospective studies of these associations. Therefore, we examined ovarian cancer risk in association with both coffee and tea intake in a prospective cohort study

Stephanie A. N. Silvera; Meera Jain; Geoffrey R. Howe; Anthony B. Miller; Thomas E. Rohan

2007-01-01

213

Milk consumption is a risk factor for prostate cancer in Western countries: evidence from cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have previously found a positive association between milk consumption and prostate cancer risk using meta- analysis to analyze published case-control studies. In the present study, further meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the summary relative risk (RR) between the consumption of milk and dairy products and prostate cancer from cohort studies published between 1966- 2006. We found 18 relevant articles

Li-Qiang Qin; Jia-Ying Xu SM; Pei-Yu Wang; Jian Tong; Kazuhiko Hoshi

2007-01-01

214

Cancer Prevention Studies (CPS I, CPS II, & CPS II Nutrition Cohort)  

Cancer.gov

In 1952, the Statistical Research Section, forerunner of the present Department of Epidemiology and Surveillance Research, began its first large prospective cohort study, the Hammond-Horn Study, to study the effect of cigarette smoking on death rates from cancer and other diseases.

215

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, the authors used data from a large longitudinal birth cohort study of primarily low-income children in urban areas, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), to investigate the effects of Head Start participation on children's school readiness. The fact that their sample was mainly made up of disadvantaged families…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2010-01-01

216

Exposure to oral bisphosphonates and esophageal cancer risk: A UK General Practice Research Database cohort study  

PubMed Central

Context Oral bisphosphonate use has increased dramatically in the USA. Recent case reports have suggested a link between bisphosphonate use and esophageal cancer, but this is yet to be robustly investigated. Objective To investigate the association between bisphosphonate use and esophageal cancer. Design, setting and participants Data were extracted from the UK General Practice Research to compare the incidence of esophageal and gastric cancer in a cohort of patients treated with oral bisphosphonates between January 1996 and December 2006 to a control cohort not treated with these drugs. Cancers were identified from relevant Read\\OXMIS codes in the patient’s clinical files. Cox proportional hazards modelling was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for esophageal and gastric cancer risk in bisphosphonate users compared to non bisphosphonate users, with adjustment for potential confounders. Main outcome measure The HR for the risk of esophageal and gastric cancer in the bisphosphonate users compared to the non bisphosphonate users. Results There were 41,826 members in each cohort; 81% female, mean (SD) age, 70.0 (11.4) years, excluding patients with under 6 months follow-up. 116 esophageal or gastric cancers (79 esophageal) occurred in the bisphosphonate cohort and 115 (72 esophageal) in the control cohort. Mean follow-up time was 4.5 and 4.4 years in the bisphosphonate and control cohorts, respectively. There was no difference in combined esophageal and gastric cancer risk between the cohorts for any bisphosphonate use; adjusted HR (95% CI), 0.96 (0.74, 1.25) or esophageal risk alone; adjusted HR (95% CI), 1.07 (0.77, 1.49). There was also no difference in esophageal or gastric cancer risk by level of bisphosphonate intake. Conclusion This large study does not provide evidence for an increased risk of esophageal (or gastric) cancer in persons using oral bisphosphonates.

Cardwell, Chris C; Abnet, Christian C; Cantwell, Marie M; Murray, Liam J

2012-01-01

217

Smoking and gastric cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We conducted a systematic review of studies addressing the relation between cigarette smoking and gastric cancer to estimate\\u000a the magnitude of the association for different levels of exposure and cancer locations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Published cohort, case–cohort, and nested case–control studies were identified through PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science\\u000a searches, from inception to July 2007. Relative risk (RR) estimates referring to the

Ricardo Ladeiras-Lopes; Alexandre Kirchhofer Pereira; Amanda Nogueira; Tiago Pinheiro-Torres; Isabel Pinto; Ricardo Santos-Pereira; Nuno Lunet

2008-01-01

218

Towards a quantitative measure of verbal effectiveness and efficiency in the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: A well-known test for measuring verbal adequacy (i.e., verbal effectiveness) in mildly impaired aphasic speakers is the Amsterdam-Nijmegen Everyday Language Test (ANELT; Blomert, Koster, & Kean, 1995). Aphasia therapy practitioners score verbal adequacy qualitatively when they administer the ANELT to their aphasic clients in clinical practice.Aims: The current study investigated whether the construct validity of the ANELT could be

Marina B. Ruiter; Herman H. J. Kolk; Toni C. M. Rietveld; Nienke Dijkstra; Erica Lotgering

2011-01-01

219

Use of health care and drugs by police officers 8,5 years after the air disaster in Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined the use of health care by police officers after the air disaster in Amsterdam. On average 8.5 years post-disaster, involved police officers (n = 834, who reported disaster-related tasks), and their non-involved colleagues (n = 634) completed questionnaires on disaster involvement and health care in the preceding 12 months. Logistic regression showed that involved police officers more

Mechelen van W; J. W. R. Twisk; A. C. Huizink; Anke B. Witteveen; Willem van Mechelen; N. Smidt

2008-01-01

220

Diving behaviour of female northern rockhopper penguins, Eudyptes chrysocome moseleyi, during the brooding period at Amsterdam Island (Southern Indian Ocean)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pattern and characteristics of diving in 14 female northern rockhopper penguins, Eudyptes chrysocome moseleyi, were studied at Amsterdam Island (37°50?S; 77°31?E) during the guard stage, using electronic time–depth recorders. Twenty-nine\\u000a foraging trips (27 daily foraging trips and two longer trips including one night) with a total of 16?572 dives of ?3?m were\\u000a recorded. Females typically left the colony at

Y. Cherel; Y. Tremblay; E. Guinard; J. Y. Georges

1999-01-01

221

Cohort Comparisons in Resources and Functioning among Centenarians: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine cohort comparisons in levels of resources (e.g., mental health, physical functioning, economic and social resources, and cognitive functioning) for 211 community-dwelling centenarians (whose Mini-Mental Status Examination score was 23 or higher) of phases I and III of the Georgia Centenarian Study. The…

Cho, Jinmyoung; Martin, Peter; Margrett, Jennifer; MacDonald, Maurice; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

2012-01-01

222

Issues in Design and Implementation in an Urban Birth Cohort Study: The Syracuse AUDIT Project  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Syracuse AUDIT (Assessment of Urban Dwellings for Indoor Toxics) project is a birth cohort study of wheezing in the first year of life in a low-income urban setting. Such studies are important because of the documented serious risks to children's health and the lack of attention and published work on asthma development and intervention in communities of this size.

Judith A. Crawford; Teresa M. Hargrave; Andrew Hunt; Chien-Chih Liu; Ran D. Anbar; Geralyn E. Hall; Deepa Naishadham; Maria H. Czerwinski; Noah Webster; Jerrold L. Abraham

2006-01-01

223

Social and Behavioural Outcomes in Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Longitudinal Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To compare social and behavioural outcomes between children formally diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) with those of children who displayed autistic traits at preschool age, but remained undiagnosed as teenagers. Method: A secondary analysis of data from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and…

Russell, Ginny; Golding, Jean; Norwich, Brahm; Emond, Alan; Ford, Tamsin; Steer, Colin

2012-01-01

224

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2011-01-01

225

Size at Birth and Blood Pressure in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have suggested that birth size may influence blood pressure in later life. Most of these reported inverse associations only became evident after weight or body mass index at some later age was included in the regression model. In a prospective birth cohort study in Brazil, the effect of birth size on blood pressure at age 11 years was

Ana M. B. Menezes; Pedro C. Hallal; Bernardo L. Horta; Cora L. P. Araujo; Maria de Fatima Vieira; Marilda Neutzling; Fernando C. Barros; Cesar G. Victora

2007-01-01

226

Overweight, obesity and gastric cancer risk: Results from a meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The relationship between excess body weight and gastric cancer risk has not been well studied to date. We therefore carried out a systematic review and meta-analysis of published cohort studies to evaluate the association between excess body weight and gastric cancer risk. An electronic search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE and Academic Search Premier (EBSCO) databases, which contain articles published

Ping Yang; Yong Zhou; Bo Chen; Hong-Wei Wan; Gui-Qing Jia; Hai-Long Bai; Xiao-Ting Wu

2009-01-01

227

A Prospective Cohort of American Indian and Alaska Native People: Study Design, Methods, and Implementation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 2001, the National Cancer Institute funded three centers to test the feasibility of establishing a cohort of American Indian and Alaska Native people. Participating tribal organizations named the study EARTH (Educa- tion and Research Towards Health). This paper describes the study methods. A computerized data collection and tracking system was developed using audio computer-assisted survey methodology with touch screens.

M. L. Slattery; M. C. Schumacher; A. P. Lanier; S. Edwards; R. Edwards; M. A. Murtaugh; J. Sandidge; G. E. Day; D. Kaufman; S. Kanekar; L. Tom-Orme; J. A. Henderson

2007-01-01

228

Mortality in workers in poultry slaughtering\\/processing plants: the Missouri poultry cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Subjects who work in poultry slaughtering and processing plants have one of the highest human exposures to viruses that cause cancer in chickens and turkeys. It is not known whether these viruses cause cancer in humans also. Epidemiological studies investigating this issue are scarce.Aims and Methods: Mortality was studied during the period 1969–90 in a cohort of 7700 subjects

G F Netto; E S Johnson

2003-01-01

229

Factors associated with home death for individuals who receive home support services: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES: To determine the factors associated with a home death among older adults who received palliative care nursing home services in the home. METHODS: The participants in this retrospective cohort study were 151 family caregivers of patients who had died approximately 9 months prior to the study telephone interview. The interview focused on the last year of life and covered

Kevin Brazil; Michel Bedard; Kathleen Willison

2002-01-01

230

Determinants of cognitive function in childhood: A cohort study in a middle income context  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is evidence that poverty, health and nutrition affect children's cognitive development. This study aimed to examine the relative contributions of both proximal and distal risk factors on child cognitive development, by breaking down the possible causal pathways through which poverty affects cognition. METHODS: This cohort study collected data on family socioeconomic status, household and neighbourhood environmental conditions, child

Darci N Santos; Ana Marlúcia O Assis; Ana Bastos; Letícia M Santos; Carlos Antonio ST Santos; Agostino Strina; Matildes S Prado; Naomar M Almeida-Filho; Laura C Rodrigues; Mauricio L Barreto

2008-01-01

231

Adult Consequences of Late Adolescent Alcohol Consumption: A Systematic Review of Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

In a systematic review of cohort studies of adolescent drinking and later outcomes, Jim McCambridge and colleagues show that although studies suggest links to worse adult physical and mental health and social consequences, existing evidence is of poor quality.

Jim McCambridge; John McAlaney; Richard Rowe

2011-01-01

232

Very Early Predictors of Conduct Problems and Crime: Results from a National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children…

Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.

2010-01-01

233

Wholegrain intake and carotid artery atherosclerosis in a multiethnic cohort: the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Study13  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Whole-grain intake has been shown to be inversely associated with cardiovascular events, but an association with ath- erosclerosis is less well established. Objective: We sought to evaluate the association of whole-grain intake with carotid intimal medial thickness (IMT) and IMT pro- gression in a multiethnic cohort. Design: This study evaluated 1178 participants in the Insulin Re- sistance Atherosclerosis Study.

Philip B Mellen; Angela D Liese; Janet A Tooze; Mara Z Vitolins; Lynne E Wagenknecht; David M Herrington

234

Comorbidities of obesity in school children: a cross-sectional study in the PIAMA birth cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: There is ample evidence that childhood overweight is associated with increased risk of chronic disease in adulthood. The aim of this study was to investigate associations between childhood overweight and common childhood health problems. METHODS: Data were used from a general population sample of 3960 8-year-old children, participating in the Dutch PIAMA birth cohort study. Weight and height, measured

Alet H Wijga; Salome Scholtens; Wanda JE Bemelmans; Johan C de Jongste; Marjan Kerkhof; Maarten Schipper; Elisabeth A Sanders; Jorrit Gerritsen; Bert Brunekreef; Henriette A Smit

2010-01-01

235

National Board Teacher Certification: A Study of a Cohort of Five Candidates in One Elementary School  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine if the National Board Teacher Certification (NBTC) process was an effective form of professional development for teachers that would result in changing teachers' instructional practice resulting in improved student learning. The study also examined how a cohort of NBTC candidates impacted the non-NBTC…

Fawcett, Janet

2010-01-01

236

The spectrum of social phobia in the zurich cohort study of young adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The goals of the present study are to describe the prevalence, risk factors, course, and impact of social phobia in a 15-year prospective longitudinal community study; and to examine an expanded conceptualization of social phobia with respect to clinical indicators of severity, as well as gender differences, personality traits, and stability over 15 years.Methods: The sample is a cohort

Kathleen Ries Merikangas; Shelli Avenevoli; Suddhasatta Acharyya; Heping Zhang; Jules Angst

2002-01-01

237

Cohort study examining tamoxifen adherence and its relationship to mortality in women with breast cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Increasing duration of tamoxifen therapy improves survival in women with breast cancer but the impact of adherence to tamoxifen on mortality is unclear. This study investigated whether women prescribed tamoxifen after surgery for breast cancer adhered to their prescription and whether adherence influenced survival. A retrospective cohort study of all women with incident breast cancer in the Tayside region of

C McCowan; J Shearer; P T Donnan; J A Dewar; M Crilly; A M Thompson; T P Fahey

2008-01-01

238

Childhood Behavioral Problems Predict Young Adults' BMI and Obesity: Evidence From a Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined whether behavioral problems in childhood and adolescence are associated with young adults' BMI and obesity, and tested whether childhood behavioral problems have a greater impact on young adults' obesity than adolescent behavioral problems. The data were from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy (MUSP) and Its Outcomes, a population-based birth cohort study commenced in Brisbane, Australia, in

Abdullah A. Mamun; Michael J. O'Callaghan; Susanna M. Cramb; Jake M. Najman; Gail M. Williams; William Bor

2009-01-01

239

Dietary Patterns and Risk of Ovarian Cancer in the California Teachers Study Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous studies have examined the association between individual foods or nutrients, but not overall diet, and ovarian cancer risk. To account for the clustering of foods in the diet, we investigated the association between dietary patterns and risk of ovarian cancer in the prospective California Teachers Study cohort. Of 97,292 eligible women who completed the baseline dietary assessment in 1995–1996,

Ellen T. Chang; Valerie S. Lee; Alison J. Canchola; Tapashi B. Dalvi; Christina A. Clarke; Peggy Reynolds; David M. Purdie; Daniel O. Stram; Dee W. West; Argyrios Ziogas; Leslie Bernstein; Pamela L. Horn-Ross

2008-01-01

240

Low Job Control and Risk of Coronary Heart Disease in Whitehall II (Prospective Cohort) Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To determine the association between adverse psychosocial characteristics at work and risk of coronary heart disease among male and female civil servants. Design: Prospective cohort study (Whitehall II study). At the baseline examination (1985-8) and twice during follow up a self report questionnaire provided information on psychosocial factors of the work environment and coronary heart disease. Independent assessments of

Hans Bosma; Michael G. Marmot; Harry Hemingway; Amanda C. Nicholson; Eric Brunner; Stephen A. Stansfeld

1997-01-01

241

Bleeding complications of oral anticoagulant treatment: an inception-cohort, prospective collaborative study (ISCOAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Bleeding is the most serious complication of the use of oral anticoagulation in the prevention and treatment of thromoboembolic complications. We studied the frequency of bleeding complications in outpatients treated routinely in anticoagulation clinics. Methods In a prospective cohort from thirty-four Italian anticoagulation clinics, 2745 consecutive patients were studied from the start of their oral anticoagulation (warfarin in

Gualtiero Palareti; Nicoletta Leali; Sergio Coccheri; Mario Poggi; Cesare Manotti; Armando D'Angelo; Vittorio Pengo; Nicoletta Erba; Marco Moia; Nicola Ciavarella; Gianluigi Devoto; Mauro Berrettini; Serena Musolesi

1996-01-01

242

Burnout in health-care professionals during reorganizations and downsizing. A cohort study in nurses  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Burnout is a psychological reaction triggered by interaction between personal characteristics and stress factors. Reorganizations and downsizing with increased workload imply stress for health-care professionals. This is a study of burnout in nurses during a period with two comprehensive reorganizations. METHODS: In this quasi-experimental retrospective cohort study, burnout was assessed in nurses with long work experience in three surveys

Kirsten Nordang; Marie-Louise Hall-Lord; Per G Farup

2010-01-01

243

Suicide Attempts and Severe Psychiatric Morbidity among Former Child Welfare Clients--A National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Few large sample studies have examined psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare/protection clients. In this study, risks for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity in younger years were assessed for former child welfare clients in ten national birth cohorts, comparing them with general population peers and…

Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders; Lindblad, Frank

2006-01-01

244

Cancer risk following organ transplantation: a nationwide cohort study in Sweden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A substantial excess risk of lymphomas and nonmelanoma skin cancer has been demonstrated following organ transplantation. Large sample size and long follow-up time may, however, allow more accurate risk estimates and detailed understanding of long-term cancer risk. The objective of the study was to assess the risk of cancer following organ transplantation. A nationwide cohort study comprising 5931 patients who

J Adami; H Gäbel; B Lindelöf; K Ekström; B Rydh; B Glimelius; A Ekbom; H-O Adami; F Granath

2003-01-01

245

Very Early Predictors of Conduct Problems and Crime: Results from a National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background: Longitudinal research has produced a wealth of knowledge about individual, family, and social predictors of crime. However, nearly all studies have started after children are age 5, and little is known about earlier risk factors. Methods: The 1970 British Cohort Study is a prospective population survey of more than 16,000 children born…

Murray, Joseph; Irving, Barrie; Farrington, David P.; Colman, Ian; Bloxsom, Claire A. J.

2010-01-01

246

Dental caries experience in older people over time: what can the large cohort studies tell us?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background Little was known of the natural history of dental caries among older adults until recently, but reports from a number of large cohort studies have now enabled better understanding of the nature and determinants of dental caries in older people. The aim of this review is to examine and compare findings from established population-based longitudinal studies of older adults

W M Thomson

2004-01-01

247

EVALUATION OF A REMOTE EXPOSURE MONITORING STRATEGY FOR USE IN LONGITUDINAL COHORT STUDIES  

EPA Science Inventory

The Federal Government is currently planning a large, prospective birth cohort study known as the National Children's Study that will potentially involve 100,000 children and their families. The observation period will start as close to conception as possible and will continue...

248

Posttraumatic Syndromes in Children and Adolescents after Road Traffic Accidents – A Prospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The impact of road traffic accidents (RTAs) on the physical health of children is well recognized, but their psychological consequences have only recently become a topic of research. While other traumatic experiences in childhood are well studied, this kind of trauma has been poorly investigated to date. Sampling and Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted of 8- to

Ingo Schäfer; Claus Barkmann; Peter Riedesser; Michael Schulte-Markwort

2006-01-01

249

Outcome of anthroposophic medication therapy in chronic disease: A 12-month prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Anthroposophic medications (AMED) are prescribed in 56 countries. Objective: To study clinical outcomes in patients prescribed AMED for chronic disease. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: 110 medical practices in Germany. Participants: 665 consecutive outpatients aged 1-71 years, prescribed AMED for mental, respiratory, musculoskeletal, neurological, genitourinary, and other chronic diseases. Main outcomes: Disease and Symptom Scores (physicians' and patients' assessment,

Harald J Hamre; Claudia M Witt; Anja Glockmann; Renatus Ziegler; Gunver S Kienle; Stefan N Willich; Helmut Kiene

2008-01-01

250

Pre- and Postnatal Influences on Preschool Mental Health: A Large-Scale Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Methodological challenges such as confounding have made the study of the early determinants of mental health morbidity problematic. This study aims to address these challenges in investigating antenatal, perinatal and postnatal risk factors for the development of mental health problems in pre-school children in a cohort of Western…

Robinson, Monique; Oddy, Wendy H.; Li, Jianghong; Kendall, Garth E.; de Klerk, Nicholas H.; Silburn, Sven R.; Zubrick, Stephen R.; Newnham, John P.; Stanley, Fiona J.; Mattes, Eugen

2008-01-01

251

The ERA-EDTA cohort study - comparison of methods to predict survival on renal replacement therapy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Accurate prediction of patient survival from the time of starting renal replacement therapy (RRT) is desirable, but previously published predictive models have low accuracy. We have attempted to overcome limitations of previous studies by conducting an ambidirectional inception cohort study in patients on RRT from centres throughout Europe. A conven- tional multivariate regression (MVR) model, a self- learning rule-based

Colin C. Geddes; Dijk van P. C. W; Stephen McArthur; Wendy Metcalfe; Kitty J. Jager; Aeilko H. Zwinderman; Michael Mooney; Jonathan G. Fox; K. Simpson

2006-01-01

252

Mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Background Although previous studies have shown increased mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their relatives, no data are available in relation to different patterns of clinical presentation. We assessed mortality in patients with coeliac disease and their first-degree relatives. Methods We enrolled, in a prospective cohort study, 1072 adult patients with coeliac disease consecutively diagnosed in 11 gastroenterology

Giovanni Corrao; Gino Roberto Corazza; Vincenzo Bagnardi; Giovanna Brusco; Carolina Ciacci; Mario Cottone; Carla Sategna Guidetti; Paolo Usai; Pietro Cesari; Maria Antonietta Pelli; Silvano Loperfido; Umberto Volta; Antonino Calabró; Maria Certo

2001-01-01

253

Association Between Allergy and Asthma from Childhood to Middle Adulthood in an Australian Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort of 378 asthmatic children was studied from 7 to 35 yr of age at 7-yr intervals. On selection for inclusion in the study sam- ple, the children had a wide range of severity of wheezing. At each 7-yr review, asthma severity, the presence of eczema or hay fever, and skin test reactivity to house dust mite or rye

RORY WOLFE; JOHN B. CARLIN; HELMUT OSWALD; ANTHONY OLINSKY; PETER D. PHELAN; COLIN F. ROBERTSON

2000-01-01

254

Informed consent, participation in, and withdrawal from a population based cohort study involving genetic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Population based cohort studies involving genetic research have been initiated in several countries. However, research published to date provides little information on the willingness of the general population to participate in such studies. Furthermore, there is a need to discover the optimal methods for acquiring fully informed consent from the general population. We therefore examined the results of a

K Matsui; Y Kita; H Ueshima

2005-01-01

255

Influence of Obesity on Progression of Non-Diabetic Chronic Kidney Disease: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: There is increasing awareness of the impact of obesity on chronic diseases including chronic kidney disease (CKD). Until recently, a limited number of epidemiologic studies have examined the association between obesity and CKD. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to evaluate whether obesity impacts on the rate of non-diabetic CKD progression. Methods: The medical records of 125 non-diabetic CKD

Muftah Othman; Bisher Kawar; A. Meguid El Nahas

2009-01-01

256

Body Mass Index and Future Healthcare Costs: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To assess the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and future healthcare costs.Research Methods and Procedures: We undertook a retrospective cohort study of the relationship between obesity and future healthcare costs at Kaiser Permanente Northwest Division, a large health maintenance organization in Portland, Oregon. Study subjects (n = 1286) consisted of persons who responded to a 1990 health survey

David Thompson; Jonathan B. Brown; Gregory A. Nichols; Patricia J. Elmer; Gerry Oster

2001-01-01

257

Pharmaco-morbidity linkage: a feasibility study comparing morbidity in two pharmacy based exposure cohorts  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVES--The aims were (1) to compare discharge diagnoses and concurrent medication in a pharmacy based cohort of users of H2 receptor antagonists to those in a population of users of other drugs in the same period, who did not use H2 receptor antagonists; (2) to compare these results to those of a similar study performed with the Tayside record

R M Herings; A Bakker; B H Stricker; G Nap

1992-01-01

258

Postpartum sexual functioning and its relationship to perineal trauma: A retrospective cohort study of primiparous women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the relationship between obstetric perineal trauma and postpartum sexual functioning. Study Design: Our study was carried out with a retrospective cohort design in 3 groups of primiparous women after vaginal birth: Group 1 (n = 211) had an intact perineum or first-degree perineal tear; group 2 (n = 336) had second-degree perineal trauma; group

Lisa B. Signorello; Bernard L. Harlow; Amy K. Chekos; John T. Repke

2001-01-01

259

Alcohol sensitivity, alcohol use and hypertension in an older Chinese population: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the J-shaped association between alcohol consumption and blood pressure (BP) is well known, the effect of alcohol sensitivity on this relationship is less clear. We studied the association of alcohol sensitivity and alcohol use with BP and hypertension. This cross-sectional analysis included 19 335 older participants from the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study recruited from 2003 to 2006, using clinically

Wei Sen Zhang; Chao Qiang Jiang; Kar Keung Cheng; Peymane Adab; G Neil Thomas; Bin Liu; Kin-Bong Hubert Lam; C Mary Schooling; Tai Hing Lam

2009-01-01

260

Suicide Attempts and Severe Psychiatric Morbidity among Former Child Welfare Clients--A National Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background: Few large sample studies have examined psychiatric morbidity among former child welfare/protection clients. In this study, risks for suicide attempts and severe psychiatric morbidity in younger years were assessed for former child welfare clients in ten national birth cohorts, comparing them with general population peers and…

Vinnerljung, Bo; Hjern, Anders; Lindblad, Frank

2006-01-01

261

Involvement in Bullying and Suicide-Related Behavior at 11 Years: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Objective: To study the prospective link between involvement in bullying (bully, victim, bully/victim), and subsequent suicide ideation and suicidal/self-injurious behavior, in preadolescent children in the United Kingdom. Method: A total of 6,043 children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) cohort were assessed to…

Winsper, Catherine; Lereya, Tanya; Zanarini, Mary; Wolke, Dieter

2012-01-01

262

Falls, Sarcopenia, and Growth in Early Life: Findings from the Hertfordshire Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent studies have shown that people whose early growth is poor have an increased risk of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is an important risk factor for falls, but it is not known whether poor early growth is related to falls. The authors investigated this association in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study (1998-2004), where 2,148 participants from the United Kingdom provided their history of

Avan Aihie Sayer; Holly E. Syddall; Helen J. Martin; Elaine M. Dennison; Frazer H. Anderson; Cyrus Cooper

263

Risk factors for nosocomial infections in critically ill newborns: A 5-year prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Nosocomial infections (NIs) are one of the most important causes of morbidity in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to identify risk factors (RFs) for NIs among critically ill newborn patients in a Brazilian NICU. Methods: This 5-year prospective cohort study in an 8-bed NICU included all infants born in the hospital and admitted

Julia Y. Kawagoe; Conceição A. M. Segre; Cresio R. Pereira; Maria Fatima S. Cardoso; Claudia V. Silva; Julia T. Fukushima

2001-01-01

264

Prognostic factors of death in leptospirosis: a prospective cohort study in Khon Kaen, Thailand  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To determine the prognostic factors of death in leptospirosis.Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted. One hundred and twenty one patients with clinically compatible leptospirosis, serologically confirmed, were recruited in this study. Clinical presentations and biochemical parameters on admission were selected as input variables for survival analysis. Multivariable Cox regression model was used to identify the prognostic factors of

Thanachai Panaphut; Somnuek Domrongkitchaiporn; Bandit Thinkamrop

2002-01-01

265

Head Start and Urban Children's School Readiness: A Birth Cohort Study in 18 Cities  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

We used longitudinal data from a birth cohort study, the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, to investigate the links between Head Start and school readiness in a large and diverse sample of urban children at age 5 (N = 2,803; 18 cities). We found that Head Start attendance was associated with enhanced cognitive ability and social…

Zhai, Fuhua; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Waldfogel, Jane

2011-01-01

266

A cohort study on cancer in areas among residents chronically exposed to arsenic  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many clinical and epidemiological studies have shown that chronic arsenic exposure increases the risk of skin cancer and lung cancer. However, laboratory experiments still fail to produce cancer in animals exposed to arsenic, which impedes the risk assessment of the carcinogenesis of arsenic. Alternatively, data for an adequate dose-response assessment on cancer may be obtained through a retrospective cohort study

Lin

2008-01-01

267

Population-based cohort development in Alberta, Canada: a feasibility study.  

PubMed

In a climate of increasing privacy concerns, the feasibility of establishing new cohorts to examine chronic disease etiology has been debated. Our primary aim was to ascertain the feasibility of enrolling a geographically dispersed, population-based cohort in Alberta. We also examined whether enrolees would grant access to provincial health care utilization data and consider providing blood for future analysis. Using random digit dialling, 22,652 men and women aged 35 to 69 years, without diagnosed cancer, were recruited. Of these, 52.4 percent (N=11,865) enrolled; 84 percent of Alberta communities were represented. Approximately 97 percent of enrolees consented to linkage with health care data, and 91 percent indicated willingness to consider future blood sampling. Comparisons between the cohort and the Canadian Community Health Survey (Cycle 1.1) for Alberta demonstrated similarities in marital status and income. However, the cohort had a smaller proportion who had not finished high school, a greater proportion of nonsmokers and a higher prevalence of obesity. These findings indicate that establishment of a geographically dispersed cohort is feasible in the Canadian context, and that data linkage and biomarker studies may be viable. PMID:16867239

Bryant, Heather; Robson, Paula J; Ullman, Ruth; Friedenreich, Christine; Dawe, Ursula

2006-01-01

268

Clinical highlights from the 2011 ERS Congress in Amsterdam  

PubMed Central

This article reports on selected papers pertinent to the most important clinical problems in the field of respiratory medicine. Expert authors from the Clinical Assembly of the European Respiratory Society (ERS) have selected updated reports related to presentations given at the 2011 ERS Annual Congress, which was held in Amsterdam (the Netherlands) and attended by more than 20,000 participants. The hot topics and selected abstracts from the scientific groups of the Clinical Assembly are discussed here in the context of recent literature.

Spruit, Martijn A.; Chavannes, Niels H.; Herth, Felix J.F.; Poletti, Venerino; Ley, Sebastian; Burghuber, Otto C.; Clini, Enrico; Cottin, Vincent

2012-01-01

269

The longitudinal urban cohort ageing study (LUCAS): study protocol and participation in the first decade  

PubMed Central

Background We present concept, study protocol and selected baseline data of the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS) in Germany. LUCAS is a long-running cohort study of community-dwelling seniors complemented by specific studies of geriatric patients or diseases. Aims were to (1) Describe individual ageing trajectories in a metropolitan setting, documenting changes in functional status, the onset of frailty, disability and need of care; (2) Find determinants of healthy ageing; (3) Assess long-term effects of specific health promotion interventions; (4) Produce results for health care planning for fit, pre-frail, frail and disabled elderly persons; (5) Set up a framework for embedded studies to investigate various hypotheses in specific subgroups of elderly. Methods/Design In 2000, twenty-one general practitioners (GPs) were recruited in the Hamburg metropolitan area; they generated lists of all their patients 60?years and older. Persons not terminally ill, without daily need of assistance or professional care were eligible. Of these, n?=?3,326 (48?%) agreed to participate and completed a small (baseline) and an extensive health questionnaire (wave 1). In 2007/2008, a re-recruitment took place including 2,012 participants: 743 men, 1,269 women (647 deaths, 197 losses, 470 declined further participation). In 2009/2010 n?=?1,627 returned the questionnaire (90 deaths, 47 losses, 248 declined further participation) resulting in a good participation rate over ten years with limited and quantified dropouts. Presently, follow-up data from 2007/2008 (wave 2) and 2009/2010 (wave 3) are available. Data wave 4 is due in 2011/2012, and the project will be continued until 2013. Information on survival and need of nursing care was collected continuously and cross-checked against official records. We used Fisher’s exact test and t-tests. The study served repeatedly to evaluate health promotion interventions and concepts. Discussion LUCAS shows that a cohort study of older persons is feasible and can maintain a good participation rate over ten years, even when extensive self-reported health data are collected repeatedly through self-filled questionnaires. Evidently individual health developments of elderly persons can be tracked quantifying simultaneously behaviour, co-morbidity, functional competence and their changes. In future, we expect to generate results of significance about the five study aims listed above.

2012-01-01

270

Physical Abuse and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome: a Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study assess association between physical violence during pregnancy and adverse pregnancy outcomes. A cross sectional study using McFarlane's Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS) was done. A systemic random sample of newly registered pregnant women seeking routine ANC care at the study hospital, who satisfied eligibility criteria was screened for physical abuse using modified Mc. Farlane Abuse Assessment Screen (AAS).

Dipty Jain; Jain DL; Ughade S N; Sadowski L

2009-01-01

271

Maternal postnatal depression and child growth: a European cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported postpartum depression to be associated with both positive and negative effects on early infant growth. This study examined the hypothesis that maternal postnatal depression may be a risk factor for later child growth faltering or overweight. METHODS: A total of 929 women and their children participating in a European multicenter study were included at a

Veit Grote; Torstein Vik; Rüdiger von Kries; Veronica Luque; Jerzy Socha; Elvira Verduci; Clotilde Carlier; Berthold Koletzko

2010-01-01

272

The association between height and prostate cancer grade in the Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We examined the relationship between height and prostate cancer grade.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  The Early Stage Prostate Cancer Cohort Study is an observational cohort of 1,037 men diagnosed with early-stage prostate cancer,\\u000a T0–3NxM0. High-grade prostate cancer was defined as a biopsy Gleason score ? 7 (4 + 3). Logistic regression models were created to\\u000a calculate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the cross-sectional relationship

Wildon R. Farwell; Christopher Lourenco; Erika Holmberg; Robert B. Hall; Leonard D’Avolio; Elizabeth V. Lawler; J. Michael Gaziano

273

Dietary phytocompounds and risk of lymphoid malignancies in the California Teachers Study cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective  We examined whether dietary intake of isoflavones, lignans, isothiocyanates, antioxidants, or specific foods rich in these\\u000a compounds is associated with reduced risk of B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), multiple myeloma (MM), or Hodgkin lymphoma\\u000a (HL) in a large, prospective cohort of women.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Between 1995–1996 and 31 December 2007, among 110,215 eligible members of the California Teachers Study cohort, 536 women\\u000a developed

Ellen T. Chang; Alison J. Canchola; Christina A. Clarke; Yani Lu; Dee W. West; Leslie Bernstein; Sophia S. Wang; Pamela L. Horn-Ross

2011-01-01

274

Trends in patterns of dengue transmission over four years of a pediatric cohort study in Nicaragua  

PubMed Central

Background Dengue is the most prevalent mosquito-borne viral disease in humans and a major urban public health problem worldwide. Methods A prospective cohort study of ~3,800 children initially aged 2-9 years old was established in Managua, Nicaragua, in 2004 to study the natural history of dengue transmission in an urban pediatric population. Blood samples from healthy subjects were collected annually prior to the dengue season, and identification of dengue cases occurred via enhanced passive surveillance at the study health center. Results Over the first four years of the study, seroprevalence of anti-dengue virus (DENV) antibodies increased from 22-40% in the 2-year-old cohort and 90-95% in the 9-year-old cohort. The incidence of symptomatic dengue cases and the ratio of inapparent to symptomatic DENV infection varied substantially year-to-year. The switch in dominant transmission from DENV-1 to DENV-2 was accompanied by an increase in disease severity but, paradoxically, a decrease in transmission. Phylogeographic analysis of full-length DENV-2 sequences revealed strong geographic clustering of dengue cases. Conclusions This large-scale cohort study of dengue in the Americas demonstrates year-to-year variation of dengue within a pediatric population, revealing expected patterns in transmission while highlighting the impact of interventions, climate, and viral evolution.

Balmaseda, Angel; Standish, Katherine; Mercado, Juan Carlos; Matute, Juan Carlos; Tellez, Yolanda; Saborio, Saira; Hammond, Samantha N.; Nunez, Andrea; Aviles, William; Henn, Matthew R.; Holmes, Edward C.; Gordon, Aubree; Coloma, Josefina; Kuan, Guillermina; Harris, Eva

2013-01-01

275

Asymptotic results for fitting marginal hazards models from stratified case-cohort studies with multiple disease outcomes  

PubMed Central

In stratified case-cohort designs, samplings of case-cohort samples are conducted via a stratified random sampling based on covariate information available on the entire cohort members. In this paper, we extended the work of Kang & Cai (2009) to a generalized stratified case-cohort study design for failure time data with multiple disease outcomes. Under this study design, we developed weighted estimating procedures for model parameters in marginal multiplicative intensity models and for the cumulative baseline hazard function. The asymptotic properties of the estimators are studied using martingales, modern empirical process theory, and results for finite population sampling.

Kang, Sangwook; Cai, Jianwen

2010-01-01

276

Postinfectious fatigue: prospective cohort study in primary care  

Microsoft Academic Search

The idea that chronic fatigue has an infectious origin has become popular, but the main evidence for such an association has come from retrospective case-control studies, which are subject to ascertainment bias. We report a prospective study of the outcome of clinically diagnosed infections in patients presenting to UK general practitioners. Questionnaires assessing fatigue and psychiatric morbidity were sent to

S Wessely; T Chalder; S Hirsch; D. J. M Wright; T Pawlikowska; P Wallace

1995-01-01

277

Population dynamics of wandering albatross Diomedea exulans and Amsterdam albatross D. amsterdamensis in the Indian Ocean and their relationships with long-line fisheries: Conservation implications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Studies carried out over the past three decades at Crozet and Kerguelen Islands in the Indian Ocean indicate that wandering albatross Diomedea exulans populations declined markedly, but since 1986 have shown slow recovery. The population of the endangered Amsterdam albatross Diomedea amsterdamensis appears to have similarly recovered since 1985, but remains close to extinction. A demographic study of the Crozet

Henri Weimerskirch; Nigel Brothers; P. Jouventin

1997-01-01

278

The validity of post-concussion syndrome in children: A controlled historical cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this controlled historical cohort study was to assess the validity of post-concussion syndrome in children. We identified 301 children aged 4–15 years who had sustained an isolated brain concussion, and another group of 301 children who sustained any other mild body injury excluding the head. Parents from both groups filled in standardized questionnaires containing questions about the

Olga Nacajauskaite; Milda Endziniene; Kristina Jureniene; Harald Schrader

2006-01-01

279

Non-residential Fatherhood and Child Involvement: Evidence from the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fifteen per cent of British babies are now born to parents who are neither cohabiting nor married. Little is known about non-residential fatherhood that commences with the birth of a child. Here, we use the Millennium Cohort Study to examine a number of aspects of this form of fatherhood. Firstly, we consider the extent to which these fathers were involved

KATHLEEN KIERNAN

2006-01-01

280

A cohort mortality study of forestry workers exposed to phenoxy acid herbicides  

Microsoft Academic Search

A cohort mortality study was undertaken of forestry workers at a public electrical utility who had worked for six months or more during 1950-82 and who were routinely exposed to herbicides including phenoxy acids. A total of 1222 men with 25 274 years at risk experienced 80 deaths. Ascertainment of vital state at the end of follow up was 95.5%.

L M Green

1991-01-01

281

Meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background More than 20 studies have investigated the relation between meat and dairy food consumption and breast cancer risk with conflicting results. Our objective was to evaluate the risk of breast cancer associated with meat and dairy food consump- tion and to assess whether non-dietary risk factors modify the relation. Methods We combined the primary data from eight prospective cohort

Stacey A Missmer; Stephanie A Smith-Warner; Donna Spiegelman; Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun; P. A. van den Brandt

2002-01-01

282

The outcome of extubation failure in a community hospital intensive care unit: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Extubation failure has been associated with poor intensive care unit (ICU) and hospital outcomes in tertiary care medical centers. Given the large proportion of critical care delivered in the community setting, our purpose was to determine the impact of extubation failure on patient outcomes in a community hospital ICU. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using data gathered

Christopher W Seymour; Anthony Martinez; Jason D Christie; Barry D Fuchs

2004-01-01

283

The Risk of Cancer following Hospitalization for Infection in Infancy: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: The relation between infections in infancy and subsequent cancer risk in children and young adults is controversial. Our aim was to examine this association in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study, a population-based cohort com­ prising all offspring from western Jerusalem and surround­ ings born from 1964 to 1976. Methods: Identity numbers of nonmalformed singletons with recorded data about hospital admission

Ora Paltiel; David E. Laniado; Lisa Deutsch; Ronit Calderon-Margalit; Susan Harlap; Yehiel Friedlander

284

HIV infection and risk factors among Bangkok prisoners, Thailand: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Incarceration has been associated with HIV infection among injection drug users. However, data on HIV risk factors of the inmates during incarceration are rarely reported from Thailand. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 689 male inmates in a Bangkok central prison was studied during 2001–2002. Follow up visits were conducted for 5 months, with testing for HIV and other infections

Hansa Thaisri; John Lerwitworapong; Suthon Vongsheree; Pathom Sawanpanyalert; Chanchai Chadbanchachai; Archawin Rojanawiwat; Wichuda Kongpromsook; Wiroj Paungtubtim; Pongnuwat Sri-ngam; Rachaneekorn Jaisue

2003-01-01

285

Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Opioid misuse can complicate chronic pain management, and the non-medical use of opioids is a growing public health problem. The incidence and risk factors for opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain, however, have not been well characterized. We conducted a prospective cohort study to determine the one-year incidence and predictors of opioid misuse among patients enrolled in a

Timothy J Ives; Paul R Chelminski; Catherine A Hammett-Stabler; Robert M Malone; J Stephen Perhac; Nicholas M Potisek; Betsy Bryant Shilliday; Darren A DeWalt; Michael P Pignone

2006-01-01

286

Fluoroquinolone Safety in Pediatric Patients: A Prospective, Multicenter, Comparative Cohort Study in France  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. To evaluate the safety of fluo- roquinolones (FQ) in comparison with other antibiotics in pediatric patients. Methods. A multicenter, observational, comparative cohort study was conducted between 1998 and 2000 in French pediatric departments. Patients who were receiv- ing systemic FQ were included and matched to control patients who were receiving other antibiotics. Antibiotic- associated potential adverse events (PAEs) were

Martin Chalumeau; Sylvie Tonnelier; Philippe d'Athis; Jean-Marc Treluyer; Dominique Gendrel; Gerard Breart; Gerard Pons

287

Education, marital status, and total and cardiovascular mortality in novosibirsk, Russia: A prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

PurposeMortality from cardiovascular diseases in Russia is among the highest in the world but little is known about its distribution by socio-demographic factors. We investigated this question in a prospective cohort study based on the Novosibirsk MONICA Project.

Sofia Malyutina; Martin Bobak; Galina Simonova; Valery Gafarov; Yuri Nikitin; Michael Marmot

2004-01-01

288

Is cancer risk associated with anger control and negative affect? Findings from a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To examine the associations between anger control and negative affect and the risk of five common cancers and total cancers. Possible associations between emotional states and the risk of cancer have long been postulated. METHODS: Prospective cohort study with average follow-up of 9 years. A total of 19,730 adults (99% aged between 40 and 69 years) answered questions on

Victoria M White; Dallas R English; Hamish Coates; Magdalen Legerlund; Ron Borland; Graham G Giles

2007-01-01

289

Cervical adenocarcinoma survival among Hispanic and white women: A multicenter cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: We compared the clinical outcome of cervical adenocarcinoma in Hispanic and white women to determine whether race was an independent predictor of survival. Study Design: All women who were diagnosed with cervical adenocarcinoma at three institutions between 1982 and 2000 were identified. Medical records were reviewed retrospectively. Hispanic and white cohorts were matched 1:2 for age, stage of disease,

John O. Schorge; Jayanthi S. Lea; Elizabeth O. Garner; Linda R. Duska; David S. Miller; Robert L. Coleman

2003-01-01

290

The mental health of UK Gulf war veterans: phase 2 of a two phase cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To examine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in veterans of the Gulf war with or without unexplained physical disability (a proxy measure of ill health) and in similarly disabled veterans who had not been deployed to the Gulf war (non›Gulf veterans). Design Two phase cohort study. Setting Current and ex›service UK military personnel. Participants Phase 1 consisted of three

Khalida Ismail; Kate Kent; Traolach Brugha; Matthew Hotopf; Lisa Hull; Paul Seed; Ian Palmer; Steve Reid; Catherine Unwin; Anthony S David; Simon Wessely; Gulf War Illnesses

2002-01-01

291

Toward validation of atypical depression in the community: results of the Zurich cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: This paper (1) examines the validity of the atypical subtype of depression in a community-based longitudinal cohort study, (2) presents estimates of the prevalence and sex differences of DSM-IV atypical depression and a newly more broadly defined atypical syndrome in the community and (3) compares the clinical correlates and treatment patterns of those with atypical depression with other depressives.

Jules Angst; Alex Gamma; Robert Sellaro; Heping Zhang; Kathleen Merikangas

2002-01-01

292

Quality of rehabilitation among workers with adjustment disorders according to practice guidelines; a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aims: To assess the quality of occupational rehabilitation for patients with adjustment disorders and to determine whether high quality of care is related to a shorter period of sickness absence.Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted by means of an audit of 100 files of patients with adjustment disorders who visited their occupational physicians. Quality of rehabilitation was assessed by

K. Nieuwenhuijsen; J. H. A. M. Verbeek; J. C. M. J. Siemerink; D. Tummers-Nijsen

2003-01-01

293

Early life risk factors for adult asthma: A birth cohort study of subjects at risk  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Prediction of adult asthma is important, and early prevention strategies should be targeted at those most at risk. Identifying high-risk children at an early age, however, is currently difficult. Objective: We sought to determine those factors present in early life that predict an increased risk of adult asthma. Methods: A prospective cohort study of subjects at risk of asthma

Helen L. Rhodes; Richard Sporik; Peter Thomas; Stephen T. Holgate; Jeremy J. Cogswell

2001-01-01

294

A Retrospective Cohort Study on Obesity and Hypertension Risk among Korean Adults  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective cohort of adult Korean males and females was conducted to eval- uate the influence of obesity on the development of hypertension and to determine the level of the body mass index at which the risk of hypertension significantly in- creases. The subjects of this study were 1,467 men and 944 women aged 20 to 75 yr who were

Sung-Hee Lee; Young-Sik Kim; Sung Sunwoo; Bong-Yul Huh

2005-01-01

295

BEHAVIOR PROBLEMS ANTECEDE THE DEVELOPMENT OF WHEEZE IN CHILDHOOD: A BIRTH COHORT STUDY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rationale: It is not clear to what extent behavior problems observed in children with asthma antecede asthma development, or are a consequence of the disease. Objectives: We investigated psychologic factors at age 3 years and subsequent development of wheeze by age 5 in an unselected birth cohort study. Children were recruited prenatally, followed prospectively, and reviewed at age 3 and

Rachel Calam; Lynsey Gregg; Angela Simpson; Bridget Simpson; Ashley Woodcock; Adnan Custovic

296

Polymyalgia rheumatica in primary care: a cohort study of the diagnostic criteria and outcome  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods. This was a retrospective cohort study of all patients diagnosed with PMR in three UK general practices between January 1994 and December 2003. The medical records were exam- ined for features of PMR. The duration of steroid treatment was used as a proxy for duration of disease. Analysis of prognostic predictors was by Cox proportional hazards models. Results. One

K. Barraclough; W. G Liddell; J. du Toit; C. Foy; B. Dasgupta; M. Thomas

2008-01-01

297

Cancer risks of dermatomyositis and polymyositis: a nationwide cohort study in Taiwan  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The association of idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM) and malignancies has been reported, but rarely in Asian countries. Our aim was to investigate the risk of cancer among IIM patients without a prior history of malignancies, in Taiwan. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study of 1,012 patients with dermatomyositis (DM) and 643 patients with polymyositis (PM), but without prior

Yi-Ju Chen; Chun-Ying Wu; Yu-Lin Huang; Chang-Bi Wang; Jui-Lung Shen; Yun-Ting Chang

2010-01-01

298

The Rationale for a National Prospective Cohort Study of Environmental Exposure and Childhood Development  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence is growing that pre- and perinatal exposures and factors play a role in not only childhood but adulthood disorders. Therefore, there is a compelling need to undertake a national cohort study to evaluate the effects of such factors, ideally through adult life. Several recent developments, including advancements in computer technology, the management, storage, and analysis of biological specimens, and

Gertrud S. Berkowitz; Mary S. Wolff; Thomas Matte; Ezra Susser; Philip J. Landrigan

2001-01-01

299

Anthroposophic therapy for chronic depression: a four-year prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders are common, cause considerable disability, and do not always respond to standard therapy (psychotherapy, antidepressants). Anthroposophic treatment for depression differs from ordinary treatment in the use of artistic and physical therapies and special medication. We studied clinical outcomes of anthroposophic therapy for depression. METHODS: 97 outpatients from 42 medical practices in Germany participated in a prospective cohort

Harald J Hamre; Claudia M Witt; Anja Glockmann; Renatus Ziegler; Stefan N Willich; Helmut Kiene

2006-01-01

300

Risk of breast cancer among daughters of mothers with diabetes: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Diabetes during pregnancy is related to enhanced fetal growth, which has been associated with increased breast cancer risk. Whether daughters of mothers with a diagnosis of diabetes have an increased risk of breast cancer is not known. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of daughters of mothers with diabetes by linkage of the Swedish Multigeneration, Cause-of-Death and

Olof Stephansson; Fredrik Granath; Anders Ekbom; Karin B Michels

2010-01-01

301

Exogenous hormone use and the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer: results from the Netherlands Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The association between the use of exogenous hormones as either oral contraceptives (OC) or hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer incidence was examined in the Netherlands Cohort Study (NLCS) among 62,573 women aged 55 to 69 years. Information on these types of exogenous hormone use and other risk factors was collected by mailed questionnaire. During 3.3

Agnes G. Schuurman; P. A. van den Brandt; R. Alexandra Goldbohm

1995-01-01

302

Work stress and risk of cardiovascular mortality: prospective cohort study of industrial employees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the association between work stress, according to the job strain model and the effort›reward imbalance model, and the risk of death from cardiovascular disease. Design Prospective cohort study. Baseline examination in 1973 determined cases of cardiovascular disease, behavioural and biological risks, and stressful characteristics of work. Biological risks were measured at 5 year and 10 year follow

Mika Kivim; Jussi Vahtera

2002-01-01

303

Fracture risk in people with celiac disease: a population-based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & Aims:People with celiac disease are at risk of developing osteoporosis, but the extent of any increased fracture risk is unclear. We performed a population-based cohort study by using the General Practice Research Database to quantify the fracture risk in people with celiac disease compared with the general population.

Joe West; Richard F. A Logan; Tim R Card; Chris Smith; Richard Hubbard

2003-01-01

304

Effect of Physical Activity after Recent Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SHRIER, I., and S. R. KAHN. Effect of Physical Activity after Recent Deep Venous Thrombosis: A Cohort Study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 630-634, 2005. Purpose: To determine whether increased physical activity 1 month after deep vein thrombosis (DVT) led to worsening of venous symptoms and signs within the subsequent 3 months. Methods: By a multicenter

IAN SHRIER; SUSAN R. KAHN

2005-01-01

305

Epidemiology of sepsis and infection in ICU patients from an international multicentre cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives: To examine the incidence of infections and to describe them and their outcome in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Design and setting: International prospective cohort study in which all patients admitted to the 28 participating units in eight countries between May 1997 and May 1998 were followed until hospital discharge. Patients: A total of 14,364 patients were admitted to

Corinne Alberti; Christian Brun-Buisson; Hilmar Burchardi; Claudio Martin; Sergey Goodman; Antonio Artigas; Alberto Sicignano; Mark Palazzo; Rui Moreno; Ronan Boulmé; Eric Lepage; Jean Roger Le Gall

2002-01-01

306

Using Blogging for Higher Order Learning in Large Cohort University Teaching: A Case Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The small but developing literature on weblogging underscores its potential as an effective learning resource for use in higher education. This paper contributes to these discussions through an initial case study of the authors' experience with the on going development of an educational blogging resource for use in a large cohort, undergraduate…

Farmer, Brett; Yue, Audrey; Brooks, Claire

2008-01-01

307

Incidence of cancer among Nordic airline pilots over five decades: occupational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the incidence of cancer among male airline pilots in the Nordic countries, with special reference to risk related to cosmic radiation. Design Retrospective cohort study, with follow up of cancer incidence through the national cancer registries. Setting Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. Participants 10 032 male airline pilots, with an average follow up of 17 years.

Eero Pukkala; Rafael Aspholm; Anssi Auvinen; Harald Eliasch; Maryanne Gundestrup; Pentti Kyyrnen; Finnish Airline

2002-01-01

308

Incomplete functional recovery after delirium in elderly people: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Delirium often has a poor outcome, but why some people have incomplete recovery is not well understood. Our objective was to identify factors associated with short-term (by discharge) and long-term (by 6 month) incomplete recovery of function following delirium. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study of elderly patients with delirium seen by geriatric medicine services, function was assessed at

Melissa K Andrew; Susan H Freter; Kenneth Rockwood

2005-01-01

309

Association of driver air bags with driver fatality: a matched cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the association of driver air bag presence with driver fatality in road traffic crashes. Design Matched pair cohort study. Setting All passenger vehicle crashes in the United States during 1990›2000 inclusive. Subjects 51 031 driver›passenger pairs in the same vehicle. Main outcome measures Relative risk of death within 30 days of a crash. Results Drivers with an

Peter Cummings; Barbara McKnight; Frederick P Rivara; David C Grossman

2002-01-01

310

USE OF AGRICULTURAL PESTICIDES AND LUNG CANCER RISK IN THE AGRICULTURAL HEALTH STUDY COHORT  

EPA Science Inventory

We examined the relationship between 45 common agricultural pesticides and lung cancer incidence in a prospective cohort study of 52,395 private pesticide applicators, 4,916 commercial pesticide applicators and 32,347 spouses of farmer applicators from Iowa and North Carolina w...

311

Do pakistani babies have more congenital heart defects? Preliminary findings from our birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionA large prospective birth cohort study was established in March 2007 to look at health outcomes of 13 000 babies booked for delivery at our hospital. Nearly half the population of babies born in this region have parents of Pakistani ethnicity. These babies are known to have higher prevalence of congenital malformations. We looked at congenital cardiac anomalies & ethnic

P Agadoorappa; S Oddie; N Pawson; E Sheridon

2011-01-01

312

Procalcitonin levels in acute exacerbation of COPD admitted in ICU: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are recommended for severe acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) admitted to intensive care units (ICU). Serum procalcitonin (PCT) could be a useful tool for selecting patients with a lower probability of developing bacterial infection, but its measurement has not been investigated in this population. METHODS: We conducted a single center prospective cohort study in consecutive

Cédric Daubin; Jean-Jacques Parienti; Astrid Vabret; Michel Ramakers; Sabine Fradin; Nicolas Terzi; François Freymuth; Pierre Charbonneau; Damien du Cheyron

2008-01-01

313

Contrasting predictors of poor antiretroviral therapy outcomes in two South African HIV programmes: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Many national antiretroviral therapy (ART) programmes encourage providers to identify and address baseline factors associated with poor treatment outcomes, including modifiable adherence-related behaviours, before initiating ART. However, evidence on such predictors is scarce, and providers judgement may often be inaccurate. To help address this evidence gap, this observational cohort study examined baseline factors potentially predictive of poor treatment outcomes

Mison Dahab; Salome Charalambous; Alan S Karstaedt; Katherine L Fielding; Robin Hamilton; Lettie La Grange; Gavin J Churchyard; Alison D Grant

2010-01-01

314

Smoking during pregnancy and risk of abnormal glucose tolerance: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Disturbances in glucose metabolism during pregnancy are associated with negative sequalae for both mother and infant. The association between smoking and abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) remains controversial. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between smoking prior to and during pregnancy and risk of AGT. METHODS: We utilized data from a prospective cohort of 1,006

Amy E Haskins; Elizabeth R Bertone-Johnson; Penelope Pekow; Elena Carbone; Renée T Fortner; Lisa Chasan-Taber

2010-01-01

315

Nested Randomized Trials in Large Cohorts and Biobanks Studying the Health Effects of Lifestyle Factors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most diseases are likely to result largely from the interplay of lifestyle and genetic factors. However, both obser- vational studies and randomized trials have faced major limita- tions in trying to address the impact of lifestyle on health. As large cohorts and biobanks are being developed, we need to find novel, efficient ways to address the effects of lifestyle interven-

John P. A. Ioannidis; Hans-Olov Adami

2008-01-01

316

A prospective cohort study of feeding needle catheter jejunostomy in an upper gastrointestinal surgical unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background & aim: Feeding jejunostomy is recommended to facilitate early enteral nutrition after major upper gastrointestinal surgery. We aimed to determine the benefits and risks associated with routine practice of feeding needle catheter jejunostomy (NCJ) in high-risk upper gastrointestinal surgery.Method: This is a prospective consecutive cohort study of 84 patients underwent feeding NCJ over a 3 years period in an

Kin-Fah Chin; Sara Townsend; Wingzou Wong; Glenn V Miller

2004-01-01

317

Depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer: five year observational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To examine the prevalence of, and risk factors for, depression and anxiety in women with early breast cancer in the five years after diagnosis. Design Observational cohort study. Setting NHS breast clinic, London. Participants 222 women with early breast cancer: 170 (77%) provided complete interview data up to either five years after diagnosis or recurrence. Main outcome measures Prevalence

Caroline Burgess; Victoria Cornelius; Sharon Love; Jill Graham; Michael Richards; Amanda Ramirez

2005-01-01

318

Xylitol Chewing Gums and Caries Rates: A 40-month Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dental caries is a pandemic infectious disease which can affect the quality of life and consumes considerable health care resources. The chewing of xylitol, sorbitol, and even sugar gum has been suggested to reduce caries rates. No clinical study has simultaneously investigated the effectiveness of these gums when compared with a group receiving no chewing gum. A 40-month double-blind cohort

K. K. Makinen; C. A. Bennett; P. P. Hujoel; P. J. Isokangas; K. P. Isotupa; H. R. Pape; PL Makinen

1995-01-01

319

Drinking water chlorination and cancer – a historical cohort study in Finland  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chlorinationof water richin organic material is knownto produce a complexmixture of organochlorine compounds, including mutagenic and carcinogenicsubstances. A historical cohort study of 621,431 persons living in 56 townsin Finland was conducted in order to assess the relation between historicalexposure to drinking water mutagenicity and cancer. Exposure to quantity ofmutagenicity was calculated on the basis of historical information of rawwater quality

Meri Koivusalo; Eero Pukkala; Terttu Vartiainen; Jouni J. K. Jaakkola; Timo Hakulinen

1997-01-01

320

The effect of medical school on postgraduate fitness to practise decisions: a retrospective cohort study.  

PubMed

Given evidence of differences between UK medical schools' curricula and assessments, and their graduates' performance in Royal college examinations, this retrospective cohort study analyses the effect of medical school on the incidence of General Medical Council fitness to practise sanctions. PMID:24105312

Sanders, Alexander; A Taylor, Celia

2013-10-01

321

Risk of premature stroke in recent immigrants (PRESARIO): Population-based matched cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: New immigrants to North America, most of whom are under age 50 years, exhibit fewer risk factors for cardiovascular disease than their native-born counterparts, yet the stress of resettlement may conceivably place them at higher risk of stroke. We determined the risk of acute stroke associated with recency of immigration. Methods: We completed a population-based matched cohort study in

G. Saposnik; D. A. Redelmeier; H. Lu; E. Lonn; E. Fuller-Thomson; J. G. Ray

2010-01-01

322

A retrospective cohort study of Acticoat™ versus Silvazine™ in a paediatric population  

Microsoft Academic Search

We wished to determine whether changing our centre's practice of using Acticoat™ instead of Silvazine™ as our first-line burns dressing provided a better standard of care in terms of efficacy, cost and ease of use. A retrospective cohort study was performed examining 328 Silvazine™ treated patients from January 2000 to June 2001 and 241 Acticoat™ treated patients from July 2002

Leila Cuttle; Sanjeev Naidu; Julie Mill; Wendy Hoskins; Karina Das; Roy M. Kimble

2007-01-01

323

Maternal Exposure to Respiratory Infections and Adult Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders: A Prospective Birth Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

We sought to examine the relationship between maternal exposure to adult respiratory infections and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in the Prenatal Determinants of Schizophrenia (PDS) Study, a large birth cohort investigation. Previous work suggests that second trimester exposure to respiratory infection may be a risk factor for SSD. We therefore examined whether this class of infection was associated with adult

Alan S. Brown; Catherine A. Schaefer; Richard Jed Wyatt; Raymond Goetz; Melissa D. Begg; Jack M. Gorman; Ezra S. Susser

2000-01-01

324

Consanguinity and Birth Defects in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: While parental consanguinity is known to increase the risk of birth defects in offspring, it is hard to quantify this risk in populations where consanguinity is prevalent. Methods: To support ongoing studies of cancer and of psychiatric disease, we studied relationships of consanguinity to 1,053 major birth defects in 29,815 offspring, born in 1964–1976. To adjust for confounding variables

S. Harlap; K. Kleinhaus; M. C. Perrin; R. Calderon-Margalit; O. Paltiel; L. Deutsch; O Manor; E. Tiram; R. Yanetz; Y. Friedlander

2008-01-01

325

Probabilistic forecasts of winter thunderstorms around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The development and verification of a probabilistic forecast system for winter thunderstorms around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol is described. We have used Model Output Statistics (MOS) to develop the probabilistic forecast equations. The MOS system consists of 32 logistic regression equations, i.e. for two forecast periods (0-6 h and 6-12 h), four 90×80 km2 regions around Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, and four 6-h time periods. For the predictand quality-controlled Surveillance et Alerte Foudre par Interférométrie Radioélectrique (SAFIR) total lightning data were used. The potential predictors were calculated from postprocessed output of two numerical weather prediction (NWP) models - i.e. the High-Resolution Limited-Area Model (HIRLAM) and the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model - and from an ensemble of advected lightning and radar data (0-6 h projections only). The predictors that are selected most often are the HIRLAM Boyden index, the square root of the ECMWF 3-h and 6-h convective precipitation sum, the HIRLAM convective available potential energy (CAPE) and two radar advection predictors. An objective verification was done, from which it can be concluded that the MOS system is skilful. The forecast system runs at the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) on an experimental basis, with the primary objective to warn aircraft pilots for potential aircraft induced lightning (AIL) risk during winter.

Slangen, A. B. A.; Schmeits, M. J.

2009-04-01

326

Cancer risk in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis: a nationwide cohort study.  

PubMed

Background:This study examined the risk of cancer in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT).Methods:The Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) was used to identify 1521 newly diagnosed HT patients from 1998-2010, and 6084 frequency-matched non-HT patients. The risk of developing cancer for HT patients was measured using the Cox proportional hazard model.Results:The incidence of developing cancer in the HT cohort was 5.07 per 1000 person-years, which was 1.68-fold higher than that in the comparison cohort (P<0.001). Compared with patients aged 20-34 years, patients in older age groups had a higher risk of developing cancer (35-55 years: hazard ratio (HR)=5.96; >55 years: HR=9.66). After adjusting for sex, age, and comorbidities, the HT cohort had HRs of 4.76 and 11.8 for developing colorectal cancer and thyroid cancer, respectively, compared with non-HT cohort. Furthermore, the HT cohort to non-HT cohort incidence rate ratio (IRR) of thyroid cancer was higher in the first 3 years (48.4, 95% confidence interval (CI)=35.0-66.3), with an adjusted HR of 49.4 (95% CI=6.39-382.4).Conclusion:Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients have a higher risk of thyroid cancer and colorectal cancer. The thyroid cancer prevention effort should start soon after HT is diagnosed, while being cautious of colorectal cancer increases with time. PMID:24084773

Chen, Y-K; Lin, C-L; Cheng, F T-F; Sung, F-C; Kao, C-H

2013-10-01

327

Familial prostate cancer and possible associated malignancies: nation-wide register cohort study in Sweden.  

PubMed

There is a familial aggregation of prostate cancer, and 5 to 10% of all prostate cancers are estimated to be inherited in an autosomal-dominant mode. A population-based cohort study was performed in order to study familial prostate cancer and associated malignancies. A nation-wide register cohort study was conducted using an unselected study population. The cohort of 5,595 sons and 5,089 daughters of Swedish men found to have prostate cancer between 1959 and 1963 was identified. All types of cancer reported between 1958 and 1992 in this cohort were identified through linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry. The expected number of different cancers was calculated using incidence rates obtained from the Registry. A highly significant increased overall standardized incidence ratio (SIR) of 1.65 (95% CI, 1.49-1.83) was obtained for prostate cancer, with 370 observed cases compared with 224 expected prostate cancers. The SIR was 3.18 among cases 45 to 49 years old at diagnosis, with the risk gradually decreasing to a SIR of 1.45 among cases over 80 years of age. Among sons and daughters with a father whose prostate cancer was diagnosed at an early age (<70 years), an increased risk for colorectal cancer SIR 1.48 (1.10-1.95) was observed. No significant difference in cancer risk for other sites was observed among the daughters and sons of men with prostate cancer. This cohort study confirms earlier studies that a positive family history of prostate cancer is an important risk factor for developing this disease. Though increased risk was found for all ages, it was more pronounced in younger men. Since no other malignancy was significantly associated with prostate cancer, it is most likely that familial prostate cancer is "site-specific". PMID:9766560

Damber, L; Grönberg, H; Damber, J E

1998-10-29

328

The Diesel Exhaust in Miners Study: A Cohort Mortality Study With Emphasis on Lung Cancer  

PubMed Central

Background Current information points to an association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer and other mortality outcomes, but uncertainties remain. Methods We undertook a cohort mortality study of 12?315 workers exposed to diesel exhaust at eight US non-metal mining facilities. Historical measurements and surrogate exposure data, along with study industrial hygiene measurements, were used to derive retrospective quantitative estimates of respirable elemental carbon (REC) exposure for each worker. Standardized mortality ratios and internally adjusted Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate REC exposure–associated risk. Analyses were both unlagged and lagged to exclude recent exposure such as that occurring in the 15 years directly before the date of death. Results Standardized mortality ratios for lung cancer (1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.09 to 1.44), esophageal cancer (1.83, 95% CI = 1.16 to 2.75), and pneumoconiosis (12.20, 95% CI = 6.82 to 20.12) were elevated in the complete cohort compared with state-based mortality rates, but all-cause, bladder cancer, heart disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality were not. Differences in risk by worker location (ever-underground vs surface only) initially obscured a positive diesel exhaust exposure–response relationship with lung cancer in the complete cohort, although it became apparent after adjustment for worker location. The hazard ratios (HRs) for lung cancer mortality increased with increasing 15-year lagged cumulative REC exposure for ever-underground workers with 5 or more years of tenure to a maximum in the 640 to less than 1280 ?g/m3-y category compared with the reference category (0 to <20 ?g/m3-y; 30 deaths compared with eight deaths of the total of 93; HR = 5.01, 95% CI = 1.97 to 12.76) but declined at higher exposures. Average REC intensity hazard ratios rose to a plateau around 32 ?g/m3. Elevated hazard ratios and evidence of exposure–response were also seen for surface workers. The association between diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer risk remained after inclusion of other work-related potentially confounding exposures in the models and were robust to alternative approaches to exposure derivation. Conclusions The study findings provide further evidence that exposure to diesel exhaust increases risk of mortality from lung cancer and have important public health implications.

Schleiff, Patricia L.; Lubin, Jay H.; Blair, Aaron; Stewart, Patricia A.; Vermeulen, Roel; Coble, Joseph B.; Silverman, Debra T.

2012-01-01

329

Breastfeeding and Developmental Delay: Findings From the Millennium Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE.We investigated whether the duration and exclusivity of breastfeeding affects the likelihood of gross and fine motor delay in infants and examined the effect of factors that might explain any observed differences. METHODS.The study sample included all term singleton infants who weighed 2500 g at birth and were not placed in a special care infant unit and whose mothers participated

Amanda Sacker; Maria A. Quigley; Yvonne J. Kelly

2008-01-01

330

Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

2012-01-01

331

Development in Children with Achondroplasia: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Aim: Achondroplasia is characterized by delays in the development of communication and motor skills. While previously reported developmental profiles exist across gross motor, fine motor, feeding, and communication skills, there has been no prospective study of development across multiple areas simultaneously. Method: This Australasian…

Ireland, Penelope J.; Donaghey, Samantha; McGill, James; Zankl, Andreas; Ware, Robert S.; Pacey, Verity; Ault, Jenny; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Thompson, Elizabeth; Townshend, Sharron; Johnston, Leanne M.

2012-01-01

332

Aragon workers' health study - design and cohort description  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Spain, a Mediterranean country with relatively low rates of coronary heart disease, has a high prevalence of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and is experiencing a severe epidemic of overweight/obesity. We designed the Aragon Workers' Health Study (AWHS) to characterize the factors associated...

333

Nocturnal hypoxaemia in patients with Eisenmenger syndrome: a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objectives The objective of the study was to find the prevalence of sleep-related disturbances in patients of Eisenmenger syndrome. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Tertiary care referral centre in North India. Participants The study included 25 patients with Eisenmenger syndrome (mean age 25.2±9.6?years, 18 men) and 12 patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease with pulmonary stenosis physiology (mean age 20.5±8.5?years, 8 men) as controls. Interventions All the patients underwent an overnight comprehensive polysomnogram study and pulmonary function testing. Main outcome measure Oxygen desaturation index, which is the number of oxygen drops per hour. Results The patients and controls had significant nocturnal hypoxaemia in the absence of apnoea and hypopnoea. The mean oxygen drop index in Eisenmenger syndrome group was 9.0±6.2 and in the control group was 8.0±5.9 (p=0.63). The apnoea–hypopnoea index was 3.37±5.0 in the Eisenmenger syndrome group and was 2.1±3.6 in the control group. Patients with >10 oxygen drops per hour had significantly higher haemoglobin (17.2±1.3% vs 14.4±1.5%, p<0.001) than those with oxygen drops less than 10. Conclusions Eisenmenger syndrome patients have significant nocturnal hypoxaemia unrelated to hypopnoea and apnoea. Nocturnal desaturation occurred more frequently in patients with greater haemoglobin values.

Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian; Juneja, Rajnish; Bardolei, Neil; Sharma, Ajay; Shukla, Garima; Bhatia, Manvir; Kalaivani, Mani; Kothari, Shyam S; Saxena, Anita; Bahl, Vinay K; Guleria, Randeep

2013-01-01

334

Bacterial meningitis associated with lumbar drains: a retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThe infective potential of lumbar drainage is an important topic deserving particular study. The aetiology, incidence, and clinical findings associated with bacterial meningitis are described in patients having continuous lumbar CSF drainage to treat communicating hydrocephalus after subarachnoid haemorrhage or CSF leaks after traumatic dural rents.METHODSRetrospective review of the records of patients with a positive CSF bacterial culture who underwent

William M Coplin; Anthony M Avellino; D K Kim; H Richard Winn; M Sean Grady

1999-01-01

335

Mortality in the UK industrial silica sand industry: 2. A retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Aims: To evaluate the mortality experience of a cohort of employees in the UK silica sand industry exposed to respirable crystalline silica (RCS). Methods: A retrospective cohort mortality study followed all workers to 2001 with at least one year's employment at one of seven UK silica sand producing quarries between 1950 and 1986. Each worker was assigned a job category and cumulative exposure to RCS was estimated using a job-exposure matrix. Results: A total of 764 deaths were identified in 2703 cohort members. The overall mortality rate for the cohort was lower than would be expected in the general population. Mortality from circulatory and respiratory disease was also less than expected, but death due to pneumoconiosis was slightly raised (two deaths). Mortality from all cancers was slightly decreased. Mortality was not raised in any job category. Cancer mortality was raised at one quarry due to a significant increase in lung (standardised mortality rate (SMR) 162.0, 95% CI 113.5 to 224.3) and bladder (SMR 366.5, 95% CI 167.6 to 695.7) cancers. Mortality from lung cancer and other causes did not show a trend with cumulative exposure to RCS. Conclusions: This study did not show any consistent relation between RCS exposure (in the absence of other known carcinogens) and the development of lung cancer. This contrasts with a number of studies that have shown positive findings in similar and related industries.

Brown, T; Rushton, L

2005-01-01

336

Changing port–city relations at Amsterdam: A new phase at the interface?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we investigate whether a new phase in port–city development is emerging. We have done this by analysing the scientific literature on present and future spatial developments of the port of Amsterdam in the Netherlands in terms of the spatial and environmental policies and the viewpoints of port firms. It appears that in the Port of Amsterdam, but

Bart W. Wiegmans; Erik Louw

2011-01-01

337

Referral to medical outpatients department at teaching hospitals in Birmingham and Amsterdam  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of comparing the referral of patients by general practitioners to medical outpatients departments at teaching hospitals in Amsterdam and Birmingham was devised. This was applied to 89 referral letters to medical specialists at the Free University Medical School Policlinic in Amsterdam and to 88 referral letters to clinics at Birmingham University Medical School, UK. The standards of referral

R F Westerman

1986-01-01

338

Children of Immigrants in Schools in New York and Amsterdam: The Factors Shaping Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Background/Context: This article considers the ways in which school systems in New York City and Amsterdam have shaped the educational trajectories of two groups of relatively disadvantaged immigrant youth: the children of Dominican immigrants in New York and the children of Moroccan immigrants in Amsterdam. It describes the salient features of…

Crul, Maurice; Holdaway, Jennifer

2009-01-01

339

Children of Immigrants in Schools in New York and Amsterdam: The Factors Shaping Attainment  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Background/Context: This article considers the ways in which school systems in New York City and Amsterdam have shaped the educational trajectories of two groups of relatively disadvantaged immigrant youth: the children of Dominican immigrants in New York and the children of Moroccan immigrants in Amsterdam. It describes the salient features of…

Crul, Maurice; Holdaway, Jennifer

2009-01-01

340

Children of immigrants in schools in New York and Amsterdam: the factors shaping attainment  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Context: This article considers the ways in which school systems in New York City and Amsterdam have shaped the educational trajectories of two groups of relatively disadvantaged immigrant youth: the children of Dominican immigrants in New York and the children of Moroccan immigrants in Amsterdam. It describes the salient features of the two educational systems and the ways in which

M. Crul; J. Holdaway

2009-01-01

341

Smoking cessation and carotid atherosclerosis: the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study—CVD  

Microsoft Academic Search

IntroductionSmoking has been shown to be associated with carotid atherosclerosis in cross-sectional and prospective studies in Western populations. However, few studies have examined the reversal of risk resulting from quitting smoking, and the results are conflicting.Methods959 men aged 50–85 years were randomly selected from phase III (2006–2007) of the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study into this cross-sectional study. Common carotid artery

C. Q. Jiang; L. Xu; T. H. Lam; J. M. Lin; K. K. Cheng; G. N. Thomas

2009-01-01

342

Prospective cohort study of breast implants and the risk of connective-tissue diseases  

PubMed Central

Background A 2000 meta-analysis indicated no overall association between breast implants and risk of connective-tissue diseases (CTDs). However, a large retrospective cohort study we previously conducted suggested, instead, a small increased risk of CTDs. Because of limitations inherent to the retrospective cohort study design, we sought clarification by conducting a prospective cohort study of the association of breast implants with CTD risk. Methods Participants were 23?847 US women (mean age 56.6 years), 3950 of whom had breast implants and 19?897 did not. Women reported their breast implant status at baseline in 2001 and were followed for a median of 3.63 years. During follow-up, women reported incident CTD, confirmed using a CTD screening questionnaire (CSQ) and medical records. Results In multivariate analyses, the rate ratios for self-reported CTD (113 vs 377 cases in the implanted and non-implanted group, respectively) were 1.60 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.28–2.00], for CSQ-confirmed CTD (77 vs 226 cases), 1.80 (1.37–2.38) and for medical record confirmed CTD (21 vs 74 cases), 1.39 (0.82–2.35). Conclusions Although this prospective cohort study represented a stronger design than the retrospective cohort study, the present data should still be viewed cautiously because of remaining methodological limitations, including the potential for differential self-reporting of CTD and CTD symptoms among women with and without breast implants, the difficulty of obtaining medical records for women reporting CTD and the low and possibly differential confirmation of self-reported disease against medical records. A reasonable conclusion is the lack of a large increase in CTD risk (e.g. ?2-fold) associated with breast implants.

Lee, I-Min; Cook, Nancy R; Shadick, Nancy A; Pereira, Eduardo; Buring, Julie E

2011-01-01

343

Maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes: a cohort study.  

PubMed

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between maternal age and a wide range of adverse pregnancy outcomes after adjustment for confounding factors in obstetric history and maternal characteristics. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in women with singleton pregnancies attending the first routine hospital visit at 11(+0) -13(+6) weeks of gestation. Data on maternal characteristics, medical and obstetric history were collected and pregnancy outcomes ascertained. Maternal age was studied, both as a continuous and as a categorical variable. Regression analysis was performed to examine the association between maternal age and adverse pregnancy outcomes including preeclampsia (PE), gestational hypertension (GH), gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), preterm delivery (PTD), small for gestational age (SGA), large for gestational age (LGA), miscarriage, stillbirth, elective and emergency cesarean section (CS). RESULTS: The study population included 76,158 singleton pregnancies with a live fetus at 11(+0) -13(+6) weeks. After adjusting for maternal and pregnancy potential confounding variables, advanced maternal age (defined as ?40 years) was associated with increased risk of miscarriage [OR (95% CI): 2.32 (1.83-2.93), p?

Khalil, Asma; Syngelaki, Argyro; Maiz, Nerea; Zinevich, Yana; Nicolaides, Kypros H

2013-04-30

344

Obstetric Complications in Adults with ADHD: A Retrospective Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Obstetric complications have been associated with a number of mental disorders. In this study, we investigate how obstetric\\u000a complications relate with clinically significant determinants of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), such\\u000a as gender, age of diagnosis, psychiatric co morbidity, severity of symptomatology and general functioning. Presence of obstetric\\u000a complications as reported in the psychiatric history of 64 patients in

Marios Adamou; Anna Russell; Parmjt Sanghera

345

Nonsexual household transmission of HCV infection: A cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective. This study was designed to determine the prevalence and incidence of HCV infection among non-sexual household contacts of HCV-infected women and to describe the association between HCV infection and potential household risk factors in order to examine whether non-sexual household contact is a route of transmission for HCV infection. ^ Methods. A baseline prevalence survey included 409 non-sexual household

Fenyuan Xie Xiao

1999-01-01

346

Social outcomes in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study cohort.  

PubMed

Difficulties with negotiating and achieving desired social outcomes in life may be exacerbated by the experience of childhood cancer, including adverse effects from therapies used to achieve a cure. This review of previous publications from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and other relevant literature provides insight into the prevalence of, and risk factors for, poor educational attainment, less than optimal employment status, and interpersonal relationship issues among long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The impacts of emotional health and physical disability on social outcomes are also examined. Study results suggest that childhood cancer survivors generally have similar high school graduation rates, but are more likely to require special education services than sibling comparison groups. Survivors are slightly less likely than expected to attend college, and are more likely to be unemployed and not married as young adults. Cancers and treatments that result in impairment to the CNS, particularly brain tumors, or that impact sensory functioning, such as hearing loss, are associated with greater risk for undesirable social outcomes, as are emotional health problems and physical disability. This review of relevant data from CCSS and other studies provides information on risk factors for social problems into adulthood. A greater understanding of the long-term social impacts from the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer is critically important for developing targeted interventions to prevent or ameliorate adverse psychosocial effects. PMID:19224833

Gurney, James G; Krull, Kevin R; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Nicholson, H Stacy; Nathan, Paul C; Zebrack, Brad; Tersak, Jean M; Ness, Kirsten K

2009-02-17

347

Social Outcomes in the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

Difficulties with negotiating and achieving desired social outcomes in life may be exacerbated by the experience of childhood cancer, including adverse effects from therapies used to achieve a cure. This review of previous publications from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS) and other relevant literature provides insight into the prevalence of, and risk factors for, poor educational attainment, less than optimal employment status, and interpersonal relationship issues among long-term survivors of childhood cancer. The impacts of emotional health and physical disability on social outcomes are also examined. Study results suggest that childhood cancer survivors generally have similar high school graduation rates, but are more likely to require special education services than sibling comparison groups. Survivors are slightly less likely than expected to attend college, and are more likely to be unemployed and not married as young adults. Cancers and treatments that result in impairment to the CNS, particularly brain tumors, or that impact sensory functioning, such as hearing loss, are associated with greater risk for undesirable social outcomes, as are emotional health problems and physical disability. This review of relevant data from CCSS and other studies provides information on risk factors for social problems into adulthood. A greater understanding of the long-term social impacts from the diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer is critically important for developing targeted interventions to prevent or ameliorate adverse psychosocial effects.

Gurney, James G.; Krull, Kevin R.; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Nicholson, H. Stacy; Nathan, Paul C.; Zebrack, Brad; Tersak, Jean M.; Ness, Kirsten K.

2009-01-01

348

Development and validation of risk prediction algorithm (QThrombosis) to estimate future risk of venous thromboembolism: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To derive and validate a new clinical risk prediction algorithm (QThrombosis, www.qthrombosis.org) to estimate individual patients’ risk of venous thromboembolism.Design Prospective open cohort study using routinely collected data from general practices. Cox proportional hazards models used in derivation cohort to derive risk equations evaluated at 1 and 5 years. Measures of calibration and discrimination undertaken in validation cohort.Setting 564

Julia Hippisley-Cox; Carol Coupland

2011-01-01

349

Overall and cancer related mortality among patients with ocular inflammation treated with immunosuppressive drugs: retrospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Context Whether immunosuppressive treatment adversely affects survival is unclear.Objective To assess whether immunosuppressive drugs increase mortality.Design Retrospective cohort study evaluating overall and cancer mortality in relation to immunosuppressive drug exposure among patients with ocular inflammatory diseases. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data derived from medical records, and mortality results from United States National Death Index linkage. The cohort’s mortality risk was

John H Kempen; Ebenezer Daniel; James P Dunn; C Stephen Foster; Sapna Gangaputra; Asaf Hanish; Kathy J Helzlsouer; Douglas A Jabs; R Oktay Kaçmaz; Grace A Levy-Clarke; Teresa L Liesegang; Craig W Newcomb; Robert B Nussenblatt; Siddharth S Pujari; James T Rosenbaum; Eric B Suhler; Jennifer E Thorne

2009-01-01

350

Health impact of US military service in a large population-based military cohort: findings of the Millennium Cohort Study, 2001-2008  

PubMed Central

Background Combat-intense, lengthy, and multiple deployments in Iraq and Afghanistan have characterized the new millennium. The US military's all-volunteer force has never been better trained and technologically equipped to engage enemy combatants in multiple theaters of operations. Nonetheless, concerns over potential lasting effects of deployment on long-term health continue to mount and are yet to be elucidated. This report outlines how findings from the first 7 years of the Millennium Cohort Study have helped to address health concerns related to military service including deployments. Methods The Millennium Cohort Study was designed in the late 1990s to address veteran and public concerns for the first time using prospectively collected health and behavioral data. Results Over 150 000 active-duty, reserve, and National Guard personnel from all service branches have enrolled, and more than 70% of the first 2 enrollment panels submitted at least 1 follow-up survey. Approximately half of the Cohort has deployed in support of operations in Iraq and Afghanistan. Conclusion The Millennium Cohort Study is providing prospective data that will guide public health policymakers for years to come by exploring associations between military exposures and important health outcomes. Strategic studies aim to identify, reduce, and prevent adverse health outcomes that may be associated with military service, including those related to deployment.

2011-01-01

351

Autonomic Function following Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning: A Cohort Study  

PubMed Central

Autonomic dysfunction after chronic low level exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has been consistently reported in the literature, but not following a single acute overdose. In order to study autonomic function after an acute OP overdose, sixty-six overdose patients were compared to 70 matched controls. Assessment of autonomic function was done by heart rate response to standing, deep breathing (HR-DB) and Valsalva manoeuvre; blood pressure (BP) response to standing and sustained hand grip; amplitude and latency of sympathetic skin response (SSR); pupil size and post-void urine volume. The patients were assessed one and six weeks after the exposure. The number of patients who showed abnormal autonomic function compared to standard cut-off values did not show statistically significantly difference from that of controls by Chi-Square test. When compared to the controls at one week the only significant differences consistent with autonomic dysfunction were change of diastolic BP 3 min after standing, HR-DB, SSR-Amplitude, SSR-Latency, post-void urine volume and size of the pupil. At 6 weeks significant recovery of autonomic function was observed and only HR-DB was decreased to a minor degree, ?5 beats/min [95%CI 2–8]. This study provides good evidence for the lack of long term autonomic dysfunction following acute exposure to OP pesticides.

Jayasinghe, Sudheera S.; Pathirana, Kithsiri D.

2012-01-01

352

Plasma enterolactone and incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study of Danish women.  

PubMed

The phyto-oestrogen enterolactone has been hypothesised to protect against hormone-dependent cancers, probably through its antioestrogenic potential. We investigated whether a higher level of plasma enterolactone was associated with a lower incidence of endometrial cancer in a case-cohort study in the ‘Diet, Cancer and Health’ cohort. The cohort study included 29 875 women aged 50–64 years enrolled between 1993 and 1997. Information on diet and lifestyle was provided by self-administrated questionnaires and blood was drawn from each participant. Time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was used for biochemical determination of plasma enterolactone. A total of 173 cases and 149 randomly selected cohort members were included. We estimated incidence rate ratio (IRR) and 95% CI by a Cox proportional hazards model. A 20 nmol/l higher plasma concentration of enterolactone was associated with a non-significant lower risk of endometrial cancer (IRR 0.93, 95% CI 0.84, 1.04). When excluding women with low enterolactone concentrations (quartile 1) due to potential recent antibiotic use, the association became slightly stronger, but remained non-significant (IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.79, 1.02). Menopausal status, hormone replacement therapy or BMI did not modify the association. In conclusion, we found some support for a possible inverse association between plasma enterolactone concentration and endometrial cancer incidence. PMID:23114205

Aarestrup, Julie; Kyrø, Cecilie; Knudsen, Knud E B; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Christensen, Jane; Kristensen, Mette; Würtz, Anne M L; Johnsen, Nina F; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Olsen, Anja

2012-10-31

353

Mortality in workers in poultry slaughtering/processing plants: the Missouri poultry cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background: Subjects who work in poultry slaughtering and processing plants have one of the highest human exposures to viruses that cause cancer in chickens and turkeys. It is not known whether these viruses cause cancer in humans also. Epidemiological studies investigating this issue are scarce. Aims and Methods: Mortality was studied during the period 1969–90 in a cohort of 7700 subjects who worked in poultry slaughtering and processing plants and were members of a local poultry union in the State of Missouri. Results and Conclusions: Statistically significant excess risks of non-malignant respiratory diseases, accidents, and symptoms, senility, and ill-defined conditions, and increased but not statistically significant excesses for some cancers were observed in particular race/sex groups. Most of these results were based on small numbers of deaths, and in many cases were evident only in particular subgroups of the cohort. Because of this and the multiple comparisons made, chance could not be ruled out in explaining the findings. Furthermore, the cohort is young, with only 6% deceased at the end of follow up. Further follow up of this cohort is required before a reliable assessment of the potential risk associated with these viruses can be made.

Netto, G; Johnson, E

2003-01-01

354

A cohort mortality and nested case-control study of French and Austrian talc workers  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To study whether the mortality from non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases of workers employed in French and Austrian talc mines and mills is related to their long term occupational exposure. Methods: Two historical cohorts were set up comprising all male subjects who had been working continuously for at least 1 year in a series of talc producing companies in France and Austria. The French cohort consisted of those employed at a site in the French Pyrenees and working between 1 January 1945 and 31 December 1994. The Austrian cohort consisted of the workers employed between 1 January 1972 and 31 December 1995 in one of four industrial sites in the Austrian Alps. The mortality within the cohorts was compared with local death rates. Two nested case-control studies focusing on non-malignant and malignant respiratory diseases were set up to estimate possible dose-response relations with cumulative exposure to talc dust based on an industry specific job exposure matrix. Results: Mortality from lung cancer was in small excess in both cohorts (France, standardised mortality ratio (SMR) 1.23, 21 cases observed, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.76 to 1.89; Austria, SMR 1.06, seven observed, 95% CI 0.43 to 2.19). A non-significant excess mortality was found for all non-malignant respiratory diseases in the French cohort due to a significant excess for pneumoconiosis (SMR 5.56, three observed, 95% CI 1.12 to 16.2). The case-control study of non-malignant respiratory disease showed an increased mortality in the highest exposure groups (odds ratio (OR) 2.5 for a cumulative exposure ?800 y.mg/m3) with a significant trend (OR/100 y.mg/m3 1.08) with cumulative exposure to talc. On the contrary, no increasing trend could be found in the case-control study of lung cancer. This result must be interpreted considering the small cohort size. Adjustment on smoking and exposure to quartz did not influence these results to any extent. Conclusions: The mortality from non-malignant respiratory disease was found to be related to high cumulative exposure to talc dust. The small excess in lung cancer does not seem to be attributable to talc.

Wild, P; Leodolter, K; Refregier, M; Schmidt, H; Zidek, T; Haidinger, G

2002-01-01

355

Consanguinity and Birth Defects in the Jerusalem Perinatal Study Cohort  

PubMed Central

Background While parental consanguinity is known to increase the risk of birth defects in offspring, it is hard to quantify this risk in populations where consanguinity is prevalent. Methods To support ongoing studies of cancer and of psychiatric disease, we studied relationships of consanguinity to 1,053 major birth defects in 29,815 offspring, born in 1964–1976. To adjust for confounding variables (geographic origin, social class and hospital), we constructed logistic regression models, using GEE to take into account correlations between sibs. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence limits were estimated in comparison to a reference group of offspring with grandfathers born in different countries. Results With 10.1% of offspring having consanguineous parents, the adjusted OR for major birth defect was 1.41 (1.12–1.74). Offspring of marriages between uncles-nieces, first cousins and more distant relatives showed adjusted ORs of 2.36 (0.98–5.68), 1.59 (1.22–2.07) and 1.20 (0.89–1.59) respectively. For descendents of grandfathers born in the same country, but not known to be related, the OR was 1.05 (0.91–1.21); these showed increased risk associated with ancestries in Western Asia (1.27, 1.04–1.55, p < 0.02) or Europe (1.13, 0.79–1.80). Conclusions A strong association of consanguinity with poverty and low education points to the need to avoid exposure to environmental hazards in these families.

Harlap, S.; Kleinhaus, K.; Perrin, M.C.; Calderon-Margalit, R.; Paltiel, O.; Deutsch, L.; Manor, O.; Tiram, E.; Yanetz, R.; Friedlander, Y.

2008-01-01

356

[JaCALS: a prospective multicenter ALS cohort study].  

PubMed

To investigate the longitudinal course of Japanese patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), we constructed a multicenter registration and follow-up system called Japanese Consortium for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis research (JaCALS). Genomic DNA samples of ALS patients were stored and linked to the clinical information. We designed a telephone survey system using a clinical research coordinator (CRC) to check the score of the ALS Functional Rating Scale-R (ALSFRS-R) and the prognosis every 3 months. In January 2006, we began registering ALS patients, and, at present, 22 neurology facilities are participating in the JaCALS. Currently, 571 Japanese ALS patients are registered. From the longitudinal data of the 279 patients who were registered before September 2009, the older age at onset was a significant risk factor for not only earlier death or introduction of mechanical ventilation, but also earlier loss of speech, loss of swallowing function and loss of upper limb function. In collaboration with the RIKEN Center for Genomic Medicine, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) using 1,305 ALS samples from the JaCALS and BioBank Japan were conducted, which showed that ZNF512B gene was associated with susceptibility to ALS. The JaCALS has established an efficient registration and follow-up system with genomic DNA resources of ALS patients, and will contribute to identify ALS-associated genes and to promote clinical researches. PMID:22277411

Atsuta, Naoki; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Watanabe, Hazuki; Watanabe, Hirohisa; Ito, Mizuki; Senda, Jo; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

2011-11-01

357

A cohort study of psychosurgery cases from a defined population.  

PubMed Central

All cases from an urban population treated by psychosurgery over a 20 year period were followed up; 44 out of 47 were available for study, and 33 of these were interviewed. Outcome was measured on a five-point scale, and follow-up was from 1 to 20 years, with a mean of 11; almost all patients previously had had severe, disabling and intractable illnesses. Operations were non-stereotactic (36), stereotactic (6), with double procedures in one case: outcome was better in the non-stereotactic group. On a five-point scale of outcome, 25 of the 33 interviewed patients were placed in the two best categories, as were eight patients of the 11 who were assessed by case records. Adverse effects were reported in 14 cases, but most were not serious. Only one death could definitely be related to operation. Depression, agoraphobia, obsessional neurosis, and certain aspects of schizophrenia all responded well in the majority of cases. Leucotomy should remain available as a treatment of last resort for some intractable psychiatric disorders.

Hussain, E S; Freeman, H; Jones, R A

1988-01-01

358

Monitoring of Waterborne Pathogens in Surface Waters in Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and the Potential Health Risk Associated with Exposure to Cryptosporidium and Giardia in These Waters  

Microsoft Academic Search

The water in the canals and some recreational lakes in Amsterdam is microbiologically contaminated through the discharge of raw sewage from houseboats, sewage effluent, and dog and bird feces. Exposure to these waters may have negative health effects. During two successive 1-year study periods, the water quality in two canals (2003 to 2004) and five recreational lakes (2004 to 2005)

F. M. Schets; J. H. van Wijnen; J. F. Schijven; H. Schoon; A. M. de Roda Husman

2008-01-01

359

The use of rehabilitation among patients with breast cancer: a retrospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Along with improvements in treatment, the number of women who survive breast cancer has increased. Rehabilitation can alleviate post-treatment side effects and maintain quality of life. This study aimed to explore the use of rehabilitation among a cohort of patients diagnosed with breast cancer. Methods A retrospective longitudinal cohort study was conducted using a National Health Insurance (NHI) research database in Taiwan. The study cohort consisted of 632 patients with breast cancer diagnosed in 2005. Their NHI claims over a period spanning 2005 through 2009 were analyzed. Results Overall, 39.6% of the cohort received rehabilitation therapy, with 9,691 rehabilitation visits claimed (an average of 38.8 visits per user). The prevalence of rehabilitation service use among the cohort was 16.5%, 13.3%, 13.0%, 13.3%, and 12.8% in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. The average number of visits per rehabilitation user was 16.8, 25.0, 31.1, 24.2, and 23.8 in the years 2005 through 2009, respectively. Most rehabilitation therapy occurred as an outpatient service (96.0%). Physical therapy was the most commonly used form of rehabilitation (84.2%), followed by occupational therapy (15.4%). The most frequently recorded diagnoses were malignant neoplasm of the female breast, peripheral enthesopathies and allied syndromes, and osteoarthrosis and allied disorders. Conclusions Only a small proportion of patients with breast cancer received rehabilitation therapy in the first five years after diagnosis. The average number of rehabilitation visits per user peaked in the third year after diagnosis.

2012-01-01

360

The New Zealand Asthma and Allergy Cohort Study (NZA2CS): Assembly, Demographics and Investigations  

PubMed Central

Background Asthma and allergy are highly prevalent in industrialised countries. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies have identified a number of potential risk factors for these conditions, including genetic and environmental factors, with significant gene-environment relationships. Birth cohort studies have been proposed as an important tool to explore these risk factors, particularly exposures in early life that are associated with later disease or protection from disease. This paper describes the establishment of a birth cohort in New Zealand. Methods A birth cohort was established in 1996 in Christchurch and Wellington and infants recruited between 1997–2001. Expectant mothers were recruited by midwives. Children and mothers have undergone assessment by serial questionnaires, environmental assessment including mould and allergen exposure, skin-prick testing, and at age six years are undergoing full assessment for the presence of asthma, atopy and allergic disease, including genetic assessment. Results A total of 1105 children have been recruited, and the retention rate at fifteen months was 91.4%. 15.2% of the children at recruitment have been identified as Maori. A positive family history of asthma, eczema or hay fever has been reported in 84% of children. All children have now been assessed at fifteen months and 685 children from the cohort have reached age six years and have completed the six year assessment. Conclusion The cohort is fully assembled, and assessment of children is well advanced, with good retention rates. The study is well placed to address many current hypotheses about the risk factors for allergic disease and asthma.

Epton, Michael J; Town, George I; Ingham, Tristram; Wickens, Kristin; Fishwick, David; Crane, Julian

2007-01-01

361

Effect of a transient, geographically localised economic recovery on community health and income studied with longitudinal household cohort interview method  

Microsoft Academic Search

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of the study was to determine whether the health or economic status of a cohort of residents in an economically troubled geographical area changed between 1990 and 1993. DESIGN: Longitudinal, single cohort, interview survey method with the key variables of health status and economic status. Quasi-experimental pre-post design with economic rebound as the intervention. SETTING:

L. L. Glenn; R. W. Beck; G. L. Burkett

1998-01-01

362

Risk Factors for Hip Fracture and a Possible Effect Modification by Hormone Replacement Therapy. The Danish Nurse Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To identify risk factors for hip fracture and to examine whether hormone replacement therapy (HRT) modifies the effect of these risk factors. Design: Prospective cohort study. Setting: The Danish Nurse Cohort Study. Participants: 14,015 female nurses aged 50 years and above who in 1993 completed a questionnaire on general health and lifestyle issues, reproductive history including information on HRT, and

Yrsa Andersen Hundrup; Ola Ekholm; Susanne Høidrup; Michael Davidsen; Erik Bernhard Obel

2005-01-01

363

Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and incidence of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the association between residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and breast cancer incidence among members of the California Teachers Study cohort, a large study of professional school employees with extensive information on breast cancer risk factors, followed for cancer incidence since 1995. We identified 1552 invasive breast cancer cases, diagnosed between 1996 and 1999, among 114,835 cohort members.

Peggy Reynolds; Susan E. Hurley; Debbie E. Goldberg; Sauda Yerabati; Robert B. Gunier; Andrew Hertz; Hoda Anton-Culver; Leslie Bernstein; Dennis Deapen; Pamela L. Horn-Ross; David Peel; Richard Pinder; Ronald K. Ross; Dee West; William E. Wright; Argyrios Ziogas

2004-01-01

364

Cardiopulmonary Complications after Primary Shoulder Arthroplasty: A Cohort study  

PubMed Central

Objective Study the frequency and predictors of 90-day cardiopulmonary complications following primary shoulder arthroplasty Methods We used prospectively collected data from the Mayo Clinic Total Joint registry from 1976–2008. We used univariate and multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analyses to examine the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI), comorbidity assessed by Deyo-Charlson index, American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) class, implant fixation (cemented versus not) and underlying diagnosis with the risk of 90-day cardiopulmonary complications after primary shoulder arthroplasty. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values are presented. Results 3,480 patients underwent 4,019 primary shoulder arthroplasties. 90-day cardiac and thromboembolic complication rates following primary shoulder arthroplasty were 2.6% (92/3480) and 1.2% (42/3480). After multivariable-adjustment, age >70 years (OR, 2.7; 95% CI: 1.2–5.9; p-value= 0.01; relative to age <60), Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index of 1 or more (OR, 3.27; 95% CI:1.9–5.6; p<0.0001; relative to index of 0) and prior cardiac events (OR, 7.87; 95% CI: 4.89–12.68; p<0.0001; relative to no prior event) were associated with higher odds of 90-day cardiac complications. Due to few thromboembolic events, only univariate analyses were performed. Univariately, female gender, age >70 years, BMI 25–29.9 kg/m2, Deyo Charlson index of 1 or more, underlying diagnosis of trauma, prior thromboembolic event and surgery type were each associated with significantly higher risk of 90-day thromboembolic event (p?0.03 for all). Conclusions Cardiac and thromboembolic complications are uncommon after primary shoulder arthroplasty. Patients can be informed of their risk of cardiac complications following shoulder arthroplasty based on presence of risk factors.

Singh, Jasvinder A.; Sperling, John; Cofield, Robert

2011-01-01

365

Postpartum mental health after Hurricane Katrina: A cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Natural disaster is often a cause of psychopathology, and women are vulnerable to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. Depression is also common after a woman gives birth. However, no research has addressed postpartum women's mental health after natural disaster. Methods Interviews were conducted in 2006–2007 with women who had been pregnant during or shortly after Hurricane Katrina. 292 New Orleans and Baton Rouge women were interviewed at delivery and 2 months postpartum. Depression was assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale and PTSD using the Post-Traumatic Stress Checklist. Women were asked about their experience of the hurricane with questions addressing threat, illness, loss, and damage. Chi-square tests and log-binomial/Poisson models were used to calculate associations and relative risks (RR). Results Black women and women with less education were more likely to have had a serious experience of the hurricane. 18% of the sample met the criteria for depression and 13% for PTSD at two months postpartum. Feeling that one's life was in danger was associated with depression and PTSD, as were injury to a family member and severe impact on property. Overall, two or more severe experiences of the storm was associated with an increased risk for both depression (relative risk (RR) 1.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08–2.89) and PTSD (RR 3.68, 95% CI 1.80–7.52). Conclusion Postpartum women who experience natural disaster severely are at increased risk for mental health problems, but overall rates of depression and PTSD do not seem to be higher than in studies of the general population.

Harville, Emily W; Xiong, Xu; Pridjian, Gabriella; Elkind-Hirsch, Karen; Buekens, Pierre

2009-01-01

366

Bacterial meningitis associated with lumbar drains: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVES—The infective potential of lumbar drainage is an important topic deserving particular study. The aetiology, incidence, and clinical findings associated with bacterial meningitis are described in patients having continuous lumbar CSF drainage to treat communicating hydrocephalus after subarachnoid haemorrhage or CSF leaks after traumatic dural rents.?METHODS—Retrospective review of the records of patients with a positive CSF bacterial culture who underwent lumbar drain placement over a 39 month period.?RESULTS—Thirteen cases of bacterial meningitis occurred subsequent to the use of 312 lumbar drain kits (4.2%). All meningitic patients had CSF pleocytosis, but not all had peripheral leukocytosis. Fever, peripheral leukocytosis, and CSF pleocytosis did not help to differentiate the presence of bacterial meningitis from other infections. Eight patients had prior CSF drainage procedures, including ventriculostomy (n=5) or lumbar drain (n=5) placements; two patients received both procedures. Six of 13 patients developed their CSF infection within 24 hours of lumbar drain insertion. Six of 13 patients developed meningitis while receiving antibiotics for other reasons.?CONCLUSIONS—External lumbar drainage seems to carry a low risk of infectious meningitis and offers a safe alternative to ventriculostomy or serial lumbar punctures. Antibiotics do not seem to protect completely against developing the infection. The infection happens most often with skin organisms. The meningitis often appears within 24 hours after lumbar drain placement. Daily CSF samples should include bacterial cultures but cell counts may not offer any additional useful information in diagnosing the complication. Lumbar drain insertion and management need not be confined to the intensive care unit.??

Coplin, W.; Avellino, A.; Kim, D; Winn, H; Grady, M

1999-01-01

367

Morbidity Associated With Sleep Disorders in Primary Care: A Longitudinal Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Few epidemiologic studies evaluate the relative contribution of different risk factors on sleep problems. The aim of the present study was to assess demographics, comorbid character- istics, and health outcomes in patients with sleep disorders. Method: A population-based cohort study with nested case-control analysis was conducted in adults using the U.K. General Practice Research Database. Information was collected for

Mari-Ann Wallander; Saga Johansson; Ana Ruigómez; Luis A. García Rodríguez; Roger Jones; García Rodríguez

368

Association between postnatal catch-up growth and obesity in childhood: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To identify predictors of postnatal catch-up growth from birth to two years and its relation to size and obesity at five years.Design: Regional prospective cohort study.Setting: Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood, United Kingdom.Subjects: 848 full term singletons from a 10% random sample of the Avon longitudinal study of pregnancy and childhood.Main outcome measures: Maternal birth weight, prepregnancy

Ken K L Ong; Marion L Ahmed; Pauline M Emmett; Michael A Preece; David B Dunger

2000-01-01

369

A Cohort Study of STMN1 Expression in Colorectal Cancer: Body Mass Index and Prognosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVES:STMN1 (stathmin or oncoprotein-18) destabilizes microtubules and reorganizes cytoskeleton, and functions in cell cycle progression and cell migration. STMN1 activity is influenced by p53, p27, and the PI3K\\/AKT pathway. However, its prognostic significance in colon cancer is uncertain.METHODS:Utilizing 546 colorectal cancers (stage I–IV) from two independent prospective cohort studies (the Nurses’ Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study), STMN1 expression

Shuji Ogino; Katsuhiko Nosho; Yoshifumi Baba; Shoko Kure; Kaori Shima; Natsumi Irahara; Saori Toyoda; Li Chen; Gregory J Kirkner; Brian M Wolpin; Andrew T Chan; Edward L Giovannucci; Charles S Fuchs

2009-01-01

370

Risks for Acquisition of Bacterial Vaginosis Among Women Who Report Sex with Women: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundBacterial vaginosis (BV) is common in women who have sex with women. While cross-sectional data support a role for sexual transmission, risks for incident BV have not been prospectively studied in this group.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe studied risks for BV acquisition in a prospective cohort study of women (age 16–35 years) who reported sex with other women (?1 partner, prior year). Women

Jeanne M. Marrazzo; Katherine K. Thomas; Tina L. Fiedler; Kathleen Ringwood; David N. Fredricks; Landon Myer

2010-01-01

371

Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in the physicians’ health study enrollment cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVESThis study examined the relationship between light-to-moderate alcohol consumption and cause-specific mortality.BACKGROUNDPrevious studies suggest a J-shaped relation between alcohol and total mortality in men. A decrease in cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality without a significant increase in other causes of mortality may explain the overall risk reduction at light-to-moderate levels.METHODSWe conducted a prospective cohort study of 89,299 U.S. men from the

Charles H. Hennekens; Thomas A. Gaziano; Robert J. Glynn; JoAnn E. Manson; Julie E. Buring

2000-01-01

372

Mental health: A cause or consequence of injury? A population-based matched cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: While a number of studies report high prevalence of mental health problems among injured people, the temporal relationship between injury and mental health service use has not been established. This study aimed to quantify this relationship using 10 years of follow-up on a population-based cohort of hospitalised injured adults. METHODS: The Manitoba Injury Outcome Study is a retrospective population-based

Cate M Cameron; David M Purdie; Erich V Kliewer; Rod J McClure

2006-01-01

373

Methylation Assay for the Diagnosis of Lung Cancer on Bronchial Aspirates: A Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: Recent studies have detected aberrant promoter methylation of adenomatous polypo- sis coli promoter1A (APC), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor-2A (p16 INK4a), retinoic acid receptor b2 ,a ndRAS association domain family protein1 (RASSF1A) in bronchial aspirates and suggested their use as biomarkers for lung cancer diagnostics.The purpose of this study was to validate these candidate marker genes in a retrospective cohort study.

Viola Schmiemann; Alfred Bo; Marietta Kazimirek; Alexandre Sherlley; Casimiro Onofre; Helmut Erich Gabbert; Rainer Kappes; Claus Dieter Gerharz; Hans Ju

2005-01-01

374

Obesity and breast cancer survival in ethnically diverse postmenopausal women: the Multiethnic Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Breast cancer survival has been found to be lower in obese women, but few studies have evaluated ethnic variations in this\\u000a association. This study examined all-cause and breast cancer-specific survival by body mass index (BMI) in the Multiethnic\\u000a Cohort (MEC) study for African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American, Latino, and Caucasian women. Female MEC participants\\u000a free of breast cancer, aged

Shannon M. Conroy; Gertraud Maskarinec; Lynne R. Wilkens; Kami K. White; Brian E. Henderson; Laurence N. Kolonel

2011-01-01

375

Remifentanil discontinuation and subsequent intensive care unit-acquired infection: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: Recent animal studies demonstrated immunosuppressive effects of opioid withdrawal resulting in a higher risk of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of remifentanil discontinuation on intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infection. METHODS: This was a prospective observational cohort study performed in a 30-bed medical and surgical university ICU, during a one-year period. All patients hospitalised

Saad Nseir; Jérémy Hoel; Guillaume Grailles; Aude Soury-Lavergne; Christophe Di Pompeo; Daniel Mathieu; Alain Durocher

2009-01-01

376

Mortality among shipyard Coast Guard workers: a retrospective cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background The mortality experience of 4702 (4413 men and 289 women) civilian workers in a US Coast Guard shipyard was evaluated. Methods All workers employed at the shipyard between 1 January 1950 and 31 December 1964 were included in the study and were followed through 31 December 2001 for vital status. Detailed shipyard and lifetime work histories found in the shipyard personnel records and job descriptions were evaluated. Workers were classified as likely exposed to any potential hazardous substances. In addition, 20 job groups were created on likely similar exposures. Standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated based on the general population of the state and adjusted for age, calendar period, sex and race. Results The follow?up was successful for 93.3% of the workers. Among all men employed in the shipyard, there was an excess of mortality from all causes of death (SMR 1.08; 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12), respiratory cancers (SMR 1.29; 95% CI 1.15 to 1.43), lung cancer (SMR 1.26; 95% CI 1.12 to 1.41), mesothelioma (SMR 5.07; 95% CI 1.85 to 11.03) and emphysema (SMR 1.44; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.99) and a decrease for cardiovascular diseases (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90 to 1.00), vascular lesions of the central nervous system (SMR 0.80; 95% CI 0.67 to 0.96), cirrhosis of the liver (SMR 0.38; 95% CI 0.25 to 0.57) and external causes of death (SMR 0.55; 95% CI 0.44 to 0.68). A similar pattern was observed for the men classified as exposed. No increasing trend of mortality was found with duration of employment in the shipyard, with the exception of mesothelioma (SMRs of 4.23 and 6.27 for <10 years and ?10 years, respectively). In occupations with at least three cases and with an SMR of ?1.3, the authors observed a significantly elevated mortality for lung cancer among machinists (SMR 1.60; 95% CI 1.08 to 2.29) and shipfitters, welders and cutters (SMR 1.34; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.65) and for oral and nasopharyngeal cancers among wood workers (SMR 6.20; 95% CI 2.27 to 13.50). Conclusion Employment in this Coast Guard shipyard revealed a small but significant excess mortality from all causes, lung cancer and mesothelioma, most of which is probably related to asbestos exposure.

Krstev, S; Stewart, P; Rusiecki, J; Blair, A

2007-01-01

377

Reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk in 2 US cohort studies, 1993-2010.  

PubMed

Clinical and experimental findings suggest that female hormonal and reproductive factors could influence kidney cancer development. To evaluate this association, we conducted analyses in 2 large prospective cohorts (the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study (NIH-AARP), 1995-2006, and the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO), 1993-2010). Cohort-specific and aggregated hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals relating reproductive factors and kidney cancer risk were computed by Cox regression. The analysis included 792 incident kidney cancer cases among 283,952 postmenopausal women. Women who had undergone a hysterectomy were at a significantly elevated kidney cancer risk in both NIH-AARP (hazard ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 1.09, 1.50) and PLCO (hazard ratio = 1.41, 95% confidence interval: 1.06, 1.88). Similar results were observed for both cohorts after analyses were restricted to women who had undergone a hysterectomy with or without an oophorectomy. For the NIH-AARP cohort, an inverse association was observed with increasing age at menarche (P for trend = 0.02) and increasing years of oral contraceptive use (P for trend = 0.02). No clear evidence of an association with parity or other reproductive factors was found. Our results suggest that hysterectomy is associated with increased risk of kidney cancer. The observed associations with age at menarche and oral contraceptive use warrant further investigation. PMID:23624999

Karami, Sara; Daugherty, Sarah E; Schonfeld, Sara J; Park, Yikyung; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Grubb, Robert L; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Chow, Wong-Ho; Purdue, Mark P

2013-04-26

378

Influence function based variance estimation and missing data issues in case-cohort studies.  

PubMed

Recognizing that the efficiency in relative risk estimation for the Cox proportional hazards model is largely constrained by the total number of cases, Prentice (1986) proposed the case-cohort design in which covariates are measured on all cases and on a random sample of the cohort. Subsequent to Prentice, other methods of estimation and sampling have been proposed for these designs. We formalize an approach to variance estimation suggested by Barlow (1994), and derive a robust variance estimator based on the influence function. We consider the applicability of the variance estimator to all the proposed case-cohort estimators, and derive the influence function when known sampling probabilities in the estimators are replaced by observed sampling fractions. We discuss the modifications required when cases are missing covariate information. The missingness may occur by chance, and be completely at random; or may occur as part of the sampling design, and depend upon other observed covariates. We provide an adaptation of S-plus code that allows estimating influence function variances in the presence of such missing covariates. Using examples from our current case-cohort studies on esophageal and gastric cancer, we illustrate how our results our useful in solving design and analytic issues that arise in practice. PMID:11763542

Mark, S D; Katki, H

2001-12-01

379

Mortality and lead exposure: a retrospective cohort study of Swedish smelter workers.  

PubMed Central

The study is based on the work histories and mortality data for 3832 male workers first employed before 1967 at a copper smelter in northern Sweden and followed up from 1950 to 1981. From the 3832 workers a lead cohort consisting of 437 workers employed for at least three years at sites with considerable lead exposure during 1950-74 was selected. These workers had regularly had blood lead measurements performed since 1950. Based on the cumulative blood lead dose 1950-74 and peak blood lead values, the cohort was subdivided into high mean, low mean, high peak, and low peak groups. Standardised mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated for the six groups using general and local reference populations. The original cohort of 3832 workers showed considerable excess of deaths for total mortality, malignant neoplasms especially lung and stomach cancer, ischaemic heart diseases, and cerebrovascular diseases when compared with the general population. In the lead cohort where the workers had been subjected to a considerable lead exposure only the raised SMR for lung cancer was sustained (SMR = 162; not significant). No significant differences were found between high lead and low lead exposed smelter workers.

Gerhardsson, L; Lundstrom, N G; Nordberg, G; Wall, S

1986-01-01

380

Refugee trauma versus torture trauma: a retrospective controlled cohort study of Tibetan refugees.  

PubMed

A retrospective cohort study of 35 refugee Tibetan nuns and lay students who were arrested and tortured in Tibet matched with 35 controls who were not arrested or tortured was carried out in India. Subjects were administered the Hopkins Checklist-25, evaluating anxiety symptoms, effective disturbances, somatic complaints, and social impairment. The prevalence of symptom scores in the clinical range for both cohorts was 41.4% for anxiety symptoms and 14.3% for depressive symptoms. The torture survivors had a statistically significant higher proportion of elevated anxiety scores than did the nontortured cohort (54.3% vs. 28.6%, p = .05). This was not true for elevated depressive scores. The results suggest that torture has long-term consequences on mental health over and above the effects of being uprooted, fleeing one's country, and living in exile as a refugee, though the additional effects were small. Political commitment, social support in exile, and prior knowledge of and preparedness for confinement and torture in the imprisoned cohort served to foster resilience against psychological sequelae. The contribution of Buddhist spirituality plays an active role in the development of protective coping mechanisms among Tibetan refugees. PMID:9457144

Holtz, T H

1998-01-01

381

Moving faces, looking places: validation of the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES).  

PubMed

We report two studies validating a new standardized set of filmed emotion expressions, the Amsterdam Dynamic Facial Expression Set (ADFES). The ADFES is distinct from existing datasets in that it includes a face-forward version and two different head-turning versions (faces turning toward and away from viewers), North-European as well as Mediterranean models (male and female), and nine discrete emotions (joy, anger, fear, sadness, surprise, disgust, contempt, pride, and embarrassment). Study 1 showed that the ADFES received excellent recognition scores. Recognition was affected by social categorization of the model: displays of North-European models were better recognized by Dutch participants, suggesting an ingroup advantage. Head-turning did not affect recognition accuracy. Study 2 showed that participants more strongly perceived themselves to be the cause of the other's emotion when the model's face turned toward the respondents. The ADFES provides new avenues for research on emotion expression and is available for researchers upon request. PMID:21859206

van der Schalk, Job; Hawk, Skyler T; Fischer, Agneta H; Doosje, Bertjan

2011-08-01

382

Early motherhood and mental health in midlife: a study of British and American cohorts  

PubMed Central

Objectives Examine the relationship between early age at first birth and mental health among women in their fifties. Methods Analysis of data on women from a British 1946 birth cohort study and the US Health and Retirement Study birth cohort of 1931-41. Results In both samples a first birth before 21 years, compared to a later first birth, is associated with poorer mental health. The association between early first birth and poorer mental health persists in the British study even after controlling for early socioeconomic status, midlife socioeconomic status, and midlife health. In the US sample, the association becomes non-significant after controlling for educational attainment. Conclusions Early age at first birth is associated with poorer mental health among women in their fifties in both studies, though the pattern of associations differs.

Henretta, John C; Grundy, Emily M D; Okell, Lucy C; Wadsworth, Michael E J

2011-01-01

383

Restless legs syndrome and all-cause mortality in four prospective cohort studies  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the association between restless legs syndrome (RLS) and all-cause mortality. Design Four prospective cohort studies. Setting The Dortmund Health Study (DHS) and the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) from Germany. The Women's Health Study (WHS) and the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS) from the USA. Participants In DHS: a random sample (n=1?299) from the population of Dortmund; in SHIP: a sample (n=4?291) from residents living in West Pomerania were drawn by multistage random sampling design; in WHS: female healthcare professionals (n=31?370); in PHS: male physicians (n=22?926) Main outcome measures All-cause mortality. Results The prevalence of RLS ranged between 7.4% and 11.9% at baseline. During follow-up (ranging between 6 and 11?years) RLS was not associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality in any of the four cohorts. The multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CI) for all-cause mortality ranged from 0.21 (0.03 to 1.53) to 1.07 (0.93 to 1.23) across the four studies. The HRs for all-cause mortality did not differ according to gender. Conclusions In these four independently conducted large prospective cohort studies from Germany and the USA, RLS did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality. These findings do not support the hypothesis that RLS is a risk factor for mortality of any cause.

Szentkiralyi, Andras; Winter, Anke C; Schurks, Markus; Volzke, Henry; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; E Buring, Julie; Gaziano, J Michael; Kurth, Tobias; Berger, Klaus

2012-01-01

384

Gallstones in sickle cell disease: Observations from The Jamaican: Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The prevalence, incidence, risk factors, clinical associations, and morbidity of gallstones were studied in 311 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease and 167 patients with sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease in a cohort study from birth. Gallstones developed in 96 patients with homozygous sickle cell disease and 18 patients with sickle cell-hemoglobin C disease; specific symptoms necessitating cholecystect0my occurred in only

Thomas M Walker; Ian R Hambleton; Graham R Serjeant

2000-01-01

385

Obesity and colorectal cancer risk: A meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

AIM: To evaluate the association between obesity and colorectal cancer risk. METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to January 1, 2007. Cohort studies permitting the assessment of causal association between obesity and colorectal cancer, with clear definition of obesity and well-defined outcome of colorectal cancer were eligible. Study design, sample size at baseline, mean follow-up time,

Zhe Dai; Yan-Cheng Xu

386

Smoking and Mental Health: Cross-Sectional and Cohort Studies in an Occupational Setting in Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. The relationship between smoking and mental health remains unclear.Methods. We carried out a cross-sectional study and a cohort study on the possible association of smoking and mental health in 782 workers. Using a questionnaire including the 30-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30) and items related to the smoking state, the association between smoking and mental health was evaluated separately in

Yoshio Mino; Jun Shigemi; Tadahiro Otsu; Atsuhiko Ohta; Toshihide Tsuda; Nobufumi Yasuda; Akira Babazono; Eiji Yamamoto

2001-01-01

387

Combined impact of lifestyle factors on mortality: prospective cohort study in US women  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the impact of combinations of lifestyle factors on mortality in middle aged women.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting Nurses’ health study, United States.Participants 77 782 women aged 34 to 59 years and free from cardiovascular disease and cancer in 1980.Main outcome measure Relative risk of mortality during 24 years of follow-up in relation to five lifestyle factors (cigarette smoking,

Rob M van Dam; Tricia Li; Donna Spiegelman; Oscar H Franco; Frank B Hu

2008-01-01

388

Effectiveness of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines in blood donors: a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Although various studies have demonstrated efficacy of DNA-recombinant anti-hepatitis B vaccines, their effectiveness in health care settings has not been researched adequately. This gap is particularly visible for blood donors, a group of significant importance in the reduction of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis B. METHODS: This is a double cohort study of 1411 repeat blood donors during the period 1998–2002, involving

Emil J Kupek; Denise E. R. de Souza; Andrea Petry

2007-01-01

389

Pregnancy outcome in patients with inflammatory bowel disease treated with thiopurines: cohort from the CESAME Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and aimsFew studies have been conducted addressing the safety of thiopurine treatment in pregnant women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the pregnancy outcome of women with IBD who have been exposed to thiopurines.Methods215 pregnancies in 204 women were registered and documented in the CESAME cohort between May 2004 and October 2007.

Jessica Coelho; Laurent Beaugerie; Jean Frédéric Colombel; Xavier Hébuterne; Eric Lerebours; Marc Lémann; Philippe Baumer; Jacques Cosnes; Arnaud Bourreille; Jean Pierre Gendre; Philippe Seksik; Antoine Blain; Etienne H Metman; Andrée Nisard; Guillaume Cadiot; Michel Veyrac; Benoît Coffin; Xavier Dray; Fabrice Carrat; Philippe Marteau

2010-01-01

390

Predictors of Death among Patients Who Completed Tuberculosis Treatment: A Population-Based Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMortality among patients who complete tuberculosis (TB) treatment is still high among vulnerable populations. The objective of the study was to identify the probability of death and its predictive factors in a cohort of successfully treated TB patients.MethodsA population-based retrospective longitudinal study was performed in Barcelona, Spain. All patients who successfully completed TB treatment with culture-confirmation and available drug susceptibility

Juan-Pablo Millet; Angels Orcau; Cristina Rius; Marti Casals; Patricia Garcia de Olalla; Antonio Moreno; Jeanne L. Nelson; Joan A. Caylà; Ulrike Gertrud Munderloh

2011-01-01

391

The prevalence of chronic chest and leg pain following cardiac surgery: a historical cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chronic pain after surgery is recognised as an important post-operative complication; recent studies have shown up to 30% of patients reporting persistent pain following mastectomy and inguinal hernia repair. No large-scale studies have investigated the epidemiology of chronic pain at two operative sites following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). This paper reports the follow-up of a cohort of 1348 patients

J Bruce; N Drury; A. S Poobalan; R. R Jeffrey; W. C. S Smith; W. A Chambers

2003-01-01

392

Effect of retirement on major chronic conditions and fatigue: French GAZEL occupational cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To determine, using longitudinal analyses, if retirement is followed by a change in the risk of incident chronic diseases, depressive symptoms, and fatigue.Design Prospective study with repeat measures from 7 years before to 7 years after retirement.Setting Large French occupational cohort (the GAZEL study), 1989-2007.Participants 11 246 men and 2858 women.Main outcome measures Respiratory disease, diabetes, coronary heart disease

Hugo Westerlund; Jussi Vahtera; Jane E Ferrie; Archana Singh-Manoux; Jaana Pentti; Maria Melchior; Constanze Leineweber; Markus Jokela; Johannes Siegrist; Marcel Goldberg; Marie Zins; Mika Kivimäki

2010-01-01

393

Physical Activity, Sedentary Index, and Mental Disorders in the SUN Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

SANCHEZ-VILLEGAS, A., I. ARA, F. GUILLEN-GRIMA, M. BES-RASTROLLO, J. J. VARO-CENARRUZABEITIA, and M. A. MARTINEZ-GONZALEZ. Physical Activity, Sedentary Index, and Mental Disorders in the SUN Cohort Study. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 40, No. 5, pp. 827-834, 2008. Purpose: There is evidence to suggest a beneficial effect of physical activity on several mental disorders. Methods: The study aim was to

ALMUDENA SANCHEZ-VILLEGAS; IGNACIO ARA; FRANCISCO GUILLÉN-GRIMA; MAIRA BES-RASTROLLO; JOSE JAVIER VARO-CENARRUZABEITIA; MIGUEL A. MARTÍNEZ-GONZÁLEZ

2008-01-01

394

Use of statins and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia in a cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Evidence of a relation between use of lipid lowering drugs and cognitive outcomes is mixed. This study aimed to test the association between use of statins and incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment without dementia (CIND) over 5 years of follow-up. Methods: Data were from a population-based cohort study comprising 1,789 older Mexican Americans. All participants had cognitive and

C. Cramer; M. N. Haan; S. Galea; K. M. Langa; J. D. Kalbfleisch

2008-01-01

395

California Teachers Study (CTS): Breast and Other Cancers in the California Teachers' Cohort  

Cancer.gov

A cohort of 133,479 California public school teachers, administrators, and other school professionals was established by a collaborative group of epidemiological investigators at the City of Hope, University of Southern California, University of California at Irvine, and Cancer Prevention Institute of California. The goals of the California Teachers Study (CTS) were, and continue to be, to evaluate unresolved issues related to breast and other cancer risk factors, and study other important issues related to women's health.

396

Gene expression analyses in breast cancer epidemiology: the Norwegian Women and Cancer postgenome cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

INTRODUCTION: The introduction of high-throughput technologies, also called -omics technologies, into epidemiology has raised the need for high-quality observational studies to reduce several sources of error and bias. METHODS: The Norwegian Women and Cancer (NOWAC) postgenome cohort study consists of approximately 50,000 women born between 1943 and 1957 who gave blood samples between 2003 and 2006 and filled out a

Vanessa Dumeaux; Anne-Lise Børresen-Dale; Jan-Ole Frantzen; Merethe Kumle; Vessela N Kristensen; Eiliv Lund

2008-01-01

397

Therapeutic Drug Use in Women With Crohn's Disease and Birth Outcomes: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND:Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with increased risk of adverse birth outcomes. However, existing studies have not taken into account the impact of drug treatment. We examined the impact of drug treatment on birth outcomes—low birth weight (LBW), preterm birth, LBW at term, and congenital abnormalities (CAs)—among CD women.METHODS:A nationwide Danish cohort study of 900 children born to CD women

Bente Nørgård; Lars Pedersen; Lisbet A. Christensen; Henrik T. Sørensen

2007-01-01

398

Prospective cohort study to examine the association between maternal anxiety and depression and subsequent pregnancy outcomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveMaternal stress has been linked with higher risks of adverse pregnancy outcome. The authors investigated the association between maternal anxiety and depression scores in early pregnancy to birthweight and spontaneous preterm birth.MethodsThe study cohort consisted of 3531 nulliparous low risk women who participated in the Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints study. Psychological state was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and

CM Everard; GO Carroll; A Khashan; L McGowan; R North; G Dekker; C Roberts; L Howard; LC Kenny

2010-01-01

399

Breastfeeding and overweight in childhood: evidence from the Pelotas 1993 birth cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives:The effect of breastfeeding duration on the prevalence of overweight and on mean weight for height z-score (WHZ) was evaluated in Brazilian children.Design:Prospective population-based birth cohort study.Subjects:In total, 1273 children aged 4 years, corresponding to a follow-up rate of 87.2%.Measurements:Three explanatory variables were studied: duration of any breastfeeding, duration of exclusive or predominant breastfeeding, and ever breastfeeding. Weight and height

C L Araújo; C G Victora; P C Hallal; D P Gigante

2006-01-01

400

Diabetes and risk of incident cancer: a large population-based cohort study in Israel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Type 2 diabetes mellitus has been associated with an increased risk of a variety of cancers in observational studies, but\\u000a few have reported the relationship between diabetes and cancer risk in men and women separately. The main goal of this retrospective\\u000a cohort study was to evaluate the sex-specific risk of incident overall and site-specific cancer among people with DM compared

Gabriel Chodick; Anthony D. Heymann; Lena Rosenmann; Manfred S. Green; Shira Flash; Avi Porath; Ehud Kokia; Varda Shalev

2010-01-01

401

Migraine in junior high-school students: A prospective 3-academic-year cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Migraine is a common childhood illness with expected favorable outcome. A study of the long-term clinical course of childhood migraine will provide information of evolution of migraine. A cohort study for 3-academic-year was conducted in Thai junior high-school children from July 2005 to February 2008 to determine the clinical course of migraine. Two hundred and forty-eight students in four junior

Anannit Visudtibhan; Lunliya Thampratankul; Chaiyos Khongkhatithum; Chusak Okascharoen; Vorasith Siripornpanich; Surang Chiemchanya; Pongsakdi Visudhiphan

2010-01-01

402

Multiyear Prospective Study of Intestinal Parasitism in a Cohort of Peace Corps Volunteers in Guatemala  

Microsoft Academic Search

We conducted a prospective, longitudinal study in a cohort of 36 Peace Corps volunteers (PCVs) in Guatemala to study the incidence and natural history of intestinal parasitic infections during the PCVs' >2-year overseas stay. PCVs collected stool specimens at least monthly and when ill with gastrointestinal symptoms. Of the 1,168 specimens tested, 453 (38.8%) were positive for at least one

BARBARA L. HERWALDT; KATHLEEN R. DE ARROYAVE; SUSANNE P. WAHLQUIST; ANNA MARIA DE MERIDA; ADRIANA S. LOPEZ; DENNIS D. JURANEK

2001-01-01

403

Obesity indices in a cohort of primary school children in Crete: a six year prospective study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE: To report on the body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) and sum of skinfolds in a cohort of Cretan children and identify the factors associated with these indices.DESIGN: The present study was a follow-up study. Children were measured prospectively at ages 6, 9 and 12.SUBJECTS: Pupils came from 40 schools randomly selected from the 541 primary schools in

G Mamalakis; A Kafatos; Y Manios; T Anagnostopoulou; I Apostolaki

2000-01-01

404

Childhood energy intake and adult mortality from cancer: the boyd orr cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractObjective: To examine the relation between energy intake in childhood and adult mortality from cancer.Study design: Cohort study.Setting: 16 rural and urban centres in England and Scotland.Subjects: 3834 people who took part in Lord Boyd Orr's Carnegie survey of family diet and health in prewar Britain between 1937 and 1939 who were followed up with the NHS central register. Standardised

Stephen Frankel; David J Gunnell; Tim J Peters; Maria Maynard; George Davey Smith

1998-01-01

405

Cohort studies of health effects among people exposed to estuarine waters: North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland.  

PubMed Central

A variety of human symptoms have been associated with exposure to the dinoflagellate Pfiesteria and have been grouped together into a syndrome termed "possible estuary-associated syndrome." Prospective cohort studies of health effects associated with exposure to estuarine waters that may contain Pfiesteria spp. and related organisms are in progress in North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. The three studies recruited cohorts of 118-238 subjects who work or engaged in recreation in estuary waters. Baseline health and neuropsychological evaluations are conducted, and study subjects are followed prospectively for 2-5 years with periodic assessments of health and performance on a battery of neuropsychological tests. Health symptoms and estuary water exposure are recorded by telephone interviews or diaries every 1-2 weeks. Water quality information, including measurements of Pfiesteria spp., is collected in the areas where the subjects are working. Because it is not possible to measure individual exposure to Pfiesteria or a toxin produced by this organism, these studies examine surrogate exposure measures (e.g., time spent in estuary waters, in a fish kill area, or in waters where Pfiesteria DNA was detected by molecular amplification). Preliminary analyses of the first 2 years (1998-2000) of data indicate that none of the three ongoing cohorts have detected adverse health effects. However, there have not been any reported fish kills associated with Pfiesteria since the studies began, so it is possible that none of the study subjects have been exposed to toxin-producing Pfiesteria spp.

Moe, C L; Turf, E; Oldach, D; Bell, P; Hutton, S; Savitz, D; Koltai, D; Turf, M; Ingsrisawang, L; Hart, R; Ball, J D; Stutts, M; McCarter, R; Wilson, L; Haselow, D; Grattan, L; Morris, J G; Weber, D J

2001-01-01

406

Ignoring the matching variables in cohort studies - when is it valid and why?  

PubMed

In observational studies of the effect of an exposure on an outcome, the exposure-outcome association is usually confounded by other causes of the outcome (potential confounders). One common method to increase efficiency is to match the study on potential confounders. Matched case-control studies are relatively common and well covered by the literature. Matched cohort studies are less common but do sometimes occur. It is often argued that it is valid to ignore the matching variables, in the analysis of matched cohort data. In this paper, we provide analyses delineating the scope and limits of this argument. We discuss why the argument does not carry over to effect estimation in matched case-control studies, although it does carry over to null-hypothesis testing. We also show how the argument does not extend to matched cohort studies when one adjusts for additional confounders in the analysis. Ignoring the matching variables can sometimes reduce variance, even though this is not guaranteed. We investigate the trade-off between bias and variance in deciding whether adjustment for matching factors is advisable. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23761197

Sjölander, Arvid; Greenland, Sander

2013-06-12

407

Cohort Profile: Steps to the Healthy Development and Well-being of Children (the STEPS Study).  

PubMed

The STEPS Study aims to search for the precursors and causes of problems in child health and well-being by using a multidisciplinary approach. The cohort consists of all mothers (Finnish or Swedish speaking) who had live deliveries in the Hospital District of Southwest Finland from January 2008 to April 2010 and their children (n = 9811 mothers, n = 9936 children). Of these, 1797 mothers and their 1827 children were recruited to an intensive follow-up group during the first trimester of pregnancy or soon after delivery. Information about the whole study cohort is based on pregnancy follow-up data from maternity clinics, National Longitudinal Census Files and child welfare clinics. Data from multiple sources are used to obtain a picture of the overall well-being of the child and the family. After birth, study visits include several clinical examinations. Collaboration is encouraged, and access to the data will be available when the data set is complete. PMID:23143610

Lagström, Hanna; Rautava, Päivi; Kaljonen, Anne; Räihä, Hannele; Pihlaja, Päivi; Korpilahti, Pirjo; Peltola, Ville; Rautakoski, Pirkko; Osterbacka, Eva; Simell, Olli; Niemi, Pekka

2012-11-01

408

An update of the Amsterdam Light Scattering Database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an update of the Amsterdam Light Scattering Database located at http://www.astro.uva.nl/scatter. We give a detailed explanation and clarification of the nature of the scattering matrices in the database. Measured scattering matrix elements are presented as functions of the scattering angle, for aerosol particles in random orientation at 632.8 nm. They pertain to seven volcanic dust samples from three different volcanoes, two samples with extreme refractive indices (hematite and rutile), and three forsterite samples with identical compositions, but different size distributions. For 15 phytoplankton species and two types of silt suspended in water, the database now contains two matrix elements, F11 and -F12/F11 as functions of the scattering angle at 632.8 nm. Lastly, we have included all scattering matrix elements as functions of the scattering angle for spherical micron-sized water droplets, which may be used for testing purposes.

Volten, H.; Muñoz, O.; Hovenier, J. W.; Waters, L. B. F. M.

2006-07-01

409

European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Congress Report From Amsterdam 2013.  

PubMed

The Annual Congress of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) was held in Amsterdam from the 31(st) of August to the 4(th) of September 2013. The total attendance up to the 3(rd) was 29,990. Several important topics were presented and discussed, including a randomized trial of preventive angioplasty in myocardial infarction (PRAMI), transcatheter aortic valve implantation, renal denervation, management of vasospastic angina, plaque vulnerability and outcome assessed by OCT and diuretic resistance in heart failure (an ESC-JCS [Japanese Circulation Society] joint session), and OCT-guided percutaneous coronary intervention. The ESC congress has become one of the most important and attractive international scientific meetings. Importantly, Japan topped the number of abstracts submitted (1,459 abstracts) and accepted (565 abstracts) to ESC 2013. Thus, the ESC is eager to continue the strong collaboration with the JCS as the relationship between them gets closer year by year.??(Circ J?2013; 77: 2687-2690). PMID:24107327

Matsumoto, Yasuharu

2013-10-08

410

Calcium, vitamin D, dairy products, and risk of colorectal cancer in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort (United States)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Calcium, vitamin D, and dairy product intake may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer. We therefore examined the association between these factors and risk of colorectal cancer in a large prospective cohort of United States men and women. Methods: Participants in the Cancer Prevention Study II Nutrition Cohort completed a detailed questionnaire on diet, medical history, and lifestyle in

Marjorie L. McCullough; Andrea S. Robertson; Carmen Rodriguez; Eric J. Jacobs; Ann Chao; Carolyn Jonas; Eugenia E. Calle; Walter C. Willett; Michael J. Thun

2003-01-01

411

Cancer morbidity in British military veterans included in chemical warfare agent experiments at Porton Down: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine cancer morbidity in members of the armed forces who took part in tests of chemical warfare agents from 1941 to 1989.Design Historical cohort study, with cohort members followed up to December 2004.Data source Archive of UK government research facility at Porton Down, UK military personnel records, and national death and cancer records.Participants All veterans included in the

L M Carpenter; L Linsell; C Brooks; T J Keegan; T Langdon; P Doyle; N E S Maconochie; T Fletcher; M J Nieuwenhuijsen; V Beral; K M Venables

2009-01-01

412

Effect of Weight Loss in Adults on Estimation of Risk Due to Adiposity in a Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of overweight and obesity on the risk of fatal disease tends to attenuate with age. To evaluate whether this effect is partly attributable to disease-related weight loss, we examined the prebaseline history of weight loss and diseases associated with weight loss among adults enrolled in a cohort study. We conducted an analysis of 7,855 adult cohort members of

Namgyal L. Kyulo; Synnove F. Knutsen; Gary E. Fraser; Pramil N. Singh

2012-01-01

413

The origins of a research community in the Majengo observational cohort study, Nairobi, Kenya  

PubMed Central

Background Since the 1980s the Majengo Observational Cohort Study (MOCS) has examined sexually transmitted infections, in particular HIV/AIDS, in a cohort of sex workers in Majengo, an impoverished urban village in Nairobi, Kenya. The MOCS investigators have faced criticism since the women have remained in the sex trade for the duration of their participation in the study, prompting concerns about exploitation. Yet despite these concerns, the cohort has survived for almost 30 years. Methods In this retrospective qualitative case study, we examine the community engagement practices of the MOCS and explore the factors that account for its durability. Results Women in sex work in Kenya were a highly stigmatized and disfranchised community. As a result, there was no natural 'community' of sex workers either in Nairobi or in the Majengo village. The Majengo clinic aimed to reduce the barriers to health care the women experienced at the STC clinic by bringing the services closer to them and by providing a non-discriminatory environment. The women acknowledged the fact they had hoped their participation in the MOCS would have helped them find a path out of the sex trade. But our findings also add another dimension to this debate, since every cohort member we interviewed expressed her gratitude for the deep impact the MOCS has had on her life, much of it beyond the improved health status made possible by access to quality healthcare services. Participation in the MOCS has improved and enriched their lives. The CE activities have played a central role in creating a community that did not exist independently of the MOCS. Conclusions Our case study identified 3 distinct phases of community engagement in the MOCS: (1) reaching out: mobilization, dialogue and education; (2) foundations of trust through relationships of care; and (3) leveraging existing social capital to form a cohort community. The findings demonstrate the importance of some of the less obvious benefits of participation in research, namely the evolving experience of community and the accompanying gains in personal security and solidarity that have kept the women in the cohort, some for 20 years or more.

2010-01-01

414

Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years  

PubMed Central

Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years.

2009-01-01

415

Genetic Association Analysis of Human Longevity in Cohort Studies of Elderly Subjects: An Example of the PON1 Gene in the Danish 1905 Birth Cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the case-control or the cross-sectional design has been popular in genetic association studies of human longevity, such a design is prone to false positive results due to sampling bias and a potential secular trend in gene-environment interactions. To avoid these problems, the cohort or follow-up study design has been recommended. With the observed individual survival information, the Cox regression

Qihua Tan; Lene Christiansen; Lise Bathum; Shuxia Li; Torben A. Kruse; Kaare Christensen

2006-01-01

416

Obesity and Risk of Hip Fracture in Adults: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies  

PubMed Central

Background Many observational studies assessed the association between obesity and risk of hip fracture in adults, but reported controversial results. Our goal was to evaluate the association between obesity and risk of hip fracture in adults by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Methods Three databases, PubMed, Embase and Web of Science, were searched through May 2012 to identify eligible cohort studies. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled relative risk (RR) with its 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving a total 3,126,313 participants were finally included into this meta-analysis. Overall, adults with obesity compared with the normal weight group had a significantly decreased risk of hip fracture (RR: 0.66, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.77, P<0.001). Meta-analyses by the adjusted status of RRs also suggested adults with obesity compared with the reference group had a significantly decreased risk of hip fracture (adjusted RR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.58, P<0.001; unadjusted RR: 0.66, 95% CI 0.56 to 0.78, P<0.001). Subgroup analyses by gender suggested individuals with obesity had a significantly decreased risk for developing hip fracture compared with the reference group in both men (RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.48 to 0.60, P<0.001) and women (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.84, P<0.001). No evidence of publication bias was observed in this meta-analysis. Conclusions This meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies suggests that obesity significantly decreases the risk of hip fracture in adults, and obesity is probably a protective factor of hip fracture in adults.

Tang, Xianye; Liu, Gang; Kang, Jian; Hou, Yang; Jiang, Fungui; Yuan, Wen; Shi, Jiangang

2013-01-01

417

Bayesian analysis of multivariate mixed models for a prospective cohort study using skew-elliptical distributions.  

PubMed

Classical multivariate mixed models that acknowledge the correlation of patients through the incorporation of normal error terms are widely used in cohort studies. Violation of the normality assumption can make the statistical inference vague. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian parametric approach by relaxing this assumption and substituting some flexible distributions in fitting multivariate mixed models. This strategy allows for the skewness and the heavy tails of error-term distributions and thus makes inferences robust to the violation. This approach uses flexible skew-elliptical distributions, including skewed, fat, or thin-tailed distributions, and imposes the normal model as a special case. We use real data obtained from a prospective cohort study on the low back pain to illustrate the usefulness of our proposed approach. PMID:23609779

Kazemi, Iraj; Mahdiyeh, Zahra; Mansourian, Marjan; Park, Jongbae J

2013-04-23

418

Developing and refining the Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS): five years of experience.  

PubMed

The Taiwan Birth Cohort Study (TBCS) is the first nationwide birth cohort database in Asia designed to establish national norms of children's development. Several challenges during database development and data analysis were identified. Challenges include sampling methods, instrument development and statistical approach to missing data. The purpose of this paper is to describe the pilot study underpinning the TBCS, testing of the TBCS developmental instrument and the resolution of methodological challenges. Bayesian analysis fill in missing data, three-step regression analysis for the investigation of mediating and moderating effect, the use of structural equation modeling in a large scale investigation, investigating direct and indirect effects, confounding factors and reciprocal relationships in children's development, and used latent growth model in longitudinal observations are described. The TBCS will provide ongoing longitudinal information regarding the predisposing and maintaining factors affecting the long term outcome of pediatric illnesses. PMID:21724363

Lung, For-Wey; Chiang, Tung-Liang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Shu, Bih-Ching; Lee, Meng-Chih

2011-07-02

419

Cohort Differences in Cognitive Aging and Terminal Decline in the Seattle Longitudinal Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Life span researchers have long been interested in how and why fundamental aspects of human ontogeny differ between cohorts of people who have lived through different historical epochs. When examined at the same age, later born cohorts are often cognitively and physically fitter than earlier born cohorts. Less is known, however, about cohort

Gerstorf, Denis; Ram, Nilam; Hoppmann, Christiane; Willis, Sherry L.; Schaie, K. Warner

2011-01-01

420

Charting the progression of disability in parkinson disease: study protocol for a prospective longitudinal cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background People with Parkinson disease (PD), even in the presence of symptomatic relief from medical, surgical, and rehabilitative interventions, face a persistent worsening of disability. This disability is characterized by diminished quality of life, reduced functional mobility, declining performance in activities of daily living and worsening neurological impairments. While evidence has emerged supporting the clinically meaningful benefits of short-term exercise programs on these underlying factors, assertions regarding the effects of sustained programs of exercise and physical activity on the trajectory of disablement in PD are made in the absence of direct evidence. Indeed, the natural decline in quality of life and functional mobility in people diagnosed with PD is poorly understood. Moreover, outcome measures commonly used in clinical exercise trials typically do not capture the full spectrum of disability as defined by the World Health Organization (WHO). Methods/Design The objective of this multicenter prospective study will be to examine the 2-year trajectory of disablement in a cohort of persons with PD. Two hundred sixty participants will be recruited to produce an expected final sample size of 150 individuals. Participants will be included if they are greater than 40 years of age, have a neurologist confirmed diagnosis of idiopathic PD, and are at Hoehn and Yahr stages 1 through 4. Data will be collected every 6 months during the study period. Primary outcome measures reflecting a broad spectrum of disablement will include, but will not be limited to, MDS-UPDRS, Timed Up and Go, Berg Balance Test, Nine Hole Peg Test, PDQ-39, and directly monitored ambulatory activity. Self-reported exercise and physical activity data also will be recorded. Statistical analyses will be used to characterize the trajectory of disablement and examine the influence of its underlying contributing factors. Discussion Tertiary prevention is an important component of contemporary healthcare for individuals living with degenerative disease. For individuals with PD, there is growing recognition that exercise and/or physical activity efforts to slow the rate of functional mobility decline, in particular, may be critical for optimizing quality of life. By describing the natural trajectory of disablement, exercise habits, and physical activity in a cohort of persons with PD, this investigation will establish an important foundation for future intervention research. Specifically, through the evaluation of the influence of sustained exercise and physical activity on disablement, the study will serve as a preliminary step toward developing a randomized controlled trial of long-term exercise in persons with PD.

2010-01-01

421

Longitudinal study of urban malaria in a cohort of Ugandan children: description of study site, census and recruitment  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: Studies of malaria in well-defined cohorts offer important data about the epidemiology of this complex disease, but few have been done in urban African populations. To generate a sampling frame for a longitudinal study of malaria incidence and treatment in Kampala, Uganda, a census, mapping and survey project was conducted. METHODS: All households in a geographically defined area were

Jennifer C Davis; Tamara D Clark; Sarah K Kemble; Nalugwa Talemwa; Denise Njama-Meya; Sarah G Staedke; Grant Dorsey

2006-01-01

422

[Veterinarians of the Zoological Garden 'Natura Artis Magistra' in Amsterdam (ca. 1845-1962].  

PubMed

A study in the archives of the Amsterdam Zoological Garden, established in 1838, revealed the names of nine veterinarians during the period under review, who were in charge of the health care of the zoo animals. All of them were in private practice and acted as consultants. Their written inheritance consists of bills for their services and medicines provided, and of the records of 1510 post-mortem examinations, covering the years 1927-1953. Of special interest is a manuscript of J. A. Dekker (1812-1859) that contains 22 of his publications devoted to diseases of zoo animals and other observations. Short biographies of all nine veterinarians are included in order to show how their work for the Zoological Garden, that was only an additional job, was related to their other occupations. PMID:20642132

Mathijsen, A H H M

2009-01-01

423

Iowa Women's Health Study: Epidemiology of Cancer in a Cohort of Older Women  

Cancer.gov

Cancer is the second leading cause of death in postmenopausal women, and detailed epidemiological investigations are warranted to identify etiologic factors, including potentially modifiable risk factors. The Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS) recruited a population-based cohort of 41,837 Iowa postmenopausal women, ages 55 to 69 years in 1986, to determine whether diet, body fat distribution, and other risk factors were related to cancer incidence.

424

Adequacy of authors’ replies to criticism raised in electronic letters to the editor: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate whether substantive criticism in electronic letters to the editor, defined as a problem that could invalidate the research or reduce its reliability, is adequately addressed by the authors.Design Cohort study.SettingBMJ between October 2005 and September 2007.Inclusion criteria Research papers generating substantive criticism in the rapid responses section on bmj.com.Main outcome measures Severity of criticism (minor, moderate, or

Peter C Gøtzsche; Tony Delamothe; Fiona Godlee; Andreas Lundh

2010-01-01

425

Mortality among contraceptive pill users: cohort evidence from Royal College of General Practitioners’ Oral Contraception Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To see if the mortality risk among women who have used oral contraceptives differs from that of never users.Design Prospective cohort study started in 1968 with mortality data supplied by participating general practitioners, National Health Service central registries, or both.Setting 1400 general practices throughout the United Kingdom.Participants 46 112 women observed for up to 39 years, resulting in 378

Philip C Hannaford; Lisa Iversen; Tatiana V Macfarlane; Alison M Elliott; Valerie Angus; Amanda J Lee

2010-01-01

426

Alcohol consumption and breast cancer risk in Japanese women: The Miyagi Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Alcohol consumption is known to be a risk factor for breast cancer in Western countries, but few epidemiologic data have been\\u000a available in Japan. This population-based prospective cohort study evaluated the associations of alcohol consumption with\\u000a breast cancer risk in a Japanese population. A total of 19,227 women aged 40–64 years were followed from 1990 to 2003. During\\u000a 246,703 person-years of

Yuko Minami; Masako Kakizaki; Yoichiro Kakugawa; Yoshikazu Nishino; Akira Fukao; Ichiro Tsuji; Noriaki Ohuchi

2011-01-01

427

Factors Affecting the Severity of Injuries Among Young Motorcyclists—A Swedish Nationwide Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives. To determine factors affecting the severity of motorcycle injuries, considering variables related to the individual, the environment, the vehicle, and the crash.Methods. This is a register-based retrospective cohort study. All individuals born in 1970–1972 (n = 334,070) were extracted from the Swedish Population and Housing Census of 1985 and followed up from 1988 to 2000, when aged 16–30. All

Francesco Zambon; Marie Hasselberg

2006-01-01

428

Are mitochondrial haplogroups associated with extreme longevity? A study on a Spanish cohort  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mitochondrial haplogroups could influence individual susceptibility to mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage, and human longevity,\\u000a as indicated by previous studies with Caucasian (European) or Asian cohorts. Here, we compared the frequency of mtDNA haplogroups\\u000a in a group of Spanish (Caucasian) centenarians (n?=?65, aged 100–108 years, 58 women, most from the central part of Spain) and a group of healthy young adults (n?=?138,

Tomàs Pinós; Gisela Nogales-Gadea; Jonatan R. Ruiz; Gabriel Rodríguez-Romo; Catalina Santiago-Dorrego; Carmen Fiuza-Luces; Félix Gómez-Gallego; Amalia Cano-Nieto; Nuria Garatachea; María Morán; Miguel Angel Martín; Joaquín Arenas; Antoni L. Andreu; Alejandro Lucia

429

Alcohol consumption and alcohol counselling behaviour among US medical students: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To determine which factors affect alcohol counselling practices among medical students.Design Cohort study.Setting Nationally representative medical schools (n=16) in the United States.Participants Medical students who graduated in 2003.Interventions Questionnaires were completed (response rate 83%) at the start of students’ first year (n=1846\\/2080), entrance to wards (typically during the third year of training) (n=1630\\/1982), and their final (fourth) year (n=1469\\/1901).Main

Erica Frank; Lisa Elon; Timothy Naimi; Robert Brewer

2008-01-01

430

Adverse drug reactions to tocolytic treatment for preterm labour: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the incidence of serious maternal complications after the use of various tocolytic drugs for the treatment of preterm labour in routine clinical situations.Design Prospective cohort study.Setting 28 hospitals in the Netherlands and Belgium.Participants 1920 consecutive women treated with tocolytics for threatened preterm labour.Main outcome measures Maternal adverse events (those suspected of being causally related to treatment were

Roel de Heus; Ben Willem Mol; Jan-Jaap H M Erwich; Herman P van Geijn; Wilfried J Gyselaers; Myriam Hanssens; Linda Härmark; Caroline D van Holsbeke; Johannes J Duvekot; Fred F A M Schobben; Hans Wolf; Gerard H A Visser

2009-01-01

431

Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of developing diabetes: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To assess the relation between adherence to a Mediterranean diet and the incidence of diabetes among initially healthy participants.Design Prospective cohort study with estimates of relative risk adjusted for sex, age, years of university education, total energy intake, body mass index, physical activity, sedentary habits, smoking, family history of diabetes, and personal history of hypertension.Setting Spanish university department.Participants 13

M Á Martínez-González; C de la Fuente-Arrillaga; J M Nunez-Cordoba; F J Basterra-Gortari; J J Beunza; Z Vazquez; S Benito; A Tortosa; M Bes-Rastrollo

2008-01-01

432

Quality of sleep during economic recession in Finland: A longitudinal cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

To assess the association between the economic recession of the 1990s in Finland and sleep behaviour, a longitudinal study was conducted in an adult Finnish population cohort. Baseline data were obtained by means of reports on sleep behaviour, health-related behaviour, health status, and objective laboratory tests in 1983–1987. The second screening conducted in 1992–1995, i.e. during economic recession, repeated data

Markku T. Hyyppä; Erkki Kronholm; Erkki Alanen

1997-01-01

433

Longitudinal Study on Poor Sleep and Life Dissatisfaction in a Nationwide Cohort of Twins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Life satisfaction and quality of sleep are important, related components of subjective well-being and general health. However, no earlier investigation is known to have tested the direction of the temporal relation between poor sleep and diminished life satisfaction, including simultaneous examination of shared genetic influences. These features were examined in the present study of a nationwide cohort of 18,631 same-sex

Tiina Paunio; Tellervo Korhonen; Christer Hublin; Markku Partinen; Mika Kivimaki; Markku Koskenvuo; Jaakko Kaprio

434

Validation of de-identified record linkage to ascertain hospital admissions in a cohort study  

PubMed Central

Background Cohort studies can provide valuable evidence of cause and effect relationships but are subject to loss of participants over time, limiting the validity of findings. Computerised record linkage offers a passive and ongoing method of obtaining health outcomes from existing routinely collected data sources. However, the quality of record linkage is reliant upon the availability and accuracy of common identifying variables. We sought to develop and validate a method for linking a cohort study to a state-wide hospital admissions dataset with limited availability of unique identifying variables. Methods A sample of 2000 participants from a cohort study (n = 41 514) was linked to a state-wide hospitalisations dataset in Victoria, Australia using the national health insurance (Medicare) number and demographic data as identifying variables. Availability of the health insurance number was limited in both datasets; therefore linkage was undertaken both with and without use of this number and agreement tested between both algorithms. Sensitivity was calculated for a sub-sample of 101 participants with a hospital admission confirmed by medical record review. Results Of the 2000 study participants, 85% were found to have a record in the hospitalisations dataset when the national health insurance number and sex were used as linkage variables and 92% when demographic details only were used. When agreement between the two methods was tested the disagreement fraction was 9%, mainly due to "false positive" links when demographic details only were used. A final algorithm that used multiple combinations of identifying variables resulted in a match proportion of 87%. Sensitivity of this final linkage was 95%. Conclusions High quality record linkage of cohort data with a hospitalisations dataset that has limited identifiers can be achieved using combinations of a national health insurance number and demographic data as identifying variables.

2011-01-01

435

Calcium and Vitamin D Intake and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: The Multiethnic Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The associations of intakes of calcium and vitamin D with colorectal cancer risk were examined in the Multiethnic Cohort Study (Hawaii and Los Angeles, California). In 1993-1996, 85,903 men and 105,108 women aged ? 45 years completed a quantitative food frequency questionnaire. A total of 2,110 incident cases of colorectal cancer (1,138 in men and 972 in women) were identified

Song-Yi Park; Suzanne P. Murphy; Lynne R. Wilkens; Abraham M. Y. Nomura; Brian E. Henderson; Laurence N. Kolonel

2007-01-01

436

A 12-month prospective cohort study of injury in international rowers  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn this study, the injury incidence and association with type and volume of training in international rowers were described.DesignA prospective cohort design was used over a 12-month period.Patients20 international rowers who were competing as part of the Irish Amateur Rowing Union squad system.MethodsThe rowers were interviewed monthly, and data were collected regarding their training and competition exposure as well as

F Wilson; C Gissane; J Gormley; C Simms

2010-01-01

437

Olive oil consumption and weight change: The SUN prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this dynamic prospective follow-up study was to assess the association between olive oil consumption and the likelihood\\u000a of weight gain or the incidence of overweight or obesity in a large Mediterranean cohort of 7,368 male and female Spanish\\u000a university graduates (the SUN Project) who were followed for a median period of 28.5 mon. A validated Food Frequency

M. Bes-Rastrollo; A. Sánchez-Villegas; C. de la Fuente; J. de Irala; J. A. Martínez; M. A. Martínez-González

2006-01-01

438

Antidepressant use and risk of adverse outcomes in older people: population based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objectives To investigate the association between antidepressant treatment and risk of several potential adverse outcomes in older people with depression and to examine risks by class of antidepressant, duration of use, and dose.Design Cohort study of people aged 65 and over diagnosed as having depression.Setting 570 general practices in the United Kingdom supplying data to the QResearch primary care database.Participants

Carol Coupland; Paula Dhiman; Richard Morriss; Antony Arthur; Garry Barton; Julia Hippisley-Cox

2011-01-01

439

Maternal and paternal contribution to intergenerational recurrence of breech delivery: population based cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To investigate intergenerational recurrence of breech delivery, with a hypothesis that both women and men delivered in breech presentation contribute to increased risk of breech delivery in their offspring.Design Population based cohort study for two generations.Setting Data from the medical birth registry of Norway, based on all births in Norway 1967-2004 (2.2 million births).Participants Generational data were provided through

Tone Irene Nordtveit; Kari Klungsoyr Melve; Susanne Albrechtsen; Rolv Skjaerven

2008-01-01

440

Worksite musculoskeletal pain risk estimates by trained observers – a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Work-related musculoskeletal pain (MSP) risk assessments by trained observers are often used in ergonomic practice; however, the validity may be questionable. We investigated the predictive value of work-site MSP risk estimates in a prospective cohort study of 1745 workers. Trained observers estimated the risk of MSP (neck, shoulder or low-back pain) using a three-point scale (high, moderate and low risk)

Pieter Coenen; Idsart Kingma; Cécile R. L. Boot; Marjolein Douwes; Paulien M. Bongers; Jaap H. van Dieën

2012-01-01

441

Smoking as a risk factor for accident death: a meta-analysis of cohort studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This meta-analysis discusses the consistency, strength, dose-response, independence, and generalizability of published cohort data on accident death relative risks in smokers. To locate data, three authors independently searched MEDLINE, and bibliographies of the pertinent studies found, for data which allowed estimation of an appropriate cigarette smoker accident death relative risk (and 95% confidence interval). Relative risks and dose-response were summarized

Bruce N. Leistikow; Daniel C. Martin; Jeffrey Jacobs; David M. Rocke; Kyle Noderer

2000-01-01

442

Smoking as a Risk Factor for Injury Death: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background.Injury and tobacco effects represent one-quarter of the global burden of disease. Understanding the causes of injury and the effects of smoking may help reduce those burdens. Some smokers have high risks of injury. We provide an initial meta-analysis of cohort associations between smoking and fatal injury.Methods.Three authors independently searched MEDLINE, and bibliographies of the pertinent studies found, for cigarette

Bruce N. Leistikow; Daniel C. Martin; Jeffrey Jacobs; David M. Rocke

1998-01-01

443

Combined antiretroviral treatment and heterosexual transmission of HIV1: cross sectional and prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To estimate the risk and probability of heterosexual transmission of HIV-1 from infected people taking combined antiretroviral treatment.Design Cross sectional and prospective cohort studies.Setting HIV clinic in Madrid, Spain.Participants Stable heterosexual couples with one partner with HIV-1 infection (index partner) and the other reporting this sexual relationship as the only risk exposure.Main outcome measures HIV seroprevalence in non-index partners

Jorge Del Romero; Jesús Castilla; Victoria Hernando; Carmen Rodríguez; Soledad García

2010-01-01

444

Prognosis and prognostic factors of retinal infarction: a prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE--To determine the prognosis and adverse prognostic factors in patients with retinal infarction due to presumed atheromatous thromboembolism or cardiogenic embolism. DESIGN--Prospective cohort study. SETTING--University hospital departments of clinical neurology. PATIENTS--99 patients with retinal infarction, without prior stroke, referred to a single neurologist between 1976 and 1986 and evaluated and followed up prospectively until death or the end of 1986

G J Hankey; J M Slattery; C P Warlow

1991-01-01

445

Fundoplication and the Risk of Esophageal Cancer in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: A Veterans Affairs Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:It has been proposed that fundoplication can reduce the risk of esophageal cancer in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). In this cohort study, we assessed the effect of fundoplication on the incidence of esophageal cancer.METHODS:We identified all Veterans Affairs (VA) patients with GERD who had fundoplication between 1986 and 1990 and matched (1–2) to controls with GERD

Thomas Tran; Stuart J. Spechler; Peter Richardson; Hashem B. El-Serag

2005-01-01

446

Long-Term Mortality in Patients Diagnosed with Meningococcal Disease: A Danish Nationwide Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundIn contrast to the case fatality rate of patients diagnosed with meningococcal disease (MD) the long-term mortality in these patients is poorly documented.Methodology\\/Principal FindingsWe performed a nationwide, population-based cohort study including all Danish patients diagnosed with MD from 1977 through 2006 and alive one year after diagnosis. Data was retrieved from the Danish National Hospital Register, the Danish Civil Registration

Casper Roed; Lars Haukali Omland; Frederik Neess Engsig; Peter Skinhoj; Niels Obel; Lisa F. P. Ng

2010-01-01

447

Iodine intake in a population of pregnant women: INMA mother and child cohort study, Spain  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundMonitoring iodine status during pregnancy is essential to prevent iodine-related disorders. The objectives of this study are to estimate iodine intake and excretion, to assess their association and to evaluate the compliance of the recommendations in a multicentre cohort of pregnant women.MethodsCross-sectional data on maternal iodine nutritional status, compiled between weeks 8 and 22 of gestation in three Spanish areas

M. Murcia; M. Rebagliato; M. Espada; J. Vioque; L. Santa Marina; M. Alvarez-Pedrerol; M.-J. Lopez-Espinosa; G. Leon; C Íñiguez; M. Basterrechea; M. Guxens; A. Lertxundi; A. Perales; F. Ballester; J. Sunyer

2009-01-01

448

Suspected Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Mortality Risk in a Population-Based Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

OBJECTIVE:Case series suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The current study compared the survival of subjects with and without suspected NAFLD in a population-based cohort, and placed the finding in the context of previously published case series.METHODS:Primary analysis assessed mortality for NHANES-III participants with and without suspected NAFLD using the National

Winston Dunn; Ronghui Xu; Deborah L. Wingard; Christopher Rogers; Paul Angulo; Zobair M. Younossi; Jeffrey B. Schwimmer

2008-01-01

449

Soft tissue sarcoma and tobacco use: data from a prospective cohort study of United States veterans  

Microsoft Academic Search

A report of an increased risk of soft tissue sarcoma (STS) among users of smokeless tobacco led us to evaluate this association and the role of other types of tobacco in a prospective cohort mortality-study of United States veterans. A total of 248,046 veterans provided tobacco-use histories on a mail questionnaire in 1954 or 1957. Data on subsequent tobacco use

Shelia Hoar Zahm; Ellen F. Heineman; Jimmie B. Vaught

1992-01-01

450

Magnesium intake and colorectal cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy-adjusted magnesium intake was nonsignificantly inversely related to risk of colorectal cancer (n=2328) in the Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer that started in 1986 (n=58 279 men and 62 573 women). Statistically significant inverse trends in risk were observed in overweight subjects for colon and proximal colon cancer across increasing quintiles of magnesium uptake (P-trend, 0.05 and 0.02,

P A van den Brandt; K. M. Smits; R. A. Goldbohm; M. P. Weijenberg; PA van den Brandt

2007-01-01

451

Animal products, calcium and protein and prostate cancer risk in the Netherlands Cohort Study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Prostate cancer risk in relation to consumption of animal products, and intake of calcium and protein was investigated in the Netherlands Cohort Study. At baseline in 1986, 58 279 men aged 55–69 years completed a self-administered 150-item food frequency questionnaire and a questionnaire on other risk factors for cancer. After 6.3 years of follow-up, 642 prostate cancer cases were available

A G Schuurman; P A van den Brandt; E Dorant; R A Goldbohm

1999-01-01

452

Analysis of 13 32P-DNA Postlabeling Studies on Occupational Cohorts Exposed to Air Pollution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Industrial and urban workers may be exposed to significant levels of air pollutants resulting from the incomplete combustion of organic matter. The authors performed a meta-analysis of 13 DNA-adduct studies ( 32 P-DNA postlabeling technique) on occupational cohorts exposed to air pollution. The association between levels of DNA adducts and air pollution exposure was significant both in heavily exposed industrial

M. Peluso; M. Ceppi; A. Munnia; R. Puntoni; S. Parodi

2001-01-01

453

Alarm symptoms and identification of non-cancer diagnoses in primary care: cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the predictive value of alarm symptoms for specified non-cancer diagnoses and cancer diagnoses in primary care.Design Cohort study using the general practice research database.Setting 128 general practices in the UK contributing data, 1994-2000.Participants 762 325 patients aged 15 or older.Main outcome measures Up to 15 pre-specified, non-cancer diagnoses associated with four alarm symptoms (haematuria, haemoptysis, dysphagia, rectal

Roger Jones; Judith Charlton; Radoslav Latinovic; Martin C Gulliford

2009-01-01

454

Performance evaluation of a new rapid urine test for chlamydia in men: prospective cohort study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To evaluate the performance of a rapid test for chlamydia with first void male urine samples as a potential tool for diagnosis and screening of chlamydial infection in men.Design Evaluation of test performance in prospective cohort study.Settings A young people’s sexual health centre (site 1) and a genitourinary medicine clinic (site 2) in the United Kingdom.Participants 1211 men aged

Elpidio-Cesar Nadala; Beng T Goh; Jose-Paolo Magbanua; Penelope Barber; Alison Swain; Sarah Alexander; Vivian Laitila; Claude-Edouard Michel; Lourdes Mahilum-Tapay; Ines Ushiro-Lumb; Catherine Ison; Helen H Lee

2009-01-01

455

A retrospective cohort study of leukemia and other cancers in benzene workers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A retrospective cohort study was carried out in 1982-1983 among 28,460 benzene-exposed workers (15,643 males, 12,817 females) from 233 factories and 28,257 control workers (16,621 males, 12,366 females) from 83 factories in 12 large cities in China. All-cause mortality was significantly higher among the exposed than among the unexposed, as was mortality from all malignant neoplasms. For certain cancers, increased

Z. I. Fu; C. Jin; Y. J. Chen; S. J. Luo; P. Z. Ye; J. Z. Zhang; G. C. Wang; X. C. Zhang; H. N. Wu; Q. C. Zhong

1989-01-01

456

Childhood Family Correlates of Heterosexual and Homosexual Marriages: A National Cohort Study of Two Million Danes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children who experience parental divorce are less likely to marry heterosexually than those growing up in intact families; however, little is known about other childhood factors affecting marital choices. We studied childhood correlates of f