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Sample records for amyloid beta peptides

  1. Amyloid beta peptide immunotherapy in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. PMID:25459121

  2. RAGE and amyloid-beta peptide neurotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yan, S D; Chen, X; Fu, J; Chen, M; Zhu, H; Roher, A; Slattery, T; Zhao, L; Nagashima, M; Morser, J; Migheli, A; Nawroth, P; Stern, D; Schmidt, A M

    1996-08-22

    Amyloid-beta peptide is central to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, because it is neurotoxic--directly by inducing oxidant stress, and indirectly by activating microglia. A specific cell-surface acceptor site that could focus its effects on target cells has been postulated but not identified. Here we present evidence that the 'receptor for advanced glycation end products' (RAGE) is such a receptor, and that it mediates effects of the peptide on neurons and microglia. Increased expressing of RAGE in Alzheimer's disease brain indicates that it is relevant to the pathogenesis of neuronal dysfunction and death. PMID:8751438

  3. PARP-1 modulates amyloid beta peptide-induced neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25-35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25-35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25-35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25-35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25-35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25-35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  4. PARP-1 Modulates Amyloid Beta Peptide-Induced Neuronal Damage

    PubMed Central

    Martire, Sara; Fuso, Andrea; Rotili, Dante; Tempera, Italo; Giordano, Cesare; De Zottis, Ivana; Muzi, Alessia; Vernole, Patrizia; Graziani, Grazia; Lococo, Emanuela; Faraldi, Martina; Maras, Bruno; Scarpa, Sigfrido; Mosca, Luciana; d'Erme, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) causes neurodegeneration by several mechanisms including oxidative stress, which is known to induce DNA damage with the consequent activation of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP-1). To elucidate the role of PARP-1 in the neurodegenerative process, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were treated with Aβ25–35 fragment in the presence or absence of MC2050, a new PARP-1 inhibitor. Aβ25–35 induces an enhancement of PARP activity which is prevented by cell pre-treatment with MC2050. These data were confirmed by measuring PARP-1 activity in CHO cells transfected with amylod precursor protein and in vivo in brains specimens of TgCRND8 transgenic mice overproducing the amyloid peptide. Following Aβ25–35 exposure a significant increase in intracellular ROS was observed. These data were supported by the finding that Aβ25–35 induces DNA damage which in turn activates PARP-1. Challenge with Aβ25–35 is also able to activate NF-kB via PARP-1, as demonstrated by NF-kB impairment upon MC2050 treatment. Moreover, Aβ25–35 via PARP-1 induces a significant increase in the p53 protein level and a parallel decrease in the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. These overall data support the hypothesis of PARP-1 involvment in cellular responses induced by Aβ and hence a possible rationale for the implication of PARP-1 in neurodegeneration is discussed. PMID:24086258

  5. Tau/Amyloid Beta 42 Peptide Test (Alzheimer Biomarkers)

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Alzheimer Biomarkers Formal name: Tau Protein and Amyloid Beta ... supplemental tests to help establish a diagnosis of Alzheimer disease and to distinguish between AD and other ...

  6. Inhibition of aggregation of amyloid peptides by beta-sheet breaker peptides and their binding affinity.

    PubMed

    Viet, Man Hoang; Ngo, Son Tung; Lam, Nguyen Sy; Li, Mai Suan

    2011-06-01

    The effects of beta-sheet breaker peptides KLVFF and LPFFD on the oligomerization of amyloid peptides were studied by all-atom simulations. It was found that LPFFD interferes the aggregation of Aβ(16-22) peptides to a greater extent than does KLVFF. Using the molecular mechanics-Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MM-PBSA) method, we found that the former binds more strongly to Aβ(16-22). Therefore, by simulations, we have clarified the relationship between aggregation rates and binding affinity: the stronger the ligand binding, the slower the oligomerization process. The binding affinity of pentapeptides to full-length peptide Aβ(1-40) and its mature fibrils has been considered using the Autodock and MM-PBSA methods. The hydrophobic interaction between ligands and receptors plays a more important role for association than does hydrogen bonding. The influence of beta-sheet breaker peptides on the secondary structures of monomer Aβ(1-40) was studied in detail, and it turns out that, in their presence, the total beta-sheet content can be enhanced. However, the aggregation can be slowed because the beta-content is reduced in fibril-prone regions. Both pentapeptides strongly bind to monomer Aβ(1-40), as well as to mature fibrils, but KLVFF displays a lower binding affinity than LPFFD. Our findings are in accord with earlier experiments that both of these peptides can serve as prominent inhibitors. In addition, we predict that LPFFD inhibits/degrades the fibrillogenesis of full-length amyloid peptides better than KLVFF. This is probably related to a difference in their total hydrophobicities in that the higher the hydrophobicity, the lower the inhibitory capacity. The GROMOS96 43a1 force field with explicit water and the force field proposed by Morris et al. (Morris et al. J. Comput. Chem. 1998, 19, 1639 ) were employed for all-atom molecular dynamics simulations and Autodock experiments, respectively. PMID:21563780

  7. Conversion of non-fibrillar {beta}-sheet oligomers into amyloid fibrils in Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Benseny-Cases, Nuria; Cocera, Mercedes; Cladera, Josep

    2007-10-05

    A{beta}(1-40) is one of the main components of the fibrils found in amyloid plaques, a hallmark of brains affected by Alzheimer's disease. It is known that prior to the formation of amyloid fibrils in which the peptide adopts a well-ordered intermolecular {beta}-sheet structure, peptide monomers associate forming low and high molecular weight oligomers. These oligomers have been previously described in electron microscopy, AFM, and exclusion chromatography studies. Their specific secondary structures however, have not yet been well established. A major problem when comparing aggregation and secondary structure determinations in concentration-dependent processes such as amyloid aggregation is the different concentration range required in each type of experiment. In the present study we used the dye Thioflavin T (ThT), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and electron microscopy in order to structurally characterize the different aggregated species which form during the A{beta}(1-40) fibril formation process. A unique sample containing 90 {mu}M peptide was used. The results show that oligomeric species which form during the lag phase of the aggregation kinetics are a mixture of unordered, helical, and intermolecular non-fibrillar {beta}-structures. The number of oligomers and the amount of non-fibrillar {beta}-structures grows throughout the lag phase and during the elongation phase these non-fibrillar {beta}-structures are transformed into fibrillar (amyloid) {beta}-structures, formed by association of high molecular weight intermediates.

  8. Amyloid-beta peptide binds to microtubule-associated protein 1B (MAP1B).

    PubMed

    Gevorkian, Goar; Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso; Acero, Gonzalo; Ordoñez, Jorge; Michalak, Colette; Munguia, Maria Elena; Govezensky, Tzipe; Cribbs, David H; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2008-05-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal formation of amyloid-beta aggregates have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of targets have deleterious effects on cellular functions. In the present study we have shown for the first time that amyloid-beta 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the microtubule binding domain of the heavy chain of microtubule-associated protein 1B by the screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage. This interaction may explain, in part, the loss of neuronal cytoskeletal integrity, impairment of microtubule-dependent transport and synaptic dysfunction observed previously in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18079022

  9. Membrane Pore Formation by Amyloid beta (25-35) Peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Nabin; Tatulian, Suren

    Amyloid (A β) peptide contributes to Alzheimer's disease by a yet unidentified mechanism. One of the possible mechanisms of A β toxicity is formation of pores in cellular membranes. We have characterized the formation of pores in phospholipid membranes by the Aβ25 - 35 peptide (GSNKGAIIGLM) using fluorescence, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and circular dichroism (CD) techniques. CD and FTIR identified formation of β-sheet structure upon incubation of the peptide in aqueous buffer for 2 hours. Unilamellar vesicles composed of a zwitterionic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylcholine (POPC), and 70 % POPC plus 30 % of an acidic lipid, 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol (POPG), are made in 30 mM CaCl2. Quin-2, a fluorophore that displays increased fluorescence upon Ca2+ binding, is added to the vesicles externally. Peptide addition results in increased Quin-2 fluorescence, which is interpreted by binding of the peptide to the vesicles, pore formation, and Ca2+ leakage. The positive and negative control measurements involve addition of a detergent, Triton X-100, which causes vesicle rupture and release of total calcium, and blank buffer, respectively.

  10. Amyloid Beta Mediates Memory Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Osta, Ana; Alberini, Cristina M.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid precursor protein (APP) undergoes sequential cleavages to generate various polypeptides, including the amyloid [beta] (1-42) peptide (A[beta][1-42]), which is believed to play a major role in amyloid plaque formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we provide evidence that, in contrast with its pathological role when accumulated,…

  11. Lipid rafts participate in aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta peptide in Alzheimer's disease

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Yang, Chun; Liu, Yufeng; Li, Peng; Yang, Huiying; Dai, Jingxing; Qu, Rongmei; Yuan, Lin

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide is the main component of amyloid plaques, which are found in Alzheimer's disease. The generation and deposition of amyloid-beta is one of the crucial factors for the onset and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Lipid rafts are glycolipid-rich liquid domains of the plasma membrane, where certain types of protein tend to aggregate and intercalate. Lipid rafts are involved in the generation of amyloid-beta oligomers and the formation of amyloid-beta peptides. In this paper, we review the mechanism by which lipid rafts disturb the aberrant degradative autophagic-lysosomal pathway of amyloid-beta, which plays an important role in the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease. Moreover, we describe this mechanism from the view of the Two-system Theory of fasciology and thus, suggest that lipid rafts may be a new target of Alzheimer's disease treatment. PMID:25206748

  12. Effect of acid predissolution on fibril size and fibril flexibility of synthetic beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, C L; Fitzgerald, M C; Murphy, R M

    1994-01-01

    beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) is the major protein component of senile plaques and cerebrovascular amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's patients. Several researchers have demonstrated that A beta is neurotoxic in in vitro and in vivo systems. Peptide aggregation state and/or conformation might play a significant role in determining the toxicity of the peptide. The size and flexibility of fibrils formed from the synthetic peptide beta (1-39), corresponding to the first 39 residues of A beta, were determined. Samples were prepared either directly from lyophilized peptide or diluted from a 10 mg/ml stock solution in 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). All samples had a final peptide concentration of 0.5 mg/ml, a final pH of 7.4, and a final NaCl concentration of 0.14 M. The molecular weight and linear density of the fibrils increased with increasing pre-incubation time in TFA, based on static light scattering measurements. Analysis of the angular dependence of the intensity of scattered light indicated that the fibrils were semi-flexible chains and that the fibril flexibility decreased with increasing pre-incubation time in TFA. There was a concomitant change in phase behavior from precipitation to gelation with the decrease in fibril flexibility. Images FIGURE 3 PMID:7811938

  13. High levels of circulating beta-amyloid peptide do not cause cerebral beta-amyloidosis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Fukuchi, K.; Ho, L.; Younkin, S. G.; Kunkel, D. D.; Ogburn, C. E.; LeBoeuf, R. C.; Furlong, C. E.; Deeb, S. S.; Nochlin, D.; Wegiel, J.; Wisniewski, H. M.; Martin, G. M.

    1996-01-01

    We have established transgenic mice that constitutively overproduce the signal sequence and the 99-amino-acid carboxyl-terminal region of the human beta-amyloid precursor protein. The transgenic mice strongly expressed the transgene in multiple tissues under the control of a cytomegalovirus enhancer/chick beta-actin promoter. There were exceptionally high levels of beta-amyloid peptides in the plasma (approximately 17 times or more compared with the human plasma level). Although some transgenic mice from one founder line developed amyloidosis in the intestine, no neuropathology was found in transgenic mice up to age 29 months. Given the absence of cerebral beta-amyloidosis despite extremely high levels of circulating beta-amyloid peptides in the transgenic mice, the results suggest that local cerebral metabolism of beta-amyloid precursor protein may play a predominant role in cerebral beta-amyloidosis in transgenic mice. Such transgenic mice may be useful for the investigation of the etiology of the disease and for the establishment of therapeutic strategies. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:8686746

  14. Competitive Mirror Image Phage Display Derived Peptide Modulates Amyloid Beta Aggregation and Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Stephan; Klein, Antonia Nicole; Tusche, Markus; Schlosser, Christine; Elfgen, Anne; Brener, Oleksandr; Teunissen, Charlotte; Gremer, Lothar; Funke, Susanne Aileen; Kutzsche, Janine; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer´s disease is the most prominent type of dementia and currently no causative treatment is available. According to recent studies, oligomeric species of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide appear to be the most toxic Aβ assemblies. Aβ monomers, however, may be not toxic per se and may even have a neuroprotective role. Here we describe a competitive mirror image phage display procedure that allowed us to identify preferentially Aβ1–42 monomer binding and thereby stabilizing peptides, which destabilize and thereby eliminate toxic oligomer species. One of the peptides, called Mosd1 (monomer specific d-peptide 1), was characterized in more detail. Mosd1 abolished oligomers from a mixture of Aβ1–42 species, reduced Aβ1–42 toxicity in cell culture, and restored the physiological phenotype in neuronal cells stably transfected with the gene coding for human amyloid precursor protein. PMID:26840229

  15. Cytosolic amyloid-{beta} peptide 42 escaping from degradation induces cell death

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Eun Kyung; Park, Yong Wook; Shin, Dong Yeon; Mook-Jung, Inhee; Yoo, Yung Joon . E-mail: yjyoo@gist.ac.kr

    2006-06-02

    Accumulating evidence suggests that intracellular amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide triggers the early pathological events in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, little is known about the consequence of cytosolic A{beta}. In this study, we ectopically expressed A{beta}42 in the cytoplasm of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells by expressing a fusion protein of GFP-tagged ubiquitin and A{beta}42 (GFPUb-A{beta}42). Although GFPUb and A{beta}42 are stochastically produced with the same molar ratio in the cytoplasm, A{beta}42 was completely degraded in more than 50% of the GFPUb-expressing cells. However, if A{beta}42 was not degraded in their cytoplasm, then A{beta}42-expressing cells underwent apoptosis. The number of A{beta}42-expressing cells is significantly increased by the inhibition of proteasome with MG132. Cytosolic A{beta}42 which has escaped degradation inhibits proteasome and thereby may accelerate the accumulation of A{beta}42 and its detrimental effects. Our findings suggest that cells have the potential to degrade A{beta}42 in their cytoplasm but if A{beta}42 appears in the cytoplasm due to its incomplete degradation, it accumulates and may trigger the fatal cascade of pathology of AD.

  16. Cross-beta order and diversity in nanocrystals of an amyloid-forming peptide.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Avalos, Ruben; Long, Chris; Fontano, Eric; Balbirnie, Melinda; Grothe, Robert; Eisenberg, David; Caspar, Donald L D

    2003-07-25

    The seven-residue peptide GNNQQNY from the N-terminal region of the yeast prion protein Sup35, which forms amyloid fibers, colloidal aggregates and highly ordered nanocrystals, provides a model system for characterizing the elusively protean cross-beta conformation. Depending on preparative conditions, orthorhombic and monoclinic crystals with similar lath-shaped morphology have been obtained. Ultra high-resolution (<0.5A spacing) electron diffraction patterns from single nanocrystals show that the peptide chains pack in parallel cross-beta columns with approximately 4.86A axial spacing. Mosaic striations 20-50 nm wide observed by electron microscopy indicate lateral size-limiting crystal growth related to amyloid fiber formation. Frequently obtained orthorhombic forms, with apparent space group symmetry P2(1)2(1)2(1), have cell dimensions ranging from /a/=22.7-21.2A, /b/=39.9-39.3A, /c/=4.89-4.86A for wet to dried states. Electron diffraction data from single nanocrystals, recorded in tilt series of still frames, have been mapped in reciprocal space. However, reliable integrated intensities cannot be obtained from these series, and dynamical electron diffraction effects present problems in data analysis. The diversity of ordered structures formed under similar conditions has made it difficult to obtain reproducible X-ray diffraction data from powder specimens; and overlapping Bragg reflections in the powder patterns preclude separated structure factor measurements for these data. Model protofilaments, consisting of tightly paired, half-staggered beta strands related by a screw axis, can be fit in the crystal lattices, but model refinement will require accurate structure factor measurements. Nearly anhydrous packing of this hydrophilic peptide can account for the insolubility of the crystals, since the activation energy for rehydration may be extremely high. Water-excluding packing of paired cross-beta peptide segments in thin protofilaments may be characteristic

  17. Amyloid beta-peptide and oxidative cellular injury in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Mattson, M P

    1996-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects primarily learning and memory functions. There is significant neuronal loss and impairment of metabolic functioning in the temporal lobe, an area believed to be crucial for learning and memory tasks. Aggregated deposits of amyloid beta-peptide may have a causative role in the development and progression of AD. We review the cellular actions of A beta and how they can contribute to the cytotoxicity observed in AD. A beta causes plasma membrane lipid peroxidation, impairment of ion-motive ATPases, glutamate uptake, uncoupling of a G-protein linked receptor, and generation of reactive oxygen species. These effects contribute to the loss of intracellular calcium homeostasis reported in cultured neurons. Many cell types other than neurons show alterations in the Alzheimer's brain. The effects of A beta on these cell types is also reviewed. PMID:8884749

  18. Measurement of beta-amyloid peptides in specific cells using a photo thin-film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang-Beom; Chae, Cheol-Joo; Shin, Hye-Rim; Song, Ki-Bong

    2012-01-01

    The existence of beta-amyloid [Aβ] peptides in the brain has been regarded as the most archetypal biomarker of Alzheimer's disease [AD]. Recently, an early clinical diagnosis has been considered a great importance in identifying people who are at high risk of AD. However, no microscale electronic sensing devices for the detection of Aβ peptides have been developed yet. In this study, we propose an effective method to evaluate a small quantity of Aβ peptides labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate [FITC] using a photosensitive field-effect transistor [p-FET] with an on-chip single-layer optical filter. To accurately evaluate the quantity of Aβ peptides within the cells cultured on the p-FET device, we measured the photocurrents which resulted from the FITC-conjugated Aβ peptides expressed from the cells and measured the number of photons of the fluorochrome in the cells using a photomultiplier tube. Thus, we evaluated the correlation between the generated photocurrents and the number of emitted photons. We also evaluated the correlation between the number of emitted photons and the amount of FITC by measuring the FITC volume using AFM. Finally, we estimated the quantity of Aβ peptides of the cells placed on the p-FET sensing area on the basis of the binding ratio between FITC molecules and Aβ peptides.

  19. Induced expression of neuronal membrane attack complex and cell death by Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Shen, Y; Sullivan, T; Lee, C M; Meri, S; Shiosaki, K; Lin, C W

    1998-06-15

    beta-amyloid peptide (A beta) and complement-derived membrane attack complex (MAC) are co-localized in senile plaques of brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. But the relationship between A beta and complement activation is unclear. We have used human neurotypic cells, differentiated SH-SY5Y, as a model system to examine regulation of neuronal MAC expression and cell death by A beta. We demonstrated that mRNAs (C1q, C2, C3, C4, C5, C6, C7, C8 and C9) and proteins (C1q, C3 and C9) for the major components of the classical complement cascade are present in the SH-SY5Y neurotypic cells, indicating that neuronal cells can synthesize the necessary proteins required for MAC formation. Furthermore, immunocytochemical studies showed the A beta-induced neuronal MAC expression on the SH-SY5Y cells after CD59 was removed by PIPLC or blocked by anti-CD59 antibody. Meanwhile, increased A beta-induced neuronal cell death was observed following treatment with anti-CD59. Taken together, these results suggest that A beta activates neuronal complement cascade to induce MAC, and a deficiency of endogenous complement regulatory proteins, e.g., CD59, may increase the vulnerability of neurons to complement-mediated cytotoxicity. PMID:9689469

  20. Pulsed hydrogen–deuterium exchange mass spectrometry probes conformational changes in amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Rempel, Don L.; Zhang, Jun; Sharma, Anuj K.; Mirica, Liviu M.; Gross, Michael L.

    2013-01-01

    Probing the conformational changes of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation is challenging owing to the vast heterogeneity of the resulting soluble aggregates. To investigate the formation of these aggregates in solution, we designed an MS-based biophysical approach and applied it to the formation of soluble aggregates of the Aβ42 peptide, the proposed causative agent in Alzheimer’s disease. The approach incorporates pulsed hydrogen–deuterium exchange coupled with MS analysis. The combined approach provides evidence for a self-catalyzed aggregation with a lag phase, as observed previously by fluorescence methods. Unlike those approaches, pulsed hydrogen–deuterium exchange does not require modified Aβ42 (e.g., labeling with a fluorophore). Furthermore, the approach reveals that the center region of Aβ42 is first to aggregate, followed by the C and N termini. We also found that the lag phase in the aggregation of soluble species is affected by temperature and Cu2+ ions. This MS approach has sufficient structural resolution to allow interrogation of Aβ aggregation in physiologically relevant environments. This platform should be generally useful for investigating the aggregation of other amyloid-forming proteins and neurotoxic soluble peptide aggregates. PMID:23959898

  1. Beta-amyloid peptides undergo regulated co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters.

    PubMed

    Toneff, Thomas; Funkelstein, Lydiane; Mosier, Charles; Abagyan, Armen; Ziegler, Michael; Hook, Vivian

    2013-08-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides are secreted from neurons, resulting in extracellular accumulation of Aβ and neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Because neuronal secretion is fundamental for the release of neurotransmitters, this study assessed the hypothesis that Aβ undergoes co-release with neurotransmitters. Model neuronal-like chromaffin cells were investigated, and results illustrate regulated, co-secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with peptide neurotransmitters (galanin, enkephalin, and NPY) and catecholamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, norepinephrine, and epinephrine). Regulated secretion from chromaffin cells was stimulated by KCl depolarization and nicotine. Forskolin, stimulating cAMP, also induced co-secretion of Aβ peptides with peptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters. These data suggested the co-localization of Aβ with neurotransmitters in dense core secretory vesicles (DCSV) that store and secrete such chemical messengers. Indeed, Aβ was demonstrated to be present in DCSV with neuropeptide and catecholamine transmitters. Furthermore, the DCSV organelle contains APP and its processing proteases, β- and γ-secretases, that are necessary for production of Aβ. Thus, Aβ can be generated in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV. Human IMR32 neuroblastoma cells also displayed regulated secretion of Aβ(1-40) and Aβ(1-42) with the galanin neurotransmitter. These findings illustrate that Aβ peptides are present in neurotransmitter-containing DCSV, and undergo co-secretion with neuropeptide and catecholamine neurotransmitters that regulate brain functions. PMID:23747840

  2. Isoflurane and desflurane at clinically relevant concentrations induce amyloid {beta}-peptide oligomerization: An NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Mandal, Pravat K Fodale, Vincenzo

    2009-02-13

    Current understanding on Alzheimer's disease (AD) reveals that soluble amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) oligomeric formation plays an important role in AD pathophysiology. A potential role for several inhaled anesthetics in promoting A{beta} oligomer formation has been suggested. Using a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) study, we previously demonstrated that at a high concentration (higher than clinically relevant concentrations), the inhaled anesthetics halothane and isoflurane, interact with specific amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31) and induce A{beta} oligomerization. The present study confirms this is true at a clinically relevant concentration. Isoflurane and desflurane induce A{beta} oligomerization by inducing chemical shift changes of the critical amino acid residues (G29, A30, and I31), reinforcing the evidence that perturbation of these three crucial residues indeed plays an important role in oligomerization. These findings support the emerging hypothesis that several commonly used inhaled anesthetics could be involved in neurodegeneration, as well as risk factor for accelerating the onset of AD.

  3. Anticonvulsants attenuate amyloid beta-peptide neurotoxicity, Ca2+ deregulation, and cytoskeletal pathology.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Ashford, J W; Goodman, Y; Mattson, M P

    1995-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the involvement of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) and an excitotoxic mechanism of neuronal injury in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. However, approaches aimed at preventing A beta toxicity and neurofibrillary degeneration are undeveloped. We now report that anticonvulsants (carbamazepine, phenytoin, and valproic acid) can protect cultured rat hippocampal neurons against A beta- and glutamate-induced injury. Each of the anticonvulsants attenuated the elevation of intracellular free calcium levels [(Ca2+)i] elicited by A beta or glutamate suggesting that their neuroprotective mechanism of action involved stabilization of [Ca2+]i. These compounds were effective at clinically relevant concentrations (carbamazepine, 100 nM-10 microM; phenytoin, 100 nM-1 microM; valproic acid, 100 nM-100 microM). The anticonvulsants suppressed glutamate-induced alterations in tau and buiquitin immunoreactivities. Compounds that stabilize [Ca2+]i may afford protection against the kinds of insults believed to underlie neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:7777136

  4. Shuttling protein nucleolin is a microglia receptor for amyloid beta peptide 1-42.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Koike, Masanori; Hirano, Kazuya; Miki, Yuichi; Beppu, Masatoshi

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ42) plays a key role in the neurotoxicity found in Alzheimer's disease. Mononuclear phagocytes in the brain (microglia), can potentially clear Aβ via phagocytosis. Recently, the shuttling-protein nucleolin has been shown to possess scavenger receptor-activity. Here, we investigated whether this receptor interacts specifically with Aβ type 1-42 and mediates its phagocytosis by microglia. While monomeric and fibril Aβ42 were phagocytosed by mouse microglial EOC2 cells, amyloid β peptide 1-40 (Aβ40) was only weakly phagocytosed. Surface plasmon-resonance analysis revealed that nucleolin strongly associates with Aβ42, but only weakly associates with Aβ40. Immunofluorescence staining of anti-nucleolin antibody revealed that EOC2 cells and rat primary microglia express nucleolin on their cell surfaces. Further, pretreating EOC2 cells with anti-nucleolin antibody, but not immunoglobulin G (IgG), inhibited phagocytosis of monomeric Aβ42 by microglia. Additionally, nucleolin-transfected HEK293 cells phagocytosed monomeric and fibril Aβ42 but not monomeric and fibril Aβ40. Moreover, AGRO, a nucleolin-specific oligonucleotide aptamer, inhibited phagocytosis of monomeric and fibril Aβ42, but not monomeric and fibril Aβ40. These results indicate that nucleolin is a receptor that allows microglia to recognize monomeric and fibril Aβ42. PMID:23912744

  5. Effect of graphene oxide on the conformational transitions of amyloid beta peptide: A molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Baweja, Lokesh; Balamurugan, Kanagasabai; Subramanian, Venkatesan; Dhawan, Alok

    2015-09-01

    The interactions between nanomaterials (NMs) and amyloid proteins are central to the nanotechnology-based diagnostics and therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Graphene oxide (GO) and its derivatives have shown to modulate the aggregation pattern of disease causing amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide. However, the mechanism is still not well understood. Using molecular dynamics simulations, the effect of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) having carbon:oxygen ratio of 4:1 and 10:1, respectively, on the conformational transitions (alpha-helix to beta-sheet) and the dynamics of the peptide was investigated. GO and rGO decreased the beta-strand propensity of amino acid residues in Aβ. The peptide displayed different modes of adsorption on GO and rGO. The adsorption on GO was dominated by electrostatic interactions, whereas on rGO, both van der Waals and electrostatic interactions contributed in the adsorption of the peptide. Our study revealed that the slight increase in the hydrophobic patches on rGO made it more effective inhibitor of conformational transitions in the peptide. Alpha helix-beta sheet transition in Aβ peptide could be one of the plausible mechanism by which graphene oxide may inhibit amyloid fibrillation. PMID:26275931

  6. Multi-layer Parallel Beta-Sheet Structure of Amyloid Beta peptide (1-40) aggregate observed by discrete molecular dynamics simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Shouyong; Urbanc, Brigita; Ding, Feng; Cruz, Luis; Buldyrev, Sergey; Dokholyan, Nikolay; Stanley, H. E.

    2003-03-01

    New evidence shows that oligomeric forms of Amyloid-Beta are potent neurotoxins that play a major role in neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's disease. Detailed knowledge of the structure and assembly dynamics of Amyloid-Beta is important for the development of new therapeutic strategies. Here we apply a two-atom model with Go interactions to model aggregation of Amyloid-Beta (1-40) peptides using the discrete molecular dynamics simulation. At temperatures above the transition temperature from an alpha-helical to random coil, we obtain two types of parallel beta-sheet structures, (a) a helical beta-sheet structure at a lower temperature and (b) a parallel beta-sheet structure at a higher temperature, both with inter-sheet distance of 10 A and with free edges which possibly enable further fibrillar elongation.

  7. Memantine treatment decreases levels of secreted Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP) and amyloid beta (A beta) peptide in the human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ray, Balmiki; Banerjee, Pradeep K; Greig, Nigel H; Lahiri, Debomoy K

    2010-02-01

    Memantine, an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, is a FDA-approved drug used for the treatment of moderate-to-severe Alzheimer's disease (AD). Several studies have documented protective roles of memantine against amyloid beta (A beta) peptide-mediated damage to neurons in both in vitro and in vivo models. Memantine is also effective in reducing amyloid burden in the brain of APP transgenic mice. However, the exact mechanism by which memantine provides protection against A beta-mediated neurodegenerative cascade, including APP metabolism, remains to be elucidated. Herein, we investigated the effect of memantine on levels of the secreted form of A beta precursor protein (APP), secreted A beta and cell viability markers under short/acute conditions. We treated neuronal SK-N-SH cells with 10 microM memantine and measured levels of secreted total APP (sAPP), APP alpha isoform and A beta((1-40)) in a time dependent manner for up to 24h. Memantine significantly decreased the levels of the secreted form of sAPP, sAPP alpha and A beta((1-40)) compared to vehicle treated cells. This change started as early as 8h and continued for up to 24h of drug treatment. Unlike sAPP, a slight non-significant increase in total intracellular APP level was observed in 24-h treated memantine cells. Taken together, these results suggest a role for memantine in the transport or trafficking of APP molecules away from the site of their proteolytic cleavage by the secretase enzymes. Such a novel property of memantine warrants further study to define its therapeutic utility. PMID:19948208

  8. Genistein, the Isoflavone in Soybean, Causes Amyloid Beta Peptide Accumulation in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line: Implications in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Gargi; Roy, Debashree; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2015-11-01

    The isoflavone, genistein, present in soybean is being actively investigated for its potential beneficial effect against Alzheimer's disease. Our data, however, show that in SHSY5Y cells genistein causes increased expression (mRNA and protein) of amyloid precursor protein (APP), increased mRNA expression and activity of β-secretase and diminished level of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) which also degrades amyloid beta peptide. These effects of genistein lead to enhanced accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ42) in SHSY5Y cells. The results do not support the view that genistein could be a putative drug against AD and instead strengthen the epidemiological study which implies that genistein content of soybean food product (Tofu) leads to cognitive impairment. PMID:26618047

  9. Designed amyloid beta peptide fibril - a tool for high-throughput screening of fibril inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Gunnar T; Ouberai, Myriam; Dumy, Pascal; Garcia, Julian

    2007-11-01

    Amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) fibril formation is widely believed to be the causative event of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Therapeutic approaches are therefore in development that target various sites in the production and aggregation of Abeta. Herein we present a high-throughput screening tool to generate novel hit compounds that block Abeta fibril formation. This tool is an application for our fibril model (Abeta(16-37)Y(20)K(22)K(24))(4), which is a covalent assembly of four Abeta fragments. With this tool, screening studies are complete within one hour, as opposed to days with native Abeta(1-40). A Z' factor of 0.84+/-0.03 was determined for fibril formation and inhibition, followed by the reporter molecule thioflavin T. Herein we also describe the analysis of a broad range of reported inhibitors and non-inhibitors of Abeta fibril formation to test the validity of the system. PMID:17876751

  10. Peripherally administered antibodies against amyloid beta-peptide enter the central nervous system and reduce pathology in a mouse model of Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Bard, F; Cannon, C; Barbour, R; Burke, R L; Games, D; Grajeda, H; Guido, T; Hu, K; Huang, J; Johnson-Wood, K; Khan, K; Kholodenko, D; Lee, M; Lieberburg, I; Motter, R; Nguyen, M; Soriano, F; Vasquez, N; Weiss, K; Welch, B; Seubert, P; Schenk, D; Yednock, T

    2000-08-01

    One hallmark of Alzheimer disease is the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptide in the brain and its deposition as plaques. Mice transgenic for an amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) mini-gene driven by a platelet-derived (PD) growth factor promoter (PDAPP mice), which overexpress one of the disease-linked mutant forms of the human amyloid precursor protein, show many of the pathological features of Alzheimer disease, including extensive deposition of extracellular amyloid plaques, astrocytosis and neuritic dystrophy. Active immunization of PDAPP mice with human amyloid beta-peptide reduces plaque burden and its associated pathologies. Several hypotheses have been proposed regarding the mechanism of this response. Here we report that peripheral administration of antibodies against amyloid beta-peptide, was sufficient to reduce amyloid burden. Despite their relatively modest serum levels, the passively administered antibodies were able to enter the central nervous system, decorate plaques and induce clearance of preexisting amyloid. When examined in an ex vivo assay with sections of PDAPP or Alzheimer disease brain tissue, antibodies against amyloid beta-peptide triggered microglial cells to clear plaques through Fc receptor-mediated phagocytosis and subsequent peptide degradation. These results indicate that antibodies can cross the blood-brain barrier to act directly in the central nervous system and should be considered as a therapeutic approach for the treatment of Alzheimer disease and other neurological disorders. PMID:10932230

  11. Surfaces modulate beta-amyloid peptide aggregation associated with Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yates, Elizabeth Anne

    A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, a late onset neurodegenerative disease, is the presence of neuritic amyloid plaques deposited within the brain composed of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide aggregates. Abeta can aggregate into a variety of polymorphic aggregate structures under different chemical environments, specifically affected by the presence of differing surfaces. There are several point mutations clustered around the central hydrophobic core of Abeta (E22G Arctic mutation, E22K Italian mutation, D23N Iowa mutation, and A21G Flemish mutation). These mutations are associated with hereditary diseases ranging from almost pure cerebral amyloid angiopathy to typical Alzheimer's disease pathology with both plaques and tangles. To determine how these different point mutations, which modify both peptide charge and hydrophobic character, altered Abeta aggregation and morphology under free solution conditions, at an anionic surface/liquid interface and in the presence of supported lipid bilayers, atomic force microscopy was used. Additionally, the non-native conformation of Abeta leads to the formation of nanoscale, toxic aggregates which have been shown to strongly interact with supported lipid bilayers, which may represent a key step in potential toxic mechanisms. Understanding how specific regions of Abeta regulate its aggregation in the absence and presence of surfaces can provide insight into the fundamental interaction of Abeta with cellular surfaces. Specific fragments of Abeta (Abeta1-11, Abeta 1-28, Abeta10-26, Abeta12-24, Abeta 16-22, Abeta22-35, and Abeta1-40), represent a variety of chemically unique regions along Abeta, i.e., the extracellular domain, the central hydrophobic core, and transmembrane domain. Using various scanning probe microscopic techniques, the interaction of these Abeta sequences with lipid membranes was shown to alter aggregate morphology and induce mechanical changes of lipid bilayers compared to aggregates formed under free solution

  12. Aloe arborescens Extract Protects IMR-32 Cells against Alzheimer Amyloid Beta Peptide via Inhibition of Radical Peroxide Production.

    PubMed

    Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Tringali, Giuseppe; Triggiani, Doriana; Giardina, Bruno

    2015-11-01

    Aloe arborescens is commonly used as a pharmaceutical ingredient for its effect in burn treatment and ability to increase skin wound healing properties. Besides, it is well known to have beneficial phytotherapeutic, anticancer, and radio-protective properties. In this study, we first provided evidence that A. arborescens extract protects IMR32, a neuroblastoma human cellular line, from toxicity induced by beta amyloid, the peptide responsible for Alzheimer's disease. In particular, pretreatment with A. arborescens maintains an elevated cell viability and exerts a protective effect on mitochondrial functionality, as evidenced by oxygen consumption experiments. The protective mechanism exerted by A. arborescens seems be related to lowering of oxidative potential of the cells, as demonstrated by the ROS measurement compared with the results obtained in the presence of amyloid beta (1-42) peptide alone. Based on these preliminary observations we suggest that use ofA. arborescens extract could be developed as agents for the management of AD. PMID:26749845

  13. Sex-dependent actions of amyloid beta peptides on hippocampal choline carriers of postnatal rats.

    PubMed

    Kristofiková, Z; Rícný, J; Kozmiková, I; Rípová, D; Zach, P; Klaschka, J

    2006-03-01

    It is suggested that amyloid beta peptides (Abeta) play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease but their physiological function is still unknown. However, low pM-nM concentrations mediate a hypofunction of a basal forebrain cholinergic system without marked signs of neurotoxicity. In this study, we compared in vitro effects of soluble nonaggregated human Abeta 1-40 and 1-42 either on synaptosomal hemicholinium-3 sensitive choline carriers or on membrane fluidity in hippocampi of male and female Wistar rats aged 7 and 14 days or 2-3 months. The results indicate age- and sex-dependent effects mediated by peptides at nM concentrations but no significant differences between both fragments. Namely, opposite actions were observed in 14-day (the increase in the choline uptake and membrane fluidity) when compared to 7-day old and adult males (the mild drops). Lineweaver-Burk plot analysis revealed that the enhancement of the high-affinity choline transport in 14-day old males occurs via alterations in K (M )and the change was accompanied by a mild increase in the specific binding of [3H]hemicholinium-3. On the other hand, no age-dependent differences were found in females. Rat Abeta 1-40 mediated similar effects on 14-day old rats as the corresponding human fragment. Moreover, higher levels of soluble peptides were detected in immature when compared to mature male brains by means of competitive ELISA. Our study indicates that Abeta could play a role in postnatal sexual differentiation of hippocampal cholinergic system. PMID:16733811

  14. Amyloid beta-peptide induces cell monolayer albumin permeability, impairs glucose transport, and induces apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Blanc, E M; Toborek, M; Mark, R J; Hennig, B; Mattson, M P

    1997-05-01

    Amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) is deposited as insoluble fibrils in the brain parenchyma and cerebral blood vessels in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In addition to neuronal degeneration, cerebral vascular alterations indicative of damage to vascular endothelial cells and disruption of the blood-brain barrier occur in AD. Here we report that A beta25-35 can impair regulatory functions of endothelial cells (ECs) from porcine pulmonary artery and induce their death. Subtoxic exposures to A beta25-35 induced albumin transfer across EC monolayers and impaired glucose transport into ECs. Cell death induced by A beta25-35 was of an apoptotic form, characterized by DNA condensation and fragmentation, and prevented by inhibitors of macromolecular synthesis and endonucleases. The effects of A beta25-35 were specific because A beta1-40 also induced apoptosis in ECs with the apoptotic cells localized to the microenvironment of A beta1-40 aggregates and because astrocytes did not undergo similar changes after exposure to A beta25-35. Damage and death of ECs induced by A beta25-35 were attenuated by antioxidants, a calcium channel blocker, and a chelator of intracellular calcium, indicating the involvement of free radicals and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. The data show that A beta induces increased permeability of EC monolayers to macromolecules, impairs glucose transport, and induces apoptosis. If similar mechanisms are operative in vivo, then A beta and other amyloidogenic peptides may be directly involved in vascular EC damage documented in AD and other disorders that involve vascular amyloid accumulation. PMID:9109512

  15. DCP-LA neutralizes mutant amyloid beta peptide-induced impairment of long-term potentiation and spatial learning.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Tetsu; Tomiyama, Takami; Tominaga, Takemi; Mori, Hiroshi; Yaguchi, Takahiro; Nishizaki, Tomoyuki

    2010-01-01

    Long-term potentiation (LTP) was monitored from the CA1 region of the intact rat hippocampus by delivering high frequency stimulation (HFS) to the Schaffer collateral commissural pathway. Intraventricular injection with mutant amyloid beta(1-42) peptide lacking glutamate-22 (Abeta(1-42)E22Delta), favoring oligomerization, 10 min prior to HFS, inhibited expression of LTP, with the potency more than wild-type amyloid beta(1-42) peptide. Intraperitoneal injection with the linoleic acid derivative 8-[2-(2-pentyl-cyclopropylmethyl)-cyclopropyl]-octanoic acid (DCP-LA) 70 min prior to HFS neutralized mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced LTP inhibition. In the water maze test, continuous intraventricular injection with mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide for 14 days prolonged the acquisition latency as compared with that for control, with the potency similar to wild-type Abeta(1-42) peptide, and intraperitoneal injection with DCP-LA shortened the prolonged latency to control levels. The results of the present study indicate that DCP-LA neutralizes mutant Abeta(1-42)E22Delta peptide-induced impairment of LTP and spatial learning. PMID:19716848

  16. Reductions in levels of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide after oral administration of ginsenosides.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feng; Eckman, Elizabeth A; Eckman, Christopher B

    2006-06-01

    For millennia, ginseng and some of its components have been used to treat a wide variety of medical conditions, including age-related memory impairment. Because of its purported effects and apparently low rate of side effects, ginseng remains one of the top selling natural product remedies in the United States. Given its potential role for improving age-related memory impairments and its common use in China for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease-like symptoms, we analyzed the effects of commercially available preparations of ginseng on the accumulation of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (Abeta) in a cell-based model system. In this model system, ginseng treatment resulted in a significant reduction in the levels of Abeta in the conditioned medium. We next examined the effects of several compounds isolated from ginseng and found that certain ginsenosides lowered Abeta concentration in a dose-dependent manner with ginsenoside Rg3 having an approximate IC50 of under 25 microM against Abeta42. Furthermore, we found that three of these isolated components, ginsenoside Rg1, Rg3, and RE, resulted in significant reductions in the amount of Abeta detected in the brains of animals after single oral doses of these agents. The results indicate that ginseng itself, or purified ginsenosides, may have similarly useful effects in human disease. PMID:16636099

  17. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-01-01

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  18. Calcium Channel Blockers, Progression to Dementia, and Effects on Amyloid Beta Peptide Production

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Mark A.; Abner, Erin; Kryscio, Richard; Xu, Liou; Fister, Shuling X.; Lynn, Bert C.

    2015-01-01

    Previous epidemiologic studies suggest that antihypertensive drugs may be protective against cognitive decline. To determine if subjects enrolled in the University of Kentucky longitudinal aging study who used antihypertensive drugs showed diminished progression to dementia, we used a 3-parameter logistic regression model to compare the rate of progression to dementia for subjects who used any of the five common categories of antihypertensive drugs to those with similar demographic characteristics but who did not use antihypertensives. Regression modeling showed that subjects who used calcium channel blockers (CCBs) but not the other classes of antihypertensives showed a significant decrease in the rate of progression to dementia. Significantly, use of CCBs ameliorated the negative effects of the presence of APOE-4 alleles on cognitive decline. To determine if CCBs could minimize amyloid beta peptide (Aβ1–42) production, H4 neuroglioma cultures transfected to overexpress APP were treated with various CCBs and Aβ1–42 levels and levels of proteins involved in Aβ production were quantified. Results show that treatment with nifedipine led to a significant decrease in levels of Aβ1–42, with no significant decrease in cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that use of CCBs significantly diminishes the rate of progression to dementia and may minimize formation of Aβ1–42. PMID:26221415

  19. Amyloid beta-peptide disrupts carbachol-induced muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Kelly, J F; Furukawa, K; Barger, S W; Rengen, M R; Mark, R J; Blanc, E M; Roth, G S; Mattson, M P

    1996-06-25

    Cholinergic pathways serve important functions in learning and memory processes, and deficits in cholinergic transmission occur in Alzheimer disease (AD). A subset of muscarinic cholinergic receptors are linked to G-proteins that activate phospholipase C, resulting in the liberation of inositol trisphosphate and Ca2+ release from intracellular stores. We now report that amyloid beta-peptide (Abeta), which forms plaques in the brain in AD, impairs muscarinic receptor activation of G proteins in cultured rat cortical neurons. Exposure of rodent fetal cortical neurons to Abeta25-35 and Abeta1-40 resulted in a concentration and time-dependent attenuation of carbachol-induced GTPase activity without affecting muscarinic receptor ligand binding parameters. Downstream events in the signal transduction cascade were similarly attenuated by Abeta. Carbachol-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates (IP, IP2, IP3, and IP4) was decreased and calcium imaging studies revealed that carbachol-induced release of calcium was severely impaired in neurons pretreated with Abeta. Muscarinic cholinergic signal transduction was disrupted with subtoxic levels of exposure to AP. The effects of Abeta on carbachol-induced GTPase activity and calcium release were attenuated by antioxidants, implicating free radicals in the mechanism whereby Abeta induced uncoupling of muscarinic receptors. These data demonstrate that Abeta disrupts muscarinic receptor coupling to G proteins that mediate induction of phosphoinositide accumulation and calcium release, findings that implicate Abeta in the impairment of cholinergic transmission that occurs in AD. PMID:8692890

  20. The rheological properties of beta amyloid Langmuir monolayers: Comparative studies with melittin peptide.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Benjamín; Ambroggio, Ernesto E; Wilke, Natalia; Fidelio, Gerardo Daniel

    2016-10-01

    We determined the rheological properties of β-amyloid Langmuir films at the air/water interface, a peptide whose interfacial structure is extended β-sheet, and compared them with those of films composed of Melittin (Mel), which adopts an α-helical conformation at neutral pH. To determine the dilatational and shear moduli we evaluated the response of pure peptide monolayers to an oscillatory anisotropic compressive work. Additionally, a micro-rheological characterization was performed by tracking the diffusion of micrometer sized latex beads onto the interface. This technique allowed us the detection of different rheological behaviour between monolayers presenting a low shear response. Monolayers of the β-sheet structure-adopting peptides, such as β-amyloid peptides, exhibited a marked shear (elastic) modulus even at low surface pressures. In contrast, Mel monolayers exhibited negligible shear modulus and the micro-rheological shear response was markedly lower than that observed for either Aβ1-40 or Aβ1-42 amyloid peptides. When Mel monolayers were formed at the interface of an aqueous solution at pH 11, we observed an increase in both the lateral stability and film viscosity as detected by a slower diffusion of the latex beads, in keeping with an increase in β-sheet structure at this high pH (verified by ATR and FT-IR measurements). We suggest that the interactions responsible for the marked response upon shear observed for β-amyloid peptide monolayers are the hydrogen bonds of the β-sheet structure that can form an infinite planar network at the interface. Conversely, α-helical Mel peptide lack of these inter-molecular interactions and, therefore the shear contribution was negligible. We propose that the secondary structure is important for modulating the rheological behavior of short peptide monolayers regardless of the mass density or surface charge at the surface. PMID:27318963

  1. Investigation of the effect of erythrosine B on amyloid beta peptide using molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Lee, Juho; Kwon, Inchan; Jang, Seung Soon; Cho, Art E

    2016-04-01

    Neurotoxic plaques composed of 39 to 42 residue-long amyloid beta peptides (Aβs) are copiously present in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Erythrosine B (ER), a xanthene food dye, inhibits the formation of Aβ fibrils and Aβ-associated cytotoxicity in vitro. Here, in an attempt to elucidate the inhibition mechanism, we performed molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to demonstrate the conformational change of Aβ40 induced by ER molecules in atomistic detail. During the simulation, the ER bound to the surfaces of both N-terminus and C-terminus regions of Aβ40. Our result shows that ER interacts with the aromatic side chains at the N-terminus region resulting in destabilization of the inter-chain stacking of Aβ40. Moreover, the stablility of the helical structures at the residues from 13 to 16 suggests that ER disturbs conformational transition of Aβ40. At the C-terminus region, the bound ER blocks water molecules and stabilizes the α-helical structure. Regardless of the number of ER molecules used, the interruption of the formation of the salt-bridge between aspartic acid 23 and lysine 28 occurred. To further validate our analysis, binding free energies of ER at each binding site were evaluated. The finding of stronger binding energy at the N-terminus region supports an inhibition mechanism induced by stacking interaction between ER and phenylalanine. These findings could aid present and future treatment studies for AD by clarifying the inhibition mechanism of ER on the conformational transition of Aβ40 at the molecular level. Graphical Abstract Conformation of two ER molecules binding to the surface of Aβ40 peptide. The ERs and Aβ40 are represented by black and cyan color, respectively. PMID:27021211

  2. Non-fibrillar amyloid-{beta} peptide reduces NMDA-induced neurotoxicity, but not AMPA-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Niidome, Tetsuhiro; Goto, Yasuaki; Kato, Masaru; Wang, Pi-Lin; Goh, Saori; Tanaka, Naoki; Akaike, Akinori; Kihara, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hachiro

    2009-09-04

    Amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) is thought to be linked to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that A{beta} has important physiological roles in addition to its pathological roles. We recently demonstrated that A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity, but the relationship between A{beta}42 assemblies and their neuroprotective effects remains largely unknown. In this study, we prepared non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 based on the results of the thioflavin T assay, Western blot analysis, and atomic force microscopy, and examined the effects of non-fibrillar and fibrillar A{beta}42 on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Non-fibrillar A{beta}42, but not fibrillar A{beta}42, protected hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. Furthermore, non-fibrillar A{beta}42 decreased both neurotoxicity and increases in the intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), but not by {alpha}-amino-3-hydrozy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA). Our results suggest that non-fibrillar A{beta}42 protects hippocampal neurons from glutamate-induced neurotoxicity through regulation of the NMDA receptor.

  3. Estimation of electrokinetic and hydrodynamic global properties of relevant amyloid-beta peptides through the modeling of their effective electrophoretic mobilities and analysis of their propensities to aggregation.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Julio A; Piaggio, Maria V; Peirotti, Marta B

    2014-09-01

    Neuronal activity loss may be due to toxicity caused by amyloid-beta peptides forming soluble oligomers. Here amyloid-beta peptides (1-42, 1-40, 1-39, 1-38, and 1-37) are characterized through the modeling of their experimental effective electrophoretic mobilities determined by a capillary zone electrophoresis method as reported in the literature. The resulting electrokinetic and hydrodynamic global properties are used to evaluate amyloid-beta peptide propensities to aggregation through pair particles interaction potentials and Brownian aggregation kinetic theories. Two background electrolytes are considered at 25°C, one for pH 9 and ionic strength I = 40 mM (aggregation is inhibited through NH4OH) the other for pH 10 and I = 100 mM (without NH4OH). Physical explanations of peptide oligomerization mechanisms are provided. The effect of hydration, electrostatic, and dispersion forces in the amyloidogenic process of amyloid-beta peptides (1-40 and 1-42) are quantitatively presented. The interplay among effective charge number, hydration, and conformation of chains is described. It is shown that amyloid-beta peptides (1-40 and 1-42) at pH 10, I = 100 mM and 25°C, may form soluble oligomers, mainly of order 2 and 4, after an incubation of 48 h, which at higher times evolve and end up in complex structures (protofibrils and fibrils) found in plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24975363

  4. The Structure of the Amyloid-[beta] Peptide High-Affinity Copper II Binding Site in Alzheimer Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Streltsov, Victor A.; Titmuss, Stephen J.; Epa, V. Chandana; Barnham, Kevin J.; Masters, Colin L.; Varghese, Joseph N.

    2008-11-03

    Neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer disease (AD) is believed to be related to the toxicity from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in the brain by the amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) protein bound primarily to copper ions. The evidence for an oxidative stress role of A{beta}-Cu redox chemistry is still incomplete. Details of the copper binding site in A{beta} may be critical to the etiology of AD. Here we present the structure determined by combining x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and density functional theory analysis of A{beta} peptides complexed with Cu{sup 2+} in solution under a range of buffer conditions. Phosphate-buffered saline buffer salt (NaCl) concentration does not affect the high-affinity copper binding mode but alters the second coordination sphere. The XAS spectra for truncated and full-length A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} peptides are similar. The novel distorted six-coordinated (3N3O) geometry around copper in the A{beta}-Cu{sup 2+} complexes include three histidines: glutamic, or/and aspartic acid, and axial water. The structure of the high-affinity Cu{sup 2+} binding site is consistent with the hypothesis that the redox activity of the metal ion bound to A{beta} can lead to the formation of dityrosine-linked dimers found in AD.

  5. Lipid-based nanoparticles with high binding affinity for amyloid-beta1-42 peptide.

    PubMed

    Gobbi, Marco; Re, Francesca; Canovi, Mara; Beeg, Marten; Gregori, Maria; Sesana, Silvia; Sonnino, Sandro; Brogioli, Doriano; Musicanti, Claudia; Gasco, Paolo; Salmona, Mario; Masserini, Massimo E

    2010-09-01

    The neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta), formed in anomalous amounts in Alzheimer's disease (AD), is released as monomer and then undergoes aggregation forming oligomers, fibrils and plaques in diseased brains. Abeta aggregates are considered as possible targets for therapy and/or diagnosis of AD. Since nanoparticles (NPs) are promising vehicles for imaging probes and therapeutic agents, we realized and characterized two types of NPs (liposomes and solid lipid nanoparticles, 145 and 76 nm average size, respectively) functionalized to target Abeta(1-42) with high affinity. Preliminary immunostaining studies identified anionic phospholipids [phosphatidic acid (PA) and cardiolipin (CL)] as suitable Abeta(1-42) ligands. PA/CL-functionalized, but not plain, NPs interacted with Abeta(1-42) aggregates as indicated by ultracentrifugation experiments, in which binding reaction occurred in solution, and by Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) experiments, in which NPs flowed onto immobilized Abeta(1-42). All these experiments were carried out in buffered saline. SPR studies indicated that, when exposed on NPs surface, PA/CL display very high affinity for Abeta(1-42) fibrils (22-60 nm), likely because of the occurrence of multivalent interactions which markedly decrease the dissociation of PA/CL NPs from Abeta. Noteworthy, PA/CL NPs did not bind to bovine serum albumin. The PA/CL NPs described in this work are endowed with the highest affinity for Abeta so far reported. These characteristics make our NPs a very promising vector for the targeted delivery of potential new diagnostic and therapeutic molecules to be tested in appropriate animal models. PMID:20553982

  6. Multiscale MD Simulations of Folding Dynamics and Mobility of Beta-Amyloid Peptide on Lipid Bilayer Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tilburg, Scott; Cheng, Kelvin

    2013-03-01

    Early interaction events of beta-amyloid peptides with the neuronal membranes play a key role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. We have used multiscale Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations to study the protein folding dynamics and lateral mobility of beta-amyloid protein on the cholesterol-enriched and -depleted lipid nano-domains. Several independent simulation replicates of all-atom and coarse-grained MD simulations of beta-amyloid on different lipid bilayer nano-domains have been generated. Using Define Secondary Structure of Proteins (DSSP) algorithm and mean-square-distance (MSD) analysis, the protein conformation and the lateral diffusion coefficients of protein, as well as the lipid and water, were calculated as a function of simulation time up to 200 nanoseconds for atomistic and 2 microseconds for coarse-grained simulations per replicate in different bilayer systems. Subtle differences in the conformation and mobility of the protein were observed in lipid bilayers with and without cholesterol. The structural dynamics information obtained from this work will provide useful insights into understanding the role of protein/lipid interactions in the membrane-associated aggregation of protein on neuronal membranes. HHMI-Trinity University and NIH RC1-GM090897-02

  7. Structural Studies of Copper(I) Complexes of Amyloid-Beta Peptide Fragments: Formation of Two-Coordinate Bis(Histidine) Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.A.; Park, G.Young.; Siluvai, G.Sutha.; Blackburn, N.J.; Karlin, K.D.

    2009-05-18

    The beta bind: Copper(I) binds to amyloid {beta}-peptide fragments (see structure) as a stable bis(histidine), two-coordinate, near-linear complex, even in the presence of potential additional ligands. As has been proposed or assumed in other studies, the copper(I)-peptide complexes react with dioxygen to form the reactive oxygen species H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, without the need for a third histidine ligand to promote the chemistry.

  8. Evaluation of the amyloid beta-GFP fusion protein as a model of amyloid beta peptides-mediated aggregation: a study of DNAJB6 chaperone

    PubMed Central

    Hussein, Rasha M.; Hashem, Reem M.; Rashed, Laila A.

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the accumulation and aggregation of extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and intracellular aggregation of hyper-phosphorylated tau protein. Recent evidence indicates that accumulation and aggregation of intracellular amyloid β peptides may also play a role in disease pathogenesis. This would suggest that intracellular Heat Shock Proteins (HSP) that maintain cellular protein homeostasis might be candidates for disease amelioration. We recently found that DNAJB6, a member of DNAJ family of heat shock proteins, effectively prevented the aggregation of short aggregation-prone peptides containing large poly glutamines (associated with CAG repeat diseases) both in vitro and in cells. Moreover, recent in vitro data showed that DNAJB6 can delay the aggregation of Aβ42 peptides. In this study, we investigated the ability of DNAJB6 to prevent the aggregation of extracellular and intracellular Aβ peptides using transfection of human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells with Aβ-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion construct and performing western blotting and immunofluorescence techniques. We found that DNAJB6 indeed suppresses Aβ-GFP aggregation, but not seeded aggregation initiated by extracellular Aβ peptides. Unexpectedly and unlike what we found for peptide-mediated aggregation, DNAJB6 required interaction with HSP70 to prevent the aggregation of the Aβ-GFP fusion protein and its J-domain was crucial for its anti-aggregation effect. In addition, other DNAJ proteins as well as HSPA1a overexpression also suppressed Aβ-GFP aggregation efficiently. Our findings suggest that Aβ aggregation differs from poly glutamine (Poly Q) peptide induced aggregation in terms of chaperone handling and sheds doubt on the usage of Aβ-GFP fusion construct for studying Aβ peptide aggregation in cells. PMID:26283911

  9. Iron and aluminum interaction with amyloid-beta peptides associated with Alzheimer’s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Drochioiu, Gabi; Ion, Laura; Murariu, Manuela; Habasescu, Laura

    2014-10-06

    An elevation in the concentration of heavy metal ions in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain has been demonstrated in many studies. Aβ precipitation and toxicity in AD brains seem to be caused by abnormal interactions with neocortical metal ions, especially iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum [1–3]. There is increasing evidence that iron and aluminum ions are involved in the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegenerative diseases [4,5]. However, evidence was brought to demonstrate that some Aβ fragments, at physiological pH, are not able to form binary complexes with Fe(III) ions of sufficient stability to compete with metal hydroxide precipitation [6]. On the contrary, multiple metal ions are known to interact with Aβ peptides [7]. Consequently, we investigated here the interaction of Fe(II/III) and Al(III) ions with some amyloidpeptides and fragments that results in peptide aggregation and fibrillation [8,9]. Infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated conformational changes of peptides in the presence of such metals.

  10. Iron and aluminum interaction with amyloid-beta peptides associated with Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drochioiu, Gabi; Murariu, Manuela; Ion, Laura; Habasescu, Laura

    2014-10-01

    An elevation in the concentration of heavy metal ions in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain has been demonstrated in many studies. Aβ precipitation and toxicity in AD brains seem to be caused by abnormal interactions with neocortical metal ions, especially iron, copper, zinc, and aluminum [1-3]. There is increasing evidence that iron and aluminum ions are involved in the mechanisms that underlie the neurodegenerative diseases [4,5]. However, evidence was brought to demonstrate that some Aβ fragments, at physiological pH, are not able to form binary complexes with Fe(III) ions of sufficient stability to compete with metal hydroxide precipitation [6]. On the contrary, multiple metal ions are known to interact with Aβ peptides [7]. Consequently, we investigated here the interaction of Fe(II/III) and Al(III) ions with some amyloidpeptides and fragments that results in peptide aggregation and fibrillation [8,9]. Infrared spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, electrophoresis and mass spectrometry demonstrated conformational changes of peptides in the presence of such metals.

  11. Structure-Based Peptide Design to Modulate Amyloid Beta Aggregation and Reduce Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Jitendra; Namsechi, Risa; Sim, Valerie L.

    2015-01-01

    The deposition of Aβ peptide in the brain is the key event in Alzheimer disease progression. Therefore, the prevention of Aβ self assembly into disease-associated oligomers is a logical strategy for treatment. π stacking is known to provide structural stability to many amyloids; two phenylalanine residues within the Aβ 14–23 self recognition element are in such an arrangement in many solved structures. Therefore, we targeted this structural stacking by substituting these two phenylalanine residues with their D-enantiomers. The resulting peptides were able to modulate Aβ aggregation in vitro and reduce Aβ cytotoxicity in primary neuronal cultures. Using kinetic analysis of fibril formation, electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering characterization of oligomer size distributions, we demonstrate that, in addition to altering fibril structural characteristics, these peptides can induce the formation of larger amorphous aggregates which are protective against toxic oligomers, possibly because they are able to sequester the toxic oligomers during co-incubation. Alternatively, they may alter the surface structure of the oligomers such that they can no longer interact with cells to induce toxic pathways. PMID:26070139

  12. Protective spin-labeled fluorenes maintain amyloid beta peptide in small oligomers and limit transitions in secondary structure

    SciTech Connect

    Altman, Robin; Ly, Sonny; Hilt, Silvia; Petrlova, Jitka; Maezawa, Izumi; Kálai, Tamás; Hideg, Kálmán; Jin, Lee-Way; Laurence, Ted A.; Voss, John C.

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques comprised of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Soluble oligomers of the Aβ peptide underlie a cascade of neuronal loss and dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease. Single particle analyses of Aβ oligomers in solution by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were used to provide real-time descriptions of how spin-labeled fluorenes (SLFs; bi-functional small molecules that block the toxicity of Aβ) prevent and disrupt oligomeric assemblies of Aβ in solution. The FCS results, combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, demonstrate SLFs can inhibit the growth of Aβ oligomers and disrupt existing oligomers while retaining Aβ in a largely disordered state. Furthermore, while the ability of SLF to block Aβ toxicity correlates with a reduction in oligomer size, our results suggest the conformation of Aβ within the oligomer determines the toxicity of the species. Attenuation of Aβ toxicity, which has been associated primarily with the soluble oligomeric form, can be achieved through redistribution of the peptides into smaller oligomers and arrest of the fractional increase in beta secondary structure.

  13. Protective spin-labeled fluorenes maintain amyloid beta peptide in small oligomers and limit transitions in secondary structure

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Altman, Robin; Ly, Sonny; Hilt, Silvia; Petrlova, Jitka; Maezawa, Izumi; Kálai, Tamás; Hideg, Kálmán; Jin, Lee-Way; Laurence, Ted A.; Voss, John C.

    2015-12-01

    Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the presence of extracellular plaques comprised of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides. Soluble oligomers of the Aβ peptide underlie a cascade of neuronal loss and dysfunction associated with Alzheimer's disease. Single particle analyses of Aβ oligomers in solution by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) were used to provide real-time descriptions of how spin-labeled fluorenes (SLFs; bi-functional small molecules that block the toxicity of Aβ) prevent and disrupt oligomeric assemblies of Aβ in solution. The FCS results, combined with electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and circular dichroism spectroscopy, demonstrate SLFs can inhibit the growth of Aβ oligomers and disruptmore » existing oligomers while retaining Aβ in a largely disordered state. Furthermore, while the ability of SLF to block Aβ toxicity correlates with a reduction in oligomer size, our results suggest the conformation of Aβ within the oligomer determines the toxicity of the species. Attenuation of Aβ toxicity, which has been associated primarily with the soluble oligomeric form, can be achieved through redistribution of the peptides into smaller oligomers and arrest of the fractional increase in beta secondary structure.« less

  14. Amyloid beta-peptide impairs glucose transport in hippocampal and cortical neurons: involvement of membrane lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Pang, Z; Geddes, J W; Uchida, K; Mattson, M P

    1997-02-01

    A deficit in glucose uptake and a deposition of amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) each occur in vulnerable brain regions in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is not known whether mechanistic links exist between A beta deposition and impaired glucose transport. We now report that A beta impairs glucose transport in cultured rat hippocampal and cortical neurons by a mechanism involving membrane lipid peroxidation. A beta impaired 3H-deoxy-glucose transport in a concentration-dependent manner and with a time course preceding neurodegeneration. The decrease in glucose transport was followed by a decrease in cellular ATP levels. Impairment of glucose transport, ATP depletion, and cell death were each prevented in cultures pretreated with antioxidants. Exposure to FeSO4, an established inducer of lipid peroxidation, also impaired glucose transport. Immunoprecipitation and Western blot analyses showed that exposure of cultures to A beta induced conjugation of 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, to the neuronal glucose transport protein GLUT3. HNE induced a concentration-dependent impairment of glucose transport and subsequent ATP depletion. Impaired glucose transport was not caused by a decreased energy demand in the neurons, because ouabain, which inhibits Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity and thereby reduces neuronal ATP hydrolysis rate, had little or no effect on glucose transport. Collectively, the data demonstrate that lipid peroxidation mediates A beta-induced impairment of glucose transport in neurons and suggest that this action of A beta may contribute to decreased glucose uptake and neuronal degeneration in AD. PMID:8994059

  15. Charge regulation phenomenon predicted from the modeling of polypeptide electrophoretic mobilities as a relevant mechanism of amyloid-beta peptide oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Julio A; Peirotti, Marta B; Piaggio, Maria V

    2016-03-01

    Electrophoretic mobilities of amyloid-beta (1-40) and (1-42) peptides and their aggregates are modeled to study the amyloidogenic pathway associated with Alzheimer´s Disease. The near molecule pH generated by the intraparticle charge regulation phenomenon during the oligomerization of amyloid-beta (1-40) and (1-42) peptides is evaluated and discussed as a relevant mechanism supporting the "amyloid cascade hypothesis" proposed in the literature. A theoretical framework associated with the oligomerization of amyloid-beta peptides including simple scaling laws and the consideration of electrokinetic and hydrodynamic global properties of oligomers is presented. The central finding is the explanation of the near molecule pH change toward the pI when the oligomerization number increases. These results allow one to rationalize consecutive physical stages that validate the amyloid cascade hypothesis. Concluding remarks involving mainly the effects of pair and intraparticle charge regulation phenomena on the amyloidogenic pathway with some suggestions for future research are provided. PMID:26718015

  16. Genistein, the Isoflavone in Soybean, Causes Amyloid Beta Peptide Accumulation in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line: Implications in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Gargi; Roy, Debashree; Khemka, Vineet Kumar; Chattopadhyay, Mrittika; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2015-01-01

    The isoflavone, genistein, present in soybean is being actively investigated for its potential beneficial effect against Alzheimer’s disease. Our data, however, show that in SHSY5Y cells genistein causes increased expression (mRNA and protein) of amyloid precursor protein (APP), increased mRNA expression and activity of β-secretase and diminished level of insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) which also degrades amyloid beta peptide. These effects of genistein lead to enhanced accumulation of amyloid beta peptide (Aβ42) in SHSY5Y cells. The results do not support the view that genistein could be a putative drug against AD and instead strengthen the epidemiological study which implies that genistein content of soybean food product (Tofu) leads to cognitive impairment. PMID:26618047

  17. Stoichiometric inhibition of amyloid beta-protein aggregation with peptides containing alternating alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids.

    PubMed

    Etienne, Marcus A; Aucoin, Jed P; Fu, Yanwen; McCarley, Robin L; Hammer, Robert P

    2006-03-22

    We have prepared two peptides based on the hydrophobic core (Lys-Leu-Val-Phe-Phe) of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) that contain alpha,alpha-disubstituted amino acids at alternating positions, but differ in the positioning of the oligolysine chain (AMY-1, C-terminus; AMY-2, N-terminus). We have studied the effects of AMY-1 and AMY-2 on the aggregation of Abeta and find that, at stoichiometric concentrations, both peptides completely stop Abeta fibril growth. Equimolar mixtures of AMY-1 and Abeta form only globular aggregates as imaged by scanning force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. These samples show no signs of protofibrillar or fibrillar material even after prolonged periods of time (4.5 months). Also, 10 mol % of AMY-1 prevents Abeta self-assembly for long periods of time; aged samples (4.5 months) show only a few protofibrillar or fibrillar aggregates. Circular dichroism spectroscopy of equimolar mixtures of AMY-1 and Abeta show that the secondary structure of the mixture changes over time and progresses to a predominantly beta-sheet structure, which is consistent with the design of these inhibitors preferring a sheet-like conformation. Changing the position of the charged tail on the peptide, AMY-2 interacts with Abeta differently in that equimolar mixtures form large ( approximately 1 mum) globular aggregates which do not progress to fibrils, but precipitate out of solution. The differences in the aggregation mediated by the two peptides is discussed in terms of a model where the inhibitors act as cosurfactants that interfere with the native ability of Abeta to self-assemble by disrupting hydrophobic interactions either at the C-terminus or N-terminus of Abeta. PMID:16536517

  18. Amyloid beta peptides do not form peptide-derived free radicals spontaneously, but can enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamines to nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Dikalov, S I; Vitek, M P; Maples, K R; Mason, R P

    1999-04-01

    Amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides play an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Free radical generation by Abeta peptides was suggested to be a key mechanism of their neurotoxicity. Reports that neurotoxic free radicals derived from Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) peptides react with the spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN) to form a PBN/.Abeta peptide radical adduct with a specific triplet ESR signal assert that the peptide itself was the source of free radicals. We now report that three Abeta peptides, Abeta-(1-40), Abeta-(25-35), and Abeta-(40-1), do not yield radical adducts with PBN from the Oklahoma Medical Research Foundation (OMRF). In contrast to OMRF PBN, incubation of Sigma PBN in phosphate buffer without Abeta peptides produced a three-line ESR spectrum. It was shown that this nitroxide is di-tert-butylnitroxide and is formed in the Sigma PBN solution as a result of transition metal-catalyzed auto-oxidation of the respective hydroxylamine present as an impurity in the Sigma PBN. Under some conditions, incubation of PBN from Sigma with Abeta-(1-40) or Abeta-(25-35) can stimulate the formation of di-tert-butylnitroxide. It was shown that Abeta peptides enhanced oxidation of cyclic hydroxylamine 1-hydroxy-4-oxo-2,2,6, 6-tetramethylpiperidine (TEMPONE-H), which was strongly inhibited by the treatment of phosphate buffer with Chelex-100. It was shown that ferric and cupric ions are effective oxidants of TEMPONE-H. The data obtained allow us to conclude that under some conditions toxic Abeta peptides Abeta-(1-40) and Abeta-(25-35) enhance metal-catalyzed oxidation of hydroxylamine derivatives, but do not spontaneously form peptide-derived free radicals. PMID:10092619

  19. Quantitative analysis of co-oligomer formation by amyloid-beta peptide isoforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iljina, Marija; Garcia, Gonzalo A.; Dear, Alexander J.; Flint, Jennie; Narayan, Priyanka; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Frenkel, Daan; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Klenerman, David

    2016-06-01

    Multiple isoforms of aggregation-prone proteins are present under physiological conditions and have the propensity to assemble into co-oligomers with different properties from self-oligomers, but this process has not been quantitatively studied to date. We have investigated the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, associated with Alzheimer’s disease, and the aggregation of its two major isoforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, using a statistical mechanical modelling approach in combination with in vitro single-molecule fluorescence measurements. We find that at low concentrations of Aβ, corresponding to its physiological abundance, there is little free energy penalty in forming co-oligomers, suggesting that the formation of both self-oligomers and co-oligomers is possible under these conditions. Our model is used to predict the oligomer concentration and size at physiological concentrations of Aβ and suggests the mechanisms by which the ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 can affect cell toxicity. An increased ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 raises the fraction of oligomers containing Aβ42, which can increase the hydrophobicity of the oligomers and thus promote deleterious binding to the cell membrane and increase neuronal damage. Our results suggest that co-oligomers are a common form of aggregate when Aβ isoforms are present in solution and may potentially play a significant role in Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. Quantitative analysis of co-oligomer formation by amyloid-beta peptide isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Iljina, Marija; Garcia, Gonzalo A.; Dear, Alexander J.; Flint, Jennie; Narayan, Priyanka; Michaels, Thomas C. T.; Dobson, Christopher M.; Frenkel, Daan; Knowles, Tuomas P. J.; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    Multiple isoforms of aggregation-prone proteins are present under physiological conditions and have the propensity to assemble into co-oligomers with different properties from self-oligomers, but this process has not been quantitatively studied to date. We have investigated the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, associated with Alzheimer’s disease, and the aggregation of its two major isoforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, using a statistical mechanical modelling approach in combination with in vitro single-molecule fluorescence measurements. We find that at low concentrations of Aβ, corresponding to its physiological abundance, there is little free energy penalty in forming co-oligomers, suggesting that the formation of both self-oligomers and co-oligomers is possible under these conditions. Our model is used to predict the oligomer concentration and size at physiological concentrations of Aβ and suggests the mechanisms by which the ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 can affect cell toxicity. An increased ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 raises the fraction of oligomers containing Aβ42, which can increase the hydrophobicity of the oligomers and thus promote deleterious binding to the cell membrane and increase neuronal damage. Our results suggest that co-oligomers are a common form of aggregate when Aβ isoforms are present in solution and may potentially play a significant role in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:27346247

  1. Quantitative analysis of co-oligomer formation by amyloid-beta peptide isoforms.

    PubMed

    Iljina, Marija; Garcia, Gonzalo A; Dear, Alexander J; Flint, Jennie; Narayan, Priyanka; Michaels, Thomas C T; Dobson, Christopher M; Frenkel, Daan; Knowles, Tuomas P J; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    Multiple isoforms of aggregation-prone proteins are present under physiological conditions and have the propensity to assemble into co-oligomers with different properties from self-oligomers, but this process has not been quantitatively studied to date. We have investigated the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide, associated with Alzheimer's disease, and the aggregation of its two major isoforms, Aβ40 and Aβ42, using a statistical mechanical modelling approach in combination with in vitro single-molecule fluorescence measurements. We find that at low concentrations of Aβ, corresponding to its physiological abundance, there is little free energy penalty in forming co-oligomers, suggesting that the formation of both self-oligomers and co-oligomers is possible under these conditions. Our model is used to predict the oligomer concentration and size at physiological concentrations of Aβ and suggests the mechanisms by which the ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 can affect cell toxicity. An increased ratio of Aβ42 to Aβ40 raises the fraction of oligomers containing Aβ42, which can increase the hydrophobicity of the oligomers and thus promote deleterious binding to the cell membrane and increase neuronal damage. Our results suggest that co-oligomers are a common form of aggregate when Aβ isoforms are present in solution and may potentially play a significant role in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27346247

  2. Monomeric Amyloid Beta Peptide in Hexafluoroisopropanol Detected by Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Zhang-Haagen, Bo; Biehl, Ralf; Nagel-Steger, Luitgard; Radulescu, Aurel; Richter, Dieter; Willbold, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    Small proteins like amyloid beta (Aβ) monomers are related to neurodegenerative disorders by aggregation to insoluble fibrils. Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) is a nondestructive method to observe the aggregation process in solution. We show that SANS is able to resolve monomers of small molecular weight like Aβ for aggregation studies. We examine Aβ monomers after prolonged storing in d-hexafluoroisopropanol (dHFIP) by using SANS and dynamic light scattering (DLS). We determined the radius of gyration from SANS as 1.0±0.1 nm for Aβ1–40 and 1.6±0.1 nm for Aβ1–42 in agreement with 3D NMR structures in similar solvents suggesting a solvent surface layer with 5% increased density. After initial dissolution in dHFIP Aβ aggregates sediment with a major component of pure monomers showing a hydrodynamic radius of 1.8±0.3 nm for Aβ1–40 and 3.2±0.4 nm for Aβ1–42 including a surface layer of dHFIP solvent molecules. PMID:26919121

  3. Antagonizing beta-amyloid peptide neurotoxicity of the anti-aging fungus Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Lai, Cora Sau-Wan; Yu, Man-Shan; Yuen, Wai-Hung; So, Kwok-Fai; Zee, Sze-Yong; Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung

    2008-01-23

    Ganoderma lucidum (Leyss. ex Fr.) Karst. (Lingzhi) is a medicinal fungus used clinically in many Asian countries to promote health and longevity. Synaptic degeneration is another key mode of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent studies have shown the loss of synaptic density proteins in each individual neuron during the progression of AD. It was recently reported that beta-amyloid (Abeta) could cause synaptic dysfunction and contribute to AD pathology. In this study, we reported that aqueous extract of G. lucidum significantly attenuated Abeta-induced synaptotoxicity by preserving the synaptic density protein, synaptophysin. In addition, G. lucidum aqueous extract antagonized Abeta-triggered DEVD cleavage activities in a dose-dependent manner. Further studies elucidated that phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, c-Jun, and p38 MAP kinase was attenuated by G. lucidum in Abeta-stressed neurons. Taken together, the results prove a hypothesis that anti-aging G. lucidum can prevent harmful effects of the exterminating toxin Abeta in AD. PMID:18083148

  4. Local atomic structure and oxidation processes of Cu(I) binding site in amyloid beta peptide: XAS Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremennaya, M. A.; Soldatov, M. A.; Stretsov, V. A.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    There are two different motifs of X-ray absorption spectra for Cu(I) K-edge in amyloidpeptide which could be due to two different configurations of local Cu(I) environment. Two or three histidine ligands can coordinate copper ion in varying conformations. On the other hand, oxidation of amyloidpeptide could play an additional role in local copper environment. In order to explore the peculiarities of local atomic and electronic structure of Cu(I) binding sites in amyloidpeptide the x-ray absorption spectra were simulated for various Cu(I) environments including oxidized amyloid-β and compared with experimental data.

  5. Chronic Cladribine Administration Increases Amyloid Beta Peptide Generation and Plaque Burden in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Crystal D.; Dey, Debleena; Palavicini, Juan Pablo; Wang, Hongjie; Araki, Wataru; Lakshmana, Madepalli K.

    2012-01-01

    Background The clinical uses of 2-chloro-2′-deoxyadenosine (2-CDA) or cladribine which was initially prescribed to patients with hematological and lymphoid cancers is now extended to treat patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Previous data has shown that 2-CDA has high affinity to the brain and readily passes through the blood brain barrier reaching CSF concentrations 25% of that found in plasma. However, whether long-term administration of 2-CDA can lead to any adverse effects in patients or animal models is not yet clearly known. Methodology Here we show that exposure of 2-CDA to CHO cells stably expressing wild-type APP751 increased generation and secretion of amyloid β peptide (Aβ) in to the conditioned medium. Interestingly, increased Aβ levels were noticed even at non-toxic concentrations of 2-CDA. Remarkably, chronic treatment of APdE9 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease with 2-CDA for 60 days increased amyloid plaque burden by more than 1-fold. Increased Aβ generation appears to result from increased turnover of APP as revealed by cycloheximide-chase experiments. Additionally, surface labeling of APP with biotin and immunoprecipitation of surface labeled proteins with anti-biotin antibody also indicated increased APP at the cell surface in 2-CDA treated cells compared to controls. Increased turnover of APP by 2-CDA in turn might be a consequence of decreased protein levels of PIN 1, which is known to regulate cis-trans isomerization and phosphorylation of APP. Most importantly, like many other oncology drugs, 2-CDA administration led to significant delay in acquiring a reward-based learning task in a T maze paradigm. Conclusions Taken together, these data provide compelling evidence for the first time that chronic 2-CDA administration can increase amyloidogenic processing of APP leading to robustly increased plaque burden which may be responsible for the observed deficits in learning skills. Thus chronic treatment of mice with 2-CDA can have

  6. Three histidine residues of amyloid-beta peptide control the redox activity of copper and iron.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Shishido, N; Nunomura, Akihiko; Smith, Mark A; Perry, George; Hayashi, Y; Nakayama, K; Hayashi, T

    2007-11-01

    Zinc, iron and copper are concentrated in senile plaques of Alzheimer disease. Copper and iron catalyze the Fenton-Haber-Weiss reaction, which likely contributes to oxidative stress in neuronal cells. In this study, we found that ascorbate oxidase activity and the intensity of ascorbate radicals measured using ESR spectroscopy, generated by free Cu(II), was decreased in the presence of amyloid-beta (Abeta), the major component of senile plaques. Specifically, the ascorbate oxidase activity was strongly inhibited (85% decrease) in the presence of Abeta1-16 or Abeta1-42, whereas it was only slightly inhibited in the presence of Abeta1-12 or Abeta25-35 (<20% inhibition). Ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Cu(II) decreased in the presence of Abeta in the identical order of Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16 > Abeta1-12 and was abolished in the presence of 2-fold molar excess glycylhystidyllysine (GHK). Ascorbate oxidase activity and ascorbate-dependent hydroxyl radical generation by free Fe(III) were inhibited by Abeta1-42, Abeta1-16, and Abeta1-12. Although Cu(II)-Abeta shows a significant SOD-like activity, the rate constant for the reaction of superoxide with Cu(II)-Abeta was much slower than that with SOD. Overall, our results suggest that His6, His13, and His14 residues of Abeta1-42 control the redox activity of transition metals present in senile plaques. PMID:17929832

  7. High throughput screens for the identification of compounds that alter the accumulation of the Alzheimer's amyloid beta peptide (Abeta).

    PubMed

    Haugabook, S J; Yager, D M; Eckman, E A; Golde, T E; Younkin, S G; Eckman, C B

    2001-07-30

    Evidence gathered over the last two decades suggests that beta amyloid (Abeta), the predominant proteinaceous component of senile plaques, plays an early and critical role in the etiology and pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, it is reasonable to hypothesize that compounds capable of reducing the accumulation of Abeta may be of value therapeutically. Additionally, compounds that influence Abeta accumulation may be useful as tools to further dissect the cellular pathways that regulate Abeta production and accumulation. To screen for compounds that affect Abeta levels, we have established high throughput, cell-based assays capable of the sensitive and selective detection of Abeta40 in parallel with the more amyloidogenic form of the peptide, Abeta42. To validate the approach, we examined the effects of several compounds previously identified to influence Abeta accumulation. Analysis of peptide accumulation following treatment with these compounds showed results similar to those previously published. Currently, we are using this assay to screen drugs that have already received FDA approval for the treatment of other diseases and over-the-counter natural product extracts. If compounds such as these can be identified that lower Abeta in the brain, they may represent one of the fastest and most cost effective methods to therapy. PMID:11478976

  8. Comparison of the amyloid pore forming properties of rat and human Alzheimer's beta-amyloid peptide 1-42: Calcium imaging data.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Flores, Alessandra; Boutemeur, Sonia; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-03-01

    The data here consists of calcium imaging of human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells treated with the calcium-sensitive dye Fluo-4AM and then incubated with nanomolar concentrations of either human or rat Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide Aβ1-42. These data are both of a qualitative (fluorescence micrographs) and semi-quantitative nature (estimation of intracellular calcium concentrations of cells probed by Aβ1-42 peptides vs. control untreated cells). Since rat Aβ1-42 differs from its human counterpart at only three amino acid positions, this comparative study is a good assessment of the specificity of the amyloid pore forming assay. The interpretation of this dataset is presented in the accompanying study "Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides" [1]. PMID:26909380

  9. Transducible P11-CNTF rescues the learning and memory impairments induced by amyloid-beta peptide in mice.

    PubMed

    Qu, Heng Yan; Zhang, Ting; Li, Xu Ling; Zhou, Jian Ping; Zhao, Bao Quan; Li, Qian; Sun, Man Ji

    2008-10-10

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive brain disorder with the loss of memory and other intellectual abilities. Amyloid species and neurofibrillary tangles are the prime suspects in damaging and killing nerve cells. Abnormal accumulation of Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) may cause synaptic dysfunction and degeneration of neurons. Drugs that can prevent its formation and accumulation or stimulate its clearance might ultimately be of therapeutic benefit. Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), a neurotrophic cytokine, promotes the survival of various neurons in brain. However, the blood-brain barrier hinders the systemic delivery of CNTF to brain. Recently the 11-amino acid of protein transduction domain TAT has successfully assisted the delivery of many macromolecules to treat preclinical models of human disease. The present study aimed to evaluate whether P11-CNTF fusion protein (P11-CNTF) is protective against the Abeta25-35-induced dementia in mice. Immunofluorescence experiments showed that P11 effectively carried CNTF to the SH-SY5Y cells in vitro, and to the brains of mice in vivo. The learning and memory impairments of mice induced by Abeta were substantially rescued by supplement with the P11-CNTF. Furthermore, mRNAs of enzymes involved in the Abeta metabolism, e.g. neprilysin (NEP), endothelin-converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) and insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), increased in the P11-CNTF treated dementia mice, accompanied by the proliferation of nestin- and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells in hippocampus. It implies that the delivery of P11-CNTF may be a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18644361

  10. CD147 is a regulatory subunit of the gamma-secretase complex inAlzheimer's disease amyloid beta-peptide production

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Shuxia; Zhou, Hua; Walian, Peter J.; Jap, Bing K.

    2005-04-06

    {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex that cleaves the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP) within the transmembrane region, following prior processing by {beta}-secretase, producing amyloid {beta}-peptides (A{beta}{sub 40} and A{beta}{sub 42}). Errant production of A{beta}-peptides that substantially increases A{beta}{sub 42} production has been associated with the formation of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease patients. Biophysical and genetic studies indicate that presenilin-1 (Psn-1), which contains the proteolytic active site, and three other membrane proteins, nicastrin (Nct), APH-1, and PEN-2 are required to form the core of the active {gamma}-secretase complex. Here, we report the purification of the native {gamma}-secretase complexes from HeLa cell membranes and the identification of an additional {gamma}-secretase complex subunit, CD147, a transmembrane glycoprotein with two immunoglobulin-like domains. The presence of this subunit as an integral part of the complex itself was confirmed through co-immunoprecipitation studies of the purified protein from HeLa cells and solubilized complexes from other cell lines such as neural cell HCN-1A and HEK293. Depletion of CD147 by RNA interference was found to increase the production of A{beta} peptides without changing the expression level of the other {gamma}-secretase components or APP substrates while CD147 overexpression had no statistically significant effect on amyloid {beta}-peptide production, other {gamma}-secretase components or APP substrates, indicating that the presence of the CD147 subunit within the {gamma}-secretase complex directly down-modulates the production of A{beta}-peptides. {gamma}-secretase was first recognized through its role in the production of the A{beta} peptides that are pathogenic in Alzheimer's disease (AD) (1). {gamma}-secretase is a membrane protein complex with unusual aspartyl protease activity that cleaves a variety of type I membrane proteins, such as APP

  11. Dutch and arctic mutant peptides of {beta} amyloid{sub 1-40} differentially affect the FGF-2 pathway in brain endothelium

    SciTech Connect

    Solito, Raffaella; Corti, Federico; Fossati, Silvia; Mezhericher, Emiliya; Donnini, Sandra; Ghiso, Jorge; Giachetti, Antonio; Rostagno, Agueda; Ziche, Marina

    2009-02-01

    Single point mutations of the amyloid precursor protein generate A{beta} variants bearing amino acid substitutions at positions 21-23. These mutants are associated with distinct hereditary phenotypes of cerebral amyloid angiopathy, manifesting varying degrees of tropism for brain vessels, and impaired microvessel remodeling and angiogenesis. We examined the differential effects of E22Q (Dutch), and E22G (Arctic) variants in comparison to WT A{beta} on brain endothelial cell proliferation, angiogenic phenotype expression triggered by fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2), pseudo-capillary sprouting, and induction of apoptosis. E22Q exhibited a potent anti-angiogenic profile in contrast to E22G, which had a much weaker effect. Investigations on the FGF-2 signaling pathway revealed the greatest differences among the peptides: E22Q and WT peptides suppressed FGF-2 expression while E22G had barely any effect. Phosphorylation of the FGF-2 receptor, FGFR-1, and the survival signal Akt were abolished by E22Q and WT peptides, but not by E22G. The biological dissimilar effect of the mutant and WT peptides on cerebral EC cannot be assigned to a particular A{beta} structure, suggesting that the toxic effect of the A{beta} assemblies goes beyond mere multimerization.

  12. Global properties and propensity to dimerization of the amyloid-beta (12-28) peptide fragment through the modeling of its monomer and dimer diffusion coefficients and electrophoretic mobilities.

    PubMed

    Deiber, Julio A; Peirotti, Marta B; Piaggio, Maria V

    2015-03-01

    Neuronal activity loss may be due to toxicity caused mainly by amyloid-beta (1-40) and (1-42) peptides forming soluble oligomers. Here the amyloid-beta (12-28) peptide fragment (monomer) and its dimer are characterized at low pH through the modeling of their diffusion coefficients and effective electrophoretic mobilities. Translational diffusion coefficient experimental values of monomer and dimer analogs of this peptide fragment and monomer and dimer mixtures at thermodynamic equilibrium are used as reported in the literature for different monomer initial concentrations. The resulting electrokinetic and hydrodynamic global properties are employed to evaluate the amyloid-beta (12-28) peptide fragment propensity to dimerization through a thermodynamic theoretical framework. Therefore equilibrium constants are considered at pH 2.9 to elucidate one of the amyloidogenic mechanisms involving the central hydrophobic region LVFFA of the peptide spanning residues 17-21 associated with phenylalanine at positions 19 and 20 in the amino acid sequence of amyloid-beta peptides. An analysis demonstrating that peptide aggregation is a concentration-dependent process is provided, where both pair and intraparticle charge regulation phenomena become relevant. It is shown that the modeling of the effective electrophoretic mobility of the amyloid-beta (12-28) peptide fragment is crucial to understand the effect of hydrophobic region LVFFA in the amyloidogenic process. PMID:25403948

  13. Preparation of fluorescently-labeled amyloid-beta peptide assemblies: the effect of fluorophore conjugation on structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Jungbauer, L. M.; Yu, C; Laxton, K. J.; LaDu, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has focused on soluble oligomeric assemblies of the 42 amino acid isoform of the amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ42) as the proximal cause of neuronal injury, synaptic loss, and the eventual dementia associated with Alzheimer’s disease (AD). While neurotoxicity, neuroinflammation, and deficits in behavior and memory have all been attributed to oligomeric Aβ42, the specific roles for this assembly in the cellular neuropathology of AD remain poorly understood. In particular, lack of reliable and well-characterized forms of easily detectable Aβ42 oligomers has hindered study of the cellular trafficking of exogenous Aβ42 by neurons in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, the objective of this study is to fluorescently label soluble oligomeric Aβ42 without altering the structure or function of this assembly. Previous studies have demonstrated the advantages of using tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM) to characterize the structural assemblies formed by synthetic Aβ42 under specific solution conditions (e.g., oligomers, protofibrils, and fibrils). Here, we extend these methods to establish a strategy for fluorescent labeling of oligomeric Aβ42 assemblies that are structurally comparable to unlabeled oligomeric Aβ42. To compare function, we demon-strate that the uptake of labeled and unlabeled oligomeric Aβ42 by neurons in vitro is similar. AFM-characterized fluorophore-Aβ42 oligomers are an exciting new reagent for use in a variety of studies designed to elucidate critical cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of this Aβ42 assembly form in AD. PMID:19343729

  14. Metabolic changes may precede proteostatic dysfunction in a Drosophila model of amyloid beta peptide toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ott, Stanislav; Vishnivetskaya, Anastasia; Malmendal, Anders; Crowther, Damian C.

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation is linked to the initiation of Alzheimer's disease; accordingly, aggregation-prone isoforms of Aβ, expressed in the brain, shorten the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the lethal effects of Aβ are not apparent until after day 15. We used shibireTS flies that exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotype as a reporter of proteostatic robustness. In this model, we found that increasing age but not Aβ expression lowered the flies' permissive temperature, suggesting that Aβ did not exert its lethal effects by proteostatic disruption. Instead, we observed that chemical challenges, in particular oxidative stressors, discriminated clearly between young (robust) and old (sensitive) flies. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis, we compared water-soluble metabolite profiles at various ages in flies expressing Aβ in their brains. We observed 2 genotype-linked metabolomic signals, the first reported the presence of any Aβ isoform and the second the effects of the lethal Arctic Aβ. Lethality was specifically associated with signs of oxidative respiration dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:27103517

  15. Metabolic changes may precede proteostatic dysfunction in a Drosophila model of amyloid beta peptide toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ott, Stanislav; Vishnivetskaya, Anastasia; Malmendal, Anders; Crowther, Damian C

    2016-05-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide aggregation is linked to the initiation of Alzheimer's disease; accordingly, aggregation-prone isoforms of Aβ, expressed in the brain, shorten the lifespan of Drosophila melanogaster. However, the lethal effects of Aβ are not apparent until after day 15. We used shibire(TS) flies that exhibit a temperature-sensitive paralysis phenotype as a reporter of proteostatic robustness. In this model, we found that increasing age but not Aβ expression lowered the flies' permissive temperature, suggesting that Aβ did not exert its lethal effects by proteostatic disruption. Instead, we observed that chemical challenges, in particular oxidative stressors, discriminated clearly between young (robust) and old (sensitive) flies. Using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis, we compared water-soluble metabolite profiles at various ages in flies expressing Aβ in their brains. We observed 2 genotype-linked metabolomic signals, the first reported the presence of any Aβ isoform and the second the effects of the lethal Arctic Aβ. Lethality was specifically associated with signs of oxidative respiration dysfunction and oxidative stress. PMID:27103517

  16. Role of Notch-1 signaling pathway in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35)

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Huimin; Zhang, Yaozhou; Shi, Xiaoyan; Wei, Tianxiang; Lou, Jiyu

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that Notch-1 expression is increased in the hippocampus of Alzheimer's disease patients. We speculate that Notch-1 signaling may be involved in PC12 cell apoptosis induced by amyloid beta-peptide (25–35) (Aβ25–35). In the present study, PC12 cells were cultured with different doses (0, 0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 nmol/L) of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester, a Notch-1 signaling pathway inhibitor, for 30 minutes. Then cultured cells were induced with Aβ25–35 for 48 hours. Pretreatment of PC12 cells with high doses of N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (> 10 nmol/L) prolonged the survival of PC12 cells after Aβ25–35 induction, decreased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3, -8, -9, increased the activity of oxidative stress-related superoxide dismutase and catalase, inhibited the production of active oxygen, and reduced nuclear factor kappa B expression. This study indicates that the Notch-1 signaling pathway plays a pivotal role in Aβ25–35-induced PC12 apoptosis. PMID:25221582

  17. Critical role for sphingosine kinase-1 in regulating survival of neuroblastoma cells exposed to amyloid-beta peptide.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Brouchet, Anne; Pchejetski, Dimitri; Brizuela, Leyre; Garcia, Virginie; Altié, Marie-Françoise; Maddelein, Marie-Lise; Delisle, Marie-Bernadette; Cuvillier, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    We examined the role of sphingosine kinase-1 (SphK1), a critical regulator of the ceramide/sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) biostat, in the regulation of death and survival of SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells in response to amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide (25-35). Upon incubation with Abeta, SH-SY5Y cells displayed a marked down-regulation of SphK1 activity coupled with an increase in the ceramide/S1P ratio followed by cell death. This mechanism was redox-sensitive; N-acetylcysteine totally abrogated the down-regulation of SphK1 activity and strongly inhibited Abeta-induced cell death. SphK1 overexpression impaired the cytotoxicity of Abeta, whereas SphK1 silencing by RNA interference mimicked Abeta-induced cell death, thereby establishing a critical role for SphK1. We further demonstrated that SphK1 could mediate the well established cytoprotective action of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) against Abeta toxicity. A dominant-negative form of SphK1 or its pharmacological inhibition not only abrogated IGF-I-triggered stimulation of SphK1 but also hampered IGF-I protective effect. Similarly to IGF-I, the neuroprotective action of TGF-beta1 was also dependent on SphK1 activity; activation of SphK1 as well as cell survival were impeded by a dominant-negative form of SphK1. Taken together, these results provide the first illustration of SphK1 role as a critical regulator of death and survival of Abeta-treated cells. PMID:17522181

  18. Antimicrobial Properties of Amyloid Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kagan, Bruce L.; Jang, Hyunbum; Capone, Ricardo; Arce, Fernando Teran; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Lal, Ratnesh; Nussinov, Ruth

    2011-01-01

    More than two dozen clinical syndromes known as amyloid diseases are characterized by the buildup of extended insoluble fibrillar deposits in tissues. These amorphous Congo red staining deposits known as amyloids exhibit a characteristic green birefringence and cross-β structure. Substantial evidence implicates oligomeric intermediates of amyloids as toxic species in the pathogenesis of these chronic disease states. A growing body of data has suggested that these toxic species form ion channels in cellular membranes causing disruption of calcium homeostasis, membrane depolarization, energy drainage, and in some cases apoptosis. Amyloid peptide channels exhibit a number of common biological properties including the universal U-shape β-strand-turn-β-strand structure, irreversible and spontaneous insertion into membranes, production of large heterogeneous single-channel conductances, relatively poor ion selectivity, inhibition by Congo red, and channel blockade by zinc. Recent evidence has suggested that increased amounts of amyloids are not only toxic to its host target cells but also possess antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, at least one human antimicrobial peptide, protegrin-1, which kills microbes by a channel-forming mechanism, has been shown to possess the ability to form extended amyloid fibrils very similar to those of classic disease-forming amyloids. In this paper, we will review the reported antimicrobial properties of amyloids and the implications of these discoveries for our understanding of amyloid structure and function. PMID:22081976

  19. Multiple mechanisms of iron-induced amyloid beta-peptide accumulation in SHSY5Y cells: protective action of negletein.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Priyanjalee; Sahoo, Arghyadip; Anand, Shruti; Ganguly, Anirban; Righi, Giuliana; Bovicelli, Paolo; Saso, Luciano; Chakrabarti, Sasanka

    2014-12-01

    The increased accumulation of iron in the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is well documented, and excess iron is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease. The adverse effects of accumulated iron in AD brain may include the oxidative stress, altered amyloid beta-metabolism and the augmented toxicity of metal-bound amyloid beta 42. In this study, we have shown that exogenously added iron in the form of ferric ammonium citrate (FAC) leads to considerable accumulation of amyloid precursor protein (APP) without a corresponding change in the concerned gene expression in cultured SHSY5Y cells during exposure up to 48 h. This phenomenon is also associated with increased β-secretase activity and augmented release of amyloid beta 42 in the medium. Further, the increase in β-secretase activity, in SHSY5Y cells, upon exposure to iron apparently involves reactive oxygen species (ROS) and NF-κB activation. The synthetic flavone negletein (5,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone), which is a known chelator for iron, can significantly prevent the effects of FAC on APP metabolism in SHSY5Y cells. Further, this compound inhibits the iron-dependent formation of ROS and also blocks the iron-induced oligomerization of amyloid beta 42 in vitro. In concentrations used in this study, negletein alone appears to have only marginal toxic effects on cell viability, but, on the other hand, the drug is capable of ameliorating the iron-induced loss of cell viability considerably. Our results provide the initial evidence of potential therapeutic effects of negletein, which should be explored in suitable animal models of AD. PMID:25249289

  20. Interaction of PiB-derivative metal complexes with beta-amyloid peptides: selective recognition of the aggregated forms.

    PubMed

    Martins, André F; Dias, David M; Morfin, Jean-François; Lacerda, Sara; Laurents, Douglas V; Tóth, Éva; Geraldes, Carlos F G C

    2015-03-27

    Metal complexes are increasingly explored as imaging probes in amyloid peptide related pathologies. We report the first detailed study on the mechanism of interaction between a metal complex and both the monomer and the aggregated form of Aβ1-40 peptide. We have studied lanthanide(III) chelates of two PiB-derivative ligands (PiB=Pittsburgh compound B), L(1) and L(2), differing in the length of the spacer between the metal-complexing DO3A macrocycle (DO3A=1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7-triacetic acid) and the peptide-recognition PiB moiety. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) and saturation transfer difference (STD) NMR spectroscopy revealed that they both bind to aggregated Aβ1-40 (KD =67-160 μM), primarily through the benzothiazole unit. HSQC NMR spectroscopy on the (15) N-labeled, monomer Aβ1-40 peptide indicates nonsignificant interaction with monomeric Aβ. Time-dependent circular dichroism (CD), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and TEM investigations of the secondary structure and of the aggregation of Aβ1-40 in the presence of increasing amounts of the metal complexes provide coherent data showing that, despite their structural similarity, the two complexes affect Aβ fibril formation distinctly. Whereas GdL(1), at higher concentrations, stabilizes β-sheets, GdL(2) prevents aggregation by promoting α-helical structures. These results give insight into the behavior of amyloid-targeted metal complexes in general and contribute to a more rational design of metal-based diagnostic and therapeutic agents for amyloid- associated pathologies. PMID:25712142

  1. pH-dependence of the specific binding of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions to the amyloid-{beta} peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Ghalebani, Leila; Wahlstroem, Anna; Danielsson, Jens; Waermlaender, Sebastian K.T.S.; Graeslund, Astrid

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cu(II) and Zn(II) display pH-dependent binding to the A{beta}(1-40) peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 7.4 both metal ions display residue-specific binding to the A{beta} peptide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At pH 5.5 the binding specificity is lost for Zn(II). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding may help explain metal-induced AD toxicity. -- Abstract: Metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) are accumulated in Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques. The amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptide involved in the disease interacts with these metal ions at neutral pH via ligands provided by the N-terminal histidines and the N-terminus. The present study uses high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to monitor the residue-specific interactions of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with {sup 15}N- and {sup 13}C,{sup 15}N-labeled A{beta}(1-40) peptides at varying pH levels. At pH 7.4 both ions bind to the specific ligands, competing with one another. At pH 5.5 Cu(II) retains its specific histidine ligands, while Zn(II) seems to lack residue-specific interactions. The low pH mimics acidosis which is linked to inflammatory processes in vivo. The results suggest that the cell toxic effects of redox active Cu(II) binding to A{beta} may be reversed by the protective activity of non-redox active Zn(II) binding to the same major binding site under non-acidic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the protective effect of Zn(II) may be decreased or changed, since Zn(II) is less able to compete with Cu(II) for the specific binding site on the A{beta} peptide under these conditions.

  2. Probing amyloid beta-induced cell death using a fluorescence-peptide conjugate in Alzheimer's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong Kil; Wang, Kai; Park, Min Hee; Kim, Namoh; Lee, Ju Youn; Jin, Hee Kyung; Kim, In-San; Lee, Byung-Heon; Bae, Jae-Sung

    2016-09-01

    With the increasing worldwide incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), there is a critical need for the discovery of more effective diagnostic methods. However, development of diagnostic tools in AD has been hindered by obstacles such as the absence of exact biomarkers. Apoptosis caused by amyloid-β (Aβ) plays an important role in AD pathology; therefore, provides an attractive biological target for the diagnosis of AD. The present study aimed to evaluate the potential of small peptide, named ApoPep-1 (Apoptosis-targeting peptide-1) as a new apoptosis imaging agent in AD. The fluorescein-conjugated ApoPep-1, but not the control peptide, targeted apoptotic cells in the brain of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/presenilin 1 (PS1) mice. We also observed fluorescence signals during in vivo imaging of apoptotic cells using ApoPep-1, and fluorescence levels increased in an age-dependent manner in APP/PS1 mice. Ex vivo imaging of isolated brains in APP/PS1 mice further confirmed the targeting of ApoPep-1 to apoptotic cells. The fluorescein-labeled ApoPep-1 co-localized with brain cells such as neurons, astrocytes, and microglia, all of which undergo apoptosis in the APP/PS1 mice brain. These findings demonstrate that ApoPep-1 can target apoptotic brain cells, and be used for experimental investigations relevant to apoptosis in AD. PMID:27369450

  3. The involvement of sigma1 receptors in donepezil-induced rescue of hippocampal LTP impaired by beta-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Solntseva, E I; Kapai, N A; Popova, O V; Rogozin, P D; Skrebitsky, V G

    2014-07-01

    Donepezil is a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Additional therapeutically relevant target for donepezil is sigma1 receptor (Sig1-R). Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of AD. In our previous work (Kapai et al., 2012), we have shown that donepezil antagonizes the suppressive action of Aβ(1-42) on long-term potentiation (LTP) in rat hippocampal slices. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether Sig1-R is involved into the mechanisms of donepezil action. For this purpose, we have tested whether agonist of Sig1-R PRE-084 mimics, and antagonist of Sig1-R haloperidol abolishes the effect of donepezil. Population spikes (PSs) were recorded from the pyramidal layer of the CA1 region of rat hippocampal slices. Drugs were applied by addition to the perfusate starting 15 min before and ending 5 min after the tetanus. In the control group, the amplitude of PS 30 min post-tetanus reached 153±10%. Aβ (200 nM) markedly suppressed the LTP magnitude or even caused the suppression of baseline PS (82±8%, P<0.001). This suppression of LTP could be markedly prevented when 1 μM donepezil was co-administered with Aβ (136±11%, P<0.05). Further, we co-administered three substances: Aβ, donepezil and 0.5 μM haloperidol and have found that haloperidol antagonized the stimulating effect of donepezil on LTP (92±6%, P<0.05). Agonist of Sig1-R PRE-084 (0.1-10 μM) enhanced control LTP and abolished the inhibitory effect of Aβ on LTP in a concentration-dependent manner. The amplitude of PS 30 min post-tetanus reached 183±7% (P<0.01) for 10 μM PRE-084. The results suggest that activation of Sig1-R is involved into the mechanisms of donepezil-induced rescue of hippocampal LTP impaired by Aβ. PMID:24956443

  4. Development of a novel radioimmunoassay to detect autoantibodies to amyloid beta peptides in the presence of a cross-reactive therapeutic antibody.

    PubMed

    Sloan, John H; Ackermann, Bradley J; O'Dell, Mark; Bowsher, Ronald R; Dean, Robert A; Konrad, Robert J

    2011-12-15

    An increasing need in the development of biotherapeutic agents is the ability to monitor a potential autoimmune response to the therapeutic target of interest. Unfortunately, the presence of high concentrations of therapeutic antibody can hinder such detection, because there is competition for binding in cases where epitopes are not structurally distinct. This situation was encountered in the development of LY2062430, a therapeutic mid-domain monoclonal anti-amyloid beta peptide (Aβ) antibody undergoing clinical trials for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. This communication reports the development and validation of a novel radioimmunoassay used to measure potential patient immune responses to Aβ in the presence of LY2062430. This assay employs a radioiodinated analog of the human amyloid beta 1-40 peptide (Aβ1-40) in which a single amino acid substitution of alanine for phenylalanine at position 19 (F19A) effectively eliminates binding by LY2062430. In contrast, F19A binding by monoclonal antibodies specific for the N- and C-termini of the human Aβ1-40 peptide was shown to be unaltered. Additional experiments involving a polyclonal rabbit antibody raised against the midregion of Aβ1-40 (residues 15-30) resulted in only a slight reduction in binding to the F19A tracer, suggesting that the modification does not affect distal epitopes in Aβ1-40 and supporting the notion that this conservative substitution produces only subtle change in the overall peptide structure. The assay is therefore believed to detect most, if not all, patient antibodies to native Aβ peptides. The assay was validated for use in clinical trials allowing detection of antibodies to Aβ in human serum in the presence of therapeutic concentrations of LY2062430. PMID:21868184

  5. A role for 4-hydroxynonenal, an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation, in disruption of ion homeostasis and neuronal death induced by amyloid beta-peptide.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Lovell, M A; Markesbery, W R; Uchida, K; Mattson, M P

    1997-01-01

    Peroxidation of membrane lipids results in release of the aldehyde 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), which is known to conjugate to specific amino acids of proteins and may alter their function. Because accumulating data indicate that free radicals mediate injury and death of neurons in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and because amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) can promote free radical production, we tested the hypothesis that HNE mediates A beta 25-35-induced disruption of neuronal ion homeostasis and cell death. A beta induced large increases in levels of free and protein-bound HNE in cultured hippocampal cells. HNE was neurotoxic in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and this toxicity was specific in that other aldehydic lipid peroxidation products were not neurotoxic. HNE impaired Na+, K(+)-ATPase activity and induced an increase of neuronal intracellular free Ca2+ concentration. HNE increased neuronal vulnerability to glutamate toxicity, and HNE toxicity was partially attenuated by NMDA receptor antagonists, suggesting an excitotoxic component to HNE neurotoxicity. Glutathione, which was previously shown to play a key role in HNE metabolism in nonneuronal cells, attenuated the neurotoxicities of both A beta and HNE. The antioxidant propyl gallate protected neurons against A beta toxicity but was less effective in protecting against HNE toxicity. Collectively, the data suggest that HNE mediates A beta-induced oxidative damage to neuronal membrane proteins, which, in turn, leads to disruption of ion homeostasis and cell degeneration. PMID:8978733

  6. Amyloid Beta Peptides Affect Pregnenolone and Pregnenolone Sulfate Levels in PC-12 and SH-SY5Y Cells Depending on Cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Calan, Ozlem Gursoy; Akan, Pinar; Cataler, Aysenur; Dogan, Cumhur; Kocturk, Semra

    2016-07-01

    Increased amyloid beta (AB) peptide concentration is one of the initiating factors in the neurodegeneration process. It has been suggested that cholesterol induces the synthesis of AB peptide from amyloid precursor protein or facilitates the formation of amyloid plaque by lowering the aggregation threshold of the peptide. It is also shown that AB peptides may affect cholesterol metabolism and the synthesis of steroid hormones such as progesterone and estradiol. Pregnenolone (P) and pregnenolone sulfate (PS) are the major steroids produced from cholesterol in neural tissue. In toxicity conditions, the effect of AB peptides on P and PS levels has not yet been determined. Furthermore, it has not been clearly defined how changes in cellular P and PS levels affect neuronal cell survival. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of AB peptides on cellular changes in P and PS levels depending on the level of their main precursor, cholesterol. Cholesterol and toxic concentrations of AB fragments (AB 25-35, AB 1-40 and AB 1-42) were applied to PC-12 and SH-SY5Y cells. Changes in cellular cholesterol, P and PS levels were determined simultaneously in a dose-and time-dependent manner. The cell viability and cell death types were also evaluated. AB peptides affected both cell viability and P/PS levels. Steroid levels were altered depending on AB fragment type and the cholesterol content of the cells. Treatment with each of the AB fragments alone increased P levels by twofold. However, combined treatment with AB peptides and cholesterol increased P levels by approximately sixfold, while PS levels were increased only about 2.5 fold in both cell lines. P levels in the groups treated with AB 25-35 were higher than those in AB 1-40 and AB 1-42 groups. The cell viabilities were significantly low in the group treated by AB and cholesterol (9 mM). The effect of AB peptides on P levels might be a result of cellular self-defense. On the other hand, the rate of P increase

  7. Nuclear magnetic resonance evidence for the dimer formation of beta amyloid peptide 1-42 in 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol.

    PubMed

    Shigemitsu, Yoshiki; Iwaya, Naoko; Goda, Natsuko; Matsuzaki, Mizuki; Tenno, Takeshi; Narita, Akihiro; Hoshi, Minako; Hiroaki, Hidekazu

    2016-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease involves accumulation of senile plaques in which filamentous aggregates of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are deposited. Recent studies demonstrate that oligomerization pathways of Aβ peptides may be complicated. To understand the mechanisms of Aβ(1-42) oligomer formation in more detail, we have established a method to produce (15)N-labeled Aβ(1-42) suited for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies. For physicochemical studies, the starting protein material should be solely monomeric and all Aβ aggregates must be removed. Here, we succeeded in fractionating a "precipitation-resistant" fraction of Aβ(1-42) from an "aggregation-prone" fraction by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), even from bacterially overexpressed Aβ(1-42). However, both Aβ(1-42) fractions after 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol (HFIP) treatment formed amyloid fibrils. This indicates that the "aggregation seed" was not completely monomerized during HFIP treatment. In addition, Aβ(1-42) dissolved in HFIP was found to display a monomer-dimer equilibrium, as shown by two-dimensional (1)H-(15)N NMR. We demonstrated that the initial concentration of Aβ during the HFIP pretreatment altered the kinetic profiles of Aβ fibril formation in a thioflavin T fluorescence assay. The findings described here should ensure reproducible results when studying the Aβ(1-42) peptide. PMID:26772162

  8. Modified screen printed electrode for development of a highly sensitive label-free impedimetric immunosensor to detect amyloid beta peptides.

    PubMed

    Lien, Truong T N; Takamura, Yuzuru; Tamiya, Eiichi; Vestergaard, Mun'delanji C

    2015-09-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting approximately 26 million people world-wide, and the number is increasing as life expectancy increases. Since the only reliable diagnosis for the pathology is histochemical post-mortem examination, there is a rather urgent need for reliable, sensitive and quick detection techniques. Amyloid beta, being one of the established and widely accepted biomarkers of AD is a target biomolecule. Herein, we present fabrication of a labelless impedimetric amyloid beta immunosensor on carbon DEP (disposable electrochemical printed) chip. Three types of amyloid β impedimetric immunosensors were fabricated in a systematic step-wise manner in order to understand the effects that each surface modification chemistry had on detection sensitivity. We found that compared to a bare electrode, surface modification through formation of SAM of AuNPs increased sensitivity by approximately three orders of magnitude (LoD from 2.04 μM to 2.65 nM). A further modification using protein G, which helps orientate antibodies to an optimum position for interaction with antigen, lowered the LoD further to 0.57 nM. We have demonstrated that the presence of one of the most abundance proteins in biological fluids, bovine serum albumin (BSA), did not interfere with the sensitivity of the sensor. Since the DEP chips are disposable and the detection platform label-free, the developed sensor is relatively fast and cheap. These methods could easily be applied for detection of other antigens, with selection of the detection platform based on the desired for sensitivity. PMID:26388476

  9. Simple detection method of amyloid-beta peptide using p-FET with optical filtering layer and magnetic particle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwan-Soo; Kim, Chang-Beom; Song, Ki-Bong

    2013-05-01

    This article describes a novel method for detection of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide that utilizes a photo-sensitive field-effect transistor (p-FET). According to a recent study, Aβ protein is known to play a central role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, we investigated the variation of photo current of the p-FET generated by the magnetic beads conjugated with Aβ peptides which are placed on the p-FET sensing areas. Additionally, in order to amplify the output signal, we used the lock-in amplifier (LIA) and confirmed the generating the photo current by a small incident light power under 100 μW. It means that it is possible to simply detect a certain protein using magnetic beads conjugated with Aβ peptide and fluorescent label located on the p-FET device. Therefore, in this paper, we suggest that our method could detect tiny amounts of Aβ peptide for early diagnosis of AD using the p-FET devices.

  10. The effect of tachykinin neuropeptides on amyloid {beta} aggregation

    SciTech Connect

    Flashner, Efrat; Raviv, Uri; Friedler, Assaf

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Mechanistic explanation of how tachykinin neuropeptides reduce A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity. {yields} Biophysical studies suggest that tachykinins do not modulate the distribution of A{beta} oligomeric states, but rather may incorporate into the fibrils. {yields} A possible strategy to inhibit toxicity of amyloid fibrils. -- Abstract: A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease is production of amyloid {beta} peptides resulting from aberrant cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein. Amyloid {beta} assembles into fibrils under physiological conditions, through formation of neurotoxic intermediate oligomers. Tachykinin peptides are known to affect amyloid {beta} neurotoxicity in cells. To understand the mechanism of this effect, we studied how tachykinins affect A{beta}(1-40) aggregation in vitro. Fibrils grown in the presence of tachykinins exhibited reduced thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, while their morphology, observed in transmission electron microscopy (TEM), did not alter. Cross linking studies revealed that the distribution of low molecular weight species was not affected by tachykinins. Our results suggest that there may be a specific interaction between tachykinins and A{beta}(1-40) that allows them to co-assemble. This effect may explain the reduction of A{beta}(1-40) neurotoxicity in cells treated with tachykinins.

  11. Basic FGF attenuates amyloid beta-peptide-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and impairment of Na+/K+-ATPase activity in hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Keller, J N; Kruman, I; Mattson, M P

    1997-05-01

    Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) exhibits trophic activity for many populations of neurons in the brain, and can protect those neurons against excitotoxic, metabolic and oxidative insults. In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) fibrils accumulate in plaques which are associated with degenerating neurons. A beta can be neurotoxic by a mechanism that appears to involve induction of oxidative stress and disruption of calcium homeostasis. Plaques in AD brain contain high levels of bFGF suggesting a possible modulatory role for bFGF in the neurodegenerative process. We now report that bFGF can protect cultured hippocampal neurons against A beta25-35 toxicity by a mechanism that involves suppression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and maintenance of Na+/K+-ATPase activity. A beta25-35 induced lipid peroxidation, accumulation of H2O2, mitochondrial ROS accumulation, and a decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential; each of these effects of A beta25-35 was abrogated in cultures pre-treated with bFGF. Na+/K+-ATPase activity was significantly reduced following exposure to A beta25-35 in control cultures, but not in cultures pre-treated with bFGF. bFGF did not protect neurons from death induced by ouabain (a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase) or 4-hydroxynonenal (an aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation) consistent with a site of action of bFGF prior to induction of oxidative stress and impairment of ion-motive ATPases. By suppressing accumulation of oxyradicals, bFGF may slow A beta-induced neurodegenerative cascades. PMID:9187334

  12. Influence of the solvent on the self-assembly of a modified amyloid beta peptide fragment. II. NMR and computer simulation investigation.

    PubMed

    Hamley, I W; Nutt, D R; Brown, G D; Miravet, J F; Escuder, B; Rodríguez-Llansola, F

    2010-01-21

    The conformation of a model peptide AAKLVFF based on a fragment of the amyloid beta peptide Abeta16-20, KLVFF, is investigated in methanol and water via solution NMR experiments and molecular dynamics computer simulations. In previous work, we have shown that AAKLVFF forms peptide nanotubes in methanol and twisted fibrils in water. Chemical shift measurements were used to investigate the solubility of the peptide as a function of concentration in methanol and water. This enabled the determination of critical aggregation concentrations. The solubility was lower in water. In dilute solution, diffusion coefficients revealed the presence of intermediate aggregates in concentrated solution, coexisting with NMR-silent larger aggregates, presumed to be beta-sheets. In water, diffusion coefficients did not change appreciably with concentration, indicating the presence mainly of monomers, coexisting with larger aggregates in more concentrated solution. Concentration-dependent chemical shift measurements indicated a folded conformation for the monomers/intermediate aggregates in dilute methanol, with unfolding at higher concentration. In water, an antiparallel arrangement of strands was indicated by certain ROESY peak correlations. The temperature-dependent solubility of AAKLVFF in methanol was well described by a van't Hoff analysis, providing a solubilization enthalpy and entropy. This pointed to the importance of solvophobic interactions in the self-assembly process. Molecular dynamics simulations constrained by NOE values from NMR suggested disordered reverse turn structures for the monomer, with an antiparallel twisted conformation for dimers. To model the beta-sheet structures formed at higher concentration, possible model arrangements of strands into beta-sheets with parallel and antiparallel configurations and different stacking sequences were used as the basis for MD simulations; two particular arrangements of antiparallel beta-sheets were found to be stable, one

  13. Amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 causes microtubule deregulation through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in mature hippocampal cultures.

    PubMed

    Mota, Sandra I; Ferreira, Ildete L; Pereira, Claudia; Oliveira, Catarina R; Rego, A Cristina

    2012-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder among the elderly. Nmethyl- D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) overactivation has been implicated in early synaptic dysfunction that precedes late neurodegeneration in AD. Moreover, oligomers of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ) 1-42 are considered the most synaptotoxic forms, responsible for early cognitive deficits in AD. In this work we evaluate the role of NMDARs on Aβ-evoked neuronal dysfunction and cell death through changes in microtubule polymerization in mature hippocampal cultures. Exposure to Aβ 1-42 caused a decrease in total and polymerized levels of beta-III tubulin and polymerized alpha-tubulin, suggesting microtubule disassembly. Moreover, Aβ induced DNA fragmentation in both neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Indeed, the effects of Aβ on beta-III tubulin polymerization were significantly correlated with reduced neurite length and neuronal DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, these effects were prevented by MK-801 and memantine, suggesting a role for extrasynaptic NMDARs in Aβ toxicity, and by ifenprodil, further indicating the involvement of GluN2B-containing NMDARs. Nevertheless, exposure to Aβ did not potentiate the effects caused by selective activation of NMDARs. Data largely suggest that Aβ-induced hippocampal neuronal dysfunction occurs through NMDAR-dependent microtubule disassembly associated to neurite retraction and DNA fragmentation in mature hippocampal cells. PMID:22631440

  14. Accumulation of Exogenous Amyloid-Beta Peptide in Hippocampal Mitochondria Causes Their Dysfunction: A Protective Role for Melatonin

    PubMed Central

    Rosales-Corral, Sergio; Acuna-Castroviejo, Dario; Tan, Dun Xian; López-Armas, Gabriela; Cruz-Ramos, José; Munoz, Rubén; Melnikov, Valery G.; Manchester, Lucien C.; Reiter, Russel J.

    2012-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology is related to mitochondrial dysfunction accompanied by energy reduction and an elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Monomers and oligomers of Aβ have been found inside mitochondria where they accumulate in a time-dependent manner as demonstrated in transgenic mice and in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. We hypothesize that the internalization of extracellular Aβ aggregates is the major cause of mitochondrial damage and here we report that following the injection of fibrillar Aβ into the hippocampus, there is severe axonal damage which is accompanied by the entrance of Aβ into the cell. Thereafter, Aβ appears in mitochondria where it is linked to alterations in the ionic gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. This effect is accompanied by disruption of subcellular structure, oxidative stress, and a significant reduction in both the respiratory control ratio and in the hydrolytic activity of ATPase. Orally administrated melatonin reduced oxidative stress, improved the mitochondrial respiratory control ratio, and ameliorated the energy imbalance. PMID:22666521

  15. Amyloid beta-peptide impairs ion-motive ATPase activities: evidence for a role in loss of neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis and cell death.

    PubMed

    Mark, R J; Hensley, K; Butterfield, D A; Mattson, M P

    1995-09-01

    The amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) that accumulates as insoluble plaques in the brain in Alzheimer's disease can be directly neurotoxic and can increase neuronal vulnerability to excitotoxic insults. The mechanism of A beta toxicity is unclear but is believed to involve generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of calcium homeostasis. We now report that exposure of cultured rat hippocampal neurons to A beta 1-40 or A beta 25-35 causes a selective reduction in Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity which precedes loss of calcium homeostasis and cell degeneration. Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity was reduced within 30 min of exposure to A beta 25-35 and declined to less than 40% of basal level by 3 hr. A beta did not impair other Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities or Na+/Ca2+ exchange. Experiments with ouabain, a specific inhibitor of the Na+/K(+)-ATPase, demonstrated that impairment of this enzyme was sufficient to induce an elevation of [Ca2+]i and neuronal injury. Impairment of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity appeared to be causally involved in the elevation of [Ca2+]i and neurotoxicity since suppression of Na+ influx significantly reduced A beta- and ouabain-induced [Ca2+]i elevation and neuronal death. Neuronal degeneration induced by ouabain appeared to be of an apoptotic form as indicated by nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. The antioxidant free radical scavengers vitamin E and propylgallate significantly attenuated A beta-induced impairment of Na+/K(+)-ATPase activity, elevation of [Ca2+]i and neurotoxicity, suggesting a role for ROS. Finally, exposure of synaptosomes from postmortem human hippocampus to A beta resulted in a significant and specific reduction in Na+/K(+)-ATPase and Ca(2+)-ATPase activities, without affecting other Mg(2+)-dependent ATPase activities or Na+/Ca2+ exchange. These data suggest that impairment of ion-motive ATPases may play a role in the pathogenesis of neuronal injury in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:7666206

  16. Unique physicochemical profile of beta-amyloid peptide variant Abeta1-40E22G protofibrils: conceivable neuropathogen in arctic mutant carriers.

    PubMed

    Päiviö, A; Jarvet, J; Gräslund, A; Lannfelt, L; Westlind-Danielsson, A

    2004-05-21

    A new early-onset form of Alzheimer's disease (AD) was described recently where a point mutation was discovered in codon 693 of the beta-amyloid (Abeta) precursor protein gene, the Arctic mutation. The mutation translates into a single amino acid substitution, glutamic acid-->glycine, in position 22 of the Abeta peptide. The mutation carriers have lower plasma levels of Abeta than normal, while in vitro studies show that Abeta1-40E22G protofibril formation is significantly enhanced. We have explored the nature of the Abeta1-40E22G peptide in more detail, in particular the protofibrils. Using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC) and circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) kinetic and secondary structural characteristics were compared with other Abeta1-40 peptides and the Abeta12-28 fragment, all having single amino acid substitutions in position 22. We have found that Abeta1-40E22G protofibrils are a group of comparatively stabile beta-sheet-containing oligomers with a heterogeneous size distribution, ranging from >100 kDa to >3000 kDa. Small Abeta1-40E22G protofibrils are generated about 400 times faster than large ones. Salt promotes their formation, which significantly exceeds all the other peptides studied here, including the Dutch mutation Abeta1-40E22Q. Position 22 substitutions had significant effects on aggregation kinetics of Abeta1-40 and in Abeta12-28, although the qualitative aspects of the effects differed between the native peptide and the fragment, as no protofibrils were formed by the fragments. The rank order of protofibril formation of Abeta1-40 and its variants was the same as the rank order of the length of the nucleation/lag phase of the Abeta12-28 fragments, E22V>E22A?E22G>E22Q?E22, and correlated with the degree of hydrophobicity of the position 22 substituent. The molecular mass of peptide monomers and protofibrils were estimated better in SEC studies using linear rather than globular calibration standards. The characteristics of the Abeta1-40E22

  17. Role of glycine-33 and methionine-35 in Alzheimer's amyloid beta-peptide 1-42-associated oxidative stress and neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kanski, Jaroslaw; Varadarajan, Sridhar; Aksenova, Marina; Butterfield, D Allan

    2002-03-16

    Recent theoretical calculations predicted that Gly33 of one molecule of amyloid beta-peptide (1-42) (Abeta(1-42)) is attacked by a putative sulfur-based free radical of methionine residue 35 of an adjacent peptide. This would lead to a carbon-centered free radical on Gly33 that would immediately bind oxygen to form a peroxyl free radical. Such peroxyl free radicals could contribute to the reported Abeta(1-42)-induced lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and neurotoxicity, all of which are prevented by the chain-breaking antioxidant vitamin E. In the theoretical calculations, it was shown that no other amino acid, only Gly, could undergo such a reaction. To test this prediction we studied the effects of substitution of Gly33 of Abeta(1-42) on protein oxidation and neurotoxicity of hippocampal neurons and free radical formation in synaptosomes and in solution. Gly33 of Abeta(1-42) was substituted by Val (Abeta(1-42G33V)). The substituted peptide showed almost no neuronal toxicity compared to the native Abeta(1-42) as well as significantly lowered levels of oxidized proteins. In addition, synaptosomes subjected to Abeta(1-42G33V) showed considerably lower dichlorofluorescein-dependent fluorescence - a measure of reactive oxygen species (ROS) - in comparison to native Abeta(1-42) treatment. The ability of the peptides to generate ROS was also evaluated by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping methods using the ultrapure spin trap N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN). While Abeta(1-42) gave a strong mixture of four- and six-line PBN-derived spectra, the intensity of the EPR signal generated by Abeta(1-42G33V) was far less. Finally, the ability of the peptides to form fibrils was evaluated by electron microscopy. Abeta(1-42G33V) does not form fibrils nearly as well as Abeta(1-42) after 48 h of incubation. The results suggest that Gly33 may be a possible site of free radical propagation processes that are initiated on Met35 of Abeta(1-42) and that

  18. Chronic treatment with the gamma-secretase inhibitor LY-411,575 inhibits beta-amyloid peptide production and alters lymphopoiesis and intestinal cell differentiation.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gwendolyn T; Manfra, Denise; Poulet, Frederique M; Zhang, Qi; Josien, Hubert; Bara, Thomas; Engstrom, Laura; Pinzon-Ortiz, Maria; Fine, Jay S; Lee, Hu-Jung J; Zhang, Lili; Higgins, Guy A; Parker, Eric M

    2004-03-26

    Inhibition of gamma-secretase, one of the enzymes responsible for the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) to produce the pathogenic beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides, is an attractive approach to the treatment of Alzheimer disease. In addition to APP, however, several other gamma-secretase substrates have been identified (e.g. Notch), and altered processing of these substrates by gamma-secretase inhibitors could lead to unintended biological consequences. To study the in vivo consequences of gamma-secretase inhibition, the gamma-secretase inhibitor LY-411,575 was administered to C57BL/6 and TgCRND8 APP transgenic mice for 15 days. Although most tissues were unaffected, doses of LY-411,575 that inhibited Abeta production had marked effects on lymphocyte development and on the intestine. LY-411,575 decreased overall thymic cellularity and impaired intrathymic differentiation at the CD4(-)CD8(-)CD44(+)CD25(+) precursor stage. No effects on peripheral T cell populations were noted following LY-411,575 treatment, but evidence for the altered maturation of peripheral B cells was observed. In the intestine, LY-411,575 treatment increased goblet cell number and drastically altered tissue morphology. These effects of LY-411,575 were not seen in mice that were administered LY-D, a diastereoisomer of LY-411,575, which is a very weak gamma-secretase inhibitor. These studies show that inhibition of gamma-secretase has the expected benefit of reducing Abeta in a murine model of Alzheimer disease but has potentially undesirable biological effects as well, most likely because of the inhibition of Notch processing. PMID:14709552

  19. Amyloid beta peptide and NMDA induce ROS from NADPH oxidase and AA release from cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Shelat, Phullara B; Chalimoniuk, Malgorzata; Wang, Jing-Hung; Strosznajder, Joanna B; Lee, James C; Sun, Albert Y; Simonyi, Agnes; Sun, Grace Y

    2008-07-01

    Increase in oxidative stress has been postulated to play an important role in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. There is evidence for involvement of amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) in mediating the oxidative damage to neurons. Despite yet unknown mechanism, Abeta appears to exert action on the ionotropic glutamate receptors, especially the N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptor subtypes. In this study, we showed that NMDA and oligomeric Abeta(1-42) could induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) production from cortical neurons through activation of NADPH oxidase. ROS derived from NADPH oxidase led to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphorylation of cytosolic phospholipase A(2)alpha (cPLA(2)alpha), and arachidonic acid (AA) release. In addition, Abeta(1-42)-induced AA release was inhibited by d(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid and memantine, two different NMDA receptor antagonists, suggesting action of Abeta through the NMDA receptor. Besides serving as a precursor for eicosanoids, AA is also regarded as a retrograde messenger and plays a role in modulating synaptic plasticity. Other phospholipase A(2) products such as lysophospholipids can perturb membrane phospholipids. These results suggest an oxidative-degradative mechanism for oligomeric Abeta(1-42) to induce ROS production and stimulate AA release through the NMDA receptors. This novel mechanism may contribute to the oxidative stress hypothesis and synaptic failure that underline the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:18346200

  20. Differential effects of "Advanced glycation endproducts" and beta-amyloid peptide on glucose utilization and ATP levels in the neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Loske, C; Garcia De Arriba, S; Schinzel, R; Huber, J; Münch, G

    2004-03-01

    Beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) and "Advanced glycation endproducts" (AGEs) are components of the senile plaques in Alzheimer's disease patients. It has been proposed that both AGEs and Abeta exert many of their effects, which include the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, through RAGE ("receptor for advanced glycation endproducts"). To investigate whether Abeta and AGEs cause similar or identical effects on cell survival and energy metabolism, we have compared the effects of a model-AGE and Abeta on cell viability, ATP level, glucose consumption and lactate production in the neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. The results show that AGEs and Abeta increase glucose consumption and decrease ATP levels in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, both compounds decrease mitochondrial activity measured by the MTT assay. However, only AGEs decrease the number of cells and significantly increase lactate production. These data indicate that both AGEs and Abeta can cause differential disturbances in neuronal metabolism, which may contribute to the pathophysiological findings in Alzheimer's disease. However, their signalling pathways are apparently quite distinct, a fact which should stimulate a more detailed investigation in this field, e.g. for the purpose of a rational design of potential "neuroprotective" RAGE antagonists. PMID:14991463

  1. Evidence for Novel [beta]-Sheet Structures in Iowa Mutant [beta]-Amyloid Fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Tycko, Robert; Sciarretta, Kimberly L.; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2009-07-24

    Asp23-to-Asn mutation within the coding sequence of {beta}-amyloid, called the Iowa mutation, is associated with early onset, familial Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, in which patients develop neuritic plaques and massive vascular deposition predominantly of the mutant peptide. We examined the mutant peptide, D23N-A{beta}40, by electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils considerably faster than the wild-type peptide (k = 3.77 x 10{sup -3} min{sup -1} and 1.07 x 10{sup -4} min{sup -1} for D23N-A{beta}40 and the wild-type peptide WT-A{beta}40, respectively) and without a lag phase. Electron microscopy shows that D23N-A{beta}40 forms fibrils with multiple morphologies. X-ray fiber diffraction shows a cross-{beta} pattern, with a sharp reflection at 4.7 {angstrom} and a broad reflection at 9.4 {angstrom}, which is notably smaller than the value for WT-A{beta}40 fibrils (10.4 {angstrom}). Solid-state NMR measurements indicate molecular level polymorphism of the fibrils, with only a minority of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils containing the in-register, parallel {beta}-sheet structure commonly found in WT-A{beta}40 fibrils and most other amyloid fibrils. Antiparallel {beta}-sheet structures in the majority of fibrils are indicated by measurements of intermolecular distances through 13C-13C and 15N-13C dipole-dipole couplings. An intriguing possibility exists that there is a relationship between the aberrant structure of D23N-A{beta}40 fibrils and the unusual vasculotropic clinical picture in these patients.

  2. Ferulic acid destabilizes preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that curcumin (Cur) inhibits fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilizes preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of ferulic acid (FA) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of FA with Cur, rifampicin, and tetracycline. Ferulic acid dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide, as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The overall activity of the molecules examined was in the order of: Cur > FA > rifampicin = tetracycline. FA could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  3. The ability of apolipoprotein E fragments to promote intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid beta peptide 42 is both isoform and size-specific.

    PubMed

    Dafnis, Ioannis; Argyri, Letta; Sagnou, Marina; Tzinia, Athina; Tsilibary, Effie C; Stratikos, Efstratios; Chroni, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein (apo) E4 isoform is the strongest risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE4 is more susceptible to proteolysis than apoE2 and apoE3 isoforms and carboxyl-terminal truncated apoE4 forms have been found in AD patients' brain. We have previously shown that a specific apoE4 fragment, apoE4-165, promotes amyloid-peptide beta 42 (Aβ42) accumulation in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species formation, two events considered to occur early in AD pathogenesis. Here, we show that these effects are allele-dependent and absolutely require the apoE4 background. Furthermore, the exact length of the fragment is critical since longer or shorter length carboxyl-terminal truncated apoE4 forms do not elicit the same effects. Structural and thermodynamic analyses showed that apoE4-165 has a compact structure, in contrast to other carboxyl-terminal truncated apoE4 forms that are instead destabilized. Compared however to other allelic backgrounds, apoE4-165 is structurally distinct and less thermodynamically stable suggesting that the combination of a well-folded structure with structural plasticity is a unique characteristic of this fragment. Overall, our findings suggest that the ability of apoE fragments to promote Aβ42 intraneuronal accumulation is specific for both the apoE4 isoform and the particular structural and thermodynamic properties of the fragment. PMID:27476701

  4. The ability of apolipoprotein E fragments to promote intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid beta peptide 42 is both isoform and size-specific

    PubMed Central

    Dafnis, Ioannis; Argyri, Letta; Sagnou, Marina; Tzinia, Athina; Tsilibary, Effie C.; Stratikos, Efstratios; Chroni, Angeliki

    2016-01-01

    The apolipoprotein (apo) E4 isoform is the strongest risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). ApoE4 is more susceptible to proteolysis than apoE2 and apoE3 isoforms and carboxyl-terminal truncated apoE4 forms have been found in AD patients’ brain. We have previously shown that a specific apoE4 fragment, apoE4-165, promotes amyloid-peptide beta 42 (Aβ42) accumulation in human neuroblastoma SK-N-SH cells and increased intracellular reactive oxygen species formation, two events considered to occur early in AD pathogenesis. Here, we show that these effects are allele-dependent and absolutely require the apoE4 background. Furthermore, the exact length of the fragment is critical since longer or shorter length carboxyl-terminal truncated apoE4 forms do not elicit the same effects. Structural and thermodynamic analyses showed that apoE4-165 has a compact structure, in contrast to other carboxyl-terminal truncated apoE4 forms that are instead destabilized. Compared however to other allelic backgrounds, apoE4-165 is structurally distinct and less thermodynamically stable suggesting that the combination of a well-folded structure with structural plasticity is a unique characteristic of this fragment. Overall, our findings suggest that the ability of apoE fragments to promote Aβ42 intraneuronal accumulation is specific for both the apoE4 isoform and the particular structural and thermodynamic properties of the fragment. PMID:27476701

  5. Development of a proteolytically stable retro-inverso peptide inhibitor of beta-amyloid oligomerization as a potential novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark; Moore, Susan; Mayes, Jennifer; Parkin, Edward; Beeg, Marten; Canovi, Mara; Gobbi, Marco; Mann, David M A; Allsop, David

    2010-04-20

    The formation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) deposits in the brain is likely to be a seminal step in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies support the hypothesis that Abeta soluble oligomers are toxic to cells and have potent effects on memory and learning. Inhibiting the early stages of Abeta aggregation could, therefore, provide a novel approach to treating the underlying cause of AD. We have designed a retro-inverso peptide (RI-OR2, H(2)N-r<--G<--k<--l<--v<--f<--f<--G<--r-Ac), based on a previously described inhibitor of Abeta oligomer formation (OR2, H(2)N-R-G-K-L-V-F-F-G-R-NH(2)). Unlike OR2, RI-OR2 was highly stable to proteolysis and completely resisted breakdown in human plasma and brain extracts. RI-OR2 blocked the formation of Abeta oligomers and fibrils from extensively deseeded preparations of Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42), as assessed by thioflavin T binding, an immunoassay method for Abeta oligomers, SDS-PAGE separation of stable oligomers, and atomic force microscopy, and was more effective against Abeta(1-42) than Abeta(1-40). In surface plasmon resonance experiments, RI-OR2 was shown to bind to immobilized Abeta(1-42) monomers and fibrils, with an apparent K(d) of 9-12 muM, and also acted as an inhibitor of Abeta(1-42) fibril extension. In two different cell toxicity assays, RI-OR2 significantly reversed the toxicity of Abeta(1-42) toward cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Thus, RI-OR2 represents a strong candidate for further development as a novel treatment for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:20230062

  6. Oral administration of synthetic retinoid Am80 (Tamibarotene) decreases brain beta-amyloid peptides in APP23 mice.

    PubMed

    Kawahara, Kohichi; Nishi, Kentaro; Suenobu, Michita; Ohtsuka, Hideyuki; Maeda, Akira; Nagatomo, Kenichiro; Kuniyasu, Akihiko; Staufenbiel, Matthias; Nakagomi, Madoka; Shudo, Koichi; Nakayama, Hitoshi

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate whether a synthetic retinoid Am80 (tamibarotene) exhibits any improving effects on amyloid precursor protein (APP)23 mice, a model of Alzheimer's disease. Am80 was orally administered in feed to 20-week (5-month)-old APP23 mice at a dose of 0 (control) or 0.5 mg/kg/d for 14 weeks. The Am80 treatment reduced significantly the insoluble Abeta levels in brain, in particular Abeta(42), while it gave no apparent effects on the soluble Abeta levels. The results suggest that oral administration of Am80 may have potency to reduce the extracellular Abeta(42) of insoluble and possibly oligomeric or protofibril forms, which are related to the cause and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease. The Am80 treatment showed no significant effect on spatial learning and memory of APP23 mice by Morris water maze analysis. The main reason for the absence of significance seems based on the large deviation and some mice both in the treated and the non-treated groups would neither swim nor make efforts to reach the platform. PMID:19571405

  7. Identification and quantification of amyloid beta-related peptides in human plasma using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    KANEKO, Naoki; YAMAMOTO, Rie; SATO, Taka-Aki

    2014-01-01

    Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) by β-secretase and γ-secretase leads to the generation and deposition of amyloid β (Aβ) in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). N-terminally or C-terminally truncated Aβ variants have been found in human cerebrospinal fluid and cultured cell media using immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry. Unfortunately, the profile of plasma Aβ variants has not been revealed due to the difficulty of isolating Aβ from plasma. We present here for the first time studies of Aβ and related peptides in human plasma. Twenty-two Aβ-related peptides including novel peptides truncated before the β-secretase site were detected in human plasma and 20 of the peptides were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Using an internal standard, we developed a quantitative assay for the Aβ-related peptides and demonstrated plasma dilution linearity and the precision required for their quantitation. The present method should enhance the understanding of APP processing and clearance in AD progression. PMID:24621957

  8. Surface Mediated Self-Assembly of Amyloid Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fakhraai, Zahra

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid fibrils have been considered as causative agents in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, type II diabetes and amyloidosis. Amyloid fibrils form when proteins or peptides misfold into one dimensional crystals of stacked beta-sheets. In solution, amyloid fibrils form through a nucleation and growth mechanism. The rate limiting nucleation step requires a critical concentration much larger than those measured in physiological conditions. As such the exact origins of the seeds or oligomers that result in the formation of fully mature fibrils in the body remain topic intense studies. It has been suggested that surfaces and interfaces can enhance the fibrillization rate. However, studies of the mechanism and kinetics of the surface-mediated fibrillization are technologically challenging due to the small size of the oligomer and protofibril species. Using smart sample preparation technique to dry the samples after various incubation times we are able to study the kinetics of fibril formation both in solution and in the vicinity of various surfaces using high-resolution atomic force microscopy. These studies elucidate the role of surfaces in catalyzing amyloid peptide formation through a nucleation-free process. The nucleation free self-assembly is rapid and requires much smaller concentrations of peptides or proteins. We show that this process resembles diffusion limited aggregation and is governed by the peptide adhesion rate, two -dimensional diffusion of the peptides on the surface, and preferential interactions between the peptides. These studies suggest an alternative pathway for amyloid formation may exist, which could lead to new criteria for disease prevention and alternative therapies. Research was partially supported by a seed grant from the National Institute of Aging of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) under Award Number P30AG010124 (PI: John Trojanowski) and the University of Pennsylvania.

  9. Alzheimer amyloid-beta peptide forms denaturant-resistant complex with type epsilon 3 but not type epsilon 4 isoform of native apolipoprotein E.

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Z.; Smith, J. D.; Greengard, P.; Gandy, S.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The apolipoprotein E (apoE) type epsilon 4 isoform specifies increased cerebral and cerebrovascular accumulation of amyloid-beta protein (A beta) and contributes to the genetic susceptibility underlying a large proportion (approximately 60%) of typical, sporadic Alzheimer disease. Unfortunately, in vitro biochemical studies of direct apoE isoform-specific interactions with A beta have been inconsistent, perhaps due to the use by different research groups of apoE isoform preparations in different conformational states (purified denatured versus native). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In the current study, we have investigated the possibility that synthetic A beta(1-40) preferentially associates with native apoE of either the type epsilon 3 or the type epsilon 4 isoform. RESULTS: Here, we demonstrate the preferential association of synthetic A beta(1-40) with native apoE epsilon 3. The complex between apoE epsilon 3 and A beta(1-40) could not be disrupted by sodium dodecyl sulfate. In a parallel assay, no denaturant-resistant association of A beta(1-40) with apoE epsilon 4 was detectable. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the notion that the apoE epsilon 4 isoform may foster beta-amyloidogenesis because apoE epsilon 4 is inefficient in forming complexes with A beta. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:8726460

  10. Copper(II) ions and the Alzheimer's amyloidpeptide: Affinity and stoichiometry of binding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tõugu, Vello; Friedemann, Merlin; Tiiman, Ann; Palumaa, Peep

    2014-10-01

    Deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides into amyloid plaques is the hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis this deposition is an early event and primary cause of the disease, however, the mechanisms that cause this deposition remain elusive. An increasing amount of evidence shows that the interactions of biometals can contribute to the fibrillization and amyloid formation by amyloidogenic peptides. From different anions the copper ions deserve the most attention since it can contribute not only toamyloid formation but also to its toxicity due to the generation of ROS. In this thesis we focus on the affinity and stoichiometry of copper(II) binding to the Aβ molecule.

  11. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    SciTech Connect

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2014-02-10

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  12. Inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation by fluorescent dye labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaro, Mariana; Wellbrock, Thorben; Birch, David J. S.; Rolinski, Olaf J.

    2014-02-01

    The fluorescence decay of beta-amyloid's (Aβ) intrinsic fluorophore tyrosine has been used for sensing the oligomer formation of dye-labelled Aβ monomers and the results compared with previously studied oligomerization of the non-labelled Aβ peptides. It has been demonstrated that two different sized, covalently bound probes 7-diethylaminocoumarin-3-carbonyl and Hilyte Fluor 488 (HLF), alter the rate and character of oligomerization to different extents. The ability of HLF to inhibit formation of highly ordered structures containing beta-sheets was also shown. The implications of our findings for using fluorescence methods in amyloidosis research are discussed and the advantages of this auto-fluorescence approach highlighted.

  13. Shear flow promotes amyloid-{beta} fibrilization.

    PubMed

    Dunstan, Dave E; Hamilton-Brown, Paul; Asimakis, Peter; Ducker, William; Bertolini, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    The rate of formation of amyloid fibrils in an aqueous solution of amyloid-beta (Abeta) is greatly increased when the solution is sheared. When Abeta solution is stirred with a magnetic stirrer bar at 37 degrees C, a rapid increase in thioflavin T fluorescence is observed. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) images show the formation of aggregates, the growth of fibrils and the intertwining of the fibrils with time. Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy of samples taken after stirring shows a transition from random coil to alpha-helix to beta-sheet secondary structure over 20 h at 37 degrees C. The fluorescence, AFM and CD measurements are all consistent with the formation of amyloid fibrils. Quiescent, non-stirred solutions incubated at 37 degrees C showed no evidence of amyloid formation over a period of 3 days. Couette flow was found to accelerate the formation of amyloid fibrils demonstrating that the primary effect of stirring is not mixing but shearing. Only very small shear forces are applied to individual molecules in our experiments. Simple calculation suggests that the force is too small to support a hypothesis that shearing promotes partial unfolding of the protein as is observed. PMID:19850675

  14. Protective effects of testosterone on cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease model rats induced by oligomeric beta amyloid peptide 1-42.

    PubMed

    Huo, Dong-Sheng; Sun, Jian-Fang; Zhang, Baifeng; Yan, Xu-Sheng; Wang, He; Jia, Jian-Xin; Yang, Zhan-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is known to be influenced by circulating sex steroidal hormones. The aim of this study was to examine the protective effect and possible protective mechanism of testosterone (T) on cognitive performance in male rats induced by intrahippocampal injections of beta amyloid 1-42 oligomers (Aβ1-42). Treatment with T as evidenced by the Morris water maze (MWM) test significantly shortened escape latency and reduced path length to reach the platform compared to the control (C). During probe trials, the T group displayed a significantly greater percent of time in the target quadrant and improved the number of platform crossings compared with C, flutamide (F), an antiandrogen, and a combined F and T group. Flutamide markedly inhibited the influence of T on cognitive performance. Following Nissl staining, the number of intact pyramidal cells was significantly elevated in the T group, and the effect of T was blocked by F. Immunohistochemisty and Western blot analysis showed that the protein expression level of Aβ 1-42 was markedly decreased and expression levels of synaptophysin (SYN) significantly increased with T, while F inhibited all T-mediated effects. Our data suggest that the influence of T on cognitive performance was mediated via androgen receptors (AR) to remove beta amyloid, which leads to enhanced synaptic plasticity. PMID:27599231

  15. Molecular basis for amyloid-[beta] polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Laganowsky, Arthur; Landau, Meytal; Zhao, Minglei; Soriaga, Angela B.; Goldschmidt, Lukasz; Flot, David; Cascio, Duilio; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberga, David

    2011-10-19

    Amyloid-beta (A{beta}) aggregates are the main constituent of senile plaques, the histological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. A{beta} molecules form {beta}-sheet containing structures that assemble into a variety of polymorphic oligomers, protofibers, and fibers that exhibit a range of lifetimes and cellular toxicities. This polymorphic nature of A{beta} has frustrated its biophysical characterization, its structural determination, and our understanding of its pathological mechanism. To elucidate A{beta} polymorphism in atomic detail, we determined eight new microcrystal structures of fiber-forming segments of A{beta}. These structures, all of short, self-complementing pairs of {beta}-sheets termed steric zippers, reveal a variety of modes of self-association of A{beta}. Combining these atomic structures with previous NMR studies allows us to propose several fiber models, offering molecular models for some of the repertoire of polydisperse structures accessible to A{beta}. These structures and molecular models contribute fundamental information for understanding A{beta} polymorphic nature and pathogenesis.

  16. Quantification of the Binding Properties of Cu2+ to the Amyloid-Beta Peptide: Coordination Spheres for Human and Rat Peptides and Implication on Cu2+-Induced Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Lian; Carducci, Tessa M.; Bush, William D.; Dudzik, Christopher G.; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Simon, John D.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY There is no consensus on the coordinating ligands for Cu2+ by A β. Yet the differences in peptide sequence between human and rat have been hypothesized to alter metal ion binding in a manner that alters Cu2+-induced aggregation of A β. Herein, we employ isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), circular dichroism (CD) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to examine the Cu2+ coordination spheres to human and rat A β and an extensive set of A β(16) mutants. EPR of the mutant peptides is consistent with a 3N1O binding geometry, like the native human peptide at pH 7.4. The thermodynamic data reveal an equilibrium between three coordination spheres, {NH2, O-, NIm His6, amide N−}, {NH2, O-, NIm His6, NIm His13} and {NH2, O-, NIm His6, NIm His14} for human A β(16) but only one for rat A β(16), { NH2, O-, NIm His6, N−}, at pH 7.4 -6.5. ITC and CD data establish that the mutation R5G is sufficient for reproducing this difference in Cu2+ binding properties at pH 7.4. The substitution of bulky and positively charged Arg by Gly is proposed to stabilize the coordination {NH2, O-, NIm His6, amide N−} that then results in one dominating coordination sphere for the case of the rat peptide. The differences in the coordination geometries for Cu2+ by the human and rat A β are proposed to contribute to the variation in the ability of Cu2+ to induce aggregation of A β peptides. PMID:20690669

  17. The Aβ peptide forms non-amyloid fibrils in the presence of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jinghui; Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.; Yu, Chien-Hung; Muhammad, Kamran; Gräslund, Astrid; Pieter Abrahams, Jan

    2014-05-01

    Carbon nanotubes have specific properties that make them potentially useful in biomedicine and biotechnology. However, carbon nanotubes may themselves be toxic, making it imperative to understand how carbon nanotubes interact with biomolecules such as proteins. Here, we used NMR, CD, and ThT/fluorescence spectroscopy together with AFM imaging to study pH-dependent molecular interactions between single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. The aggregation of the Aβ peptide, first into oligomers and later into amyloid fibrils, is considered to be the toxic mechanism behind Alzheimer's disease. We found that SWNTs direct the Aβ peptides to form a new class of β-sheet-rich yet non-amyloid fibrils.Carbon nanotubes have specific properties that make them potentially useful in biomedicine and biotechnology. However, carbon nanotubes may themselves be toxic, making it imperative to understand how carbon nanotubes interact with biomolecules such as proteins. Here, we used NMR, CD, and ThT/fluorescence spectroscopy together with AFM imaging to study pH-dependent molecular interactions between single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide. The aggregation of the Aβ peptide, first into oligomers and later into amyloid fibrils, is considered to be the toxic mechanism behind Alzheimer's disease. We found that SWNTs direct the Aβ peptides to form a new class of β-sheet-rich yet non-amyloid fibrils. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr00291a

  18. Detection of Alzheimer's amyloid beta aggregation by capturing molecular trails of individual assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Vestergaard, Mun'delanji Hamada, Tsutomu; Saito, Masato; Yajima, Yoshifumi; Kudou, Monotori; Tamiya, Eiichi; Takagi, Masahiro

    2008-12-12

    Assembly of Amyloid beta (A{beta}) peptides, in particular A{beta}-42 is central to the formation of the amyloid plaques associated with neuro-pathologies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Molecular assembly of individual A{beta}-42 species was observed using a simple fluorescence microscope. From the molecular movements (aka Brownian motion) of the individual peptide assemblies, we calculated a temporal evolution of the hydrodynamic radius (R{sub H}) of the peptide at physiological temperature and pH. The results clearly show a direct relationship between R{sub H} of A{beta}-42 and incubation period, corresponding to the previously reported peptide's aggregation kinetics. The data correlates highly with in solution-based label-free electrochemical detection of the peptide's aggregation, and A{beta}-42 deposited on a solid surface and analysed using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first analysis and characterisation of A{beta} aggregation based on capturing molecular trails of individual assemblies. The technique enables both real-time observation and a semi-quantitative distribution profile of the various stages of A{beta} assembly, at microM peptide concentration. Our method is a promising candidate for real-time observation and analysis of the effect of other pathologically-relevant molecules such as metal ions on pathways to A{beta} oligomerisation and aggregation. The method is also a promising screening tool for AD therapeutics that target A{beta} assembly.

  19. Aggregation of beta-amyloid fragments.

    PubMed

    Meinke, Jan H; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2007-01-01

    The authors study the folding and aggregation of six chains of the beta-amyloid fragment 16-22 using Monte Carlo simulations. While the isolated fragment prefers a helical form at room temperature, in the system of six interacting fragments one observes both parallel and antiparallel beta sheets below a crossover temperature T(x) approximately equal to 420 K. The antiparallel sheets have lower energy and are therefore more stable. Above the nucleation temperature the aggregate quickly dissolves into widely separated, weakly interacting chains. PMID:17212510

  20. AMYLOIDPEPTIDE BINDS TO MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 1B (MAP1B)

    PubMed Central

    Gevorkian, Goar; Gonzalez-Noriega, Alfonso; Acero, Gonzalo; Ordoñez, Jorge; Michalak, Colette; Munguia, Maria Elena; Govezensky, Tzipe; Cribbs, David H.; Manoutcharian, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal formation of amyloid-beta aggregates have been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of targets have deleterious effects on cellular functions. In the present study we have shown for the first time that amyloid-beta 1-42 bound to a peptide comprising the microtubule binding domain of the heavy chain of microtubule-associated protein 1B by the screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage. This interaction may explain, in part, the loss of neuronal cytoskeletal integrity, impairment of microtubule-dependent transport and synaptic dysfunction observed previously in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:18079022

  1. The natural products beauveriolide I and III: a new class of beta-amyloid-lowering compounds.

    PubMed

    Witter, Daniel P; Chen, Yanping; Rogel, Joseph K; Boldt, Grant E; Wentworth, Paul

    2009-05-25

    Attacking Alzheimer's by ACAT: The aggregation of beta-amyloid peptides, especially Abeta(42), into senile plaques is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We show that the fungal natural products beauveriolides I and III can potently decrease Abeta secretion from cells expressing human amyloid precursor protein; this offers a potential new scaffold for the development of compounds with proven bioavailability for the treatment of AD. PMID:19396893

  2. Dissociation of ERK and Akt signaling in endothelial cell angiogenic responses to {beta}-amyloid

    SciTech Connect

    Magrane, Jordi; Christensen, Rial A.; Rosen, Kenneth M.; Veereshwarayya, Vimal; Querfurth, Henry W. . E-mail: hquerf01@granite.tufts.edu

    2006-04-15

    Cerebrovascular deposits of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptides are found in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy with stroke or dementia. Dysregulations of angiogenesis, the blood-brain barrier and other critical endothelial cell (EC) functions have been implicated in aggravating chronic hypoperfusion in AD brain. We have used cultured ECs to model the effects of {beta}-amyloid on the activated phosphorylation states of multifunctional serine/threonine kinases since these are differentially involved in the survival, proliferation and migration aspects of angiogenesis. Serum-starved EC cultures containing amyloid-{beta} peptides underwent a 2- to 3-fold increase in nuclear pyknosis. Under growth conditions with sublethal doses of {beta}-amyloid, loss of cell membrane integrity and inhibition of cell proliferation were observed. By contrast, cell migration was the most sensitive to A{beta} since inhibition was significant already at 1 {mu}M (P = 0.01, migration vs. proliferation). In previous work, intracellular A{beta} accumulation was shown toxic to ECs and Akt function. Here, extracellular A{beta} peptides do not alter Akt activation, resulting instead in proportionate decreases in the phosphorylations of the MAPKs: ERK1/2 and p38 (starting at 1 {mu}M). This inhibitory action occurs proximal to MEK1/2 activation, possibly through interference with growth factor receptor coupling. Levels of phospho-JNK remained unchanged. Addition of PD98059, but not LY294002, resulted in a similar decrease in activated ERK1/2 levels and inhibition of EC migration. Transfection of ERK1/2 into A{beta}-poisoned ECs functionally rescued migration. The marked effect of extracellular A{beta} on the migration component of angiogenesis is associated with inhibition of MAPK signaling, while Akt-dependent cell survival appears more affected by cellular A{beta}.

  3. Amyloid-beta Alzheimer targets - protein processing, lipid rafts, and amyloid-beta pores.

    PubMed

    Arbor, Sage C; LaFontaine, Mike; Cumbay, Medhane

    2016-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ), the hallmark of Alzheimer's Disease (AD), now appears to be deleterious in its low number aggregate form as opposed to the macroscopic Aβ fibers historically seen postmortem. While Alzheimer targets, such as the tau protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and immune system activation continue to be investigated, the recent discovery that amyloid beta aggregates at lipid rafts and likely forms neurotoxic pores has led to a new paradigm regarding why past therapeutics may have failed and how to design the next round of compounds for clinical trials. An atomic resolution understanding of Aβ aggregates, which appear to exist in multiple conformations, is most desirable for future therapeutic development. The investigative difficulties, structures of these small Aβ aggregates, and current therapeutics are summarized in this review. PMID:27505013

  4. Amyloid-beta Alzheimer targets — protein processing, lipid rafts, and amyloid-beta pores

    PubMed Central

    Arbor, Sage C.; LaFontaine, Mike; Cumbay, Medhane

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ), the hallmark of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD), now appears to be deleterious in its low number aggregate form as opposed to the macroscopic Aβ fibers historically seen postmortem. While Alzheimer targets, such as the tau protein, amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and immune system activation continue to be investigated, the recent discovery that amyloid beta aggregates at lipid rafts and likely forms neurotoxic pores has led to a new paradigm regarding why past therapeutics may have failed and how to design the next round of compounds for clinical trials. An atomic resolution understanding of Aβ aggregates, which appear to exist in multiple conformations, is most desirable for future therapeutic development. The investigative difficulties, structures of these small Aβ aggregates, and current therapeutics are summarized in this review. PMID:27505013

  5. Characteristics of Amyloid-Related Oligomers Revealed by Crystal Structures of Macrocyclic [beta]-Sheet Mimics

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Cheng, Pin-Nan; Zheng, Jing; Nowick, James S.; Eisenberg, David

    2011-09-20

    Protein amyloid oligomers have been strongly linked to amyloid diseases and can be intermediates to amyloid fibers. {beta}-Sheets have been identified in amyloid oligomers. However, because of their transient and highly polymorphic properties, the details of their self-association remain elusive. Here we explore oligomer structure using a model system: macrocyclic peptides. Key amyloidogenic sequences from A{beta} and tau were incorporated into macrocycles, thereby restraining them to {beta}-strands, but limiting the growth of the oligomers so they may crystallize and cannot fibrillate. We determined the atomic structures for four such oligomers, and all four reveal tetrameric interfaces in which {beta}-sheet dimers pair together by highly complementary, dry interfaces, analogous to steric zippers found in fibers, suggesting a common structure for amyloid oligomers and fibers. In amyloid fibers, the axes of the paired sheets are either parallel or antiparallel, whereas the oligomeric interfaces display a variety of sheet-to-sheet pairing angles, offering a structural explanation for the heterogeneity of amyloid oligomers.

  6. On the generation of OH(·) radical species from H2O2 by Cu(I) amyloid beta peptide model complexes: a DFT investigation.

    PubMed

    Prosdocimi, Tommaso; De Gioia, Luca; Zampella, Giuseppe; Bertini, Luca

    2016-04-01

    According to different studies, the interaction between amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) and copper ions could yield radical oxygen species production, in particular the highly toxic hydroxyl radical OH(·) that is suspected to contribute to Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis. Despite intensive experimental and computational studies, the nature of the interaction between copper and Aβ peptide, as well as the redox reactivity of the system, are still matter of debate. It was proposed that in Cu(II) → Cu(I) reduction the complex Cu(II)-Aβ could follow a multi-step conformational change with redox active intermediates that may be responsible for OH(·) radical production from H2O2 through a Fenton-like process. The purpose of this work is to evaluate, using ab initio Density Functional Theory computations, the reactivity of different Cu(I)-Aβ coordination modes proposed in the literature, in terms of OH(·) production. For each coordination model, we considered the corresponding H2O2 adduct and performed a potential energy surface scan along the reaction coordinate of O-O bond dissociation of the peroxide, resulting in the production of OH(·) radical, obtaining reaction profiles for the evaluation of the energetic of the process. This procedure allowed us to confirm the hypothesis according to which the most populated Cu(I)-Aβ two-histidine coordination is not able to perform efficiently H2O2 reduction, while a less populated three-coordinated form would be responsible for the OH(·) production. We show that coordination modes featuring a third nitrogen containing electron-donor ligand (an imidazole ring of an histidine residue is slightly favored over the N-terminal amine group) are more active towards H2O2 reduction. PMID:26711660

  7. Some Commonly Used Brominated Flame Retardants Cause Ca2+-ATPase Inhibition, Beta-Amyloid Peptide Release and Apoptosis in SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mousa, Fawaz; Michelangeli, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are chemicals commonly used to reduce the flammability of consumer products and are considered pollutants since they have become widely dispersed throughout the environment and have also been shown to bio-accumulate within animals and man. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of some of the most commonly used groups of BFRs on SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The results showed that of the BFRs tested, hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol-A (TBBPA) and decabromodiphenyl ether (DBPE), all are cytotoxic at low micromolar concentrations (LC50 being 2.7±0.7µM, 15±4µM and 28±7µM, respectively). They induced cell death, at least in part, by apoptosis through activation of caspases. They also increased intracellular [Ca2+] levels and reactive-oxygen-species within these neuronal cells. Furthermore, these BFRs also caused rapid depolarization of the mitochondria and cytochrome c release in these neuronal cells. Elevated intracellular [Ca2+] levels appear to occur through a mechanism involving microsomal Ca2+-ATPase inhibition and this maybe responsible for Ca2+-induced mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, µM levels of these BFRs caused β-amyloid peptide (Aβ-42) processing and release from these cells with a few hours of exposure. These results therefore shows that these pollutants are both neurotoxic and amyloidogenic in-vitro. PMID:22485137

  8. Propagating structure of alzheimer's {beta}-amyloid is parallel {beta}-sheet with residues in exact register.

    SciTech Connect

    Benzinger, T. L. S.; Gregory, D. M.; Burkoth, T. S.; Miller-Auer, H.; Lynn, D. G.; Botto, R. E.; Meredith, S. C.; Chemistry; Univ. of Chicago

    1998-11-10

    The pathognomonic plaques of Alzheimer's disease are composed primarily of the 39- to 43-aa {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptide. Crosslinking of A{beta} peptides by tissue transglutaminase (tTg) indicates that Gln15 of one peptide is proximate to Lys16 of another in aggregated A{beta}. Here we report how the fibril structure is resolved by mapping interstrand distances in this core region of the A{beta} peptide chain with solid-state NMR. Isotopic substitution provides the source points for measuring distances in aggregated A{beta}. Peptides containing a single carbonyl 13C label at Gln15, Lys16, Leu17, or Val18 were synthesized and evaluated by NMR dipolar recoupling methods for the measurement of interpeptide distances to a resolution of 0.2 Angstrom. Analysis of these data establish that this central core of A{beta} consists of a parallel {beta}-sheet structure in which identical residues on adjacent chains are aligned directly, i.e., in register. Our data, in conjunction with existing structural data, establish that the A{beta} fibril is a hydrogen-bonded, parallel {beta}-sheet defining the long axis of the A{beta} fibril propagation.

  9. Is amyloid beta-protein glycated in Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Tabaton, M; Perry, G; Smith, M; Vitek, M; Angelini, G; Dapino, D; Garibaldi, S; Zaccheo, D; Odetti, P

    1997-03-01

    Recent data suggest that protein glycation is involved in the process of amyloid formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). To further investigate this issue, we analyzed the presence of advanced glycation end products (AGE) in soluble and insoluble forms of amyloid beta-protein (A beta) as well as in apolipoprotein E (apoE), a protein bound to amyloid deposits. Both proteins were extracted from cerebral cortex obtained from patients with AD and probed by immunoblotting with two antibodies specific for different AGE, already known to immunocytochemically label amyloid plaques. All the AGE antibodies failed to recognize either A beta or apoE, whereas they reacted with synthetic A beta glycated in vitro. These findings indicate that other proteins associated with amyloid deposits are candidates to be modified with AGE in Alzheimer's cerebral tissue. PMID:9141062

  10. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-01-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1–40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1–40 peptide on the basis of their emission response. PMID:26419607

  11. Inhibition of Beta-Amyloid Fibrillation by Luminescent Iridium(III) Complex Probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Lihua; Zhong, Hai-Jing; Wang, Modi; Ho, See-Lok; Li, Hung-Wing; Leung, Chung-Hang; Ma, Dik-Lung

    2015-09-01

    We report herein the application of kinetically inert luminescent iridium(III) complexes as dual inhibitors and probes of beta-amyloid fibrillogenesis. These iridium(III) complexes inhibited Aβ1-40 peptide aggregation in vitro, and protected against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in neuronal cells. Furthermore, the complexes differentiated between the aggregated and unaggregated forms of Aβ1-40 peptide on the basis of their emission response.

  12. Histological Staining of Amyloid and Pre-Amyloid Peptides and Proteins in Mouse Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rajamohamedsait, Hameetha B.; Sigurdsson, Einar M.

    2013-01-01

    The increased availability of transgenic mouse models for studying human diseases has shifted the focus of many laboratories from in vitro to in vivo assays. Herein, methods are described to allow investigators to obtain well preserved mouse tissue to be stained with the standard histological dyes for amyloid, Congo Red and Thioflavin S. These sections can as well be used for immunohistological procedures that allow detection of tissue amyloid and pre-amyloid, such as those composed of the amyloidpeptide, the tau protein, and the islet amyloid polypeptide. PMID:22528106

  13. Solution structures of {beta}-amyloid{sub 10-35} and {beta}-amyloid{sub 10-35} PEG3000 aggregates.

    SciTech Connect

    Benzinger, T. L. S.; Burkoth, T. S.; Gordon, D.; Lynn, D. G.; Meredith, S. C.; Morgan, D. M.; Seifert, S.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Urban, V.

    1999-07-02

    Small angle neutron and x-ray scattering (SANS/SAXS) studies were conducted on the structure of the aggregates formed from both the truncated model peptide {beta}-Amyloid(10-35) (A{beta}{sub 10-35}) and a block copolymer {beta}-Amyloid (10-35)-PEG3000 (A{beta}{sub 10-35}-PEG) in D{sub 2}O at pHs from 3.0 to 7.0. These studies indicate that A{beta}{sub 10-35} aggregates into rod-like particles (fibril) and their radii are strongly dependent on the Pm of the solution. The fibril-fibril association in A{beta}{sub 10-35} solutions is less of pH < 5.6, but becomes larger at higher pH. A{beta}{sub 10-35}-PEG also assembles into rod-like particles whose radius is larger by about 30 {angstrom} than that for A{beta}{sub 10-35} fibril at pH 4.2, while it is about 23 {angstrom} larger at higher pH. Contrast matching SAXS/SANS experiments that eliminate the coherent scattering from PEG reveal that PEG moiety is located at the periphery of the fibril. Also, the mass per unit length of the peptide portion is similar for both A{beta}{sub 10-35} and A{beta}{sub 10-35}-PEG fibrils at pH 5.6. The mass per unit length of the rods from SANS provides key information on the packing of A{beta}{sub 10-35} peptides in the fibril.

  14. Size Effect of Graphene Oxide on Modulating Amyloid Peptide Assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Cao, Yunpeng; Li, Qiang; Liu, Lei; Dong, Mingdong

    2015-06-26

    Protein misfolding and abnormal assembly could lead to aggregates such as oligomer, proto-fibril, mature fibril, and senior amyloid plaques, which are associated with the pathogenesis of many amyloid diseases. These irreversible amyloid aggregates typically form in vivo and researchers have been endeavoring to find new modulators to invert the aggregation propensity in vitro, which could increase understanding in the mechanism of the aggregation of amyloid protein and pave the way to potential clinical treatment. Graphene oxide (GO) was shown to be a good modulator, which could strongly control the amyloidosis of Aβ (33-42). In particular, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements revealed the size-dependent manner of GO on modulating the assembly of amyloid peptides, which could be a possible way to regulate the self-assembled nanostructure of amyloid peptide in a predictable manner. PMID:26031933

  15. Early Treatment Critical: Bexarotene Reduces Amyloid-Beta Burden In Silico

    PubMed Central

    Belfort, Georges; Isaacson, David

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptides have long been implicated in the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease. Bexarotene, a drug approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating a class of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma, has been reported to facilitate the removal of amyloid-beta. We have developed a mathematical model to explore the efficacy of bexarotene treatment in reducing amyloid-beta load, and simulate amyloid-beta production throughout the lifespan of diseased mice. Both aspects of the model are based on and consistent with previous experimental results. Beyond what is known empirically, our model shows that low dosages of bexarotene are unable to reverse symptoms in diseased mice, but dosages at and above an age-dependent critical concentration can recover healthy brain cells. Further, early treatment was shown to have significantly improved efficacy versus treatment in older mice. Relevance with respect to bexarotene-based amyloid-beta-clearance mechanism and direct treatment for Alzheimer’s disease is emphasized. PMID:27073866

  16. Why Alzheimer trials fail: removing soluble oligomeric beta amyloid is essential, inconsistent, and difficult.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, William I

    2014-05-01

    Before amyloid formation, peptides cleaved from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) exist as soluble oligomers. These are extremely neurotoxic. Their concentration is strongly correlated with synaptic impairment in animals and parallel cognitive decline in animals and humans. Clinical trials have largely been aimed at removing insoluble beta amyloid in senile plaques and have not reduced soluble load. Even treatment that should remove soluble oligomers has not consistently reduced the load. Failure to significantly improve cognition has frequently been attributed to failure of the amyloid hypothesis or to irreversible alteration in the brain. Instead, trial failures may be because of failure to significantly reduce load of toxic Aβ oligomers. Moreover, targeting only synthesis of Aβ peptides, only the oligomers themselves, or only the final insoluble amyloid may fail to significantly reduce soluble load because of the interrelationship between these 3 points in the amyloid cascade. Thus, treatments may fail unless trials target simultaneously all 3 points in the equation-"triple therapy". Cerebrospinal fluid analysis and other monitoring tools may in the future provide reliable measurement of soluble load. But currently, only analysis of autopsied brains can provide this data and thus enable proper evaluation and explanation of the outcome of clinical trials. These data are essential before attributing trial failures to the advanced nature of the disease or asserting that failures prove that the theory linking Alzheimer's disease to products of amyloid precursor protein is incorrect. PMID:24210593

  17. beta-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease is found in cerebral and spinal cord vascular malformations.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, M. N.; Merz, P.; Bennett-Gray, J.; Menezes, A. H.; Goeken, J. A.; Schelper, R. L.; Wisniewski, H. M.

    1988-01-01

    Congo/Red deposition with birefringence to polarized light was demonstrated focally in cerebrovascular malformations removed surgically from 4 older patients (ages 85, 74, 74, and 63), and in a spinal cord vascular malformation in a 76-year-old patient. Lesser degrees of Congophilic change were observed in cerebrovascular malformations screened from 4 of 10 patients between the ages of 30 and 59. No Congophilic change was seen in 10 cerebrovascular malformations removed from patients under 30 years of age. Congophilic areas in all cases decorated with W-2 and 85/45 polyclonal antibodies raised to peptide sequences of cerebrovascular beta-amyloid and beta-amyloid of senile plaques from patients with Alzheimer's disease. Thus, the amyloid in these vascular malformations is immunologically related to beta-amyloid protein. This finding provides another indication that vascular beta-amyloid deposition is not specific for Alzheimer's disease and suggests that an existing abnormality of vessels may be a predisposing factor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2A Figure 2B Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3293463

  18. AmyloidPeptide Binds to Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit 1

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Zimbron, Luis Fernando; Luna-Muñoz, Jose; Mena, Raul; Vazquez-Ramirez, Ricardo; Kubli-Garfias, Carlos; Cribbs, David H.; Manoutcharian, Karen; Gevorkian, Goar

    2012-01-01

    Extracellular and intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid-beta aggregates has been demonstrated to be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the precise mechanism of amyloid-beta neurotoxicity is not completely understood. Previous studies suggest that binding of amyloid-beta to a number of macromolecules has deleterious effects on cellular functions. Mitochondria were found to be the target for amyloid-beta, and mitochondrial dysfunction is well documented in AD. In the present study we have shown for the first time that Aβ 1–42 bound to a peptide comprising the amino-terminal region of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1. Phage clone, selected after screening of a human brain cDNA library expressed on M13 phage and bearing a 61 amino acid fragment of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, bound to Aβ 1–42 in ELISA as well as to Aβ aggregates present in AD brain. Aβ 1–42 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 co-immunoprecipitated from mitochondrial fraction of differentiated human neuroblastoma cells. Likewise, molecular dynamics simulation of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and the Aβ 1–42 peptide complex resulted in a reliable helix-helix interaction, supporting the experimental results. The interaction between Aβ 1–42 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 may explain, in part, the diminished enzymatic activity of respiratory chain complex IV and subsequent neuronal metabolic dysfunction observed in AD. PMID:22927926

  19. Preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils are destabilized by coenzyme Q{sub 10} in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Naiki, Hironobu; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2005-04-29

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS, would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reported previously that nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) and wine-related polyphenol, myricetin (Myr), inhibit fA{beta} formation from A{beta} and destabilize preformed fA{beta} in vitro. Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of coenzyme Q{sub 10} (CoQ{sub 10}) on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 deg C in vitro. We next compared the anti-amyloidogenic activities of CoQ{sub 10} with NDGA and Myr. CoQ{sub 10} dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}), as well as their extension. Moreover, it destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. The anti-amyloidogenic effects of CoQ{sub 10} were slightly weaker than those of NDGA and Myr. CoQ{sub 10} could be a key molecule for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  20. Cu(II)-Zn(II) Cross-Modulation in Amyloid-Beta Peptide Binding: an X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    De Santis, Emiliano; Minicozzi, Velia; Proux, Olivier; Rossi, Giancarlo; Silva, K. Ishara; Lawless, Matthew J.; Stellato, Francesco; Saxena, Sunil; Morante, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    In this work we analyze at a structural level the mechanism by which Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions compete for binding to the Aβ peptides that is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease. We collected X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy data on samples containing Aβ with Cu and Zn at different concentration ratios. We show that the order in which metals are added to the peptide solution matters and that, when Zn is added first, it prevents Cu from binding. On the contrary, when Cu is added first, it does not (completely) prevent Zn binding to Aβ peptides. Our analysis suggests that Cu and Zn ions are coordinated to different numbers of histidine residues depending on the [ion]:[peptide] concentration ratio. PMID:26646533

  1. Amyloid-beta and Alzheimer’s disease: the role of neprilysin-2 in amyloid-beta clearance

    PubMed Central

    Marr, Robert A.; Hafez, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Accumulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide is a central factor in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) pathogenesis as supported by continuing evidence. This review concisely summarizes this evidence supporting a critical role for Aβ in AD before discussing the clearance of this peptide. Mechanisms of clearance of Aβ are critical for preventing pathological elevations in Aβ concentration. Direct degradation of Aβ by endopeptidases has emerged as one important pathway for clearance. Of particular interest are endopeptidases that are sensitive to the neprilysin (NEP) inhibitors thiorphan and phosphoramidon (i.e., are “NEP-like”) as these inhibitors induce a dramatic increase in Aβ levels in rodents. This review will focus on neprilysin-2 (NEP2), a NEP-like endopeptidase which cooperates with NEP to control Aβ levels in the brain. The evidence for the involvement of NEP2 in AD is discussed as well as the therapeutic relevance with regards to gene therapy and the development of molecular markers for the disease. PMID:25165447

  2. Implants containing beta-amyloid protein are not neurotoxic to young and old rat brain.

    PubMed

    Clemens, J A; Stephenson, D T

    1992-01-01

    Because the cellular effects of beta-amyloid protein (beta-AP) are currently unclear, we evaluated the in vivo effects of beta-AP implants in a lipid matrix to prolong tissue exposure in the brains of rats. Young 3-month-old rats and aged 18-month-old rats received implants of beta-AP prepared in a cocoa butter matrix in the dorsal hippocampus and corpus striatum on one side of the brain and implants of either prolactin or scrambled beta-AP peptide in cocoa butter on the contralateral side. The old rats also received implants of beta-AP embedded in a cholesterol matrix or cholesterol alone in the frontal cortex. The young rats were sacrificed 3-4 days after implantation, while the old rats were sacrificed 6-8 weeks after implantation. Lesion size on the beta-AP implanted side did not differ significantly from lesion size observed with control peptides. Bielschowsky silver staining revealed few argyrophilic neurites and axonal spheroids associated with either beta-AP or control implants. Alz 50 and ubiquitin immunoreactivity were not observed. None of the implant sites demonstrated cytopathology characteristic of Alzheimer's disease. The results of this study indicate that beta-AP implantation into the brains of rats produced no consistent effect beyond that seen with control peptide implants. PMID:1461346

  3. Antiaggregation Potential of Padina gymnospora against the Toxic Alzheimer’s Beta-Amyloid Peptide 25–35 and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Its Bioactive Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Shanmuganathan, Balakrishnan; Sheeja Malar, Dicson; Sathya, Sethuraman; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation in the cerebral cortex of the brain is a promising therapeutic and defensive strategy in identification of disease modifying agents for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since natural products are considered as the current alternative trend for the discovery of AD drugs, the present study aims at the evaluation of anti-amyloidogenic potential of the marine seaweed Padina gymnospora. Prevention of aggregation and disaggregation of the mature fibril formation of Aβ 25–35 by acetone extracts of P. gymnospora (ACTPG) was evaluated in two phases by Thioflavin T assay. The results were further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The results of antiaggregation and disaggregation assay showed that the increase in fluorescence intensity of aggregated Aβ and the co-treatment of ACTPG (250 μg/ml) with Aβ 25–35, an extensive decrease in the fluorescence intensity was observed in both phases, which suggests that ACTPG prevents the oligomers formation and disaggregation of mature fibrils. In addition, ACTPG was subjected to column chromatography and the bioactivity was screened based on the cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Finally, the active fraction was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the bioactive compound alpha bisabolol present in the alga might be responsible for the observed cholinesterase inhibition with the IC50 value < 10 μg/ml for both AChE and BuChE when compared to standard drug donepezil (IC50 value < 6 μg/ml) and support its use for the treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26536106

  4. Antiaggregation Potential of Padina gymnospora against the Toxic Alzheimer's Beta-Amyloid Peptide 25-35 and Cholinesterase Inhibitory Property of Its Bioactive Compounds.

    PubMed

    Shanmuganathan, Balakrishnan; Sheeja Malar, Dicson; Sathya, Sethuraman; Pandima Devi, Kasi

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregation in the cerebral cortex of the brain is a promising therapeutic and defensive strategy in identification of disease modifying agents for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Since natural products are considered as the current alternative trend for the discovery of AD drugs, the present study aims at the evaluation of anti-amyloidogenic potential of the marine seaweed Padina gymnospora. Prevention of aggregation and disaggregation of the mature fibril formation of Aβ 25-35 by acetone extracts of P. gymnospora (ACTPG) was evaluated in two phases by Thioflavin T assay. The results were further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) analysis and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. The results of antiaggregation and disaggregation assay showed that the increase in fluorescence intensity of aggregated Aβ and the co-treatment of ACTPG (250 μg/ml) with Aβ 25-35, an extensive decrease in the fluorescence intensity was observed in both phases, which suggests that ACTPG prevents the oligomers formation and disaggregation of mature fibrils. In addition, ACTPG was subjected to column chromatography and the bioactivity was screened based on the cholinesterase inhibitory activity. Finally, the active fraction was subjected to LC-MS/MS analysis for the identification of bioactive compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the bioactive compound alpha bisabolol present in the alga might be responsible for the observed cholinesterase inhibition with the IC50 value < 10 μg/ml for both AChE and BuChE when compared to standard drug donepezil (IC50 value < 6 μg/ml) and support its use for the treatment of neurological disorders. PMID:26536106

  5. Amyloid-beta neuroprotection mediated by a targeted antioxidant

    PubMed Central

    Giordano, Courtney R.; Terlecky, Laura J.; Bollig-Fischer, Aliccia; Walton, Paul A.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity is a major contributor to the pathologies associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), an early response induced by the peptide and oligomeric derivatives of Aβ, plays a significant role in effecting cellular pathogenesis. Here we employ particularly toxic forms of Aβ with cultured primary cortical/hippocampal neurons to elicit ROS and drive cellular dysfunction. To prevent and even reverse such effects, we utilized a cell-penetrating, peroxisome-targeted, protein biologic – called CAT-SKL. We show the recombinant enzyme enters neurons, reverses Aβ-induced oxidative stress, and increases cell viability. Dramatic restorative effects on damaged neuronal processes were also observed. In addition, we used DNA microarrays to determine Aβ's effects on gene expression in neurons, as well as the ability of CAT-SKL to modify such Aβ-induced expression profiles. Our results suggest that CAT-SKL, a targeted antioxidant, may represent a new therapeutic approach for treatment of disorders, like Alzheimer's disease, that are driven through oxidative stress. Preclinical testing is ongoing. PMID:24828380

  6. Critical analysis of Alzheimer's amyloid-beta toxicity to mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Kaminsky, Yury G; Tikhonova, Lyudmila A; Kosenko, Elena A

    2015-01-01

    Amyloid-beta peptide (Abeta) is believed to be a central player in the Alzheimer disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, its mechanisms of toxicity to the central nervous system are unknown. To explore this area, investigators have recently focused on Abeta-induced cellular dysfunction. Extensive research has been conducted to investigate Abeta monomers and oligomers, and these multiple facets have provided a wealth of data from specific models. Abeta appears to be accumulated in neuronal mitochondria and mediates mitochondrial toxicity. Mitochondrial dysfunction became a hallmark of Abeta-induced neuronal toxicity. Mitochondria are currently considered as primary targets in the pathobiology of neurodegeneration. This review provides an overview of the Abeta toxicity to isolated mitochondria, mitochondria in different tissues and cells in vitro and in vivo. Full texts and abstracts from all 530 biomedical articles listed in PubMed and published before January 2014 were analysed. The mechanisms underlying the interaction between Abeta and mitochondrial membranes and resulting mitochondrial dysfunction are most disputed issues. Understanding and discussing this interaction is essential to evaluating Abeta effects on various intracellular metabolic processes. PMID:25553446

  7. [Beta amyloid in blood and cerebrospinal fluid is associated with high density lipoproteins].

    PubMed

    Kudinova, N V; Kudinov, A R; Berezov, T T

    1996-01-01

    Cerebrovascular and parenchymal amyloid deposits found in brains of Alzheimer's disease, Down's syndrome and normal aging are mainly composed of aggregated amyloid beta protein (A beta), a unique peptide 39 to 44 amino acids long. A similar but soluble A beta (s A beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and cell supernatants, indicating that it is a normal protein. We report here that s A beta in normal human plasma and CSF is complexed to high density lipoprotein (HDL) 3 and very high density lipoprotein (VHDL). Biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. Both tracer biotin-labeled A beta 1-40 and native s A beta were specifically recovered in HDL3 and VHDL as it was assessed in immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein depleted plasma. This fact prompted us to ascertain whether the interaction of s A beta with HDL does occur in normal human CSF in vivo. For this purpose normals human CSF was fractionated by means of sequential flotation ultracentrifugation. The presence of s A beta in the resulting lipoprotein fractions as well as in the lipoprotein depleted CSF was analysed by immunoblot analysis, electron and immune-electron microscopy and native size exclusion chromatography. Immunoblot analysis with 6E10 monoclonal anti-A beta antibodies revealed s A beta association with all HDL subspecies of CSF, primarily HDL3 and VHDL and immunoelectron microscopy confirmed an association of s A beta with CSF-HDL particles of 16.8 + 3.2 nm. Native size exclusion chromatography followed by immunoblot analysis with antibodies against A beta and different apoliproproteins indicated an association of s A beta with HDL complexes of approximately 200 kDa molecular weight. Soluble A beta association with HDL3 and VHDL may be involved in maintaining the solubility of A beta in biological fluids and points to a possible role of lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipid

  8. Effect of Curcumin on the metal ion induced fibrillization of Amyloidpeptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Rona

    2014-01-01

    The effect of Curcumin on Cu(II) and Zn(II) induced oligomerization and protofibrillization of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptide has been studied by spectroscopic and microscopic methods. Curcumin could significantly reduce the β-sheet content of the peptide in a time dependent manner. It also plays an antagonistic role in β-sheet formation that is promoted by metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) as observed by Circular Dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. Atomic force microscopic (AFM) images show that spontaneous fibrillization of the peptide occurs in presence of Cu(II) and Zn(II) but is inhibited on incubation of the peptide with Curcumin indicating the beneficial role of Curcumin in preventing the aggregation of Aβ peptide.

  9. Amyloid fibrils composed of hexameric peptides attenuate neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kurnellas, Michael P; Adams, Chris M; Sobel, Raymond A; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B

    2013-04-01

    The amyloid-forming proteins tau, αB crystallin, and amyloid P protein are all found in lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous work established that amyloidogenic peptides from the small heat shock protein αB crystallin (HspB5) and from amyloid β fibrils, characteristic of Alzheimer's disease, were therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reflecting aspects of the pathology of MS. To understand the molecular basis for the therapeutic effect, we showed a set of amyloidogenic peptides composed of six amino acids, including those from tau, amyloid β A4, major prion protein (PrP), HspB5, amylin, serum amyloid P, and insulin B chain, to be anti-inflammatory and capable of reducing serological levels of interleukin-6 and attenuating paralysis in EAE. The chaperone function of the fibrils correlates with the therapeutic outcome. Fibrils composed of tau 623-628 precipitated 49 plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100, clusterin, transthyretin, and complement C3, supporting the hypothesis that the fibrils are active biological agents. Amyloid fibrils thus may provide benefit in MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23552370

  10. Amyloid Fibrils Composed of Hexameric Peptides Attenuate Neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kurnellas, Michael P.; Adams, Chris M.; Sobel, Raymond A.; Steinman, Lawrence; Rothbard, Jonathan B.

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid forming proteins Tau, alpha B crystallin, and amyloid P protein are all found in lesions of multiple sclerosis (MS). Our previous work established that amyloidogenic peptides from the small heat shock protein, alpha B crystallin(HspB5), and from amyloid β fibrils, characteristic of Alzheimer’s disease, were therapeutic in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), reflecting aspects of the pathology of MS. To understand the molecular basis for the therapeutic effect, a set of amyloidogenic peptides composed of six amino acids, including those from tau, amyloid β A4, major prion protein (PrP), HspB5, amylin, serum amyloid P (SAP), and insulin B chain were shown to be anti-inflammatory, capable of reducing serological levels of IL-6, and attenuating paralysis in EAE. The chaperone function of the fibrils correlates with the therapeutic outcome. Fibrils composed of Tau 623–628 precipitated 49 plasma proteins, including apolipoprotein B-100, clusterin, transthyretin, and complement C3, supporting the hypothesis that the fibrils are active biological agents. Amyloid fibrils thus may provide benefit in MS and other neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:23552370

  11. Combination of memantine and vitamin D prevents axon degeneration induced by amyloid-beta and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Annweiler, Cédric; Brugg, Bernard; Peyrin, Jean-Michel; Bartha, Robert; Beauchet, Olivier

    2014-02-01

    The currently available drugs for treatment of Alzheimer's disease are symptomatic and only temporarily slow down the natural history of the disease process. Recently, its has been proposed that the combination of memantine with vitamin D, a neurosteroid hormone, may prevent amyloid-beta and glutamate neurotoxicity. Here, our purpose was to examine the potential protective effects of memantine and vitamin D against amyloid-beta peptide and glutamate toxicity in cortical neuronal cultures. We provide the first evidence that cortical axons degenerate less after exposure to amyloid-beta peptide or glutamate in microfluidic neuronal cultures enriched with memantine plus vitamin D compared to control medium and cultures enriched with only memantine or only vitamin D. The reported synergistic neuroprotective effect of memantine plus vitamin D -the combination originating an effect stronger than the sum- corroborate previous clinical finding that Alzheimer's disease patients using this drug combination have improved cognition. This finding reinforces the pharmacological potential of a new drug combining memantine plus vitamin D for the treatment or the prevention of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:24011542

  12. Prediction of Peptide and Protein Propensity for Amyloid Formation

    PubMed Central

    Família, Carlos; Dennison, Sarah R.; Quintas, Alexandre; Phoenix, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding which peptides and proteins have the potential to undergo amyloid formation and what driving forces are responsible for amyloid-like fiber formation and stabilization remains limited. This is mainly because proteins that can undergo structural changes, which lead to amyloid formation, are quite diverse and share no obvious sequence or structural homology, despite the structural similarity found in the fibrils. To address these issues, a novel approach based on recursive feature selection and feed-forward neural networks was undertaken to identify key features highly correlated with the self-assembly problem. This approach allowed the identification of seven physicochemical and biochemical properties of the amino acids highly associated with the self-assembly of peptides and proteins into amyloid-like fibrils (normalized frequency of β-sheet, normalized frequency of β-sheet from LG, weights for β-sheet at the window position of 1, isoelectric point, atom-based hydrophobic moment, helix termination parameter at position j+1 and ΔG° values for peptides extrapolated in 0 M urea). Moreover, these features enabled the development of a new predictor (available at http://cran.r-project.org/web/packages/appnn/index.html) capable of accurately and reliably predicting the amyloidogenic propensity from the polypeptide sequence alone with a prediction accuracy of 84.9 % against an external validation dataset of sequences with experimental in vitro, evidence of amyloid formation. PMID:26241652

  13. Cu K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy Reveals Differential Copper Coordimation Within Amyloid-beta Oligomers Compared to Amyloid-beta Monomers

    SciTech Connect

    J Shearer; P Callan; T Tran; V Szalai

    2011-12-31

    The fatal neurodegenerative disorder Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been linked to the formation of soluble neurotoxic oligomers of amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}) peptides. These peptides have high affinities for copper cations. Despite their potential importance in AD neurodegeneration few studies have focused on probing the Cu{sup 2+/1+} coordination environment within A{beta} oligomers. Herein we present a Cu K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopic study probing the copper-coordination environment within oligomers of A{beta}(42) (sequence: DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIA). We find that the Cu{sup 2+} cation is contained within a square planar mixed N/O ligand environment within A{beta}(42) oligomers, which is similar to the copper coordination environment of the monomeric forms of {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup II}A{beta}(16){r_brace}. Reduction of the Cu{sup 2+} cation within the A{beta}(42) oligomers to Cu{sup 1+} yields a highly dioxygen sensitive copper-species that contains Cu{sup 1+} in a tetrahedral coordination geometry. This can be contrasted with monomers of {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(40){r_brace} and {l_brace}Cu{sup I}A{beta}(16){r_brace}, which contain copper in a dioxygen inert linear bis-histidine ligand environment [Shearer and Szalai, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130, 17826]. The biological implications of these findings are discussed.

  14. Estrogen has anti-amyloidogenic effects on Alzheimer's {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Morinaga, Akiyoshi; Hirohata, Mie; Ono, Kenjiro; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2007-08-03

    Inhibition of the assembly of amyloid {beta}-peptide (A{beta}) as well as the destabilization of preformed {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}) in the central nervous system could be valuable therapeutics of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Epidemiological studies have indicated that estrogen therapy reduced the risk of developing AD in women. Here, we examined the effects of estrogen (estrone (E1), estradiol (E2), and estriol (E3)) and related sexual steroids (androstenedione (AND) and testosterone (TES)) on the polymerization, extension and destabilization of fA{beta}(1-42) and fA{beta}(1-40) at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro, using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies. E1, E2, and E3 dose-dependently inhibited the formation, as well as destabilization of fA{beta}s. The overall anti-amyloidogenic activity of these molecules was in the order of: E3 > E2 = E1 >>AND = TES. Estrogen could be a potential therapeutic agent to prevent or delay AD progression.

  15. An in vivo model for the neurodegenerative effects of beta amyloid and protection by substance P.

    PubMed Central

    Kowall, N W; Beal, M F; Busciglio, J; Duffy, L K; Yankner, B A

    1991-01-01

    Deposition of the beta-amyloid protein in senile plaques is a pathologic hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD). Focal deposition of beta amyloid in the adult rat cerebral cortex caused profound neurodegenerative changes, including neuronal loss and degenerating neurons and neurites. Chronic induction of the Alz-50 antigen appeared in neurons around focal cortical deposits of beta amyloid. Immunoblot analysis showed that beta amyloid induced Alz-50-immunoreactive proteins in rat cerebral cortex that were very similar to the proteins induced in human cerebral cortex from patients with AD. The neuropeptide substance P prevented beta-amyloid-induced neuronal loss and expression of Alz-50 proteins when coadministered into the cerebral cortex. Systemic administration of substance P also provided protection against the effects of intracerebral beta amyloid. Thus, beta amyloid is a potent neurotoxin in the adult brain in vivo, and its effects can be blocked by substance P. Images PMID:1714596

  16. Structure of beta-crystallite assemblies formed by Alzheimer beta-amyloid protein analogues: analysis by x-ray diffraction.

    PubMed Central

    Inouye, H.; Fraser, P. E.; Kirschner, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    To elucidate the relation between amyloid fibril formation in Alzheimer disease and the primary structure of the beta/A4 protein, which is the major component of the amyloid, we have been investigating the ability of peptides sharing sequences with beta/A4 to form fibrils in vitro. In previous studies we focused on the macroscopic morphology of the assemblies formed by synthetic peptides corresponding in sequence to different regions of this protein. In the present study we analyze the x-ray diffraction patterns obtained from these assemblies. All specimens showed wide angle reflections that could be indexed by an orthogonal lattice of beta-crystallites having unit cell dimensions a = 9.4 A, b = 7 A, and c = 10 A, where a refers to hydrogen bonding direction, b to polypeptide chain direction, and c to intersheet direction. Given the amino acid sequence of beta/A4 as NH2-DAEFRHDSGYEVHHQKLVFFAEDVGSNKGAIIGLMVGGVVIAT-COOH, we found that, based on their orientation and assembly, the analogues could be classified into three groups: Group A, residues 19-28, 13-28, 12-28, 11-28, 9-28, 1-28, 1-38, 1-40, 6-25, 11-25 and 34-42; Group B, residues 18-28, 17-28, and 15-28; and Group C, residues 22-35 and 26-33. For Groups A and C, the sharpest reflections were (h00), indicating that the assemblies were fibrillar, i.e., elongated in a single direction. Lateral alignment of the crystallites in Group A account for its cross-beta pattern, in which the hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) direction is the fiber (rotation) axis. By comparison, the beta-crystallites of Group C had no preferential orientation, thus giving circular scattering. For Group B, the sharpest reflections were (h0l) on the meridian, indicating that the assemblies were plate-like, i.e., extended in two directions. A series of equatorial Bragg reflections having a 40 A period indicated regular stacking of the plates, and the rotation axis was normal to the surface of the plates. Of the Group A peptides, the analogues 11

  17. Amyloid-forming peptides selected proteolytically from phage display library.

    PubMed

    Koscielska-Kasprzak, Katarzyna; Otlewski, Jacek

    2003-08-01

    We demonstrated that amyloid-forming peptides could be selected from phage-displayed library via proteolysis-based selection protocol. The library of 28-residue peptides based on a sequence of the second zinc finger domain of Zif268, and computationally designed betabetaalpha peptide, FSD-1, was presented monovalently on the surface of M13 phage. The library coupled the infectivity of phage particles to proteolytic stability of a peptide introduced into the coat protein III linker. It was designed to include variants with a strong potential to fold into betabetaalpha motif of zinc finger domains, as expected from secondary structure propensities, but with no structure stabilization via zinc ion coordination. As our primary goal was to find novel monomeric betabetaalpha peptides, the library was selected for stable domains with the assumption that folded proteins are resistant to proteolysis. After less than four rounds of proteolytic selection with trypsin, chymotrypsin, or proteinase K, we obtained a number of proteolysis-resistant phage clones containing several potential sites for proteolytic attack with the proteinases. Eight peptides showing the highest proteolysis resistance were expressed and purified in a phage-free form. When characterized, the peptides possessed proteolytic resistance largely exceeding that of the second zinc finger domain of Zif268 and FSD-1. Six of the characterized peptides formed fibrils when solubilized at high concentrations. Three of them assembled into amyloids as determined through CD measurements, Congo red and thioflavin T binding, and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:12876317

  18. Distribution of beta-amyloid in the canine brain.

    PubMed

    Hou, Y; White, R G; Bobik, M; Marks, J S; Russell, M J

    1997-03-01

    The distribution of amyloid-beta protein (A beta) in the canine brain was demonstrated by immunochemistry on serially sectioned tissues from 10 aged mixed breed dogs. Summation of quantitative data and relegation to anatomical sites for the 10 dogs showed A beta to be widely distributed in the cortex and hippocampus while completely absent in the brain stem and cerebellum. The highest density of A beta was in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Cortical areas exhibiting the greatest A beta deposition were the posterior and medial suprasylvius gyrus and the proreus gyrus of the frontal lobe. Unlike humans the canine entorhinal cortex, amygdala, basal ganglia and olfactory bulbs were rarely affected. This suggested that the highly developed olfactory pathways of the canine are generally spared from A beta deposition. PMID:9141082

  19. Beta-peptide bundles with fluorous cores.

    PubMed

    Molski, Matthew A; Goodman, Jessica L; Craig, Cody J; Meng, He; Kumar, Krishna; Schepartz, Alanna

    2010-03-24

    We reported recently that certain beta-peptides self-assemble spontaneously into cooperatively folded bundles whose kinetic and thermodynamic metrics mirror those of natural helix bundle proteins. The structures of four such beta-peptide bundles are known in atomic detail. These structures reveal a solvent-sequestered, hydrophobic core stabilized by a unique arrangement of leucine side chains and backbone methylene groups. Here we report that this hydrophobic core can be re-engineered to contain a fluorous subdomain while maintaining the characteristic beta-peptide bundle fold. Like alpha-helical bundles possessing fluorous cores, fluorous beta-peptide bundles are stabilized relative to hydrocarbon analogues and undergo cold denaturation. Beta-peptide bundles with fluorous cores represent the essential first step in the synthesis of orthogonal protein assemblies that can sequester selectively in an interstitial membrane environment. PMID:20196598

  20. Distribution of precursor amyloid-. beta. -protein messenger RNA in human cerebral cortex: relationship to neurofibrillary tangles and neuritic plaques

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.A.; Higgins, G.A.; Young, W.G.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Wilson, M.C.; Morrison, J.H.

    1988-03-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and neuritic plaques (NP), two neuropathological markers of Alzheimer disease, may both contain peptide fragments derived from the human amyloid ..beta.. protein. However, the nature of the relationship between NFT and NP and the source of the amyloid ..beta.. proteins found in each have remained unclear. The authors used in situ hybridization techniques to map the anatomical distribution of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA in the neocortex of brains from three subjects with no known neurologic disease and from five patients with Alzheimer disease. In brains from control subjects, positively hybridizing neurons were present in cortical regions and layers that contain a high density of neuropathological markers in Alzheimer disease, as well as in those loci that contain NP but few NFT. Quantitative analyses of in situ hybridization patterns within layers III and V of the superior frontal cortex revealed that the presence of high numbers of NFT in Alzheimer-diseased brains was associated with a decrease in the number of positively hybridizing neurons compared to controls and Alzheimer-diseased brains with few NFT. These findings suggest that the expression of precursor amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA may be a necessary but is clearly not a sufficient prerequisite for NFT formation. In addition, these results may indicate that the amyloid ..beta.. protein, present in NP in a given region or layer of cortex, is not derived from the resident neuronal cell bodies that express the mRNA for the precursor protein.

  1. Alignment of a model amyloid Peptide fragment in bulk and at a solid surface.

    PubMed

    Hamley, Ian W; Castelletto, Valeria; Moulton, Claire M; Rodríguez-Pérez, José; Squires, Adam M; Eralp, Tugce; Held, Georg; Hicks, Matthew R; Rodger, Alison

    2010-06-24

    The alignment of model amyloid peptide YYKLVFFC is investigated in bulk and at a solid surface using a range of spectroscopic methods employing polarized radiation. The peptide is based on a core sequence of the amyloid beta (Abeta) peptide, KLVFF. The attached tyrosine and cysteine units are exploited to yield information on alignment and possible formation of disulfide or dityrosine links. Polarized Raman spectroscopy on aligned stalks provides information on tyrosine orientation, which complements data from linear dichroism (LD) on aqueous solutions subjected to shear in a Couette cell. LD provides a detailed picture of alignment of peptide strands and aromatic residues and was also used to probe the kinetics of self-assembly. This suggests initial association of phenylalanine residues, followed by subsequent registry of strands and orientation of tyrosine residues. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data from aligned stalks is used to extract orientational order parameters from the 0.48 nm reflection in the cross-beta pattern, from which an orientational distribution function is obtained. X-ray diffraction on solutions subject to capillary flow confirmed orientation in situ at the level of the cross-beta pattern. The information on fibril and tyrosine orientation from polarized Raman spectroscopy is compared with results from NEXAFS experiments on samples prepared as films on silicon. This indicates fibrils are aligned parallel to the surface, with phenyl ring normals perpendicular to the surface. Possible disulfide bridging leading to peptide dimer formation was excluded by Raman spectroscopy, whereas dityrosine formation was probed by fluorescence experiments and was found not to occur except under alkaline conditions. Congo red binding was found not to influence the cross-beta XRD pattern. PMID:20509614

  2. Reexamining Alzheimer's disease: evidence for a protective role for amyloid-beta protein precursor and amyloid-beta.

    PubMed

    Castellani, Rudy J; Lee, Hyoung-gon; Siedlak, Sandra L; Nunomura, Akihiko; Hayashi, Takaaki; Nakamura, Masao; Zhu, Xiongwei; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A

    2009-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized clinically by cognitive decline and pathologically by the accumulation of amyloid-beta-containing senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. A great deal of attention has focused, focused on amyloid-beta as the major pathogenic mechanism with the ultimate goal of using amyloid-beta lowering therapies as an avenue of treatment. Unfortunately, nearly a quarter century later, no tangible progress has been offered, whereas spectacular failure tends to be the most compelling. We have long contended, as has substantial literature, that proteinaceous accumulations are simply downstream and, often, endstage manifestations of disease. Their overall poor correlation with the level of dementia, and their presence in the cognitively intact is evidence that is often ignored as an inconvenient truth. Current research examining amyloid oligomers, therefore, will add copious details to what is, in essence, a reductionist distraction from upstream pleiotrophic processes such as oxidative stress, cell cycle dysfunction, and inflammation. It is now long overdue that the neuroscientists avoid the pitfall of perseverating on "proteinopathies'' and recognize that the continued targeting of end stage lesions in the face of repeated failure, or worse, is a losing proposition. PMID:19584435

  3. Inhibition of amyloid fibril formation of human amylin by N-alkylated amino acid and alpha-hydroxy acid residue containing peptides.

    PubMed

    Rijkers, Dirk T S; Höppener, Jo W M; Posthuma, George; Lips, Cornelis J M; Liskamp, Rob M J

    2002-09-16

    Amyloid deposits are formed as a result of uncontrolled aggregation of (poly)peptides or proteins. Today several diseases are known, for example Alzheimer's disease, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, mad cow disease, in which amyloid formation is involved. Amyloid fibrils are large aggregates of beta-pleated sheets and here a general method is described to introduce molecular mutations in order to achieve disruption of beta-sheet formation. Eight backbone-modified amylin derivatives, an amyloidogenic peptide involved in maturity onset diabetes, were synthesized. Their beta-sheet forming properties were studied by IR spectroscopy and electron microscopy. Modification of a crucial amide NH by an alkyl chain led to a complete loss of the beta-sheet forming capacity of amylin. The resulting molecular mutated amylin derivative could be used to break the beta-sheet thus retarding beta-sheet formation of unmodified amylin. Moreover, it was found that the replacement of this amide bond by an ester moiety suppressed fibrillogenesis significantly. Introduction of N-alkylated amino acids and/or ester functionalities-leading to depsipeptides-into amyloidogenic peptides opens new avenues towards novel peptidic beta-sheet breakers for inhibition of beta-amyloid aggregation. PMID:12298020

  4. Arf6 controls beta-amyloid production by regulating macropinocytosis of the Amyloid Precursor Protein to lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weihao; Tam, Joshua H K; Seah, Claudia; Chiu, Justin; Tyrer, Andrea; Cregan, Sean P; Meakin, Susan O; Pasternak, Stephen H

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition of Beta-Amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the brain. Aβ peptides are generated by cleavage of the Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) by the β - and γ - secretase enzymes. Although this process is tightly linked to the internalization of cell surface APP, the compartments responsible are not well defined. We have found that APP can be rapidly internalized from the cell surface to lysosomes, bypassing early and late endosomes. Here we show by confocal microscopy and electron microscopy that this pathway is mediated by macropinocytosis. APP internalization is enhanced by antibody binding/crosslinking of APP suggesting that APP may function as a receptor. Furthermore, a dominant negative mutant of Arf6 blocks direct transport of APP to lysosomes, but does not affect classical endocytosis to endosomes. Arf6 expression increases through the hippocampus with the development of Alzheimer's disease, being expressed mostly in the CA1 and CA2 regions in normal individuals but spreading through the CA3 and CA4 regions in individuals with pathologically diagnosed AD. Disruption of lysosomal transport of APP reduces both Aβ40 and Aβ42 production by more than 30 %. Our findings suggest that the lysosome is an important site for Aβ production and that altering APP trafficking represents a viable strategy to reduce Aβ production. PMID:26170135

  5. Gold Nanoparticles and Microwave Irradiation Inhibit Beta-Amyloid Amyloidogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araya, Eyleen; Olmedo, Ivonne; Bastus, Neus G.; Guerrero, Simón; Puntes, Víctor F.; Giralt, Ernest; Kogan, Marcelo J.

    2008-11-01

    Peptide-Gold nanoparticles selectively attached to β-amyloid protein (Aβ) amyloidogenic aggregates were irradiated with microwave. This treatment produces dramatic effects on the Aβ aggregates, inhibiting both the amyloidogenesis and the restoration of the amyloidogenic potential. This novel approach offers a new strategy to inhibit, locally and remotely, the amyloidogenic process, which could have application in Alzheimer’s disease therapy. We have studied the irradiation effect on the amyloidogenic process in the presence of conjugates peptide-nanoparticle by transmission electronic microscopy observations and by Thioflavine T assays to quantify the amount of fibrils in suspension. The amyloidogenic aggregates rather than the amyloid fibrils seem to be better targets for the treatment of the disease. Our results could contribute to the development of a new therapeutic strategy to inhibit the amyloidogenic process in Alzheimer’s disease.

  6. Engineering Amyloid-Like Assemblies from Unstructured Peptides via Site-Specific Lipid Conjugation

    PubMed Central

    López Deber, María Pilar; Hickman, David T.; Nand, Deepak; Baldus, Marc; Pfeifer, Andrea; Muhs, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation of amyloid beta (Aβ) into oligomers and fibrils is believed to play an important role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). To gain further insight into the principles of aggregation, we have investigated the induction of β-sheet secondary conformation from disordered native peptide sequences through lipidation, in 1–2% hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Several parameters, such as type and number of lipid chains, peptide sequence, peptide length and net charge, were explored keeping the ratio peptide/HFIP constant. The resulting lipoconjugates were characterized by several physico-chemical techniques: Circular Dichroism (CD), Attenuated Total Reflection InfraRed (ATR-IR), Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence, Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), solid-state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR) spectroscopy and Electron Microscopy (EM). Our data demonstrate the generation of β-sheet aggregates from numerous unstructured peptides under physiological pH, independent of the amino acid sequence. The amphiphilicity pattern and hydrophobicity of the scaffold were found to be key factors for their assembly into amyloid-like structures. PMID:25207975

  7. The beta-amyloid domain is essential for axonal sorting of amyloid precursor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Tienari, P J; De Strooper, B; Ikonen, E; Simons, M; Weidemann, A; Czech, C; Hartmann, T; Ida, N; Multhaup, G; Masters, C L; Van Leuven, F; Beyreuther, K; Dotti, C G

    1996-01-01

    We have analysed the axonal sorting signals of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Wild-type and mutant versions of human APP were expressed in hippocampal neurons using the Semliki forest virus system. We show that wild-type APP and mutations implicated in Alzheimer's disease and another brain beta-amyloidosis are sorted to the axon. By analysis of deletion mutants we found that the membrane-inserted APP ectodomain but not the cytoplasmic tail is required for axonal sorting. Systematic deletions of the APP ectodomain identified two regions required for axonal delivery: one encoded by exons 11-15 in the carbohydrate domain, the other encoded by exons 16-17 in the juxtamembraneous beta-amyloid domain. Treatment of the cells with the N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin induced missorting of wild-type APP, supporting the importance of glycosylation in axonal sorting of APP. The data revealed a hierarchy of sorting signals on APP: the beta-amyloid-dependent membrane proximal signal was the major contributor to axonal sorting, while N-glycosylation had a weaker effect. Furthermore, recessive somatodendritic signals, most likely in the cytoplasmic tail, directed the protein to the dendrites when the ectodomain was deleted. Analysis of detergent solubility of APP and another axonally delivered protein, hemagglutinin, demonstrated that only hemagglutinin formed CHAPS-insoluble complexes, suggesting distinct mechanisms of axonal sorting for these two proteins. This study is the first delineation of sorting requirements of an axonally targeted protein in polarized neurons and indicates that the beta-amyloid domain plays a major role in axonal delivery of APP. Images PMID:8895567

  8. Oligomer Formation of Toxic and Functional Amyloid Peptides Studied with Atomistic Simulations.

    PubMed

    Carballo-Pacheco, Martín; Ismail, Ahmed E; Strodel, Birgit

    2015-07-30

    Amyloids are associated with diseases, including Alzheimer's, as well as functional roles such as storage of peptide hormones. It is still unclear what differences exist between aberrant and functional amyloids. However, it is known that soluble oligomers formed during amyloid aggregation are more toxic than the final fibrils. Here, we perform molecular dynamics simulations to study the aggregation of the amyloidpeptide Aβ25-35, associated with Alzheimer's disease, and two functional amyloid-forming tachykinin peptides: kassinin and neuromedin K. Although the three peptides have similar primary sequences, tachykinin peptides, in contrast to Aβ25-35, form nontoxic amyloids. Our simulations reveal that the charge of the C-terminus is essential to controlling the aggregation process. In particular, when the kassinin C-terminus is not amidated, the aggregation kinetics decreases considerably. In addition, we observe that the monomeric peptides in extended conformations aggregate faster than those in collapsed hairpin-like conformations. PMID:26130191

  9. Designing peptidic inhibitors of serum amyloid A aggregation process.

    PubMed

    Sosnowska, Marta; Skibiszewska, Sandra; Kamińska, Emilia; Wieczerzak, Ewa; Jankowska, Elżbieta

    2016-04-01

    Amyloid A amyloidosis is a life-threatening complication of a wide range of chronic inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic diseases, and the most common form of systemic amyloidosis worldwide. It is characterized by extracellular tissue deposition of fibrils that are composed of fragments of serum amyloid A protein (SAA), a major acute-phase reactant protein, produced predominantly by hepatocytes. Currently, there are no approved therapeutic agents directed against the formation of fibrillar SAA assemblies. We attempted to develop peptidic inhibitors based on their similarity and complementarity to the regions critical for SAA self-association, which they should interact with and block their assembly into amyloid fibrils. Inh1 and inh4 which are comprised of the residues from the amyloidogenic region of SAA1.1 protein and Aβ peptide, respectively, were found by us as capable to significantly suppress aggregation of the SAA1-12 peptide. It was chosen as an aggregation model that mimicks the amyloidogenic nucleus of SAA protein. We suppose that aromatic interactions may be responsible for inhibitory activity of both compounds. We also recognized that aromatic residues are involved in self-association of SAA1-12. PMID:26759015

  10. Design and biological activity of {beta}-sheet breaker peptide conjugates

    SciTech Connect

    Rocha, Sandra Cardoso, Isabel; Boerner, Hans; Pereira, Maria Carmo; Saraiva, Maria Joao; Coelho, Manuel

    2009-03-06

    The sequence LPFFD (iA{beta}{sub 5}) prevents amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) fibrillogenesis and neurotoxicity, hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), as previously demonstrated. In this study iA{beta}{sub 5} was covalently linked to poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and the activity of conjugates was assessed and compared to the activity of the peptide alone by in vitro studies. The conjugates were characterized by MALDI-TOF. Competition binding assays established that conjugates retained the ability to bind A{beta} with similar strength as iA{beta}{sub 5}. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed that iA{beta}{sub 5} conjugates inhibited amyloid fibril formation, which is in agreement with binding properties observed for the conjugates towards A{beta}. The conjugates were also able to prevent amyloid-induced cell death, as evaluated by activation of caspase 3. These results demonstrated that the biological activity of iA{beta}{sub 5} is not affected by the pegylation process.

  11. Neuroprotective approaches in experimental models of beta-amyloid neurotoxicity: relevance to Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Harkany, T; Hortobágyi, T; Sasvári, M; Kónya, C; Penke, B; Luiten, P G; Nyakas, C

    1999-08-01

    1. beta-Amyloid peptides (A beta s) accumulate abundantly in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain in areas subserving information acquisition and processing, and memory formation. A beta fragments are produced in a process of abnormal proteolytic cleavage of their precursor, the amyloid precursor protein (APP). While conflicting data exist in the literature on the roles of A beta s in the brain, and particularly in AD, recent studies have provided firm experimental evidence for the direct neurotoxic properties of A beta. 2. Sequence analysis of A beta s revealed a high degree of evolutionary conservation and inter-species homology of the A beta amino acid sequence. In contrast, synthetic A beta fragments, even if modified fluorescent or isotope-labeled derivatives, are pharmacological candidates for in vitro and in vivo modeling of their cellular actions. During the past decade, acute injection, prolonged mini-osmotic brain perfusion approaches or A beta infusions into the blood circulation were developed in order to investigate the effects of synthetic A beta s, whereas transgenic models provided insight into the distinct molecular steps of pathological APP cleavage. 3. The hippocampus, caudate putamen, amygdala and neocortex all formed primary targets of acute neurotoxicity screening, but functional consequences of A beta infusions were primarily demonstrated following either intracerebroventricular or basal forebrain (medial septum or magnocellular basal nucleus (MBN)) infusions of A beta fragments. 4. In vivo investigations confirmed that, while the active core of A beta is located within the beta(25-35) sequence, the flanking peptide regions influence not only the folding properties of the A beta fragments, but also their in vivo neurotoxic potentials. 5. It has recently been established that A beta administration deranges neuron-glia signaling, affects the glial glutamate uptake and thereby induces noxious glutamatergic stimulation of nerve cells. In fact, a

  12. Development and characterization of a TAPIR-like mouse monoclonal antibody to amyloid-beta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Hara, Hideo; Makifuchi, Takao; Tabira, Takeshi

    2008-06-01

    Tissue amyloid plaque immuno-reactive (TAPIR) antibody was better related to the effect of immunotherapy in Alzheimer's disease (AD) than ELISA antibody. Here we used a hybridoma technique to develop a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid-beta (Abeta) mouse monoclonal antibody. The obtained monoclonal antibody, 3.4A10, was an IgG2b isotype and recognized N-terminal portion of Abeta1-42 without binding denatured or native amyloid-beta protein precursor. It had higher affinity to Abeta1-42 than to Abeta1-40 by Biacore affinity analysis and stained preferably the peripheral part of senile plaques and recognized the plaque core less than 4G8. It inhibited the Abeta1-42 fibril formation as well as degraded pre-aggregated Abeta1-42 peptide in a thioflavin T fluorescence spectrophotometry assay. The in vivo studies showed that 3.4A10 treatment decreased amyloid burden compared to the control group and significantly reduced Abeta42 levels rather than Abeta40 levels in brain lysates as well as the Abeta*56 oligomer (12mer) in TBS fraction of the brain lysates. 3.4A10 entered brain and decorated some plaques, which is surrounded by more Iba1-positive microglia. 3.4A10 therapy did not induce lymphocytic infiltration and obvious increase in microhemorrhage. We conclude that 3.4A10 is a TAPIR-like anti-human amyloid monoclonal antibody, and has a potential of therapeutic application for AD. PMID:18560128

  13. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans

    PubMed Central

    Elbert, Donald L.; Patterson, Bruce W.; Bateman, Randall J.

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single ‘turnover’ parameter, a single ‘exchange’ parameter and a single ‘delay’ parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. PMID:25497960

  14. Analysis of a compartmental model of amyloid beta production, irreversible loss and exchange in humans.

    PubMed

    Elbert, Donald L; Patterson, Bruce W; Bateman, Randall J

    2015-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, and in particular Aβ42, are found in senile plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease. A compartmental model of Aβ production, exchange and irreversible loss was recently developed to explain the kinetics of isotope-labeling of Aβ peptides collected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) following infusion of stable isotope-labeled leucine in humans. The compartmental model allowed calculation of the rates of production, irreversible loss (or turnover) and short-term exchange of Aβ peptides. Exchange of Aβ42 was particularly pronounced in amyloid plaque-bearing participants. In the current work, we describe in much greater detail the characteristics of the compartmental model to two distinct audiences: physician-scientists and biokineticists. For physician-scientists, we describe through examples the types of questions the model can and cannot answer, as well as correct some misunderstandings of previous kinetic analyses applied to this type of isotope labeling data. For biokineticists, we perform a system identifiability analysis and a sensitivity analysis of the kinetic model to explore the global and local properties of the model. Combined, these analyses motivate simplifications from a more comprehensive physiological model to the final model that was previously presented. The analyses clearly demonstrate that the current dataset and compartmental model allow determination with confidence a single 'turnover' parameter, a single 'exchange' parameter and a single 'delay' parameter. When combined with CSF concentration data for the Aβ peptides, production rates may also be obtained. PMID:25497960

  15. Butanol extract of Ecklonia cava prevents production and aggregation of beta-amyloid, and reduces beta-amyloid mediated neuronal death.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Jun; Jeon, Young Eun; Yin, Xing Fu; Nam, Jin-Sik; You, Sang Guan; Hong, Myo Soon; Jang, Bong Geom; Kim, Min-Ju

    2011-09-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) is a major pathogenic peptide for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is generated by the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). The Aβ monomers aggregate into oligomeric and fibrillar forms which have been implicated as the toxic species inducing the neuronal dysfunction. Brown algae Ecklonia cava is known for its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions. Therefore, we tested the effect of E. cava extract on the production and aggregation of Aβ peptides. The butanol extract of E. cava reduced Aβ secretion from HEK293 cells expressing APP with Swedish mutation and increased soluble APPα and C-terminal fragment-α (CTFα), of which activity was similar to BACE (β-site of APP cleaving enzyme) inhibitors. Furthermore, the extract inhibited Aβ oligomerization, particularly mid-size oligomer formation, confirmed by the ultrastructural morphology. Congo red, thioflavin T assays, and electron microscopy showed that the extract inhibited Aβ fibril formation effectively. Finally, the extract protected primary cortical neurons from various Aβ-induced cell deaths, especially oligomer-induced death. Although further study is needed to test the effectiveness of the extract in vivo, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that the butanol extract of E. cava could be used as an anti-Aβ agent for AD therapeutics. PMID:21693162

  16. Peptide concentration alters intermediate species in amyloid β fibrillation kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, M.; Morgado, I.

    2013-04-12

    Highlights: ► Aβ(1–40) aggregation in vitro has been monitored at different concentrations. ► Aβ(1–40) fibrillation does not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms. ► We demonstrate non-linear features in the kinetics of Aβ(1–40) fibril formation. ► At high Aβ(1–40) concentrations secondary processes dictate fibrillation speed. ► Intermediate species may play significant roles on final amyloid fibril development. -- Abstract: The kinetic mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains to be fully understood. Investigations into the species present in the different kinetic phases can assist our comprehension of amyloid diseases and further our understanding of the mechanism behind amyloid β (Aβ) (1–40) peptide aggregation. Thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) have been used in combination to monitor Aβ(1–40) aggregation in vitro at both normal and higher than standard concentrations. The observed fibrillation behaviour deviates, in several respects, from standard concepts of the nucleation–polymerisation models and shows such features as concentration-dependent non-linear effects in the assembly mechanism. Aβ(1–40) fibrillation kinetics do not always follow conventional kinetic mechanisms and, specifically at high concentrations, intermediate structures become populated and secondary processes may further modify the fibrillation mechanism.

  17. Supramolecular Nanostructure Formation of Coassembled Amyloid Inspired Peptides.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Goksu; Orujalipoor, Ilghar; Su, Chun-Jen; Jeng, U-Ser; Ide, Semra; Guler, Mustafa O

    2016-06-28

    Characterization of amyloid-like aggregates through converging approaches can yield deeper understanding of their complex self-assembly mechanisms and the nature of their strong mechanical stability, which may in turn contribute to the design of novel supramolecular peptide nanostructures as functional materials. In this study, we investigated the coassembly kinetics of oppositely charged short amyloid-inspired peptides (AIPs) into supramolecular nanostructures by using confocal fluorescence imaging of thioflavin T binding, turbidity assay and in situ small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) analysis. We showed that coassembly kinetics of the AIP nanostructures were consistent with nucleation-dependent amyloid-like aggregation, and aggregation behavior of the AIPs was affected by the initial monomer concentration and sonication. Moreover, SAXS analysis was performed to gain structural information on the size, shape, electron density, and internal organization of the coassembled AIP nanostructures. The scattering data of the coassembled AIP nanostructures were best fitted into to a combination of polydisperse core-shell cylinder (PCSC) and decoupling flexible cylinder (FCPR) models, and the structural parameters were estimated based on the fitting results of the scattering data. The stability of the coassembled AIP nanostructures in both fiber organization and bulk viscoelastic properties was also revealed via temperature-dependent SAXS analysis and oscillatory rheology measurements, respectively. PMID:27267733

  18. Cannabidiol promotes amyloid precursor protein ubiquitination and reduction of beta amyloid expression in SHSY5YAPP+ cells through PPARγ involvement.

    PubMed

    Scuderi, Caterina; Steardo, Luca; Esposito, Giuseppe

    2014-07-01

    The amyloidogenic cascade is regarded as a key factor at the basis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. The aberrant cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) induces an increased production and a subsequent aggregation of beta amyloid (Aβ) peptide in limbic and association cortices. As a result, altered neuronal homeostasis and oxidative injury provoke tangle formation with consequent neuronal loss. Cannabidiol (CBD), a Cannabis derivative devoid of psychotropic effects, has attracted much attention because it may beneficially interfere with several Aβ-triggered neurodegenerative pathways, even though the mechanism responsible for such actions remains unknown. In the present research, the role of CBD was investigated as a possible modulating compound of APP processing in SHSY5Y(APP+) neurons. In addition, the putative involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) was explored as a candidate molecular site responsible for CBD actions. Results indicated the CBD capability to induce the ubiquitination of APP protein which led to a substantial decrease in APP full length protein levels in SHSY5Y(APP+) with the consequent decrease in Aβ production. Moreover, CBD promoted an increased survival of SHSY5Y(APP+) neurons, by reducing their long-term apoptotic rate. Obtained results also showed that all, here observed, CBD effects were dependent on the selective activation of PPARγ. PMID:24288245

  19. Expression of the alternative oxidase mitigates beta-amyloid production and toxicity in model systems.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Riyad; Kaulio, Eveliina; Lassila, Katariina A; Crowther, Damian C; Jacobs, Howard T; Rustin, Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been widely associated with the pathology of Alzheimer's disease, but there is no consensus on whether it is a cause or consequence of disease, nor on the precise mechanism(s). We addressed these issues by testing the effects of expressing the alternative oxidase AOX from Ciona intestinalis, in different models of AD pathology. AOX can restore respiratory electron flow when the cytochrome segment of the mitochondrial respiratory chain is inhibited, supporting ATP synthesis, maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and mitigating excess superoxide production at respiratory complexes I and III. In human HEK293-derived cells, AOX expression decreased the production of beta-amyloid peptide resulting from antimycin inhibition of respiratory complex III. Because hydrogen peroxide was neither a direct product nor substrate of AOX, the ability of AOX to mimic antioxidants in this assay must be indirect. In addition, AOX expression was able to partially alleviate the short lifespan of Drosophila models neuronally expressing human beta-amyloid peptides, whilst abrogating the induction of markers of oxidative stress. Our findings support the idea of respiratory chain dysfunction and excess ROS production as both an early step and as a pathologically meaningful target in Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis, supporting the concept of a mitochondrial vicious cycle underlying the disease. PMID:27094492

  20. Imaging of dialysis-related amyloid (AB-amyloid) deposits with sup 131 I-beta 2-microglobulin

    SciTech Connect

    Floege, J.; Burchert, W.; Brandis, A.; Gielow, P.; Nonnast-Daniel, B.; Spindler, E.; Hundeshagen, H.; Shaldon, S.; Koch, K.M. )

    1990-12-01

    The diagnosis of dialysis-related amyloid (AB-amyloid) has been based usually on clinical and radiological criteria. Following the discovery that beta 2-microglobulin was the major protein of this amyloid, we isolated and radiolabelled uremic plasma beta 2-microglobulin. After intravenous injection, gamma-camera images of selected joint areas were obtained from 42 patients who were on regular hemodialysis therapy. Positive scans involving the shoulder, hip, knee and carpal regions were found in 13 of 14 patients treated for more than 10 years and 10 of 16 patients treated for 5 to 10 years. Patients treated for less time had negative scans. Specificity was indicated by negative scans in non-amyloid inflammatory lesions in control hemodialysis patients. Up to 48-fold tracer enrichment was detected in excised AB-amyloid containing tissue as compared to amyloid-free tissue. These findings suggest that circulating radiolabelled beta 2-microglobulin is taken up by the amyloid deposits. This method may non-invasively detect tissue infiltrates of amyloid. It may also permit prospective evaluation of the efficacy of prophylactic dialysis strategies which are designed to prevent or delay the onset of this complication of long-term dialysis.

  1. Pin1 promotes production of Alzheimer's amyloid {beta} from {beta}-cleaved amyloid precursor protein

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Uchida, Chiyoko; Kitamoto, Tetsuyuki; Uchida, Takafumi . E-mail: uchidat@cir.tohoku.ac.jp

    2005-10-21

    Here we show that prolyl isomerase Pin1 is involved in the A{beta} production central to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Enzyme immunoassay of brains of the Pin1-deficient mice revealed that production of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 was lower than that of the wild-type mice, indicating that Pin1 promotes A{beta} production in the brain. GST-Pin1 pull-down and immunoprecipitation assay revealed that Pin1 binds phosphorylated Thr668-Pro of C99. In the Pin1 {sup -/-} MEF transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the levels of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42 compared to that without Pin1 co-transfection. In COS7 cells transfected with C99, Pin1 co-transfection enhanced the generation of A{beta}40 and A{beta}42, and reduced the expression level of C99, facilitating the C99 turnover. Thus, Pin1 interacts with C99 and promotes its {gamma}-cleavage, generating A{beta}40 and A{beta}42. Further, GSK3 inhibitor lithium blocked Pin1 binding to C99 by decreasing Thr668 phosphorylation and attenuated A{beta} generation, explaining the inhibitory effect of lithium on A{beta} generation.

  2. ToF-SIMS analysis of amyloid beta aggregation on different lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yuta; Aoyagi, Satoka; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Iwamura, Miki; Iwai, Hideo

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides are considered to be strongly related to Alzheimer's disease. Aβ peptides form a β-sheet structure on hard lipid membranes and it would aggregate to form amyloid fibrils, which are toxic to cells. However, the aggregation mechanism of Aβ is not fully understood. To evaluate the influence of the lipid membrane condition for Aβ aggregation, the adsorption forms of Aβ (1-40) on mixture membranes of lipid 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DMPC) and cholesterol β-d-glucoside (β-CG) were investigated by time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. As a result, Aβ adsorbed along the localized DMPC lipid on the mixture lipid membranes, whereas it was adsorbed homogeneously on the pure DMPC and β-CG membranes. Moreover, amino acid fragments that mainly existed in the n-terminal of Aβ (1-40) peptide were strongly detected on the localized DMPC region. These results suggested that the Aβ was adsorbed along the localized DMPC lipid with a characteristic orientation. These findings suggest that the hardness of the membrane is very sensitive to coexisting materials and that surface hardness is important for aggregation of Aβ. PMID:26822505

  3. Short peptides self-assemble to produce catalytic amyloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rufo, Caroline M.; Moroz, Yurii S.; Moroz, Olesia V.; Stöhr, Jan; Smith, Tyler A.; Hu, Xiaozhen; Degrado, William F.; Korendovych, Ivan V.

    2014-04-01

    Enzymes fold into unique three-dimensional structures, which underlie their remarkable catalytic properties. The requirement to adopt a stable, folded conformation is likely to contribute to their relatively large size (>10,000 Da). However, much shorter peptides can achieve well-defined conformations through the formation of amyloid fibrils. To test whether short amyloid-forming peptides might in fact be capable of enzyme-like catalysis, we designed a series of seven-residue peptides that act as Zn2+-dependent esterases. Zn2+ helps stabilize the fibril formation, while also acting as a cofactor to catalyse acyl ester hydrolysis. These results indicate that prion-like fibrils are able to not only catalyse their own formation, but they can also catalyse chemical reactions. Thus, they might have served as intermediates in the evolution of modern-day enzymes. These results also have implications for the design of self-assembling nanostructured catalysts including ones containing a variety of biological and non-biological metal ions.

  4. Manipulation of self-assembly amyloid peptide nanotubes by dielectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Jaime; Tanzi, Simone; Dimaki, Maria; Svendsen, Winnie

    2008-12-01

    Self-assembled amyloid peptide nanotubes (SAPNT) were manipulated and immobilized using dielectrophoresis. Micro-patterned electrodes of Au were fabricated by photolithography and lifted off on a silicon dioxide layer. SAPNT were manipulated by adjusting the amplitude and frequency of the applied voltage. The immobilized SAPNT were evaluated by SEM and atomic force microscopy. The conductivity of the immobilized SAPNT was studied by I-V characterization, for both single SAPNT and bundles. This work illustrates a way to manipulate and integrate biological nanostructures into novel bio-nanoassemblies with concrete applications, such as field-effect transistors, microprobes, microarrays, and biosensing devices. PMID:19130587

  5. A cylinder-shaped double ribbon structure formed by an amyloid hairpin peptide derived from the beta-sheet of murine PrP: an X-ray and molecular dynamics simulation study.

    PubMed

    Croixmarie, Vincent; Briki, Fatma; David, Gabriel; Coïc, Yves-Marie; Ovtracht, Ludmila; Doucet, Jean; Jamin, Nadège; Sanson, A

    2005-06-01

    A structural model of the murine PrP small beta-sheet was obtained by synthesizing the RGYMLGSADPNGNQVYYRG peptide comprising the two beta-strands 127-133 and 159-164 linked by a four-residue sequence of high turn propensity. The DPNG turn sequence is a "short circuit" replacing the original protein sequence between the two strands. This 19-residue peptide spontaneously forms very long single fibrils as observed by electron microscopy. The X-ray diffraction patterns of a partially oriented sample reveals an average arrangement of the hairpin peptides into a structure which can be geometrically approximated by an empty-core cylinder. The hairpins are oriented perpendicular to the cylinder axis and a 130 A helix period is observed. Based on X-ray diffraction constraints and on more indirect general protein structure considerations, a precise and consistent fibril model was built. The structure consists of two beta-sheet ribbons wound around a cylinder and assembled into a single fibril with a hairpin orientation perpendicular to the fibril axis. Subsequent implicit and explicit solvent molecular dynamics simulations provided the final structure at atomic resolution and further insights into the stabilizing interactions. Particularly important are the zipper-like network of polar interactions between the edges of the two ribbons, including the partially buried water molecules. The hydrophobic core is not optimally compact explaining the low density of this region seen by X-ray diffraction. The present findings provide also a simple model for further investigating the sequence-stability relationship using a mutational approach with a quasi-independent consideration of the polar and apolar interactions. PMID:15890277

  6. Dimensionality of carbon nanomaterial impacting on the modulation of amyloid peptide assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Zhu, Z.; Bortolini, C.; Hoffmann, S. V.; Amari, A.; Zhang, H. X.; Liu, L.; Dong, M. D.

    2016-07-01

    A wide variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been exploited so far for their great potential for biological applications. Some of these materials could be valid candidates to modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides, which is relevant to amyloid-related diseases. In this work, we reveal that a carbon nanomaterial can indeed modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides and, additionally, we show that this modulating effect is closely related to the dimensionality of the nanomaterials.

  7. Dimensionality of carbon nanomaterial impacting on the modulation of amyloid peptide assembly.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Zhu, Z; Bortolini, C; Hoffmann, S V; Amari, A; Zhang, H X; Liu, L; Dong, M D

    2016-07-29

    A wide variety of inorganic nanomaterials have been exploited so far for their great potential for biological applications. Some of these materials could be valid candidates to modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides, which is relevant to amyloid-related diseases. In this work, we reveal that a carbon nanomaterial can indeed modulate the assembly of amyloid peptides and, additionally, we show that this modulating effect is closely related to the dimensionality of the nanomaterials. PMID:27302044

  8. NOVEL AMYLOID-BETA SPECIFIC scFv and VH ANTIBODY FRAGMENTS FROM HUMAN AND MOUSE PHAGE DISPLAY ANTIBODY LIBRARIES

    PubMed Central

    Medecigo, M.; Manoutcharian, K.; Vasilevko, V.; Govezensky, T.; Munguia, M. E.; Becerril, B.; Luz-Madrigal, A.; Vaca, L.; Cribbs, D. H.; Gevorkian, G.

    2010-01-01

    Anti-amyloid immunotherapy has been proposed as an appropriate therapeutic approach for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Significant efforts have been made towards the generation and assessment of antibody-based reagents capable of preventing and clearing amyloid aggregates as well as preventing their synaptotoxic effects. In this study, we selected a novel set of human anti-amyloid-beta peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42) recombinant monoclonal antibodies in a single chain fragment variable (scFv) and a single domain (VH) formats. We demonstrated that these antibody fragments recognize in a specific manner amyloid beta deposits in APP/Tg mouse brains, inhibit toxicity of oligomeric Aβ1-42 in neuroblastoma cell cultures in a concentration-dependently manner and reduced amyloid deposits in APP/Tg2576 mice after intracranial administration. These antibody fragments recognize epitopes in the middle/C-terminus region of Aβ, which makes them strong therapeutic candidates due to the fact that most of the Aβ species found in the brains of AD patients display extensive N-terminus truncations/modifications. PMID:20451261

  9. Cytochrome c peroxidase activity of heme bound amyloid β peptides.

    PubMed

    Seal, Manas; Ghosh, Chandradeep; Basu, Olivia; Dey, Somdatta Ghosh

    2016-09-01

    Heme bound amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which have been associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD), can catalytically oxidize ferrocytochrome c (Cyt c(II)) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The rate of catalytic oxidation of Cyt(II) c has been found to be dependent on several factors, such as concentration of heme(III)-Aβ, Cyt(II) c, H2O2, pH, ionic strength of the solution, and peptide chain length of Aβ. The above features resemble the naturally occurring enzyme cytochrome c peroxidase (CCP) which is known to catalytically oxidize Cyt(II) c in the presence of H2O2. In the absence of heme(III)-Aβ, the oxidation of Cyt(II) c is not catalytic. Thus, heme-Aβ complex behaves as CCP. PMID:27270708

  10. Stabilization of a β-hairpin in monomeric Alzheimer's amyloidpeptide inhibits amyloid formation

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Wolfgang; Grönwall, Caroline; Jonsson, Andreas; Ståhl, Stefan; Härd, Torleif

    2008-01-01

    According to the amyloid hypothesis, the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease is triggered by the oligomerization and aggregation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide into protein plaques. Formation of the potentially toxic oligomeric and fibrillar Aβ assemblies is accompanied by a conformational change toward a high content of β-structure. Here, we report the solution structure of Aβ(1–40) in complex with the phage-display selected affibody protein ZAβ3, a binding protein of nanomolar affinity. Bound Aβ(1–40) features a β-hairpin comprising residues 17–36, providing the first high-resolution structure of Aβ in β conformation. The positions of the secondary structure elements strongly resemble those observed for fibrillar Aβ. ZAβ3 stabilizes the β-sheet by extending it intermolecularly and by burying both of the mostly nonpolar faces of the Aβ hairpin within a large hydrophobic tunnel-like cavity. Consequently, ZAβ3 acts as a stoichiometric inhibitor of Aβ fibrillation. The selected Aβ conformation allows us to suggest a structural mechanism for amyloid formation based on soluble oligomeric hairpin intermediates. PMID:18375754

  11. Laminated Morphology of Nontwisting beta-Sheet Fibrilis Constructed via Peptide Self-Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lamm,M.; Rajagopal, K.; Schneider, J.; Pochan, D.

    2005-01-01

    A synthetic peptide has been de novo designed that self-assembles into {beta}-sheet fibrils exhibiting a nontwisted, stacked morphology. The stacked morphology is constituted by 2.5 nm wide filaments that laterally associate to form flat fibril laminates exceeding 50 nm in width and micrometers in length. The height of each fibril is limited to the length of exactly one peptide monomer in an extended {beta}-strand conformation, approximately 7 nm. Once assembled, these highly ordered, 2-D structures are stable over a wide range of pH and temperature and exhibit characteristics similar to those of amyloid fibrils. Furthermore, the rate of assembly and degree of fibril lamination can be controlled with kinetic parameters of pH and temperature. Finally, the presence of a diproline peptide between two {beta}-sheet-forming strands in the peptide sequence is demonstrated to be an important factor in promoting the nontwisting, laminated fibril morphology.

  12. Laminated, Nontwisting Beta-Sheet Fibrils Constructed via Peptide Self-Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamm, Matthew S.; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Schneider, Joel P.; Pochan, Darrin J.

    2006-03-01

    A de novo designed peptide has been characterized that self-assembles into beta-sheet fibrils exhibiting a nontwisted, laminated morphology. The laminated morphology is constituted by 2.5nm wide filaments that laterally associate to form flat fibril laminates exceeding 100nm in width and microns in length. The height of each fibril is determined by the length of exactly one peptide momomer in an extended beta-strand conformation, approximately 7nm. Once formed, these fibrils are highly stable over a range of temperatures and pH and exhibit characteristics similar to those of amyloid fibrils. Kinetic parameters of pH and temperature can be used to affect the rate of beta-sheet formation and, consequently, the degree of lamination. Finally, the importance of peptide sequence on the resultant fibril morphology is demonstrated via rational peptide design and discussed in the context of current theories of fibril twisting.

  13. The soluble form of Alzheimer's amyloid beta protein is complexed to high density lipoprotein 3 and very high density lipoprotein in normal human plasma.

    PubMed

    Koudinov, A; Matsubara, E; Frangione, B; Ghiso, J

    1994-12-15

    The amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's neuritic plaques and cerebral blood vessels are mainly composed of aggregated forms of a 39 to 44 amino acids peptide, named amyloid beta (A beta). A similar although soluble form of A beta (sA beta) has been identified in plasma, cerebrospinal fluid and cell culture supernatants, indicating that it is produced under physiologic conditions. We report here that sA beta in normal human plasma is associated with lipoprotein particles, in particular to the HDL3 and VHDL fractions where it is complexed to ApoJ and, to a lesser extent, to ApoAI. This was assessed by immunoprecipitation experiments of purified plasma lipoproteins and lipoprotein-depleted plasma and confirmed by means of amino acid sequence analysis. Moreover, biotinylated synthetic peptide A beta 1-40 was traced in normal human plasma in in vitro experiments. As in the case of sA beta, biotinylated A beta 1-40 was specifically recovered in the HDL3 and VHDL fractions. This data together with the previous demonstration that A beta 1-40 is taken up into the brain via a specific mechanism and possibly as an A beta 1-40-ApoJ complex indicate a role for HDL3- and VHDL-containing ApoJ in the transport of the peptide in circulation and suggest their involvement in the delivery of sA beta across the blood-brain barrier. PMID:7802646

  14. Altered mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, tau hyperphosphorylation and mild spatial learning dysfunction in transgenic rats expressing the beta-amyloid peptide intracellularly in hippocampal and cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, V; Ducatenzeiler, A; Dowd, E; Jänne, J; Grant, S M; Szyf, M; Wandosell, F; Avila, J; Grimm, H; Dunnett, S B; Hartmann, T; Alhonen, L; Cuello, A C

    2004-01-01

    The pathological significance of intracellular Abeta accumulation in vivo is not yet fully understood. To address this, we have studied transgenic rats expressing Alzheimer's-related transgenes that accumulate Abeta intraneuronally in the cerebral and hippocampal cortices but do not develop extracellular amyloid plaques. In these rats, the presence of intraneuronal Abeta is sufficient to provoke up-regulation of the phosphorylated form of extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK) 2 and its enzymatic activity in the hippocampus while no changes were observed in the activity or phosphorylation status of other putative tau kinases such as p38, glycogen synthase kinase 3, and cycline-dependent kinase 5. The increase in active phospho-ERK2 was accompanied by increased levels of tau phosphorylation at S396 and S404 ERK2 sites and a decrease in the phosphorylation of the CREB kinase p90RSK. In a water maze paradigm, male transgenic rats displayed a mild spatial learning deficit relative to control littermates. Our results suggest that in the absence of plaques, intraneuronal accumulation of Abeta peptide correlates with the initial steps in the tau-phosphorylation cascade, alterations in ERK2 signaling and impairment of higher CNS functions in male rats. PMID:15541880

  15. Alzheimer's disease amyloid beta-protein forms Zn(2+)-sensitive, cation-selective channels across excised membrane patches from hypothalamic neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, M; Arispe, N; Kuroda, Y; Rojas, E

    1997-01-01

    We have previously shown that the 40-residue peptide termed amyloid beta-protein (A beta P[1-40]) in solution forms cation-selective channels across artificial phospholipid bilayer membranes. To determine whether A beta P[1-40] also forms channels across natural membranes, we used electrically silent excised membrane patches from a cell line derived from hypothalamic gonadotrophin-releasing hormone GnRH neurons. We found that exposing either the internal or the external side of excised membrane patches to A beta P[1-40] leads to the spontaneous formation of cation-selective channels. With Cs+ as the main cation in both the external as well as the internal saline, the amplitude of the A beta P[1-40] channel currents was found to follow the Cs+ gradient and to exhibit spontaneous conductance changes over a wide range (50-500 pS). We also found that free zinc (Zn2+), reported to bind to amyloid beta-protein in solution, can block the flow of Cs+ through the A beta P[1-40] channel. Because the Zn2+ chelator o-phenanthroline can reverse this blockade, we conclude that the underlying mechanism involves a direct interaction between the transition element Zn2+ and sites in the A beta P[1-40] channel pore. These properties of the A beta P[1-40] channel are rather similar to those observed in the artificial bilayer system. We also show here, by immunocytochemical confocal microscopy, that amyloid beta-protein molecules form deposits closely associated with the plasma membrane of a substantial fraction of the GnRH neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that the interactions between amyloid beta-protein and neuronal membranes also occur in vivo, lending further support to the idea that A beta P[1-40] channel formation might be a mechanism of amyloid beta-protein neurotoxicity. Images FIGURE 5 PMID:9199772

  16. Self-Assembly of a 9-Residue Amyloid-Forming Peptide Fragment of SARS Corona Virus E-protein: Mechanism of Self Aggregation and Amyloid-Inhibition of hIAPP

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Jyotsna; Bera, Supriyo; Midya, Anupam; Fierke, Carol A.; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Molecular self-assembly, a phenomenon widely observed in nature, has been exploited through organic molecules, proteins, DNA and peptides to study complex biological systems. These self-assembly systems may also be used in understanding the molecular and structural biology which can inspire the design and synthesis of increasingly complex biomaterials. Specifically, use of these building blocks to investigate protein folding and misfolding has been of particular value since it can provide tremendous insights into peptide aggregation related to a variety of protein misfolding diseases, or amyloid diseases (e.g. Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, type-II diabetes). Herein, the self-assembly of TK9, a 9 residue peptide of the extra membrane C-terminal tail of the SARS Corona virus envelope, and its variants were characterized through biophysical, spectroscopic and simulated studies, and it was confirmed that the structure of these peptides influence their aggregation propensity, hence, mimicking amyloid proteins. TK9, which forms a beta-sheet rich fibril, contains a key sequence motif that may be critical for beta-sheet formation, thus making it an interesting system to study amyloid fibrillation. TK9 aggregates were further examined through simulations to evaluate the possible intra- and inter peptide interactions at the molecular level. These self-assembly peptides can also serve as amyloid inhibitors through hydrophobic and electrophilic recognition interactions. Our results show that TK9 inhibits the fibrillation of hIAPP, a 37 amino acid peptide implicated in the pathology of type-II diabetes. Thus, biophysical and NMR experimental results have revealed a molecular level understanding of peptide folding events, as well as the inhibition of amyloid-protein aggregation are reported. PMID:25785896

  17. Alzheimer's disease cybrids replicate beta-amyloid abnormalities through cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Khan, S M; Cassarino, D S; Abramova, N N; Keeney, P M; Borland, M K; Trimmer, P A; Krebs, C T; Bennett, J C; Parks, J K; Swerdlow, R H; Parker, W D; Bennett, J P

    2000-08-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the deposition in brain of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptides, elevated brain caspase-3, and systemic deficiency of cytochrome c oxidase. Although increased Abeta deposition can result from mutations in amyloid precursor protein or presenilin genes, the cause of increased Abeta deposition in sporadic AD is unknown. Cytoplasmic hybrid ("cybrid") cells made from mitochondrial DNA of nonfamilial AD subjects show antioxidant-reversible lowering of mitochondrial membrane potential (delta(gYm), secrete twice as much Abeta(1-40) and Abeta(1-42), have increased intracellular Abeta(1-40) (1.7-fold), and develop Congo red-positive Abeta deposits. Also elevated are cytoplasmic cytochrome c (threefold) and caspase-3 activity (twofold). Increased AD cybrid Abeta(1-40) secretion was normalized by inhibition of caspase-3 or secretase and reduced by treatment with the antioxidant S(-)pramipexole. Expression of AD mitochondrial genes in cybrid cells depresses cytochrome c oxidase activity and increases oxidative stress, which, in turn, lowers delta(psi)m. Under stress, cells with AD mitochondrial genes are more likely to activate cell death pathways, which drive caspase 3-mediated Abeta peptide secretion and may account for increased Abeta deposition in the AD brain. Therapeutic strategies for reducing neurodegeneration in sporadic AD can address restoration of delta(psi)m and reduction of elevated Abeta secretion. PMID:10939564

  18. Effect of initial stagger selection on the handedness of Amyloid beta helical fibrils

    SciTech Connect

    Ghattyvenkatakrishna, Pavan K; Cheng, Xiaolin; Uberbacher, Edward C

    2013-01-01

    Various structural models for Amyloid $\\beta$ fibrils derived from a variety of experimental techniques are currently available. However, this data cannot differentiate between the relative position of the two arms of the $\\beta$ hairpin called the stagger. Amyloid fibrils of various heirarchical levels form left--handed helices composed of $\\beta$ sheets. However it is unclear if positive, negative and neutral staggers all form the macroscopic left--handed helices. Studying this is important since the success of computational approaches to develop drugs for amyloidic diseases will depend on selecting the physiologically relevant structure of the sheets. To address this issue we have conducted extensive molecular dynamics simulations of Amyloid$\\beta$ sheets of various staggers and show that only negative staggers generate the experimentally observed left--handed helices while positive staggers generate the incorrect right--handed helices. The implications of this result extend in to all amyloidic--aggregation type diseases.

  19. Disruption of fast axonal transport is a pathogenic mechanism for intraneuronal amyloid beta

    PubMed Central

    Pigino, G.; Morfini, G.; Atagi, Y.; Deshpande, A.; Yu, C.; Jungbauer, L.; LaDu, M.; Busciglio, J.; Brady, S.

    2009-01-01

    The pathological mechanism by which Aβ causes neuronal dysfunction and death remains largely unknown. Deficiencies in fast axonal transport (FAT) were suggested to play a crucial role in neuronal dysfunction and loss for a diverse set of dying back neuropathologies including Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the molecular basis for pathological changes in FAT were undetermined. Recent findings indicate that soluble intracellular oligomeric Aβ (oAβ) species may play a critical role in AD pathology. Real-time analysis of vesicle mobility in isolated axoplasms perfused with oAβ showed bidirectional axonal transport inhibition as a consequence of endogenous casein kinase 2 (CK2) activation. Conversely, neither unaggregated amyloid beta nor fibrillar amyloid beta affected FAT. Inhibition of FAT by oAβ was prevented by two specific pharmacological inhibitors of CK2, as well as by competition with a CK2 substrate peptide. Furthermore, perfusion of axoplasms with active CK2 mimics the inhibitory effects of oAβ on FAT. Both oAβ and CK2 treatment of axoplasm led to increased phosphorylation of kinesin-1 light chains and subsequent release of kinesin from its cargoes. Therefore pharmacological modulation of CK2 activity may represent a promising target for therapeutic intervention in AD. PMID:19321417

  20. Alzheimer disease A68 proteins injected into rat brain induce codeposits of beta-amyloid, ubiquitin, and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin.

    PubMed Central

    Shin, R W; Bramblett, G T; Lee, V M; Trojanowski, J Q

    1993-01-01

    Aberrantly phosphorylated tau proteins (i.e., A68 or PHF-tau) and beta-amyloid or A4 (beta A4) peptides are major components of pathologic lesions in Alzheimer disease (AD). Although A68 and beta A4 colocalize in AD neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and amyloid-rich senile plaques (SPs), the mechanisms leading to the convergence of A68, beta A4, and other proteins in the same AD lesions are unknown. To probe the biological properties of A68 in vivo, and to assess interactions of A68 with endogenous proteins in the rodent brain, we injected A68, dephosphorylated A68 (DEP-A68), and normal adult human tau protein into the hippocampus and neocortex of rats. In marked contrast to DEP-A68 and tau, A68 resisted rapid proteolysis and induced codeposits of three rodent proteins--i.e., beta A4, ubiquitin, and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT)--that accumulate in AD NFTs and SPs together with A68. These findings suggest that A68 may interact with beta A4, ubiquitin, and ACT in neuronal perikarya as well as in the extracellular space after release of A68 from degenerating neurons. The model system described here will facilitate efforts to elucidate mechanisms leading to the convergence of A68, beta A4, ubiquitin, and ACT in hallmark lesions of AD. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8393578

  1. Amyloidpeptides time-dependent structural modifications: AFM and voltammetric characterization.

    PubMed

    Enache, Teodor Adrian; Chiorcea-Paquim, Ana-Maria; Oliveira-Brett, Ana Maria

    2016-07-01

    The human amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, structural modifications, from soluble monomers to fully formed fibrils through intermediate structures, were investigated, and the results were compared with those obtained for the inverse Aβ40-1 and Aβ42-1, mutant Aβ1-40Phe(10) and Aβ1-40Nle(35), and rat Aβ1-40Rat peptide sequences. The aggregation was followed at a slow rate, in chloride free media and room temperature, and revealed to be a sequence-structure process, dependent on the physicochemical properties of each Aβ peptide isoforms, and occurring at different rates and by different pathways. The fibrilization process was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM), via changes in the adsorption morphology from: (i) initially random coiled structures of ∼0.6 nm height, corresponding to the Aβ peptide monomers in random coil or in α-helix conformations, to (ii) aggregates and protofibrils of 1.5-6.0 nm height and (iii) two types of fibrils, corresponding to the Aβ peptide in a β-sheet configuration. The reactivity of the carbon electrode surface was considered. The hydrophobic surface induced rapid changes of the Aβ peptide conformations, and differences between the adsorbed fibrils, formed at the carbon surface (beaded, thin, <2.0 nm height) or in solution (long, smooth, thick, >2.0 nm height), were detected. Differential pulse voltammetry showed that, according to their primary structure, the Aβ peptides undergo oxidation in one or two steps, the first step corresponding to the tyrosine amino acids oxidation, and the second one to the histidine and methionine amino acids oxidation. The fibrilization process was electrochemically detected via the decrease of the Aβ peptide oxidation peak currents that occurred in a time dependent manner. PMID:27216391

  2. Natural Modulators of Amyloid-Beta Precursor Protein Processing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Can; Tanzi, Rudolph E.

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disease and the primary cause of dementia, with no cure currently available. The pathogenesis of AD is believed to be primarily driven by Aβ, the principal component of senile plaques. Aβ is an ~4 kDa peptide generated from the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) through proteolytic secretases. Natural products, particularly those utilized in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), have a long history alleviating common clinical disorders, including dementia. However, the cell/molecular pathways mediated by these natural products are largely unknown until recently when the underlying molecular mechanisms of the disorders begin to be elucidated. Here, the mechanisms with which natural products modulate the pathogenesis of AD are discussed, in particular, by focusing on their roles in the processing of APP. PMID:22998566

  3. Luteinizing hormone, a reproductive regulator that modulates the processing of amyloid-beta precursor protein and amyloid-beta deposition.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Richard L; Verdile, Giuseppe; Liu, Tianbing; Parlow, Albert F; Perry, George; Smith, Mark A; Martins, Ralph N; Atwood, Craig S

    2004-05-01

    Hormonal changes associated with the dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis following menopause/andropause have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental support for this has come from studies demonstrating an increase in amyloid-beta (Abeta) deposition following ovariectomy/castration. Because sex steroids and gonadotropins are both part of the HPG feedback loop, any loss in sex steroids results in a proportionate increase in gonadotropins. To assess whether Abeta generation was due to the loss of serum 17beta-estradiol or to the up-regulation of serum gonadotropins, we treated C57Bl/6J mice with the anti-gonadotropin leuprolide acetate, which suppresses both sex steroids and gonadotropins. Leuprolide acetate treatment resulted in a 3.5-fold (p < 0.0001) and a 1.5-fold (p < 0.024) reduction in total brain Abeta1-42 and Abeta1-40 concentrations, respectively, after 8 weeks of treatment. To further explore the role of gonadotropins in promoting amyloidogenesis, M17 neuroblastoma cells were treated with the gonadotropin luteinizing hormone (LH) at concentrations equivalent to early adulthood (10 mIU/ml) or post-menopause/andropause (30 mIU/ml). LH did not alter amyloid-beta precursor protein (AbetaPP) expression but did alter AbetaPP processing toward the amyloidogenic pathway as evidenced by increased secretion and insolubility of Abeta, decreased alphaAbetaPP secretion, and increased AbetaPP-C99 levels. These results suggest the marked increases in serum LH following menopause/andropause as a physiologically relevant signal that could promote Abeta secretion and deposition in the aging brain. Suppression of the age-related increase in serum gonadotropins using anti-gonadotropin agents may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for AD. PMID:14871891

  4. Beta-amyloid protein-containing inclusions in skeletal muscle of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, T. A.; Dutton, N. S.; Martins, R. N.; Roses, A. D.; Kakulas, B. A.; Papadimitriou, J. M.

    1997-01-01

    The tibialis anterior muscle and soleus muscle of apolipoprotein-E-deficient mice were examined by light and electron microscopy. By light microscopy, sarcoplasmic inclusions were seen in tibialis anterior muscle and 40% of type 2 myofibers were affected in all animals over 8 months of age. These inclusions reacted for nonspecific esterase, cytochrome oxidase, and myoadenylate deaminase and were also periodic acid Schiff positive and stained basophilic with hematoxylin. Moreover, they reacted immunocytochemically with an antibody specific to fragment 17 to 24 of the published sequence of Alzheimer's cerebrovascular amyloid peptide. Immunoreactivity was lost when the antibody was adsorbed with the appropriate synthetic peptide. Ultrastructurally, the inclusions consisted of tubular arrays and were similar to those observed in human muscle in several pathological conditions. In type 1 myofibers of both tibialis anterior and soleus muscle, however, mitochondrial abnormalities including an increase in their number and size were detected, but tubular aggregates were not seen. These large mitochondria possessed an electron-dense inner chamber with an increased number of tightly packed cristae. The results obtained suggest that in these mice there is a disturbed lipid metabolism in skeletal muscle fibers that manifests itself with an accumulation of phospholipid in the form of sarcoplasmic reticulum tubules in the type 2 fibers and enlarged mitochondria with tightly packed cristae in the type 1 fibers. In addition, beta-amyloid protein was closely associated with the accumulated tubules and vesicles of sarcoplasmic reticulum and may represent dysregulation of amyloid precursor protein metabolism. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9033257

  5. Beta-amyloid accumulation correlates with cognitive dysfunction in the aged canine.

    PubMed

    Cummings, B J; Head, E; Afagh, A J; Milgram, N W; Cotman, C W

    1996-07-01

    It is well known that beta-amyloid accumulates abnormally in Alzheimer's disease; however, beta-amyloid's relationship to cognitive dysfunction has not been clearly established and is often confounded by the presence of neurofibrillary tangles. We used canines to investigate the relationship between beta-amyloid accumulation and cognitive function in an animal model of aging lacking neurofibrillary tangles. The performance of 20 canines (11 purebred beagles and 9 mongrels) on a battery of six cognitive tasks was measured. These tasks included Reward Approach and Object Approach learning, as well as Discrimination, Reversal, Object Recognition, and Spatial learning and memory. Aged canines were impaired on some tasks but not others. beta-Amyloid-immunopositive plaques were found in many of the older animals. Plaques were all of the diffuse subtype and many contained intact neurons detected with double-labeling for neurofilaments. No neurofibrillary tangles were detected. beta-Amyloid was also associated with the processes of many neurons and with blood vessels. Using computerized image analysis, we quantified the area occupied by beta-amyloid in entorhinal cortex, frontal cortex, and cerebellum. Controlling for age-related increases in beta-amyloid, we observed that increased beta-amyloid deposition is strongly associated with deficits on Discrimination learning (r = .80), Reversal learning (r = .65), and Spatial learning (r = .54) but not the other tasks. There were a few differences between breeds which are discussed in the text. Overall, these data suggest that beta-amyloid deposition may be a contributing factor to age-related cognitive dysfunction prior to the onset of neurofibrillary tangle formation. PMID:8661247

  6. Stereotaxic Infusion of Oligomeric Amyloid-beta into the Mouse Hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Jean, Ying Y; Baleriola, Jimena; Fà, Mauro; Hengst, Ulrich; Troy, Carol M

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disease affecting the aging population. A key neuropathological feature of the disease is the over-production of amyloid-beta and the deposition of amyloid-beta plaques in brain regions of the afflicted individuals. Throughout the years scientists have generated numerous Alzheimer's disease mouse models that attempt to replicate the amyloid-beta pathology. Unfortunately, the mouse models only selectively mimic the disease features. Neuronal death, a prominent effect in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients, is noticeably lacking in these mice. Hence, we and others have employed a method of directly infusing soluble oligomeric species of amyloid-beta - forms of amyloid-beta that have been proven to be most toxic to neurons - stereotaxically into the brain. In this report we utilize male C57BL/6J mice to document this surgical technique of increasing amyloid-beta levels in a select brain region. The infusion target is the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus because this brain structure, along with the basal forebrain that is connected by the cholinergic circuit, represents one of the areas of degeneration in the disease. The results of elevating amyloid-beta in the dentate gyrus via stereotaxic infusion reveal increases in neuron loss in the dentate gyrus within 1 week, while there is a concomitant increase in cell death and cholinergic neuron loss in the vertical limb of the diagonal band of Broca of the basal forebrain. These effects are observed up to 2 weeks. Our data suggests that the current amyloid-beta infusion model provides an alternative mouse model to address region specific neuron death in a short-term basis. The advantage of this model is that amyloid-beta can be elevated in a spatial and temporal manner. PMID:26132278

  7. Mechanisms of Enzymatic Degradation of Amyloid Beta Microfibrils Generating Nanofilaments and Nanospheres Related to Cytotoxicity†

    PubMed Central

    Numata, Keiji; Kaplan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) fibrils are found in brain tissue of persons with Alzheimer’s disease (AD), where they accumulate as plaques. One way to reduce Aβ accumulation in the brain and potentially treat AD is with Aβ-degrading enzymes such as Neprilysin (NEP) and Insulin-Degrading Enzyme (IDE). However, enzymatic responses and degradation mechanisms of Aβ fibrils (crystalline-state Aβ) have not been investigated, particularly with respect to how to avoid cytotoxicity of the degradation products to neuronal cells. Thus, insight into mechanisms of enzymatic degradation of Aβ fibrils would be instructive as a route to elucidating different structural features related to degradation and to cytotoxicity. We report mechanisms of enzymatic degradation of Aβ with cross-beta structures and show the series of steps involved in the digestion Aβ microfibrils to nanospheres or nanofilaments by protease XIV or alpha-chymotrypsin, respectively. These degradation products, which contained almost the same secondary structures, showed different cytotoxicities, indicating that relationships between nano-assembled structures and cytotoxicity of Aβ peptides are more significant rather than the beta-sheet content. In addition, the enzymatic digestion at the Lys28 loop region linking the two beta sheets in Aβ fibrils is suggested as a key target related to cytotoxicity, a feature that can be selectively targeted based on the choice of protease. PMID:20196618

  8. Identification of distinct physiochemical properties of toxic prefibrillar species formed by A{beta} peptide variants

    SciTech Connect

    Goeransson, Anna-Lena; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Kagedal, Katarina; Brorsson, Ann-Christin

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identification of toxic prefibrillar A{beta} species. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fluorescence measurements using a combined set of fluorophores. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Morphology studies using transmission electron microscopy. -- Abstract: The formation of amyloid-{beta} peptide (A{beta}) aggregates at an early stage during the self-assembly process is an important factor in the development of Alzheimer's disease. The toxic effect is believed to be exerted by prefibrillar species of A{beta}. It is therefore important to identify which prefibrillar species are toxic and characterize their distinct properties. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro aggregation behavior of A{beta}-derived peptides possessing different levels of neurotoxic activity, using fluorescence spectroscopy in combination with transmission electron microscopy. The toxicity of various A{beta} aggregates was assessed by using cultures of human neuroblastoma cells. Through combined use of the fluorescence probe 8-anilino-1-napthalenesulfonate (ANS) and the novel luminescent probe pentamer formyl thiophene acetic acid (p-FTAA), we were able to identify those A{beta} peptide-derived prefibrillar species which exhibited cellular toxicity. In particular, species, which formed early during the aggregation process and showed strong p-FTAA and ANS fluorescence, were the species that possessed toxic activities. Moreover, by manipulating the aggregation conditions, it was possible to change the capacity of the A{beta} peptide to form nontoxic versus toxic species.

  9. Unwinding fibril formation of medin, the peptide of the most common form of human amyloid

    SciTech Connect

    Larsson, Annika; Soederberg, Linda; Westermark, Gunilla T.; Sletten, Knut; Engstroem, Ulla; Tjernberg, Lars O.; Naeslund, Jan; Westermark, Per

    2007-10-05

    Medin amyloid affects the medial layer of the thoracic aorta of most people above 50 years of age. The consequences of this amyloid are not completely known but the deposits may contribute to diseases such as thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection or to the general diminished elasticity of blood vessels seen in elderly people. We show that the 50-amino acid residue peptide medin forms amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. With the use of Congo red staining, Thioflavin T fluorescence, electron microscopy, and a solid-phase binding assay on different synthetic peptides, we identified the last 18-19 amino acid residues to constitute the amyloid-promoting region of medin. We also demonstrate that the two C-terminal phenylalanines, previously suggested to be of importance for amyloid formation, are not required for medin amyloid formation.

  10. Beta-amyloid 25 to 35 is intercalated in anionic and zwitterionic lipid membranes to different extents.

    PubMed Central

    Dante, Silvia; Hauss, Thomas; Dencher, Norbert A

    2002-01-01

    Neuronal plasma membranes are thought to be the primary target of the neurotoxic beta-amyloid peptides (Abeta) in the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer's disease. Histologically, Abeta peptides are observed as extracellular macroscopic senile plaques, and most biophysical techniques have indicated the presence of Abeta close to the lipid headgroup region but not in the core of the membrane bilayers. The focus of this study is an investigation of the interaction between Abeta and lipid bilayers from a structural point of view. Neutron diffraction with the use of selectively deuterated amino acids has allowed us to determine unambiguously the position of the neurotoxic fragment Abeta (25-35) in the membrane. Two populations of the peptide are detected, one in the aqueous vicinity of the membrane surface and the second inside the hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane. The location of the C terminus was studied in two different lipid compositions and was found to be dependent on the surface charge of the membrane. The localization of beta-amyloid peptides in cell membranes will offer new insights on their mechanism in the neurodegenerative process associated with Alzheimer's disease and might provide clues for therapeutic developments. PMID:12414694

  11. The conformations of the amyloid-beta (21-30) fragment can be described by three families in solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2006-08-28

    Alzheimer's disease has been linked to the self-assembly of the amyloid-beta protein of 40 and 42 residues. Although monomers are in equilibrium with higher-order species ranging from dimers to heptamers, structural knowledge of the monomeric amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptides is an important issue. Recent experimental data have shown that the fragment (21-30) is protease-resistant within full-length Abeta peptides and displays two structural families in solution. Because the details of the Abeta(21-30) structures found using distinct force fields and protocols differ at various degrees from those of the NMR structures, we revisit the conformational space of this peptide using the activation-relaxation technique (ART nouveau) coupled with a coarse-grained force field (OPEP v.3.0). We find that although Abeta(21-30) does not have a secondary structure, it dominantly populates three structural families, with a loop spanning residues Val24-Lys28. The first two families, which differ in the nature of the electrostatic interactions, satisfy the five interproton rotating frame nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy (ROESY) distances and superpose well onto the NMR structures. The third family, which cannot be seen by ROESY NMR experiments, displays a more open structure. This numeric study complements the experimental results by providing a much more detailed description of the dominant structures. Moreover, it provides further evidence of the capability of ART OPEP in providing a reliable conformational picture of peptides in solution. PMID:16965061

  12. NMR reveals anomalous copper(II) binding to the amyloid Abeta peptide of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Hou, Liming; Zagorski, Michael G

    2006-07-26

    The Abeta peptide is the major protein component of amyloid deposits in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Age-related microenvironmental changes in the AD brain promote amyloid formation that leads to cell injury and death. Altered levels of metals (such as Cu and Zn) exist in the AD brain, and because Cu and Zn can be bound to the Abeta in the amyloid plaques, it is thought that these binding events in vivo may trigger or prevent Abeta amyloid formation in the AD brain. Although several structural models have been proposed, all of these are undefined due to the lack of definitive structural data. The present NMR studies utilized uniformly 15N-labeled Abeta(1-40) peptide and 1H-15N HSQC experiments and demonstrate for the first time that the Abeta binds Cu and Zn in a distinct manner. The binding promotes NH signal disappearance of E3-V18, which was not due to the paramagnetic effect of Cu2+, as identical NMR studies were seen with Zn2+, which is diamagnetic. NMR titration experiments showed that the amide NH peak intensities of R5-L17 showed the most pronounced intensity reduction, and that the 1H signals for the side chain aromatic signals of the three histidines shift upfield (H6, H13, and H14). We propose that initially Cu2+ is anchored to the Abeta monomer (fast exchange rate) and is followed by deprotonation and/or severe line broadening of the backbone amide NH for E3-V18 (intermediate exchange rate). By contrast, Cu2+ binding to soluble Abeta aggregates leads to rapid aggregation and nonfibrillar amorphous structures, and without metal, the Abeta can undergo the normal time-dependent aggregation, eventually producing more ordered, late-stage parallel beta-sheet structures. These anomalous (rare) binding events may account for some of the unique properties associated with the Abeta, such as its proposed "dual role", where sequestration of metal ions by the monomer is neuroprotective, while that by beta-aggregates generates oxygen radicals and causes neuronal death

  13. Common molecular mechanism of amyloid pore formation by Alzheimer’s β-amyloid peptide and α-synuclein

    PubMed Central

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Boutemeur, Sonia; Flores, Alessandra; Rodriguez, Léa; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-permeable pores formed by small oligomers of amyloid proteins are the primary pathologic species in Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly of these toxic oligomers in the plasma membrane of brain cells remain unclear. Here we have analyzed and compared the pore-forming capability of a large panel of amyloid proteins including wild-type, variant and truncated forms, as well as synthetic peptides derived from specific domains of Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. We show that amyloid pore formation involves two membrane lipids, ganglioside and cholesterol, that physically interact with amyloid proteins through specific structural motifs. Mutation or deletion of these motifs abolished pore formation. Moreover, α-synuclein (Parkinson) and Aβ peptide (Alzheimer) did no longer form Ca2+-permeable pores in presence of drugs that target either cholesterol or ganglioside or both membrane lipids. These results indicate that gangliosides and cholesterol cooperate to favor the formation of amyloid pores through a common molecular mechanism that can be jammed at two different steps, suggesting the possibility of a universal therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases. Finally we present the first successful evaluation of such a new therapeutic approach (coined “membrane therapy”) targeting amyloid pores formed by Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. PMID:27352802

  14. Common molecular mechanism of amyloid pore formation by Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide and α-synuclein.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Boutemeur, Sonia; Flores, Alessandra; Rodriguez, Léa; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Calcium-permeable pores formed by small oligomers of amyloid proteins are the primary pathologic species in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the assembly of these toxic oligomers in the plasma membrane of brain cells remain unclear. Here we have analyzed and compared the pore-forming capability of a large panel of amyloid proteins including wild-type, variant and truncated forms, as well as synthetic peptides derived from specific domains of Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. We show that amyloid pore formation involves two membrane lipids, ganglioside and cholesterol, that physically interact with amyloid proteins through specific structural motifs. Mutation or deletion of these motifs abolished pore formation. Moreover, α-synuclein (Parkinson) and Aβ peptide (Alzheimer) did no longer form Ca(2+)-permeable pores in presence of drugs that target either cholesterol or ganglioside or both membrane lipids. These results indicate that gangliosides and cholesterol cooperate to favor the formation of amyloid pores through a common molecular mechanism that can be jammed at two different steps, suggesting the possibility of a universal therapeutic approach for neurodegenerative diseases. Finally we present the first successful evaluation of such a new therapeutic approach (coined "membrane therapy") targeting amyloid pores formed by Aβ1-42 and α-synuclein. PMID:27352802

  15. Apolipoprotein E and beta-amyloid (1-42) regulation of glycogen synthase kinase-3beta.

    PubMed

    Cedazo-Mínguez, A; Popescu, B O; Blanco-Millán, J M; Akterin, S; Pei, J-J; Winblad, B; Cowburn, R F

    2003-12-01

    Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) is implicated in regulating apoptosis and tau protein hyperphosphorylation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We investigated the effects of two key AD molecules, namely apoE (E3 and E4 isoforms) and beta-amyloid (Abeta) 1-42 on GSK-3beta and its major upstream regulators, intracellular calcium and protein kinases C and B (PKC and PKB) in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. ApoE3 induced a mild, transient, Ca2+-independent and early activation of GSK-3beta. ApoE4 effects were biphasic, with an early strong GSK-3beta activation that was partially dependent on extracellular Ca2+, followed by a GSK-3beta inactivation. ApoE4 also activated PKC-alpha and PKB possibly giving the subsequent GSK-3beta inhibition. Abeta(1-42) effects were also biphasic with a strong activation dependent partially on extracellular Ca2+ followed by an inactivation. Abeta(1-42) induced an early and potent activation of PKC-alpha and a late decrease of PKB activity. ApoE4 and Abeta(1-42) were more toxic than apoE3 as shown by MTT reduction assays and generation of activated caspase-3. ApoE4 and Abeta(1-42)-induced early activation of GSK-3beta could lead to apoptosis and tau hyperphosphorylation. A late inhibition of GSK-3beta through activation of upstream kinases likely compensates the effects of apoE4 and Abeta(1-42) on GSK-3beta, the unbalanced regulation of which may contribute to AD pathology. PMID:14622095

  16. Neurotrophic effects of amyloid precursor protein peptide 165 in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jie; Ma, Lina; Wang, Rong; Sheng, Shuli; Ji, Zhijuan; Zhang, Jingyan

    2016-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is one of the risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. Our previous findings indicated that animals with diabetic encephalopathy exhibit learning and memory impairment in addition to hippocampal neurodegeneration, both of which are ameliorated with amyloid precursor protein (APP) 17-mer (APP17) peptide treatment. Although APP17 is neuroprotective, it is susceptible to enzymatic degradation. Derived from the active sequence structure of APP17, we have previously structurally transformed and modified several APP5-mer peptides (APP328-332 [RERMS], APP 5). We have developed seven different derivatives of APP5, including several analogs. Results from the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay on human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells in the present study showed that P165 was the most neuroprotective APP5 derivative. Furthermore, we tested the effects of APP5 and P165 on the number of cells and the release of lactate dehydrogenase. Western immunoblot analyses were also performed. The digestion rates of P165 and APP5 were determined by the pepsin digestion test. P165 resisted pepsin digestion significantly more than APP5. Therefore, P165 may be optimal for oral administration. Overall, these findings suggest that P165 may be a potential drug for the treatment of diabetic encephalopathy. PMID:26551064

  17. The amyloid-beta forming tripeptide cleavage mechanism of γ-secretase.

    PubMed

    Bolduc, David M; Montagna, Daniel R; Seghers, Matthew C; Wolfe, Michael S; Selkoe, Dennis J

    2016-01-01

    γ-secretase is responsible for the proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into short, aggregation-prone amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides, which are centrally implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Despite considerable interest in developing γ-secretase targeting therapeutics for the treatment of AD, the precise mechanism by which γ-secretase produces Aβ has remained elusive. Herein, we demonstrate that γ-secretase catalysis is driven by the stabilization of an enzyme-substrate scission complex via three distinct amino-acid-binding pockets in the enzyme's active site, providing the mechanism by which γ-secretase preferentially cleaves APP in three amino acid increments. Substrate occupancy of these three pockets occurs after initial substrate binding but precedes catalysis, suggesting a conformational change in substrate may be required for cleavage. We uncover and exploit substrate cleavage preferences dictated by these three pockets to investigate the mechanism by which familial Alzheimer's disease mutations within APP increase the production of pathogenic Aβ species. PMID:27580372

  18. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits amyloid beta-induced cell apoptosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Wu, Shengnan

    2011-03-01

    The deposition and accumulation of amyloid-β-peptide (Aβ) in the brain are considered a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease(AD). Apoptosis is a contributing pathophysiological mechanism of AD. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI), a non-damage physical therapy, which has been used clinically for decades of years, is shown to promote cell proliferation and prevent apoptosis. Recently, low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been applied to moderate AD. In this study, Rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells were treated with amyloid beta 25-35 (Aβ25-35) for induction of apoptosis before LPLI treatment. We measured cell viability with CCK-8 according to the manufacture's protocol, the cell viability assays show that low fluence of LPLI (2 J/cm2 ) could inhibit the cells apoptosis. Then using statistical analysis of proportion of apoptotic cells by flow cytometry based on Annexin V-FITC/PI, the assays also reveal that low fluence of LPLI (2 J/cm2 ) could inhibit the Aβ-induced cell apoptosis. Taken together, we demonstrated that low fluence of LPLI (2 J/cm2 ) could inhibit the Aβ-induced cell apoptosis, these results directly point to a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of AD through LPLI.

  19. The Protective Role of Carnosic Acid against Beta-Amyloid Toxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rasoolijazi, H.; Azad, N.; Joghataei, M. T.; Kerdari, M.; Nikbakht, F.; Soleimani, M.

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the pathological mechanisms responsible for the beta- amyloid cascade associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous studies have demonstrated the role of carnosic acid (CA), an effective antioxidant, in combating oxidative stress. A progressive cognitive decline is one of the hallmarks of AD. Thus, we attempted to determine whether the administration of CA protects against memory deficit caused by beta-amyloid toxicity in rats. Beta-amyloid (1–40) was injected by stereotaxic surgery into the Ca1 region of the hippocampus of rats in the Amyloid beta (Aβ) groups. CA was delivered intraperitoneally, before and after surgery in animals in the CA groups. Passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior were evaluated using the shuttle box and the Y-maze, respectively. The degenerating hippocampal neurons were detected by fluoro-jade b staining. We observed that beta-amyloid (1–40) can induce neurodegeneration in the Ca1 region of the hippocampus by using fluoro-jade b staining. Also, the behavioral tests revealed that CA may recover the passive avoidance learning and spontaneous alternation behavior scores in the Aβ + CA group, in comparison with the Aβ group. We found that CA may ameliorate the spatial and learning memory deficits induced by the toxicity of beta-amyloid in the rat hippocampus. PMID:24363627

  20. Defined neurofilament, tau, and beta-amyloid precursor protein epitopes distinguish Alzheimer from non-Alzheimer senile plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Arai, H; Lee, V M; Otvos, L; Greenberg, B D; Lowery, D E; Sharma, S K; Schmidt, M L; Trojanowski, J Q

    1990-01-01

    Eight antisera and one monoclonal antibody to synthetic peptides that corresponded to domains extending over the entire length of the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP), and an antiserum to the full-length 695-amino acid form of the beta-APP, were raised to probe the composition of the core and corona of senile plaques (SPs). We localized distinct beta-APP domains, including the beta-amyloid protein or A4 region, within the SPs of 13 end-stage Alzheimer disease (AD) and 13 age-matched control samples of hippocampus and entorhinal cortex. The composition of SPs also was probed with antibodies to defined epitopes in tau (tau) as well as the large and mid-size neurofilament (NF) proteins. The most important observations were that beta-APP domains outside the A4 region were largely restricted to SP coronas in the AD samples, together with tau and NF determinants, whereas the same epitopes were absent from A4-positive blood vessels and exceptionally rare in non-AD SPs. Indeed, samples from a subset of the non-AD cases contained a considerable number of A4-positive SPs totally devoid of any of the other beta-APP, tau, and NF epitopes. These observations suggest that the deposition of the A4 protein in AD SPs results from the local processing of beta-APPs in association with tau and NF protein fragments. It is unclear whether this association is fortuitous or linked by common mechanisms. However, differences between the complement of beta-APP, tau, and NF protein epitopes in AD versus non-AD brains implicate a defect involving one or more steps in the posttranslational modification, degradation, or elimination of these proteins in AD brains, and this may account for the massive numbers of SPs that characterize AD. Images PMID:1690426

  1. Tunable assembly of amyloid-forming peptides into nanosheets as a retrovirus carrier

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bin; Li, Dan; Xi, Wenhui; Luo, Fang; Zhang, Xiang; Zou, Man; Cao, Mi; Hu, Jun; Wang, Wenyuan; Wei, Guanghong; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Cong

    2015-01-01

    Using and engineering amyloid as nanomaterials are blossoming trends in bionanotechnology. Here, we show our discovery of an amyloid structure, termed “amyloid-like nanosheet,” formed by a key amyloid-forming segment of Alzheimer’s Aβ. Combining multiple biophysical and computational approaches, we proposed a structural model for the nanosheet that is formed by stacking the amyloid fibril spines perpendicular to the fibril axis. We further used the nanosheet for laboratorial retroviral transduction enhancement and directly visualized the presence of virus on the nanosheet surface by electron microscopy. Furthermore, based on our structural model, we designed nanosheet-forming peptides with different functionalities, elucidating the potential of rational design for amyloid-based materials with novel architecture and function. PMID:25713359

  2. Amyloid-beta: a crucial factor in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sadigh-Eteghad, Saeed; Sabermarouf, Babak; Majdi, Alireza; Talebi, Mahnaz; Farhoudi, Mehdi; Mahmoudi, Javad

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia which affects people older than 60 years of age. In AD, the dysregulation of the amyloid-beta (Aβ) level leads to the appearance of senile plaques which contain Aβ depositions. Aβ is a complex biological molecule which interacts with many types of receptors and/or forms insoluble assemblies and, eventually, its nonphysiological depositions alternate with the normal neuronal conditions. In this situation, AD signs appear and the patients experience marked cognitional disabilities. In general, intellect, social skills, personality, and memory are influenced by this disease and, in the long run, it leads to a reduction in quality of life and life expectancy. Due to the pivotal role of Aβ in the pathobiology of AD, a great deal of effort has been made to reveal its exact role in neuronal dysfunctions and to finding efficacious therapeutic strategies against its adverse neuronal outcomes. Hence, the determination of its different molecular assemblies and the mechanisms underlying its pathological effects are of interest. In the present paper, some of the well-established structural forms of Aβ, its interactions with various receptors and possible molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying its neurotoxicity are discussed. In addition, several Aβ-based rodent models of AD are reviewed. PMID:25471398

  3. Amyloid Beta-Protein and Neural Network Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Ortega, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms underlying brain dysfunction induced by amyloid beta-protein (Aβ) represents one of the major challenges for Alzheimer's disease (AD) research. The most evident symptom of AD is a severe decline in cognition. Cognitive processes, as any other brain function, arise from the activity of specific cell assemblies of interconnected neurons that generate neural network dynamics based on their intrinsic and synaptic properties. Thus, the origin of Aβ-induced cognitive dysfunction, and possibly AD-related cognitive decline, must be found in specific alterations in properties of these cells and their consequences in neural network dynamics. The well-known relationship between AD and alterations in the activity of several neural networks is reflected in the slowing of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity. Some features of the EEG slowing observed in AD, such as the diminished generation of different network oscillations, can be induced in vivo and in vitro upon Aβ application or by Aβ overproduction in transgenic models. This experimental approach offers the possibility to study the mechanisms involved in cognitive dysfunction produced by Aβ. This type of research may yield not only basic knowledge of neural network dysfunction associated with AD, but also novel options to treat this modern epidemic. PMID:26316994

  4. Pharmacology of the intracellular pathways activated by amyloid beta protein.

    PubMed

    Balleza-Tapia, Hugo; Peña, Fernando

    2009-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a late-life cognitive disorder associated, among other things, to the presence of extracellular aggregates of fibrillar amyloid beta protein (Abeta). However, there is growing evidence that early stages of AD may be due to neuronal network dysfunction produced by the actions of soluble forms of Abeta. Therefore, the development of new therapeutic strategies to treat AD, at least during its first stages, may be focused on preventing or reversing, the deleterious effects that soluble Abeta exerts on neuronal circuit function. In order to do so, it is necessary to elucidate the pathophysiological processes involved in Abeta-induced neuronal network dysfunction and the molecular processes underlying such dysfunction. Over the last decades, there has been extensive research about the molecular mechanisms involved in the effects of Abeta as well as possible neuroprotective strategies against such effects. Here we are going to review some of the intracellular pathways triggered by Abeta, which involve membrane receptors such as nicotinic-R, NMDA-R, integrins, TNF-R1, RAGE, FPRL and p75NTR and their intracellular mediators such as GSK3, PKC, PI3K, Akt, FAK, MAPK family, Src family and cdk5. Several of these pathways may constitute therapeutic targets for the treatment of the Abeta-induced neuronal network dysfunction which is, at least in part, the basis for cognitive dysfunction in AD. PMID:19519498

  5. Amyloid beta protein levels in cerebrospinal fluid are elevated in early-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, T; Shoji, M; Harigaya, Y; Watanabe, M; Hosoda, K; Cheung, T T; Shaffer, L M; Golde, T E; Younkin, L H; Younkin, S G

    1994-12-01

    The 4-kd amyloid beta protein (A beta) deposited as amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) is produced and released by normal proteolytic processing of the amyloid beta protein precursor (beta APP) and is readily detected in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Here, we present the levels of A beta in CSF from a total of 95 subjects, including 38 patients with AD, 14 with early-onset AD and 24 with late-onset AD, 25 normal control subjects, and 32 patients with other neurological diseases. The level of A beta decreased with normal aging, and there was a significant elevation in the level of A beta in the CSF of early-onset AD patients (4.14 +/- 1.37 pmol/ml, p < 0.01). Neither Mini-Mental State nor Functional Assessment Staging were correlated with the amount of A beta in the CSF. The A beta/secreted form of beta APP ratio was elevated, but the level of alpha 1-antichymotrypsin in the CSF did not correlate with the level of CSF A beta in early-onset AD patients. Thus, the level of A beta in the CSF is elevated in early-onset AD patients and is suggested to be correlated with the pathology in the brain that characterizes AD. PMID:7998778

  6. Microbiosensor for Alzheimer’s Disease Diagnostics: Detection of Amyloid Beta Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Prabhulkar, Shradha; Piatyszek, Rudolph; Cirrito, John R.; Wu, Ze-zhi; Li, Chen-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) affects about 35.6 million people worldwide, and if current trends continue with no medical advancement, 1 in 85 people will be affected by 2050. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop a cost effective, easy to use, sensor platform to diagnose and study AD. The measurement of peptide amyloid beta (Aβ) found in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been assessed as an avenue to diagnose and study the disease. The quantification of the ratio of Aβ1-40/42 (or Aβ ratio) has been established as a reliable test to diagnose AD through human clinical trials. Therefore we have developed a multiplexed, implantable immunosensor to detect amyloid beta (Aβ) isoforms using triple barrel carbon fiber microelectrodes as the sensor platform. Antibodies act as the biorecognition element of the sensor and selectively capture and bind Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 to the electrode surface. Electrochemistry was used to measure the intrinsic oxidation signal of Aβ at 0.65 V (vs Ag/AgCl), originating from a single tyrosine (Tyr) residue found at position 10 in its amino acid sequence. Using the proposed immunosensor Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42 could be specifically detected in CSF from mice within a detection range of 20 nM to 50 nM and 20 nM to 140 nM respectively. The immunosensor enables real-time, highly sensitive detection of Aβ and opens up the possibilities for diagnostic ex-vivo applications and research-based in-vivo studies. PMID:22372824

  7. {alpha}-Lipoic acid exhibits anti-amyloidogenicity for {beta}-amyloid fibrils in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito . E-mail: m-yamada@med.kanazawa-u.ac.jp

    2006-03-24

    Inhibition of the formation of {beta}-amyloid fibrils (fA{beta}), as well as the destabilization of preformed fA{beta} in the CNS would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of {alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and the metabolic product of LA, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fA{beta} at pH 7.5 at 37 {sup o}C in vitro. LA and DHLA dose-dependently inhibited fA{beta} formation from amyloid {beta}-protein, as well as their extension. Moreover, they destabilized preformed fA{beta}s. LA and DHLA could be key molecules for the development of therapeutics for AD.

  8. Beta-protein deposition: a pathogenetic link between Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathies.

    PubMed

    Coria, F; Prelli, F; Castaño, E M; Larrondo-Lillo, M; Fernandez-Gonzalez, J; van Duinen, S G; Bots, G T; Luyendijk, W; Shelanski, M L; Frangione, B

    1988-10-25

    Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) refers to a group of hereditary (hereditary cerebral hemorrhage with amyloidosis, HCHWA and sporadic (SCAA) disorders characterized by amyloid fibril deposition restricted to the leptomeningeal and cortical vasculature leading to recurrent hemorrhagic and/or ischemic accidents. On clinical and biochemical grounds, two forms of HCHWA can be distinguished. The amyloid subunit of the HCHWA of Icelandic origin is related to Cystatin C, while amyloid from patients of Dutch origin (HCHWA-D) is related to the beta-protein (or A4), the main component of vascular and plaque core amyloid in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Down's syndrome (DS) [corrected]. SCAA is an increasingly recognized cause of stroke in normotensive individual amounting to 5-10% of all cerebrovascular accidents. We now report the isolation and partial amino acid sequence of the amyloid subunit from a case of SCAA and a new case of HCHWA-D. The recognition that a heterogeneous group of diseases are linked by similar pathological and chemical features suggests that diversity of etiological factors may promote a common pathogenetic mechanism leading to amyloid-beta (A beta) deposition, and open new ways of research in AD and CAA as they are related to dementia and stroke. PMID:3058268

  9. Amyloid β peptide oligomers directly activate NMDA receptors.

    PubMed

    Texidó, Laura; Martín-Satué, Mireia; Alberdi, Elena; Solsona, Carles; Matute, Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) oligomers accumulate in the brain tissue of Alzheimer disease patients and are related to disease pathogenesis. The precise mechanisms by which Aβ oligomers cause neurotoxicity remain unknown. We recently reported that Aβ oligomers cause intracellular Ca(2+) overload and neuronal death that can be prevented by NMDA receptor antagonists. This study investigated whether Aβ oligomers directly activated NMDA receptors (NMDARs) using NR1/NR2A and NR1/NR2B receptors that were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Indeed, Aβ oligomers induced inward non-desensitizing currents that were blocked in the presence of the NMDA receptor antagonists memantine, APV, and MK-801. Intriguingly, the amplitude of the responses to Aβ oligomers was greater for NR1/NR2A heteromers than for NR1/NR2B heteromers expressed in oocytes. Consistent with these findings, we observed that the increase in the cytosolic concentration of Ca(2+) induced by Aβ oligomers in cortical neurons is prevented by AP5, a broad spectrum NMDA receptor antagonist, but slightly attenuated by ifenprodil which blocks receptors with the NR2B subunit. Together, these results indicate that Aβ oligomers directly activate NMDA receptors, particularly those with the NR2A subunit, and further suggest that drugs that attenuate the activity of such receptors may prevent Aβ damage to neurons in Alzheimeŕs disease. PMID:21349580

  10. Synthetic amyloid-beta oligomers impair long-term memory independently of cellular prion protein.

    PubMed

    Balducci, Claudia; Beeg, Marten; Stravalaci, Matteo; Bastone, Antonio; Sclip, Alessandra; Biasini, Emiliano; Tapella, Laura; Colombo, Laura; Manzoni, Claudia; Borsello, Tiziana; Chiesa, Roberto; Gobbi, Marco; Salmona, Mario; Forloni, Gianluigi

    2010-02-01

    Inability to form new memories is an early clinical sign of Alzheimer's disease (AD). There is ample evidence that the amyloid-beta (Abeta) peptide plays a key role in the pathogenesis of this disorder. Soluble, bio-derived oligomers of Abeta are proposed as the key mediators of synaptic and cognitive dysfunction, but more tractable models of Abeta-mediated cognitive impairment are needed. Here we report that, in mice, acute intracerebroventricular injections of synthetic Abeta(1-42) oligomers impaired consolidation of the long-term recognition memory, whereas mature Abeta(1-42) fibrils and freshly dissolved peptide did not. The deficit induced by oligomers was reversible and was prevented by an anti-Abeta antibody. It has been suggested that the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) mediates the impairment of synaptic plasticity induced by Abeta. We confirmed that Abeta(1-42) oligomers interact with PrP(C), with nanomolar affinity. However, PrP-expressing and PrP knock-out mice were equally susceptible to this impairment. These data suggest that Abeta(1-42) oligomers are responsible for cognitive impairment in AD and that PrP(C) is not required. PMID:20133875

  11. Soluble beta amyloid evokes alteration in brain norepinephrine levels: role of nitric oxide and interleukin-1

    PubMed Central

    Morgese, Maria G.; Colaianna, Marilena; Mhillaj, Emanuela; Zotti, Margherita; Schiavone, Stefania; D'Antonio, Palma; Harkin, Andrew; Gigliucci, Valentina; Campolongo, Patrizia; Trezza, Viviana; De Stradis, Angelo; Tucci, Paolo; Cuomo, Vincenzo; Trabace, Luigia

    2015-01-01

    Strong evidence showed neurotoxic properties of beta amyloid (Aβ) and its pivotal role in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Beside, experimental data suggest that Aβ may have physiological roles considering that such soluble peptide is produced and secreted during normal cellular activity. There is now suggestive evidence that neurodegenerative conditions, like AD, involve nitric oxide (NO) in their pathogenesis. Nitric oxide also possess potent neuromodulatory actions in brain regions, such as prefrontal cortex (PFC), hippocampus (HIPP), and nucleus accumbens (NAC). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of acute Aβ injection on norepinephrine (NE) content before and after pharmacological manipulations of nitrergic system in above mentioned areas. Moreover, effects of the peptide on NOS activity were evaluated. Our data showed that 2 h after i.c.v. soluble Aβ administration, NE concentrations were significantly increased in the considered areas along with increased iNOS activity. Pre-treatment with NOS inhibitors, 7-Nitroindazole (7-NI), and N6-(1-iminoethyl)-L-lysine-dihydrochloride (L-NIL), reversed Aβ-induced changes. Ultimately, pharmacological block of interleukin1 (IL-1) receptors prevented NE increase in all brain regions. Taken together our findings suggest that NO and IL-1 are critically involved in regional noradrenergic alterations induced by soluble Aβ injection. PMID:26594145

  12. Multifunctional cholinesterase and amyloid Beta fibrillization modulators. Synthesis and biological investigation.

    PubMed

    Butini, Stefania; Brindisi, Margherita; Brogi, Simone; Maramai, Samuele; Guarino, Egeria; Panico, Alessandro; Saxena, Ashima; Chauhan, Ved; Colombo, Raffaella; Verga, Laura; De Lorenzi, Ersilia; Bartolini, Manuela; Andrisano, Vincenza; Novellino, Ettore; Campiani, Giuseppe; Gemma, Sandra

    2013-12-12

    In order to identify novel Alzheimer's modifying pharmacological tools, we developed bis-tacrines bearing a peptide moiety for specific interference with surface sites of human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) binding amyloid-beta (Aβ). Accordingly, compounds 2a-c proved to be inhibitors of hAChE catalytic and noncatalytic functions, binding the catalytic and peripheral sites, interfering with Aβ aggregation and with the Aβ self-oligomerization process (2a). Compounds 2a-c in complex with TcAChE span the gorge with the bis-tacrine system, and the peptide moieties bulge outside the gorge in proximity of the peripheral site. These moieties are likely responsible for the observed reduction of hAChE-induced Aβ aggregation since they physically hamper Aβ binding to the enzyme surface. Moreover, 2a was able to significantly interfere with Aβ self-oligomerization, while 2b,c showed improved inhibition of hAChE-induced Aβ aggregation. PMID:24900626

  13. The Alzheimer's beta amyloid (Abeta1-39) monomer in an implicit solvent.

    PubMed

    Anand, Priya; Nandel, F S; Hansmann, Ulrich H E

    2008-04-28

    Results from replica-exchange and regular room temperature molecular dynamics simulations of the Alzheimer's beta amyloid (Abeta(1-39)) monomer in an implicit solvent are reported. Our data indicate that at room temperature, the monomer assumes random-coil and soluble conformations. No beta content is observed which therefore seems to be a product of oligomerization and aggregation of monomers. PMID:18447506

  14. Specific interactions between amyloidpeptide and curcumin derivatives: Ab initio molecular simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishimura, Hiromi; Kadoya, Ryushi; Suzuki, Tomoya; Murakawa, Takeru; Shulga, Sergiy; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2015-07-01

    Alzheimer's disease is caused by accumulation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in a brain. To suppress the production of Aβ peptides, it is effective to inhibit the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) by secretases. However, because the secretases also play important roles to produce vital proteins for human body, inhibitors for the secretases may have side effects. To propose new agents for protecting the cleavage site of APP from the attacking of the γ-secretase, we have investigated here the specific interactions between a short APP peptide and curcumin derivatives, using protein-ligand docking as well as ab initio molecular simulations.

  15. Absence of beta-amyloid in cortical cataracts of donors with and without Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Michael, Ralph; Rosandić, Jurja; Montenegro, Gustavo A; Lobato, Elvira; Tresserra, Francisco; Barraquer, Rafael I; Vrensen, Gijs F J M

    2013-01-01

    Eye lenses from human donors with and without Alzheimer's disease (AD) were studied to evaluate the presence of amyloid in cortical cataract. We obtained 39 lenses from 21 postmortem donors with AD and 15 lenses from age-matched controls provided by the Banco de Ojos para Tratamientos de la Ceguera (Barcelona, Spain). For 17 donors, AD was clinically diagnosed by general physicians and for 4 donors the AD diagnosis was neuropathologically confirmed. Of the 21 donors with AD, 6 had pronounced bilateral cortical lens opacities and 15 only minor or no cortical opacities. As controls, 7 donors with pronounced cortical opacities and 8 donors with almost transparent lenses were selected. All lenses were photographed in a dark field stereomicroscope. Histological sections were analyzed using a standard and a more sensitive Congo red protocol, thioflavin staining and beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry. Brain tissue from two donors, one with cerebral amyloid angiopathy and another with advanced AD-related changes and one cornea with lattice dystrophy were used as positive controls for the staining techniques. Thioflavin, standard and modified Congo red staining were positive in the control brain tissues and in the dystrophic cornea. Beta-amyloid immunohistochemistry was positive in the brain tissues but not in the cornea sample. Lenses from control and AD donors were, without exception, negative after Congo red, thioflavin, and beta-amyloid immunohistochemical staining. The results of the positive control tissues correspond well with known observations in AD, amyloid angiopathy and corneas with lattice dystrophy. The absence of staining in AD and control lenses with the techniques employed lead us to conclude that there is no beta-amyloid in lenses from donors with AD or in control cortical cataracts. The inconsistency with previous studies of Goldstein et al. (2003) and Moncaster et al. (2010), both of which demonstrated positive Congo red, thioflavin, and beta-amyloid

  16. Synergistic Inhibitory Effect of Peptide-Organic Coassemblies on Amyloid Aggregation.

    PubMed

    Niu, Lin; Liu, Lei; Xi, Wenhui; Han, Qiusen; Li, Qiang; Yu, Yue; Huang, Qunxing; Qu, Fuyang; Xu, Meng; Li, Yibao; Du, Huiwen; Yang, Rong; Cramer, Jacob; Gothelf, Kurt V; Dong, Mingdong; Besenbacher, Flemming; Zeng, Qingdao; Wang, Chen; Wei, Guanghong; Yang, Yanlian

    2016-04-26

    Inhibition of amyloid aggregation is important for developing potential therapeutic strategies of amyloid-related diseases. Herein, we report that the inhibition effect of a pristine peptide motif (KLVFF) can be significantly improved by introducing a terminal regulatory moiety (terpyridine). The molecular-level observations by using scanning tunneling microscopy reveal stoichiometry-dependent polymorphism of the coassembly structures, which originates from the terminal interactions of peptide with organic modulator moieties and can be attributed to the secondary structures of peptides and conformations of the organic molecules. Furthermore, the polymorphism of the peptide-organic coassemblies is shown to be correlated to distinctively different inhibition effects on amyloid-β 42 (Aβ42) aggregations and cytotoxicity. PMID:26982522

  17. In situ hybridization of nucleus basalis neurons shows increased. beta. -amyloid mRNA in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.L.; Golde, T.E.; Usiak, M.F.; Younkin, L.H.; Younkin, S.G.

    1988-02-01

    To determine which cells within the brain produce ..beta..-amyloid mRNA and to assess expression of the ..beta..-amyloid gene in Alzheimer disease, the authors analyzed brain tissue from Alzheimer and control patients by in situ hybridization. The results demonstrate that ..beta..-amyloid mRNA is produced by neurons in the nucleus basalis of Meynert and cerebral cortex and that nuclues basalis perikarya from Alzheimer patients consistently hybridize more ..beta..-amyloid probe than those from controls. These observations support the hypothesis that increased expression of the ..beta..-amyloid gene plays an important role in the deposition of amyloid in the brains of patients with Alzheimer disease.

  18. N-Terminal deletions modify the Cu2+ binding site in amyloid-beta.

    PubMed

    Karr, Jesse W; Akintoye, Henrietta; Kaupp, Lauren J; Szalai, Veronika A

    2005-04-12

    Copper is implicated in the in vitro formation and toxicity of Alzheimer's disease amyloid plaques containing the beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide (Bush, A. I., et al. (2003) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 100, 11934). By low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, the importance of the N-terminus in creating the Cu(2+) binding site in native Abeta has been examined. Peptides that contain the proposed binding site for Cu(2+)-three histidines (H6, H13, and H14) and a tyrosine (Y10)-but lack one to three N-terminal amino acids, do not bind Cu(2+) in the same coordination environment as the native peptide. EPR spectra of soluble Abeta with stoichiometric amounts of Cu(2+) show type 2 Cu(2+) EPR spectra for all peptides. The ligand donor atoms to Cu(2+) are 3N1O when Cu(2+) is bound to any of the Abetapeptides (Abeta16, Abeta28, Abeta40, and Abeta42) that contain the first 16 amino acids of full-length Abeta. When a Y10F mutant of Abeta is used, the coordination environment for Cu(2+) remains 3N1O and Cu(2+) EPR spectra of this mutant are identical to the wild-type spectra. Isotopic labeling experiments show that water is not the O-atom donor to Cu(2+) in Abeta fibrils or in the Y10F mutant. Further, we find that Cu(2+) cannot be removed from Cu(2+)-containing fibrils by washing with buffer, but that Cu(2+) binds to fibrils initially assembled without Cu(2+) in the same coordination environment as in fibrils assembled with Cu(2+). Together, these results indicate (1) that the O-atom donor ligand to Cu(2+) in Abeta is not tyrosine, (2) that the native Cu(2+) binding site in Abeta is sensitive to small changes at the N-terminus, and (3) that Cu(2+) binds to Abetafibrils in a manner that permits exchange of Cu(2+) into and out of the fibrillar architecture. PMID:15807541

  19. Aluminum-sensitive degradation of amyloid beta-protein 1-40 by murine and human intracellular enzymes.

    PubMed

    Banks, W A; Maness, L M; Banks, M F; Kastin, A J

    1996-01-01

    Both amyloid beta protein (A beta) and aluminum (A1) have been implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Recently, A beta has been found to be produced by peripheral tissues as well as by the CNS and to cross and accumulate in the vascular bed of the brain, which comprises the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This raises the possibility that blood-borne A beta may be a source of A beta within the CNS. Al has been shown to alter the structure and function of A beta, to inhibit the class of enzymes (metalloproteases) associated with the processing and degradation of A beta, and to alter the permeability of the BBB to peptides of similar size to A beta. Therefore, Al could alter the access of blood-borne A beta to the CNS either by changing the permeability of the BBB or by affecting enzymatic degradation. We examined the effect of Al on both of these parameters and found that Al did not alter the permeability of the BBB to A beta radioactively labeled with 125I (I-A beta) ever after correction for in vivo degradation. However, Al did enhance clearance and degradation of I-A beta in the circulation but not in the brain. Alterations in clearance can indirectly affect the CNS accumulation of circulating substances by modifying their presentation to the brain. In vitro studies of intracellular enzymatic activity of lysates of mouse and human erythrocytes (RBC) showed that Al could inhibit degradation of I-A beta through a mechanism antagonized by calcium and dependent on the concentrations of RBC lysate and Al. Analysis by high performance liquid chromatography showed that Al acted primarily by inhibiting the initial degradation of I-A beta to a peptide intermediate without inducing the aggregation of I-A beta under the conditions of these studies. No difference was found in sensitivity to Al between RBCs from patients with Alzheimer's disease and age- and sex-matched controls. The ability of Al to alter the degradation of A beta suggests a way in which these two potentially

  20. Concluding the amyloid formation pathway of a coiled-coil-based peptide from the size of the critical nucleus.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Ulla I M; Miettinen, Markus S; Koksch, Beate

    2015-01-12

    The size of the critical nucleus acting as intermediate in the amyloid formation of a model peptide is calculated. The theoretical approach is based on experimentally determined amyloid formation rates and gives new insights into the amyloid formation pathway. PMID:25257178

  1. The iA{beta}5p {beta}-breaker peptide regulates the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with lipid bilayers through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Vitiello, Giuseppe; Grimaldi, Manuela; D'Ursi, Anna Maria; D'Errico, Gerardino

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p shows a significant tendency to deeply penetrates the hydrophobic core of lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A{beta}(25-35) locates in the external region of the membrane causing a re-positioning of CHOL. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the lipid membrane. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the deposition of aggregates of the {beta}-amyloid peptide (A{beta}) in the brain. A potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease is the use of synthetic {beta}-sheet breaker peptides, which are capable of binding A{beta} but unable to become part of a {beta}-sheet structure, thus inhibiting the peptide aggregation. Many studies suggest that membranes play a key role in the A{beta} aggregation; consequently, it is strategic to investigate the interplay between {beta}-sheet breaker peptides and A{beta} in the presence of lipid bilayers. In this work, we focused on the effect of the {beta}-sheet breaker peptide acetyl-LPFFD-amide, iA{beta}5p, on the interaction of the A{beta}(25-35) fragment with lipid membranes, studied by Electron Spin Resonance spectroscopy, using spin-labeled membrane components (either phospholipids or cholesterol). The ESR results show that iA{beta}5p influences the A{beta}(25-35) interaction with the bilayer through a cholesterol-mediated mechanism: iA{beta}5p withholds cholesterol in the inner hydrophobic core of the bilayer, making the interfacial region more fluid and capable to accommodate A{beta}(25-35). As a consequence, iA{beta}5p prevents the A{beta}(25-35) release from the lipid membrane, which is the first step of the {beta}-amyloid aggregation process.

  2. Solid-state NMR analysis of the {beta}-strand orientation of the protofibrils of amyloid {beta}-protein

    SciTech Connect

    Doi, Takashi; Masuda, Yuichi; Irie, Kazuhiro; Akagi, Ken-ichi; Monobe, Youko; Imazawa, Takayoshi; Takegoshi, K.

    2012-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The supramolecular structure of A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by solid-state NMR. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Ala-21 residue in the A{beta}42 protofibrils is included in a slightly disordered {beta}-strand. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The A{beta}42 protofibrils do not form intermolecular in-register parallel {beta}-sheets. -- Abstract: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is caused by abnormal deposition (fibrillation) of a 42-residue amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}42) in the brain. During the process of fibrillation, the A{beta}42 takes the form of protofibrils with strong neurotoxicity, and is thus believed to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of AD. To elucidate the supramolecular structure of the A{beta}42 protofibrils, the intermolecular proximity of the Ala-21 residues in the A{beta}42 protofibrils was analyzed by {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C rotational resonance experiments in the solid state. Unlike the A{beta}42 fibrils, an intermolecular {sup 13}C-{sup 13}C correlation was not found in the A{beta}42 protofibrils. This result suggests that the {beta}-strands of the A{beta}42 protofibrils are not in an in-register parallel orientation. A{beta}42 monomers would assemble to form protofibrils with the {beta}-strand conformation, then transform into fibrils by forming intermolecular parallel {beta}-sheets.

  3. Peptide p5 binds both heparinase-sensitive glycosaminoglycans and fibrils in patient-derived AL amyloid extracts

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Emily B.; Williams, Angela; Heidel, Eric; Macy, Sallie; Kennel, Stephen J.; Wall, Jonathan S.

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •Polybasic peptide p5 binds human light chain amyloid extracts. •The binding of p5 with amyloid involves both glycosaminoglycans and fibrils. •Heparinase treatment led to a correlation between p5 binding and fibril content. •p5 binding to AL amyloid requires electrostatic interactions. -- Abstract: In previously published work, we have described heparin-binding synthetic peptides that preferentially recognize amyloid deposits in a mouse model of reactive systemic (AA) amyloidosis and can be imaged by using positron and single photon emission tomographic imaging. We wanted to extend these findings to the most common form of visceral amyloidosis, namely light chain (AL); however, there are no robust experimental animal models of AL amyloidosis. To further define the binding of the lead peptide, p5, to AL amyloid, we characterized the reactivity in vitro of p5 with in situ and patient-derived AL amyloid extracts which contain both hypersulfated heparan sulfate proteoglycans as well as amyloid fibrils. Histochemical staining demonstrated that the peptide specifically localized with tissue-associated AL amyloid deposits. Although we anticipated that p5 would undergo electrostatic interactions with the amyloid-associated glycosaminoglycans expressing heparin-like side chains, no significant correlation between peptide binding and glycosaminoglycan content within amyloid extracts was observed. In contrast, following heparinase I treatment, although overall binding was reduced, a positive correlation between peptide binding and amyloid fibril content became evident. This interaction was further confirmed using synthetic light chain fibrils that contain no carbohydrates. These data suggest that p5 can bind to both the sulfated glycosaminoglycans and protein fibril components of AL amyloid. Understanding these complex electrostatic interactions will aid in the optimization of synthetic peptides for use as amyloid imaging agents and potentially as

  4. Benzalkonium Chloride Accelerates the Formation of the Amyloid Fibrils of Corneal Dystrophy-associated Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Yusuke; Yagi, Hisashi; Kaji, Yuichi; Oshika, Tetsuro; Goto, Yuji

    2013-01-01

    Corneal dystrophies are genetic disorders resulting in progressive corneal clouding due to the deposition of amyloid fibrils derived from keratoepithelin, also called transforming growth factor β-induced protein (TGFBI). The formation of amyloid fibrils is often accelerated by surfactants such as sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Most eye drops contain benzalkonium chloride (BAC), a cationic surfactant, as a preservative substance. In the present study, we aimed to reveal the role of BAC in the amyloid fibrillation of keratoepithelin-derived peptides in vitro. We used three types of 22-residue synthetic peptides covering Leu110-Glu131 of the keratoepithelin sequence: an R-type peptide with wild-type R124, a C-type peptide with C124 associated with lattice corneal dystrophy type I, and a H-type peptide with H124 associated with granular corneal dystrophy type II. The time courses of spontaneous amyloid fibrillation and seed-dependent fibril elongation were monitored in the presence of various concentrations of BAC or SDS using thioflavin T fluorescence. BAC and SDS accelerated the fibrillation of all synthetic peptides in the absence and presence of seeds. Optimal acceleration occurred near the CMC, which suggests that the unstable and dynamic interactions of keratoepithelin peptides with amphipathic surfactants led to the formation of fibrils. These results suggest that eye drops containing BAC may deteriorate corneal dystrophies and that those without BAC are preferred especially for patients with corneal dystrophies. PMID:23861389

  5. Methionine oxidation of amyloid peptides by peroxovanadium complexes: inhibition of fibril formation through a distinct mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Lei; Wang, Xuesong; Zhu, Dengsen; Zhao, Cong; Du, Weihong

    2015-12-01

    Fibril formation of amyloid peptides is linked to a number of pathological states. The prion protein (PrP) and amyloid-β (Aβ) are two remarkable examples that are correlated with prion disorders and Alzheimer's disease, respectively. Metal complexes, such as those formed by platinum and ruthenium compounds, can act as inhibitors against peptide aggregation primarily through metal coordination. This study revealed the inhibitory effect of two peroxovanadium complexes, (NH4)[VO(O2)2(bipy)]·4H2O (1) and (NH4)[VO(O2)2(phen)]·2H2O (2), on amyloid fibril formation of PrP106-126 and Aβ1-42via site-specific oxidation of methionine residues, besides direct binding of the complexes with the peptides. Complexes 1 and 2 showed higher anti-amyloidogenic activity on PrP106-126 aggregation than on Aβ1-42, though their regulation on the cytotoxicity induced by the two peptides could not be differentiated. The action efficacy may be attributed to the different molecular structures of the vanadium complex and the peptide sequence. Results reflected that methionine oxidation may be a crucial action mode in inhibiting amyloid fibril formation. This study offers a possible application value for peroxovanadium complexes against amyloid proteins. PMID:26444976

  6. Amyloidpeptide aggregation and the influence of carbon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Hui, Xi; Guang-Hong, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Soluble peptides or proteins can self-aggregate into insoluble, ordered amyloid fibrils under appropriate conditions. These amyloid aggregates are the hallmarks of several human diseases ranging from neurodegenerative disorders to systemic amyloidoses. In this review, we first introduce the common structural features of amyloid fibrils and the amyloid fibrillation kinetics determined from experimental studies. Then, we discuss the structural models of Alzheimer’s amyloid-β (Aβ) fibrils derived from solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. On the computational side, molecular dynamics simulations can provide atomic details of structures and the underlying oligomerization mechanisms. We finally summarize recent progress in atomistic simulation studies on the oligomerization of Aβ (including full-length Aβ and its fragments) and the influence of carbon nanoparticles. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274075 and 91227102).

  7. Memantine protects rat cortical cultured neurons against beta-amyloid-induced toxicity by attenuating tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Song, M S; Rauw, G; Baker, G B; Kar, S

    2008-11-01

    It has been suggested that accumulation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide triggers neurodegeneration, at least in part, via glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain. This is supported by observations that toxicity induced by Abeta peptide in cultured neurons and in adult rat brain is known to be mediated by activation of glutamatergic N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Additionally, recent clinical studies have shown that memantine, a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, can significantly improve cognitive functions in some AD patients. However, very little is currently known about the potential role of memantine against Abeta-induced toxicity. In the present study, we have shown that Abeta(1-42)-induced toxicity in rat primary cortical cultured neurons is accompanied by increased extracellular and decreased intracellular glutamate levels. We subsequently demonstrated that Abeta toxicity is induced by increased phosphorylation of tau protein and activation of tau kinases, i.e. glycogen synthase kinase-3beta and extracellular signal-related kinase 1/2. Additionally, Abeta treatment induced cleavage of caspase-3 and decreased phosphorylation of cyclic AMP response element binding protein, which are critical in determining survival of neurons. Memantine treatment significantly protected cultured neurons against Abeta-induced toxicity by attenuating tau-phosphorylation and its associated signaling mechanisms. However, this drug did not alter either conformation or internalization of Abeta(1-42) and it was unable to attenuate Abeta-induced potentiation of extracellular glutamate levels. These results, taken together, provide new insights into the possible neuroprotective action of memantine in AD pathology. PMID:19046381

  8. Design of peptidyl compounds that affect beta-amyloid aggregation: importance of surface tension and context.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd J; Murphy, Regina M

    2005-06-21

    Self-association of beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide into cross-beta-sheet fibrils induces cellular toxicity in vitro and is linked with progression of Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we demonstrated that hybrid peptides, containing a recognition domain that binds to Abeta and a disrupting domain consisting of a chain of charged amino acids, inhibited Abeta-associated toxicity in vitro and increased the rate of Abeta aggregation. In this work we examine the design parameter space of the disrupting domain. Using KLVFFKKKKKK as a base case, we tested hybrid compounds with a branched rather than linear lysine oligomer, with l-lysine replaced by d-lysine, and with lysine replaced by diaminopropionic acid. We synthesized a compound with a novel anionic disrupting domain that contained cysteine thiols oxidized to sulfates, as well as other compounds in which alkyl or ether chains were appended to KLVFF. In all cases, the hybrid compound's ability to increase solvent surface tension was the strongest predictor of its effect on Abeta aggregation kinetics. Finally, we investigated the effects of arginine on Abeta aggregation. Arginine is a well-known chaotrope but increases surface tension of water. Arginine modestly decreased Abeta aggregation. In contrast, RRRRRR slightly, and KLVFFRRRRRR greatly, increased Abeta aggregation. Thus, the influence of arginine on Abeta aggregation depends strongly on the context in which it is presented. The effect of arginine, RRRRRR, and KLVFFRRRRRR on Abeta aggregation was examined in detail using laser light scattering, circular dichroism spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thioflavin T fluorescence, and transmission electron microscopy. PMID:15952797

  9. Bexarotene blocks calcium-permeable ion channels formed by neurotoxic Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptides.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Jacques; Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Troadec, Jean-Denis; Sadelli, Kevin; Chahinian, Henri; Garmy, Nicolas

    2014-03-19

    The anticancer drug bexarotene has been shown to restore cognitive functions in animal models of Alzheimer's disease, but its exact mechanism of action remains elusive. In the present report, we have used a combination of molecular, physicochemical, and cellular approaches to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the anti-Alzheimer properties of bexarotene in neural cells. First of all, we noticed that bexarotene shares a structural analogy with cholesterol. We showed that cholesterol and bexarotene compete for the same binding site in the C-terminal region of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide 1-42 (Aβ1-42). This common bexarotene/cholesterol binding domain was characterized as a linear motif encompassing amino acid residues 25-35 of Aβ1-42. Because cholesterol is involved in the oligomerization of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptides into neurotoxic amyloid channels, we studied the capability of bexarotene to interfere with this process. We showed that nanomolar concentrations of bexarotene efficiently prevented the cholesterol-dependent increase of calcium fluxes induced by β-amyloid peptides Aβ1-42 and Aβ25-35 in SH-SY5Y cells, suggesting a direct effect of the drug on amyloid channel formation. Molecular dynamics simulations gave structural insights into the role of cholesterol in amyloid channel formation and explained the inhibitory effect of bexarotene. Because it is the first drug that can both inhibit the binding of cholesterol to β-amyloid peptides and prevent calcium-permeable amyloid pore formation in the plasma membrane of neural cells, bexarotene might be considered as the prototype of a new class of anti-Alzheimer compounds. The experimental approach developed herein can be used as a screening strategy to identify such compounds. PMID:24383913

  10. Pro-Cognitive Effects of Non-Peptide Analogues of Soluble Amyloid Peptide Precursor Fragment sAPP.

    PubMed

    Tiunova, A A; Komissarova, N V; Nenaidenko, V G; Makhmutova, A A; Beznosko, B K; Bachurin, S O; Anokhin, K V

    2016-08-01

    We studied pro-cognitive effect of two heterocyclic low-molecular-weight compounds that serve as non-peptide analogues of soluble fragment of amyloid peptide precursor (sAPP). Intracerebroventricular and systemic administration of peptide mimetics P2 and P5 improved weak memory on the model of passive avoidance in chicks and in the object location task in mice. Both compounds were effective if administered close to the moment of training or 4 h after it. The time windows and dose range for the pro-cognitive effects of the mimetics were similar to those observed in previous studies with sAPP peptide fragments. PMID:27590763

  11. Beta-Amyloid Deposition and Alzheimer's Type Changes Induced by Borrelia Spirochetes

    SciTech Connect

    Miklossy,J.; Kis, A.; Radenovic, A.; Miller, L.; Forro, L.; Martins, R.; Reiss, K.; Darbinian, N.; Darekar, P.; et al.

    2006-01-01

    The pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) consist of {beta}-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in affected brain areas. The processes, which drive this host reaction are unknown. To determine whether an analogous host reaction to that occurring in AD could be induced by infectious agents, we exposed mammalian glial and neuronal cells in vitro to Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes and to the inflammatory bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Morphological changes analogous to the amyloid deposits of AD brain were observed following 2-8 weeks of exposure to the spirochetes. Increased levels of {beta}-amyloid presursor protein (A{beta}PP) and hyperphosphorylated tau were also detected by Western blots of extracts of cultured cells that had been treated with spirochetes or LPS. These observations indicate that, by exposure to bacteria or to their toxic products, host responses similar in nature to those observed in AD may be induced.

  12. Action of Caffeine as an Amyloid Inhibitor in the Aggregation of Aβ16-22 Peptides.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Bhanita; Paul, Sandip

    2016-09-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease caused due to aggregation of Aβ peptides in the brain tissues. Recently, several studies on AD transgenic mice have shown the effect of caffeine in significantly reducing the Aβ amyloid level in their brains. However, the mechanism and mode of caffeine action on amyloid aggregation are not known. Therefore, in this study, we have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of five amyloid-forming Aβ16-22 peptides in pure water and in a regime of caffeine solutions, with different caffeine/peptide stoichiometric ratios. The secondary structure analyses of peptides in pure water show the formation of β-sheet conformations, whereas on addition of caffeine, these ordered conformations become negligible. The radial distribution function, contact map, nonbonding interaction energy, hydrogen bonding, potential of mean force, and hydration analyses show that there is less interpeptide interaction in the presence of caffeine, and the effect is greater with an increasing caffeine ratio. The interaction of aromatic phenylalanine residues of peptides with caffeine restricts the interpeptide interaction tendency. Upon increasing the number of caffeine molecules, interaction of caffeine with other hydrophobic residues also increases. Thus, the hydrophobic core-recognition motif of amyloid formation of peptides is physically blocked by caffeine, thereby abolishing the self-assembly formation. PMID:27487451

  13. Driving force of binding of amyloid {beta}-protein to lipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Ikeda, Keisuke; Matsuzaki, Katsumi

    2008-06-06

    Amyloid {beta}-protein (A{beta}) has been reported to interact with a variety of lipid species, although the thermodynamic driving force remains unclear. We investigated the binding of A{beta}s labeled with the dye diethylaminocoumarin (DAC-A{beta}s) to lipid bilayers under various conditions. DAC-A{beta}-(1-40) electrostatically bound to anionic and cationic lipids at acidic and alkaline interfacial pH, respectively. However, at neutral pH, electroneutral A{beta} did not bind to these lipids, indicating little hydrophobic interaction between A{beta}-(1-40) and the acyl chains of lipids. In contrast, DAC-A{beta} associated with glycolipids even under electroneutral conditions. These results suggested that hydrogen-bonding as well as hydrophobic interactions with sugar groups of glycolipids drive the membrane binding of A{beta}-(1-40)

  14. Phosphate and HEPES buffers potently affect the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of Alzheimer's A{beta} peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Garvey, Megan; Tepper, Katharina; Haupt, Caroline; Knuepfer, Uwe; Klement, Karolin; Meinhardt, Jessica; Horn, Uwe; Balbach, Jochen; Faendrich, Marcus

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Sodium phosphate buffer accelerated A{beta}(1-40) nucleation relative to HEPES. {yields} A{beta}(1-40) fibrils formed in the two buffers show only minor structural differences. {yields} NMR revealed that A{beta}(1-40) histidine residues mediate buffer dependent changes. -- Abstract: The oligomerization of A{beta} peptide into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Due to its biological relevance, phosphate is the most commonly used buffer system for studying the formation of A{beta} and other amyloid fibrils. Investigation into the characteristics and formation of amyloid fibrils frequently relies upon material formed in vitro, predominantly in phosphate buffers. Herein, we examine the effects on the fibrillation and oligomerization mechanism of A{beta} peptide that occur due solely to the influence of phosphate buffer. We reveal that significant differences in amyloid fibrillation are observed due to fibrillation being initiated in phosphate or HEPES buffer (at physiological pH and temperature). Except for the differing buffer ions, all experimental parameters were kept constant. Fibril formation was assessed using fluorescently monitored kinetic studies, microscopy, X-ray fiber diffraction and infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopies. Based on this set up, we herein reveal profound effects on the mechanism and speed of A{beta} fibrillation. The three histidine residues at positions 6, 13 and 14 of A{beta}(1-40) are instrumental in these mechanistic changes. We conclude that buffer plays a more significant role in fibril formation than has been generally acknowledged.

  15. In silico study of amyloid beta-protein folding relevant to Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam Ng, Alfonso Ramon

    Amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) folding is the initial step in the formation of the early toxic Abeta assemblies that are critically linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abeta exists in two main alloforms, Abeta40 and Abeta42, composed of 40 and 42 residues, respectively. Abeta42 aggregates faster, forms more toxic assemblies, and is linked more strongly to AD. Two amino acids of Abeta42, I41 and A42, profoundly affect the behavior of Abeta40 and Abeta42. To examine why this happens, I study Abeta40 and Abeta42 folding using discrete molecular dynamics and a four-bead protein model with backbone hydrogen bonding and residue-specific effective hydropathic and electrostatic interactions. In particular, I explore a range of values of the hydropathic (EHP) and electrostatic (ECH) potential energies. For each peptide, I create a hundred different initial conformations for each set of parameters (EHP,E CH). I investigate the Abeta40 and Abeta42 monomer folding in a wide temperature range and quantify the folded structures by calculating the secondary structure propensities and the intramolecular contact maps. For each set of parameters (EHP,ECH), I calculate an average beta-strand secondary structure propensity in the Abeta40 and Abeta42 monomers as a function of temperature. I compare these simulated results with experimental circular dichroism measurements and estimate the model physiological temperature and the model parameters (E HP,ECH) that best fit the experimental conditions. The results show that in the temperature range [278K,350K], the average beta-strand in Abeta42 is larger than that of Abeta40, which is in agreement with experiments. The model predicts that the average beta-strand propensity should decrease for T>350K. At low temperatures, both Abeta40 and Abeta42 adopt a predominantly collapsed-coil conformation with small amounts of an beta-helical secondary structure (<1%). At high temperatures, beta-strand rich structures are more prominent (19%). Also, the

  16. Beta amyloid and hyperphosphorylated tau deposits in the pancreas in type 2 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Miklossy, J.; Miller, L.; Qing, H.; Radenovic, A.; Kis, A.; Vileno, B.; Laszlo, F.; Martins, R.N.; Waeber, G.; Mooser, V.; Bosman, F.; Khalili, K.; Darbinian, N.; McGeer, P.L.

    2008-08-25

    Strong epidemiologic evidence suggests an association between Alzheimer disease (AD) and type 2 diabetes. To determine if amyloid beta (A{beta}) and hyperphosphorylated tau occurs in type 2 diabetes, pancreas tissues from 21 autopsy cases (10 type 2 diabetes and 11 controls) were analyzed. APP and tau mRNAs were identified in human pancreas and in cultured insulinoma beta cells (INS-1) by RT-PCR. Prominent APP and tau bands were detected by Western blotting in pancreatic extracts. Aggregated A{beta}, hyperphosphorylated tau, ubiquitin, apolipoprotein E, apolipoprotein(a), IB1/JIP-1 and JNK1 were detected in Langerhans islets in type 2 diabetic patients. A{beta} was co-localized with amylin in islet amyloid deposits. In situ beta sheet formation of islet amyloid deposits was shown by infrared microspectroscopy (SIRMS). LPS increased APP in non-neuronal cells as well. We conclude that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau are also associated with type 2 diabetes, highlighting common pathogenetic features in neurodegenerative disorders, including AD and type 2 diabetes and suggesting that A{beta} deposits and hyperphosphorylated tau may also occur in other organs than the brain.

  17. AZD2184: a radioligand for sensitive detection of beta-amyloid deposits.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Allan E; Jeppsson, Fredrik; Sandell, Johan; Wensbo, David; Neelissen, Jan A M; Juréus, Anders; Ström, Peter; Norman, Henrietta; Farde, Lars; Svensson, Samuel P S

    2009-03-01

    The presence of beta-amyloid plaques in brain is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and serves as a biomarker for confirmation of diagnosis postmortem. Positron emission tomography (PET) radioligands such as Pittsburgh compound B ([(11)C]-2-(3-fluoro-4-methylamino-phenyl)-benzothiazol-6-ol) (PIB) binds selectively to beta-amyloid and are promising new tools supporting the clinical diagnoses of AD. In addition, such methodology may be useful for evaluation of new drugs aiming at reduction of amyloid plaque load. The objective of this study is to develop a new amyloid selective PET radioligand with higher signal-to-background ratio when compared with existing amyloid PET ligands. The lead compound, AZD2184, (2-[6-(methylamino)pyridin-3-yl]-1,3-benzothiazol-6-ol) was found to have high affinity for amyloid fibrils in vitro (K(d): 8.4 +/- 1.0 nM). Two minutes after i.v. administration in rats, about 1% of the dose was in brain. In vitro autoradiography on cortical brain sections from amyloid-beta precursor protein/presenilin 1 (APP/PS1) mice and AD patients showed that while [(3)H]AZD2184 and [(3)H]PIB are mutually displaceable, [(3)H]AZD2184 displays a higher signal-to-background ratio primarily by virtue of lower background binding levels. The ratio of binding ability in prefrontal cortex (high plaque load) to subcortical white matter (background) was 4.5 for [(3)H]AZD2184 and 0.8 for [(3)H]PIB at 1 nM. In adjacent cortical sections from APP/PS1 mouse as well as from AD cortical tissue, [(3)H]AZD2184 and antibodies to human beta-amyloid labeled identical structures. In vivo administration of [(3)H]AZD2184 to APP/PS1 mice further showed that [(3)H]AZD2184 labels amyloid deposits with low non-specific background binding. Taken together, the pre-clinical profile of AZD2184 in relation to the reference ligand PIB, suggests that (11)C-labeled AZD2184 is a potential radioligand for PET-visualization of beta-amyloid deposits in the living human brain. PMID:19141073

  18. A Drosophila gene encoding a protein resembling the human. beta. -amyloid protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Rosen, D.R.; Martin-Morris, L.; Luo, L.; White, K. )

    1989-04-01

    The authors have isolated genomic and cDNA clones for a Drosophila gene resembling the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein (APP). This gene produces a nervous system-enriched 6.5-kilobase transcript. Sequencing of cDNAs derived from the 6.5-kilobase transcript predicts an 886-amino acid polypeptide. This polypeptide contains a putative transmembrane domain and exhibits strong sequence similarity to cytoplasmic and extracellular regions of the human {beta}-amyloid precursor protein. There is a high probability that this Drosophila gene corresponds to the essential Drosophila locus vnd, a gene required for embryonic nervous system development.

  19. The Synthesis of Beta-Peptides Containing Guanidino Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wen, Ke; Han, Hyunsoo; Hoffman, Timothy Z.; Janda, Kim D.; Orgel, Leslie E.

    2003-01-01

    The synthesis of the beta-peptide 1 by the postsynthetic modification of the corresponding amino-containing peptide 3 is described. The potential of 1 to act as a template for the ligation of complementary negatively-charged peptides is discussed.

  20. Construction of human Fab library and screening of a single-domain antibody of amyloid-beta 42 oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zuanning; Du, Minge; Chen, Yiwen; Dou, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Screening humanized antibodies from a human Fab phage display library is an effective and quick method to obtain beta-amyloid oligomers. Thus, the present study prepared amyloid-beta 42 oli-gomers and constructed a naïve human Fab phage display library based on blood samples from six healthy people. After three rounds of biopanning in vitro, a human single-domain antibody that specifically recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers was identified. Western blot and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated this antibody bound specifically to human amyloid-beta 42 tetramer and nonamer, but not the monomer or high molecular weight oligomers. This study successfully constructed a human phage display library and screened a single-domain antibody that specifically recognized amyloid-beta 42 oligomers. PMID:25206631

  1. Beta-amyloid fibrils of Alzheimer's disease: pathologically altered, basement membrane-associated microfibrils?

    PubMed

    Inoue, S; Kisilevsky, R

    2001-01-01

    Beta amyloid fibrils were examined in situ in the cerebral cortex of brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease using high resolution ultrastructural and immunohistochemical techniques. The main body of the fibril was identical with that of microfibrils and was made up of a core containing amyloid P component (AP), and a surface layer. Beta amyloid protein (Abeta) in the form of 1 nm wide flexible filaments was associated with the external surface of the microfibril. In cerebrovascular amyloid angiopathy the fibrils were formed at the outer surface of the vascular basement membrane. Overproduction of microfibrils has been reported at the basement membrane of "leaky" capillaries including the glomerular capillary in disease or leaky alveolar-capillary walls of normal lungs. Similarly, in Alzheimer's disease overproduction of microfibril-like beta amyloid fibrils in amyloid angiopathy coincided with breakdown of the blood-brain barrier of the cerebromicrovasculature. Thus, in the above three locations, the presence of abundant microfibrils, or microfibril-like structures, may be related to plasma which leaks out of the circulation into the adjoining vascular basement membrane. AP is an essential constituent of microfibrils and since the only site where AP is available in the cerebral cortex is in leaky microvasculature, a chronic, steady supply of AP into perivascular areas may be the cause of overproduction of microfibrils. Brain "microfibrils" may further be altered pathologically into beta amyloid fibrils by the addition of Abeta. The origin of the fibrils in senile plaques may also be the microvasculature since in the area of the plaques no source of AP is apparent. PMID:11730002

  2. Methods for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2001-01-01

    A method for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in vivo and in vitro, comprises contacting a compound of formula (I): ##STR1## with mammalian tissue. In formula (I), R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkylenyl-R.sub.4 , ##STR2## R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5, is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH , --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S. R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. Alternatively, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkylenyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. In the compounds of formula (I), one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms can, optionally, be replaced with a radiolabel.

  3. Methods for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2003-12-09

    A method for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in vivo and in vitro, comprises contacting a compound of formula (I): ##STR1## with mammalian tissue. In formula (I), R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2 -alkylenyl-R.sub.4, ##STR2## R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH, --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 ; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S. R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 are each independently selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. Alternatively, R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkylenyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl. In the compounds of formula (I), one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms can, optionally, be replaced with a radiolabel.

  4. Compositions for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles

    DOEpatents

    Barrio, Jorge R.; Petric, Andrej; Satyamurthy, Nagichettiar; Small, Gary W.; Cole, Gregory M.; Huang, Sung-Cheng

    2008-03-11

    Compositions useful for labeling .beta.-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles are provided. The compositions comprises compounds of formula (I): ##STR00001## wherein R.sub.1 is selected from the group consisting of --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkyl, --C.dbd.C(CN).sub.2-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, ##STR00002## wherein R.sub.4 is a radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, substituted alkyl, aryl and substituted aryl; R.sub.5 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --NH.sub.2, --OH, --SH, --NH-alkyl, --NHR.sub.4, --NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --O-alkyl, --O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --S-alkyl, and --S-alkylenyl-R.sub.4; R.sub.6 is a radical selected from the group consisting of --CN, --COOH, --C(O)O-alkyl, --C(O)O-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-alkyl, --C(O)-alkylenyl-R.sub.4, --C(O)-halogen, --C(O)NH-alkyl, --C(O)NH-alkylenyl-R.sub.4 and --C(O)NH.sub.2; R.sub.7 is a radical selected from the group consisting of O, NH, and S; and R.sub.8 is N, O or S; and R.sub.2 is selected from the group consisting of alkyl and alkylenyl-R.sub.10 and R.sub.3 is alkylenyl-R.sub.10, wherein R.sub.10 is selected from the group consisting of --OH, --OTs, halogen, spiperone, spiperone ketal, and spiperone-3-yl, or R.sub.2 and R.sub.3 together form a heterocyclic ring, optionally substituted with at least one radical selected from the group consisting of alkyl, alkoxy, OH, OTs, halogen, alkyl-R.sub.10, carbonyl, spiperone, spiperone ketal and spiperone-3-yl, and further wherein one or more of the hydrogen, halogen or carbon atoms are optionally replaced with a radiolabel.

  5. Destruction of amyloid fibrils by graphene through penetration and extraction of peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zaixing; Ge, Cuicui; Liu, Jiajia; Chong, Yu; Gu, Zonglin; Jimenez-Cruz, Camilo A.; Chai, Zhifang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2015-11-01

    Current therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can provide a moderate symptomatic reduction or delay progression at various stages of the disease, but such treatments ultimately do not arrest the advancement of AD. As such, novel approaches for AD treatment and prevention are urgently needed. We here provide both experimental and computational evidence that pristine graphene and graphene-oxide nanosheets can inhibit Aβ peptide monomer fibrillation and clear mature amyloid fibrils, thus impacting the central molecular superstructures correlated with AD pathogenesis. Our molecular dynamics simulations for the first time reveal that graphene nanosheets can penetrate and extract a large number of peptides from pre-formed amyloid fibrils; these effects seem to be related to exceptionally strong dispersion interactions between peptides and graphene that are further enhanced by strong π-π stacking between the aromatic residues of extracted Aβ peptides and the graphene surface. Atomic force microscopy images confirm these predictions by demonstrating that mature amyloid fibrils can be cut into pieces and cleared by graphene oxides. Thioflavin fluorescence assays further illustrate the detailed dynamic processes by which graphene induces inhibition of monomer aggregation and clearance of mature amyloid fibrils, respectively. Cell viability and ROS assays indicate that graphene oxide can indeed mitigate cytotoxicity of Aβ peptide amyloids. Our findings provide new insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms that define graphene-amyloid interaction and suggest that further research on nanotherapies for Alzheimer's and other protein aggregation-related diseases is warranted.Current therapies for Alzheimer's disease (AD) can provide a moderate symptomatic reduction or delay progression at various stages of the disease, but such treatments ultimately do not arrest the advancement of AD. As such, novel approaches for AD treatment and prevention are urgently needed. We

  6. Dementia of the eye: the role of amyloid beta in retinal degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ratnayaka, J A; Serpell, L C; Lotery, A J

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common causes of irreversible blindness affecting nearly 50 million individuals globally. The disease is characterised by progressive loss of central vision, which has significant implications for quality of life concerns in an increasingly ageing population. AMD pathology manifests in the macula, a specialised region of the retina, which is responsible for central vision and perception of fine details. The underlying pathology of this complex degenerative disease is incompletely understood but includes both genetic as well as epigenetic risk factors. The recent discovery that amyloid beta (Aβ), a highly toxic and aggregate-prone family of peptides, is elevated in the ageing retina and is associated with AMD has opened up new perspectives on the aetiology of this debilitating blinding disease. Multiple studies now link Aβ with key stages of AMD progression, which is both exciting and potentially insightful, as this identifies a well-established toxic agent that aggressively targets cells in degenerative brains. Here, we review the most recent findings supporting the hypothesis that Aβ may be a key factor in AMD pathology. We describe how multiple Aβ reservoirs, now reported in the ageing eye, may target the cellular physiology of the retina as well as associated layers, and propose a mechanistic pathway of Aβ-mediated degenerative change leading to AMD. PMID:26088679

  7. Amyloid beta immunization worsens iron deposits in the choroid plexus and cerebral microbleeds.

    PubMed

    Joseph-Mathurin, Nelly; Dorieux, Olène; Trouche, Stéphanie G; Boutajangout, Allal; Kraska, Audrey; Fontès, Pascaline; Verdier, Jean-Michel; Sigurdsson, Einar M; Mestre-Francés, Nadine; Dhenain, Marc

    2013-11-01

    Anti-amyloid beta (Aβ) immunotherapy provides potential benefits in Alzheimer's disease patients. Nevertheless, strategies based on Aβ1-42 peptide induced encephalomyelitis and possible microhemorrhages. These outcomes were not expected from studies performed in rodents. It is critical to determine if other animal models better predict side effects of immunotherapies. Mouse lemur primates can develop amyloidosis with aging. Here we used old lemurs to study immunotherapy based on Aβ1-42 or Aβ-derivative (K6Aβ1-30). We followed anti-Aβ40 immunoglobulin G and M responses and Aβ levels in plasma. In vivo magnetic resonance imaging and histology were used to evaluate amyloidosis, neuroinflammation, vasogenic edema, microhemorrhages, and brain iron deposits. The animals responded mainly to the Aβ1-42 immunogen. This treatment induced immune response and increased Aβ levels in plasma and also microhemorrhages and iron deposits in the choroid plexus. A complementary study of untreated lemurs showed iron accumulation in the choroid plexus with normal aging. Worsening of iron accumulation is thus a potential side effect of Aβ-immunization at prodromal stages of Alzheimer's disease, and should be monitored in clinical trials. PMID:23796662

  8. Folding into a beta-hairpin can prevent amyloid fibril formation.

    PubMed

    Hosia, Waltteri; Bark, Niklas; Liepinsh, Edvards; Tjernberg, Agneta; Persson, Bengt; Hallén, Dan; Thyberg, Johan; Johansson, Jan; Tjernberg, Lars

    2004-04-27

    The tetrapeptide KFFE is one of the shortest amyloid fibril-forming peptides described. Herein, we have investigated how the structural environment of this motif affects polymerization. Using a turn motif (YNGK) or a less rigid sequence (AAAK) to fuse two KFFE tetrapeptides, we show by several biophysical methods that the amyloidogenic properties are strongly dependent on the structural environment. The dodecapeptide KFFEAAAKKFFE forms abundant thick fibril bundles. Freshly dissolved KFFEAAAKKFFE is monomeric and shows mainly disordered secondary structure, as evidenced by circular dichroism, NMR spectroscopy, hydrogen/deuterium exchange measurements, and molecular modeling studies. In sharp contrast, the dodecapeptide KFFEYNGKKFFE does not form fibrils but folds into a stable beta-hairpin. This structure can oligomerize into a stable 12-mer and multiples thereof, as shown by size exclusion chromatography, sedimentation analysis, and electrospray mass spectrometry. These data indicate that the structural context in which a potential fibril forming sequence is present can prevent fibril formation by favoring self-limiting oligomerization over polymerization. PMID:15096033

  9. Dementia of the eye: the role of amyloid beta in retinal degeneration.

    PubMed

    Ratnayaka, J A; Serpell, L C; Lotery, A J

    2015-08-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the most common causes of irreversible blindness affecting nearly 50 million individuals globally. The disease is characterised by progressive loss of central vision, which has significant implications for quality of life concerns in an increasingly ageing population. AMD pathology manifests in the macula, a specialised region of the retina, which is responsible for central vision and perception of fine details. The underlying pathology of this complex degenerative disease is incompletely understood but includes both genetic as well as epigenetic risk factors. The recent discovery that amyloid beta (Aβ), a highly toxic and aggregate-prone family of peptides, is elevated in the ageing retina and is associated with AMD has opened up new perspectives on the aetiology of this debilitating blinding disease. Multiple studies now link Aβ with key stages of AMD progression, which is both exciting and potentially insightful, as this identifies a well-established toxic agent that aggressively targets cells in degenerative brains. Here, we review the most recent findings supporting the hypothesis that Aβ may be a key factor in AMD pathology. We describe how multiple Aβ reservoirs, now reported in the ageing eye, may target the cellular physiology of the retina as well as associated layers, and propose a mechanistic pathway of Aβ-mediated degenerative change leading to AMD. PMID:26088679

  10. Nano-biosensors to detect beta-amyloid for Alzheimer's disease management.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Ajeet; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Tiwari, Sneham; Vashist, Arti; Nair, Madhavan

    2016-06-15

    Beta-amyloid (β-A) peptides are potential biomarkers to monitor Alzheimer's diseases (AD) for diagnostic purposes. Increased β-A level is neurotoxic and induces oxidative stress in brain resulting in neurodegeneration and causes dementia. As of now, no sensitive and inexpensive method is available for β-A detection under physiological and pathological conditions. Although, available methods such as neuroimaging, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detect β-A, but they are not yet extended at point-of-care (POC) due to sophisticated equipments, need of high expertize, complicated operations, and challenge of low detection limit. Recently, β-A antibody based electrochemical immuno-sensing approach has been explored to detect β-A at pM levels within 30-40min compared to 6-8h of ELISA test. The introduction of nano-enabling electrochemical sensing technology could enable rapid detection of β-A at POC and may facilitate fast personalized health care delivery. This review explores recent advancements in nano-enabling electrochemical β-A sensing technologies towards POC application to AD management. These analytical tools can serve as an analytical tool for AD management program to obtain bio-informatics needed to optimize therapeutics for neurodegenerative diseases diagnosis management. PMID:26851586

  11. Detection of Alzheimer’s disease amyloid-beta plaque deposition by deep brain impedance profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béduer, Amélie; Joris, Pierre; Mosser, Sébastien; Fraering, Patrick C.; Renaud, Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Objective. Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disease in elderly people. Toxic brain amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregates and ensuing cell death are believed to play a central role in the pathogenesis of the disease. In this study, we investigated if we could monitor the presence of these aggregates by performing in situ electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements in AD model mice brains. Approach. In this study, electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements were performed post-mortem in APPPS1 transgenic mice brains. This transgenic model is commonly used to study amyloidogenesis, a pathological hallmark of AD. We used flexible probes with embedded micrometric electrodes array to demonstrate the feasibility of detecting senile plaques composed of Aß peptides by localized impedance measurements. Main results. We particularly focused on deep brain structures, such as the hippocampus. Ex vivo experiments using brains from young and old APPPS1 mice lead us to show that impedance measurements clearly correlate with the percentage of Aβ plaque load in the brain tissues. We could monitor the effects of aging in the AD APPPS1 mice model. Significance. We demonstrated that a localized electrical impedance measurement constitutes a valuable technique to monitor the presence of Aβ-plaques, which is complementary with existing imaging techniques. This method does not require prior Aβ staining, precluding the risk of variations in tissue uptake of dyes or tracers, and consequently ensuring reproducible data collection.

  12. Dual Effect of (LK)nL Peptides on the Onset of Insulin Amyloid Fiber Formation at Hydrophobic Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Chouchane, Karim; Vendrely, Charlotte; Amari, Myriam; Moreaux, Katie; Bruckert, Franz; Weidenhaupt, Marianne

    2015-08-20

    Soluble proteins are constantly in contact with material or cellular surfaces, which can trigger their aggregation and therefore have a serious impact on the development of stable therapeutic proteins. In contact with hydrophobic material surfaces, human insulin aggregates readily into amyloid fibers. The kinetics of this aggregation can be accelerated by small peptides, forming stable beta-sheets on hydrophobic surfaces. Using a series of (LK)nL peptides with varying length, we show that these peptides, at low, substoichiometric concentrations, have a positive, cooperative effect on insulin aggregation. This effect is based on a cooperative adsorption of (LK)nL peptides at hydrophobic surfaces, where they form complexes that help the formation of aggregation nuclei. At higher concentrations, they interfere with the formation of an aggregative nucleus. These effects are strictly dependent on the their adsorption on hydrophobic material surfaces and highlight the importance of the impact of materials on protein stability. (LK)nL peptides prove to be valuable tools to investigate the mechanism of HI aggregation nuclei formation on hydrophobic surfaces. PMID:26234630

  13. Designed α-sheet peptides inhibit amyloid formation by targeting toxic oligomers

    PubMed Central

    Hopping, Gene; Kellock, Jackson; Barnwal, Ravi Pratap; Law, Peter; Bryers, James; Varani, Gabriele; Caughey, Byron; Daggett, Valerie

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that the toxic soluble-oligomeric form of different amyloid proteins share a common backbone conformation, but the amorphous nature of this oligomer prevents its structural characterization by experiment. Based on molecular dynamics simulations we proposed that toxic intermediates of different amyloid proteins adopt a common, nonstandard secondary structure, called α-sheet. Here we report the experimental characterization of peptides designed to be complementary to the α-sheet conformation observed in the simulations. We demonstrate inhibition of aggregation in two different amyloid systems, β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) and transthyretin, by these designed α-sheet peptides. When immobilized the α-sheet designs preferentially bind species from solutions enriched in the toxic conformer compared with non-aggregated, nontoxic species or mature fibrils. The designs display characteristic spectroscopic signatures distinguishing them from conventional secondary structures, supporting α-sheet as a structure involved in the toxic oligomer stage of amyloid formation and paving the way for novel therapeutics and diagnostics. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01681.001 PMID:25027691

  14. Beta-secretase-cleaved amyloid precursor protein in Alzheimer brain: a morphologic study.

    PubMed

    Sennvik, Kristina; Bogdanovic, N; Volkmann, Inga; Fastbom, J; Benedikz, E

    2004-01-01

    beta-amyloid (Abeta) is the main constituent of senile plaques seen in Alzheimer's disease. Abeta is derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) via proteolytic cleavage by proteases beta- and gamma-secretase. In this study, we examined content and localization of beta-secretase-cleaved APP (beta-sAPP) in brain tissue sections from the frontal, temporal and occipital lobe. Strong granular beta-sAPP staining was found throughout the gray matter of all three areas, while white matter staining was considerably weaker. beta-sAPP was found to be localized in astrocytes and in axons. We found the beta-sAPP immunostaining to be stronger and more extensive in gray matter in Alzheimer disease (AD) cases than controls. The axonal beta-sAPP staining was patchy and unevenly distributed for the AD cases, indicating impaired axonal transport. beta-sAPP was also found surrounding senile plaques and cerebral blood vessels. The results presented here show altered beta-sAPP staining in the AD brain, suggestive of abnormal processing and transport of APP. PMID:15090268

  15. AFM-based force spectroscopy measurements of mature amyloid fibrils of the peptide glucagon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Mingdong; Bruun Hovgaard, Mads; Mamdouh, Wael; Xu, Sailong; Otzen, Daniel Erik; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2008-09-01

    We report on the mechanical characterization of individual mature amyloid fibrils by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and AFM-based single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS). These self-assembling materials, formed from the 29-residue amphiphatic peptide hormone glucagon, were found to display a reversible elastic behaviour. Based on AFM morphology and SMFS studies, we suggest that the observed elasticity is due to a force-induced conformational transition which is reversible due to the β-helical conformation of protofibrils, allowing a high degree of extension. The elastic properties of such mature fibrils contribute to their high stability, suggesting that the internal hydrophobic interactions of amyloid fibrils are likely to be of fundamental importance in the assembly of amyloid fibrils and therefore for the understanding of the progression of their associated pathogenic disorders. In addition, such biological amyloid fibril structures with highly stable mechanical properties can potentially be used to produce nanofibres (nanowires) that may be suitable for nanotechnological applications.

  16. Glutamate system, amyloid ß peptides and tau protein: functional interrelationships and relevance to Alzheimer disease pathology.

    PubMed

    Revett, Timothy J; Baker, Glen B; Jhamandas, Jack; Kar, Satyabrata

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is the most prevalent form of dementia globally and is characterized premortem by a gradual memory loss and deterioration of higher cognitive functions and postmortem by neuritic plaques containing amyloid ß peptide and neurofibrillary tangles containing phospho-tau protein. Glutamate is the most abundant neurotransmitter in the brain and is essential to memory formation through processes such as long-term potentiation and so might be pivotal to Alzheimer disease progression. This review discusses how the glutamatergic system is impaired in Alzheimer disease and how interactions of amyloid ß and glutamate influence synaptic function, tau phosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Interestingly, glutamate not only influences amyloid ß production, but also amyloid ß can alter the levels of glutamate at the synapse, indicating that small changes in the concentrations of both molecules could influence Alzheimer disease progression. Finally, we describe how the glutamate receptor antagonist, memantine, has been used in the treatment of individuals with Alzheimer disease and discuss its effectiveness. PMID:22894822

  17. Comparisons with Amyloid-β Reveal an Aspartate Residue That Stabilizes Fibrils of the Aortic Amyloid Peptide Medin*

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Hannah A.; Madine, Jillian; Middleton, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Aortic medial amyloid (AMA) is the most common localized human amyloid, occurring in virtually all of the Caucasian population over the age of 50. The main protein component of AMA, medin, readily assembles into amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. Despite the prevalence of AMA, little is known about the self-assembly mechanism of medin or the molecular architecture of the fibrils. The amino acid sequence of medin is strikingly similar to the sequence of the Alzheimer disease (AD) amyloid-β (Aβ) polypeptides around the structural turn region of Aβ, where mutations associated with familial, early onset AD, have been identified. Asp25 and Lys30 of medin align with residues Asp23 and Lys28 of Aβ, which are known to form a stabilizing salt bridge in some fibril morphologies. Here we show that substituting Asp25 of medin with asparagine (D25N) impedes assembly into fibrils and stabilizes non-cytotoxic oligomers. Wild-type medin, by contrast, aggregates into β-sheet-rich amyloid-like fibrils within 50 h. A structural analysis of wild-type fibrils by solid-state NMR suggests a molecular repeat unit comprising at least two extended β-strands, separated by a turn stabilized by a Asp25-Lys30 salt bridge. We propose that Asp25 drives the assembly of medin by stabilizing the fibrillar conformation of the peptide and is thus reminiscent of the influence of Asp23 on the aggregation of Aβ. Pharmacological comparisons of wild-type medin and D25N will help to ascertain the pathological significance of this poorly understood protein. PMID:25614623

  18. Comparisons with amyloid-β reveal an aspartate residue that stabilizes fibrils of the aortic amyloid peptide medin.

    PubMed

    Davies, Hannah A; Madine, Jillian; Middleton, David A

    2015-03-20

    Aortic medial amyloid (AMA) is the most common localized human amyloid, occurring in virtually all of the Caucasian population over the age of 50. The main protein component of AMA, medin, readily assembles into amyloid-like fibrils in vitro. Despite the prevalence of AMA, little is known about the self-assembly mechanism of medin or the molecular architecture of the fibrils. The amino acid sequence of medin is strikingly similar to the sequence of the Alzheimer disease (AD) amyloid-β (Aβ) polypeptides around the structural turn region of Aβ, where mutations associated with familial, early onset AD, have been identified. Asp(25) and Lys(30) of medin align with residues Asp(23) and Lys(28) of Aβ, which are known to form a stabilizing salt bridge in some fibril morphologies. Here we show that substituting Asp(25) of medin with asparagine (D25N) impedes assembly into fibrils and stabilizes non-cytotoxic oligomers. Wild-type medin, by contrast, aggregates into β-sheet-rich amyloid-like fibrils within 50 h. A structural analysis of wild-type fibrils by solid-state NMR suggests a molecular repeat unit comprising at least two extended β-strands, separated by a turn stabilized by a Asp(25)-Lys(30) salt bridge. We propose that Asp(25) drives the assembly of medin by stabilizing the fibrillar conformation of the peptide and is thus reminiscent of the influence of Asp(23) on the aggregation of Aβ. Pharmacological comparisons of wild-type medin and D25N will help to ascertain the pathological significance of this poorly understood protein. PMID:25614623

  19. Study of amyloidpeptide functional brain networks in AD, MCI and HC.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jiehui; Duan, Huoqiang; Huang, Zheming; Yu, Zhihua

    2015-01-01

    One medical challenge in studying the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide mechanism for Alzheimer's disease (AD) is exploring the law of beta toxic oligomers' diffusion in human brains in vivo. One beneficial means of solving this problem is brain network analysis based on graph theory. In this study, the characteristics of Aβ functional brain networks of Healthy Control (HC), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and AD groups were compared by applying graph theoretical analyses to Carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh compound B positron emission tomography (11C PiB-PET) data. 120 groups of PiB-PET images from the ADNI database were analyzed. The results showed that the small-world property of MCI and AD were lost as compared to HC. Furthermore, the local clustering of networks was higher in both MCI and AD as compared to HC, whereas the path length was similar among the three groups. The results also showed that there could be four potential Aβ toxic oligomer seeds: Frontal_Sup_Medial_L, Parietal_Inf_L, Frontal_Med_Orb_R, and Parietal_Inf_R. These four seeds are corresponding to Regions of Interests referred by physicians to clinically diagnose AD. PMID:26405999

  20. Pioglitazone and exenatide enhance cognition and downregulate hippocampal beta amyloid oligomer and microglia expression in insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Gad, Enas S; Zaitone, Sawsan A; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2016-08-01

    Insulin resistance is known to be a risk factor for cognitive impairment, most likely linked to insulin signaling, microglia overactivation, and beta amyloid (Aβ) deposition in the brain. Exenatide, a long lasting glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue, enhances insulin signaling and shows neuroprotective properties. Pioglitazone, a peroxisome proliferated-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonist, was previously reported to enhance cognition through its effect on Aβ accumulation and clearance. In the present study, insulin resistance was induced in male rats by drinking fructose for 12 weeks. The effect of monotherapy with pioglitazone (10 mg·kg(-1)) and exenatide or their combination on memory dysfunction was determined and some of the probable underlying mechanisms were studied. The current results confirmed that (1) feeding male rats with fructose syrup for 12 weeks resulted in a decline of learning and memory registered in eight-arm radial maze test; (2) treatment with pioglitazone or exenatide enhanced cognition, reduced hippocampal neurodegeneration, and reduced hippocampal microglia expression and beta amyloid oligomer deposition in a manner that is equal to monotherapies. These results may give promise for the use of pioglitazone or exenatide for ameliorating the learning and memory deficits associated with insulin resistance in clinical setting. PMID:27389824

  1. Neuroprotection by memantine against neurodegeneration induced by beta-amyloid(1-40).

    PubMed

    Miguel-Hidalgo, J J; Alvarez, X A; Cacabelos, R; Quack, G

    2002-12-20

    Progressive neuronal loss and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD) might be aggravated by beta-amyloid-enhanced excitotoxicity. Memantine is an uncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist under clinical development for the treatment of AD. Memantine has neuroprotective actions in several in vitro and in vivo models. In the present study, we determined whether memantine protected against beta-amyloid induced neurotoxicity and learning impairment in rats. Twenty Sprague-Dawley rats received vehicle or vehicle plus memantine (steady-state plasma concentrations of 2.34+/-0.23 microM, n=10) s.c. by osmotic pump for 9 days. After 2 days of treatment, 2 microl of water containing beta-amyloid 1-40 [Abeta(1-40)] were injected into the hippocampal fissure. On the ninth day of treatment, animals were sacrificed, and morphological and immunohistochemical techniques were used to determine the extent of neuronal degeneration and astrocytic and microglial activation in the hippocampus. Psychomotor activity and spatial discrimination were tested on the eighth day of treatment. Abeta(1-40), but not water, injections into hippocampus led to neuronal loss in the CA1 subfield, evidence of widespread apoptosis, and astrocytic and microglial activation and hypertrophy. Memantine treated animals had significant reductions in the amount of neuronal degeneration, pyknotic nuclei, and GFAP immunostaining as compared with vehicle treated animals. These data suggest that memantine, at therapeutically relevant concentrations, can protect against neuronal degeneration induced by beta-amyloid. PMID:12468047

  2. Tau protein kinase I is essential for amyloid beta-protein-induced neurotoxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, A; Noguchi, K; Sato, K; Hoshino, T; Imahori, K

    1993-01-01

    Pathological changes of Alzheimer disease are characterized by cerebral cortical atrophy as a result of degeneration and loss of neurons. Typical histological lesions include numerous senile plaques composed of deposits of amyloid beta-protein and neurofibrillary tangles consisting predominantly of ubiquitin and highly phosphorylated tau proteins. Previously, tau protein kinase I (TPK I) was purified and its cDNA was cloned. To examine the biological role of this enzyme in neurons, we have studied the induction of its kinase activity in primary cultures of embryonic rat hippocampal neurons. Treatment of cultures with amyloid beta-protein significantly increased TPK I activity and induced the appearance of tau proteins recognized by the Alz-50 monoclonal antibody. In addition, though amyloid beta-protein was neurotoxic, either cycloheximide or actinomycin D prevented neuronal death. Death was also prevented by TPK I antisense oligonucleotides but not by sense oligonucleotides. These observations suggest that rat hippocampal neurons undergo programmed cell death in response to amyloid beta-protein and that TPK I is a key enzyme in this process. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 5 PMID:8356085

  3. Amyloidpeptide protects against microbial infection in mouse and worm models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak Kumar Vijaya; Choi, Se Hoon; Washicosky, Kevin J; Eimer, William A; Tucker, Stephanie; Ghofrani, Jessica; Lefkowitz, Aaron; McColl, Gawain; Goldstein, Lee E; Tanzi, Rudolph E; Moir, Robert D

    2016-05-25

    The amyloidpeptide (Aβ) is a key protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. We previously reported in vitro evidence suggesting that Aβ is an antimicrobial peptide. We present in vivo data showing that Aβ expression protects against fungal and bacterial infections in mouse, nematode, and cell culture models of AD. We show that Aβ oligomerization, a behavior traditionally viewed as intrinsically pathological, may be necessary for the antimicrobial activities of the peptide. Collectively, our data are consistent with a model in which soluble Aβ oligomers first bind to microbial cell wall carbohydrates via a heparin-binding domain. Developing protofibrils inhibited pathogen adhesion to host cells. Propagating β-amyloid fibrils mediate agglutination and eventual entrapment of unatttached microbes. Consistent with our model, Salmonella Typhimurium bacterial infection of the brains of transgenic 5XFAD mice resulted in rapid seeding and accelerated β-amyloid deposition, which closely colocalized with the invading bacteria. Our findings raise the intriguing possibility that β-amyloid may play a protective role in innate immunity and infectious or sterile inflammatory stimuli may drive amyloidosis. These data suggest a dual protective/damaging role for Aβ, as has been described for other antimicrobial peptides. PMID:27225182

  4. Self Assembly of Short Aromatic Peptides into Amyloid Fibrils and Related Nanostructures

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    The formation of amyloid fibrils is the hallmark of more than twenty human disorders of unrelated etiology. In all these cases, ordered fibrillar protein assemblies with a diameter of 7–10 nm are being observed. In spite of the great clinical important of amyloidassociated diseases, the molecular recognition and self-assembly processes that lead to the formation of the fibrils are not fully understood. One direction to decipher the mechanism of amyloid formation is the use of short peptides fragments as model systems. Short peptide fragments, as short as pentapeptides, were shown to form typical amyloid assemblies in vitro that have ultrastructural, biophysical, and cytotoxic properties, as those of assemblies that are being formed by full length polypeptides. When we analyzed such short fragments, we identified the central role of aromatic moieties in the ability to aggregate into ordered nano-fibrillar structures. This notion allowed us to discover additional very short amyloidogenic peptides as well as other aromatic peptide motifs, which can form various assemblies at the nano-scale (including nanotubes, nanospheres, and macroscopic hydrogels with nano-scale order). Other practical utilization of this concept, together with novel β breakage methods, is their use for the development of novel classes of amyloid formation inhibitors. PMID:19164892

  5. Amyloidpeptide active site: theoretical Cu K-edge XANES study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaynikov, A. P.; Soldatov, M. A.; Streltsov, V.; Soldatov, A. V.

    2013-04-01

    This article is dedicated to the local atomic structure analysis of the copper binding site in amyloidpeptide. Here we considered two possible structural models that were previously obtained by means of EXAFS analysis and density functional theory simulations. We present the calculations of Cu K-edge XANES spectra for both models and make comparison of these spectra with experiment.

  6. Synchrotron-based Infrared and X-ray Imaging Shows Focalized Accumulation of Cu and Zn Co-localized With Beta-amyloid Deposits in Alzheimer's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Miller,L.; Wang, Q.; Telivala, T.; Smith, R.; Lanzirotti, A.; Miklossy, J.

    2006-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the misfolding and plaque-like accumulation of a naturally occurring peptide in the brain called amyloid beta (Abeta). Recently, this process has been associated with the binding of metal ions such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn). It is thought that metal dyshomeostasis is involved in protein misfolding and may lead to oxidative stress and neuronal damage. However, the exact role of the misfolded proteins and metal ions in the degenerative process of AD is not yet clear. In this study, we used synchrotron Fourier transform infrared micro-spectroscopy (FTIRM) to image the in situ secondary structure of the amyloid plaques in brain tissue of AD patients. These results were spatially correlated with metal ion accumulation in the same tissue sample using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (SXRF) microprobe. For both techniques, a spatial resolution of 5-10 microm was achieved. FTIRM results showed that the amyloid plaques have elevated beta-sheet content, as demonstrated by a strong amide I absorbance at 1625cm(-1). Using SXRF microprobe, we find that AD tissue also contains 'hot spots' of accumulated metal ions, specifically Cu and Zn, with a strong spatial correlation between these two ions. The 'hot spots' of accumulated Zn and Cu were co-localized with beta-amyloid plaques. Thus for the first time, a strong spatial correlation has been observed between elevated beta-sheet content in Abeta plaques and accumulated Cu and Zn ions, emphasizing an association of metal ions with amyloid formation in AD.

  7. Elucidating the Locking Mechanism of Peptides onto Growing Amyloid Fibrils through Transition Path Sampling

    PubMed Central

    Schor, Marieke; Vreede, Jocelyne; Bolhuis, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the molecular mechanism of monomer addition to a growing amyloid fibril composed of the main amyloidogenic region from the insulin peptide hormone, the LVEALYLLVEALYL heptapeptide. Applying transition path sampling in combination with reaction coordinate analysis reveals that the transition from a docked peptide to a locked, fully incorporated peptide can occur in two ways. Both routes involve the formation of backbone hydrogen bonds between the three central amino acids of the attaching peptide and the fibril, as well as a reorientation of the central Glu side chain of the locking peptide toward the interface between two β-sheets forming the fibril. The mechanisms differ in the sequence of events. We also conclude that proper docking is important for correct alignment of the peptide with the fibril, as alternative pathways result in misfolding. PMID:22995502

  8. Amyloidβ Peptides in interaction with raft-mime model membranes: a neutron reflectivity insight

    PubMed Central

    Rondelli, Valeria; Brocca, Paola; Motta, Simona; Messa, Massimo; Colombo, Laura; Salmona, Mario; Fragneto, Giovanna; Cantù, Laura; Del Favero, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The role of first-stage β–amyloid aggregation in the development of the Alzheimer disease, is widely accepted but still unclear. Intimate interaction with the cell membrane is invoked. We designed Neutron Reflectometry experiments to reveal the existence and extent of the interaction between β–amyloid (Aβ) peptides and a lone customized biomimetic membrane, and their dependence on the aggregation state of the peptide. The membrane, asymmetrically containing phospholipids, GM1 and cholesterol in biosimilar proportion, is a model for a raft, a putative site for amyloid-cell membrane interaction. We found that the structured-oligomer of Aβ(1-42), its most acknowledged membrane-active state, is embedded as such into the external leaflet of the membrane. Conversely, the Aβ(1-42) unstructured early-oligomers deeply penetrate the membrane, likely mimicking the interaction at neuronal cell surfaces, when the Aβ(1-42) is cleaved from APP protein and the membrane constitutes a template for its further structural evolution. Moreover, the smaller Aβ(1-6) fragment, the N-terminal portion of Aβ, was also used. Aβ N-terminal is usually considered as involved in oligomer stabilization but not in the peptide-membrane interaction. Instead, it was seen to remove lipids from the bilayer, thus suggesting its role, once in the whole peptide, in membrane leakage, favouring peptide recruitment. PMID:26880066

  9. Amyloidpeptides in interaction with raft-mime model membranes: a neutron reflectivity insight.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, Valeria; Brocca, Paola; Motta, Simona; Messa, Massimo; Colombo, Laura; Salmona, Mario; Fragneto, Giovanna; Cantù, Laura; Del Favero, Elena

    2016-01-01

    The role of first-stage β-amyloid aggregation in the development of the Alzheimer disease, is widely accepted but still unclear. Intimate interaction with the cell membrane is invoked. We designed Neutron Reflectometry experiments to reveal the existence and extent of the interaction between β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides and a lone customized biomimetic membrane, and their dependence on the aggregation state of the peptide. The membrane, asymmetrically containing phospholipids, GM1 and cholesterol in biosimilar proportion, is a model for a raft, a putative site for amyloid-cell membrane interaction. We found that the structured-oligomer of Aβ(1-42), its most acknowledged membrane-active state, is embedded as such into the external leaflet of the membrane. Conversely, the Aβ(1-42) unstructured early-oligomers deeply penetrate the membrane, likely mimicking the interaction at neuronal cell surfaces, when the Aβ(1-42) is cleaved from APP protein and the membrane constitutes a template for its further structural evolution. Moreover, the smaller Aβ(1-6) fragment, the N-terminal portion of Aβ, was also used. Aβ N-terminal is usually considered as involved in oligomer stabilization but not in the peptide-membrane interaction. Instead, it was seen to remove lipids from the bilayer, thus suggesting its role, once in the whole peptide, in membrane leakage, favouring peptide recruitment. PMID:26880066

  10. Using optical profilometry to characterize cell membrane roughness influenced by amyloid-beta 42 aggregates and electric fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Huei-Jyuan; Wang, Ruei-Lin; Xiao, Jian-Long; Chang, Yu-Jen; Cheng, Ji-Yen; Chen, Yun-Ru; Lee, Chau-Hwang

    2014-01-01

    The membrane roughness of Neuro-2a neroblastoma cells is measured by using noninterferometric wide-field optical profilometry. The cells are treated with the fibril and oligomer conformers of amyloid-beta (Aβ) 42, which is a peptide of 42 amino acids related to the development of Alzheimer's disease. We find that both the Aβ42 fibrils and Aβ42 oligomers reduced the cell membrane roughness, but the effect of Aβ42 oligomers was faster and stronger than that of the fibrils. We also apply direct-current electric field (dcEF) stimulations on the cells. A dcEF of 300 mV/mm can increase the membrane roughness under the treatment of Aβ42. These results suggest that Aβ42 can decrease the membrane compliance of live neuroblastoma cells, and dcEFs may counteract this effect.

  11. beta. amyloid gene duplication in Alzheimer's disease and karyotypically normal Down syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Delabar, J.; Goldgaber, D.; Lamour, Y.; Nicole, A.; Huret, J.; De Groucy, J.; Brown, P.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Sinet, P.

    1987-03-13

    With the recently cloned complementary DNA probe, lambdaAm4 for the chromosome 21 gene encoding brain amyloid polypeptide (..beta.. amyloid protein) of Alzheimer's disease, leukocyte DNA from three patients with sporadic Alzheimer's disease and two patients with karyotypically normal Down syndrome was found to contain three copies of this bene. Because a small region of chromosome 21 containing the ets-2 gene is duplicated in patients with Alzheimer's disease, as well as in karyotypically normal Down syndrome, duplication of a subsection of the critical segment of chromosome 21 that is duplicated in Down syndrome may be the genetic defect in Alzeimer's disease.

  12. The Peptide Vaccine Combined with Prior Immunization of a Conventional Diphtheria-Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine Induced Amyloid β Binding Antibodies on Cynomolgus Monkeys and Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Akira; Ito, Kaori; Miwa, Yoshikatsu; Kanazawa, Yoshito; Chiba, Akiko; Iigo, Yutaka; Kashimoto, Yoshinori; Kanda, Akira; Murata, Shinji; Makino, Mitsuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The reduction of brain amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides by anti-Aβ antibodies is one of the possible therapies for Alzheimer's disease. We previously reported that the Aβ peptide vaccine including the T-cell epitope of diphtheria-tetanus combined toxoid (DT) induced anti-Aβ antibodies, and the prior immunization with conventional DT vaccine enhanced the immunogenicity of the peptide. Cynomolgus monkeys were given the peptide vaccine subcutaneously in combination with the prior DT vaccination. Vaccination with a similar regimen was also performed on guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine induced anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs without chemical adjuvants, and excessive immune responses were not observed. Those antibodies could preferentially recognize Aβ40, and Aβ42 compared to Aβ fibrils. The levels of serum anti-Aβ antibodies and plasma Aβ peptides increased in both animals and decreased the brain Aβ40 level of guinea pigs. The peptide vaccine could induce a similar binding profile of anti-Aβ antibodies in cynomolgus monkeys and guinea pigs. The peptide vaccination could be expected to reduce the brain Aβ peptides and their toxic effects via clearance of Aβ peptides by generated antibodies. PMID:26539559

  13. Molecular simulations of beta-amyloid protein near hydrated lipids (PECASE).

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Aidan Patrick; Han, Kunwoo (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX); Ford, David M. (Texas A&M University, College Station, TX)

    2005-12-01

    We performed molecular dynamics simulations of beta-amyloid (A{beta}) protein and A{beta} fragment(31-42) in bulk water and near hydrated lipids to study the mechanism of neurotoxicity associated with the aggregation of the protein. We constructed full atomistic models using Cerius2 and ran simulations using LAMMPS. MD simulations with different conformations and positions of the protein fragment were performed. Thermodynamic properties were compared with previous literature and the results were analyzed. Longer simulations and data analyses based on the free energy profiles along the distance between the protein and the interface are ongoing.

  14. Structural and Thermodynamic Properties of AmyloidPeptides: Impact of Fragment Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, T.; Wise-Scira, O.; Coskuner, O.

    2010-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disease whose physiological characteristics include the accumulation of amyloid-containing deposits in the brain and consequent synapse and neuron loss. Unfortunately, most widely used drugs for the treatment can palliate the outer symptoms but cannot cure the disease itself. Hence, developing a new drug that can cure it. Most recently, the ``early aggregation and monomer'' hypothesis has become popular and a few drugs have been developed based on this hypothesis. Detailed understanding of the amyloidpeptide structure can better help us to determine more effective treatment strategies; indeed, the structure of Amyloid has been studied extensively employing experimental and theoretical tools. Nevertheless, those studies have employed different fragment sizes of Amyloid and characterized its conformational nature in different media. Thus, the structural properties might be different from each other and provide a reason for the existing debates in the literature. Here, we performed all-atom MD simulations and present the structural and thermodynamic properties of Aβ1-16, Aβ1-28, and Aβ1-42 in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. Our studies show that the overall structures, secondary structures, and the calculated thermodynamic properties change with increasing peptide size. In addition, we find that the structural properties of those peptides are different from each other in the gas phase and in aqueous solution.

  15. Dynamics of the formation of a hydrogel by a pathogenic amyloid peptide: islet amyloid polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Jean, Létitia; Lee, Chiu Fan; Hodder, Peter; Hawkins, Nick; Vaux, David J

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic degenerative diseases result from aggregation of misfolded polypeptides to form amyloids. Many amyloidogenic polypeptides are surfactants and their assembly can be catalysed by hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces (an air-water interface in-vitro or membranes in-vivo). We recently demonstrated the specificity of surface-induced amyloidogenesis but the mechanisms of amyloidogenesis and more specifically of adsorption at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces remain poorly understood. Thus, it is critical to determine how amyloidogenic polypeptides behave at interfaces. Here we used surface tensiometry, rheology and electron microscopy to demonstrate the complex dynamics of gelation by full-length human islet amyloid polypeptide (involved in type II diabetes) both in the bulk solution and at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces (air-water interface and phospholipids). We show that the hydrogel consists of a 3D supramolecular network of fibrils. We also assessed the role of solvation and dissected the evolution over time of the assembly processes. Amyloid gelation could have important pathological consequences for membrane integrity and cellular functions. PMID:27535008

  16. Dynamics of the formation of a hydrogel by a pathogenic amyloid peptide: islet amyloid polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Létitia; Lee, Chiu Fan; Hodder, Peter; Hawkins, Nick; Vaux, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Many chronic degenerative diseases result from aggregation of misfolded polypeptides to form amyloids. Many amyloidogenic polypeptides are surfactants and their assembly can be catalysed by hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces (an air-water interface in-vitro or membranes in-vivo). We recently demonstrated the specificity of surface-induced amyloidogenesis but the mechanisms of amyloidogenesis and more specifically of adsorption at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces remain poorly understood. Thus, it is critical to determine how amyloidogenic polypeptides behave at interfaces. Here we used surface tensiometry, rheology and electron microscopy to demonstrate the complex dynamics of gelation by full-length human islet amyloid polypeptide (involved in type II diabetes) both in the bulk solution and at hydrophobic-hydrophilic interfaces (air-water interface and phospholipids). We show that the hydrogel consists of a 3D supramolecular network of fibrils. We also assessed the role of solvation and dissected the evolution over time of the assembly processes. Amyloid gelation could have important pathological consequences for membrane integrity and cellular functions. PMID:27535008

  17. Amyloid formation and inhibition of an all-beta protein: A study on fungal polygalacturonase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinisaz, Maryam; Ghasemi, Atiyeh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2014-02-01

    Theoretically, all proteins can adopt the nanofibrillar structures known as amyloid, which contain cross-beta structures. The all-beta folded proteins are particularly interesting in this regard, since they appear to be naturally more predisposed toward this structural arrangement. In this study, methanol has been used to drive the beta-helix protein polygalacturonase (PG), toward amyloid fibril formation. Congo red absorbance, thioflavin T fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and transmission electron microscopy have been used to characterize this process. Similar to other all-beta proteins, PG shows a non-cooperative fibrillation mechanism, but the structural changes that are monitored by CD indicate a different pattern. Furthermore, several compounds containing aromatic components were tested as potential inhibitors of amyloid formation. Another protein predominantly composed of alpha-helices (human serum albumin) was also targeted by these ligands, in order to get an insight into their potential anti-aggregation property toward structurally different proteins. Among tested compounds, silibinin and chlorpropamide were able to considerably affect both proteins fibrillation process.

  18. Requirement of aggregation propensity of Alzheimer amyloid peptides for neuronal cell surface binding

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, David A; McLaurin, JoAnne; Chakrabartty, Avijit

    2007-01-01

    Background Aggregation of the amyloid peptides, Aβ40 and Aβ42, is known to be involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we investigate the relationship between peptide aggregation and cell surface binding of three forms of Aβ (Aβ40, Aβ42, and an Aβ mutant). Results Using confocal microscopy and flow cytometry with fluorescently labelled Aβ, we demonstrate a correlation between the aggregation propensity of the Alzheimer amyloid peptides and their neuronal cell surface association. We find that the highly aggregation prone Aβ42 associates with the surface of neuronal cells within one hour, while the less aggregation prone Aβ40 associates over 24 hours. We show that a double mutation in Aβ42 that reduces its aggregation propensity also reduces its association with the cell surface. Furthermore, we find that a cell line that is resistant to Aβ cytotoxicity, the non-neuronal human lymphoma cell line U937, does not bind either Aβ40 or Aβ42. Conclusion Taken together, our findings reveal that amyloid peptide aggregation propensity is an essential determinant of neuronal cell surface association. We anticipate that our approach, involving Aβ imaging in live cells, will be highly useful for evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic drugs that prevent toxic Aβ association with neuronal cells. PMID:17475015

  19. Differential regulation of amyloid-. beta. -protein mRNA expression within hippocampal neuronal subpopulations in Alzheimer disease

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, G.A.; Lewis, D.A.; Bahmanyar, S.; Goldgaber, D.; Gajdusek, D.C.; Young, W.G.; Morrison, J.H.; Wilson, M.C.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have mapped the neuroanatomical distribution of amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA within neuronal subpopulations of the hippocampal formation in the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), normal aged human, and patients with Alzheimer disease. Amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA appears to be expressed in all hippocampal neurons, but at different levels of abundance. In the central nervous system of monkey and normal aged human, image analysis shows that neurons of the dentate gyrus and cornu Ammonis fields contain a 2.5-times-greater hybridization signal than is present in neurons of the subiculum and entorhinal cortex. In contrast, in the Alzheimer disease hippocampal formation, the levels of amyloid-..beta..-protein mRNA in the cornu Ammonis field 3 and parasubiculum are equivalent. These findings suggest that within certain neuronal subpopulations cell type-specific regulation of amyloid-..beta..-protein gene expression may be altered in Alzheimer disease.

  20. CCR5 deficiency accelerates lipopolysaccharide-induced astrogliosis, amyloid-beta deposit and impaired memory function.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Chul Ju; Park, Mi Hee; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Yun, Na Young; Oh, Sang Yeon; Song, Ju Kyung; Seo, Hyun Ok; Kim, Yun-Bae; Hwang, Dae Yeon; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-03-15

    Chemokine receptors are implicated in inflammation and immune responses. Neuro-inflammation is associated with activation of astrocyte and amyloid-beta (Aβ) generations that lead to pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous our study showed that deficiency of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) results in activation of astrocytes and Aβ deposit, and thus memory dysfunction through increase of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression. CCR5 knockout mice were used as an animal model with memory dysfunction. For the purpose LPS was injected i.p. daily (0.25 mg/kg/day). The memory dysfunctions were much higher in LPS-injected CCR5 knockout mice compared to CCR5 wild type mice as well as non-injected CCR5 knockout mice. Associated with severe memory dysfuction in LPS injected CCR5 knockout mice, LPS injection significant increase expression of inflammatory proteins, astrocyte activation, expressions of β-secretase as well as Aβ deposition in the brain of CCR5 knockout mice as compared with that of CCR5 wild type mice. In CCR5 knockout mice, CCR2 expressions were high and co-localized with GFAP which was significantly elevated by LPS. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) which ligands of CCR2 also increased by LPS injection, and increment of MCP-1 expression is much higher in CCR5 knockout mice. BV-2 cells treated with CCR5 antagonist, D-ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA) and cultured astrocytes isolated from CCR5 knockout mice treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) and CCR2 antagonist, decreased the NF-ĸB activation and Aβ level. These findings suggest that the deficiency of CCR5 enhances response of LPS, which accelerates to neuro-inflammation and memory impairment. PMID:26910914

  1. Nucleoside-5'-phosphorothioate analogues are biocompatible antioxidants dissolving efficiently amyloid beta-metal ion aggregates.

    PubMed

    Amir, Aviran; Shmuel, Eran; Zagalsky, Rostislav; Sayer, Alon H; Nadel, Yael; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-07-28

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide is known to precipitate and form aggregates with zinc and copper ions in vitro and, in vivo in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Metal-ion-chelation was suggested as therapy for the metal-ion-induced Aβ aggregation, metal-ion overload, and oxidative stress. In a quest for biocompatible metal-ion chelators potentially useful for AD therapy, we tested a series of nucleoside 5'-phosphorothioate derivatives as re-solubilization agents of Cu(+)/Cu(2+)/Zn(2+)-induced Aβ-aggregates, and inhibitors of Fenton reaction in Cu(+) or Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system. The most promising chelator in this series was found to be APCPP-γ-S. This nucleotide was found to be more efficient than EDTA in re-solubilization of Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates as observed by the lower diameter, d(H), (86 vs. 64 nm, respectively) obtained in dynamic light scattering measurements. Likewise, APCPP-γ-S dissolved Aβ(40)-Cu(+) and Aβ(42)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, as monitored by (1)H-NMR and turbidity assays, respectively. Furthermore, addition of APCPP-γ-S to nine-day old Aβ(40)-Cu(2+)/Zn(2+) aggregates, resulted in size reduction as observed by transition electron microscopy (diameter reduction from 2.5 to 0.1 μm for Aβ(40)-Cu(2+) aggregates). APCPP-γ-S proved to be more efficient than ascorbic acid and GSH in reducing OH radical production in Fe(2+)/H(2)O(2) system (IC(50) values 85, 216 and, 92 μM, respectively). Therefore, we propose APCPP-γ-S as a potential AD therapy capable of both reducing OH radical production and re-solubilization of Aβ(40/42)-M(n+) aggregates. PMID:22652964

  2. CCR5 deficiency accelerates lipopolysaccharide-induced astrogliosis, amyloid-beta deposit and impaired memory function

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jae Yeon; Kim, Ju Hwan; Yun, Na Young; Oh, Sang Yeon; Song, Ju Kyung; Seo, Hyun Ok; Kim, Yun-Bae; Hwang, Dae Yeon; Oh, Ki-Wan; Han, Sang-Bae; Hong, Jin Tae

    2016-01-01

    Chemokine receptors are implicated in inflammation and immune responses. Neuro-inflammation is associated with activation of astrocyte and amyloid-beta (Aβ) generations that lead to pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD). Previous our study showed that deficiency of CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) results in activation of astrocytes and Aβ deposit, and thus memory dysfunction through increase of CC chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) expression. CCR5 knockout mice were used as an animal model with memory dysfunction. For the purpose LPS was injected i.p. daily (0.25 mg/kg/day). The memory dysfunctions were much higher in LPS-injected CCR5 knockout mice compared to CCR5 wild type mice as well as non-injected CCR5 knockout mice. Associated with severe memory dysfuction in LPS injected CCR5 knockout mice, LPS injection significant increase expression of inflammatory proteins, astrocyte activation, expressions of β-secretase as well as Aβ deposition in the brain of CCR5 knockout mice as compared with that of CCR5 wild type mice. In CCR5 knockout mice, CCR2 expressions were high and co-localized with GFAP which was significantly elevated by LPS. Expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) which ligands of CCR2 also increased by LPS injection, and increment of MCP-1 expression is much higher in CCR5 knockout mice. BV-2 cells treated with CCR5 antagonist, D-ala-peptide T-amide (DAPTA) and cultured astrocytes isolated from CCR5 knockout mice treated with LPS (1 μg/ml) and CCR2 antagonist, decreased the NF-ĸB activation and Aβ level. These findings suggest that the deficiency of CCR5 enhances response of LPS, which accelerates to neuro-inflammation and memory impairment. PMID:26910914

  3. The oligomerization of amyloid beta-protein begins intracellularly in cells derived from human brain.

    PubMed

    Walsh, D M; Tseng, B P; Rydel, R E; Podlisny, M B; Selkoe, D J

    2000-09-01

    The progressive aggregation and deposition of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) in brain regions subserving memory and cognition is an early and invariant feature of Alzheimer's disease, the most common cause of cognitive failure in aged humans. Inhibiting Abeta aggregation is therapeutically attractive because this process is believed to be an exclusively pathological event. Whereas many studies have examined the aggregation of synthetic Abeta peptides under nonphysiological conditions and concentrations, we have detected and characterized the oligomerization of naturally secreted Abeta at nanomolar levels in cultures of APP-expressing CHO cells [Podlisny, M. B., Ostaszewski, B. L., Squazzo, S. L., Koo, E. H., Rydell, R. E., Teplow, D. B., and Selkoe, D. J. (1995) J. Biol. Chem. 270, 9564-9570 (1); Podlisny, M. B., Walsh, D. M., Amarante, P., Ostaszewski, B. L., Stimson, E. R., Maggio, J. E., Teplow, D. B., and Selkoe, D. J. (1998) Biochemistry 37, 3602-3611 (2)]. To determine whether similar species occur in vivo, we probed samples of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and detected SDS-stable dimers of Abeta in some subjects. Incubation of CSF or of CHO conditioned medium at 37 degrees C did not lead to new oligomer formation. This inability to induce oligomers extracellularly as well as the detection of oligomers in cell medium very early during the course of pulse-chase experiments suggested that natural Abeta oligomers might first form intracellularly. We therefore searched for and detected intracellular Abeta oligomers, principally dimers, in primary human neurons and in neuronal and nonneural cell lines. These dimers arose intracellularly rather than being derived from the medium by reuptake. The dimers were particularly detectable in neural cells: the ratio of intracellular to extracellular oligomers was much higher in brain-derived than nonbrain cells. We conclude that the pathogenically critical process of Abeta oligomerization begins intraneuronally. PMID

  4. Anti-amyloid beta to tau - based immunization: Developments in immunotherapy for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2013-08-01

    Immunotherapy might provide an effective treatment for Alzheimer disease (AD). A unique feature of AD immunotherapies is that an immune response against a self antigen needs to be elicited without causing adverse autoimmune reactions. Current research is focussed on two possible targets in this regard: One is the inhibition of accumulation and deposition of Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42), which is one of the major peptides found in senile plaques and the second target is hyperphosphorylated tau, which forms neurofibrillary tangles inside the nerve cell and shows association with the progression of dementia. Mouse models have shown that immunotherapy targeting Aβ42 as well as tau with the respective anti-Aβ or anti-tau antibodies can provide significant improvements in these mice. While anti-Aβ immunotherapy (active and passive immunizations) is already in several stages of clinical trials, tau based immunizations have been analyzed only in mouse models. Recently, as a significant correlation of progression of dementia and levels of phoshorylated tau was found, high interest has again focussed on further development of tau based therapies. While Aβ immunotherapy might delay the onset of AD, immunotherapy targeting tau might provide benefits in later stages of this disease. And last but not least, targeting Aβ and tau simultaneously with immunotherapy might provide additional therapeutic effects as these two pathologies are likely synergistic; an approach which has not been tested yet. In this review, we will summarize animal models used to test possible therapies for AD, some of the facts about Aβ42 and tau biology, present on overview on halted, ongoing and upcoming clinical trials together with ongoing preclinical studies targeting tau or Aβ42. PMID:24926455

  5. Degradation of the amyloid beta-protein by the novel mitochondrial peptidasome, PreP.

    PubMed

    Falkevall, Annelie; Alikhani, Nyosha; Bhushan, Shashi; Pavlov, Pavel F; Busch, Katrin; Johnson, Kenneth A; Eneqvist, Therese; Tjernberg, Lars; Ankarcrona, Maria; Glaser, Elzbieta

    2006-09-29

    Recently we have identified the novel mitochondrial peptidase responsible for degrading presequences and other short unstructured peptides in mitochondria, the presequence peptidase, which we named PreP peptidasome. In the present study we have identified and characterized the human PreP homologue, hPreP, in brain mitochondria, and we show its capacity to degrade the amyloid beta-protein (Abeta). PreP belongs to the pitrilysin oligopeptidase family M16C containing an inverted zinc-binding motif. We show that hPreP is localized to the mitochondrial matrix. In situ immuno-inactivation studies in human brain mitochondria using anti-hPreP antibodies showed complete inhibition of proteolytic activity against Abeta. We have cloned, overexpressed, and purified recombinant hPreP and its mutant with catalytic base Glu(78) in the inverted zinc-binding motif replaced by Gln. In vitro studies using recombinant hPreP and liquid chromatography nanospray tandem mass spectrometry revealed novel cleavage specificities against Abeta-(1-42), Abeta-(1-40), and Abeta Arctic, a protein that causes increased protofibril formation an early onset familial variant of Alzheimer disease. In contrast to insulin degrading enzyme, which is a functional analogue of hPreP, hPreP does not degrade insulin but does degrade insulin B-chain. Molecular modeling of hPreP based on the crystal structure at 2.1 A resolution of AtPreP allowed us to identify Cys(90) and Cys(527) that form disulfide bridges under oxidized conditions and might be involved in redox regulation of the enzyme. Degradation of the mitochondrial Abeta by hPreP may potentially be of importance in the pathology of Alzheimer disease. PMID:16849325

  6. High-affinity Anticalins with aggregation-blocking activity directed against the Alzheimer β-amyloid peptide

    PubMed Central

    Rauth, Sabine; Hinz, Dominik; Börger, Michael; Uhrig, Markus; Mayhaus, Manuel; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Skerra, Arne

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ42 and Aβ40, exert neurotoxic effects and their overproduction leads to amyloid deposits in the brain, thus constituting an important biomolecular target for treatments of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We describe the engineering of cognate Anticalins as a novel type of neutralizing protein reagent based on the human lipocalin scaffold. Phage display selection from a genetic random library comprising variants of the human lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) with mutations targeted at 20 exposed amino acid positions in the four loops that form the natural binding site was performed using both recombinant and synthetic target peptides and resulted in three different Anticalins. Biochemical characterization of the purified proteins produced by periplasmic secretion in Escherichia coli revealed high folding stability in a monomeric state, with Tm values ranging from 53.4°C to 74.5°C, as well as high affinities for Aβ40, between 95 pM and 563 pM, as measured by real-time surface plasmon resonance analysis. The central linear VFFAED epitope within the Aβ sequence was mapped using a synthetic peptide array on membranes and was shared by all three Anticalins, despite up to 13 mutual amino acid differences in their binding sites. All Anticalins had the ability–with varying extent–to inhibit Aβ aggregation in vitro according to the thioflavin-T fluorescence assay and, furthermore, they abolished Aβ42-mediated toxicity in neuronal cell culture. Thus, these Anticalins provide not only useful protein reagents to study the molecular pathology of AD but they also show potential as alternative drug candidates compared with antibodies. PMID:27029347

  7. High-affinity Anticalins with aggregation-blocking activity directed against the Alzheimer β-amyloid peptide.

    PubMed

    Rauth, Sabine; Hinz, Dominik; Börger, Michael; Uhrig, Markus; Mayhaus, Manuel; Riemenschneider, Matthias; Skerra, Arne

    2016-06-01

    Amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides, in particular Aβ42 and Aβ40, exert neurotoxic effects and their overproduction leads to amyloid deposits in the brain, thus constituting an important biomolecular target for treatments of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We describe the engineering of cognate Anticalins as a novel type of neutralizing protein reagent based on the human lipocalin scaffold. Phage display selection from a genetic random library comprising variants of the human lipocalin 2 (Lcn2) with mutations targeted at 20 exposed amino acid positions in the four loops that form the natural binding site was performed using both recombinant and synthetic target peptides and resulted in three different Anticalins. Biochemical characterization of the purified proteins produced by periplasmic secretion in Escherichia coli revealed high folding stability in a monomeric state, with Tm values ranging from 53.4°C to 74.5°C, as well as high affinities for Aβ40, between 95 pM and 563 pM, as measured by real-time surface plasmon resonance analysis. The central linear VFFAED epitope within the Aβ sequence was mapped using a synthetic peptide array on membranes and was shared by all three Anticalins, despite up to 13 mutual amino acid differences in their binding sites. All Anticalins had the ability-with varying extent-to inhibit Aβ aggregation in vitro according to the thioflavin-T fluorescence assay and, furthermore, they abolished Aβ42-mediated toxicity in neuronal cell culture. Thus, these Anticalins provide not only useful protein reagents to study the molecular pathology of AD but they also show potential as alternative drug candidates compared with antibodies. PMID:27029347

  8. Replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations of amyloid peptide aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, M.; Rao, F.; Seeber, M.; Caflisch, A.

    2004-12-01

    The replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) approach is applied to four oligomeric peptide systems. At physiologically relevant temperature values REMD samples conformation space and aggregation transitions more efficiently than constant temperature molecular dynamics (CTMD). During the aggregation process the energetic and structural properties are essentially the same in REMD and CTMD. A condensation stage toward disordered aggregates precedes the β-sheet formation. Two order parameters, borrowed from anisotropic fluid analysis, are used to monitor the aggregation process. The order parameters do not depend on the peptide sequence and length and therefore allow to compare the amyloidogenic propensity of different peptides.

  9. Glutamate carboxypeptidase II is not an amyloid peptide-degrading enzyme.

    PubMed

    Alt, Jesse; Stathis, Marigo; Rojas, Camilo; Slusher, Barbara

    2013-07-01

    Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII) is an exopeptidase that catalyzes the hydrolysis of N-acetylated aspartate-glutamate (NAAG) to N-acetyl aspartate (NAA) and glutamate. Consequently, GCPII inhibition has been of interest for the treatment of central and peripheral nervous system diseases associated with excess glutamate. Recently, it was reported that GCPII can also serve as an endopeptidase cleaving amyloid β (Aβ) peptides and that its inhibition could increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease by increasing brain Aβ levels. This study aimed to corroborate and extend these new findings. We incubated Aβ peptides (20 μM) with human recombinant GCPII (300 ng/ml) and monitored the appearance of degradation products by mass spectrometry. Aβ peptides remained intact after 18 h incubation with GCPII. Under the same experimental conditions, Aβ1-40 (20 μM) was incubated with neprilysin (300 ng/ml), an endopeptidase known to hydrolyze Aβ1-40 and the expected cleavage products were observed. GCPII was confirmed active by catalyzing the complete hydrolysis of NAAG (100 μM). We also studied the hydrolysis of [(3)H]-NAAG (30 nM) catalyzed by GCPII (40 pM) in the presence of Aβ peptides (picomolar to micromolar range). The addition of Aβ peptides did not alter [(3)H]-NAAG hydrolysis. We conclude that GCPII is not an amyloid peptide-degrading enzyme. PMID:23525278

  10. [beta subsccript 2]-microglobulin forms three-dimensional domain-swapped amyloid fibrils with disulfide linkages

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Cong; Sawaya, Michael R.; Eisenberg, David

    2011-08-09

    {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin ({beta}{sub 2}-m) is the light chain of the type I major histocompatibility complex. It deposits as amyloid fibrils within joints during long-term hemodialysis treatment. Despite the devastating effects of dialysis-related amyloidosis, full understanding of how fibrils form from soluble {beta}{sub 2}-m remains elusive. Here we show that {beta}{sub 2}-m can oligomerize and fibrillize via three-dimensional domain swapping. Isolating a covalently bound, domain-swapped dimer from {beta}{sub 2}-m oligomers on the pathway to fibrils, we were able to determine its crystal structure. The hinge loop that connects the swapped domain to the core domain includes the fibrillizing segment LSFSKD, whose atomic structure we also determined. The LSFSKD structure reveals a class 5 steric zipper, akin to other amyloid spines. The structures of the dimer and the zipper spine fit well into an atomic model for this fibrillar form of {beta}{sub 2}-m, which assembles slowly under physiological conditions.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} is expressed in hippocampal neurons and its activation prevents {beta}-amyloid neurodegeneration: role of Wnt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Inestrosa, Nibaldo C. . E-mail: ninestr@genes.bio.puc.cl; Godoy, Juan A.; Quintanilla, Rodrigo A.; Koenig, Cecilia S.; Bronfman, Miguel

    2005-03-10

    The molecular pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves the participation of the amyloid-{beta}-peptide (A{beta}), which plays a critical role in the neurodegeneration that triggers the disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors, which are members of the nuclear receptor family. We report here that (1) PPAR{gamma} is present in rat hippocampal neurons in culture. (2) Activation of PPAR{gamma} by troglitazone and rosiglitazone protects rat hippocampal neurons against A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration, as shown by the 3-[4,5 -2yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) reduction assay, immunofluorescence using an anti-heavy neurofilament antibody, and quantitative electron microscopy. (3) Hippocampal neurons treated with several PPAR{gamma} agonists, including troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and ciglitazone, prevent the excitotoxic A{beta}-induced rise in bulk-free Ca{sup 2+}. (4) PPAR{gamma} activation results in the modulation of Wnt signaling components, including the inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase-3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and an increase of the cytoplasmic and nuclear {beta}-catenin levels. We conclude that the activation of PPAR{gamma} prevents A{beta}-induced neurodegeneration by a mechanism that may involve a cross talk between neuronal PPAR{gamma} and the Wnt signaling pathway. More important, the fact that the activation of PPAR{gamma} attenuated A{beta}-dependent neurodegeneration opens the possibility to fight AD from a new therapeutic perspective.

  12. Osthole decreases beta amyloid levels through up-regulation of miR-107 in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Yanan; Kong, Liang; Yao, Yingjia; Li, Shaoheng; Tao, Zhenyu; Yan, Yuhui; Yang, Jingxian

    2016-09-01

    Accumulation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in the brain plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although osthole has been shown to neuroprotective activity in AD, the exact molecular mechanism of its neuroprotective effects has not yet been fully elucidated. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to regulate multiple aspects of AD development and progression, indicating that targeting miRNAs could be a novel strategy to treat AD. In the current study, we investigated whether a natural coumarin derivative osthole could up-regulate miR-107, resulting in facilitating the cells survival, reducing LDH leakage, inhibiting apoptosis and reducing beta amyloid (Aβ) production in AD. We found that osthole treatment significantly up-regulate miR-107 expression and inhibited BACE1, one of the targets of miR-107. Administration of osthole to APP/PS1 transgenic mice resulted in a significant improvement in learning and memory function, which was associated with a significant a decrease in Aβ in the hippocampal and cortex region of the brain. Our findings demonstrated that osthole plays a neuroprotective activity role in part through up-regulate miR-107 in AD. PMID:27143098

  13. Amyloid beta oligomers induce neuronal elasticity changes in age-dependent manner: a force spectroscopy study on living hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, Andreea-Alexandra; Benilova, Iryna; Krylychkina, Olga; Braeken, Dries; De Strooper, Bart; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Dotti, Carlos G; Bartic, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Small soluble species of amyloid-beta (Aβ) formed during early peptide aggregation stages are responsible for several neurotoxic mechanisms relevant to the pathology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), although their interaction with the neuronal membrane is not completely understood. This study quantifies the changes in the neuronal membrane elasticity induced by treatment with the two most common Aβ isoforms found in AD brains: Aβ40 and Aβ42. Using quantitative atomic force microscopy (AFM), we measured for the first time the static elastic modulus of living primary hippocampal neurons treated with pre-aggregated Aβ40 and Aβ42 soluble species. Our AFM results demonstrate changes in the elasticity of young, mature and aged neurons treated for a short time with the two Aβ species pre-aggregated for 2 hours. Neurons aging under stress conditions, showing aging hallmarks, are the most susceptible to amyloid binding and show the largest decrease in membrane stiffness upon Aβ treatment. Membrane stiffness defines the way in which cells respond to mechanical forces in their environment and has been shown to be important for processes such as gene expression, ion-channel gating and neurotransmitter vesicle transport. Thus, one can expect that changes in neuronal membrane elasticity might directly induce functional changes related to neurodegeneration. PMID:27173984

  14. Amyloid beta oligomers induce neuronal elasticity changes in age-dependent manner: a force spectroscopy study on living hippocampal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ungureanu, Andreea-Alexandra; Benilova, Iryna; Krylychkina, Olga; Braeken, Dries; De Strooper, Bart; Van Haesendonck, Chris; Dotti, Carlos G.; Bartic, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Small soluble species of amyloid-beta (Aβ) formed during early peptide aggregation stages are responsible for several neurotoxic mechanisms relevant to the pathology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), although their interaction with the neuronal membrane is not completely understood. This study quantifies the changes in the neuronal membrane elasticity induced by treatment with the two most common Aβ isoforms found in AD brains: Aβ40 and Aβ42. Using quantitative atomic force microscopy (AFM), we measured for the first time the static elastic modulus of living primary hippocampal neurons treated with pre-aggregated Aβ40 and Aβ42 soluble species. Our AFM results demonstrate changes in the elasticity of young, mature and aged neurons treated for a short time with the two Aβ species pre-aggregated for 2 hours. Neurons aging under stress conditions, showing aging hallmarks, are the most susceptible to amyloid binding and show the largest decrease in membrane stiffness upon Aβ treatment. Membrane stiffness defines the way in which cells respond to mechanical forces in their environment and has been shown to be important for processes such as gene expression, ion-channel gating and neurotransmitter vesicle transport. Thus, one can expect that changes in neuronal membrane elasticity might directly induce functional changes related to neurodegeneration. PMID:27173984

  15. Exploring the early steps of aggregation of amyloid-forming peptide KFFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Guanghong; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2004-11-01

    It has been shown recently that even a tetrapeptide can form amyloid fibrils sharing all the characteristics of amyloid fibrils built from large proteins. Recent experimental studies also suggest that the toxicity observed in several neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, is not only related to the mature fibrils themselves, but also to the soluble oligomers formed early in the process of fibrillogenesis. This raises the interest in studying the early steps of the aggregation process. Although fibril formation follows the nucleation-condensation process, characterized by the presence of lag phase, the exact pathways remain to be determined. In this study, we used the activation-relaxation technique and a generic energy model to explore the process of self-assembly and the structures of the resulting aggregates of eight KFFE peptides. Our simulations show, starting from different states with a preformed antiparallel dimer, that eight chains can self-assemble to adopt, with various orientations, four possible distant oligomeric well-aligned structures of similar energy. Two of these structures show a double-layer β-sheet organization, in agreement with the structure of amyloid fibrils as observed by x-ray diffraction; another two are mixtures of dimers and trimers. Our results also suggest that octamers are likely to be below the critical size for nucleation of amyloid fibrils for small peptides.

  16. Direct electrochemical and AFM detection of amyloidpeptide aggregation on basal plane HOPG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Paula; Xu, Meng; Zhang, Min; Zhou, Ting; Yang, Yanlian; Wang, Chen; Ferapontova, Elena E.

    2014-06-01

    Amyloidogenesis is associated with more than 30 human diseases, including Alzheimer's which is related to aggregation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Here, consecutive stages of Aβ42 aggregation and amyloid fibril formation were followed electrochemically via oxidation of tyrosines in Aβ42 adsorbed on the basal plane graphite electrode and directly correlated with Aβ42 morphological changes observed by atomic force microscopy of the same substrate. The results offer new tools for analysis of mechanisms of Aβ aggregation.Amyloidogenesis is associated with more than 30 human diseases, including Alzheimer's which is related to aggregation of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Here, consecutive stages of Aβ42 aggregation and amyloid fibril formation were followed electrochemically via oxidation of tyrosines in Aβ42 adsorbed on the basal plane graphite electrode and directly correlated with Aβ42 morphological changes observed by atomic force microscopy of the same substrate. The results offer new tools for analysis of mechanisms of Aβ aggregation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details: procedures for Aβ42 aggregation and electrode modification, DPV/AFM measurements and analysis. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr02413c

  17. Surface Effects Mediate Self-Assembly of AmyloidPeptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a label-free method for studying the mechanism of surface effects on amyloid aggregation. In this method, spin-coating is used to rapidly dry samples, in a homogeneous manner, after various incubation times. This technique allows the control of important parameters for self-assembly, such as the surface concentration. Atomic force microscopy is then used to obtain high-resolution images of the morphology. While imaging under dry conditions, we show that the morphologies of self-assembled aggregates of a model amyloidpeptide, Aβ12–28, are strongly influenced by the local surface concentration. On mica surfaces, where the peptides can freely diffuse, homogeneous, self-assembled protofibrils formed spontaneously and grew longer with longer subsequent incubation. The surface fibrillization rate was much faster than the rates of fibril formation observed in solution, with initiation occurring at much lower concentrations. These data suggest an alternative pathway for amyloid formation on surfaces where the nucleation stage is either bypassed entirely or too fast to measure. This simple preparation procedure for high-resolution atomic force microscopy imaging of amyloid oligomers and protofibrils should be applicable to any amyloidogenic protein species. PMID:25229233

  18. Alpha-lipoic acid exhibits anti-amyloidogenicity for beta-amyloid fibrils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ono, Kenjiro; Hirohata, Mie; Yamada, Masahito

    2006-03-24

    Inhibition of the formation of beta-amyloid fibrils (fAbeta), as well as the destabilization of preformed fAbeta in the CNS would be attractive therapeutic targets for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using fluorescence spectroscopic analysis with thioflavin T and electron microscopic studies, we examined the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (LA) and the metabolic product of LA, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), on the formation, extension, and destabilization of fAbeta at pH 7.5 at 37 degrees C in vitro. LA and DHLA dose-dependently inhibited fAbeta formation from amyloid beta-protein, as well as their extension. Moreover, they destabilized preformed fAbetas. LA and DHLA could be key molecules for the development of therapeutics for AD. PMID:16460684

  19. Individual aggregates of amyloid beta induce temporary calcium influx through the cell membrane of neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Drews, Anna; Flint, Jennie; Shivji, Nadia; Jönsson, Peter; Wirthensohn, David; De Genst, Erwin; Vincke, Cécile; Muyldermans, Serge; Dobson, Chris; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    Local delivery of amyloid beta oligomers from the tip of a nanopipette, controlled over the cell surface, has been used to deliver physiological picomolar oligomer concentrations to primary astrocytes or neurons. Calcium influx was observed when as few as 2000 oligomers were delivered to the cell surface. When the dosing of oligomers was stopped the intracellular calcium returned to basal levels or below. Calcium influx was prevented by the presence in the pipette of the extracellular chaperone clusterin, which is known to selectively bind oligomers, and by the presence a specific nanobody to amyloid beta. These data are consistent with individual oligomers larger than trimers inducing calcium entry as they cross the cell membrane, a result supported by imaging experiments in bilayers, and suggest that the initial molecular event that leads to neuronal damage does not involve any cellular receptors, in contrast to work performed at much higher oligomer concentrations. PMID:27553885

  20. Individual aggregates of amyloid beta induce temporary calcium influx through the cell membrane of neuronal cells

    PubMed Central

    Drews, Anna; Flint, Jennie; Shivji, Nadia; Jönsson, Peter; Wirthensohn, David; De Genst, Erwin; Vincke, Cécile; Muyldermans, Serge; Dobson, Chris; Klenerman, David

    2016-01-01

    Local delivery of amyloid beta oligomers from the tip of a nanopipette, controlled over the cell surface, has been used to deliver physiological picomolar oligomer concentrations to primary astrocytes or neurons. Calcium influx was observed when as few as 2000 oligomers were delivered to the cell surface. When the dosing of oligomers was stopped the intracellular calcium returned to basal levels or below. Calcium influx was prevented by the presence in the pipette of the extracellular chaperone clusterin, which is known to selectively bind oligomers, and by the presence a specific nanobody to amyloid beta. These data are consistent with individual oligomers larger than trimers inducing calcium entry as they cross the cell membrane, a result supported by imaging experiments in bilayers, and suggest that the initial molecular event that leads to neuronal damage does not involve any cellular receptors, in contrast to work performed at much higher oligomer concentrations. PMID:27553885

  1. Effects of amyloid-beta on cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive cells in cultured basal forebrain neurons of embryonic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kasa, Peter; Papp, Henrietta; Kasa, Peter; Pakaski, Magdolna; Balaspiri, Lajos

    2004-02-13

    The neurotoxic effects of amyloid-beta(1-42) and amyloid-beta(25-35) (A beta) on cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive neurons were investigated in primary cultures derived from embryonic 18-day-old rat basal forebrain. After various time intervals, the cultures were treated with 1, 5, 10 or 20 microM A beta for different time periods. The cholinergic neurons and their axon terminals were revealed by vesicular acetylcholine transporter immunohistochemistry and the cholinoceptive cells by acetylcholinesterase histochemical staining. To assess the toxic effects of these A beta peptides on the cholinergic neurons, image analysis was applied for quantitative determination of the numbers of axon varicosities/terminals and cells. The results demonstrate that, following treatment with 1 or 5 microM A beta for 5, 10, 30, 60 or 120 min, no changes in vesicular acetylcholine transporter immunohistochemical staining were observed. However, after treatment for 30 min with 10 or 20 microM A beta, the number of stained axon varicosities was reduced, and treatment for 2 h they had disappeared. In contrast, vesicular acetylcholine transporter-positivity could be seen in some of the neuronal perikarya even after 3 days after treatment. The acetylcholinesterase staining was homogeneously distributed in the control neurons. After A beta treatment, the histochemical reaction end-product was detected in some of the neuronal perikarya or in the dendritic processes near to the soma. It is concluded that the neurotoxic effects of A beta appear more rapidly in the cholinergic axon terminals than in the cholinergic and acetylcholinesterase-positive neuronal perikarya. PMID:14725970

  2. Preferential Transport Theory for Beta-Amyloid Clearance from the Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coloma, Mikhail; Schaffer, David; Chiarot, Paul; Huang, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The failure to clear beta-amyloid from the aging brain leads to its accumulation within the walls of arteries and to Alzheimer's disease. However, the transport mechanism for beta-amyloid clearance is not well understood. In this study, we propose a preferential transport theory for flow within the vascular walls in the cerebral arterial basement membrane. The flow conduit within the arterial basement membrane is modeled as an annulus between deformable concentric cylinders filled with an incompressible, single-phase Newtonian fluid. The transport is driven by arterial lumen deformation induced by heart pulsations superimposed with reflected boundary waves. Our theory predicts that while the overall arterial wave propagation is in the same direction as the blood flow toward the capillaries, a reverse flow in the basement membrane can be preferentially induced toward larger arteries. This has been suggested as a potential clearance pathway for beta-amyloid. We estimate the magnitude of the reverse transport through a control volume analysis which is corroborated by numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations. Bench-top experiments to validate our computational models are presented.

  3. Amyloidogenic amyloid-β-peptide variants induce microbial agglutination and exert antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, Philipp; Condic, Mateja; Herrmann, Martin; Oberstein, Timo Jan; Scharin-Mehlmann, Marina; Gilbert, Daniel F; Friedrich, Oliver; Grömer, Teja; Kornhuber, Johannes; Lang, Roland; Maler, Juan Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides are the main components of the plaques found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. However, Aβ peptides are also detectable in secretory compartments and peripheral blood contains a complex mixture of more than 40 different modified and/or N- and C-terminally truncated Aβ peptides. Recently, anti-infective properties of Aβ peptides have been reported. Here, we investigated the interaction of Aβ peptides of different lengths with various bacterial strains and the yeast Candida albicans. The amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-42, Aβ2-42, and Aβ3p-42 but not the non-amyloidogenic peptides Aβ1-40 and Aβ2-40 bound to microbial surfaces. As observed by immunocytochemistry, scanning electron microscopy and Gram staining, treatment of several bacterial strains and Candida albicans with Aβ peptide variants ending at position 42 (Aβx-42) caused the formation of large agglutinates. These aggregates were not detected after incubation with Aβx-40. Furthermore, Aβx-42 exerted an antimicrobial activity on all tested pathogens, killing up to 80% of microorganisms within 6 h. Aβ1-40 only had a moderate antimicrobial activity against C. albicans. Agglutination of Aβ1-42 was accelerated in the presence of microorganisms. These data demonstrate that the amyloidogenic Aβx-42 variants have antimicrobial activity and may therefore act as antimicrobial peptides in the immune system. PMID:27624303

  4. Role of amyloid peptides in vascular dysfunction and platelet dysregulation in Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Canobbio, Ilaria; Abubaker, Aisha Alsheikh; Visconte, Caterina; Torti, Mauro; Pula, Giordano

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative cause of dementia in the elderly. AD is accompanied by the accumulation of amyloid peptides in the brain parenchyma and in the cerebral vessels. The sporadic form of AD accounts for about 95% of all cases. It is characterized by a late onset, typically after the age of 65, with a complex and still poorly understood aetiology. Several observations point towards a central role of cerebrovascular dysfunction in the onset of sporadic AD (SAD). According to the “vascular hypothesis”, AD may be initiated by vascular dysfunctions that precede and promote the neurodegenerative process. In accordance to this, AD patients show increased hemorrhagic or ischemic stroke risks. It is now clear that multiple bidirectional connections exist between AD and cerebrovascular disease, and in this new scenario, the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular cells and blood platelets appear to be central to AD. In this review, we analyze the effect of amyloid peptides on vascular function and platelet activation and its contribution to the cerebrovascular pathology associated with AD and the progression of this disease. PMID:25784858

  5. Fibrillation of β amyloid peptides in the presence of phospholipid bilayers and the consequent membrane disruption.

    PubMed

    Qiang, Wei; Yau, Wai-Ming; Schulte, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    Fibrillation of β amyloid (Aβ) peptides and the accumulation of amyloid plaques are considered as an important clinical hallmark to identify Alzheimer's disease (AD). The physiological connection between Aβ plaques and the disruption of neuronal cells has not been clearly understood. One hypothesis to explain the Aβ neurotoxicity is that the fibrillation process induces disruption to the cellular membrane. We studied the Aβ fibrillation process in two biologically relevant conditions with the peptide either pre-incorporated into or externally added to the synthetic phospholipid bilayers. These two sample preparation conditions mimic the physiological membrane proximities of Aβ peptides before and after the enzymatic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP). Using thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), we were able to monitor the kinetics and morphological evolution of fibril formation, which was highly sensitive to the two sample preparation protocols. While the external addition protocol generates long and mature fibrils through normal fibrillation process, the pre-incubation protocol was found to stabilize the immature protofibrils. Fluorescence spectroscopy studies with doubly-labeled phospholipids indicated that there may be a lipid uptake process associated with the fibril formation. Solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy provided evidence for high resolution structural variations in fibrils formed with different protocols, and in particular the stabilization of long-range contact between N- and C-terminal β strands. In addition, disruption of phospholipid bilayers was supported by measurements with ³¹P chemical shifts and relaxation time constants. PMID:24769158

  6. Neuroprotective effects of Triticum aestivum L. against beta-amyloid-induced cell death and memory impairments.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jung-Hee; Kim, Chang-Yul; Lim, Sun Ha; Yang, Chae Ha; Song, Kyung-Sik; Han, Hyung Soo; Lee, Hyeong-Kyu; Lee, Jongwon

    2010-01-01

    beta-Amyloid (A beta) is a key component of senile plaques, neuropathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and has been reported to induce cell death via oxidative stress. This study investigated the protective effects of Triticum aestivum L. (TAL) on A beta-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells and cognitive dysfunctions in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Cells treated with A beta exhibited decreased viability and apoptotic features, such as DNA fragmentation, alterations in mitochondria and an increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, which were attenuated by TAL extract (TALE) pretreatment. To elucidate the neuroprotective mechanisms of TALE, the study examined A beta-induced oxidative stress and cellular defense. TALE pretreatment suppressed A beta-increased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via up-regulation of glutathione, an essential endogenous antioxidant. To further verify the effect of TALE on memory impairments, A beta or scopolamine was injected in SD rats and a water maze task conducted as a spatial memory test. A beta or scopolamine treatment increased the time taken to find the platform during training trials, which was decreased by TALE pretreatment. Furthermore, one of the active components of TALE, total dietary fiber also effectively inhibited A beta-induced cytotoxicity and scopolamine-caused memory deficits. These results suggest that TALE may have preventive and/or therapeutic potential in the management of AD. PMID:19441012

  7. Fe(2+) binding on amyloid β-peptide promotes aggregation.

    PubMed

    Boopathi, Subramaniam; Kolandaivel, Ponmalai

    2016-09-01

    The metal ions Zn(2+) , Cu(2+) , and Fe(2+) play a significant role in the aggregation mechanism of Aβ peptides. However, the nature of binding between metal and peptide has remained elusive; the detailed information on this from the experimental study is very difficult. Density functional theory (dft) (M06-2X/6-311++G (2df,2pd) +LANL2DZ) has employed to determine the force field resulting due to metal and histidine interaction. We performed 200 ns molecular dynamics (MD) simulation on Aβ1-42 -Zn(2+) , Aβ1-42 -Cu(2+) , and Aβ1-42 -Fe(2+) systems in explicit water with different combination of coordinating residues including the three Histidine residues in the N-terminal. The present investigation, the Aβ1-42 -Zn(2+) system possess three turn conformations separated by coil structure. Zn(2+) binding caused the loss of the helical structure of N-terminal residues which transformed into the S-shaped conformation. Zn(2+) has reduced the coil and increases the turn content of the peptide compared with experimental study. On the other hand, the Cu(2+) binds with peptide, β sheet formation is observed at the N-terminal residues of the peptide. Fe(2+) binding is to promote the formation of Glu22-Lys28 salt-bridge which stabilized the turn conformation in the Phe19-Gly25 residues, subsequently β sheets were observed at His13-Lys18 and Gly29-Gly37 residues. The turn conformation facilitates the β sheets are arranged in parallel by enhancing the hydrophobic contact between Gly25 and Met35, Lys16 and Met35, Leu17 and Leu34, Val18 and Leu34 residues. The Fe(2+) binding reduced the helix structure and increases the β sheet content in the peptide, which suggested, Fe(2+) promotes the oligomerization by enhancing the peptide-peptide interaction. Proteins 2016; 84:1257-1274. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27214008

  8. Enzyme-catalyzed formation of beta-peptides: beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases BapA and DmpA acting as beta-peptide-synthesizing enzymes.

    PubMed

    Heck, Tobias; Kohler, Hans-Peter E; Limbach, Michael; Flögel, Oliver; Seebach, Dieter; Geueke, Birgit

    2007-09-01

    In recent studies, we discovered that the three beta-peptidyl aminopeptidases, BapA from Sphingosinicella xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4, BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2, and DmpA from Ochrobactrum anthropi LMG7991, possess the unique feature of cleaving N-terminal beta-amino acid residues from beta- and alpha/beta-peptides. Herein, we investigated the use of the same three enzymes for the reverse reaction catalyzing the oligomerization of beta-amino acids and the synthesis of mixed peptides with N-terminal beta-amino acid residues. As substrates, we employed the beta-homoamino acid derivatives H-beta hGly-pNA, H-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hAla-pNA, H-beta3 hPhe-pNA, H-(R)-beta3 hPhe-pNA, and H-beta3 hLeu-pNA. All three enzymes were capable of coupling the six beta-amino acids to oligomers with chain lengths of up to eight amino acid residues. With the enzyme DmpA as the catalyst, we observed very high conversion rates, which correspond to dimer yields of up to 76%. The beta-dipeptide H-beta3 hAla-beta3 hLeu-OH and the beta/alpha-dipeptide H-beta hGly-His-OH (carnosine) were formed with almost 50% conversion, when a five-fold excess of beta3-homoleucine or histidine was incubated with H-beta3 hAla-pNA and H-beta hGly-pNA, respectively, in the presence of the enzyme BapA from S. microcystinivorans Y2. BapA from S. xenopeptidilytica 3-2W4 turned out to be a versatile catalyst capable of coupling various beta-amino acid residues to the free N-termini of beta- and alpha-amino acids and even to an alpha-tripeptide. Thus, these aminopeptidases might be useful to introduce a beta-amino acid residue as an N-terminal protecting group into a 'natural' alpha-peptide, thereby stabilizing the peptide against degradation by other proteolytic enzymes. PMID:17886858

  9. Origin of life. Primordial genetics: Information transfer in a pre-RNA world based on self-replicating beta-sheet amyloid conformers.

    PubMed

    Maury, Carl Peter J

    2015-10-01

    The question of the origin of life on Earth can largely be reduced to the question of what was the first molecular replicator system that was able to replicate and evolve under the presumably very harsh conditions on the early Earth. It is unlikely that a functional RNA could have existed under such conditions and it is generally assumed that some other kind of information system preceded the RNA world. Here, I present an informational molecular system that is stable, self-replicative, environmentally responsive, and evolvable under conditions characterized by high temperatures, ultraviolet and cosmic radiation. This postulated pregenetic system is based on the amyloid fold, a functionally unique polypeptide fold characterized by a cross beta-sheet structure in which the beta strands are arranged perpendicular to the fiber axis. Beside an extraordinary structural robustness, the amyloid fold possesses a unique ability to transmit information by a three-dimensional templating mechanism. In amyloidogenesis short peptide monomers are added one by one to the growing end of the fiber. From the same monomeric subunits several structural variants of amyloid may be formed. Then, in a self-replicative mode, a specific amyloid conformer can act as a template and confer its spatially encoded information to daughter molecular entities in a repetitive way. In this process, the specific conformational information, the spatially changed organization, is transmitted; the coding element is the steric zipper structure, and recognition occurs by amino acid side chain complementarity. The amyloid information system fulfills several basic requirements of a primordial evolvable replicator system: (i) it is stable under the presumed primitive Earth conditions, (ii) the monomeric building blocks of the informational polymer can be formed from available prebiotic compounds, (iii) the system is self-assembling and self-replicative and (iv) it is adaptive to changes in the environment and

  10. Chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha}, suppress amyloid {beta}-induced neurotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, Dayanidhi; Milatovic, Snjezana-Zaja; Milatovic, Dejan; Fan, Guo-Huang; Richmond, Ann

    2011-11-15

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a progressive cognitive decline and accumulation of neurotoxic oligomeric peptides amyloid-{beta} (A{beta}). Although the molecular events are not entirely known, it has become evident that inflammation, environmental and other risk factors may play a causal, disruptive and/or protective role in the development of AD. The present study investigated the ability of the chemokines, macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and stromal cell-derived factor-1{alpha} (SDF-1{alpha}), the respective ligands for chemokine receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4, to suppress A{beta}-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. Pretreatment with MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} significantly protected neurons from A{beta}-induced dendritic regression and apoptosis in vitro through activation of Akt, ERK1/2 and maintenance of metalloproteinase ADAM17 especially with SDF-1{alpha}. Intra-cerebroventricular (ICV) injection of A{beta} led to reduction in dendritic length and spine density of pyramidal neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus and increased oxidative damage 24 h following the exposure. The A{beta}-induced morphometric changes of neurons and increase in biomarkers of oxidative damage, F{sub 2}-isoprostanes, were significantly inhibited by pretreatment with the chemokines MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha}. Additionally, MIP-2 or SDF-1{alpha} was able to suppress the aberrant mislocalization of p21-activated kinase (PAK), one of the proteins involved in the maintenance of dendritic spines. Furthermore, MIP-2 also protected neurons against A{beta} neurotoxicity in CXCR2-/- mice, potentially through observed up regulation of CXCR1 mRNA. Understanding the neuroprotective potential of chemokines is crucial in defining the role for their employment during the early stages of neurodegeneration. -- Research highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuroprotective ability of the chemokines MIP2 and CXCL12 against A{beta} toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MIP-2 or

  11. Effect of D-amino acids at Asp{sup 23} and Ser{sup 26} residues on the conformational preference of A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Shanmugam, Ganesh; Polavarapu, Prasad L. . E-mail: Prasad.L.Polavarapu@Vanderbilt.edu; Hallgas, Balazs; Majer, Zsuzsa

    2005-09-30

    The effects of D-amino acids at Asp{sup 23} and Ser{sup 26} residues on the conformational preference of {beta}-amyloid (A{beta}) peptide fragment (A{beta}{sub 20-29}) have been studied using different spectroscopic techniques, namely vibrational circular dichroism (VCD), vibrational absorption, and electronic circular dichroism. To study the structure of the A{beta}{sub 20-29}, [D-Asp{sup 23}]A{beta}{sub 20-29}, and [D-Ser{sup 26}]A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptides under different conditions, the spectra were measured in 10 mM acetate buffer (pH 3) and in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE). The spectroscopic results indicated that at pH 3, A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptide takes random coil with {beta}-turn structure, while [D-Ser{sup 26}]A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptide adopts significant amount of polyproline II (PPII) type structure along with {beta}-turn contribution and D-Asp-substituted peptide ([D-Asp{sup 23}]A{beta}{sub 20-29}) adopts predominantly PPII type structure. The increased propensity for PPII conformation upon D-amino acid substitution, in acidic medium, has important biological implications. In TFE, A{beta}{sub 20-29}, [D-Asp{sup 23}]A{beta}{sub 20-29}, and [D-Ser{sup 26}]A{beta}{sub 20-29} peptides adopt 3{sub 10}-helix, {alpha}-helix, and random coil with some {beta}-turn structures, respectively. The VCD data obtained for the A{beta} peptide films suggested that the secondary structures for the peptide films are not the same as those for corresponding solution and are also different among the A{beta} peptides studied here. This observation suggests that dehydration can have a significant influence on the structural preferences of these peptides.

  12. Spectral marker for Cα damage in beta peptides.

    PubMed

    Green, Mandy C; Stelzleni, Sarah; Francisco, Joseph S

    2013-01-24

    The work in this article describes a spectral signature for the detection of a C(α) radical damaged peptide, which should enable the use of infrared spectroscopic methods to directly monitor oxidative events. Spectra for radical damaged peptides are computed with ab initio methods. The amide bands A, I, II, and III are analyzed for trends in the damage site. The spectral signature is found in a region (i.e., 1700-1620 cm(-1)) normally void of vibrational absorption bands from stable undamaged beta peptides. An analysis of the vibrational motions of the spectral signature is described. The uniqueness of the spectral signature is explored by an examination and comparison with C(α) monoradicals and polyradicals, as well as with other bioradicals that could act as spectral interferences. The identification of unique infrared spectral features for C(α) damage could have important implications in diagnostics for beta conformational peptides damaged by oxidative stress processes. PMID:23301948

  13. Secreted beta-amyloid precursor protein stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinase and enhances tau phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, S M; Koo, E H; Selkoe, D J; Qiu, W Q; Kosik, K S

    1994-01-01

    Biological effects related to cell growth, as well as a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease, have been ascribed to the beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP). Little is known, however, about the intracellular cascades that mediate these effects. We report that the secreted form of beta-APP potently stimulates mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Brief exposure of PC-12 pheochromocytoma cells to beta-APP secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells stimulated the 43-kDa form of MAPK by > 10-fold. Induction of a dominant inhibitory form of ras in a PC12-derived cell line prevented the stimulation of MAPK by secreted beta-APP, demonstrating the dependence of the effect upon p21ras. Because the microtubule-associated protein tau is hyperphosphorylated in Alzheimer disease, we sought and found a 2-fold enhancement in tau phosphorylation associated with the beta-APP-induced MAPK stimulation. In the ras dominant inhibitory cell line, beta-APP failed to enhance phosphorylation of tau. The data presented here provide a link between secreted beta-APP and the phosphorylation state of tau. Images PMID:8041753

  14. Structure analysis of an amyloid-forming model peptide by a systematic glycine and proline scan.

    PubMed

    Gerling, Ulla I M; Brandenburg, Enrico; von Berlepsch, Hans; Pagel, Kevin; Koksch, Beate

    2011-08-01

    The ability to adopt at least two different stable conformations is a common feature of proteins involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. The involved molecules undergo a conformational transition from native, mainly helical states to insoluble amyloid structures that have high β-sheet content. A detailed characterization of the molecular architecture of highly ordered amyloid structures, however, is still challenging. Their intrinsically low solubility and high tendency to aggregate often considerably limits the application of established high-resolution techniques such as NMR and X-ray crystallography. An alternative approach to elucidating the tertiary and quaternary organization within an amyloid fibril is the systematic replacement of residues with amino acids that exhibit special conformational characteristics, such as glycine and proline. Substitutions within the β-sheet-prone sequences of the molecules usually severely affect their ability to form fibrils, whereas incorporation at external loop- and bend-like positions often has only marginal effects. Here we present the characterization of the internal architecture of a de novo designed coiled-coil-based amyloid-forming model peptide by means of a series of systematic single glycine and proline replacements in combination with a set of simple low-resolution methods. The folding and assembly behavior of the substituted peptides was monitored simultaneously using circular dichroism spectroscopy, Thioflavin T fluorescence staining, and transmission electron microscopy. On the basis of the obtained data, we successfully identify characteristic bend and core positions within the peptide sequence and propose a detailed structural model of the internal fibrillar arrangement. PMID:21726080

  15. Intraperitoneal injection of the pancreatic peptide amylin potently reduces behavioral impairment and brain amyloid pathology in murine models of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Zhu, H; Wang, X; Wallack, M; Li, H; Carreras, I; Dedeoglu, A; Hur, J-Y; Zheng, H; Li, H; Fine, R; Mwamburi, M; Sun, X; Kowall, N; Stern, R A; Qiu, W Q

    2015-02-01

    Amylin, a pancreatic peptide, and amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ), a major component of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain, share similar β-sheet secondary structures, but it is not known whether pancreatic amylin affects amyloid pathogenesis in the AD brain. Using AD mouse models, we investigated the effects of amylin and its clinical analog, pramlintide, on AD pathogenesis. Surprisingly, chronic intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of AD animals with either amylin or pramlintide reduces the amyloid burden as well as lowers the concentrations of Aβ in the brain. These treatments significantly improve their learning and memory assessed by two behavioral tests, Y maze and Morris water maze. Both amylin and pramlintide treatments increase the concentrations of Aβ1-42 in cerebral spinal fluid (CSF). A single i.p. injection of either peptide also induces a surge of Aβ in the serum, the magnitude of which is proportionate to the amount of Aβ in brain tissue. One intracerebroventricular injection of amylin induces a more significant surge in serum Aβ than one i.p. injection of the peptide. In 330 human plasma samples, a positive association between amylin and Aβ1-42 as well as Aβ1-40 is found only in patients with AD or amnestic mild cognitive impairment. As amylin readily crosses the blood-brain barrier, our study demonstrates that peripheral amylin's action on the central nervous system results in translocation of Aβ from the brain into the CSF and blood that could be an explanation for a positive relationship between amylin and Aβ in blood. As naturally occurring amylin may play a role in regulating Aβ in brain, amylin class peptides may provide a new avenue for both treatment and diagnosis of AD. PMID:24614496

  16. Redox chemistry of copper-amyloid-beta: the generation of hydroxyl radical in the presence of ascorbate is linked to redox-potentials and aggregation state.

    PubMed

    Guilloreau, Luc; Combalbert, Sarah; Sournia-Saquet, Alix; Mazarguil, Honoré; Faller, Peter

    2007-07-23

    Aggregation of the beta-amyloid peptide (Abeta) to amyloid plaques is a key event in Alzheimer's disease. According to the amyloid-cascade hypothesis, Abeta aggregates are toxic to neurons through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Copper ions play an important role, because they are able to bind to Abeta and influence its aggregation properties. Moreover, Cu-Abeta is supposed to be directly involved in ROS production. To get a better understanding of these reactions, we measured the production of HO(.) and the redox potential of Cu-Abeta. The results were compared to other biological copper-peptide complexes in order to get an insight into the biological relevance. Cu-Abeta produced more HO(.) than the complex of copper with Asp-Ala-His-Lys (Cu-DAHK), but less than with Gly-His-Lys (Cu-GHK). Cyclic voltammetry revealed that the order for reduction potential is Cu-GHK>Cu-Abeta>Cu-DAHK, but for the oxidation potential the order is reversed. Thus, easier copper redox cycling correlated to higher HO(.) production. The copper complex of the form Abeta1-42 showed a HO(.) production five-times higher than that of the form Abeta1-40. Time-dependence and aggregation studies suggest that an aggregation intermediate is responsible for this increased HO(.) production. PMID:17577900

  17. Ultrastructural localization of beta-amyloid, tau, and ubiquitin epitopes in extracellular neurofibrillary tangles.

    PubMed Central

    Tabaton, M; Cammarata, S; Mancardi, G; Manetto, V; Autilio-Gambetti, L; Perry, G; Gambetti, P

    1991-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), a hallmark of Alzheimer disease, are commonly located in perikarya of neurons. In advanced cases of Alzheimer disease, however, NFTs are observed also in the extracellular space. As extracellular NFTs (E-NFTs), and occasionally intracellular NFTs (I-NFTs), are recognized by antibodies to beta-amyloid protein (beta AP), beta AP may be present not only in amyloid deposits but also in paired helical filaments (PHFs), the primary components of NFTs. We compared the antigenic characteristics of I-NFTs and E-NFTs with light- and electron-microscopic immunocytochemistry by using several antibodies to noncontiguous epitopes of the microtubule-associated protein tau and of ubiquitin (Ub) as well as an antiserum to beta AP. At variance with I-NFTs, E-NFTs were made predominantly of straight filaments (SFs), rather than PHFs, that were often separated by astroglial processes and in close association with small beta AP deposits. Occasionally, E-NFTs were made of bundles of amorphous material, which showed no resemblance to SFs, PHFs, or amyloid fibrils. The antigenic changes in E-NFTs suggest that when NFTs become extracellular they lose the N and, possibly, the C termini of tau while maintaining the intermediate region of the molecule; they also lose the N-terminal two-thirds of Ub while the C-terminal conjugation site of Ub is preserved. A small subset of E-NFTs reacted with antibodies to both beta AP and tau. Although in most E-NFTs, the epitopes recognized by tau and Ub antibodies were located in typical PHFs and SFs, the epitopes recognized in this subset of anti-beta AP and anti-tau-positive E-NFTs were located exclusively in the bundles of amorphous material. It is suggested that either beta AP epitopes are present but inaccessible in PHFs and SFs and become exposed after conformational changes occurring in the extracellular space or PHFs and SFs become closely associated with beta AP in the extracellular space. Images PMID:1706517

  18. "Clicked" sugar-curcumin conjugate: modulator of amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation at ultralow concentrations.

    PubMed

    Dolai, Sukanta; Shi, Wei; Corbo, Christopher; Sun, Chong; Averick, Saadyah; Obeysekera, Dinali; Farid, Mina; Alonso, Alejandra; Banerjee, Probal; Raja, Krishnaswami

    2011-12-21

    The synthesis of a water/plasma soluble, noncytotoxic, "clicked" sugar-derivative of curcumin with amplified bioefficacy in modulating amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation is presented. Curcumin inhibits amyloid-β and tau peptide aggregation at micromolar concentrations; the sugar-curcumin conjugate inhibits Aβ and tau peptide aggregation at concentrations as low as 8 nM and 0.1 nM, respectively. In comparison to curcumin, this conveniently synthesized Alzheimer's drug candidate is a more powerful antioxidant. PMID:22860163

  19. Inhibition of the Electrostatic Interaction between β -amyloid Peptide and Membranes Prevents β -amyloid-induced Toxicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hertel, C.; Terzi, E.; Hauser, N.; Jakob-Rotne, R.; Seelig, J.; Kemp, J. A.

    1997-08-01

    The accumulation of β -amyloid peptides (Aβ ) into senile plaques is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer disease. Aggregated Aβ is toxic to cells in culture and this has been considered to be the cause of neurodegeneration that occurs in the Alzheimer disease brain. The discovery of compounds that prevent Aβ toxicity may lead to a better understanding of the processes involved and ultimately to possible therapeutic drugs. Low nanomolar concentrations of Aβ 1-42 and the toxic fragment Aβ 25-35 have been demonstrated to render cells more sensitive to subsequent insults as manifested by an increased sensitivity to formazan crystals following MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) reduction. Formation of the toxic β -sheet conformation by Aβ peptides is increased by negatively charged membranes. Here we demonstrate that phloretin and exifone, dipolar compounds that decrease the effective negative charge of membranes, prevent association of Aβ 1-40 and Aβ 25-35 to negatively charged lipid vesicles and Aβ induced cell toxicity. These results suggest that Aβ toxicity is mediated through a nonspecific physicochemical interaction with cell membranes.

  20. Amyloid fibril formation of peptides derived from the C-terminus of CETP modulated by lipids

    SciTech Connect

    García-González, Victor; Mas-Oliva, Jaime

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •The secondary structure of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP was studied. •Lipids modulate secondary structure changes of a C-terminal peptide derived from CETP. •Lysophosphatidic acid maintains a functional α-helix and prevents fibril formation. •Transfer of lipids by CETP is related to the presence of an α-helix at its C-end. -- Abstract: Cholesteryl-ester transfer protein (CETP) is a plasmatic protein involved in neutral lipid transfer between lipoproteins. Focusing on the last 12 C-terminus residues we have previously shown that mutation D{sub 470}N promotes a conformational change towards a β-secondary structure. In turn, this modification leads to the formation of oligomers and fibrillar structures, which cause cytotoxic effects similar to the ones provoked by amyloid peptides. In this study, we evaluated the role of specific lipid arrangements on the structure of peptide helix-Z (D{sub 470}N) through the use of thioflavin T fluorescence, peptide bond absorbance, circular dichroism and electron microscopy. The results indicate that the use of micelles formed with lysophosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) under neutral pH induce a conformational transition of peptide helix-Z containing a β-sheet conformation to a native α-helix structure, therefore avoiding the formation of amyloid fibrils. In contrast, incubation with phosphatidic acid does not change the profile for the β-sheet conformation. When the electrostatic charge at the surface of micelles or vesicles is regulated through the use of lipids such as phospholipid and LPA, minimal changes and the presence of β-structures were recorded. Mixtures with a positive net charge diminished the percentage of β-structure and the amount of amyloid fibrils. Our results suggest that the degree of solvation determined by the presence of a free hydroxyl group on lipids such as LPA is a key condition that can modulate the secondary structure and the consequent formation of

  1. Intrinsic Structural Heterogeneity and Long-Term Maturation of Amyloid β Peptide Fibrils

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β peptides form fibrils that are commonly assumed to have a dry, homogeneous, and static internal structure. To examine these assumptions, fibrils under various conditions and different ages have been examined with multidimensional infrared spectroscopy. Each peptide in the fibril had a 13C=18O label in the backbone of one residue to disinguish the amide I′ absorption due to that residue from the amide I′ absorption of other residues. Fibrils examined soon after they formed, and reexamined after 1 year in the dry state, exhibited spectral changes confirming that structurally significant water molecules were present in the freshly formed fibrils. Results from fibrils incubated in solution for 4 years indicate that water molecules remained trapped within fibrils and mobile over the 4 year time span. These water molecules are structurally significant because they perturb the parallel β-sheet hydrogen bonding pattern at frequent intervals and at multiple points within individual fibrils, creating structural heterogeneity along the length of a fibril. These results show that the interface between β-sheets in an amyloid fibril is not a “dry zipper”, and that the internal structure of a fibril evolves while it remains in a fibrillar state. These features, water trapping, structural heterogeneity, and structural evolution within a fibril over time, must be accommodated in models of amyloid fibril structure and formation. PMID:23701594

  2. The chaperone domain BRICHOS prevents CNS toxicity of amyloidpeptide in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Hermansson, Erik; Schultz, Sebastian; Crowther, Damian; Linse, Sara; Winblad, Bengt; Westermark, Gunilla; Johansson, Jan; Presto, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Aggregation of the amyloidpeptide (Aβ) into toxic oligomers and amyloid fibrils is linked to the development of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Mutations of the BRICHOS chaperone domain are associated with amyloid disease and recent in vitro data show that BRICHOS efficiently delays Aβ42 oligomerization and fibril formation. We have generated transgenic Drosophila melanogaster flies that express the Aβ42 peptide and the BRICHOS domain in the central nervous system (CNS). Co-expression of Aβ42 and BRICHOS resulted in delayed Aβ42 aggregation and dramatic improvements of both lifespan and locomotor function compared with flies expressing Aβ42 alone. Moreover, BRICHOS increased the ratio of soluble:insoluble Aβ42 and bound to deposits of Aβ42 in the fly brain. Our results show that the BRICHOS domain efficiently reduces the neurotoxic effects of Aβ42, although significant Aβ42 aggregation is taking place. We propose that BRICHOS-based approaches should be explored with an aim towards the future prevention and treatment of AD. PMID:24682783

  3. Development of magnetic resonance imaging based detection methods for beta amyloids via sialic acid-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyoumdjian, Hovig

    The development of a non-invasive method for the detection of Alzheimer's disease is of high current interest, which can be critical in early diagnosis and in guiding preventive treatment of the disease. The aggregates of beta amyloids are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Carbohydrates such as sialic acid terminated gangliosides have been shown to play significant roles in initiation of amyloid aggregation. Herein, we report a biomimetic approach using sialic acid coated iron oxide superparamagnetic nanoparticles for in vitro detection in addition to the assessment of the in vivo mouse-BBB (Blood brain barrier) crossing of the BSA (bovine serum albumin)-modified ones. The sialic acid functionalized dextran nanoparticles were shown to bind with beta amyloids through several techniques including ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), TEM (transmission electron microscopy), gel electrophoresis and tyrosine fluorescence assay. The superparamagnetic nature of the nanoparticles allowed easy detection of the beta amyloids in mouse brains in both in vitro and ex vivo model by magnetic resonance imaging. Furthermore, the sialic acid nanoparticles greatly reduced beta amyloid induced cytotoxicity to SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, highlighting the potential of the glyconanoparticles for detection and imaging of beta amyloids. Sialic acid functionalized BSA (bovine serum albumin) nanoparticles also showed significant binding to beta amyloids, through ELISA and ex vivo mouse brain MRI experiments. Alternatively, the BBB crossing was demonstrated by several techniques such as confocal microscopy, endocytosis, exocytosis assays and were affirmed by nanoparticles transcytosis assays through bEnd.3 endothelial cells. Finally, the BBB crossing was confirmed by analyzing the MRI signal of nanoparticle-injected CD-1 mice.

  4. The interaction with gold suppresses fiber-like conformations of the amyloid β (16-22) peptide.

    PubMed

    Bellucci, Luca; Ardèvol, Albert; Parrinello, Michele; Lutz, Helmut; Lu, Hao; Weidner, Tobias; Corni, Stefano

    2016-04-28

    Inorganic surfaces and nanoparticles can accelerate or inhibit the fibrillation process of proteins and peptides, including the biomedically relevant amyloid β peptide. However, the microscopic mechanisms that determine such an effect are still poorly understood. By means of large-scale, state-of-the-art enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, here we identify an interaction mechanism between the segments 16-22 of the amyloid β peptide, known to be fibrillogenic by itself, and the Au(111) surface in water that leads to the suppression of fiber-like conformations from the peptide conformational ensemble. Moreover, thanks to advanced simulation analysis techniques, we characterize the conformational selection vs. induced fit nature of the gold effect. Our results disclose an inhibition mechanism that is rooted in the details of the microscopic peptide-surface interaction rather than in general phenomena such as peptide sequestration from the solution. PMID:27064268

  5. β-Amyloid: the key peptide in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaojuan; Chen, Wei-Dong; Wang, Yan-Dong

    2015-01-01

    The amyloid β peptide (Aβ) is a critical initiator that triggers the progression of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) via accumulation and aggregation, of which the process may be caused by Aβ overproduction or perturbation clearance. Aβ is generated from amyloid precursor protein through sequential cleavage of β- and γ-secretases while Aβ removal is dependent on the proteolysis and lysosome degradation system. Here, we overviewed the biogenesis and toxicity of Aβ as well as the regulation of Aβ production and clearance. Moreover, we also summarized the animal models correlated with Aβ that are essential in AD research. In addition, we discussed current immunotherapeutic approaches targeting Aβ to give some clues for exploring the more potentially efficient drugs for treatment of AD. PMID:26483691

  6. Hydrodynamic effects on β-amyloid (16-22) peptide aggregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiricotto, Mara; Melchionna, Simone; Derreumaux, Philippe; Sterpone, Fabio

    2016-07-01

    Computer simulations based on simplified representations are routinely used to explore the early steps of amyloid aggregation. However, when protein models with implicit solvent are employed, these simulations miss the effect of solvent induced correlations on the aggregation kinetics and lifetimes of metastable states. In this work, we apply the multi-scale Lattice Boltzmann Molecular Dynamics technique (LBMD) to investigate the initial aggregation phases of the amyloid Aβ16-22 peptide. LBMD includes naturally hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) via a kinetic on-lattice representation of the fluid kinetics. The peptides are represented by the flexible OPEP coarse-grained force field. First, we have tuned the essential parameters that control the coupling between the molecular and fluid evolutions in order to reproduce the experimental diffusivity of elementary species. The method is then deployed to investigate the effect of HIs on the aggregation of 100 and 1000 Aβ16-22 peptides. We show that HIs clearly impact the aggregation process and the fluctuations of the oligomer sizes by favouring the fusion and exchange dynamics of oligomers between aggregates. HIs also guide the growth of the leading largest cluster. For the 100 Aβ16-22 peptide system, the simulation of ˜300 ns allowed us to observe the transition from ellipsoidal assemblies to an elongated and slightly twisted aggregate involving almost the totality of the peptides. For the 1000 Aβ16-22 peptides, a system of unprecedented size at quasi-atomistic resolution, we were able to explore a branched disordered fibril-like structure that has never been described by other computer simulations, but has been observed experimentally.

  7. Hydrodynamic effects on β-amyloid (16-22) peptide aggregation.

    PubMed

    Chiricotto, Mara; Melchionna, Simone; Derreumaux, Philippe; Sterpone, Fabio

    2016-07-21

    Computer simulations based on simplified representations are routinely used to explore the early steps of amyloid aggregation. However, when protein models with implicit solvent are employed, these simulations miss the effect of solvent induced correlations on the aggregation kinetics and lifetimes of metastable states. In this work, we apply the multi-scale Lattice Boltzmann Molecular Dynamics technique (LBMD) to investigate the initial aggregation phases of the amyloid Aβ16-22 peptide. LBMD includes naturally hydrodynamic interactions (HIs) via a kinetic on-lattice representation of the fluid kinetics. The peptides are represented by the flexible OPEP coarse-grained force field. First, we have tuned the essential parameters that control the coupling between the molecular and fluid evolutions in order to reproduce the experimental diffusivity of elementary species. The method is then deployed to investigate the effect of HIs on the aggregation of 100 and 1000 Aβ16-22 peptides. We show that HIs clearly impact the aggregation process and the fluctuations of the oligomer sizes by favouring the fusion and exchange dynamics of oligomers between aggregates. HIs also guide the growth of the leading largest cluster. For the 100 Aβ16-22 peptide system, the simulation of ∼300 ns allowed us to observe the transition from ellipsoidal assemblies to an elongated and slightly twisted aggregate involving almost the totality of the peptides. For the 1000 Aβ16-22 peptides, a system of unprecedented size at quasi-atomistic resolution, we were able to explore a branched disordered fibril-like structure that has never been described by other computer simulations, but has been observed experimentally. PMID:27448906

  8. Ab initio molecular simulations on specific interactions between amyloid beta and monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Kazuya; Okamoto, Akisumi; Yano, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Kondo, Takashi; Kamba, Seiji; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2012-09-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which is a key pathogenetic event in Alzheimer's disease, can be caused by cell-surface saccharides. We here investigated stable structures of the solvated complexes of Aβ with some types of monosaccharides using molecular simulations based on protein-ligand docking and classical molecular mechanics methods. Moreover, the specific interactions between Aβ and the monosaccharides were elucidated at an electronic level by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results, we proposed which type of monosaccharide prefers to have large binding affinity to Aβ and inhibit the Aβ aggregation.

  9. Indexing amyloid peptide diffraction from serial femtosecond crystallography: new algorithms for sparse patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, Aaron S.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Jose; Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; McFarlane, Heather T.; Cascio, Duilio; Adams, Paul D.; Eisenberg, David S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2015-02-01

    Special methods are required to interpret sparse diffraction patterns collected from peptide crystals at X-ray free-electron lasers. Bragg spots can be indexed from composite-image powder rings, with crystal orientations then deduced from a very limited number of spot positions. Still diffraction patterns from peptide nanocrystals with small unit cells are challenging to index using conventional methods owing to the limited number of spots and the lack of crystal orientation information for individual images. New indexing algorithms have been developed as part of the Computational Crystallography Toolbox (cctbx) to overcome these challenges. Accurate unit-cell information derived from an aggregate data set from thousands of diffraction patterns can be used to determine a crystal orientation matrix for individual images with as few as five reflections. These algorithms are potentially applicable not only to amyloid peptides but also to any set of diffraction patterns with sparse properties, such as low-resolution virus structures or high-throughput screening of still images captured by raster-scanning at synchrotron sources. As a proof of concept for this technique, successful integration of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to 2.5 Å resolution for the amyloid segment GNNQQNY from the Sup35 yeast prion is presented.

  10. In vitro fibrillization of Alzheimer's amyloidpeptide (1-42)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiiman, Ann; Krishtal, Jekaterina; Palumaa, Peep; Tõugu, Vello

    2015-09-01

    The amyloid deposition in the form of extracellular fibrillar aggregates of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide is a critical pathological event in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we report a systematic investigation of the effects of environmental factors on the kinetics of Aβ fibrillization in vitro. The effects of Aβ42 peptide concentration, temperature, pH, added solvents and the ratio of Aβ40 and Aβ42 on the peptide fibrillization under agitated conditions was studied. The analysis show that the rate of fibril growth by monomer addition is not limited by diffusion but by rearrangement in the monomer structure, which is enhanced by low concentrations of fluorinated alcohols and characterized by the activation energy of 12 kcal/mol. Fibrillization rate decreases at pH values below 7.0 where simultaneous protonation of His 13 and 14 inhibits fibril formation. The lag period for Aβ42 was only twofold shorter and the fibril growth rate twofold faster than those of Aβ40. Lag period was shortened and the fibrillization rate was increased only at 90% content of Aβ42.

  11. Seeding-dependent maturation of beta2-microglobulin amyloid fibrils at neutral pH.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Miho; Chatani, Eri; Sakai, Miyo; Hasegawa, Kazuhiro; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji

    2005-03-25

    Beta2-microglobulin (beta2-m) is a major component of amyloid fibrils deposited in patients with dialysis-related amyloidosis. Recent studies have focused on the mechanism by which amyloid fibrils are formed under physiological conditions, which had been difficult to reproduce quantitatively. Yamamoto et al. (Yamamoto, S., Hasegawa, K., Yamaguchi, I., Tsutsumi, S., Kardos, J., Goto, Y., Gejyo, F. & Naiki, H. (2004) Biochemistry 43, 11075-11082) showed that a combination of seed fibrils prepared under acidic conditions and a low concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate below its critical micelle concentration enabled extensive fibril formation at pH 7.0. Here, we found that repeated self-seeding at pH 7.0 with fibrils formed at the same pH causes a marked acceleration of growth, indicating the maturation of fibrils. The observed maturation can be simulated by assuming the existence of two types of fibrils with different growth rates. Importantly, some mutations of beta2-m or the addition of a low concentration of urea, both destabilizing the native conformation, were not enough to extend the fibrils at pH 7.0, and a low concentration of sodium dodecyl sulfate (i.e. 0.5 mM) was essential. Thus, even though the first stage fibrils in patients are unstable and require stabilizing factors to remain at neutral pH, they can adapt to a neutral pH with repeated self-seeding, implying a mechanism of development of amyloid deposition after a long latent period in patients. PMID:15659393

  12. Zinc as chaperone-mimicking agent for retardation of amyloid β peptide fibril formation

    PubMed Central

    Abelein, Axel; Gräslund, Astrid; Danielsson, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Metal ions have emerged to play a key role in the aggregation process of amyloid β (Aβ) peptide that is closely related to the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease. A detailed understanding of the underlying mechanistic process of peptide–metal interactions, however, has been challenging to obtain. By applying a combination of NMR relaxation dispersion and fluorescence kinetics methods we have investigated quantitatively the thermodynamic Aβ–Zn2+ binding features as well as how Zn2+ modulates the nucleation mechanism of the aggregation process. Our results show that, under near-physiological conditions, substoichiometric amounts of Zn2+ effectively retard the generation of amyloid fibrils. A global kinetic profile analysis reveals that in the absence of zinc Aβ40 aggregation is driven by a monomer-dependent secondary nucleation process in addition to fibril-end elongation. In the presence of Zn2+, the elongation rate is reduced, resulting in reduction of the aggregation rate, but not a complete inhibition of amyloid formation. We show that Zn2+ transiently binds to residues in the N terminus of the monomeric peptide. A thermodynamic analysis supports a model where the N terminus is folded around the Zn2+ ion, forming a marginally stable, short-lived folded Aβ40 species. This conformation is highly dynamic and only a few percent of the peptide molecules adopt this structure at any given time point. Our findings suggest that the folded Aβ40–Zn2+ complex modulates the fibril ends, where elongation takes place, which efficiently retards fibril formation. In this conceptual framework we propose that zinc adopts the role of a minimal antiaggregation chaperone for Aβ40. PMID:25825723

  13. [German Society of Nuclear Medicine procedure guideline on beta-amyloid brain PET imaging].

    PubMed

    Barthel, Henryk; Meyer, Philipp T; Drzezga, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Boecker, Henning; Brust, Peter; Buchert, Ralph; Coenen, Heinz H; la Fougère, Christian; Gründer, Gerhard; Grünwald, Frank; Krause, Bernd J; Kuwert, Torsten; Schreckenberger, Matthias; Tatsch, Klaus; Langen, Karl-Josef; Sabri, Osama

    2016-08-01

    Recently, a number of positron emission tomography (PET) radiotracers have been approved for clinical use. These tracers target cerebral beta-amyloid (Aβ) plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease. Increasing use of this method implies the need for respective standards. This German Society of Nuclear Medicine guideline describes adequate procedures for Aβ plaque PET imaging. It not only discusses the tracers used for that purpose, but also lists measures for correct patient preparation, image data generation, processing, analysis and interpretation. With that, this "S1" category (according to the German Association of the Scientific Medical Societies standard) guideline aims at contributing to quality assurance of nuclear imaging in Germany. PMID:27080914

  14. Novel Detox Gel Depot sequesters β-Amyloid Peptides in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sundaram, Ranjini K; Kasinathan, Chinnaswamy; Stein, Stanley; Sundaram, Pazhani

    2012-06-01

    Alzheimer's Disease (AD), a debilitating neurodegenerative disease is caused by aggregation and accumulation of a 39-43 amino acid peptide (amyloid β or Aβ) in brain parenchyma and cerebrovasculature. The rational approach would be to use drugs that interfere with Aβ-Aβ interaction and disrupt polymerization. Peptide ligands capable of binding to the KLVFF (amino acids 16-20) region in the Aβ molecule have been investigated as possible drug candidates. Retro-inverso (RI) peptide of this pentapeptide, ffvlk, has been shown to bind artificial fibrils made from Aβ with moderate affinity. We hypothesized that a 'detox gel', which is synthesized by covalently linking a tetrameric version of RI peptide ffvlk to poly (ethylene glycol) polymer chains will act like a 'sink' to capture Aβ peptides from the surrounding environment. We previously demonstrated that this hypothesis works in an in vitro system. The present study extended this hypothesis to an in vivo mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease and determined the therapeutic effect of our detox gel. We injected detox gel subcutaneously to AD model mice and analyzed brain levels of Aβ-42 and improvement in memory parameters. The results showed a reduction of brain amyloid burden in detox gel treated mice. Memory parameters in the treated mice improved. No undesirable immune response was observed. The data strongly suggest that our detox gel can be used as an effective therapy to deplete brain Aβ levels. Considering recent abandonment of failed antibody based therapies, our detox gel appears to have the advantage of being a non-immune based therapy. PMID:22712003

  15. Evidence for Inhibition of Lysozyme Amyloid Fibrillization by Peptide Fragments from Human Lysozyme: A Combined Spectroscopy, Microscopy, and Docking Study.

    PubMed

    Kar, Rajiv K; Gazova, Zuzana; Bednarikova, Zuzana; Mroue, Kamal H; Ghosh, Anirban; Zhang, Ruiyan; Ulicna, Katarina; Siebert, Hans-Christian; Nifantiev, Nikolay E; Bhunia, Anirban

    2016-06-13

    Degenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and prion diseases, as well as type II diabetes, have a pathogenesis associated with protein misfolding, which routes with amyloid formation. Recent strategies for designing small-molecule and polypeptide antiamyloid inhibitors are mainly based on mature fibril structures containing cross β-sheet structures. In the present study, we have tackled the hypothesis that the rational design of antiamyloid agents that can target native proteins might offer advantageous prospect to design effective therapeutics. Lysozyme amyloid fibrillization was treated with three different peptide fragments derived from lysozyme protein sequence R(107)-R(115). Using low-resolution spectroscopic, high-resolution NMR, and STD NMR-restrained docking methods such as HADDOCK, we have found that these peptide fragments have the capability to affect lysozyme fibril formation. The present study implicates the prospect that these peptides can also be tested against other amyloid-prone proteins to develop novel therapeutic agents. PMID:27116396

  16. The Influence of Pathological Mutations and Proline Substitutions in TDP-43 Glycine-Rich Peptides on Its Amyloid Properties and Cellular Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Chia-Sui; Wang, Cindy Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Bryan Po-Wen; He, Ruei-Yu; Liu, Gerard Chun-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Wenlung; Chern, Yijuang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2014-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major ubiquitinated component deposited in the inclusion bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) in 2006. Later on, numerous ALS-related mutations were found in either the glycine or glutamine/asparagine-rich region on the TDP-43 C-terminus, which hinted on the importance of mutations on the disease pathogenesis. However, how the structural conversion was influenced by the mutations and the biological significance of these peptides remains unclear. In this work, various peptides bearing pathogenic or de novo designed mutations were synthesized and displayed their ability to form twisted amyloid fibers, cause liposome leakage, and mediate cellular toxicity as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), circular dichroism (CD), Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, Raman spectroscopy, calcein leakage assay, and cell viability assay. We have also shown that replacing glycines with prolines, known to obstruct β-sheet formation, at the different positions in these peptides may influence the amyloidogenesis process and neurotoxicity. In these cases, GGG308PPP mutant was not able to form beta-amyloid, cause liposome leakage, nor jeopardized cell survival, which hinted on the importance of the glycines (308–310) during amyloidogenesis. PMID:25090004

  17. The influence of pathological mutations and proline substitutions in TDP-43 glycine-rich peptides on its amyloid properties and cellular toxicity.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chia-Sui; Wang, Cindy Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Bryan Po-Wen; He, Ruei-Yu; Liu, Gerard Chun-Hao; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chen, Wenlung; Chern, Yijuang; Huang, Joseph Jen-Tse

    2014-01-01

    TAR DNA-binding protein (TDP-43) was identified as the major ubiquitinated component deposited in the inclusion bodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration with ubiquitin-positive inclusions (FTLD-U) in 2006. Later on, numerous ALS-related mutations were found in either the glycine or glutamine/asparagine-rich region on the TDP-43 C-terminus, which hinted on the importance of mutations on the disease pathogenesis. However, how the structural conversion was influenced by the mutations and the biological significance of these peptides remains unclear. In this work, various peptides bearing pathogenic or de novo designed mutations were synthesized and displayed their ability to form twisted amyloid fibers, cause liposome leakage, and mediate cellular toxicity as confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), circular dichroism (CD), Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, Raman spectroscopy, calcein leakage assay, and cell viability assay. We have also shown that replacing glycines with prolines, known to obstruct β-sheet formation, at the different positions in these peptides may influence the amyloidogenesis process and neurotoxicity. In these cases, GGG308PPP mutant was not able to form beta-amyloid, cause liposome leakage, nor jeopardized cell survival, which hinted on the importance of the glycines (308-310) during amyloidogenesis. PMID:25090004

  18. Low molecular weight oligomers of amyloid peptides display β-barrel conformations: A replica exchange molecular dynamics study in explicit solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Simone, Alfonso; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    The self-assembly of proteins and peptides into amyloid fibrils is connected to over 40 pathological conditions including neurodegenerative diseases and systemic amyloidosis. Diffusible, low molecular weight protein and peptide oligomers that form in the early steps of aggregation appear to be the harmful cytotoxic species in the molecular etiology of these diseases. So far, the structural characterization of these oligomers has remained elusive owing to their transient and dynamic features. We here address, by means of full atomistic replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations, the energy landscape of heptamers of the amyloidogenic peptide NHVTLSQ from the beta-2 microglobulin protein. The simulations totaling 5 μs show that low molecular weight oligomers in explicit solvent consist of β-barrels in equilibrium with amorphous states and fibril-like assemblies. The results, also accounting for the influence of the pH on the conformational properties, provide a strong evidence of the formation of transient β-barrel assemblies in the early aggregation steps of amyloid-forming systems. Our findings are discussed in terms of oligomers cytotoxicity.

  19. Cholinergic agonists and interleukin 1 regulate processing and secretion of the Alzheimer beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Buxbaum, J D; Oishi, M; Chen, H I; Pinkas-Kramarski, R; Jaffe, E A; Gandy, S E; Greengard, P

    1992-01-01

    Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol esters is known to accelerate the processing and secretion of the beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor. We have now examined various first messengers that increase protein kinase C activity of target cells for their ability to affect beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor metabolism. Acetylcholine and interleukin 1, which are altered in Alzheimer disease, were shown to increase processing of the beta/A4 amyloid protein precursor via the secretory cleavage pathway. Cholinergic agonists stimulated secretion in human glioma and neuroblastoma cells as well as in PC12 cells transfected with the M1 receptor, while interleukin 1 stimulated secretion in human endothelial and glioma cells. Images PMID:1359534

  20. Choroid plexus dysfunction impairs beta-amyloid clearance in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Johanson, Conrad E; Carmona-Calero, Emilia María; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; Brito-Armas, José Miguel; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castro-Fuentes, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Compromised secretory function of choroid plexus (CP) and defective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production, along with accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides at the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), contribute to complications of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The AD triple transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) at 16 month-old mimics critical hallmarks of the human disease: β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) with a temporal- and regional- specific profile. Currently, little is known about transport and metabolic responses by CP to the disrupted homeostasis of CNS Aβ in AD. This study analyzed the effects of highly-expressed AD-linked human transgenes (APP, PS1 and tau) on lateral ventricle CP function. Confocal imaging and immunohistochemistry revealed an increase only of Aβ42 isoform in epithelial cytosol and in stroma surrounding choroidal capillaries; this buildup may reflect insufficient clearance transport from CSF to blood. Still, there was increased expression, presumably compensatory, of the choroidal Aβ transporters: the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE). A thickening of the epithelial basal membrane and greater collagen-IV deposition occurred around capillaries in CP, probably curtailing solute exchanges. Moreover, there was attenuated expression of epithelial aquaporin-1 and transthyretin (TTR) protein compared to Non-Tg mice. Collectively these findings indicate CP dysfunction hypothetically linked to increasing Aβ burden resulting in less efficient ion transport, concurrently with reduced production of CSF (less sink action on brain Aβ) and diminished secretion of TTR (less neuroprotection against cortical Aβ toxicity). The putative effects of a disabled CP-CSF system on CNS functions are discussed in the context of AD. PMID:25705176

  1. Choroid plexus dysfunction impairs beta-amyloid clearance in a triple transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    González-Marrero, Ibrahim; Giménez-Llort, Lydia; Johanson, Conrad E.; Carmona-Calero, Emilia María; Castañeyra-Ruiz, Leandro; Brito-Armas, José Miguel; Castañeyra-Perdomo, Agustín; Castro-Fuentes, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Compromised secretory function of choroid plexus (CP) and defective cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) production, along with accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides at the blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB), contribute to complications of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). The AD triple transgenic mouse model (3xTg-AD) at 16 month-old mimics critical hallmarks of the human disease: β-amyloid (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) with a temporal- and regional- specific profile. Currently, little is known about transport and metabolic responses by CP to the disrupted homeostasis of CNS Aβ in AD. This study analyzed the effects of highly-expressed AD-linked human transgenes (APP, PS1 and tau) on lateral ventricle CP function. Confocal imaging and immunohistochemistry revealed an increase only of Aβ42 isoform in epithelial cytosol and in stroma surrounding choroidal capillaries; this buildup may reflect insufficient clearance transport from CSF to blood. Still, there was increased expression, presumably compensatory, of the choroidal Aβ transporters: the low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 (LRP1) and the receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE). A thickening of the epithelial basal membrane and greater collagen-IV deposition occurred around capillaries in CP, probably curtailing solute exchanges. Moreover, there was attenuated expression of epithelial aquaporin-1 and transthyretin (TTR) protein compared to Non-Tg mice. Collectively these findings indicate CP dysfunction hypothetically linked to increasing Aβ burden resulting in less efficient ion transport, concurrently with reduced production of CSF (less sink action on brain Aβ) and diminished secretion of TTR (less neuroprotection against cortical Aβ toxicity). The putative effects of a disabled CP-CSF system on CNS functions are discussed in the context of AD. PMID:25705176

  2. Clearance of amyloid-beta in Alzheimer's disease: shifting the action site from center to periphery.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Hui; Wang, Ye-Ran; Xiang, Yang; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Giunta, Brian; Mañucat-Tan, Noralyn B; Tan, Jun; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-02-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) is suggested to play a causal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Immunotherapies are among the most promising Aβ-targeting therapeutic strategies for AD. But, to date, all clinical trials of this modality have not been successful including Aβ vaccination (AN1792), anti-Aβ antibodies (bapineuzumab, solanezumab and ponezumab), and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). We propose that one reason for the failures of these clinical trials may be the adverse effects of targeting the central clearance of amyloid plaques. The potential adverse effects include enhanced neurotoxicity related to Aβ oligomerization from plaques, neuroinflammation related to opsonized Aβ phagocytosis, autoimmunity related to cross-binding of antibodies to amyloid precursor protein (APP) on the neuron membrane, and antibody-mediated vascular and neuroskeletal damage. Overall, the majority of the adverse effects seen in clinical trials were associated with the entry of antibodies into the brain. Finally, we propose that peripheral Aβ clearance would be effective and safe for future Aβ-targeting therapies. PMID:24733588

  3. Broad neutralization of calcium-permeable amyloid pore channels with a chimeric Alzheimer/Parkinson peptide targeting brain gangliosides.

    PubMed

    Di Scala, Coralie; Yahi, Nouara; Flores, Alessandra; Boutemeur, Sonia; Kourdougli, Nazim; Chahinian, Henri; Fantini, Jacques

    2016-02-01

    Growing evidence supports a role for brain gangliosides in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Recently we deciphered the ganglioside-recognition code controlling specific ganglioside binding to Alzheimer's β-amyloid (Aβ1-42) peptide and Parkinson's disease-associated protein α-synuclein. Cracking this code allowed us to engineer a short chimeric Aβ/α-synuclein peptide that recognizes all brain gangliosides. Here we show that ganglioside-deprived neural cells do no longer sustain the formation of zinc-sensitive amyloid pore channels induced by either Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein, as assessed by single-cell Ca(2+) fluorescence microscopy. Thus, amyloid channel formation, now considered a key step in neurodegeneration, is a ganglioside-dependent process. Nanomolar concentrations of chimeric peptide competitively inhibited amyloid pore formation induced by Aβ1-42 or α-synuclein in cultured neural cells. Moreover, this peptide abrogated the intracellular calcium increases induced by Parkinson's-associated mutant forms of α-synuclein (A30P, E46K and A53T). The chimeric peptide also prevented the deleterious effects of Aβ1-42 on synaptic vesicle trafficking and decreased the Aβ1-42-induced impairment of spontaneous activity in rat hippocampal slices. Taken together, these data show that the chimeric peptide has broad anti-amyloid pore activity, suggesting that a common therapeutic strategy based on the prevention of amyloid-ganglioside interactions is a reachable goal for both Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. PMID:26655601

  4. Amyloid Beta1–42 and the Phoshorylated Tau Threonine 231 in Brains of Aged Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Darusman, Huda Shalahudin; Gjedde, Albert; Sajuthi, Dondin; Schapiro, Steven J.; Kalliokoski, Otto; Kristianingrum, Yuli P.; Handaryani, Ekowati; Hau, Jann

    2014-01-01

    Pathological hallmarks indicative of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which are the plaques of amyloid beta1–42 and neurofibrillary tangles, were found in brain of aged cynomolgus monkey. The aim of this study was to investigate if aged monkeys exhibiting spatial memory impairment and levels of biomarkers indicative of AD, had brain lesions similar to human patients suffering from senile dementia. Generating immunohistochemistry technique to biomarkers of amyloid beta1–42 and the phosphorylated tau 231, our study assessed the amyloidopathy, such as indicative to the senile plaques and cerebral amyloid angiopathy, and the tauopathy, to possible neurofibrillary tangles. Six aged monkeys were selected based on their spatial memory performance and profile of biomarkers of AD, divided equally to affected aged subject – with Memory-affected and low amyloid level, and aged with higher performance in memory and amyloid, as the age-matched subjects. Using immunohistochemistry, plaques of amyloid beta1–42 were observed in two out of three brains of aged subjects with memory impairment and biomarkers indicative of AD. The cerebral amyloid angiopathy was observed in both aged monkey groups, and unlike in the human, the amyloids were found to deposit in the small veins and capillaries. In one of the affected individuals, phosphorylated tau was positively stained intracellularly of the neurons, indicating a possibility of an early stage of the formation of tangles. These findings add to the body of evidence of the utility of the aged cynomolgus monkeys as a spontaneous model for Alzheimer-related disease. PMID:25426069

  5. A 'danse macabre': tau and Fyn in STEP with amyloid beta to facilitate induction of synaptic depression and excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Jannic

    2013-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease, with its two most prominent pathological factors amyloid beta and tau protein, can be described as a disease of the synapse. It therefore comes as little surprise that NMDA receptor-related synaptic dysfunction had been thought for several years to underlie the synaptic pathophysiology seen in Alzheimer's disease. In this review I will summarise recent evidence showing that the NMDA receptor links the effects of extracellular amyloid beta with intracellular tau protein. Furthermore, the antagonistic roles of Fyn and STEP in NMDA receptor regulation, synaptic plasticity and induction of synaptic depression will be discussed. PMID:23773061

  6. Amyloid Beta-Weighted Cortical Thickness: A New Imaging Biomarker in Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, Chan Mi; Hwang, Jihye; Lee, Jong-Min; Roh, Jee Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hong; Koh, Jae-Young

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder pathologically characterized by amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The aggregation of Aβ precedes tau pathologies in AD; however, the causal relation between the two pathologies and the mechanisms by which aggregated forms of Aβ contribute to cortical thinning are not fully understood. We proposed quantitative Aβ-weighted cortical thickness analysis to investigate the regional relationship between cortical thinning and amyloid plaque deposition using magnetic resonance (MR) and Pittsburg Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography (PET) images in patients with AD, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and subjects with normal cognition. We hypothesized that there are cortical areas that have prominent changes associated with Aβ deposition and there are areas that are relatively independent from Aβ deposition where pathologies other than Aβ (such as tau) are predominant. The study was performed using MRI and PiB PET data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. We measured accuracy of classification models in three different pairs of groups comparing AD, MCI, and normal cognition. Classification models that used Aβ-weighted cortical thickness were not inferior to classification models that used only cortical thickness or amyloid deposition. In addition, based on timing of changes in cortical thinning and Aβ deposition such as Aβ deposition after cortical thinning; cortical thinning after Aβ deposition, or concurrent Aβ deposition and cortical thinning, we identified three types of relationships between cortical thinning and Aβ deposition: (1) Aβ-associated cortical thinning; (2) Aβ-independent cortical thinning; and (3) Aβ deposition only without cortical thinning. Taken together, these findings suggest that Aβ-weighted cortical thickness values can be used as an objective biomarker of structural changes caused by amyloid pathology in the brain. PMID

  7. Effect of trichostatin A on gelsolin levels, proteolysis of amyloid precursor protein, and amyloid beta-protein load in the brain of transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenzhong; Chauhan, Abha; Wegiel, Jerzy; Kuchna, Izabela; Gu, Feng; Chauhan, Ved

    2014-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that gelsolin is an anti-amyloidogenic protein. Trichostatin A (TSA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, promotes the expression of gelsolin. Fibrillized amyoid beta-protein (Aβ) is a key constituent of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). We studied the effects of TSA on the levels of gelsolin; amyloid precursor protein (APP); proteolytic enzymes (γ-secretase and β-secretase) responsible for the production of Aβ; Aβ-cleaving enzymes, i.e., neprilysin (NEP) and insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE); and amyloid load in the double transgenic (Tg) APPswe/PS1(δE9) mouse model of AD. Intraperitoneal injection of TSA for two months (9-11 months of age) resulted in decreased activity of HDAC, and increased levels of gelsolin in the hippocampus and cortex of the brain in AD Tg mice as compared to vehicle-treated mice. TSA also increased the levels of γ-secretase and β-secretase activity in the brain. However, TSA did not show any effect on the activities or the expression levels of NEP and IDE in the brain. Furthermore, TSA treatment of AD Tg mice showed no change in the amyloid load (percent of examined area occupied by amyloid plaques) in the hippocampus and cortex, suggesting that TSA treatment did not result in the reduction of amyloid load. Interestingly, TSA prevented the formation of new amyloid deposits but increased the size of existing plaques. TSA treatment did not cause any apoptosis in the brain. These results suggest that TSA increases gelsolin expression in the brain, but the pleiotropic effects of TSA negate the anti-amyloidogenic effect of gelsolin in AD Tg mice. PMID:25387339

  8. Probing amyloid fibril formation of the NFGAIL peptide by computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melquiond, Adrien; Gelly, Jean-Christophe; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2007-02-01

    Amyloid fibril formation, as observed in Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes, is currently described by a nucleation-condensation mechanism, but the details of the process preceding the formation of the nucleus are still lacking. In this study, using an activation-relaxation technique coupled to a generic energy model, we explore the aggregation pathways of 12 chains of the hexapeptide NFGAIL. The simulations show, starting from a preformed parallel dimer and ten disordered chains, that the peptides form essentially amorphous oligomers or more rarely ordered β-sheet structures where the peptides adopt a parallel orientation within the sheets. Comparison between the simulations indicates that a dimer is not a sufficient seed for avoiding amorphous aggregates and that there is a critical threshold in the number of connections between the chains above which exploration of amorphous aggregates is preferred.

  9. A Cocoa Peptide Protects Caenorhabditis elegans from Oxidative Stress and β-Amyloid Peptide Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Martorell, Patricia; Bataller, Esther; Llopis, Silvia; Gonzalez, Núria; Álvarez, Beatriz; Montón, Fernando; Ortiz, Pepa; Ramón, Daniel; Genovés, Salvador

    2013-01-01

    Background Cocoa and cocoa-based products contain different compounds with beneficial properties for human health. Polyphenols are the most frequently studied, and display antioxidant properties. Moreover, protein content is a very interesting source of antioxidant bioactive peptides, which can be used therapeutically for the prevention of age-related diseases. Methodology/Principal Findings A bioactive peptide, 13L (DNYDNSAGKWWVT), was obtained from a hydrolyzed cocoa by-product by chromatography. The in vitro inhibition of prolyl endopeptidase (PEP) was used as screening method to select the suitable fraction for peptide identification. Functional analysis of 13L peptide was achieved using the transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans strain CL4176 expressing the human Aβ1–42 peptide as a pre-clinical in vivo model for Alzheimer's disease. Among the peptides isolated, peptide 13L (1 µg/mL) showed the highest antioxidant activity (P≤0.001) in the wild-type strain (N2). Furthermore, 13L produced a significant delay in body paralysis in strain CL4176, especially in the 24–47 h period after Aβ1–42 peptide induction (P≤0.0001). This observation is in accordance with the reduction of Aβ deposits in CL4176 by western blot. Finally, transcriptomic analysis in wild-type nematodes treated with 13L revealed modulation of the proteosomal and synaptic functions as the main metabolic targets of the peptide. Conclusions/Significance These findings suggest that the cocoa 13L peptide has antioxidant activity and may reduce Aβ deposition in a C. elegans model of Alzheimer's disease; and therefore has a putative therapeutic potential for prevention of age-related diseases. Further studies in murine models and humans will be essential to analyze the effectiveness of the 13L peptide in higher animals. PMID:23675471

  10. Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Beta-Amyloid Interactions with Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Liming; Vaughn, Mark; Cheng, Kelvin

    2012-10-01

    Early events of human beta-amyloid protein interactions with cholesterol-containing membranes are critical to understanding the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to exploring new therapeutic interventions of AD. Atomistic molecular dynamics (AMD) simulations have been extensively used to study the protein-lipid interaction at high atomic resolutions. However, traditional MD simulations are not efficient in sampling the phase space of complex lipid/protein systems with rugged free energy landscapes. Meanwhile, coarse-grained MD (CGD) simulations are efficient in the phase space sampling but suffered from low spatial resolutions and from the fact that the energy landscapes are not identical to those of the AMD. Here, a multiscale approach was employed to simulate the protein-lipid interactions of beta-amyloid upon its release from proteolysis residing in the neuronal membranes. We utilized a forward (AMD to CGD) and reverse (CGD-AMD) strategy to explore new transmembrane and surface protein configuration and evaluate the stabilization mechanisms by measuring the residue-specific protein-lipid or protein conformations. The detailed molecular interactions revealed in this multiscale MD approach will provide new insights into understanding the early molecular events leading to the pathogenesis of AD.

  11. PPARgamma agonist curcumin reduces the amyloid-beta-stimulated inflammatory responses in primary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Mei; Zhao, Yan-Xin; Zhang, Shi; Liu, Gui-Dong; Kang, Wen-Yan; Tang, Hui-Dong; Ding, Jian-Qing; Chen, Sheng-Di

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder. Accumulating data indicate that astrocytes play an important role in the neuroinflammation related to the pathogenesis of AD. It has been shown that microglia and astrocytes are activated in AD brain and amyloid-beta (Abeta) can increase the expression of cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), interleukin-1, and interleukin-6. Suppressing the inflammatory response caused by activated astrocytes may help to inhibit the development of AD. Curcumin is a major constituent of the yellow curry spice turmeric and proved to be a potential anti-inflammatory drug in arthritis and colitis. There is a low age-adjusted prevalence of AD in India, a country where turmeric powder is commonly used as a culinary compound. Curcumin has been shown to suppress activated astroglia in amyloid-beta protein precursor transgenic mice. The real mechanism by which curcumin inhibits activated astroglia is poorly understood. Here we report that the expression of COX-2 and glial fibrillary acidic protein were enhanced and that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) was decreased in Abeta(25-35)-treated astrocytes. In line with these results, nuclear factor-kappaB translocation was increased in the presence of Abeta. All these can be reversed by the pretreatment of curcumin. Furthermore, GW9662, a PPARgamma antagonist, can abolish the anti-inflammatory effect of curcumin. These results show that curcumin might act as a PPARgamma agonist to inhibit the inflammation in Abeta-treated astrocytes. PMID:20413894

  12. Alzheimer amyloid peptide aβ42 regulates gene expression of transcription and growth factors.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Sommer, Anette; Beckmann, Georg; Eravci, Murat; Harmeier, Anja; Schipke, Carola G; Brockschnieder, Damian; Dyrks, Thomas; Althoff, Veit; Fraser, Paul E; Hazrati, Lili-Naz; George-Hyslop, Peter St; Breitner, John C S; Peters, Oliver; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides leading to deposition of senile plaques and a progressive decline of cognitive functions, which currently remains the main criterion for its diagnosis. Robust biomarkers for AD do not yet exist, although changes in the cerebrospinal fluid levels of tau and Aβ represent promising candidates in addition to brain imaging and genetic risk profiling. Although concentrations of soluble Aβ42 correlate with symptoms of AD, less is known about the biological activities of Aβ peptides which are generated from the amyloid-β protein precursor. An unbiased DNA microarray study showed that Aβ42, at sub-lethal concentrations, specifically increases expression of several genes in neuroblastoma cells, notably the insulin-like growth factor binding proteins 3 and 5 (IGFBP3/5), the transcription regulator inhibitor of DNA binding, and the transcription factor Lim only domain protein 4. Using qRT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the identified candidate genes were exclusively increased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide, as both the less toxic Aβ40 and a non-toxic substitution peptide Aβ42 G33A did not affect mRNA levels. In vivo immunohistochemistry revealed a corresponding increase in both hippocampal and cortical IGFBP5 expression in an AD mouse model. Proteomic analyses of human AD cerebrospinal fluid displayed increased in vivo concentrations of IGFBPs. IGFBPs and transcription factors, as identified here, are modulated by soluble Aβ42 and may represent useful early biomarkers. PMID:25318543

  13. Indexing amyloid peptide diffraction from serial femtosecond crystallography: New algorithms for sparse patterns

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Brewster, Aaron S.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Jose; Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; McFarlane, Heather T.; Cascio, Duilio; Adams, Paul D.; Eisenberg, David S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-23

    Still diffraction patterns from peptide nanocrystals with small unit cells are challenging to index using conventional methods owing to the limited number of spots and the lack of crystal orientation information for individual images. New indexing algorithms have been developed as part of theComputational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) to overcome these challenges. Accurate unit-cell information derived from an aggregate data set from thousands of diffraction patterns can be used to determine a crystal orientation matrix for individual images with as few as five reflections. These algorithms are potentially applicable not only to amyloid peptides but also to any set of diffraction patternsmore » with sparse properties, such as low-resolution virus structures or high-throughput screening of still images captured by raster-scanning at synchrotron sources. As a proof of concept for this technique, successful integration of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to 2.5 Å resolution for the amyloid segment GNNQQNY from the Sup35 yeast prion is presented.« less

  14. Indexing amyloid peptide diffraction from serial femtosecond crystallography: New algorithms for sparse patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, Aaron S.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Jose; Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; McFarlane, Heather T.; Cascio, Duilio; Adams, Paul D.; Eisenberg, David S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-23

    Still diffraction patterns from peptide nanocrystals with small unit cells are challenging to index using conventional methods owing to the limited number of spots and the lack of crystal orientation information for individual images. New indexing algorithms have been developed as part of theComputational Crystallography Toolbox(cctbx) to overcome these challenges. Accurate unit-cell information derived from an aggregate data set from thousands of diffraction patterns can be used to determine a crystal orientation matrix for individual images with as few as five reflections. These algorithms are potentially applicable not only to amyloid peptides but also to any set of diffraction patterns with sparse properties, such as low-resolution virus structures or high-throughput screening of still images captured by raster-scanning at synchrotron sources. As a proof of concept for this technique, successful integration of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to 2.5 Å resolution for the amyloid segment GNNQQNY from the Sup35 yeast prion is presented.

  15. Patterning nanofibrils through the templated growth of multiple modified amyloid peptides.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Ken; Kudoh, Fuki; Kamada, Rui; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the patterning of functionalized nanowires because of the potential applications of these materials to the construction of nanodevices. A variety of biomolecular building blocks containing amyloid peptides have been used to functionalize nanowires. However, the patterning of self-assembled nanowires can be challenging because of the difficulties associated with controlling the self-assembly of these functionalized building blocks. Herein, we present a versatile approach for the patterning of nanowires based on the combination of templated fibril growth with a versatile functionalization method using our structure-controllable amyloid peptides (SCAPs). Using this approach, we have succeeded in the formation of multi-type nanowires with tandem domain structures in high yields. Given that the mixing-SCAP method can lead to the formation of tandem fibrils, it is noteworthy that our method allowed us to control the initiation of fibril formation from the gold nanoparticles, which were attached to a short fibril as initiation points. This approach could be used to prepare a wide variety of fibril patterns, and therefore holds great potential for the development of novel self-assembled nanodevices. PMID:27559011

  16. Indexing amyloid peptide diffraction from serial femtosecond crystallography: new algorithms for sparse patterns

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Aaron S.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Rodriguez, Jose; Hattne, Johan; Echols, Nathaniel; McFarlane, Heather T.; Cascio, Duilio; Adams, Paul D.; Eisenberg, David S.; Sauter, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Still diffraction patterns from peptide nanocrystals with small unit cells are challenging to index using conventional methods owing to the limited number of spots and the lack of crystal orientation information for individual images. New indexing algorithms have been developed as part of the Computational Crystallography Toolbox (cctbx) to overcome these challenges. Accurate unit-cell information derived from an aggregate data set from thousands of diffraction patterns can be used to determine a crystal orientation matrix for individual images with as few as five reflections. These algorithms are potentially applicable not only to amyloid peptides but also to any set of diffraction patterns with sparse properties, such as low-resolution virus structures or high-throughput screening of still images captured by raster-scanning at synchrotron sources. As a proof of concept for this technique, successful integration of X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL) data to 2.5 Å resolution for the amyloid segment GNNQQNY from the Sup35 yeast prion is presented. PMID:25664747

  17. Effect of osmolytes on the conformation and aggregation of some amyloid peptides: CD spectroscopic data.

    PubMed

    Inayathullah, Mohammed; Rajadas, Jayakumar

    2016-06-01

    Protein misfolding and aggregation are responsible for a large number of diseases called protein conformational diseases or disorders that include Alzheimer׳s disease, Huntington׳s diseases, Prion related encephalopathies and type-II diabetes (http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/35041139) (Kopito and Ron, 2000) [1]. A variety of studies have shown that some small organic molecules, known as osmolytes have the ability to stabilize native conformation of proteins and prevent misfolding and aggregation (http://www.la-press.com/article.php?article_id=447) (Zhao et al., 2008) [2]. It has been shown that certain short segment or fragment of respective proteins can also form amyloids, and the segments also promote the aggregation in the full-length protein (http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/0929867023369187) (Gazit, 2002) [3]. This article presents circular dichroism spectroscopic data on conformational analysis and effect of osmolytes on Aβ peptide fragments, different lengths of polyglutamine peptide and the amyloidogenic segment of islet amyloid polypeptide. PMID:27222868

  18. Patterning nanofibrils through the templated growth of multiple modified amyloid peptides

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Hiroki; Watanabe, Ken; Kudoh, Fuki; Kamada, Rui; Chuman, Yoshiro; Sakaguchi, Kazuyasu

    2016-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in the patterning of functionalized nanowires because of the potential applications of these materials to the construction of nanodevices. A variety of biomolecular building blocks containing amyloid peptides have been used to functionalize nanowires. However, the patterning of self-assembled nanowires can be challenging because of the difficulties associated with controlling the self-assembly of these functionalized building blocks. Herein, we present a versatile approach for the patterning of nanowires based on the combination of templated fibril growth with a versatile functionalization method using our structure-controllable amyloid peptides (SCAPs). Using this approach, we have succeeded in the formation of multi-type nanowires with tandem domain structures in high yields. Given that the mixing-SCAP method can lead to the formation of tandem fibrils, it is noteworthy that our method allowed us to control the initiation of fibril formation from the gold nanoparticles, which were attached to a short fibril as initiation points. This approach could be used to prepare a wide variety of fibril patterns, and therefore holds great potential for the development of novel self-assembled nanodevices. PMID:27559011

  19. A role for heme in Alzheimer's disease: heme binds amyloid beta and has altered metabolism.

    PubMed

    Atamna, Hani; Frey, William H

    2004-07-27

    Heme is a common factor linking several metabolic perturbations in Alzheimer's disease (AD), including iron metabolism, mitochondrial complex IV, heme oxygenase, and bilirubin. Therefore, we determined whether heme metabolism was altered in temporal lobes obtained at autopsy from AD patients and age-matched nondemented subjects. AD brain demonstrated 2.5-fold more heme-b (P < 0.01) and 26% less heme-a (P = 0.16) compared with controls, resulting in a highly significant 2.9-fold decrease in heme-a/heme-b ratio (P < 0.001). Moreover, the strong Pearson correlation between heme-a and heme-b measured in control individuals (r(2) = 0.66, P < 0.002, n = 11) was abolished in AD subjects (r(2) = 0.076, P = 0.39, n = 12). The level of ferrochelatase (which makes heme-b in the mitochondrial matrix) in AD subjects was 4.2 times (P < 0.04) that in nondemented controls, suggesting up-regulated heme synthesis. To look for a possible connection between these observations and established mechanisms in AD pathology, we examined possible interactions between amyloid beta (A beta) and heme. A beta((1-40)) and A beta((1-42)) induced a redshift of 15-20 nm in the spectrum of heme-b and heme-a, suggesting that heme binds A beta, likely to one or more of the histidine residues. Lastly, in a tissue culture model, we found that clioquinol, a metal chelator in clinical trials for AD therapy, decreased intracellular heme. In light of these observations, we have proposed a model of AD pathobiology in which intracellular A beta complexes with free heme, thereby decreasing its bioavailability (e.g., heme-a) and resulting in functional heme deficiency. The model integrates disparate observations, including A beta, mitochondrial dysfunction, cholesterol, and the proposed efficacy of clioquinol. PMID:15263070

  20. Protective effects of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced damage in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Q; Li, J; Liu, C; Song, C; Li, P; Yin, F; Xiao, Y; Li, J; Jiang, W; Zong, A; Zhang, X; Wang, F

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, we investigated the effects of low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate (LMWCS) on amyloid beta (Aβ)-induced neurotoxicity in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro results showed that LMWCS blocked Aβ25-35-induced cell viability loss and apoptosis, decreased intracellular calcium concentration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization, and the protein expression of Caspase-3. During in vivo experiments, LMWCS improved the cognitive impairment induced by Aβ1-40, increased the level of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and decreased the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the mouse brain. Moreover, LMWCS decreased the density of pyramidal cells of CA1 regions, and suppressed the protein expression of Bax/Bcl-2 and Caspase-3, -9 in the hippocampus of mice. In conclusion, LMWCS possessed neuroprotective properties against toxic effects induced by Aβ peptides both in vitro and in vivo, which might be related to anti-apoptotic activity. LMWCS might be a useful preventive and therapeutic compound for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26254241

  1. Increased levels of plasma amyloid-beta are related to cortical thinning and cognitive decline in cognitively normal elderly subjects.

    PubMed

    Llado-Saz, Sandra; Atienza, Mercedes; Cantero, Jose L

    2015-10-01

    Plasma levels of circulating amyloid-beta (Aβ) peptides are of particular interest in Alzheimer' disease, but little is known about cognitive and cortical correlates of peripheral Aβ levels in normal aging. Here, we compared cognitive functioning, vascular risk factors, and patterns of cortical thickness between cognitively intact elderly subjects with low (N = 60) and high (N = 60) plasma Aβ levels (cutoffs: 225 pg/mL and 23 pg/mL for Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, respectively). Overall, subjects with high Aβ levels showed lower cognitive performance and thinner cortex than those with low Aβ levels. More specifically, subjects with high Aβ1-40 showed bilateral thinning of the prefrontal cortex, poorer objective memory, slower processing speed, and lower nonverbal reasoning skills, whereas subjects with high Aβ1-42 had thinner temporal lobe, poorer everyday memory, and increased levels of homocysteine. Overall, these results suggest that high plasma Aβ levels in normal elderly subjects are associated with subclinical markers of vulnerable aging, which may be helpful at predicting different trajectories of aging in cognitively intact older adults. PMID:26182906

  2. Distinct Membrane Disruption Pathways Are Induced by 40-Residue β-Amyloid Peptides.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Dennis A; Doherty, Katelynne; Cheng, Qinghui; Kim, Hyeongeun; Xu, Dawei; Dong, He; Grewer, Christof; Qiang, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Cellular membrane disruption induced by β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides has been considered one of the major pathological mechanisms for Alzheimer disease. Mechanistic studies of the membrane disruption process at a high-resolution level, on the other hand, are hindered by the co-existence of multiple possible pathways, even in simplified model systems such as the phospholipid liposome. Therefore, separation of these pathways is crucial to achieve an in-depth understanding of the Aβ-induced membrane disruption process. This study, which utilized a combination of multiple biophysical techniques, shows that the peptide-to-lipid (P:L) molar ratio is an important factor that regulates the selection of dominant membrane disruption pathways in the presence of 40-residue Aβ peptides in liposomes. Three distinct pathways (fibrillation with membrane content leakage, vesicle fusion, and lipid uptake through a temporarily stable ionic channel) become dominant in model liposome systems under specific conditions. These individual systems are characterized by both the initial states of Aβ peptides and the P:L molar ratio. Our results demonstrated the possibility to generate simplified Aβ-membrane model systems with a homogeneous membrane disruption pathway, which will benefit high-resolution mechanistic studies in the future. Fundamentally, the possibility of pathway selection controlled by P:L suggests that the driving forces for Aβ aggregation and Aβ-membrane interactions may be similar at the molecular level. PMID:27056326

  3. Following the aggregation of amyloid-forming peptides by computer simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melquiond, Adrien; Boucher, Geneviève; Mousseau, Normand; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2005-05-01

    There is experimental evidence suggesting that the toxicity of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease may result from the soluble intermediate oligomers. It is therefore important to characterize extensively the early steps of oligomer formation at atomic level. As these structures are metastable and short lived, experimental data are difficult to obtain and they must be complemented with numerical simulations. In this work, we use the activation-relaxation technique coupled with a coarse-grained energy model to study in detail the mechanisms of aggregation of four lys-phe-phe-glu (KFFE) peptides. This is the shortest peptide known to form amyloid fibrils in vitro. Our simulations indicate that four KFFE peptides adopt a variety of oligomeric states (tetramers, trimers, and dimers) with various orientations of the chains in rapid equilibrium. This conformational distribution is consistent with all-atom molecular-dynamics simulations in explicit solvent and is sequence dependent; as seen experimentally, the lys-pro-gly-glu (KPGE) peptides adopt disordered structures in solution. Our unbiased simulations also indicate that the assembly process is much more complex than previously thought and point to intermediate structures which likely are kinetic traps for longer chains.

  4. The molecular mechanism of fullerene-inhibited aggregation of Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide fragment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Luogang; Luo, Yin; Lin, Dongdong; Xi, Wenhui; Yang, Xinju; Wei, Guanghong

    2014-07-01

    Amyloid deposits are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of β-sheet formation has been considered as the primary therapeutic strategy for AD. Increasing data show that nanoparticles can retard or promote the fibrillation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides depending on the physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. In this study, our replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations show that fullerene nanoparticle - C60 (with a fullerene : peptide molar ratio greater than 1 : 8) can dramatically prevent β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments further confirm the inhibitory effect of C60 on Aβ(16-22) fibrillation, in support of our REMD simulations. An important finding from our REMD simulations is that fullerene C180, albeit with the same number of carbon atoms as three C60 molecules (3C60) and smaller surface area than 3C60, displays an unexpected stronger inhibitory effect on the β-sheet formation of Aβ(16-22) peptides. A detailed analysis of the fullerene-peptide interaction reveals that the stronger inhibition of β-sheet formation by C180 results from the strong hydrophobic and aromatic-stacking interactions of the fullerene hexagonal rings with the Phe rings relative to the pentagonal rings. The strong interactions between the fullerene nanoparticles and Aβ(16-22) peptides significantly weaken the peptide-peptide interaction that is important for β-sheet formation, thus retarding Aβ(16-22) fibrillation. Overall, our studies reveal the significant role of fullerene hexagonal rings in the inhibition of Aβ(16-22) fibrillation and provide novel insight into the development of drug candidates against Alzheimer's disease.Amyloid deposits are implicated in the pathogenesis of many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). The inhibition of

  5. The FDA-approved natural product dihydroergocristine reduces the production of the Alzheimer's disease amyloidpeptides.

    PubMed

    Lei, Xiling; Yu, Jing; Niu, Qi; Liu, Jianhua; Fraering, Patrick C; Wu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Known γ-secretase inhibitors or modulators display an undesirable pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity and have therefore not been successful in clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD). So far, no compounds from natural products have been identified as direct inhibitors of γ-secretase. To search for bioactive molecules that can reduce the amount of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) and that have better pharmacokinetics and an improved safety profile, we completed a screen of ~400 natural products by using cell-based and cell-free γ-secretase activity assays. We identified dihydroergocristine (DHEC), a component of an FDA- (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug, to be a direct inhibitor of γ-secretase. Micromolar concentrations of DHEC substantially reduced Aβ levels in different cell types, including a cell line derived from an AD patient. Structure-activity relationship studies implied that the key moiety for inhibiting γ-secretase is the cyclized tripeptide moiety of DHEC. A Surface Plasmon Resonance assay showed that DHEC binds directly to γ-secretase and Nicastrin, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 25.7 nM and 9.8 μM, respectively. This study offers DHEC not only as a new chemical moiety for selectively modulating the activity of γ-secretase but also a candidate for drug repositioning in Alzheimer's disease. PMID:26567970

  6. The FDA-approved natural product dihydroergocristine reduces the production of the Alzheimer’s disease amyloidpeptides

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Xiling; Yu, Jing; Niu, Qi; Liu, Jianhua; Fraering, Patrick C.; Wu, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Known γ-secretase inhibitors or modulators display an undesirable pharmacokinetic profile and toxicity and have therefore not been successful in clinical trials for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). So far, no compounds from natural products have been identified as direct inhibitors of γ-secretase. To search for bioactive molecules that can reduce the amount of amyloid-beta peptides (Aβ) and that have better pharmacokinetics and an improved safety profile, we completed a screen of ~400 natural products by using cell-based and cell-free γ-secretase activity assays. We identified dihydroergocristine (DHEC), a component of an FDA- (Food and Drug Administration)-approved drug, to be a direct inhibitor of γ-secretase. Micromolar concentrations of DHEC substantially reduced Aβ levels in different cell types, including a cell line derived from an AD patient. Structure-activity relationship studies implied that the key moiety for inhibiting γ-secretase is the cyclized tripeptide moiety of DHEC. A Surface Plasmon Resonance assay showed that DHEC binds directly to γ-secretase and Nicastrin, with equilibrium dissociation constants (Kd) of 25.7 nM and 9.8 μM, respectively. This study offers DHEC not only as a new chemical moiety for selectively modulating the activity of γ-secretase but also a candidate for drug repositioning in Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:26567970

  7. Dynamic behavior of small heat shock protein inhibition on amyloid fibrillization of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Dong; Dong, Xiao; Deng, Wei; Lai, Luhua

    2011-12-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mechanism of small heat shock protein inhibition on fibril formation was studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Peptide SSTSAA with modified ends was used for amyloid fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FRET signal was followed during the fibril formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 inhibits fibril formation when introduced in the lag phase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mj HSP16.5 slows down fibril formation when introduced after the lag phase. -- Abstract: Small heat shock proteins, a class of molecular chaperones, are reported to inhibit amyloid fibril formation in vitro, while the mechanism of inhibition remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the mechanism by which Mj HSP16.5 inhibits amyloid fibril formation of a small peptide (SSTSAA) from RNase A. A model peptide (dansyl-SSTSAA-W) was designed by introducing a pair of fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) probes into the peptide, allowing for the monitoring of fibril formation by this experimental model. Mj HSP16.5 completely inhibited fibril formation of the model peptide at a molar ratio of 1:120. The dynamic process of fibril formation, revealed by FRET, circular dichroism, and electron microscopy, showed a lag phase of about 2 h followed by a fast growth period. The effect of Mj HSP16.5 on amyloid fibril formation was investigated by adding it into the incubation solution during different growth phases. Adding Mj HSP16.5 to the incubating peptide before or during the lag phase completely inhibited fibril formation. However, introducing Mj HSP16.5 after the lag phase only slowed down the fibril formation process by adhering to the already formed fibrils. These findings provide insight into the inhibitory roles of small heat shock proteins on amyloid fibril formation at the molecular level.

  8. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W.; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A. E.

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer’s and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall peptides that self-assemble in water into cross-β–type fibers. Here we compare the self-assembly of these peptides with natural core sequences. These include core segments from Alzheimer’s amyloid-β, human amylin, and calcitonin. We analyzed the self-assembly process using circular dichroism, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the designed aliphatic peptides exhibited a similar self-assembly mechanism to several natural sequences, with formation of α-helical intermediates being a common feature. Interestingly, the self-assembly of a second core sequence from amyloid-β, containing the diphenylalanine motif, was distinctly different from all other examined sequences. The diphenylalanine-containing sequence formed β-sheet aggregates without going through the α-helical intermediate step, giving a unique fiber-diffraction pattern and simulation structure. Based on these results, we propose a simplified aliphatic model system to study amyloidosis. Our results provide vital insight into the nature of early intermediates formed and suggest that aromatic interactions are not as important in amyloid formation as previously postulated. This information is necessary for developing therapeutic drugs that inhibit and control amyloid formation. PMID:23267112

  9. Aliphatic peptides show similar self-assembly to amyloid core sequences, challenging the importance of aromatic interactions in amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Anupama; Cheong, Daniel W; Accardo, Angelo; Di Fabrizio, Enzo; Riekel, Christian; Hauser, Charlotte A E

    2013-01-01

    The self-assembly of abnormally folded proteins into amyloid fibrils is a hallmark of many debilitating diseases, from Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases to prion-related disorders and diabetes type II. However, the fundamental mechanism of amyloid aggregation remains poorly understood. Core sequences of four to seven amino acids within natural amyloid proteins that form toxic fibrils have been used to study amyloidogenesis. We recently reported a class of systematically designed ultrasmall peptides that self-assemble in water into cross-β-type fibers. Here we compare the self-assembly of these peptides with natural core sequences. These include core segments from Alzheimer's amyloid-β, human amylin, and calcitonin. We analyzed the self-assembly process using circular dichroism, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, rheology, and molecular dynamics simulations. We found that the designed aliphatic peptides exhibited a similar self-assembly mechanism to several natural sequences, with formation of α-helical intermediates being a common feature. Interestingly, the self-assembly of a second core sequence from amyloid-β, containing the diphenylalanine motif, was distinctly different from all other examined sequences. The diphenylalanine-containing sequence formed β-sheet aggregates without going through the α-helical intermediate step, giving a unique fiber-diffraction pattern and simulation structure. Based on these results, we propose a simplified aliphatic model system to study amyloidosis. Our results provide vital insight into the nature of early intermediates formed and suggest that aromatic interactions are not as important in amyloid formation as previously postulated. This information is necessary for developing therapeutic drugs that inhibit and control amyloid formation. PMID:23267112

  10. Triptolide Inhibited Cytotoxicity of Differentiated PC12 Cells Induced by Amyloid-Beta25–35 via the Autophagy Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Pengjuan; Li, Zhigui; Wang, Hui; Zhang, Xiaochen; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence shows that an abnormal deposition of amyloid beta-peptide25–35 (Aβ25–35) was the primary cause of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). And the elimination of Aβ25–35 is considered an important target for the treatment of AD. Triptolide (TP), isolated from Tripterygium wilfordii Hook.f. (TWHF), has been shown to possess a broad spectrum of biological profiles, including neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects. In our study investigating the effect and potential mechanism of triptolide on cytotoxicity of differentiated rat pheochromocytoma cell line (the PC12 cell line is often used as a neuronal developmental model) induced by Amyloid-Beta25–35 (Aβ25–35), we used 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, Western blot, and acridine orange staining to detect whether triptolide could inhibit Aβ25–35–induced cell apoptosis. We focused on the potential role of the autophagy pathway in Aβ25–35-treated differentiated PC12 cells. Our experiments show that cell viability is significantly decreased, and the apoptosis increased in Aβ25–35-treated differentiated PC12 cells. Meanwhile, Aβ25–35 treatment increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 II (LC3 II), which indicates an activation of autophagy. However, triptolide could protect differentiated PC12 cells against Aβ25–35-induced cytotoxicity and attenuate Aβ25–35-induced differentiated PC12 cell apoptosis. Triptolide could also suppress the level of autophagy. In order to assess the effect of autophagy on the protective effects of triptolide in differentiated PC12 cells treated with Aβ25–35, we used 3-Methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor) and rapamycin (an autophagy activator). MTT assay showed that 3-MA elevated cell viability compared with the Aβ25–35-treated group and rapamycin inhibits the protection of triptolide. These results suggest that triptolide will repair the

  11. Plasma levels of amyloid beta 40 and 42 are independent from ApoE genotype and mental retardation in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cavani, S; Tamaoka, A; Moretti, A; Marinelli, L; Angelini, G; Di Stefano, S; Piombo, G; Cazzulo, V; Matsuno, S; Shoji, S; Furiya, Y; Zaccheo, D; Dagna-Bricarelli, F; Tabaton, M; Mori, H

    2000-11-27

    In Down syndrome (DS) brain an early, selective accumulation of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides ending at residue 42 (Abeta42) occurs. Whether this event depends on an altered processing of amyloid beta precursor protein (APP) or on defective clearance is uncertain. To investigate this issue, we measured Abeta species 40 and 42 in plasma from 61 patients with DS, 77 age-matched normal controls, and 55 mentally retarded subjects without chromosomal abnormalities. The Abeta 40 and 42 plasma levels were then correlated with apolipoprotein E (apoE) genotypes in all groups of cases, and with I. Q. and Mini Mental Status Examination values in DS subjects. Both Abeta species were significantly elevated in DS compared to control groups, and the extent of their increase reflects that expected from APP gene overexpression. Plasma levels of Abeta 40 and 42 did not correlate with apoE genotypes in DS and control cases, and with the extent of mental retardation in DS subjects. The results indicate that accumulation and clearance of plasma and cerebral Abeta are regulated by different and independent factors. PMID:11102927

  12. Phlorotannin-rich Ecklonia cava reduces the production of beta-amyloid by modulating alpha- and gamma-secretase expression and activity.

    PubMed

    Kang, Il-Jun; Jang, Bong Geom; In, Sua; Choi, Boyoung; Kim, Misook; Kim, Min-Ju

    2013-01-01

    Beta-amyloid (Aβ) is a major pathogenic peptide in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and is generated by the processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP). We have previously reported that the brown algae Ecklonia cava, which has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory functions, decreased Aβ production and further aggregation in HEK293 cells expressing the APP Swedish mutation. Here, we show the reduction mechanism of Aβ production using the butanol extract of Ecklonia cava through the examination of expression and activity of alpha-, beta-, and gamma-secretase. Treatment with the extract resulted in the activation of alpha-secretase with a contrasting decrease in its mRNA and protein expression. This activation was consistent with the translocation of the extract into the plasma membrane of the secretase. Gamma-secretase activity was lowered by E. cava, and this effect may be due to the decreased expression of PSEN1 mRNA and protein. In addition, the basal nuclear location of PSEN1, which may affect chromosome missegregation in neurodegenerative disease, was reduced by the extract, despite the significance of this finding remains unclear. Taken together, these results led us to conclude that E. cava regulated the expression and activity of gamma-secretase and alpha-secretase, leading to a reduction in Aβ production by the stable cells. Our data indicate that E. cava is a novel natural-product candidate for AD treatment, although further in vivo studies are needed. PMID:23041113

  13. Osmolyte Induced Changes in Peptide Conformational Ensemble Correlate with Slower Amyloid Aggregation: A Coarse-Grained Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Sukenik, Shahar; Sapir, Liel; Harries, Daniel

    2015-12-01

    Stabilizing osmolytes are known to impact the process of amyloid aggregation, often altering aggregation kinetics. Recent evidence further suggests that osmolytes modify the peptide conformational dynamics, as well as change the physical characteristics of assembling amyloid fibrils. To resolve how these variations emerge on the molecular level, we simulated the initial aggregation steps of an amyloid-forming peptide in the presence and absence of the osmolyte sorbitol, a naturally occurring polyol. To this end, a coarse-grained force field was extended and implemented to access larger aggregate sizes and longer time scales. The force field optimization procedure placed emphasis on calibrating the solution thermodynamics of sorbitol, the aggregating peptide in its monomeric form, and the interaction of both of these components with each other and with water. Our simulations show a difference in aggregation kinetics and structural parameters in the presence of sorbitol compared to water, which qualitatively agree well with our experimentally resolved aggregation kinetics of the same peptide. The kinetic changes induced by sorbitol can be traced in our simulations to changes in monomer conformations resulting from osmolyte presence. These translate into changes in peptide conformations within the aggregated clusters and into differences in rates of monomer nucleation and of association to formed fibrils. We find that, compared to pure water as solvent, the presence of sorbitol induces formation of more aggregates each containing fewer peptides, with an increased tendency toward parallel interpeptide contacts. PMID:26587669

  14. Rho kinase II phosphorylation of the lipoprotein receptor LR11/SORLA alters amyloid-beta production.

    PubMed

    Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Seyfried, Nicholas T; Gearing, Marla; Kahn, Richard A; Peng, Junmin; Levey, Allan I; Lah, James J

    2011-02-25

    LR11, also known as SorLA, is a mosaic low-density lipoprotein receptor that exerts multiple influences on Alzheimer disease susceptibility. LR11 interacts with the amyloid-β precursor protein (APP) and regulates APP traffic and processing to amyloidpeptide (Aβ). The functional domains of LR11 suggest that it can act as a cell surface receptor and as an intracellular sorting receptor for trans-Golgi network to endosome traffic. We show that LR11 over-expressed in HEK293 cells is radiolabeled following incubation of cells with [(32)P(i)]orthophosphate. Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to discover putative LR11 interacting kinases. Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase (ROCK) 2 was identified as a binding partner and a candidate kinase acting on LR11. LR11 and ROCK2 co-immunoprecipitate from post-mortem human brain tissue and drug inhibition of ROCK activity reduces LR11 phosphorylation in vivo. Targeted knockdown of ROCK2 with siRNA decreased LR11 ectodomain shedding while simultaneously increasing intracellular LR11 protein level. Site-directed mutagenesis of serine 2206 in the LR11 cytoplasmic tail reduced LR11 shedding, decreased LR11 phosphorylation in vitro, and abrogated LR11 mediated Aβ reduction. These findings provide direct evidence that LR11 is phosphorylated in vivo and indicate that ROCK2 phosphorylation of LR11 may enhance LR11 mediated processing of APP and amyloid production. PMID:21147781

  15. Protein corona composition of gold nanoparticles/nanorods affects amyloid beta fibrillation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsadeghi, Somayeh; Dinarvand, Rassoul; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hossein; Hormozi-Nezhad, Mohammad Reza; Mahmoudi, Zohreh; Hajipour, Mohammad Javad; Atyabi, Fatemeh; Ghavami, Mahdi; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2015-03-01

    Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (Aβ) and α-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades, nanoparticles (NPs) were recognized as one of the most promising tools for inhibiting the progress of the disease by controlling the fibrillation kinetic process; for instance, gold NPs have a strong capability to inhibit Aβ fibrillations. It is now well understood that a layer of biomolecules would cover the surface of NPs (so called ``protein corona'') upon the interaction of NPs with protein sources. Due to the fact that the biological species (e.g., cells and amyloidal proteins) ``see'' the protein corona coated NPs rather than the pristine coated particles, one should monitor the fibrillation process of amyloidal proteins in the presence of corona coated NPs (and not pristine coated ones). Therefore, the previously obtained data on NPs effects on the fibrillation process should be modified to achieve a more reliable and predictable in vivo results. Herein, we probed the effects of various gold NPs (with different sizes and shapes) on the fibrillation process of Aβ in the presence and absence of protein sources (i.e., serum and plasma). We found that the protein corona formed a shell at the surface of gold NPs, regardless of their size and shape, reducing the access of Aβ to the gold inhibitory surface and, therefore, affecting the rate of Aβ fibril formation. More specifically, the anti-fibrillation potencies of various corona coated gold NPs were strongly dependent on the protein source and their concentrations (10% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vitro milieu) and 100% serum/plasma (simulation of an in vivo milieu)).Protein fibrillation process (e.g., from amyloid beta (Aβ) and α-synuclein) is the main cause of several catastrophic neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson diseases. During the past few decades

  16. Spectroscopic investigation of Ginkgo biloba terpene trilactones and their interaction with amyloid peptide Aβ(25-35)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jiangtao; Petrovic, Ana G.; Dzyuba, Sergei V.; Berova, Nina; Nakanishi, Koji; Polavarapu, Prasad L.

    2008-04-01

    The beneficial effects of Ginkgo biloba extract in the "treatment" of dementia are attributed to its terpene trilactone (TTL) constituents. The interactions between TTLs and amyloid peptide are believed to be responsible in preventing the aggregation of peptide. These interactions have been investigated using infrared vibrational absorption (VA) and circular dichroism (VCD) spectra. Four TTLs, namely ginkgolide A (GA), ginkgolide B (GB), ginkgolide C (GC) and bilobalide (BB) and amyloid Aβ(25-35) peptide, as a model for the full length peptide, are used in this study. GA-monoether and GA-diether have also been synthesized and investigated to help understand the role of individual carbonyl groups in these interactions. The precipitation and solubility issues encountered with the mixture of ginkgolide + Aβ peptide for VA and VCD studies were overcome using binary ethanol-D 2O solvent mixture. The experimental VA and VCD spectra of GA, GB, GC and BB, GA-monoether and GA-diether have been analyzed using the corresponding spectra predicted with density functional theory. The time-dependent experimental VA and VCD spectra of Aβ(25-35) peptide and the corresponding experimental spectra in the presence of TTLs indicated that the effect of the TTLs in modulating the aggregation of Aβ(25-35) peptide is relatively small. Such small effects might indicate the absence of a specific interaction between the TTLs and Aβ(25-35) peptide as a major force leading to the reduced aggregation of amyloid peptides. It is possible that the therapeutic effect of G. biloba extract does not originate from direct interactions between TTLs and the Aβ(25-35) peptide and is more complex.

  17. Intrinsic excitability changes induced by acute treatment of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons with exogenous amyloid β peptide.

    PubMed

    Tamagnini, Francesco; Scullion, Sarah; Brown, Jon T; Randall, Andrew D

    2015-07-01

    Accumulation of beta-amyloid (Aβ) peptides in the human brain is a canonical pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recent work in Aβ-overexpressing transgenic mice indicates that increased brain Aβ levels can be associated with aberrant epileptiform activity. In line with this, such mice can also exhibit altered intrinsic excitability (IE) of cortical and hippocampal neurons: these observations may relate to the increased prevalence of seizures in AD patients. In this study, we examined what changes in IE are produced in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells after 2-5 h treatment with an oligomeric preparation of synthetic human Aβ 1-42 peptide. Whole cell current clamp recordings were compared between Aβ-(500 nM) and vehicle-(DMSO 0.05%) treated hippocampal slices obtained from mice. The soluble Aβ treatment did not produce alterations in sub-threshold intrinsic properties, including membrane potential, input resistance, and hyperpolarization activated "sag". Similarly, no changes were noted in the firing profile evoked by 500 ms square current supra-threshold stimuli. However, Aβ 500 nM treatment resulted in the hyperpolarization of the action potential (AP) threshold. In addition, treatment with Aβ at 500 nM depressed the after-hyperpolarization that followed both a single AP or 50 Hz trains of a number of APs between 5 and 25. These data suggest that acute exposure to soluble Aβ oligomers affects IE properties of CA1 pyramidal neurons differently from outcomes seen in transgenic models of amyloidopathy. However, in both chronic and acute models, the IE changes are toward hyperexcitability, reinforcing the idea that amyloidopathy and increased incidence in seizures might be causally related in AD patients. PMID:25515596

  18. Longitudinal neuropsychological findings in amyloid beta-related angiitis (AβRA): a case report.

    PubMed

    Omisade, Antonina; Rigby, Heather; Easton, Alexander; Phillips, Stephen J; Carter, Sherri L

    2013-01-01

    Amyloid β-related angiitis (AβRA) is a clinicopathological diagnosis of primary central nervous system angiitis theoretically triggered by vascular deposition of amyloid β peptide. Deposits of Aβ are associated with degeneration of the vasculature, thereby increasing risks of a stroke and/or cognitive impairment. Despite this, no prior studies have presented a detailed neuropsychological profile associated with AβRA. We present longitudinal neuropsychological findings for the case of a 58-year-old man with biopsy-diagnosed AβRA. Neuropsychological test results and clinical presentation demonstrated a mild to moderate dysexecutive syndrome implicating dorsolateral frontal and orbitofrontal-subcortical systems involvement. Despite prior reports of cognitive decline following a diagnosis of AβRA, cognitive functioning remained relatively stable over a 15-month period after immunosuppressive treatment. For the most part, objective measures did not demonstrate a measurable change in cognitive functioning, except for a mild decline in memory. There were subjective reports of improvement in cognitive and adaptive functioning from the patient and his spouse over this time period. The clinical significance of these results is discussed in the context of theories of executive dysfunction, and with reference to previously-published cases of AβRA. PMID:23244572

  19. Polarization properties of amyloid-beta plaques in Alzheimer's disease (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, Bernhard; Wöhrer, Adelheid; Ricken, Gerda; Pircher, Michael; Kovacs, Gabor G.; Hitzenberger, Christoph K.

    2016-03-01

    In histopathological practice, birefringence is used for the identification of amyloidosis in numerous tissues. Amyloid birefringence is caused by the parallel arrangement of fibrous protein aggregates. Since neurodegenerative processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are also linked to the formation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, optical methods sensitive to birefringence may act as non-invasive tools for Aβ identification. At last year's Photonics West, we demonstrated polarization-sensitive optical coherence tomography (PS-OCT) imaging of ex vivo cerebral tissue of advanced stage AD patients. PS-OCT provides volumetric, structural imaging based on both backscatter contrast and tissue polarization properties. In this presentation, we report on polarization-sensitive neuroimaging along with numerical simulations of three-dimensional Aβ plaques. High speed PS-OCT imaging was performed using a spectral domain approach based on polarization maintaining fiber optics. The sample beam was interfaced to a confocal scanning microscope arrangement. Formalin-fixed tissue samples as well as thin histological sections were imaged. For comparison to the PS-OCT results, ray propagation through plaques was modeled using Jones analysis and various illumination geometries and plaque sizes. Characteristic polarization patterns were found. The results of this study may not only help to understand PS-OCT imaging of neuritic Aβ plaques but may also have implications for polarization-sensitive imaging of other fibrillary structures.

  20. Is pathological aging a successful resistance against amyloid-beta or preclinical Alzheimer's disease?

    PubMed

    Murray, Melissa E; Dickson, Dennis W

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with pathological aging, a form of cerebral amyloidosis in older people, have widespread extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) senile plaque deposits in the setting of limited neurofibrillary tau pathology. Unlike the characteristic finding of antemortem cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease patients, individuals with pathological aging usually lack cognitive impairment despite similar Aβ senile plaque burdens. It has been hypothesized that protective or resistance factors may underlie pathological aging, thus minimizing or preventing deleterious effects on cognition. Despite increasing interest and recognition, a review of the literature remains challenging given the range of terms used to describe pathological aging. This debate briefly reviews neuropathologic and biochemical evidence that pathological aging individuals have resistance factors to Aβ plaque pathology. Additionally, we will discuss evidence of pathological aging as an intermediate between normal individuals and Alzheimer's disease patients, and discuss protective or resistance factors against vascular disease and neurofibrillary pathology. Lastly, we will emphasize the need for longitudinal biomarker evidence using amyloid positron emission tomography, which will provide a better understanding of the kinetics of Aβ deposition in pathological aging. PMID:25031637

  1. Walnut extract inhibits the fibrillization of amyloid beta-protein, and also defibrillizes its preformed fibrils.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Neha; Wang, K C; Wegiel, Jerzy; Malik, Mazhar N

    2004-08-01

    Fibrillar amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) is the principal component of amyloid plaques in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease. We have studied the effect of walnut extract on Abeta fibrillization by Thioflavin T fluorescence spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The walnut extract not only inhibited Abeta fibril formation in a concentration and time- dependent manner but it was also able to defibrillize Abeta preformed fibrils. Over 90% inhibition of Abeta fibrillization was observed with 5 microl of methanolic extract of walnut (MEOW) both after 2 and 3 days of incubation. The maximum defibrillization (91.6%) was observed when preformed Abeta fibrils were incubated with 10 microl of MEOW for 2 days. These results suggest that walnuts may reduce the risk or delay the onset of Alzheimer's disease by maintaining Abeta in the soluble form. Further studies showed that anti-amyloidogenic compound in walnut is an organic compound of molecular weight less than 10 kDa, which is neither a lipid nor a protein. Chloroform extract of walnut had no effect on Abeta fibrillization while MEOW and its 10 kDa filtrate inhibited Abeta fibrillization equally. It is proposed that polyphenolic compounds (such as flavonoids) present in walnuts may be responsible for its anti-amyloidogenic activity. PMID:15975066

  2. In vitro screening on amyloid beta modulation of aqueous extracts from plant seeds

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshinori; Okada, Mizue

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Glycation process might contribute to both extensive protein cross-linking and oxidative stress in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The amyloid-like aggregation of glycated bovine serum albumin induces apoptosis in the neuronal cell. Dietary supplementation of antioxidants, vitamins, and polyphenols are beneficial to AD, and consumption of fruits and vegetables reduce the risk of AD. We conducted a screening of 14 aqueous extracts from plant seeds (PSAE) for inhibitory activity on amyloid beta (Aβ). Materials and Methods: To examine the effects of PSAE on the Aβ (1–42) concentration, PSAE were analyzed by Aβ (1–42) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Furthermore, we carried out an antiglycation experiment of PSAE and an antiaggregation experiment of PSAE to confirm the modification mechanism of PSAE. PSAE were added to buffer containing D-ribose and albumins. The solutions were incubated at 37°C for 10 days. After incubation, the products were assayed on a fluorophotometer. Results: PSAE associated differential reduction in the levels of Aβ (1–42) (lettuce; 98.7% ± 2.4%, bitter melon; 95.9% ± 2.6%, and corn; 93.9% ± 2.1%), demonstrating that treatment with lettuce seeds extracts (LSE) effectively decreases Aβ (1–42) concentration. Among the 14 PSAE, LSE exhibited the second greatest potential for antiglycation. Inhibition of aggregates was not recognized in LSE. Conclusion: These results suggest that LSE reduces the toxicity of Aβ by modifying Aβ. PMID:27134467

  3. X-ray crystal structure of the protease inhibitor domain of Alzheimer's amyloid. beta. -protein precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Hynes, T.R.; Randal, M.; Kennedy, L.A.; Eigenbrot, C.; Kossiakoff, A.A. Univ. of California, San Francisco )

    1990-10-01

    Alzheimer's amyloid {beta}-protein precursor contains a Kunitz protease inhibitor domain (APPI) potentially involved in proteolytic events leading to cerebral amyloid deposition. To facilitate the identification of the physiological target of the inhibitor, the crystal structure of APPI has been determined and refined to 1.5-{Angstrom} resolution. Sequences in the inhibitor-protease interface of the correct protease target will reflect the molecular details of the APPI structure. While the overall tertiary fold of APPI is very similar to that of the Kunitz inhibitor BPTI, a significant rearrangement occurs in the backbone conformation of one of the two protease binding loops. A number of Kunitz inhibitors have similar loop sequences, indicating the structural alteration is conserved and potentially an important determinant of inhibitor specificity. In a separate region of the protease binding loops, APPI side chains Met-17 and Phe-34 create an exposed hydrophobic surface in place of Arg-17 and Val-34 in BPTI. The restriction this change places on protease target sequences is seen when the structure of APPI is superimposed on BPTI complexed to serine proteases, where the hydrophobic surface of APPI faces a complementary group of nonpolar side chains on kallikrein A versus polar side chains on trypsin.

  4. Physiological amyloid-beta clearance in the periphery and its therapeutic potential for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yang; Bu, Xian-Le; Liu, Yu-Hui; Zhu, Chi; Shen, Lin-Lin; Jiao, Shu-Sheng; Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Giunta, Brian; Tan, Jun; Song, Wei-Hong; Zhou, Hua-Dong; Zhou, Xin-Fu; Wang, Yan-Jiang

    2015-10-01

    Amyloid-beta (Aβ) plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The physiological capacity of peripheral tissues and organs in clearing brain-derived Aβ and its therapeutic potential for AD remains largely unknown. Here, we measured blood Aβ levels in different locations of the circulation in humans and mice, and used a parabiosis model to investigate the effect of peripheral Aβ catabolism on AD pathogenesis. We found that blood Aβ levels in the inferior/posterior vena cava were lower than that in the superior vena cava in both humans and mice. In addition, injected (125)I labeled Aβ40 was located mostly in the liver, kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and skin but very little in the brain; suggesting that Aβ derived from the brain can be cleared in the periphery. Parabiosis before and after Aβ deposition in the brain significantly reduced brain Aβ burden without alterations in the expression of amyloid precursor protein, Aβ generating and degrading enzymes, Aβ transport receptors, and AD-type pathologies including hyperphosphorylated tau, neuroinflammation, as well as neuronal degeneration and loss in the brains of parabiotic AD mice. Our study revealed that the peripheral system is potent in clearing brain Aβ and preventing AD pathogenesis. The present work suggests that peripheral Aβ clearance is a valid therapeutic approach for AD, and implies that deficits in the Aβ clearance in the periphery might also contribute to AD pathogenesis. PMID:26363791

  5. Structural and Mechanical Properties of Amyloid Beta Fibrils: A Combined Experimental and Theoretical Approach.

    PubMed

    Paul, Thomas J; Hoffmann, Zachary; Wang, Congzhou; Shanmugasundaram, Maruda; DeJoannis, Jason; Shekhtman, Alexander; Lednev, Igor K; Yadavalli, Vamsi K; Prabhakar, Rajeev

    2016-07-21

    In this combined experimental (deep ultraviolet resonance Raman (DUVRR) spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM)) and theoretical (molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and stress-strain (SS)) study, the structural and mechanical properties of amyloid beta (Aβ40) fibrils have been investigated. The DUVRR spectroscopy and AFM experiments confirmed the formation of linear, unbranched and β-sheet rich fibrils. The fibrils (Aβ40)n, formed using n monomers, were equilibrated using all-atom MD simulations. The structural properties such as β-sheet character, twist, interstrand distance, and periodicity of these fibrils were found to be in agreement with experimental measurements. Furthermore, Young's modulus (Y) = 4.2 GPa computed using SS calculations was supported by measured values of 1.79 ± 0.41 and 3.2 ± 0.8 GPa provided by two separate AFM experiments. These results revealed size dependence of structural and material properties of amyloid fibrils and show the utility of such combined experimental and theoretical studies in the design of precisely engineered biomaterials. PMID:27387853

  6. Gray matter network disruptions and amyloid beta in cognitively normal adults.

    PubMed

    Tijms, Betty M; ten Kate, Mara; Wink, Alle Meije; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Ecay, Mirian; Clerigue, Montserrat; Estanga, Ainara; Garcia Sebastian, Maite; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Martinez Lage, Pablo; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sanz Arigita, Ernesto; Barkhof, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Gray matter networks are disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear when these disruptions start during the development of AD. Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42) is among the earliest changes in AD. We studied, in cognitively healthy adults, the relationship between Aβ42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures. Single-subject gray matter networks were extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in a sample of cognitively healthy adults (N = 185; age range 39-79, mini-mental state examination >25, N = 12 showed abnormal Aβ42 < 550 pg/mL). Degree, clustering coefficient, and path length were computed at whole brain level and for 90 anatomical areas. Associations between continuous Aβ42 CSF levels and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures were tested. Smoothing splines were used to determine whether a linear or nonlinear relationship gave a better fit to the data. Lower Aβ42 CSF levels were linearly associated at whole brain level with lower connectivity density, and nonlinearly with lower clustering values and higher path length values, which is indicative of a less-efficient network organization. These relationships were specific to medial temporal areas, precuneus, and the middle frontal gyrus (all p < 0.05). These results suggest that mostly within the normal spectrum of amyloid, lower Aβ42 levels can be related to gray matter networks disruptions. PMID:26559882

  7. The interaction with gold suppresses fiber-like conformations of the amyloid β (16-22) peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucci, Luca; Ardèvol, Albert; Parrinello, Michele; Lutz, Helmut; Lu, Hao; Weidner, Tobias; Corni, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    Inorganic surfaces and nanoparticles can accelerate or inhibit the fibrillation process of proteins and peptides, including the biomedically relevant amyloid β peptide. However, the microscopic mechanisms that determine such an effect are still poorly understood. By means of large-scale, state-of-the-art enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, here we identify an interaction mechanism between the segments 16-22 of the amyloid β peptide, known to be fibrillogenic by itself, and the Au(111) surface in water that leads to the suppression of fiber-like conformations from the peptide conformational ensemble. Moreover, thanks to advanced simulation analysis techniques, we characterize the conformational selection vs. induced fit nature of the gold effect. Our results disclose an inhibition mechanism that is rooted in the details of the microscopic peptide-surface interaction rather than in general phenomena such as peptide sequestration from the solution.Inorganic surfaces and nanoparticles can accelerate or inhibit the fibrillation process of proteins and peptides, including the biomedically relevant amyloid β peptide. However, the microscopic mechanisms that determine such an effect are still poorly understood. By means of large-scale, state-of-the-art enhanced sampling molecular dynamics simulations, here we identify an interaction mechanism between the segments 16-22 of the amyloid β peptide, known to be fibrillogenic by itself, and the Au(111) surface in water that leads to the suppression of fiber-like conformations from the peptide conformational ensemble. Moreover, thanks to advanced simulation analysis techniques, we characterize the conformational selection vs. induced fit nature of the gold effect. Our results disclose an inhibition mechanism that is rooted in the details of the microscopic peptide-surface interaction rather than in general phenomena such as peptide sequestration from the solution. Electronic supplementary information (ESI

  8. Amyloid β peptide stimulates platelet activation through RhoA-dependent modulation of actomyosin organization.

    PubMed

    Sonkar, Vijay K; Kulkarni, Paresh P; Dash, Debabrata

    2014-04-01

    Platelets contribute to 95% of circulating amyloid precursor protein in the body and have widely been employed as a "peripheral" model of neurons in Alzheimer's disease. We sought to analyze the effects of amyloid β (Aβ) on platelets and to understand the underlying molecular mechanism. The Aβ active fragment containing amino acid sequence 25-35 (Aβ(25-35); 10-20 μM) was found to induce strong aggregation of human platelets, granule release, and integrin activation, similar to that elicited by physiological agonists. Platelets exposed to Aβ(25-35) retracted fibrin clot and displayed augmented adhesion to collagen under arterial shear, reflective of a switch to prothrombotic phenotype. Exposure of platelets to Aβ peptide (20 μM) resulted in a 4.2- and 2.3-fold increase in phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and MLC phosphatase, respectively, which was reversed by Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho-associated coiled-coil protein kinase (ROCK). Aβ(25-35)-induced platelet aggregation and clot retraction were also significantly attenuated by Y27632. Consistent with these findings, Aβ(25-35) elicited a significant rise in the level of RhoA-GTP in platelets. Platelets pretreated with reverse-sequenced Aβ fragment (Aβ(35-25)) and untreated resting platelets served as controls. We conclude that Aβ induces cellular activation through RhoA-dependent modulation of actomyosin, and hence, RhoA could be a potential therapeutic target in Alzheimer's disease and cerebral amyloid angiopathy. PMID:24421399

  9. Structural characterization of adsorbed helical and beta-sheet peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samuel, Newton Thangadurai

    Adsorbed peptides on surfaces have potential applications in the fields of biomaterials, tissue engineering, peptide microarrays and nanobiotechnology. The surface region, the "biomolecular interface" between a material and the biological environment, plays a crucial role in these applications. As a result, characterization of adsorbed peptide structure, especially with respect to identity, concentration, spatial distribution, conformation and orientation, is important. The present research employs NEXAFS (near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy) and SFG (sum frequency generation spectroscopy) to provide information about the adsorbed peptide structure. Soft X-ray NEXAFS is a synchrotron-based technique which typically utilizes polarized X-rays to interrogate surfaces under ultra-high vacuum conditions. SFG is a non-linear optical technique which utilizes a combination of a fixed visible and a tunable infrared laser beams to generate a surface-vibrational spectrum of surface species. SFG has the added advantage of being able to directly analyze the surface-structure at the solid-liquid interface. The main goals of the present research were twofold: characterize the structure of adsorbed peptides (1) ex situ using soft X-ray NEXAFS, and (2) in situ using non-linear laser spectroscopy (SFG). Achieving the former goal involved first developing a comprehensive characterization of the carbon, nitrogen and oxygen k-edge NEXAFS spectra for amino acids, and then using a series of helical and beta-sheet peptides to demonstrate the sensitivity of polarization-dependent NEXAFS to secondary structure of adsorbed peptides. Characterizing the structure of adsorbed peptides in situ using SFG involved developing a model system to probe the solid-liquid interface in situ; demonstrating the ability to probe the molecular interactions and adsorbed secondary structure; following the time-dependent ordering of the adsorbed peptides; and establishing the ability to obtain

  10. Modeling of Platinum-Aryl Interaction with AmyloidPeptide.

    PubMed

    Turner, Matthew; Platts, James A; Deeth, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Ligand field molecular mechanics (LFMM), density functional theory (DFT), and semiempirical PM7 methods are used to study the binding of two Pt(II)-L systems to an N-terminal fragment of the amyloidpeptide, where L = 2,2-bipyridyl or 1,10-phenanthroline. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to explore the conformational freedom of the peptide using LFMM combined with AMBER molecular mechanics parameters. We establish a modeling protocol, allowing for identification and analysis of favorable platinum-binding modes and peptide conformations. Preferred binding modes are identified for each ligand investigated; metal coordination occurs via Nε in His residues for both ligands - His6ε-His13ε and His6ε-His14ε for the bipyridyl and phenanthroline ligands, respectively. The observed change in binding mode for the different ligands suggests that the binding mode of these platinum-based structures can be controlled by the choice of ligand. In the bipy systems, Boltzmann population at 310 K is dominated by a single conformer, while in the phenanthroline case, three conformations make significant contributions to the ensemble. The relative stability of these conformations is due to the inherent stability of binding platinum via Nε in addition to subtle H-bonding effects. PMID:26756469

  11. Effects of Amyloid β-Peptides on the Lysis Tension of Lipid Bilayer Vesicles Containing Oxysterols

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dennis H.; Frangos, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Amyloid β-peptides (Aβ) applied directly from solution to model lipid membranes produced dramatic changes in the material properties of the bilayer when certain oxysterols were present in the bilayer. These effects were dependent on both lipid and peptide composition, and occurred at peptide concentrations as low as 100 nM. Using micropipette manipulation of giant unilamellar vesicles, we directly measured the lysis tension of lipid bilayers of various compositions. The glycerophospholipid 1-stearoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (SOPC) constituted the main lipid component at 70 mol %. The remaining 30 mol % was composed of the following pure or mixed sterols: cholesterol (CHOL), 7-ketocholesterol (KETO), or 7β-hydroxycholesterol (OHCHOL). SOPC/CHOL bilayers did not exhibit significant changes in mechanical properties after exposure to either Aβ(1–42) or Aβ(1–40). Partial substitution of CHOL with KETO (5 mol %), however, caused a drastic reduction of the lysis tension after exposure to Aβ(1–42) but not to Aβ(1–40). Partial substitution of CHOL with OHCHOL (5 mol %) caused a drastic reduction of the lysis tension after exposure to Aβ(1–40) and to Aβ(1–42). We attribute these effects to the reduction in intermolecular cohesive interactions caused by the presence of the second dipole of oxysterols, which reduces the energetic barrier for Aβ insertion into the bilayer. PMID:18390616

  12. Lower levels of cerebrospinal fluid amyloid beta (Abeta) in non-demented Indian controls.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sarada; Sandhyarani, Boya; Shree, A N Divya; Murthy, K Krishna; Kalyani, K; Kumar, S Praveen; Pradeep; Noone, Mohin Jeslie; Taly, A B

    2006-10-23

    Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in Indian population is lower than in developed countries. To determine whether limitation of amyloid beta (Abeta) concentration may be responsible for lower rate of incidence, we measured the levels of Abeta in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collected from 72 non-demented individuals ranging in the age from 20 years to 65 years. These samples were segregated into three groups ranging from 20-35 years, 36-50 years and 51-65 years of age. Levels of Abeta could be detected in all the age groups and they were much lower than the values reported in literature from the developed countries. No significant difference in the average level of Ass was observed with increase in age. PMID:16978775

  13. Amyloid Beta and Tau Proteins as Therapeutic Targets for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment: Rethinking the Current Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Mondragón-Rodríguez, Siddhartha; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Boehm, Jannic

    2012-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is defined by the concurrence of accumulation of abnormal aggregates composed of two proteins: Amyloid beta (Aβ) and tau, and of cellular changes including neurite degeneration and loss of neurons and cognitive functions. Based on their strong association with disease, genetically and pathologically, it is not surprising that there has been a focus towards developing therapies against the aggregated structures. Unfortunately, current therapies have but mild benefit. With this in mind we will focus on the relationship of synaptic plasticity with Aβ and tau protein and their role as potential targets for the development of therapeutic drugs. Finally, we will provide perspectives in developing a multifactorial strategy for AD treatment. PMID:22482074

  14. Indirubin-3′-monoxime suppresses amyloid-beta-induced apoptosis by inhibiting tau hyperphosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu-gang; Wang, Xiao-shan; Zhang, Ying-dong; Di, Qing; Shi, Jing-ping; Qian, Min; Xu, Li-gang; Lin, Xing-jian; Lu, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Indirubin-3′-monoxime is an effective inhibitor of cyclin-dependent protein kinases, and may play an obligate role in neuronal apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease. Here, we found that indirubin-3′-monoxime improved the morphology and increased the survival rate of SH-SY5Y cells exposed to amyloid-beta 25–35 (Aβ25–35), and also suppressed apoptosis by reducing tau phosphorylation at Ser199 and Thr205. Furthermore, indirubin-3′-monoxime inhibited phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Our results suggest that indirubin-3′-monoxime reduced Aβ25–35-induced apoptosis by suppressing tau hyperphosphorylation via a GSK-3β-mediated mechanism. Indirubin-3′-monoxime is a promising drug candidate for Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27482230

  15. Beta-Amyloid Oligomers Activate Apoptotic BAK Pore for Cytochrome c Release

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaewook; Yang, Yoosoo; Song, Seung Soo; Na, Jung-Hyun; Oh, Kyoung Joon; Jeong, Cherlhyun; Yu, Yeon Gyu; Shin, Yeon-Kyun

    2014-01-01

    In Alzheimer’s disease, cytochrome c-dependent apoptosis is a crucial pathway in neuronal cell death. Although beta-amyloid (Aβ) oligomers are known to be the neurotoxins responsible for neuronal cell death, the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we report that the oligomeric form of synthetic Aβ of 42 amino acids elicits death of HT-22 cells. But, when expression of a bcl-2 family protein BAK is suppressed by siRNA, Aβ oligomer-induced cell death was reduced. Furthermore, significant reduction of cytochrome c release was observed with mitochondria isolated from BAK siRNA-treated HT-22 cells. Our in vitro experiments demonstrate that Aβ oligomers bind to BAK on the membrane and induce apoptotic BAK pores and cytochrome c release. Thus, the results suggest that Aβ oligomers function as apoptotic ligands and hijack the intrinsic apoptotic pathway to cause unintended neuronal cell death. PMID:25296312

  16. S-nitrosylation of Drp1 mediates beta-amyloid-related mitochondrial fission and neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Cho, Dong-Hyung; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Fang, Jianguo; Cieplak, Piotr; Godzik, Adam; Gu, Zezong; Lipton, Stuart A

    2009-04-01

    Mitochondria continuously undergo two opposing processes, fission and fusion. The disruption of this dynamic equilibrium may herald cell injury or death and may contribute to developmental and neurodegenerative disorders. Nitric oxide functions as a signaling molecule, but in excess it mediates neuronal injury, in part via mitochondrial fission or fragmentation. However, the underlying mechanism for nitric oxide-induced pathological fission remains unclear. We found that nitric oxide produced in response to beta-amyloid protein, thought to be a key mediator of Alzheimer's disease, triggered mitochondrial fission, synaptic loss, and neuronal damage, in part via S-nitrosylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (forming SNO-Drp1). Preventing nitrosylation of Drp1 by cysteine mutation abrogated these neurotoxic events. SNO-Drp1 is increased in brains of human Alzheimer's disease patients and may thus contribute to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration. PMID:19342591

  17. Transfer of beta-amyloid precursor protein gene using adenovirus vector causes mitochondrial abnormalities in cultured normal human muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Askanas, V; McFerrin, J; Baqué, S; Alvarez, R B; Sarkozi, E; Engel, W K

    1996-01-01

    As in Alzheimer-disease (AD) brain, vacuolated muscle fibers of inclusion-body myositis (IBM) contain abnormally accumulated beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP), including its beta-amyloid protein epitope, and increased beta APP-751 mRNA. Other similarities between IBM muscle and AD brain phenotypes include paired helical filaments, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, apolipoprotein E, and mitochondrial abnormalities, including decreased cytochrome-c oxidase (COX) activity. The pathogenesis of these abnormalities in IBM muscle and AD brain is not known. We now report that direct transfer of the beta APP gene, using adenovirus vector, into cultured normal human muscle fibers causes structural abnormalities of mitochondria and decreased COX activity. In this adenovirus-mediated beta APP gene transfer, we demonstrated that beta APP overproduction can induce mitochondrial abnormalities. The data suggest that excessive beta APP may be responsible for mitochondrial and COX abnormalities in IBM muscle and perhaps AD brain. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8577761

  18. Mitofusin-2 knockdown increases ER-mitochondria contact and decreases amyloid β-peptide production.

    PubMed

    Leal, Nuno Santos; Schreiner, Bernadette; Pinho, Catarina Moreira; Filadi, Riccardo; Wiehager, Birgitta; Karlström, Helena; Pizzo, Paola; Ankarcrona, Maria

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria are physically and biochemically in contact with other organelles including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Such contacts are formed between mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAM), specialized subregions of ER, and the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM). We have previously shown increased expression of MAM-associated proteins and enhanced ER to mitochondria Ca(2+) transfer from ER to mitochondria in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyloid β-peptide (Aβ)-related neuronal models. Here, we report that siRNA knockdown of mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), a protein that is involved in the tethering of ER and mitochondria, leads to increased contact between the two organelles. Cells depleted in Mfn2 showed increased Ca(2+) transfer from ER to mitchondria and longer stretches of ER forming contacts with OMM. Interestingly, increased contact resulted in decreased concentrations of intra- and extracellular Aβ40 and Aβ42 . Analysis of γ-secretase protein expression, maturation and activity revealed that the low Aβ concentrations were a result of impaired γ-secretase complex function. Amyloid-β precursor protein (APP), β-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 and neprilysin expression as well as neprilysin activity were not affected by Mfn2 siRNA treatment. In summary, our data shows that modulation of ER-mitochondria contact affects γ-secretase activity and Aβ generation. Increased ER-mitochondria contact results in lower γ-secretase activity suggesting a new mechanism by which Aβ generation can be controlled. PMID:27203684

  19. AMP-activated Protein Kinase Signaling Activation by Resveratrol Modulates AmyloidPeptide Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Vingtdeux, Valérie; Giliberto, Luca; Zhao, Haitian; Chandakkar, Pallavi; Wu, Qingli; Simon, James E.; Janle, Elsa M.; Lobo, Jessica; Ferruzzi, Mario G.; Davies, Peter; Marambaud, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Alzheimer disease is an age-related neurodegenerative disorder characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide deposition into cerebral amyloid plaques. The natural polyphenol resveratrol promotes anti-aging pathways via the activation of several metabolic sensors, including the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Resveratrol also lowers Aβ levels in cell lines; however, the underlying mechanism responsible for this effect is largely unknown. Moreover, the bioavailability of resveratrol in the brain remains uncertain. Here we show that AMPK signaling controls Aβ metabolism and mediates the anti-amyloidogenic effect of resveratrol in non-neuronal and neuronal cells, including in mouse primary neurons. Resveratrol increased cytosolic calcium levels and promoted AMPK activation by the calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase-β. Direct pharmacological and genetic activation of AMPK lowered extracellular Aβ accumulation, whereas AMPK inhibition reduced the effect of resveratrol on Aβ levels. Furthermore, resveratrol inhibited the AMPK target mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) to trigger autophagy and lysosomal degradation of Aβ. Finally, orally administered resveratrol in mice was detected in the brain where it activated AMPK and reduced cerebral Aβ levels and deposition in the cortex. These data suggest that resveratrol and pharmacological activation of AMPK have therapeutic potential against Alzheimer disease. PMID:20080969

  20. Monocyte-mediated regulation of genes by the amyloid and prion peptides in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Morte, Beatriz; Martínez, Tamara; Zambrano, Alberto; Pascual, Angel

    2011-05-01

    Alzheimer's disease as well as prion-related encephalopathies are neurodegenerative disorders of the central nervous system, which cause mental deterioration and progressive dementia. Both pathologies appear to be primarily associated with the pathological accumulation and deposit of β-amyloid or prion peptides in the brain, and it has been even suggested that neurotoxicity induced by these peptides would be associated to essentially similar pathogenic mechanisms, in particular to those that follow the activation of microglial cells. To probe whether the neurotoxic effects induced by the β-amyloid and prion peptides are actually mediated by similar glial-associated mechanisms, we have examined the differential expression of genes in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells incubated with conditioned media from β-amyloid or prion-stimulated THP-1 monocytic cells. According to microarray analysis, not many coincidences are observed and only four genes (Hint3, Psph, Daam1 and c-Jun) appear to be commonly upregulated by both peptides. Furthermore, c-Jun appears to be involved in the cell death mediated by both peptides. PMID:21303680

  1. Amyloid properties of the leader peptide of variant B cystatin C: implications for Alzheimer and macular degeneration.

    PubMed

    Sant'Anna, Ricardo; Navarro, Susanna; Ventura, Salvador; Paraoan, Luminita; Foguel, Debora

    2016-03-01

    Variant B (VB) of cystatin C has a mutation in its signal peptide (A25T), which interferes with its processing leading to reduced secretion and partial retention in the vicinity of the mitochondria. There are genetic evidences of the association of VB with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Here, we investigated aggregation and amyloid propensities of unprocessed VB combining computational and in vitro studies. Aggregation predictors revealed the presence of four aggregation-prone regions, with a strong one at the level of the signal peptide, which indeed formed toxic aggregates and mature amyloid fibrils in solution. In light of these results, we propose for the first time the role of the signal peptide in pathogenesis of AD and AMD. PMID:26865059

  2. Peptidomimetic β-Secretase Inhibitors Comprising a Sequence of AmyloidPeptide for Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Vila-Real, Helder; Coelho, Helena; Rocha, João; Fernandes, Adelaide; Ventura, M Rita; Maycock, Christopher D; Iranzo, Olga; Simplício, Ana L

    2015-07-23

    Alzheimer's disease is a grave social problem in an aging population. A major problem is the passage of drugs through the blood-brain barrier. This work tests the hypothesis that the conjugation of peptidomimetic β-secretase inhibitors with a fragment of amyloidpeptide facilitates entrance into the central nervous system. HVR-3 (compound 4), one of the conjugation products, was found to be as potent as OM00-3, a known peptidomimetic inhibitor, 4-fold more selective toward β-secretase 1 in relation to β-secretase 2 and 3-fold more resistant to in vitro metabolization in human serum. Its intravenous administration to mice and Wistar rats generated an active metabolite recovered from the rodent's brains. PMID:26061085

  3. Ginsenoside compound K promotes β-amyloid peptide clearance in primary astrocytes via autophagy enhancement.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinhui; Chang, Li; Zhang, Xin; Pei, Sujuan; Yu, Meishuang; Gao, Jianlian

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginsenoside compound K on β-amyloid (Aβ) peptide clearance in primary astrocytes. Aβ degradation in primary astrocytes was determined using an intracellular Aβ clearance assay. Aggregated LC3 in astrocyte cells, which is a marker for the level of autophagy, was detected using laser scanning confocal microscope. The effect of compound K on the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/autophagy pathway was determined using western blot analysis, and an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used for Aβ detection. The results demonstrated that compound K promoted the clearance of Aβ and enhanced autophagy in primary astrocytes. In addition, it was found that phosphorylation of mTOR was inhibited by compound K, which may have contributed to the enhanced autophagy. In conclusion, compound K promotes Aβ clearance by enhancing autophagy via the mTOR signaling pathway in primary astrocytes. PMID:25187838

  4. All-d-Enantiomer of β-Amyloid Peptide Forms Ion Channels in Lipid Bilayers.

    PubMed

    Capone, Ricardo; Jang, Hyunbum; Kotler, Samuel A; Connelly, Laura; Teran Arce, Fernando; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Kagan, Bruce L; Nussinov, Ruth; Lal, Ratnesh

    2012-03-13

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of senile dementia in aging populations. Amyloid β (Aβ)-mediated dysregulation of ionic homeostasis is the prevailing underlying mechanism leading to synaptic degeneration and neuronal death. Aβ-dependent ionic dysregulation most likely occurs either directly via unregulated ionic transport through the membrane or indirectly via Aβ binding to cell membrane receptors and subsequent opening of existing ion channels or transporters. Receptor binding is expected to involve a high degree of stereospecificity. Here, we investigated whether an Aβ peptide enantiomer, whose entire sequence consists of d-amino acids, can form ion-conducting channels; these channels can directly mediate Aβ effects even in the absence of receptor-peptide interactions. Using complementary approaches of planar lipid bilayer (PLB) electrophysiological recordings and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we show that the d-Aβ isomer exhibits ion conductance behavior in the bilayer indistinguishable from that described earlier for the l-Aβ isomer. The d isomer forms channel-like pores with heterogeneous ionic conductance similar to the l-Aβ isomer channels, and the d-isomer channel conductance is blocked by Zn(2+), a known blocker of l-Aβ isomer channels. MD simulations further verify formation of β-barrel-like Aβ channels with d- and l-isomers, illustrating that both d- and l-Aβ barrels can conduct cations. The calculated values of the single-channel conductance are approximately in the range of the experimental values. These findings are in agreement with amyloids forming Ca(2+) leaking, unregulated channels in AD, and suggest that Aβ toxicity is mediated through a receptor-independent, nonstereoselective mechanism. PMID:22423218

  5. In Vivo and In Vitro Effects of an Apolipoprotein E Mimetic Peptide on Amyloid-β Pathology

    PubMed Central

    Handattu, Shaila P.; Monroe, Candyce E.; Nayyar, Gaurav; Palgunachari, Mayakonda N.; Kadish, Inga; van Groen, Thomas; Anantharamaiah, G.M.; Garber, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major apolipoprotein present in the high-density lipoprotein-like particles in the central nervous system (CNS). ApoE is involved in various protective functions in CNS including cholesterol transport, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. An ApoE peptide would be expected to exert protective effects on neuroinflammation. Objective To determine the effects of an ApoE mimetic peptide Ac-hE18A-NH2 on amyloid-β pathology. Method Using human APP/PS1ΔE9 transgenic mice and in vitro studies, we have evaluated the effect of an ApoE mimetic peptide, Ac-hE18A-NH2, on amyloid plaque deposition and inflammation. Results Administration of Ac-hE18A-NH2 to APP/PS1ΔE9 mice for 6 weeks (50 μg/mouse, 3 times a week) significantly improved cognition with a concomitant decrease in amyloid plaque deposition and reduced activated microglia and astrocytes, and increased brain ApoE levels. Oligomeric Aβ42 (oAβ42) and oxidized PAPC (ox-PAPC) inhibited secretion of ApoE in U251 cells, a human astrocyte cell line, and this effect was ameliorated in the presence of peptide Ac-hE18A-NH2. The peptide also increased Aβ42 uptake in a cell line of human macrophages. Conclusions Peptide Ac-hE18A-NH2 attenuates the effects of oxidative stress on ApoE secretion, inhibits amyloid plaque deposition, and thus could be beneficial in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. PMID:23603398

  6. Peptides Composed of Alternating L- and D-Amino Acids Inhibit Amyloidogenesis in Three Distinct Amyloid Systems Independent of Sequence.

    PubMed

    Kellock, Jackson; Hopping, Gene; Caughey, Byron; Daggett, Valerie

    2016-06-01

    There is now substantial evidence that soluble oligomers are primary toxic agents in amyloid diseases. The development of an antibody recognizing the toxic soluble oligomeric forms of different and unrelated amyloid species suggests a common conformational intermediate during amyloidogenesis. We previously observed a common occurrence of a novel secondary structure element, which we call α-sheet, in molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of various amyloidogenic proteins, and we hypothesized that the toxic conformer is composed of α-sheet structure. As such, α-sheet may represent a conformational signature of the misfolded intermediates of amyloidogenesis and a potential unique binding target for peptide inhibitors. Recently, we reported the design and characterization of a novel hairpin peptide (α1 or AP90) that adopts stable α-sheet structure and inhibits the aggregation of the β-Amyloid Peptide Aβ42 and transthyretin. AP90 is a 23-residue hairpin peptide featuring alternating D- and L-amino acids with favorable conformational propensities for α-sheet formation, and a designed turn. For this study, we reverse engineered AP90 to identify which of its design features is most responsible for conferring α-sheet stability and inhibitory activity. We present experimental characterization (CD and FTIR) of seven peptides designed to accomplish this. In addition, we measured their ability to inhibit aggregation in three unrelated amyloid species: Aβ42, transthyretin, and human islet amylin polypeptide. We found that a hairpin peptide featuring alternating L- and D-amino acids, independent of sequence, is sufficient for conferring α-sheet structure and inhibition of aggregation. Additionally, we show a correlation between α-sheet structural stability and inhibitory activity. PMID:27012425

  7. Lattice model for amyloid peptides: OPEP force field parametrization and applications to the nucleus size of Alzheimer's peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Thanh Thuy; Nguyen, Phuong H.; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2016-05-01

    Coarse-grained protein lattice models approximate atomistic details and keep the essential interactions. They are, therefore, suitable for capturing generic features of protein folding and amyloid formation at low computational cost. As our aim is to study the critical nucleus sizes of two experimentally well-characterized peptide fragments Aβ16-22 and Aβ37-42 of the full length Aβ1-42 Alzheimer's peptide, it is important that simulations with the lattice model reproduce all-atom simulations. In this study, we present a comprehensive force field parameterization based on the OPEP (Optimized Potential for Efficient protein structure Prediction) force field for an on-lattice protein model, which incorporates explicitly the formation of hydrogen bonds and directions of side-chains. Our bottom-up approach starts with the determination of the best lattice force parameters for the Aβ16-22 dimer by fitting its equilibrium parallel and anti-parallel β-sheet populations to all-atom simulation results. Surprisingly, the calibrated force field is transferable to the trimer of Aβ16-22 and the dimer and trimer of Aβ37-42. Encouraged by this finding, we characterized the free energy landscapes of the two decamers. The dominant structure of the Aβ16-22 decamer matches the microcrystal structure. Pushing the simulations for aggregates between 4-mer and 12-mer suggests a nucleus size for fibril formation of 10 chains. In contrast, the Aβ37-42 decamer is largely disordered with mixed by parallel and antiparallel chains, suggesting that the nucleus size is >10 peptides. Our refined force field coupled to this on-lattice model should provide useful insights into the critical nucleation number associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Lattice model for amyloid peptides: OPEP force field parametrization and applications to the nucleus size of Alzheimer's peptides.

    PubMed

    Tran, Thanh Thuy; Nguyen, Phuong H; Derreumaux, Philippe

    2016-05-28

    Coarse-grained protein lattice models approximate atomistic details and keep the essential interactions. They are, therefore, suitable for capturing generic features of protein folding and amyloid formation at low computational cost. As our aim is to study the critical nucleus sizes of two experimentally well-characterized peptide fragments Aβ16-22 and Aβ37-42 of the full length Aβ1-42 Alzheimer's peptide, it is important that simulations with the lattice model reproduce all-atom simulations. In this study, we present a comprehensive force field parameterization based on the OPEP (Optimized Potential for Efficient protein structure Prediction) force field for an on-lattice protein model, which incorporates explicitly the formation of hydrogen bonds and directions of side-chains. Our bottom-up approach starts with the determination of the best lattice force parameters for the Aβ16-22 dimer by fitting its equilibrium parallel and anti-parallel β-sheet populations to all-atom simulation results. Surprisingly, the calibrated force field is transferable to the trimer of Aβ16-22 and the dimer and trimer of Aβ37-42. Encouraged by this finding, we characterized the free energy landscapes of the two decamers. The dominant structure of the Aβ16-22 decamer matches the microcrystal structure. Pushing the simulations for aggregates between 4-mer and 12-mer suggests a nucleus size for fibril formation of 10 chains. In contrast, the Aβ37-42 decamer is largely disordered with mixed by parallel and antiparallel chains, suggesting that the nucleus size is >10 peptides. Our refined force field coupled to this on-lattice model should provide useful insights into the critical nucleation number associated with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:27250331

  9. Molecular Mechanism of Thioflavin-T Binding to the Surface of [beta]-Rich Peptide Self-Assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Biancalana, Matthew; Makabe, Koki; Koide, Akiko; Koide, Shohei

    2009-07-22

    A number of small organic molecules have been developed that bind to amyloid fibrils, a subset of which also inhibit fibrillization. Among these, the benzothiol dye Thioflavin-T (ThT) has been used for decades in the diagnosis of protein-misfolding diseases and in kinetic studies of self-assembly (fibrillization). Despite its importance, efforts to characterize the ThT-binding mechanism at the atomic level have been hampered by the inherent insolubility and heterogeneity of peptide self-assemblies. To overcome these challenges, we have developed a minimalist approach to designing a ThT-binding site in a 'peptide self-assembly mimic' (PSAM) scaffold. PSAMs are engineered water-soluble proteins that mimic a segment of beta-rich peptide self-assembly, and they are amenable to standard biophysical techniques and systematic mutagenesis. The PSAM beta-sheet contains rows of repetitive amino acid patterns running perpendicular to the strands (cross-strand ladders) that represent a ubiquitous structural feature of fibril-like surfaces. We successfully designed a ThT-binding site that recapitulates the hallmarks of ThT-fibril interactions by constructing a cross-strand ladder consisting of contiguous tyrosines. The X-ray crystal structures suggest that ThT interacts with the beta-sheet by docking onto surfaces formed by a single tyrosine ladder, rather than in the space between adjacent ladders. Systematic mutagenesis further demonstrated that tyrosine surfaces across four or more beta-strands formed the minimal binding site for ThT. Our work thus provides structural insights into how this widely used dye recognizes a prominent subset of peptide self-assemblies, and proposes a strategy to elucidate the mechanisms of fibril-ligand interactions.

  10. Pharmacological modulation of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid precursor protein levels in the CSF of rats with forebrain cholinergic system lesions.

    PubMed

    Haroutunian, V; Greig, N; Pei, X F; Utsuki, T; Gluck, R; Acevedo, L D; Davis, K L; Wallace, W C

    1997-06-01

    Abnormal deposition and accumulation of Alzheimer's amyloid beta-protein (A beta) and degeneration of forebrain cholinergic neurons are among the principal features of Alzheimer's disease. Studies in rat model systems have shown that forebrain cholinergic deficits are accompanied by induction of cortical beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta-APP) mRNAs and increased levels of secreted beta-APP in the CSF. The studies reported here determined whether the CSF levels of secreted beta-APP could be altered pharmacologically. In different experiments, rats with lesions of the forebrain cholinergic system received injections of vehicle, a muscarinic receptor antagonist scopolamine, or one of two cholinesterase inhibitors - diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate (DFP) or phenserine. Scopolamine was administered to determine whether the levels of beta-APP in the CSF could be increased by anticholinergic agents. The cholinesterase inhibitors were administered to determine whether the forebrain cholinergic system lesion-induced increases in CSF beta-APP could be reduced by cholinergic augmentation. Scopolamine administration led to a significant increase in the CSF levels of secreted beta-APP in sham-lesioned rats. Phenserine, a novel, reversible acetyl-selective cholinesterase inhibitor, significantly decreased the levels of secreted beta-APP in the CSF of forebrain cholinergic system-lesioned rats whereas DFP, a relatively non-specific cholinesterase inhibitor, failed to affect CSF levels of secreted beta-APP. These results suggest that the levels of secreted beta-APP in the CSF can be pharmacologically modulated but that this modulation is dependent upon the status of the forebrain cholinergic system and the pharmacological properties of the drugs used to influence it. PMID:9191090

  11. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Amyloid β-Peptide (1-42): Tetramer Formation and Membrane Interactions.

    PubMed

    Brown, Anne M; Bevan, David R

    2016-09-01

    The aggregation cascade and peptide-membrane interactions of the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) have been implicated as toxic events in the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease. Aβ42 forms oligomers and ultimately plaques, and it has been hypothesized that these oligomeric species are the main toxic species contributing to neuronal cell death. To better understand oligomerization events and subsequent oligomer-membrane interactions of Aβ42, we performed atomistic molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations to characterize both interpeptide interactions and perturbation of model membranes by the peptides. MD simulations were utilized to first show the formation of a tetramer unit by four separate Aβ42 peptides. Aβ42 tetramers adopted an oblate ellipsoid shape and showed a significant increase in β-strand formation in the final tetramer unit relative to the monomers, indicative of on-pathway events for fibril formation. The Aβ42 tetramer unit that formed in the initial simulations was used in subsequent MD simulations in the presence of a pure POPC or cholesterol-rich raft model membrane. Tetramer-membrane simulations resulted in elongation of the tetramer in the presence of both model membranes, with tetramer-raft interactions giving rise to the rearrangement of key hydrophobic regions in the tetramer and the formation of a more rod-like structure indicative of a fibril-seeding aggregate. Membrane perturbation by the tetramer was manifested in the form of more ordered, rigid membranes, with the pure POPC being affected to a greater extent than the raft membrane. These results provide critical atomistic insight into the aggregation pathway of Aβ42 and a putative toxic mechanism in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. PMID:27602722

  12. Copper-dependent inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase by Abeta(1-42) requires reduced methionine at residue 35 of the Abeta peptide.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Peter J; Barnham, Kevin J; Duce, James A; Blake, Rachel E; Masters, Colin L; Trounce, Ian A

    2006-10-01

    By altering key amino acid residues of the Alzheimer's disease-associated amyloid-beta peptide, we investigated the mechanism through which amyloid-beta inhibits cytochrome c oxidase (EC 1.9.3.1). Native amyloid-beta inhibited cytochrome oxidase by up to 65%, and the level of inhibition was determined by the period of amyloid-beta ageing before the cytochrome oxidase assay. Substituting tyrosine-10 with alanine did not affect maximal enzyme inhibition, but the altered peptide required a longer period of ageing. By contrast, oxidizing the sulfur of methionine-35 to a sulfoxide, or substituting methionine-35 with valine, completely abrogated the peptide's inhibitory potential towards cytochrome oxidase. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the loss of inhibitory potential towards cytochrome oxidase with the methionine-35-altered peptides did not correlate with a substantially different distribution of amyloid-beta oligomeric species. Although the amyloid-beta-mediated inhibition of cytochrome oxidase was completely dependent on the presence of divalent Cu2+, it was not supported by monovalent Cu+, and experiments with catalase and H2O2 indicated that the mechanism of cytochrome oxidase inhibition does not involve amyloid-beta-mediated H2O2 production. We propose that amyloid-beta-mediated inhibition of cytochrome oxidase is dependent on the peptide's capacity to bind, then reduce Cu2+, and that it may involve the formation of a redox active amyloid-beta-methionine radical. PMID:16987248

  13. Mapping of the gene encoding the. beta. -amyloid precursor protein and its relationship to the Down syndrome region of chromosome 21

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, D.; Gardiner, K.; Kao, F.T.; Tanzi, R.; Watkins, P.; Gusella, J.F. )

    1988-11-01

    The gene encoding the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein has been assigned to human chromosome 21, as has a gene responsible for at least some cases of familial Alzheimer disease. Linkage studies strongly suggest that the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein and the product corresponding to familial Alzheimer disease are from two genes, or at least that several million base pairs of DNA separate the markers. The precise location of the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein gene on chromosome 21 has not yet been determined. Here the authors show, by using a somatic-cell/hybrid-cell mapping panel, in situ hybridization, and transverse-alternating-field electrophoresis, that the {beta}-amyloid precursor protein gene is located on chromosome 21 very near the 21q21/21q/22 border and probably within the region of chromosome 21 that, when trisomic, results in Down syndrome.

  14. Peptides of presenilin-1 bind the amyloid precursor protein ectodomain and offer a novel and specific therapeutic approach to reduce ß-amyloid in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Dewji, Nazneen N; Singer, S Jonathan; Masliah, Eliezer; Rockenstein, Edward; Kim, Mihyun; Harber, Martha; Horwood, Taylor

    2015-01-01

    β-Amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is widely accepted to be critical to the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Current efforts at reducing toxic Aβ40 or 42 have largely focused on modulating γ-secretase activity to produce shorter, less toxic Aβ, while attempting to spare other secretase functions. In this paper we provide data that offer the potential for a new approach for the treatment of AD. The method is based on our previous findings that the production of Aβ from the interaction between the β-amyloid precursor protein (APP) and Presenilin (PS), as part of the γ-secretase complex, in cell culture is largely inhibited if the entire water-soluble NH2-terminal domain of PS is first added to the culture. Here we demonstrate that two small, non-overlapping water-soluble peptides from the PS-1 NH2-terminal domain can substantially and specifically inhibit the production of total Aβ as well as Aβ40 and 42 in vitro and in vivo in the brains of APP transgenic mice. These results suggest that the inhibitory activity of the entire amino terminal domain of PS-1 on Aβ production is largely focused in a few smaller sequences within that domain. Using biolayer interferometry and confocal microscopy we provide evidence that peptides effective in reducing Aβ give a strong, specific and biologically relevant binding with the purified ectodomain of APP 695. Finally, we demonstrate that the reduction of Aβ by the peptides does not affect the catalytic activities of β- or γ-secretase, or the level of APP. P4 and P8 are the first reported protein site-specific small peptides to reduce Aβ production in model systems of AD. These peptides and their derivatives offer new potential drug candidates for the treatment of AD. PMID:25923432

  15. Mechanisms of Ultrasonically Induced Fibrillation of Amyloid β1-40 Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uesugi, Kentaro; Ogi, Hirotsugu; Fukushima, Masahiko; So, Masatomo; Yagi, Hisashi; Goto, Yuji; Hirao, Masahiko

    2013-07-01

    We systematically study the relationship between the ultrasonically induced aggregation behavior of amyloid β1-40 peptide and acoustic pressures to clarify the dominant mechanism of the aggregation. With ultrasonic irradiation, the thioflavin-T (ThT) level of the Aβ solution rises after a lag time, takes a maximum at ˜5 h, and remains unchanged or decreases. Thus, we monitor the ThT level at 5 h to evaluate the progress of the β-sheet structure and investigate its correlation with the acoustic pressures of fundamental and harmonics waves. The second-harmonics-wave amplitude shows the highest correlation with the ThT level, indicating the dominant contribution of cavitation bubbles to the fibrillation phenomenon. The influence of solution pH and Ar gas are investigated to identify the aggregation mechanism. As a result, local condensation of the peptide due to the high affinity of hydrophobic residues to the bubble-solution interface causes a highly supersaturated solution, leading to precipitation of β-sheet-rich nuclei.

  16. The effect of resveratrol on beta amyloid-induced memory impairment involves inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 related signaling.

    PubMed

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Ling; Pan, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jiechun; Wang, Liqun; Wang, Weijie; Cheng, Ruochuan; Wu, Fan; Feng, Xiaoqing; Yu, Yingcong; Zhang, Han-Ting; O'Donnell, James M; Xu, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in red wine, has wide spectrum of pharmacological properties including antioxidative and antiaging activities. Beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) are known to involve cognitive impairment, neuroinflammatory and apoptotic processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of cAMP and/or cGMP activities can improve memory performance and decrease the neuroinflammation and apoptosis. However, it remains unknown whether the memory enhancing effect of resveratrol on AD associated cognitive disorders is related to the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) subtypes and subsequent increases in intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP activities. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive impairment and the participation of PDE4 subtypes related cAMP or cGMP signaling. Mice microinfused with Aβ1-42 into bilateral CA1 subregions displayed learning and memory impairment, as evidenced by reduced memory acquisition and retrieval in the water maze and retention in the passive avoidance tasks; it was also significant that neuroinflammatory and pro-apoptotic factors were increased in Aβ1-42-treated mice. Aβ1-42-treated mice also increased in PDE4A, 4B and 4D expression, and decreased in PKA level. However, PKA inhibitor H89, but not PKG inhibitor KT5823, prevented resveratrol's effects on these parameters. Resveratrol also reversed Aβ1-42-induced decreases in phosphorylated cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-apoptotic factor BCl-2 expression, which were reversed by H89. These findings suggest that resveratrol reversing Aβ-induced learning and memory disorder may involve the regulation of neuronal inflammation and apoptosis via PDE4 subtypes related cAMP-CREB-BDNF signaling. PMID:26980711

  17. Satureja bachtiarica ameliorate beta-amyloid induced memory impairment, oxidative stress and cholinergic deficit in animal model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Soodi, Maliheh; Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Hajimehdipoor, Homa; Dashti, Abolfazl; Sepand, Mohammad Reza; Moradi, Shahla

    2016-04-01

    Extracellular deposition of Beta-amyloid peptide (Aβ) is the main finding in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which damages cholinergic neurons through oxidative stress and reduces the cholinergic neurotransmission. Satureja bachtiarica is a medicinal plant from the Lamiaceae family which was widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible protective effects of S. bachtiarica methanolic extract on Aβ induced spatial memory impairment in Morris Water Maze (MWM), oxidative stress and cholinergic neuron degeneration. Pre- aggregated Aβ was injected into the hippocampus of each rat bilaterally (10 μg/rat) and MWM task was performed 14 days later to evaluate learning and memory function. Methanolic extract of S.bachtiarica (10, 50 and 100 mg/Kg) was injected intraperitoneally for 19 consecutive days, after Aβ injection. After the probe test the brain tissue were collected and lipid peroxidation, Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and Cholin Acetyl Transferees (ChAT) immunorectivity were measured in the hippocampus. Intrahipocampal injection of Aβ impaired learning and memory in MWM in training days and probe trail. Methanolic extract of S. bachtiarica (50 and 100 mg/Kg) could attenuate Aβ-induced memory deficit. ChAT immunostaining revealed that cholinergic neurons were loss in Aβ- injected group and S. bachtiarica (100 mg/Kg) could ameliorate Aβ- induced ChAT reduction in the hippocampus. Also S. bachtiarica could ameliorate Aβ-induced lipid peroxidation and AChE activity increase in the hippocampus. In conclusion our study represent that S.bachtiarica methanolic extract can improve Aβ-induced memory impairment and cholinergic loss then we recommended this extract as a candidate for further investigation in treatment of AD. PMID:26638718

  18. Comparison of donepezil and memantine for protective effect against amyloid-beta(1-42) toxicity in rat septal neurons.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Manami; Komatsu, Hiroko; Ogura, Hiroo; Sawada, Kohei

    2005-12-31

    Donepezil, a potent acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor and memantine, an N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist, have been used for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and both of them have been shown to have neuroprotective action against glutamate excitotoxicity. However, it is not known whether donepezil and memantine similarly exert neuroprotective effects against amyloid-beta peptide(1-42) [Abeta(1-42)] toxicity in cholinergic neurons. Therefore, in the present study we compared the neuroprotective effects of donepezil and memantine against Abeta(1-42) toxicity in rat cultured septal cholinergic neurons, because deficit in cholinergic neurotransmission is a major feature in AD, and medial septal cholinergic neurons are known to degenerate in AD patients. Septal neuronal cells were cultured for 7 days and then 5 micromol/L of Abeta(1-42) was added to the medium for 48 h. Measurement of the efflux of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) indicated that septal neuronal cells were highly susceptible to Abeta toxicity and relatively resistant to NMDA toxicity. Donepezil concentration-dependently reduced the LDH efflux induced by Abeta(1-42), and the effect was significant at 1 micromol/L and above. NMDA receptor antagonists, memantine and MK-801, did not show a significant neuroprotective effect against Abeta(1-42) toxicity. It is concluded that the neuroprotective effect of donepezil against Abeta(1-42) toxicity is not mediated by interference with the NMDA-mediated excitotoxic process, and that donepezil may be more effective than memantine against cholinergic neuronal damage induced by Abeta(1-42) exposure. PMID:16154269

  19. The effect of resveratrol on beta amyloid-induced memory impairment involves inhibition of phosphodiesterase-4 related signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Gang; Chen, Ling; Pan, Xiaoyu; Chen, Jiechun; Wang, Liqun; Wang, Weijie; Cheng, Ruochuan; Wu, Fan; Feng, Xiaoqing; Yu, Yingcong; Zhang, Han-Ting; O'Donnell, James M.; Xu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol found in red wine, has wide spectrum of pharmacological properties including antioxidative and antiaging activities. Beta amyloid peptides (Aβ) are known to involve cognitive impairment, neuroinflammatory and apoptotic processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Activation of cAMP and/or cGMP activities can improve memory performance and decrease the neuroinflammation and apoptosis. However, it remains unknown whether the memory enhancing effect of resveratrol on AD associated cognitive disorders is related to the inhibition of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) subtypes and subsequent increases in intracellular cAMP and/or cGMP activities. This study investigated the effect of resveratrol on Aβ1-42-induced cognitive impairment and the participation of PDE4 subtypes related cAMP or cGMP signaling. Mice microinfused with Aβ1-42 into bilateral CA1 subregions displayed learning and memory impairment, as evidenced by reduced memory acquisition and retrieval in the water maze and retention in the passive avoidance tasks; it was also significant that neuroinflammatory and pro-apoptotic factors were increased in Aβ1-42-treated mice. Aβ1-42-treated mice also increased in PDE4A, 4B and 4D expression, and decreased in PKA level. However, PKA inhibitor H89, but not PKG inhibitor KT5823, prevented resveratrol's effects on these parameters. Resveratrol also reversed Aβ1-42-induced decreases in phosphorylated cAMP response-element binding protein (pCREB), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and anti-apoptotic factor BCl-2 expression, which were reversed by H89. These findings suggest that resveratrol reversing Aβ-induced learning and memory disorder may involve the regulation of neuronal inflammation and apoptosis via PDE4 subtypes related cAMP-CREB-BDNF signaling. PMID:26980711

  20. Elevated A beta and apolipoprotein E in A betaPP transgenic mice and its relationship to amyloid accumulation in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Y. M.; Crawford, F.; Mullan, M.; Kokjohn, T. A.; Emmerling, M. R.; Weller, R. O.; Roher, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Amyloid-beta (A beta) accumulates in plaques and as cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) in the brains of both Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients and transgenic A betaPPswe/tg2576 (tg2576) mice. Increasingly, evidence in humans and mice shows this process to be modulated by apolipoprotein E (apoE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: To explore this relationship, we measured apoE and A beta levels in brains of tg2576 mice and controls at intervals between 2 and 20 months. In addition, A beta concentrations in plasma and muscle of these animals were also quantified. RESULTS: Quite strikingly, we found that the amount of tg2576 mice brain apoE was elevated by an average of 45%, relative to the control mice from 2 months on. The level of brain apoE soared after 14 months to almost 60% greater than the level found in control mice. A beta concentrations in brains before 9 months were less than 2 ng/mg of protein, but by 14 months concentrations rose to 8.7 ng/mg, and by 20 months to 47 ng/mg. In plasma, we noted that the levels of A beta in tg2576 mice declined from above 30 ng/ml prior to 12 months to 14 ng/ml by 14 months. Histology showed that A beta plaques and CAA began to be discernible in the tg2576 mice at about 9 and 20 months of age, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: ApoE was immunocytochemically detected in neuritic plaques that were positive for thioflavine-S. We suggest that the elevation of brain apoE in tg2576 mice participates in an age-related dysregulation of A beta clearance and signals the start of A beta sequestration during the time of cognitive dysfunction. PMID:10952022

  1. Enhanced antidepressant efficacy of sigma1 receptor agonists in rats after chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of beta-amyloid-(1-40) protein.

    PubMed

    Urani, Alexandre; Romieu, Pascal; Roman, François J; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Noda, Yukihiro; Kamei, Hiroyuki; Manh Tran, Hung; Nagai, Taku; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Maurice, Tangui

    2004-02-20

    Treatment of depressive symptoms in patients suffering from neurodegenerative disorders remains a challenging issue, since few available antidepressants present an adequate efficacy during pathological aging. Previous reports suggested that selective sigma(1) receptor agonists might constitute putative candidates. We here examined the pharmacological efficacy of igmesine and (+)-SKF-10,047 and the sigma(1) receptor-related neuroactive steroid dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, in rats infused intracerebroventricularly during 14 days with the beta-amyloid-(1-40) protein and then submitted to the conditioned fear stress test. Igmesine and (+)-SKF-10,047 significantly reduced the stress-induced motor suppression at 30 and 6 mg/kg, respectively, in beta-amyloid-(40-1)-treated control rats. Active doses were decreased, to 10 and 3 mg/kg, respectively, in beta-amyloid-(1-40)-treated animals. The dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate effect was also facilitated, both in dose (10 vs. 30 mg/kg) and intensity, in beta-amyloid-(1-40)-treated rats. Neurosteroid levels were measured in several brain structures after beta-amyloid infusion, in basal and stress conditions. Progesterone levels, both under basal and stress-induced conditions, were decreased in the hippocampus and cortex of beta-amyloid-(1-40)-treated rats. The levels in pregnenolone, dehydroepiandrosterone and their sulfate esters appeared less affected by the beta-amyloid infusion. The sigma(1) receptor agonist efficacy is known to be inversely correlated to brain progesterone levels, synthesized mainly by neurons that are mainly affected by the beta-amyloid toxicity. The present study suggests that sigma(1) receptor agonists, due to their enhanced efficacy in a nontransgenic animal model, may alleviate Alzheimer's disease-associated depressive symptoms. PMID:14975704

  2. Contrasting effects of nanoparticle-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Radic, Slaven; Davis, Thomas P; Ke, Pu Chun; Ding, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been experimentally found to either promote or inhibit amyloid aggregation of proteins, but the molecular mechanisms for such complex behaviors remain unknown. Using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we investigated the effects of varying the strength of nonspecific NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation of a model protein, the amyloid-beta peptide implicated in Alzheimer's disease. Specifically, with increasing NP-peptide attraction, amyloid aggregation on the NP surface was initially promoted due to increased local protein concentration on the surface and destabilization of the folded state. However, further increase of NP-peptide attraction decreased the stability of amyloid fibrils and reduced their lateral diffusion on the NP surface necessary for peptide conformational changes and self-association, thus prohibiting amyloid aggregation. Moreover, we found that the relative concentration between protein and NPs also played an important role in amyloid aggregation. With a high NP/protein ratio, NPs that intrinsically promote protein aggregation may display an inhibitive effect by depleting the proteins in solution while having a low concentration of the proteins on each NP's surface. Our coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation study offers a molecular mechanism for delineating the contrasting and seemingly conflicting effects of NP-protein attraction on amyloid aggregation and highlights the potential of tailoring anti-aggregation nanomedicine against amyloid diseases. PMID:26989481

  3. HIV-1 stimulates nuclear entry of amyloid beta via dynamin dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling

    SciTech Connect

    András, Ibolya E. Toborek, Michal

    2014-04-15

    Clinical evidence indicates increased amyloid deposition in HIV-1-infected brains, which contributes to neurocognitive dysfunction in infected patients. Here we show that HIV-1 exposure stimulates amyloid beta (Aβ) nuclear entry in human brain endothelial cells (HBMEC), the main component of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Treatment with HIV-1 and/or Aβ resulted in concurrent increase in early endosomal antigen-1 (EEA1), Smad, and phosphorylated Smad (pSmad) in nuclear fraction of HBMEC. A series of inhibition and silencing studies indicated that Smad and EEA1 closely interact by influencing their own nuclear entry; the effect that was attenuated by dynasore, a blocker of GTP-ase activity of dynamin. Importantly, inhibition of dynamin, EEA1, or TGF-β/Smad effectively attenuated HIV-1-induced Aβ accumulation in the nuclei of HBMEC. The present study indicates that nuclear uptake of Aβ involves the dynamin-dependent EEA1 and TGF-β/Smad signaling pathways. These results identify potential novel targets to protect against HIV-1-associated dysregulation of amyloid processes at the BBB level. - Highlights: • HIV-1 induces nuclear accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) in brain endothelial cells. • EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad act in concert to regulate nuclear entry of Aβ. • Dynamin appropriates the EEA-1 and TGF-Β/Smad signaling. • Dynamin serves as a master regulator of HIV-1-induced nuclear accumulation of Aβ.

  4. Differential effects of amyloid-beta 1-40 and 1-42 fibrils on 5-HT1A serotonin receptors in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Verdurand, Mathieu; Chauveau, Fabien; Daoust, Alexia; Morel, Anne-Laure; Bonnefoi, Frédéric; Liger, François; Bérod, Anne; Zimmer, Luc

    2016-04-01

    Evidence accumulates suggesting a complex interplay between neurodegenerative processes and serotonergic neurotransmission. We have previously reported an overexpression of serotonin 5-HT1A receptors (5-HT(1A)R) after intrahippocampal injections of amyloid-beta 1-40 (Aβ40) fibrils in rats. This serotonergic reactivity paralleled results from clinical positron emission tomography studies with [(18)F]MPPF revealing an overexpression of 5-HT(1A)R in the hippocampus of patients with mild cognitive impairment. Because Aβ40 and Aβ42 isoforms are found in amyloid plaques, we tested in this study the hypothesis of a peptide- and region-specific 5-HT(1A)R reactivity by injecting them, separately, into the hippocampus or striatum of rats. [(18)F]MPPF in vitro autoradiography revealed that Aβ40 fibrils, but not Aβ42, were triggering an overexpression of 5-HT(1A)R in the hippocampus and striatum of rat brains after 7 days. Immunohistochemical approaches targeting neuronal precursor cells, mature neurons, and astrocytes showed that Aβ42 fibrils caused more pathophysiological damages than Aβ40 fibrils. The mechanisms of Aβ40 fibrils-induced 5-HT(1A)R expression remains unknown, but hypotheses including neurogenesis, glial expression, and axonal sprouting are discussed. PMID:26973100

  5. Identification of a mouse brain cDNA that encodes a protein related to the Alzheimer disease-associated amyloid beta protein precursor.

    PubMed Central

    Wasco, W; Bupp, K; Magendantz, M; Gusella, J F; Tanzi, R E; Solomon, F

    1992-01-01

    We have isolated a cDNA from a mouse brain library that encodes a protein whose predicted amino acid sequence is 42% identical and 64% similar to that of the amyloid beta protein precursor (APP). This 653-amino acid protein, which we have termed the amyloid precursor-like protein (APLP), appears to be similar to APP in overall structure as well as amino acid sequence. The amino acid homologies are concentrated within three distinct regions of the two proteins where the identities are 47%, 54%, and 56%. The APLP cDNA hybridizes to two messages of approximately 2.4 and 1.6 kilobases that are present in mouse brain and neuroblastoma cells. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a peptide derived from the C terminus of APLP stain the cytoplasm in a pattern reminiscent of Golgi staining. In addition to APP, APLP also displays significant homology to the Drosophila APP-like protein APPL and a rat testes APP-like protein. These data indicate that the APP gene is a member of a strongly conserved gene family. Studies aimed at determining the functions of the proteins encoded by this gene family should provide valuable clues to their potential role in Alzheimer disease neuropathology. Images PMID:1279693

  6. Template-directed deposition of amyloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Chanki

    The formation of amyloid plaques in tissue is a pathological feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. Amyloid deposition, the process of amyloid plaque growth by the association of individual soluble amyloid molecules with a pre-existing amyloid template (i.e. plaque), is known to be critical for amyloid formation in vivo. In order to characterize amyloid deposition, we developed novel, synthetic amyloid templates like amyloid plaques in the human Alzheimer's brain by attaching amyloid seeds covalently onto an N-hydroxysuccinimide-activated surface. Amyloid plaques with a characteristic beta-sheet structure formed through a conformational rearrangement of soluble insulin or Abeta monomers upon interaction with the template. The amyloid deposition rate followed saturation kinetics with respect to insulin concentration in the solution. According to visualization of temporal evolution of Abeta plaque deposition on a template, it was found that mature amyloid plaques serve as a sink of soluble Abeta in a solution as well as a reservoir of small aggregates such as oligomers and protofibrils. Quantitative analysis of seeding efficiencies of three different Abeta species revealed that oligomeric forms of Abeta act more efficiently as seeds than monomers or fibrils do. Furthermore, studies on the interaction between Abeta40 and 42 showed an important role of Abeta42 in amyloid deposition. A slightly acidic condition was found to be unfavorable for amyloid plaque formation. Effects of metal ions on amyloid deposition indicated that Fe3+, but not Cu3 and Zn2+, is important for the deposition of amyloid plaques. The binding of Fe3+ to Abeta42 peptide was confirmed by using SIMS analysis. Zn2+ induced nonfibrillar amorphous aggregates, but the release of Zn2+ from Abeta42 deposits by Fe3+ triggered the formation of amyloid fibers. Effects or metal ion chelators such as ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid, deferoxamine, and clioquinol on amyloid deposition were tested to

  7. Exploiting the therapeutic potential of 8-β-d-glucopyranosylgenistein: synthesis, antidiabetic activity, and molecular interaction with islet amyloid polypeptide and amyloid β-peptide (1-42).

    PubMed

    Jesus, Ana R; Dias, Catarina; Matos, Ana M; de Almeida, Rodrigo F M; Viana, Ana S; Marcelo, Filipa; Ribeiro, Rogério T; Macedo, Maria P; Airoldi, Cristina; Nicotra, Francesco; Martins, Alice; Cabrita, Eurico J; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Rauter, Amélia P

    2014-11-26

    8-β-d-Glucopyranosylgenistein (1), the major component of Genista tenera, was synthesized and showed an extensive therapeutical impact in the treatment of STZ-induced diabetic rats, producing normalization of fasting hyperglycemia and amelioration of excessive postprandial glucose excursions and and increasing β-cell sensitivity, insulin secretion, and circulating insulin within 7 days at a dose of 4 (mg/kg bw)/day. Suppression of islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) fibril formation by compound 1 was demonstrated by thioflavin T fluorescence and atomic force microscopy. Molecular recognition studies with IAPP and Aβ1-42 employing saturation transfer difference (STD) confirmed the same binding mode for both amyloid peptides as suggested by their deduced epitope. Insights into the preferred conformation in the bound state and conformers' geometry resulting from interaction with Aβ1-42 were also given by STD, trNOESY, and MM calculations. These studies strongly support 8-β-d-glucopyranosylgenistein as a promising molecular entity for intervention in amyloid events of both diabetes and the frequently associated Alzheimer's disease. PMID:25347820

  8. Structural studies of the tethered N-terminus of the Alzheimer's disease amyloidpeptide.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, Rebecca M; Nuttall, Stewart D; Robert, Remy; Caine, Joanne M; Dolezal, Olan; Hattarki, Meghan; Pearce, Lesley A; Davydova, Natalia; Masters, Colin L; Varghese, Jose N; Streltsov, Victor A

    2013-10-01

    Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in humans and is related to the accumulation of the amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide and its interaction with metals (Cu, Fe, and Zn) in the brain. Crystallographic structural information about Aβ peptide deposits and the details of the metal-binding site is limited owing to the heterogeneous nature of aggregation states formed by the peptide. Here, we present a crystal structure of Aβ residues 1-16 fused to the N-terminus of the Escherichia coli immunity protein Im7, and stabilized with the fragment antigen binding fragment of the anti-Aβ N-terminal antibody WO2. The structure demonstrates that Aβ residues 10-16, which are not in complex with the antibody, adopt a mixture of local polyproline II-helix and turn type conformations, enhancing cooperativity between the two adjacent histidine residues His13 and His14. Furthermore, this relatively rigid region of Aβ (residues, 10-16) appear as an almost independent unit available for trapping metal ions and provides a rationale for the His13-metal-His14 coordination in the Aβ1-16 fragment implicated in Aβ metal binding. This novel structure, therefore, has the potential to provide a foundation for investigating the effect of metal ion binding to Aβ and illustrates a potential target for the development of future Alzheimer's disease therapeutics aimed at stabilizing the N-terminal monomer structure, in particular residues His13 and His14, and preventing Aβ metal-binding-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:23609990

  9. Factors That Drive Peptide Assembly from Native to Amyloid Structures: Experimental and Theoretical Analysis of [Leu-5]-Enkephalin Mutants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Five different mutants of [Leu-5] Enkephalin YGGFL peptide have been investigated for fibril formation propensities. The early oligomer structures have been probed with a combination of ion-mobility mass spectrometry and computational modeling. The two peptides YVIFL and YVVFL form oligomers and amyloid-like fibrils. YVVFV shows an early stage oligomer distribution similar to those of the previous two, but amyloid-like aggregates are less abundant. Atomic resolution X-ray structures of YVVFV show two different modes of interactions at the dry interface between steric zippers and pairs of antiparallel β-sheets, but both are less favorable than the packing motif found in YVVFL. Both YVVFV and YVVFL can form a Class 6 steric zipper. However, in YVVFV, the strands between mating sheets are parallel to each other and in YVVFL they are antiparallel. The overall data highlight the importance of structurally characterizing high order oligomers within oligomerization pathways in studies of nanostructure assembly. PMID:24915112

  10. A recipe for designing water-soluble, beta-sheet-forming peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Mayo, K. H.; Ilyina, E.; Park, H.

    1996-01-01

    Based on observations of solubility and folding properties of peptide 33-mers derived from the beta-sheet domains of platelet factor-4 (PF4), interleukin-8 (IL-8), and growth related protein (Gro-alpha), as well as other beta-sheet-forming peptides, general guidelines have been developed to aid in the design of water soluble, self-association-induced beta-sheet-forming peptides. CD, 1H-NMR, and pulsed field gradient NMR self-diffusion measurements have been used to assess the degree of folding and state of aggregation. PF4 peptide forms native-like beta-sheet tetramers and is sparingly soluble above pH 6. IL-8 peptide is insoluble between pH 4.5 and pH 7.5, yet forms stable, native-like beta-sheet dimers at higher pH. Gro-alpha peptide is soluble at all pH values, yet displays no discernable beta-sheet structure even when diffusion data indicate dimer-tetramer aggregation. A recipe used in the de novo design of water-soluble beta-sheet-forming peptides calls for the peptide to contain 40-50% hydrophobic residues, usually aliphatic ones (I, L, V, A, M) (appropriately paired and mostly but not always alternating with polar residues in the sheet sequence), a positively charged (K, R) to negatively charged (E, D) residue ratio between 4/2 and 6/2, and a noncharged polar residue (N, Q, T, S) composition of about 20% or less. Results on four de novo designed, 33-residue peptides are presented supporting this approach. Under near physiologic conditions, all four peptides are soluble, form beta-sheet structures to varying degrees, and self-associate. One peptide folds as a stable, compact beta-sheet tetramer, whereas the others are transient beta-sheet-containing aggregates. PMID:8819163

  11. [Noopept improves the spatial memory and stimulates prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35) antibody production in mice].

    PubMed

    Bobkova, N V; Gruden', M A; Samokhin, A N; Medvinskaia, N I; Morozova-Roch, L; Uudasheva, T A; Ostrovskaia, R U; Seredinin, S B

    2005-01-01

    The effects of the novel proline-containing nootropic and neuroprotective dipeptide noopept (GVS-111, N-phenylacetyl-L-prolylglycine ethyl ester) were studied on NMRI mice upon olfactory bulbectomy, which had been previously shown to imitate the main morphological and biochemical signs of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The spatial memory was assessed using the Morris (water maze) test; the immunological status was characterized by ELISA with antibodies to prefibrillar beta-amyloid(25-35), S100b protein, and protofilaments of equine lysozyme, which are the molecular factors involved in the pathogenesis of AD. The control (sham-operated) animals during the Morris test preferred a sector where the safety platform was placed during the learning session. Bulbectomized animals treated with saline failed to recognize this sector, while bulbectomized animals treated with noopept (0.01 mg/kg for 21 days) restored this predominance, thus demonstrating the improvement of the spatial memory. These animals also demonstrated an increase in the level of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35)--the effect, which was more pronounced in the sham-operated than in bulbectomized mice. The latter demonstrated a profound decrease of immunological reactivity in a large number of tests. Noopept, stimulating the production of antibodies to beta-amyloid(25-35), can attenuate the well-known neurotoxic effects of beta-amyloid. The obtained data on the mnemotropic and immunostimulant effects noopept are indicative of good prospects for the clinical usage of this drug in the therapy of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:16277202

  12. Inhibition of Cu-amyloid-β by using bifunctional peptides with β-sheet breaker and chelator moieties.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Madeleine; Canning, Anne; Chiha, Sabri; Bouquerel, Pierre; Pedersen, Jeppe Trudslev; Østergaard, Jesper; Cuvillier, Olivier; Sasaki, Isabelle; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter

    2012-04-16

    Breaking the mold: Inhibition of toxic amyloid-β (Aβ) aggregates and disruption of Cu-Aβ with subsequent redox-silencing of Cu have been considered promising strategies against Alzheimer's disease. The design and proof of concept of simple peptides containing a Cu-chelating/redox-silencing unit and an Aβ-aggregation inhibition unit (β-sheet breaker) is described (see scheme). PMID:22422637

  13. Interaction of the Heparin-Binding Consensus Sequence of β-Amyloid Peptides with Heparin and Heparin-Derived Oligosaccharides.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Khanh; Rabenstein, Dallas L

    2016-03-10

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the presence of amyloid plaques in the AD brain. Comprised primarily of the 40- and 42-residue β-amyloid (Aβ) peptides, there is evidence that the heparan sulfate (HS) of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) plays a role in amyloid plaque formation and stability; however, details of the interaction of Aβ peptides with HS are not known. We have characterized the interaction of heparin and heparin-derived oligosaccharides with a model peptide for the heparin- and HS-binding domain of Aβ peptides (Ac-VHHQKLV-NH2; Aβ(12-18)), with mutants of Aβ(12-18), and with additional histidine-containing peptides. The nature of the binding interaction was characterized by NMR, binding constants and other thermodynamic parameters were determined by isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and relative binding affinities were determined by heparin affinity chromatography. The binding of Aβ(12-18) by heparin and heparin-derived oligosaccharides is pH-dependent, with the imidazolium groups of the histidine side chains interacting site-specifically within a cleft created by a trisaccharide sequence of heparin, the binding is mediated by electrostatic interactions, and there is a significant entropic contribution to the binding free energy as a result of displacement of Na(+) ions from heparin upon binding of cationic Aβ(12-18). The binding constant decreases as the size of the heparin-derived oligosaccharide decreases and as the concentration of Na(+) ion in the bulk solution increases. Structure-binding relationships characterized in this study are analyzed and discussed in terms of the counterion condensation theory of the binding of cationic peptides by anionic polyelectrolytes. PMID:26872053

  14. DNA immunization against amyloid beta 42 has high potential as safe therapy for Alzheimer's disease as it diminishes antigen-specific Th1 and Th17 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Lambracht-Washington, Doris; Qu, Bao-Xi; Fu, Min; Anderson, Larry D; Stüve, Olaf; Eagar, Todd N; Rosenberg, Roger N

    2011-08-01

    The pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been strongly associated with the accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) peptides in brain, and immunotherapy targeting Aβ provides potential for AD prevention. A clinical trial in which AD patients were immunized with Aβ42 peptide was stopped when 6% of participants showed meningoencephalitis, apparently due to an inflammatory Th1 immune response. Previously, we and other have shown that Aβ42 DNA vaccination via gene gun generates a Th2 cellular immune response, which was shown by analyses of the respective antibody isotype profiles. We also determined that in vitro T cell proliferation in response to Aβ42 peptide re-stimulation was absent in DNA Aβ42 trimer-immunized mice when compared to Aβ42 peptide-immunized mice. To further characterize this observation prospectively and longitudinally, we analyzed the immune response in wild-type mice after vaccination with Aβ42 trimer DNA and Aβ42 peptide with Quil A adjuvant. Wild-type mice were immunized with short-term (1-3× vaccinations) or long-term (6× vacinations) immunization strategies. Antibody titers and isotype profiles of the Aβ42 specific antibodies, as well as cytokine profiles and cell proliferation studies from this longitudinal study were determined. Sufficient antibody titers to effectively reduce Aβ42, but an absent T cell proliferative response and no IFNγ or IL-17 secretion after Aβ42 DNA trimer immunization minimizes the risk of inflammatory activities of the immune system towards the self antigen Aβ42 in brain. Therefore, Aβ42 DNA trimer immunization has a high probability to be effective and safe to treat patients with early AD. PMID:21625960

  15. Determining the Effect of Aluminum Oxide Nanoparticles on the Aggregation of Amyloid-Beta in Transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Suhag; Matticks, John; Howell, Carina

    2014-03-01

    The cause of Alzheimer's disease has been linked partially to genetic factors but the predicted environmental components have yet to be determined. In Alzheimer's, accumulation of amyloid-beta protein in the brain forms plaques resulting in neurodegeneration and loss of mental functions. It has been postulated that aluminum influences the aggregation of amyloid-beta. To test this hypothesis, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans, CL2120, was used as a model organism to observe neurodegeneration in nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Behavioral testing, fluorescent staining, and fluorescence microscopy were used to test the effects of aggregation of amyloid-beta in the nervous systems of effected nematodes exposed to aluminum oxide nanoparticles. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to quantify the total concentration of aluminum oxide that the worms were exposed to during the experiment. Exposure of transgenic and wild type worms to a concentration of 4 mg mL-1 aluminum oxide showed a decrease in the sinusoidal motion, as well as an infirmity of transgenic worms when compared to control worms. These results support the hypothesis that aluminum may play a role in neurodegeneration in C. elegans, and may influence and increase the progression of Alzheimer's disease. This work was supported by National Science Foundation grants DUE-1058829, DMR-0923047 DUE-0806660 and Lock Haven FPDC grants.

  16. Chicken amyloid arthropathy: serum amyloid A, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide profile in acute phase (12th hour).

    PubMed

    Sevimli, A; Bülbül, T; Bülbül, A; Yagci, A

    2013-01-01

    Acute phase response (APR) is part of the early defense system, which is triggered by different stimuli including, infection, trauma, stres, inflammation and neoplasia. The APR complex is a reaction which induces homeostasis and recovery. In this research, serum amyloid A (SAA), interlaukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and nitric oxide (NO) levels were measured 12 hours following injection. For this purpose, Thirty-two 5 weeks old laying chicken were allocated into four groups and intra-articular injections of Freund's adjuvant were used to induce amylod arthropathy in Groups II, III and IV. Vitamin A in group II, and methylprednisolone in group IV were added to enhance and to reduce the severity of amyloidosis, respectively. At the end of the research, it was observed that TNF-alpha and NO increased significantly (P < 0.05) in vitamin A and methylprednisolone groups whereas SAA decreased significantly (P < 0.05) in all groups. It was also observed that IL-6 increased (P < 0.05) in vitamin A group and decreased in all other gorups however, IL-1beta decreased in vitamin A and methylprednisolone groups, while it was increased in the control group. The results of this study suggest that there is a positive correlation between serum TNF-alpha levels in acute and chronic phase in chickens with amyloid arthropathy. PMID:23971191

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a cDNA encoding the cerebrovascular and the neuritic plaque amyloid peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Robakis, N.K.; Ramakrishna, N.; Wolfe, G.; Wisniewski, H.M.

    1987-06-01

    Deposits of